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Sample records for adult stress interplay

  1. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  2. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Anu; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vivek; Yadav, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. PMID:24587990

  3. Assessing the interplay of childhood adversities with more recent stressful life events and conditions in predicting panic pathology among adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Asselmann, E; Stender, J; Grabe, H J; König, J; Schmidt, C O; Hamm, A O; Pané-Farré, C A

    2018-01-01

    Although research suggests that (a) childhood adversities and more recent stressful life events/conditions are risk factors for panic pathology and that (b) early life stress increases vulnerability to later psychopathology, it remains unclear whether childhood adversities amplify the association between more recent stressful life events/conditions and panic pathology. Data were derived from a general population sample (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Lifetime panic pathology was assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Childhood adversities (emotional, physical and sexual abuse; emotional and physical neglect) were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). More recent separation/loss events and long-lasting stressful conditions were assessed with the Stralsund Life Event List (SEL). Individuals with lifetime panic pathology (fearful spell, panic attack or panic disorder, N = 286) were compared to controls without any psychopathology (N = 286, matched for sex and age). Conditional logistic regressions revealed that childhood adversities as well as more recent separation/loss events and long-lasting stressful conditions were associated with panic pathology (OR 1.1-2.5). Moreover, more recent separation/loss events - but not long-lasting stressful conditions - interacted statistically with each of the examined childhood adversities except for sexual abuse in predicting panic pathology (OR 1.1-1.3). That is, separation/loss events were associated more strongly with panic pathology among individuals with higher childhood adversities. Data were assessed retrospectively and might be subject to recall biases. Findings suggest that early childhood adversities amplify the risk of developing panic pathology after experiencing separation or loss events. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Complex interplay between health and successful aging: role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings.

  5. Evaluating the interplay between spirituality, personality and stress.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Elise E; Fobes, Ashley

    2010-06-01

    Spirituality and the big five personality traits may be risk or protective factors for coping with stress. We hypothesized young adults who reported higher spirituality ratings would demonstrate lower sympathetic nervous system arousal and better emotional coping when exposed to a laboratory stressor compared to those who rated themselves lower in spirituality. We also compared spirituality groups on trait anger, neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and openness to experience. Eighty participants completed trait-state anger, personality and spirituality questionnaires and were grouped into low, average and high spirituality. Participants' physiological responses were monitored before and during a stressful event. Significant differences were found between low, average and high spirituality groups' respiration rate and emotional response to the stressor. Significant differences were also found between spirituality groups in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, trait anger and neuroticism. Females reported higher levels of spirituality and conscientiousness than males.

  6. Till stress do us part: On the interplay between perceived stress and communication network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil; Toker, Sharon; Westman, Mina

    2015-11-01

    This study of perceived stress and communication networks fills 2 theoretical gaps in the literature: First, drawing predominantly on conservation of resource theory and faultline theory, we demonstrate the role of stress as an "engine of action" in network evolution. Second, we extend the stress literature to the interpersonal domain by arguing that others' levels of stress influence the individual's communication network, and this, in turn, changes his or her stress level. At 3 time points, we evaluated the communication ties and perceived stress in a unique field setting comprising 115 male participants (in 6 groups) performing group-based tasks. We introduce stochastic actor-based models for the coevolution of network ties and actor attributes, statistical models that enable causal inferences to be drawn regarding the interplay between dynamic networks and individual attributes. Using these models, we find that over time, individuals experiencing higher levels of perceived stress were less likely to create new communication ties and were more likely to maintain existing ties to others. Participants also tended to communicate with similarly stressed others. Such communication network dynamics further increased individuals' levels of perceived stress over time, leading to stress-related vicious cycles. We discuss organizational implications that relate to stress and network-related interventions.

  7. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  8. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  9. Interplay between stress response genes associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and brain volume.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, D; Hoekstra, P J; Bralten, J; van Donkelaar, M; Heslenfeld, D J; Oosterlaan, J; Faraone, S V; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J K; Hartman, C A

    2016-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor plays a pivotal role in the brain's response to stress; a haplotype of functional polymorphisms in the NR3C1 gene encoding this receptor has been associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR is known to influence the relation between stress exposure and ADHD severity, which may be partly because of its reported effects on glucocorticoid levels. We therefore investigated if NR3C1 moderates the relation of stress exposure with ADHD severity and brain structure, and the potential role of 5-HTTLPR. Neuroimaging, genetic and stress exposure questionnaire data were available for 539 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicenter ADHD cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age: 17.2 years). We estimated the effects of genetic variation in NR3C1 and 5-HTT, stress exposure and their interactions on ADHD symptom count and gray matter volume. We found that individuals carrying the ADHD risk haplotype of NR3C1 showed significantly more positive relation between stress exposure and ADHD severity than non-carriers. This gene-environment interaction was significantly stronger for 5-HTTLPR L-allele homozygotes than for S-allele carriers. These two- and three-way interactions were reflected in the gray matter volume of the cerebellum, parahippocampal gyrus, intracalcarine cortex and angular gyrus. Our findings illustrate how genetic variation in the stress response pathway may influence the effects of stress exposure on ADHD severity and brain structure. The reported interplay between NR3C1 and 5-HTT may further explain some of the heterogeneity between studies regarding the role of these genes and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in ADHD.

  10. Stress, stress hormones, and adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Gould, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus continues to produce new neurons throughout adulthood. Adult neurogenesis has been linked to hippocampal function, including learning and memory, anxiety regulation and feedback of the stress response. It is thus not surprising that stress, which affects hippocampal function, also alters the production and survival of new neurons. Glucocorticoids, along with other neurochemicals, have been implicated in stress-induced impairment of adult neurogenesis. Paradoxically, increases in corticosterone levels are sometimes associated with enhanced adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. In these circumstances, the factors that buffer against the suppressive influence of elevated glucocorticoids remain unknown; their discovery may provide clues to reversing pathological processes arising from chronic exposure to aversive stress.

  11. Interplay of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yu; Arikkath, Jyothi; Yang, Lu; Guo, Ming-Lei; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Buch, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The common underlying feature of most neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD), prion diseases, Parkinson disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves accumulation of misfolded proteins leading to initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and stimulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Additionally, ER stress more recently has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Autophagy plays an essential role in the clearance of aggregated toxic proteins and degradation of the damaged organelles. There is evidence that autophagy ameliorates ER stress by eliminating accumulated misfolded proteins. Both abnormal UPR and impaired autophagy have been implicated as a causative mechanism in the development of various neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights recent advances in the field on the role of ER stress and autophagy in AD, prion diseases, PD, ALS and HAND with the involvement of key signaling pathways in these processes and implications for future development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26902584

  12. Interplay between Inflammation and Cellular Stress Triggered by Flaviviridae Viruses.

    PubMed

    Valadão, Ana L C; Aguiar, Renato S; de Arruda, Luciana B

    2016-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis viruses, and Hepatitis C Virus. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, which replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR), inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response.

  13. Interplay between Inflammation and Cellular Stress Triggered by Flaviviridae Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Valadão, Ana L. C.; Aguiar, Renato S.; de Arruda, Luciana B.

    2016-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis viruses, and Hepatitis C Virus. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, which replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR), inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response. PMID:27610098

  14. Acute stress disrupts performance of zebrafish in the cued and spatial memory tests: the utility of fish models to study stress-memory interplay.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Hart, Peter; Wong, Keith; Piet, Valerie; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-06-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a promising model organism for affective or cognitive neuroscience research, and may be useful to study the interplay between memory and anxiety-related states. To assess the effects of acute psychological stress on spatial and cued memory, adult zebrafish were trained in an aquatic plus-maze for 14 days using food bait as a reward. Two ecologically relevant stressors (alarm pheromone or Indian leaf fish exposure) were applied to acutely stress zebrafish immediately prior to the final (testing) trial. Overall, acute single inescapable stress markedly impaired spatial and cued memory in zebrafish plus-maze test, reducing the number of correct arm entries and time spent in the target arm. This observation parallels rodent and clinical literature on memory-impairing effects of acute stress, strongly supporting the utility of zebrafish in neurobehavioral research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanotoxicity: An Interplay of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Puja; Ong, Cynthia; Bay, Boon Huat; Baeg, Gyeong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are emerging as a useful tool for a wide variety of biomedical, consumer and instrumental applications that include drug delivery systems, biosensors and environmental sensors. In particular, nanoparticles have been shown to offer greater specificity with enhanced bioavailability and less detrimental side effects as compared to the existing conventional therapies in nanomedicine. Hence, bionanotechnology has been receiving immense attention in recent years. However, despite the extensive use of nanoparticles today, there is still a limited understanding of nanoparticle-mediated toxicity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that nanoparticles are closely associated with toxicity by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and/or the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. The homeostatic redox state of the host becomes disrupted upon ROS induction by nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are also known to up-regulate the transcription of various pro-inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α and IL (interleukins)-1, IL-6 and IL-8, by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. These sequential molecular and cellular events are known to cause oxidative stress, followed by severe cellular genotoxicity and then programmed cell death. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity are not fully understood. This lack of knowledge is a significant impediment in the use of nanoparticles in vivo. In this review, we will provide an assessment of signaling pathways that are involved in the nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and propose possible strategies to circumvent nanotoxicity. PMID:28347058

  16. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  17. Theoretical Approaches for Understanding the Interplay Between Stress and Chemical Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Gurpaul S; Heverly-Coulson, Gavin S; Mosey, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    The use of mechanical stresses to induce chemical reactions has attracted significant interest in recent years. Computational modeling can play a significant role in developing a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between stresses and chemical reactivity. In this review, we discuss techniques for simulating chemical reactions occurring under mechanochemical conditions. The methods described are broadly divided into techniques that are appropriate for studying molecular mechanochemistry and those suited to modeling bulk mechanochemistry. In both cases, several different approaches are described and compared. Methods for examining molecular mechanochemistry are based on exploring the force-modified potential energy surface on which a molecule subjected to an external force moves. Meanwhile, it is suggested that condensed phase simulation methods typically used to study tribochemical reactions, i.e., those occurring in sliding contacts, can be adapted to study bulk mechanochemistry.

  18. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force–induced stress fiber reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical force–induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch–induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force–induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force–induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. PMID:26823019

  19. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Oxidative Stress Interplay: Implications in Tumorigenesis and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Krstić, Jelena; Trivanović, Drenka; Mojsilović, Slavko; Santibanez, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and oxidative stress/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) both have pivotal roles in health and disease. In this review we are analyzing the interplay between TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. They have contradictory roles in cancer progression since both can have antitumor effects, through the induction of cell death, senescence and cell cycle arrest, and protumor effects by contributing to cancer cell spreading, proliferation, survival, and metastasis. TGF-β can control ROS production directly or by downregulating antioxidative systems. Meanwhile, ROS can influence TGF-β signaling and increase its expression as well as its activation from the latent complex. This way, both are building a strong interplay which can be taken as an advantage by cancer cells in order to increment their malignancy. In addition, both TGF-β and ROS are able to induce cell senescence, which in one way protects damaged cells from neoplastic transformation but also may collaborate in cancer progression. The mutual collaboration of TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis is highly complex, and, due to their differential roles in tumor progression, careful consideration should be taken when thinking of combinatorial targeting in cancer therapies. PMID:26078812

  20. Inductive interactions mediated by interplay of asymmetric signalling underlie development of adult haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Souilhol, Céline; Gonneau, Christèle; Lendinez, Javier G.; Batsivari, Antoniana; Rybtsov, Stanislav; Wilson, Heather; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Hills, David; Taoudi, Samir; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge preferentially in the ventral domain of the aorta in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) region. Several signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Shh and RA are implicated in this process, yet how these interact to regulate the emergence of HSCs has not previously been described in mammals. Using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we report here that stage-specific reciprocal dorso–ventral inductive interactions and lateral input from the urogenital ridges are required to drive HSC development in the aorta. Our study strongly suggests that these inductive interactions in the AGM region are mediated by the interplay between spatially polarized signalling pathways. Specifically, Shh produced in the dorsal region of the AGM, stem cell factor in the ventral and lateral regions, and BMP inhibitory signals in the ventral tissue are integral parts of the regulatory system involved in the development of HSCs. PMID:26952187

  1. Interplay between Oxidative Stress and Nutrient Sensing Signaling in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a global health burden, despite recent advances in management. CVD can originate from early life by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports that early-life insults can induce programming of later CVD. Underlying the DOHaD concept, early intervention may offset programming process to prevent the development of CVD, namely reprogramming. Oxidative stress and nutrient sensing signals have been considered to be major mechanisms of cardiovascular programming, while the interplay between these two mechanisms have not been examined in detail. This review summarizes current evidence that supports the link between oxidative stress and nutrient sensing signaling to cardiovascular programming, with an emphasis on the l-arginine–asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)–nitric oxide (NO) pathway. This review provides an overview of evidence from human studies supporting fetal programming of CVD, insight from animal models of cardiovascular programming and oxidative stress, impact of the l-arginine–ADMA–NO pathway in cardiovascular programming, the crosstalk between l-arginine metabolism and nutrient sensing signals, and application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of CVD. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular programming is essential to developing early reprogramming interventions to combat the globally growing epidemic of CVD. PMID:28420139

  2. Stress-related hormones and glycinebetaine interplay in protection of photosynthesis under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Hurry, Vaughan; Hüner, Norman P A

    2015-12-01

    Plants subjected to abiotic stresses such as extreme high and low temperatures, drought or salinity, often exhibit decreased vegetative growth and reduced reproductive capabilities. This is often associated with decreased photosynthesis via an increase in photoinhibition, and accompanied by rapid changes in endogenous levels of stress-related hormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene. However, certain plant species and/or genotypes exhibit greater tolerance to abiotic stress because they are capable of accumulating endogenous levels of the zwitterionic osmolyte-glycinebetaine (GB). The accumulation of GB via natural production, exogenous application or genetic engineering, enhances plant osmoregulation and thus increases abiotic stress tolerance. The final steps of GB biosynthesis occur in chloroplasts where GB has been shown to play a key role in increasing the protection of soluble stromal and lumenal enzymes, lipids and proteins, of the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, we suggest that the stress-induced GB biosynthesis pathway may well serve as an additional or alternative biochemical sink, one which consumes excess photosynthesis-generated electrons, thus protecting photosynthetic apparatus from overreduction. Glycinebetaine biosynthesis in chloroplasts is up-regulated by increases in endogenous ABA or SA levels. In this review, we propose and discuss a model describing the close interaction and synergistic physiological effects of GB and ABA in the process of cold acclimation of higher plants.

  3. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force-induced stress fiber reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-03-15

    Mechanical force-induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch-induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force-induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force-induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. © 2016 Fujiwara et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Bufalin induces the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in glioma cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuying; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Rui; Gong, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are common primary tumors of the central nervous system. The prognosis of patients with malignant glioma is poor in spite of current intensive therapy and thus novel therapeutic modalities are necessary. Bufalin is the major component of Chan-Su (a traditional Chinese medicine) extracts from the venom of Bufo gargarizan. In this study, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of bufalin on glioma cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that bufalin inhibited the growth of glioma cells significantly. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that bufalin induced apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, bufalin was also found to induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis, which was supported by the up- regulation of ER stress markers, CHOP and GRP78, and augmented phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α as well as cleavage of caspase-4. Downregulation of CHOP using siCHOP RNA attenuated bufalin-induced apoptosis, further confirming the role of ER stress response in mediating bufalin-induced apoptosis. Evidence of bufalin-induced autophagy included formation of the acidic vesicular organelles, increase of autophagolysosomes and LC3-II accumulation. Further experiments showed that the mechanism of bufalin-induced autophagy associated with ATP deleption involved an increase in the active form of AMPK, decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream targets 4EBP1 and p70S6K1. Furthermore, TUDC and silencing of eIF2α or CHOP partially blocked bufalin-induced accumulation of LC3-II, which indicated that ER stress preceded bufalin-induced autophagy and PERK/eIF2α/CHOP signaling pathway played a major part in the process. Blockage of autophagy increased expression of ER stress associated proteins and the ratio of apoptosis, indicating that autophagy played a cytoprotective role in bufalin induced ER stress and cell death. In conclusion, bufalin inhibits glioma cell growth and induces interplay between

  5. Chronic social stress during adolescence: interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Sebastian H; Sterlemann, Vera; Liebl, Claudia; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to chronic stress during developmental periods is a risk factor for a number of psychiatric disorders. While the direct effects of stress exposure have been studied extensively, little is known about the long-lasting effects and the interaction with ageing. The same holds true for the treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which have been shown to prevent or reverse some stress-induced effects. Here, we studied the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence and the impact of chronic treatment with the SSRI paroxetine in adulthood and aged animals. Therefore, male CD1 mice at the age of 28 days were subjected to 7 weeks of chronic social stress. Treatment with paroxetine was performed per os with a dosage of 20 mg/g BW. We were able to reverse most of the effects of chronic social stress in adult mice (4 months old) and to some extend in aged animals (15 months old) with the SSRI treatment. Especially the regulation of the HPA axis seems to be affected in aged mice with a shift to the use of vasopressin. Our results demonstrate that chronic stress exposure and antidepressant treatment at the end of the developmental period can have a significant and long-lasting impact, highly relevant for healthy ageing.

  6. The interplay of stress and mowing disturbance for the intensity and importance of plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Marchand, Lilian; Touzard, Blaise; Michalet, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims There is still debate regarding the direction and strength of plant interactions under intermediate to high levels of stress. Furthermore, little is known on how disturbance may interact with physical stress in unproductive environments, although recent theory and models have shown that this interplay may induce a collapse of plant interactions and diversity. The few studies assessing such questions have considered the intensity of biotic interactions but not their importance, although this latter concept has been shown to be very useful for understanding the role of interactions in plant communities. The objective of this study was to assess the interplay between stress and disturbance for plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands. Methods A field experiment was set up in the Dordogne, southern France, where the importance and intensity of biotic interactions undergone by four species were measured along a water stress gradient, and with and without mowing disturbance. Key Results The importance and intensity of interactions varied in a very similar way along treatments. Under undisturbed conditions, plant interactions switched from competition to neutral with increasing water stress for three of the four species, whereas the fourth species was not subject to any significant biotic interaction along the gradient. Responses to disturbance were more species-specific; for two species, competition disappeared with mowing in the wettest conditions, whereas for the two other species, competition switched to facilitation with mowing. Finally, there were no significant interactions for any species in the disturbed and driest conditions. Conclusions At very high levels of stress, plant performances become too weak to allow either competition or facilitation and disturbance may accelerate the collapse of interactions in dry conditions. The results suggest that the importance and direction of interactions are more likely to be positively related in

  7. Functional interplay between ATM/ATR-mediated DNA damage response and DNA repair pathways in oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Melanie; Berman, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To maintain genome stability, cells have evolved various DNA repair pathways to deal with oxidative DNA damage. DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, including ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 checkpoints, are also activated in oxidative stress to coordinate DNA repair, cell cycle progression, transcription, apoptosis, and senescence. Several studies demonstrate that DDR pathways can regulate DNA repair pathways. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that DNA repair pathways may modulate DDR pathway activation as well. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of how various DNA repair and DDR pathways are activated in response to oxidative DNA damage primarily from studies in eukaryotes. In particular, we analyze the functional interplay between DNA repair and DDR pathways in oxidative stress. A better understanding of cellular response to oxidative stress may provide novel avenues of treating human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24947324

  8. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic nutritional deprivation in larval life affects adult fecal output.

    PubMed

    Urquhart-Cronish, Mackenzie; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2014-10-01

    Life history consequences of stress in early life are varied and known to have lasting impacts on the fitness of an organism. Gene-environment interactions play a large role in how phenotypic differences are mediated by stressful conditions during development. Here we use natural allelic 'rover/sitter' variants of the foraging (for) gene and chronic early life nutrient deprivation to investigate gene-environment interactions on excretion phenotypes. Excretion assay analysis and a fully factorial nutritional regimen encompassing the larval and adult life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster were used to assess the effects of larval and adult nutritional stress on adult excretion phenotypes. Natural allelic variants of for exhibited differences in the number of fecal spots when they were nutritionally deprived as larvae and well fed as adults. for mediates the excretion response to chronic early-life nutritional stress in mated female, virgin female, and male rovers and sitters. Transgenic manipulations of for in a sitter genetic background under larval but not adult food deprivation increases the number of fecal spots. Our study shows that food deprivation early in life affects adult excretion phenotypes and these excretion differences are mediated by for.

  9. The Interplay of Perceived Stress, Self-Determination and School Engagement in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Kittler, Frieder; Braun, Sarah R.; Lätsch, Alexander; Wilkinson, R. Poppy; Hoferichter, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many societies are placing a greater onus on academic achievement--resulting in higher levels of stress being observed among adolescent students. Stress can have detrimental repercussions on adolescents' health and is also associated with anxiety and depression. However, since less is known about how high stress levels affect school…

  10. The Interplay of Perceived Stress, Self-Determination and School Engagement in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Kittler, Frieder; Braun, Sarah R.; Lätsch, Alexander; Wilkinson, R. Poppy; Hoferichter, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many societies are placing a greater onus on academic achievement--resulting in higher levels of stress being observed among adolescent students. Stress can have detrimental repercussions on adolescents' health and is also associated with anxiety and depression. However, since less is known about how high stress levels affect school…

  11. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  12. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  13. Gene and Stress History Interplay in Emergence of PTSD-like Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-27

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Mouse strain differences Gene–environment model Aggressor exposed model Mouse behavior a b s t r a c t...traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To address this issue, we investigated a murine model exposing C57BL/6j, DBA/2j and BALB/cj mice to...contributing factors is critical for designing a preventive strategy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To address this issue, we investigated a

  14. Interplay between diet-induced obesity and chronic stress in mice: potential role of FKBP51.

    PubMed

    Balsevich, Georgia; Uribe, Andres; Wagner, Klaus V; Hartmann, Jakob; Santarelli, Sara; Labermaier, Christiana; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2014-07-01

    While it is known that stress promotes obesity, the effects of stress within an obesogenic context are not so clear and molecular targets at the interface remain elusive. The FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51, gene: Fkbp5) has been identified as a target gene implicated in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders and is a possible candidate for involvement in stress and metabolic regulation. The aims of the current study are to investigate the interaction between chronic stress and an obesogenic context and to additionally examine whether FKBP51 is involved in this interaction. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks before being challenged with chronic social defeat stress. Herein, we demonstrate that chronic stress induces hypophagia and weight loss, ultimately improving features arising from an obesogenic context, including glucose tolerance and levels of insulin and leptin. We show that Fkbp5 expression is responsive to diet and stress in the hypothalamus and hippocampus respectively. Furthermore, under basal conditions, higher levels of hypothalamic Fkbp5 expression were related to increased body weight gain. Our data indicate that Fkbp5 may represent a novel target in metabolic regulation. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses.

    PubMed

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Jackson, Alexander C; Carter, Matthew E; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-02-19

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions to coordinate behavioural and physiological responses to stress in a manner that depends on the behavioural state of the organism. However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. These data demonstrate how peripheral metabolic signals interact with hypothalamic neurons to coordinate stress and arousal and suggest one mechanism through which hyperarousal or altered metabolic states may be linked with abnormal stress responses.

  16. Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Jackson, Alexander C.; Carter, Matthew E.; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functions to coordinate behavioural and physiological responses to stress in a manner that depends on the behavioural state of the organism. However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. These data demonstrate how peripheral metabolic signals interact with hypothalamic neurons to coordinate stress and arousal and suggest one mechanism through which hyperarousal or altered metabolic states may be linked with abnormal stress responses. PMID:25695914

  17. Interplay between GST and nitric oxide in the early response of soybean (Glycine max L.) plants to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-11-15

    Glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs) and nitric oxide (NO) have both been implicated in the response of plants to salinity stress. However, their interplay and underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. The present study attempts to provide new insight into the time course effects of NO application on GST biosynthesis regulation in Glycine max L. leaves under salt stress. A 150μM concentration of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a widely used NO donor, was sprayed on soybean seedlings for two days at 24h intervals, followed by application of 200mM NaCl. The relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (CHL), stomatal conductance (gs), ABA content, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide content (H2O2), along with GST enzyme and isoenzyme activities and GST1 and GST4 transcript levels were determined at 0h, 6h and 12h after stress imposition. The results indicated that salt treatment alone did not alter MDA, H2O2 or ABA content and stomatal conductance in soybean leaves, most likely due to short-term (6h and 12h) application, although lower RWC and CHL were recorded. SNP treatment alone increased ABA content and reduced stomatal conductance, but did not change RWC, CHL, MDA (except at 12h) and H2O2. However, exogenous SNP application protected soybean leaves from salt stress by increasing RWC, CHL and ABA content, as well as by lowering stomatal conductance in order to maintain water balance. A significant increase in GST activity was recorded under salt stress alone at 6h. Conversely, SNP application lowered GST activity in soybean leaves at 0h and 12h, while it increased at 6h, supported by GST isoenzyme activities. Thus, it could be suggested that exogenous NO application induced GST activity in an ABA-dependent manner, while GST activity could also be induced by salt stress independent of ABA. In addition, SNP pre-treatment in salt-stressed seedlings lowered GST activity at 6h and 12h, in line with the GST isoenzyme expression profile. Finally, GST1 and

  18. Physical activity and stress in adult Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jean; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Hildago, Ivette; Roche, Rosa; Seagrave, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are major U.S. health concerns. Hispanics have higher rates of obesity and lower incidence of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations, however most studies on PA focus on non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined type and amount of physical activities, and their relationship to age, BMI, employment, and stress in adult female Hispanics. Sixty-three female Hispanics (mean age 34 years, SD = 10.5) were recruited in the Miami community. By BMI, of 47 women reporting both weight and height, 8.5% were underweight, 38.3% were normal weight, 27.2% were overweight, and 26.0% were obese. Women completed two instruments measuring PA and two measuring stress. Attitudes toward PA were positive; greatest concerns were job security and finances not exercise. Leisure walking (14.3%) was the most common type of PA followed by activities watching TV (32.8%) and using video games (32.8%). Women with greater stress had higher BMIs and were less physically active (p < .05). In this sample, exercise was not a main priority although 53% were overweight/obese. Stress related to employment and finances was a major concern. Interventions on stress reduction and incorporating exercise within their daily lives are important strategies. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress paradigm to simulate human psychosocial stress incurred during and after pregnancy to identify phenotypic learning changes in adult offspring that are potential stress markers. We additionally wanted to compare these behavioral outcomes to rat performance induced by perinatal exposure to manganese (Mn), a neurotoxic environmental element, at 2 or 5 g/l in drinking water throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to an unpredictable series of mild stressful events which had previously been shown to increase maternal corticosterone levels. Nonchemical stressors were presented from GD 13 through GD 21 and included varying noise, light, housing, and confinement during both sleep and wake cycles. A subgroup of offspring was also exposed to periods of maternal separation. Starting at PND 97 offspring were trained with a trace fear conditioning protocol whereby rats were exposed to a compound cue (light and tone) followed by 30 seconds (trace period) and a mild foot shock (1mA, 0.5 seconds). Five paired training sessions occurred on the first day. The following day, context and cue learning were assessed by measuring motor activity. Preliminary data suggests adu

  20. Current Understanding of the Interplay between Phytohormones and Photosynthesis under Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gururani, Mayank Anand; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress accounts for huge crop losses every year across the globe. In plants, the photosynthetic machinery gets severely damaged at various levels due to adverse environmental conditions. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a result of stress further promote the photosynthetic damage by inhibiting the repair system of photosystem II. Earlier studies have suggested that phytohormones are not only required for plant growth and development, but they also play a pivotal role in regulating plants’ responses to different abiotic stress conditions. Although, phytohormones have been studied in great detail in the past, their influence on the photosynthetic machinery under abiotic stress has not been studied. One of the major factors that limits researchers fromelucidating the precise roles of phytohormones is the highly complex nature of hormonal crosstalk in plants. Another factor that needs to be elucidated is the method used for assessing photosynthetic damage in plants that are subjected to abiotic stress. Here, we review the current understanding on the role of phytohormones in the photosynthetic machinery under various abiotic stress conditions and discuss the potential areas for further research. PMID:26287167

  1. Ongoing interplay between the neural network and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangnan; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2010-01-01

    As a unique form of structural plasticity in the central nervous system, adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus alters network functions by continuously adding new neurons to the mature network, while at the same time is subjected to regulation by surrounding network activity. Here, we review the recently identified mechanisms through which network activity exerts its impacts on multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in rodents and culminates in the selective recruitment of new neurons. We also review recent progress on the study of cellular connectivity modified by new neurons in the dentate gyrus and its physiological functions in rodents. We believe that understanding these processes will allow eventual elucidation of the mechanisms controlling the development of balanced inputs and outputs for the adult-born neurons and reveal important insights into the cellular organization of learning and memory. PMID:20079627

  2. Interplay between Creativity, Executive Function and Working Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shivani; Babu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Studies reveal inconclusive evidence of the relationship between executive function and creativity. Further, there is a dearth of studies investigating creativity in older adults in the Indian context. Three tests--namely, Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Figural), the Stroop Test, and Mental Balance (PGI memory scale)--were administered on a…

  3. Interplay between Creativity, Executive Function and Working Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shivani; Babu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Studies reveal inconclusive evidence of the relationship between executive function and creativity. Further, there is a dearth of studies investigating creativity in older adults in the Indian context. Three tests--namely, Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Figural), the Stroop Test, and Mental Balance (PGI memory scale)--were administered on a…

  4. Gene and stress history interplay in emergence of PTSD-like features.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Nabarun; Meyerhoff, James; Gautam, Aarti; Muhie, Seid; Jibitu, Meskerem; De Lima, Thereza C M; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2015-10-01

    Systematically distinguishing genetic liability from other contributing factors is critical for designing a preventive strategy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To address this issue, we investigated a murine model exposing C57BL/6j, DBA/2j and BALB/cj mice to repeated stress via exposure to conspecific aggressors (Agg-E). Naïve mice from each strain were subjected to the proximity of aggressor (Agg) mice for 6h using a 'cage-within-a-cage' paradigm, which was repeated for 5 or 10 days with intermittent and unpredictable direct contact with Agg mice. During the Agg-E stress, DBA/2j developed a different strategy to evade Agg mice, which potentially contributed to its phenotypic resilience to Agg-E stress. Although Agg mice inflicted C57BL/6j and BALB/cj with equivalent numbers of strikes, BALB/cj displayed a distinct behavioral phenotype with delayed exhibition of a number of PTSD-like features. By contrast, C57BL/6j mice displayed unique vulnerability to Agg-E stress induced myocardopathy, possibly attributable to their particular susceptibility to hypoxia. A group of genes (Bdnf, Ngf, Zwint, Cckbr, Slc6a4, Fkbp5) linked to PTSD and synaptic plasticity were significantly altered in C57BL/6j and BALB/cj Agg-E mice. Contributions of Agg-E stress history and genotypic heterogeneity emerged as the key mediators of PTSD-like features. Linking genetic components to specific phenotypic and pathological features could have potential clinical implications.

  5. Novel Mechanistic Interplay between Products of Oxidative Stress and Components of the Complement System in AMD Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Shaw, Peter X

    2016-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD includes soft drusen and pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). As people age, such soft confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD) and result in the loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD and progressing to advanced stage of disease is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as the cause of AMD progression. Together, complement factor H (CFH) and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress from activities such as smoking has also demonstrated a powerful contribution to AMD progression. To extend our previous finding that genetic polymorphisms in CFH results in OxPLs and the risk-form of CFH (CFH Y402H) has reduced affinity for oxidized phospholipids, and subsequent diminished capacity which subsequently diminishes the capability to attenuate the inflammatory effects of these molecules, we compared the binding properties of CFH and CFH related protein 1 (CFHR1), which is also associated with disease risk, to OxPLs and their effects on modulating inflammation and lipids uptake. As both CFH-402H and CFHR1 are associated with increased risk to AMD, we hypothesized that like CFH-402H, CFHR1 contribution to AMD risk may also be due to its diminished affinity for OxPLs. Interestingly, we found that association of CFHR1 with OxPLs was not statistically different than CFH. However, binding of CFHR1 did not elicit the same protective benefits as CFH in that both inflammation and lipid uptake are unaffected by CFHR1 association with OxPLs. These findings demonstrate a novel and interesting complexity to the potential interplay

  6. Early Life Stress Effects on Glucocorticoid-BDNF Interplay in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; De Kloet, Edo Ronald; Yehuda, Rachel; Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid (GC) and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. GC-signaling mediates the regulation of stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidance and synaptic integrity. The neurotrophin and GC-signaling pathways co-exist throughout the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the hippocampus, which has high expression levels of glucocorticoid-receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid-receptors (MR) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB). This review addresses the effects of ELS paradigms on GC- and BDNF-dependent mechanisms and their crosstalk in the hippocampus, including potential implications for the pathogenesis of common stress-related disorders.

  7. Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Foyer, Christine H; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-05-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and often life-threatening stresses caused by exposure to excessive light, extremes of temperature, limiting nutrient or water availability, and pathogen/insect attack. The flexible coordination of plant growth and development is necessary to optimize vigour and fitness in a changing environment through rapid and appropriate responses to such stresses. The concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signalling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation is well established. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of how ROS production and signalling are integrated with the action of auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, strigolactones, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid in the coordinate regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance. We consider the local and systemic crosstalk between ROS and hormonal signalling pathways and identify multiple points of reciprocal control, as well as providing insights into the integration nodes that involve Ca(2+)-dependent processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation cascades.

  8. The Interplay of International Students' Acculturative Stress, Social Support, and Acculturation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…

  9. Predicting Developmental Changes in Internalizing Symptoms: Examining the Interplay Between Parenting and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Kate R.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child’s HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. PMID:24009085

  10. Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high.

  11. Mechanical Stress Changes the Complex Interplay Between HO-1, Inflammation and Fibrosis, During Excisional Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Niels A. J.; Suttorp, Maarten; Gerritsen, Marlous M.; Wong, Ronald J.; van Run-van Breda, Coby; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Brouwer, Katrien M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Carels, Carine E. L.; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress following surgery or injury can promote pathological wound healing and fibrosis, and lead to functional loss and esthetic problems. Splinted excisional wounds can be used as a model for inducing mechanical stress. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to orchestrate the defense against inflammatory and oxidative insults that drive fibrosis. Here, we investigated the activation of the HO-1 system in a splinted and non-splinted full-thickness excisional wound model using HO-1-luc transgenic mice. Effects of splinting on wound closure, HO-1 promoter activity, and markers of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed. After seven days, splinted wounds were more than three times larger than non-splinted wounds, demonstrating a delay in wound closure. HO-1 promoter activity rapidly decreased following removal of the (epi)dermis, but was induced in both splinted and non-splinted wounds during skin repair. Splinting induced more HO-1 gene expression in 7-day wounds; however, HO-1 protein expression remained lower in the epidermis, likely due to lower numbers of keratinocytes in the re-epithelialization tissue. Higher numbers of F4/80-positive macrophages, αSMA-positive myofibroblasts, and increased levels of the inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were present in 7-day splinted wounds. Surprisingly, mRNA expression of newly formed collagen (type III) was lower in 7-day wounds after splinting, whereas, VEGF and MMP-9 were increased. In summary, these data demonstrate that splinting delays cutaneous wound closure and HO-1 protein induction. The pro-inflammatory environment following splinting may facilitate higher myofibroblast numbers and increase the risk of fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, inducing HO-1 activity against mechanical stress-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be an interesting strategy to prevent negative effects of surgery on growth and function in patients with orofacial clefts or in patients with

  12. Mechanical Stress Changes the Complex Interplay Between HO-1, Inflammation and Fibrosis, During Excisional Wound Repair.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Niels A J; Suttorp, Maarten; Gerritsen, Marlous M; Wong, Ronald J; van Run-van Breda, Coby; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Brouwer, Katrien M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Carels, Carine E L; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress following surgery or injury can promote pathological wound healing and fibrosis, and lead to functional loss and esthetic problems. Splinted excisional wounds can be used as a model for inducing mechanical stress. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to orchestrate the defense against inflammatory and oxidative insults that drive fibrosis. Here, we investigated the activation of the HO-1 system in a splinted and non-splinted full-thickness excisional wound model using HO-1-luc transgenic mice. Effects of splinting on wound closure, HO-1 promoter activity, and markers of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed. After seven days, splinted wounds were more than three times larger than non-splinted wounds, demonstrating a delay in wound closure. HO-1 promoter activity rapidly decreased following removal of the (epi)dermis, but was induced in both splinted and non-splinted wounds during skin repair. Splinting induced more HO-1 gene expression in 7-day wounds; however, HO-1 protein expression remained lower in the epidermis, likely due to lower numbers of keratinocytes in the re-epithelialization tissue. Higher numbers of F4/80-positive macrophages, αSMA-positive myofibroblasts, and increased levels of the inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were present in 7-day splinted wounds. Surprisingly, mRNA expression of newly formed collagen (type III) was lower in 7-day wounds after splinting, whereas, VEGF and MMP-9 were increased. In summary, these data demonstrate that splinting delays cutaneous wound closure and HO-1 protein induction. The pro-inflammatory environment following splinting may facilitate higher myofibroblast numbers and increase the risk of fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, inducing HO-1 activity against mechanical stress-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be an interesting strategy to prevent negative effects of surgery on growth and function in patients with orofacial clefts or in patients with

  13. Interplay of stress, temperature, and giant magnetoimpedance in amorphous soft magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, M.; Roy, R. K.; Panda, A. K.; Greve, D. W.; Ohodnicki, P. R.; McHenry, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI)-based sensing devices have attracted attention from both academia and industry due to their low cost, flexibility, and excellent sensitivity. Potential applications range widely from current and stress sensors, navigation systems, magnetic recording, to more demanding ones such as field sensors for deep drilling and oil fracking at elevated temperature. To realize the latter, the temperature dependence of GMI effect must be well understood. Herein, we report a study on the GMI effect in a Cobalt-based amorphous microwire under temperature cycles between 20 °C-560 °C. The GMI ratio was observed to decrease from 126.1% at 20 °C to 68.5% at 230 °C, rapidly drop at ˜290 °C and reach a near zero value above 320 °C in the first half of the measurement where the temperature was increased. Upon cooling down from 560 °C to 20 °C, the GMI ratio exhibits little variation at ˜95% in the 260 °C-20 °C regime. Similarly, the anisotropy-temperature profile was also observed to change irreversibly during the temperature cycle. Previous work has found the correlation between internal stress, anisotropy, permeability, and GMI effect. We hypothesize that irreversibility in GMI-temperature and anisotropy-temperature profiles stem from internal relief in the amorphous structure, which is locked in during the rapid cooling. In the subsequent temperature cycles, the GMI-temperature and anisotropy-temperature profiles show little variation, thus supporting the notion that the internal stress relief is complete after the first temperature cycle.

  14. Interplay Between Aging and Unloading on Oxidative Stress in Fast-Twitch Muscles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of aging on the adaptation potential of antioxidants and the accumulation of oxidative damage in fast-twitch muscles in response to non–weight-bearing conditions. Adult and old rats were randomized into 4 groups: normal weight bearing, hind-limb unloading for 3, 7, and 14 days. Activities of manganese superoxide dismutase, copper–zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and contents of glutathione, carbonylated proteins, and malondialdehyde were determined in tibialis anterior muscles. We found that the adaptability of most antioxidants in fast-twitch muscles with unloading is intact in aged rats except copper–zinc superoxide dismutase where its activity decreased with 14 days of unloading. Additionally, malondialdehyde accumulated in aged muscles with 14 days of unloading but not adult muscles. Collectively, the adaptation of copper–zinc superoxide dismutase in fast-twitch muscles with unloading is impaired with aging, which may be related to the greater accumulation of malondialdehyde. PMID:23213028

  15. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  16. Understanding risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: interplay of neuroinflammation, connexin-based communication and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Orellana, Juan A; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia and the presence of amyloid plaques and anomalous tau aggregates. Although pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear, neuroinflammation and glial cell dysfunction have been identified as conspicuous components of AD. Glial cell dysfunction is associated with dysregulated production of inflammation mediators and generation of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which affect synapses and induce neuronal damage. Importantly, both increased neuroinflammation and ROS/RNS production by glia dysregulate communication mediated by connexin-based channels in brain cells, which could further affect oxidative balance and neuronal viability. Recent evidence suggests that connexin-based channels could be involved in AD pathogenesis. Here we discuss how aging affects neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and connexin-based channels and the potential relevance of these changes for AD. Understanding how they cooperate as pathogenic mechanisms of AD is promising for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. The genome-scale interplay amongst xenogene silencing, stress response and chromosome architecture in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Rajalakshmi; Scolari, Vittore Ferdinando; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2015-01-01

    The gene expression state of exponentially growing Escherichia coli cells is manifested by high expression of essential and growth-associated genes and low levels of stress-related and horizontally acquired genes. An important player in maintaining this homeostasis is the H-NS-StpA gene silencing system. A Δhns-stpA deletion mutant results in high expression of otherwise-silent horizontally acquired genes, many located in the terminus-half of the chromosome, and an indirect downregulation of many highly expressed genes. The Δhns-stpA double mutant displays slow growth. Using laboratory evolution we address the evolutionary strategies that E. coli would adopt to redress this gene expression imbalance. We show that two global gene regulatory mutations—(i) point mutations inactivating the stress-responsive sigma factor RpoS or σ38 and (ii) an amplification of ∼40% of the chromosome centred around the origin of replication—converge in partially reversing the global gene expression imbalance caused by Δhns-stpA. Transcriptome data of these mutants further show a three-way link amongst the global gene regulatory networks of H-NS and σ38, as well as chromosome architecture. Increasing gene expression around the terminus of replication results in a decrease in the expression of genes around the origin and vice versa; this appears to be a persistent phenomenon observed as an association across ∼300 publicly-available gene expression data sets for E. coli. These global suppressor effects are transient and rapidly give way to more specific mutations, whose roles in reversing the growth defect of H-NS mutations remain to be understood. PMID:25429971

  18. The genome-scale interplay amongst xenogene silencing, stress response and chromosome architecture in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Rajalakshmi; Scolari, Vittore Ferdinando; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2015-01-01

    The gene expression state of exponentially growing Escherichia coli cells is manifested by high expression of essential and growth-associated genes and low levels of stress-related and horizontally acquired genes. An important player in maintaining this homeostasis is the H-NS-StpA gene silencing system. A Δhns-stpA deletion mutant results in high expression of otherwise-silent horizontally acquired genes, many located in the terminus-half of the chromosome, and an indirect downregulation of many highly expressed genes. The Δhns-stpA double mutant displays slow growth. Using laboratory evolution we address the evolutionary strategies that E. coli would adopt to redress this gene expression imbalance. We show that two global gene regulatory mutations-(i) point mutations inactivating the stress-responsive sigma factor RpoS or σ38 and (ii) an amplification of ∼40% of the chromosome centred around the origin of replication-converge in partially reversing the global gene expression imbalance caused by Δhns-stpA. Transcriptome data of these mutants further show a three-way link amongst the global gene regulatory networks of H-NS and σ38, as well as chromosome architecture. Increasing gene expression around the terminus of replication results in a decrease in the expression of genes around the origin and vice versa; this appears to be a persistent phenomenon observed as an association across ∼300 publicly-available gene expression data sets for E. coli. These global suppressor effects are transient and rapidly give way to more specific mutations, whose roles in reversing the growth defect of H-NS mutations remain to be understood.

  19. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Fear Generalization, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)–CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal–cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726

  20. Type 2 Diabetes and Breast Cancer: The Interplay between Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Oxidant Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Patrizia; Riondino, Silvia; Buonomo, Oreste; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes and its associated complications, represent a growing public health problem. Epidemiological findings indicate a close relationship between diabetes and many types of cancer (including breast cancer risk), which regards not only the dysmetabolic condition, but also its underlying risk factors and therapeutic interventions. This review discusses the advances in understanding of the mechanisms linking metabolic disorders and breast cancer. Among the proposed mechanisms to explain such an association, a major role is played by the dysregulated glucose metabolism, which concurs with a chronic proinflammatory condition and an associated oxidative stress to promote tumour initiation and progression. As regards the altered glucose metabolism, hyperinsulinaemia, both endogenous due to insulin-resistance and drug-induced, appears to promote tumour cell growth through the involvement of innate immune activation, platelet activation, increased reactive oxygen species, exposure to protumorigenic and proangiogenic cytokines, and increased substrate availability to neoplastic cells. In this context, understanding the relationship between metabolic disorders and cancer is becoming imperative, and an accurate analysis of these associations could be used to identify biomarkers able to predict disease risk and/or prognosis and to help in the choice of proper evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. PMID:26171112

  1. Oxidative Stress and Bone Resorption Interplay as a Possible Trigger for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Cervellati, Carlo; Bonaccorsi, Gloria; Cremonini, Eleonora; Romani, Arianna; Fila, Enrica; Castaldini, Maria Cristina; Ferrazzini, Stefania; Giganti, Melchiorre; Massari, Leo

    2014-01-01

    The underlying mechanism in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO) is an imbalance between bone resorption and formation. This study was conducted to investigate whether oxidative stress (OxS) might have a role in this derangement of bone homeostasis. In a sample of 167 postmenopausal women, we found that increased serum levels of a lipid peroxidation marker, hydroperoxides, were negatively and independently associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in total body (r = −0.192, P < 0.05), lumbar spine (r = −0.282, P < 0.01), and total hip (r = −0.282, P < 0.05), as well as with increased bone resorption rate (r = 0.233, P < 0.05), as assessed by the serum concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1). On the contrary, the OxS marker failed to be correlated with the serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), that is, elective marker of bone formation. Importantly, multiple regression analysis revealed that hydroperoxides is a determinant factor for the statistical association between lumbar spine BMD and CTX-1 levels. Taken together, our data suggest that OxS might mediate, by enhancing bone resorption, the uncoupling of bone turnover that underlies PO development. PMID:24524081

  2. The interplay between inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, DNA repair and mitochondrial dysfunction in depression.

    PubMed

    Czarny, Piotr; Wigner, Paulina; Galecki, Piotr; Sliwinski, Tomasz

    2017-06-29

    A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may play a significant role in the development and progression of depression. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species - a result of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance - may lead to increased damage of biomolecules, including DNA. This was confirmed in depressed patients in a research study conducted by our team and other scientists. 8-oxoguanine - a marker of oxidative DNA damage - was found in the patients' lymphocytes, urine and serum. These results were confirmed using a comet assay on lymphocytes. Furthermore, it was shown that the patients' cells repaired peroxide-induced DNA damage less efficiently than controls' cells and that some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the genes involved in oxidative DNA damage repair may modulate the risk of depression. Lastly, less efficient DNA damage repair observed in the patients can be, at least partly, attributed to the presence of specific SNP variants, as it was revealed through a genotype-phenotype analysis. In conclusion, the available literature shows that both oxidative stress and less efficient DNA damage repair may lead to increased DNA damage in depressed patients. A similar mechanism may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, which is observed in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  4. Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…

  5. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Levone, Brunno R.; Cryan, John F.; O'Leary, Olivia F.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27589664

  6. The complex interplay of iron metabolism, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species: insights into the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Koskenkorva-Frank, Taija S; Weiss, Günter; Koppenol, Willem H; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2013-12-01

    Production of minute concentrations of superoxide (O2(*-)) and nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide, NO*) plays important roles in several aspects of cellular signaling and metabolic regulation. However, in an inflammatory environment, the concentrations of these radicals can drastically increase and the antioxidant defenses may become overwhelmed. Thus, biological damage may occur owing to redox imbalance-a condition called oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. A complex interplay exists between iron metabolism, O2(*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and NO*. Iron is involved in both the formation and the scavenging of these species. Iron deficiency (anemia) (ID(A)) is associated with oxidative stress, but its role in the induction of nitrosative stress is largely unclear. Moreover, oral as well as intravenous (iv) iron preparations used for the treatment of ID(A) may also induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Oral administration of ferrous salts may lead to high transferrin saturation levels and, thus, formation of non-transferrin-bound iron, a potentially toxic form of iron with a propensity to induce oxidative stress. One of the factors that determine the likelihood of oxidative and nitrosative stress induced upon administration of an iv iron complex is the amount of labile (or weakly-bound) iron present in the complex. Stable dextran-based iron complexes used for iv therapy, although they contain only negligible amounts of labile iron, can induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress through so far unknown mechanisms. In this review, after summarizing the main features of iron metabolism and its complex interplay with O2(*-), H2O2, NO*, and other more reactive compounds derived from these species, the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress is discussed and possible underlying mechanisms are proposed. Understanding the mechanisms, by which various iron formulations may induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, will help us

  7. [Work stress in the second half of adult life].

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas

    2014-08-20

    Stress at work is a risk factor for common mental and somatic diseases. As we get past 50 and enter the second half of adult life, our body reminds us relentlessly of our advancing age. In a society dominated by ideals of youth and success, employees in the second half of their lives, experience special forms of stress. Based upon contemporary concepts of stress, solutions for the particular stressful challenges met by older people at work are discussed.

  8. Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ellen E A; McConville, Chris; Rae, Gordon; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress and mood and to look at the circadian rhythms of positive (PA) and negative (NA) mood in older adults. The participants were 41 healthy adults aged 55-69 years, recruited in Northern Ireland as part of the European Commission-funded Zenith project. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained twice a day (2.30 p.m. and 10.30 p.m.) for 7 consecutive days in conjunction with momentary measures of positive (PA) and negative mood (NA), using PANAS and a trait measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower afternoon PA (r=-0.46, p=0.003) and higher afternoon (r=0.43, p=0.007) and evening (r=0.45, p=0.004) NA. Lower afternoon PA was correlated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Greater afternoon PA variability was associated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=0.38, p=0.015). A high intra-class correlation between cortisol and positive mood was found (r=0.67, p=0.009). Previously established rhythms for positive and negative mood were confirmed. Interestingly, there was no association between salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress in these healthy older adults. Further, more extensive research is required to better understand the apparent interplay between these variables and ageing.

  9. The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Stress and Aging: Identifying the Complex Interplay of Genetic Pathways Following the Treatment with Humic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Swain, Suresh C.; Pietsch, Kerstin; Tiedt, Sophie; Witczak, Jördis; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Steinberg, Christian E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of the dissolved leonardite humic acid HuminFeed® (HF) prolonged the lifespan and enhanced the thermal stress resistance of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, growth was impaired and reproduction delayed, effects which have also been identified in response to other polyphenolic monomers, including Tannic acid, Rosmarinic acid, and Caffeic acid. Moreover, a chemical modification of HF, which increases its phenolic/quinonoid moieties, magnified the biological impact on C. elegans. To gain a deep insight into the molecular basis of these effects, we performed global transcriptomics on young adult (3 days) and old adult (11 days) nematodes exposed to two different concentrations of HF. We also studied several C. elegans mutant strains in respect to HF derived longevity and compared all results with data obtained for the chemically modified HF. The gene expression pattern of young HF-treated nematodes displayed a significant overlap to other conditions known to provoke longevity, including various plant polyphenol monomers. Besides the regulation of parts of the metabolism, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and Insulin-like signaling, lysosomal activities seem to contribute most to HF’s and modified HF’s lifespan prolonging action. These results support the notion that the phenolic/quinonoid moieties of humic substances are major building blocks that drive the physiological effects observed in C. elegans. PMID:22529848

  10. Adult attachment as a predictor of posttraumatic stress and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether K. Bartholomew's (1990) self-report dimensions of adult attachment (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and fearful) mediate or moderate links from victimization/abuse to posttraumatic stress and dissociation. Participants were 199 college women with and without a history of childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual victimization, and adolescent/adult sexual victimization. Path analysis revealed no significant mediation effects for attachment; however, hierarchical multiple linear regression indicated that dismissing attachment moderated the link between victimization/abuse and posttraumatic stress (i.e., the relationship was strongest for women with high dismissing scores). All 4 attachment dimensions uniquely predicted posttraumatic stress, whereas only fearful attachment uniquely predicted dissociation.

  11. Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Gorlick, Marissa A; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18-34) and older participants (age 65-85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group, and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. After the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings.

  12. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Matthew J; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Muller, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3-min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (Δ = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ΔMAP was comparable between groups (Δ = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %ΔFVC (-2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %ΔCVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ΔHR and %ΔCVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ΔHR and %ΔFVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress.

  13. Ancestry trumps experience: Transgenerational but not early life stress affects the adult physiological stress response.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Gail L; Robbins, Travis R; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood. Offspring from these high- and low-stress populations were exposed weekly to either sub-lethal attack by fire ants (an ecologically relevant stressor), topical treatment with a physiologically-appropriate dose of the stress-relevant hormone, corticosterone (CORT), or a control treatment from 2 to 43weeks of age. Several months after treatments ended, we quantified plasma CORT concentrations at baseline and following restraint, exposure to fire ants, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. Exposure to fire ants or CORT during early life did not affect lizard stress physiology in adulthood. However, offspring of lizards from populations that had experienced multiple generations of fire ant-invasion exhibited more robust adult CORT responses to restraint and ACTH-injection compared to offspring from uninvaded populations. Together, these results indicate that transgenerational stress history may be at least as important, if not more important, than early life stress in affecting adult physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. VR Mobile Solutions For Chronic Stress Reduction in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kenneth; Boyd, Chelsie; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress in young adults has become a growing problem within recent decades and many are unable to find cost-effective and accessible treatment for psychological stress in their daily lives. We analyze the market of using a mobile application, Positive Technology, as a solution. Eleven participants, aged between 18 and 24, participated in the exercise. Self-reported stress reduction was measured via an online marketing survey, while physiological measurements were monitored via peripheral devices. Secondary goals assessed the app's ease-of-use, accessibility, and cost. Results indicate that participants enjoyed the availability of the mobile solution and found the app to be fun and easy to learn. Stress levels were reduced in 73% of the participants, with higher effects in females and in participants aged 18-24. We conclude that the mobile platform is an effective means of delivering psychological stress reduction, and could provide an accessible, cost-effective solution.

  15. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  16. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  17. Interplay between intrinsic point defects and low-angle grain boundary in bcc tungsten: effects of local stress field.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Ying; Shu, Xiaolin; Jin, Shuo; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Gao, Fei; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2015-07-01

    We have used molecular statics in conjunction with an embedded atom method to explore the interplay between native point defects (vacancies and self-interstitials (SIAs)) and a low-angle grain boundary (GB) in bcc tungsten. The low-angle GB has biased absorption of SIAs over vacancies. We emphasize the significance of phenomena such as vacancy delocalization and SIA instant absorption around the GB dislocation cores in stabilizing the defect structures. Interstitial loading into the GB can dramatically enhance the interaction strength between the point defects and the GB due to SIA clustering (SIA cloud formation) or SIA vacancy recombination. We propose that the 'maximum atom displacement' can complement the 'vacancy formation energy' in evaluating unstable vacancy sites. Calculations of point defect migration barriers in the vicinity of GB dislocation cores show that vacancies and SIAs preferentially migrate along the pathways in the planes immediately above and below the core, respectively.

  18. Histone H3 Serine 57 and Lysine 56 Interplay in Transcription Elongation and Recovery from S-Phase Stress

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Aamir; Logie, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Background Acetylation of lysine 56 of histone H3 plays an important role in the DNA damage response and it has been postulated to play an as yet undefined role in transcription, both in yeast and in higher eukaryotes. Because phosphorylated human histone H3 serine 57 peptides have been detected by mass spectrometry we examined whether H3-S57 phosphorylation interplays with H3-K56 acetylation in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the physiological role of H3-S57, H3-K56 was mutated to mimic constitutively (un)acetylated forms of H3-K56 and these were combined with constitutively (un)phosphorylated mimics of H3-S57, in yeast. A phosphorylated serine mimic at position 57 lessened sensitivities to a DNA replication fork inhibitor and to a transcription elongation inhibitor that were caused by an acetylated lysine mimic at position 56, while the same substitution exacerbated sensitivities due to mimicking a constitutive non-acetylated lysine at position 56. Strikingly, opposite results were obtained in the context of a serine to alanine substitution at position 57 of histone H3. Conclusions/Significance The phenotypes elicited and the context-dependent interplay of the H3-K56 and -S57 point mutations that mimic their respective modification states suggest that serine 57 phosphorylation promotes a nucleosomal transaction when lysine 56 is acetylated. We speculate that histone H3-S57 couples H3-K56 acetylation to histone quaternary structures involving arginine 40 on histone H4 helix 1. PMID:20520775

  19. Perceived Stress and Mortality in a Taiwanese Older Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2015-01-01

    Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold, and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (HR=1.19, 95% CI 1.13–1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations, and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or b) poor health acts as the mediator. PMID:23869432

  20. Perceived stress and mortality in a Taiwanese older adult population.

    PubMed

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-11-01

    Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+ years. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (hazard ratio, HR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.13-1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: (a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or (b) poor health acts as the mediator.

  1. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults hospitalized for fall injury.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Sparks, Martha A; Kato, Kaori; Wyka, Katarzyna; Wilbur, Kaitlyn; Chiaramonte, Gabrielle; Barie, Philip S; Lachs, Mark S; O'Dell, Michael; Evans, Arthur; Bruce, Martha L; Difede, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Although unintentional falls may pose a threat of death or injury, few studies have investigated their psychological impact on older adults. This study sought to gather data on early posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults in the hospital setting after a fall. Participants in this study were 100 adults age 65 years or older admitted to a large urban hospital in New York City because of a fall. Men and women were represented approximately equally in the sample; most were interviewed within days of the fall event. The study's bedside interview included the Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale, which inquires about the presence and severity of 17 trauma-related symptoms. Twenty-seven participants reported substantial posttraumatic stress symptoms (moderate or higher severity). Exploratory bivariate analyses suggested an association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and female gender, lower level of education, unemployment, number of medical conditions, and back/chest injury. A significant percentage of older patients hospitalized after a fall suffer substantial posttraumatic stress. Future investigations are needed to assess the association between the psychiatric impact of a fall and short-term inpatient outcomes as well as longer-term functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress in the Adult Rat Exacerbates Muscle Pain Induced by Early-Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early-life stress and exposure to stressful stimuli play a major role in the development of chronic widespread pain in adults. However, how they interact in chronic pain syndromes remains unclear. Methods Dams and neonatal litters were submitted to a restriction of nesting material (neonatal limited bedding, NLB) for one week. As adults, these rats were exposed to a painless sound stress protocol. The involvement of sympathoadrenal catecholamines, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) in nociception, was evaluated through of behavioral and ELISA assays, surgical interventions and intrathecal antisense treatments. Results Adult NLB rats exhibited mild muscle hyperalgesia, which was markedly aggravated by sound stress (peaking 15 days after exposure). Adrenal medullectomy did not modify hyperalgesia in NLB rats but prevented its aggravation by sound stress. Sustained administration of epinephrine to NLB rats mimicked sound stress effect. Intrathecal treatment with antisense directed to IL-6-receptor subunit gp130, but not to TNFα type 1 receptor (TNFR1), inhibited hyperalgesia in NLB rats. However, antisense against either gp130 or TNFR1 inhibited sound stress-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia. Compared to control rats, NLB rats exhibit increased plasma levels of IL-6 but decreased levels of TNFα, whereas sound stress increases IL-6 plasma levels in control but not in NLB rats. Conclusions Early-life stress induces a persistent elevation of IL-6, hyperalgesia and susceptibility to chronic muscle pain, which is unveiled by exposure to stress in adults. This probably depends on an interaction between adrenal catecholamines and pro-inflammatory cytokines acting at muscle nociceptor level. PMID:23706525

  3. Interplay between maternal Slc6a4 mutation and prenatal stress: a possible mechanism for autistic behavior development.

    PubMed

    Sjaarda, Calvin P; Hecht, Patrick; McNaughton, Amy J M; Zhou, Audrina; Hudson, Melissa L; Will, Matt J; Smith, Garth; Ayub, Muhammad; Liang, Ping; Chen, Nansheng; Beversdorf, David; Liu, Xudong

    2017-08-18

    The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon. Restraint stress was applied to pregnant Slc6a4 (+/+) and Slc6a4 (+/-) mice and post-stress embryonic brains were assessed for whole genome level profiling of methylome, transcriptome and miRNA using Next Generation Sequencing. Embryos of stressed Slc6a4 (+/+) dams exhibited significantly altered methylation profiles and differential expression of 157 miRNAs and 1009 genes affecting neuron development and cellular adhesion pathways, which may function as a coping mechanism to prenatal stress. In striking contrast, the response of embryos of stressed Slc6a4 (+/-) dams was found to be attenuated, shown by significantly reduced numbers of differentially expressed genes (458) and miRNA (0) and genome hypermethylation. This attenuated response may pose increased risks on typical brain development resulting in development of ASD-like characteristics in offspring of mothers with deficits in serotonin related pathways during stressful pregnancies.

  4. The Interplay Between Parental Beliefs about Children’s Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children’s Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one of their parents. Children reported their feelings of security in the parent-child relationship; parents independently reported on their beliefs and their stress. Parental stress moderated relationships between three of the four parental beliefs about the value of children’s emotions and children’s attachment security. When parent stress was low, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were not related to children’s feelings of security; when parent stress was high, however, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were related to children’s feelings of security. These findings highlight the importance of examining parental beliefs and stress together for children’s attachment security. PMID:21731472

  5. The interplay between cognitive and motor functioning in healthy older adults: findings from dual-task studies and suggestions for intervention.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sabine; Schumacher, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Reaching late adulthood is accompanied by losses in physical and mental resources, but lifestyle choices seem to have a considerable influence on the aging trajectory. This review deals with the interplay between cognitive and motor functioning in old age, focusing on two different lines of research, namely (a) dual-task studies requiring participants to perform a cognitive and a motor task simultaneously, and (b) intervention studies investigating whether increases in physical fitness also lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Dual-task studies indicate that healthy older adults show greater performance reductions in both domains than young adults when performing a cognitive and a motor task simultaneously. In addition, older adults often tend to protect their motor functioning at the expense of the cognitive task when the situation involves a threat to balance. This can be considered an adaptive behavior since fall-related injuries can have severe consequences. Fitness intervention studies which increased the aerobic fitness of previously sedentary older adults have demonstrated impressive performance improvements in the cognitive domain, especially for tasks involving executive control processes. These findings are interesting in light of cognitive intervention studies, which often fail to find significant transfer effects to tasks that have not been trained directly. The authors argue that future research should compare the effects of cognitive and aerobic fitness interventions in older adults, and they present a study design in which cognition and fitness are trained sequentially as well as simultaneously. Finally, methodological issues involved in this type of research and potential applications to applied settings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Langeveld, N E; Grootenhuis, M A; Voûte, P A; de Haan, R J

    2004-06-01

    Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors on survivors' posttraumatic stress symptoms was studied. Participants were 500 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The median age at follow-up was 24 years (age range, 16- 49 years, 47% female). To assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress, all participants completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, intrusion and avoidance. Twelve percent of this sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer had scores in the severe range, indicating they are unable to cope with the impact of their disease and need professional help. Twenty percent of the female survivors had scores in the severe range as compared with 6% of the male survivors. Linear regression models revealed that being female, unemployed, a lower educational level, type of diagnosis and severe late effects/health problems were associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results indicate that, although the proportion of survivors reporting symptoms is well within the proportions found in the general population, a substantial subset of survivors report symptoms of posttraumatic stress. This finding supports the outcomes reported previously that diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer may have significant long-term effects, which are manifested in symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The investigated factors could explain posttraumatic stress symptoms only to a limited extent. Further research exploring symptoms of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survivors in more detail is clearly warranted. From a clinical perspective, health care providers must pay attention to these symptoms during evaluations in the follow-up clinic. Early

  7. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  8. Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits.

    PubMed

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J; Boyce, W Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2012-10-16

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience.

  9. The Interplay Between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples’ interpersonal stress related to not liking partners’ friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples’ psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples’ friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples’ psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples’ friend stress predicted increases in couples’ partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples’ relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples’ friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples’ psychological partner violence. PMID:23358887

  10. The interplay between interpersonal stress and psychological intimate partner violence over time for young at-risk couples.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2013-04-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking partners' friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples' psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples' friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples' psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples' friend stress predicted increases in couples' partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples' relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples' friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples' psychological partner violence.

  11. Sleep Disturbance and Older Adults' Inflammatory Responses to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Kathi L.; Ng, H. Mei; Suhr, Julie A.; France, Christopher R.; Marshall, Gailen D.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Poor sleep diminishes mental and physical health. The objective of this study was to examine associations between sleep disturbance and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to acute mental stress in older adults. Design Observational study of community-dwelling, healthy older adults. Setting Participants completed the study in a clinical research laboratory of a mid-sized university. Participants Generally healthy, community-dwelling men and women 50 years of age and older. Measurements IL-6 and negative affect at rest and following a series of challenging cognitive tests; sleep quality; depressive symptoms; perceived stress; loneliness. Results Participants categorized as poor sleepers based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores had significantly larger IL-6 responses to the cognitive stressors compared to good sleepers. The association between poor sleep and heightened IL-6 response to acute stress was not explained by other psychosocial factors previously linked to immune dysregulation, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness. Conclusions Findings add to the growing evidence for poor sleep as an independent risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to effects of sleep disturbance due to significant age-related changes in both sleep and inflammatory regulation. PMID:22327621

  12. Sleep disturbance and older adults' inflammatory responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Kathi L; Ng, H Mei; Suhr, Julie A; France, Christopher R; Marshall, Gailen D; Pigeon, Wilfred R; Moynihan, Jan A

    2012-09-01

    Poor sleep diminishes mental and physical health. The objective of this study was to examine associations between sleep disturbance and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to acute mental stress in older adults. Observational study of community-dwelling, healthy older adults. Participants completed the study in a clinical research laboratory of a mid-sized university. Generally healthy, community-dwelling men and women age 50 and older. IL-6 and negative affect at rest and following a series of challenging cognitive tests; sleep quality; depressive symptoms; perceived stress; loneliness. Participants categorized as poor sleepers on the basis of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores had significantly larger IL-6 responses to the cognitive stressors than good sleepers. The association between poor sleep and heightened IL-6 response to acute stress was not explained by other psychosocial factors previously linked to immune dysregulation, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness. Findings add to the growing evidence for poor sleep as an independent risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to effects of sleep disturbance due to significant age-related changes in both sleep and inflammatory regulation.

  13. Short-term and continuing stresses differentially interplay with multiple hormones to regulate plant survival and growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cangjing; Liu, Jingjing; Dong, Xinran; Cai, Zhenying; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xuelu

    2014-05-01

    The stress phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), plays important roles in facilitating plants to survive and grow well under a wide range of stress conditions. Previous gene expression studies mainly focused on plant responses to short-term ABA treatment, but the effect of sustained ABA treatment and their difference are poorly studied. Here, we treated plants with ABA for 1 h or 9 d, and our genome-wide analysis indicated the differentially regulated genes under the two conditions were tremendously different. We analyzed other hormones' signaling changes by using their whole sets of known responsive genes as reporters and integrating feedback regulation of their biosynthesis. We found that, under short-term ABA treatment, signaling outputs of growth-promoting hormones, brassinosteroids and gibberellins, and a biotic stress-responsive hormone, jasmonic acid, were significantly inhibited, while auxin and ethylene signaling outputs were promoted. However, sustained ABA treatment repressed cytokinin and gibberellin signaling, but stimulated auxin signaling. Using several sets of hormone-related mutants, we found candidates in corresponding hormonal signaling pathways, including receptors or transcription regulators, are essential in responding to ABA. Our findings indicate interactions of ABA-dependent stress signals with hormones at different levels are involved in plants to survive under transient stress and to adapt to continuing stressful environments.

  14. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

    PubMed

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.

  15. Seasonal Patterns of Hormones, Macroparasites, and Microparasites in Wild African Ungulates: The Interplay among Stress, Reproduction, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cizauskas, Carrie A.; Turner, Wendy C.; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

  16. Learning under stress in the adult rat is differentially affected by 'juvenile' or 'adolescent' stress.

    PubMed

    Tsoory, Michael; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that childhood trauma is associated with a predisposition to develop both mood and anxiety disorders, while trauma during adolescence is associated mainly with anxiety disorders. We studied in the rat the long-term consequences of 'juvenile' stress, namely stress experienced in a period in which substantial remodelling occurs across species in stress-sensitive brain areas involved in emotional and learning processing. In adulthood, 'juvenile' stressed rats exhibited reduced exploration in a novel setting, and poor avoidance learning, with 41% learning mainly to escape while 28% exhibited learned helplessness-like behaviours. In adult rats that underwent 'adolescent' stress, learned helplessness-like behaviours were not evident, although decreased exploration and poor avoidance learning were observed. This suggests that in the prepubertal phase juvenility may constitute a stress-sensitive period. The results suggest that juvenile stress induces lasting impairments in stress-coping responses. The 'juvenile' stress model presented here may be of relevance to individuals' reported predisposition to anxiety and depression following childhood trauma, and their increased susceptibility only to anxiety disorders following adolescent stress.

  17. Genotypic variation in tolerance to drought stress is highly coordinated with hydraulic conductivity-photosynthesis interplay and aquaporin expression in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kanubothula Sitarami; Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic conductivity quantifies the efficiency of a plant to transport water from root to shoot and is a major constriction on leaf gas exchange physiology. Mulberry (Morus spp.) is the most economically important crop for sericulture industry. In this study, we demonstrate a finely coordinated control of hydraulic dynamics on leaf gas exchange characteristics in 1-year-old field-grown mulberry genotypes (Selection-13 (S13); Kollegal Local (KL) and Kanva-2 (K2)) subjected to water stress by withholding water for 20 days and subsequent recovery for 7 days. Significant variations among three mulberry genotypes have been recorded in net photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductance and sap flow rate, as well as hydraulic conductivity in stem (KS) and leaf (KL). Among three genotypes, S13 showed significantly high rates of Pn, KS and KL both in control as well as during drought stress (DS) and recovery, providing evidence for superior drought-adaptive strategies. The plant water hydraulics-photosynthesis interplay was finely coordinated with the expression of certain key aquaporins (AQPs) in roots and leaves. Our data clearly demonstrate that expression of certain AQPs play a crucial role in hydraulic dynamics and photosynthetic carbon assimilation during DS and recovery, which could be effectively targeted towards mulberry improvement programs for drought adaptation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Interplay of surface morphology, strain relief, and surface stress during surfactant mediated epitaxy of Ge on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahl, P.; Kury, P.; Horn von Hoegen, M.

    Lattice-mismatch-induced surface or film stress has significant influence on the morphology of heteroepitaxial films. This is demonstrated using Sb surfactant-mediated epitaxy of Ge on Si(111). The surfactant forces a two-dimensional growth of a continous Ge film instead of islanding. Two qualitatively different growth regimes are observed. Elastic relaxation: Prior to the generation of strain-relieving defects the Ge film grows pseudomorphically with the Si lattice constant and is under strong compressive stress. The Ge film relieves strain by forming a rough surface on a nm scale which allows partial elastic relaxation towards the Ge bulk lattice constant. The unfavorable increase of surface area is outbalanced by the large decrease of strain energy. The change of film stress and surface morphology is monitored in situ during deposition at elevated temperature with surface stress-induced optical deflection and high-resolution spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction. Plastic relaxation: After a critical thickness the generation of dislocations is initiated. The rough phase acts as a nucleation center for dislocations. On Si(111) those misfit dislocations are arranged in a threefold quasi periodic array at the interface that accommodate exactly the different lattice constants of Ge and Si.

  19. The Interplay between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…

  20. The Interplay between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…

  1. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Amygdala activation and GABAergic gene expression in hippocampal sub-regions at the interplay of stress and spatial learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Albrecht, Anne; Stork, Oliver; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Molecular processes in GABAergic local circuit neurons critically contribute to information processing in the hippocampus and to stress-induced activation of the amygdala. In the current study, we determined expression changes in GABA-related factors induced in subregions of the dorsal hippocampus as well as in the BLA of rats 5 h after spatial learning in a Morris water maze (MWM), using laser microdissection and quantitative real-time PCR. Spatial learning resulted in highly selective pattern of changes in hippocampal subregions: gene expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) were reduced in the hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG), whereas somatostatin (SST) was increased in the stratum oriens (SO) of CA3. The GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 as well as the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) were reduced in SO of CA1. In the BLA, expression of GAD65 and GAD67 were reduced compared to a handled Control group. These expression patterns were further compared to alterations in a group of rats that have been exposed to the water maze but were not provided with an invisible escape platform. In this Water Exposure group, no expression changes were observed in any of the hippocampal subregions, but a differential regulation of all selected target genes was evident in the BLA. These findings suggest that expression changes of GABAergic factors in the hippocampus are associated with spatial learning, while additional stress effects modulate expression alterations in the BLA. Indeed, while in both experimental groups plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were enhanced, only Water Exposure stress activated the basolateral amygdala (BLA), as indicated by increased levels of phosphorylated ERK 1/2. Altered GABAergic function in the BLA may thus contribute to memory consolidation in the hippocampus, in relation to levels of stress and emotionality associated with the experience. PMID:24478650

  3. Stress hormones, sleep deprivation and cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Colizzi, Elena; Fisichella, Alberto; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ruffini, Livia; Lauretani, Fulvio; Parrino, Liborio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Cognition can be deteriorated in older persons because of several potential mechanisms including the hormonal changes occurring with age. Stress events cause modification in hormonal balance with acute and chronic changes such as increase in cortisol and thyroid hormones, and simultaneous alterations in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor-1 levels. The ability to cope with stress and regain previous healthy status, also called resiliency, is particularly impaired in older persons Thus, stressful conditions and hormonal dysregulation might concur to the onset of cognitive impairment in this population. In this review we address the relationship between stress hormones and cognitive function in older persons focusing on the role of one of the main stress factors, such as sleep deprivation (SD). We extracted and cross-checked data from 2000 to 2013 March and selected 112 full-text articles assessed for eligibility. In particular we considered 68 studies regarding the contribution of hormonal pathway to cognition in older adults, and 44 regarding hormones and SD both in rats and humans. We investigated how the activation of a stress-pattern response, like the one evoked from SD, can influence cognitive development and worsen cognitive status in the elderly. We will show the limited number of studies targeting the effects of SD and the consequent changes in stress hormones on cognitive function in this age group. We conclude that the current literature is not strong enough to give definitive answers on the role of stress hormonal pathway to the development of cognitive impairment in older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interplay between RNA-binding protein HuR and microRNA-125b regulates p53 mRNA translation in response to genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Deepika; Goyal, Ashish; Ray, Partho Sarothi

    2016-11-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic integrity in response to DNA damage. Regulation of translation of p53 mRNA is a major mode of regulation of p53 expression under genotoxic stress. The AU/U-rich element-binding protein HuR has been shown to bind to p53 mRNA 3'UTR and enhance translation in response to DNA-damaging UVC radiation. On the other hand, the microRNA miR-125b is reported to repress p53 expression and stress-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that UVC radiation causes an increase in miR-125b level in a biphasic manner, as well as nuclear cytoplasmic translocation of HuR. Binding of HuR to the p53 mRNA 3'UTR, especially at a site adjacent to the miR-125b target site, causes dissociation of the p53 mRNA from the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and inhibits the miR-125b-mediated translation repression of p53. HuR prevents the oncogenic effect of miR-125b by reversing the decrease in apoptosis and increase in cell proliferation caused by the overexpression of miR-125b. The antagonistic interplay between miR-125b and HuR might play an important role in fine-tuning p53 gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and thereby regulate the cellular response to genotoxic stress.

  5. Mild stress of caffeine increased mtDNA content in skeletal muscle cells: the interplay between Ca2+ transients and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuzhe; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Contrevas, Joanna R; Abramov, Andrey Y; Qi, Zhengtang; Duchen, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Caffeine increases mitochondrial biogenesis in myotubes by evoking Ca(2+) transients. Nitric oxide (NO) also induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells via upregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and PGC-1α. However, the interplay and timing sequence between Ca(2+) transients and NO releases remain unclear. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine-evoked Ca(2+) transients triggered NO production to increase mtDNA in skeletal muscle cells. Ca(2+) transients were recorded with Fura-2 AM and confocal microscopy; mtDNA staining, mitochondrial membrane potential and NO level were determined using fluorescent probes PicoGreen, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) and DAF-FM, respectively. In primary cultured myotubes, a subtle and moderate stress of caffeine increased mtDNA exclusively. Mitochondrial membrane potential and mtDNA were increased by 1 mM as well as 5 mM caffeine, whereas 10 mM caffeine did not change the fluorescence intensity of PicoGreen and TMRM. NO level in myocytes increased gradually following the first jump of Ca(2+) transients evoked by caffeine (5 mM) till the end of recording, when Fura-2 indicated that Ca(2+) transients recovered partly and even disappeared. Importantly, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME) suppressed caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis, whereas NO donor (DETA-NO) increased mtDNA content. These data strongly suggest that caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis is dose-sensitive and dependent on a certain level of stress. Further, an increasing level of NO following Ca(2+) transients is required for caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis. Additionally, Ca(2+) transients, a usual and first response to caffeine, was either suppressed or attenuated by L-NAME, DETA-NO, AICAR and U0126, suggesting an inability to control [Ca(2+)](i) in these treated cells. There may be an important interplay between NO and Ca(2+) transients in intracellular signaling system involving NOS, AMPK and MEK.

  6. High self-perceived stress and poor coping in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-08-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population) completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly higher subjective stress and poorer ability to cope with stress in everyday life, as compared to typical adults. Autistic traits were associated with both subjective stress/distress and coping in this cross-sectional series. The long-term consequences of chronic stress in everyday life, as well as treatment intervention focusing on stress and coping, should be addressed in future research as well as in the clinical management of intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

  7. Childhood Maltreatment, Perceived Stress, and Stress-Related Coping in Recently Abstinent Cocaine Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Scott M.; Paliwal, Prashni; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined associations between a personal history of childhood maltreatment and the perceived stress and stress-coping styles of recently abstinent and treatment-engaged cocaine dependent adults. Fifty men and 41 women at an inpatient treatment and research facility were administered the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (D. P. Bernstein & L. Fink, 1998; D. P. Bernstein et al., 2003), the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), and the COPE Questionnaire (C. S. Carver, M. R. Scheier, & J. K. Weintraub, 1989). Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze relationships while adjusting for relevant covariates. Findings indicate that overall childhood maltreatment severity was significantly associated with greater perceived stress and greater use of avoidance stress-coping strategies. These findings suggest that having a history of childhood maltreatment may influence how recently abstinent cocaine dependent individuals experience and cope with stress. Stress and stress-coping focused interventions may be particularly indicated for cocaine dependent individuals with histories of childhood maltreatment. PMID:17563143

  8. The interplay between attentional strategies and language processing in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Hendriks, Angelique W C J; Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error detection were measured from 16 high-functioning adults with ASD, and 16 matched controls. For controls, there was an attentional cost of dual level processing for low level performance but not for high level performance. For participants with ASD, there was an attentional cost both for low level and for high level performance. These results suggest a compensatory strategic use of attention during language processing in ASD.

  9. Genetic control of adult neurogenesis: interplay of differentiation, proliferation and survival modulates new neurons function, and memory circuits

    PubMed Central

    Tirone, Felice; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Within the hippocampal circuitry, the basic function of the dentate gyrus is to transform the memory input coming from the enthorinal cortex into sparse and categorized outputs to CA3, in this way separating related memory information. New neurons generated in the dentate gyrus during adulthood appear to facilitate this process, allowing a better separation between closely spaced memories (pattern separation). The evidence underlying this model has been gathered essentially by ablating the newly adult-generated neurons. This approach, however, does not allow monitoring of the integration of new neurons into memory circuits and is likely to set in motion compensatory circuits, possibly leading to an underestimation of the role of new neurons. Here we review the background of the basic function of the hippocampus and of the known properties of new adult-generated neurons. In this context, we analyze the cognitive performance in mouse models generated by us and others, with modified expression of the genes Btg2 (PC3/Tis21), Btg1, Pten, BMP4, etc., where new neurons underwent a change in their differentiation rate or a partial decrease of their proliferation or survival rate rather than ablation. The effects of these modifications are equal or greater than full ablation, suggesting that the architecture of circuits, as it unfolds from the interaction between existing and new neurons, can have a greater functional impact than the sheer number of new neurons. We propose a model which attempts to measure and correlate the set of cellular changes in the process of neurogenesis with the memory function. PMID:23734097

  10. Developing a dynamic framework to examine the interplay between environmental stress, stakeholder participation processes and hydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G.; Blöschl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-09-01

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly discussed as essential for sustainable water resource management. Yet detailed understanding of the factors driving its use, the processes by which it is employed, and the outcomes or achievements it can realise remains highly limited, and often contested. This understanding is essential to enable water policy to be shaped for efficient and effective water management. This research proposes and applies a dynamic framework that can explore in which circumstances environmental stress events, such as floods, droughts or pollution, drive changes in water governance towards a more participatory approach, and how this shapes the processes by which participation or stakeholder engagement takes place, and the subsequent water management outcomes that emerge. The framework is able to assess the extent to which environmental events in combination with favourable contextual factors (e.g. institutional support for participatory activities) lead to good participatory processes (e.g. well facilitated and representative) that then lead to good outcomes (e.g. improved ecological conditions). Through applying the framework to case studies from the literature it becomes clear that environmental stress events can stimulate participatory governance changes, when existing institutional conditions promote participatory approaches. The work also suggests that intermediary outcomes, which may be tangible (such as reaching an agreement) or non-tangible (such as developing shared knowledge and understanding among participants, or creating trust), may provide a crucial link between processes and resource management outcomes. If this relationship can be more strongly confirmed, the presence or absence of intermediary outcomes may even be used as a valuable proxy to predict future resource management outcomes.

  11. Sensitivity to cocaine in adult mice is due to interplay between genetic makeup, early environment and later experience.

    PubMed

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Coassin, Alessandra; Accoto, Alessandra; Luchetti, Alessandra; Pascucci, Tiziana; Luzi, Carla; Lizzi, Anna Rita; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2017-10-01

    Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience. We have recently showed that Repeated Cross Fostering (RCF; RCF pups were fostered by four adoptive mothers from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 4. Pups were left with the last adoptive mother until weaning) experienced by pups affected the response to a negative experience in adulthood in opposite direction in two genotypes leading DBA2/J, but not C57BL/6J mice, toward an "anhedonia-like" phenotype. Here we investigate whether exposure to a rewarding stimulus, instead of a negative one, in adulthood induces an opposite behavioral outcome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the long-lasting effects of RCF on cocaine sensitivity in C57 and DBA female mice by evaluating conditioned place preference induced by different cocaine doses and catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to cocaine using a "dual probe" in vivo microdialysis procedure. Moreover, cocaine-induced c-Fos activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in processing of rewarding stimuli. Finally, cocaine-induced spine changes were evaluated in the prefrontal-accumbal system. RCF experience strongly affected the behavioral, neurochemical and morphological responses to cocaine in adulthood in opposite direction in the two genotypes increasing and reducing, respectively, the sensitivity to cocaine in C57 and DBA mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The interplay of light and oxygen in the reactive oxygen stress response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dissected by quantitative mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barth, Johannes; Bergner, Sonja Verena; Jaeger, Daniel; Niehues, Anna; Schulze, Stefan; Scholz, Martin; Fufezan, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Light and oxygen are factors that are very much entangled in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress response network in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. The first obligatory step in understanding the ROS network is to separate these responses. In this study, a LC-MS/MS based quantitative proteomic approach was used to dissect the responses of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to ROS, light and oxygen employing an interlinked experimental setup. Application of novel bioinformatics tools allow high quality retention time alignment to be performed on all LC-MS/MS runs increasing confidence in protein quantification, overall sequence coverage and coverage of all treatments measured. Finally advanced hierarchical clustering yielded 30 communities of co-regulated proteins permitting separation of ROS related effects from pure light effects (induction and repression). A community termed redox(II) was identified that shows additive effects of light and oxygen with light as the first obligatory step. Another community termed 4-down was identified that shows repression as an effect of light but only in the absence of oxygen indicating ROS regulation, for example, possibly via product feedback inhibition because no ROS damage is occurring. In summary the data demonstrate the importance of separating light, O₂ and ROS responses to define marker genes for ROS responses. As revealed in this study, an excellent candidate is DHAR with strong ROS dependent induction profiles.

  13. The Interplay of Light and Oxygen in the Reactive Oxygen Stress Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dissected by Quantitative Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Johannes; Bergner, Sonja Verena; Jaeger, Daniel; Niehues, Anna; Schulze, Stefan; Scholz, Martin; Fufezan, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Light and oxygen are factors that are very much entangled in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress response network in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. The first obligatory step in understanding the ROS network is to separate these responses. In this study, a LC-MS/MS based quantitative proteomic approach was used to dissect the responses of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to ROS, light and oxygen employing an interlinked experimental setup. Application of novel bioinformatics tools allow high quality retention time alignment to be performed on all LC-MS/MS runs increasing confidence in protein quantification, overall sequence coverage and coverage of all treatments measured. Finally advanced hierarchical clustering yielded 30 communities of co-regulated proteins permitting separation of ROS related effects from pure light effects (induction and repression). A community termed redoxII was identified that shows additive effects of light and oxygen with light as the first obligatory step. Another community termed 4-down was identified that shows repression as an effect of light but only in the absence of oxygen indicating ROS regulation, for example, possibly via product feedback inhibition because no ROS damage is occurring. In summary the data demonstrate the importance of separating light, O2 and ROS responses to define marker genes for ROS responses. As revealed in this study, an excellent candidate is DHAR with strong ROS dependent induction profiles. PMID:24482124

  14. Oxytocin mediates stress-induced analgesia in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Wei, F; Wang, G D; Li, P; Kim, S J; Vogt, S K; Muglia, L J; Zhuo, M

    2002-01-01

    As a neurohormone and as a neurotransmitter, oxytocin has been implicated in the stress response. Descending oxytocin-containing fibres project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, an area important for processing nociceptive inputs. Here we tested the hypothesis that oxytocin plays a role in stress-induced analgesia and modulates spinal sensory transmission. Mice lacking oxytocin exhibited significantly reduced stress-induced antinociception following both cold-swim (10 °C, 3 min) and restraint stress (30 min). In contrast, the mice exhibited normal behavioural responses to thermal and mechanical noxious stimuli and morphine-induced antinociception. In wild-type mice, intrathecal injection of the oxytocin antagonist dOVT (200 μm in 5 μl) significantly attenuated antinociception induced by cold-swim. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that, in the mouse, oxytocin-containing neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are activated by stress. Furthermore, oxytocin-containing fibres were present in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To test whether descending oxytocin-containing fibres could alter nociceptive transmission, we performed intracellular recordings of dorsal horn neurones in spinal slices from adult mice. Bath application of oxytocin (1 and 10 μm) inhibited excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by dorsal root stimulation. This effect was reversed by the oxytocin antagonist dOVT (1 μm). Whole-cell recordings of dorsal horn neurones in postnatal rat slices revealed that the effect of oxytocin could be blocked by the addition of GTP-γ-S to the recording pipette, suggesting activation of postsynaptic oxytocin receptors. We conclude that oxytocin is important for both cold-swim and restraint stress-induced antinociception, acting by inhibiting glutamatergic spinal sensory transmission. PMID:11956346

  15. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult. PMID:22926484

  16. Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune diseases in adults.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Fairweather, DeLisa; Pearson, William S; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F; Croft, Janet B

    2009-02-01

    To examine whether childhood traumatic stress increased the risk of developing autoimmune diseases as an adult. Retrospective cohort study of 15,357 adult health maintenance organization members enrolled in the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study from 1995 to 1997 in San Diego, California, and eligible for follow-up through 2005. ACEs included childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; witnessing domestic violence; growing up with household substance abuse, mental illness, parental divorce, and/or an incarcerated household member. The total number of ACEs (ACE Score range = 0-8) was used as a measure of cumulative childhood stress. The outcome was hospitalizations for any of 21 selected autoimmune diseases and 4 immunopathology groupings: T- helper 1 (Th1) (e.g., idiopathic myocarditis); T-helper 2 (Th2) (e.g., myasthenia gravis); Th2 rheumatic (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis); and mixed Th1/Th2 (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia). Sixty-four percent reported at least one ACE. The event rate (per 10,000 person-years) for a first hospitalization with any autoimmune disease was 31.4 in women and 34.4 in men. First hospitalizations for any autoimmune disease increased with increasing number of ACEs (p < .05). Compared with persons with no ACEs, persons with >or=2 ACEs were at a 70% increased risk for hospitalizations with Th1, 80% increased risk for Th2, and 100% increased risk for rheumatic diseases (p < .05). Childhood traumatic stress increased the likelihood of hospitalization with a diagnosed autoimmune disease decades into adulthood. These findings are consistent with recent biological studies on the impact of early life stress on subsequent inflammatory responses.

  17. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  18. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  19. Wheat and rye genome confer specific phytohormone profile features and interplay under water stress in two phenotypes of triticale.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga; Gadzinowska, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine phytohormone profile of triticale and quality-based relationships between the analyzed groups of phytohormones. The study involved two triticale phenotypes, a long-stemmed one and a semi-dwarf one with Dw1 gene, differing in mechanisms of acclimation to drought and controlled by wheat or rye genome. Water deficit in the leaves triggered a specific phytohormone response in both winter triticale phenotypes attributable to the dominance of wheat (semi-dwarf cultivar) or rye (long-stemmed cultivar) genome. Rye genome in long-stemmed triticale was responsible for specific increase (tillering: gibberellic acid; heading: N6-isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin-9-riboside, cis-zeatin-9-riboside; flowering: N6-isopentenyladenine, indolebutyric acid, salicylic acid) or decrease (heading: trans-zeatin) in the content of some phytohormones. Wheat genome in semi-dwarf triticale controlled a specific increase in trans-zeatin content at heading and anthesis in gibberellin A1 during anthesis. The greatest number of changes in the phytohormone levels was observed in the generative phase. In both triticale types, the pool of investigated phytohormones was dominated by abscisic acid and gibberellins. The semi-dwarf cultivar with Dw1 gene was less sensitive to gibberellins and its mechanisms of acclimation to water stress were mainly ABA-dependent. An increase in ABA and gibberellins during drought and predominance of these hormones in the total pool of analyzed phytohormones indicated their equal share in drought acclimation mechanisms in long-stemmed cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Intergenic Interplay between Aldose 1-Epimerase-Like Protein and Pectin Methylesterase in Abiotic and Biotic Stress Control

    PubMed Central

    Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Komarova, Tatiana V.; Pozdyshev, Denis V.; Ershova, Natalia M.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Tashlitsky, Vadim N.; Sheval, Eugene V.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical damage that often precedes the penetration of a leaf by a pathogen promotes the activation of pectin methylesterase (PME); the activation of PME leads to the emission of methanol, resulting in a “priming” effect on intact leaves, which is accompanied by an increased sensitivity to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and resistance to bacteria. In this study, we revealed that mRNA levels of the methanol-inducible gene encoding Nicotiana benthamiana aldose 1-epimerase-like protein (NbAELP) in the leaves of intact plants are very low compared with roots. However, stress and pathogen attack increased the accumulation of the NbAELP mRNA in the leaves. Using transiently transformed plants, we obtained data to support the mechanism underlying AELP/PME-related negative feedback The insertion of the NbAELP promoter sequence (proNbAELP) into the N. benthamiana genome resulted in the co-suppression of the natural NbAELP gene expression, accompanied by a reduction in the NbAELP mRNA content and increased PME synthesis. Knockdown of NbAELP resulted in high activity of PME in the cell wall and a decrease in the leaf glucose level, creating unfavorable conditions for Agrobacterium tumefaciens reproduction in injected leaves. Our results showed that NbAELP is capable of binding the TMV movement protein (MPTMV) in vitro and is likely to affect the cellular nucleocytoplasmic transport, which may explain the sensitivity of NbAELP knockdown plants to TMV. Although NbAELP was primarily detected in the cell wall, the influence of this protein on cellular PME mRNA levels might be associated with reduced transcriptional activity of the PME gene in the nucleus. To confirm this hypothesis, we isolated the N. tabacum PME gene promoter (proNtPME) and showed the inhibition of proNtPME-directed GFP and GUS expression in leaves when co-agroinjected with the NbAELP-encoding plasmid. We hypothesized that plant wounding and/or pathogen attack lead to PME activation and increased methanol

  1. Royal Jelly-Mediated Prolongevity and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans Is Possibly Modulated by the Interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cook, Lauren F; Grasso, Lindsay M; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that royal jelly (RJ) and its related substances may have antiaging properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain elusive. We report that the effects of RJ and enzyme-treated RJ (eRJ) on life span and health span in Caenorhabditis elegans (C elegans) are modulated by the sophisticated interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 proteins. Dietary supplementation with RJ or eRJ increased C. elegans life span in a dose-dependent manner. The RJ and eRJ consumption increased the tolerance of C elegans to oxidative stress, ultraviolet irradiation, and heat shock stress. Our genetic analyses showed that RJ/eRJ-mediated life-span extension requires insulin/IGF-1 signaling and the activities of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and FTT-2, a 14-3-3 protein. Earlier studies reported that DAF-16/FOXO, SIR-2.1/SIRT1, FTT-2, and HCF-1 have extensive interplays in worms and mammals. Our present findings suggest that RJ/eRJ-mediated promotion of longevity and stress resistance in C elegans is dependent on these conserved interplays. From an evolutionary point of view, this study not only provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of RJ's action on health span promotion in C elegans, but also has imperative implications in using RJ/eRJ as nutraceuticals to delay aging and age-related disorders.

  2. Resveratrol protects adult cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress mediated cell injury.

    PubMed

    Movahed, A; Yu, L; Thandapilly, S J; Louis, X L; Netticadan, T

    2012-11-15

    Recent studies from our laboratory have showed that resveratrol, a polyphenol found predominantly in grapes rendered strong cardioprotection in animal models of heart disease. The cardioprotection which was observed was primarily associated with the ability of resveratrol to reduce oxidative stress in these models. The aim of the current study was to corroborate the role of resveratrol as an inhibitor of oxidative stress and explore the underlying mechanisms of its action in heart disease. For this purpose, we used a cell model of oxidative stress, the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) exposed adult rat cardiomyocytes, which was treated with and without resveratrol (30 μM); cardiomyocytes which were not exposed to resveratrol served as controls. Cell injury, cell death and oxidative stress measurements as well as the activities of the major endogenous antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were carried out in control and H(2)O(2) exposed cardiomyocytes, treated with and without resveratrol. Pharmacological blockade using specific blockers of the antioxidant enzymes were used to confirm their role in mediating resveratrol action in H(2)O(2) exposed cardiomyocytes. The status of H(2)O(2) and antioxidant enzymes in serum samples from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with and without resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg body weight) was also examined. Our results showed significant cell injury and death in H(2)O(2) exposed cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon resveratrol treatment. SOD and CAT activities were decreased in H(2)O(2) exposed adult rat cardiomyocytes; treatment with resveratrol significantly prevented this reduction. However, GPx activity was not altered in the H(2)O(2) exposed cardiomyocytes in comparison to controls. Pharmacological blockade of SOD and/or CAT prevented the beneficial effect of resveratrol. In SHR, H(2)O(2) levels were increased, but CAT activity was decreased, while SOD remained unchanged

  3. Sleep disturbance in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Lynne J; De Koninck, Joseph

    2007-08-01

    To present a critical review of the literature and research on sleep difficulties in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), more specifically the existing treatment options, and to formulate recommendations regarding future treatment approaches and research related to sleep and PTSD. The following databases were consulted: PsycInfo (1872-2006) and MEDLINE (1966-2006). The search was conducted using the following key terms: PTSD and sleep, PTSD and nightmares, PTSD and dreams, PTSD and insomnia, PTSD and periodic limb movement disorder, and PTSD and sleep disordered breathing. Only studies examining sleep disturbance among adults with PTSD were included, and only articles written in English were consulted. Studies and reviews related to the prevalence, causes, and treatments of sleep disturbance among adults with PTSD, as well as those examining the relationship between sleep and PTSD, were selected. Promising treatment options are available for treating sleep difficulties among adults with PTSD. In particular, cognitive-behavioral therapy including a component for nightmares (imagery rehearsal therapy) and insomnia has been found to significantly improve sleep disturbance among these individuals. It is proposed that with the inclusion of other components, such as a screening for other sleep disorders, relaxation exercises, positive self-talk, imagery rehearsal related to recurring images before bed, and a daytime nap, sleep-related symptoms may improve to a greater degree, which may then lead to a significant decrease in other PTSD symptoms and overall PTSD severity. The inclusion of sleep medicine specialists should also be considered for sleep medicine treatment of individuals with PTSD. Collaboration between mental health professionals and sleep medicine specialists is therefore recommended for treatment of sleep-related difficulties among individuals with PTSD.

  4. Oxidative stress in older adults: effects of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S; Su, Yali; Choi, Leena; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Roberts, L Jackson; Harman, S Mitchell

    2012-08-01

    Acute exercise results in transient change in redox balance. High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative damage to macromolecules. However, moderate periodic increases in ROS, such as experienced with habitual exercise, may activate signal transduction pathways which stimulate increases in endogenous antioxidant systems. This study tested the hypothesis that physically fit older adults would have less oxidative stress than unfit age-matched controls, due to greater circulating concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants and greater capacity to upregulate antioxidant enzymes. We compared 37 fit (mean age 65.2 ± 5 years) and 35 unfit (mean age 67.7 ± 4 years) men and women. Fitness status was classified by VO(2 max) and maximal leg power. Basal levels of oxidative stress were assessed by measuring urinary markers of nucleic acid damage and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring total antioxidant power and ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione in plasma, at rest. The capacity to counteract an oxidative insult was assessed by measuring changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostanes in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion. The fit individuals had significantly lower levels of urinary markers of oxidative damage (all P <0.05) and lower F(2)-isoprostane response to the oxidative challenge (P < 0.05), but there were no group differences in antioxidant status. The lower levels of oxidative stress in the fit individuals were not mediated by known effects of exercise training such as adiposity, HDL concentrations, or small molecular weight antioxidants. These data suggest that reduced oxidative stress associated with physical fitness results from differences in activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Interplay between circadian rhythm, time of the day and osmotic stress constraints in the regulation of the expression of a Solanum Double B-box gene.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Rey, Pascal; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2014-04-01

    Double B-box zinc finger (DBB) proteins are recently identified plant transcription regulators that participate in the response to sodium chloride-induced stress in arabidopsis plants. Little is known regarding their subcellular localization and expression patterns, particularly in relation to other osmotic constraints and the day/night cycle. This study investigated natural variations in the amount of a Solanum DBB protein, SsBBX24, during plant development, and also under various environmental constraints leading to cell dehydration in relation to the circadian clock and the time of day. SsBBX24 transcript and protein abundance in various organs of phytotron-grown Solanum tuberosum and S. sogarandinum plants were investigated at different time points of the day and under various osmotic constraints. The intracellular location of SsBBX24 was determined by western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. Western blot analysis of SsBBX24 protein revealed that it was located in the nucleus at the beginning of the light period and in the cytosol at the end, suggesting movement ('trafficking') during the light phase. SsBBX24 gene expression exhibited circadian cycling under control conditions, with the highest and lowest abundances of both transcript and protein occurring 8 and 18 h after dawn, respectively. Exposing Solanum plants to low temperature, salinity and polyethylene glycol (PEG), but not to drought, disturbed the circadian regulation of SsBBX24 gene expression at the protein level. SsBBX24 transcript and protein accumulated in Solanum plants in response to salt and PEG treatments, but not in response to low temperature or water deficit. Most interestingly, the time of the day modulated the magnitude of SsBBX24 expression in response to high salt concentration. The interplay between circadian rhythm and osmotic constraints in the regulation of the expression of a Solanum DBB transcriptional regulator is demonstrated. It is proposed that stress-dependent, post

  6. Interplay between circadian rhythm, time of the day and osmotic stress constraints in the regulation of the expression of a Solanum Double B-box gene

    PubMed Central

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Rey, Pascal; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Double B-box zinc finger (DBB) proteins are recently identified plant transcription regulators that participate in the response to sodium chloride-induced stress in arabidopsis plants. Little is known regarding their subcellular localization and expression patterns, particularly in relation to other osmotic constraints and the day/night cycle. This study investigated natural variations in the amount of a Solanum DBB protein, SsBBX24, during plant development, and also under various environmental constraints leading to cell dehydration in relation to the circadian clock and the time of day. Methods SsBBX24 transcript and protein abundance in various organs of phytotron-grown Solanum tuberosum and S. sogarandinum plants were investigated at different time points of the day and under various osmotic constraints. The intracellular location of SsBBX24 was determined by western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. Key Results Western blot analysis of SsBBX24 protein revealed that it was located in the nucleus at the beginning of the light period and in the cytosol at the end, suggesting movement (‘trafficking’) during the light phase. SsBBX24 gene expression exhibited circadian cycling under control conditions, with the highest and lowest abundances of both transcript and protein occurring 8 and 18 h after dawn, respectively. Exposing Solanum plants to low temperature, salinity and polyethylene glycol (PEG), but not to drought, disturbed the circadian regulation of SsBBX24 gene expression at the protein level. SsBBX24 transcript and protein accumulated in Solanum plants in response to salt and PEG treatments, but not in response to low temperature or water deficit. Most interestingly, the time of the day modulated the magnitude of SsBBX24 expression in response to high salt concentration. Conclusions The interplay between circadian rhythm and osmotic constraints in the regulation of the expression of a Solanum DBB transcriptional regulator is

  7. The interplay between oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates the outcome of a saturated fat diet on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2004-04-01

    A diet high in saturated fat (HF) decreases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), to the extent that compromises neuroplasticity and cognitive function, and aggravates the outcome of brain insult. By using the antioxidant power of vitamin E, we performed studies to determine the role of oxidative stress as a mediator for the effects of BDNF on synaptic plasticity and cognition caused by consumption of the HF diet. Male adult rats were maintained on a HF diet for 2 months with or without 500 IU/kg of vitamin E. Supplementation of the HF diet with vitamin E dramatically reduced oxidative damage, normalized levels of BDNF, synapsin I and cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), caused by the consumption of the HF diet. In addition, vitamin E supplementation preserved the process of activation of synapsin I and CREB, and reversed the HF-impaired cognitive function. It is known that BDNF facilitates the synapse by modulating synapsin I and CREB, which have been implicated in synaptic plasticity associated to learning and memory. These results show that oxidative stress can interact with the BDNF system to modulate synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Therefore, studies appear to reveal a mechanism by which events classically related to the maintenance of energy balance of the cell, such as oxidative stress, can interact with molecular events that modulate neuronal and behavioural plasticity.

  8. Stress vulnerability during adolescence: comparison of chronic stressors in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Josiane O; Cruz, Fábio C; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and somatic changes evoked by daily exposure to the same type of stressor (homotypic) or different aversive stressor stimuli (heterotypic) in adolescent and adult rats, with a focus on cardiovascular function. The long-term effects of stress exposure during adolescence were also investigated longitudinally. Male Wistar rats were exposed to repeated restraint stress (RRS, homotypic) or chronic variable stress (CVS, heterotypic). Adrenal hypertrophy, thymus involution, and elevated plasma glucocorticoid were observed only in adolescent animals, whereas reduction in body weight was caused by both stress regimens in adults. CVS increased mean arterial pressure (adolescent: p = .001; adult: p = .005) and heart rate (HR; adolescent: p = .020; adult: p = .011) regardless of the age, whereas RRS increased blood pressure selectively in adults (p = .001). Rest tachycardia evoked by CVS was associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activity in adults, whereas a decreased cardiac parasympathetic activity was observed in adolescent animals. Changes in cardiovascular function and cardiac autonomic activity evoked by both CVS and RRS were followed by alterations in baroreflex activity and vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents in adolescent adult animals. Except for the circulating glucocorticoid change, all alterations observed during adolescence were reversed in adulthood. These findings suggest a stress vulnerability of adolescents to somatic and neuroendocrine effects regardless of stress regimen. Our results indicated an age-stress type-specific influence in stress-evoked cardiovascular/autonomic changes. Data suggest minimal consequences in adulthood of stress during adolescence.

  9. Relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie L; Mefford, Linda; Groër, Maureen; Thomas, Sandra P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults in the southeastern United States. Four assessment tools were completed by 82 older adults (mean age = 74, age range = 65 to 91): the Perceived Stress Scale, the Carr Infection Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality, and a demographic form. A significant correlation was found between stress and SCL scores; however, four dimensions of religiousness/spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and infection. Older adults who were unable to forgive themselves or forgive others, or feel forgiven by God, were more likely to have had an infection in the previous month. Increased infections also occurred when older participants did not feel they had religious support from their congregations. Using these findings, gerontological nurses are well positioned to deliver tailored stress management and forgiveness interventions when older adults report increased stress.

  10. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

    2009-01-01

    We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

  11. Is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder a Helpful Concept for Adults with Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, A.; Clegg, J.

    2005-01-01

    Research using the concept of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with adults with intellectual disability (ID)assumes they perceive and react to traumatic events in a similar way to non-disabled adults. Reactions to trauma displayed by children may be relevant to adults with ID as well. Two focus groups were held with professionals and…

  12. The Association between Filial Piety and Perceived Stress among Chinese Older Adults in Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Zhang, Manrui

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceived stress influences the health and well-being of older adults. This study aims to examine the association between the expectation and the receipt of filial piety and perceived stress among U.S Chinese older adults. Methods Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based study of Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area. Perceived stress was assessed by the PSS-10 and was the dependent variable. Independent variables were the expectation and the receipt of filial piety examined in six domains. Negative Binomial Regression and Multivariable Logistic Regression analyses were conducted. Results Of the 3,159 Chinese older adults interviewed, the mean age was 72.8 (SD=8.3) and 58.9% were female. Compared with older adults who received a high level of filial piety, older adults who received a medium level of filial piety were 1.57 (1.29–1.93) times more likely to perceive stress as high, and older adults who received a low level of filial piety were 2.74 (2.26–3.33) times more likely to perceive stress as high, after controlling for the potential confounding variables. The expectation of filial piety was not significantly associated with perceived stress. Conclusion A low level of filial piety receipt may be a risk factor for perceived stress. Our findings suggest incorporating cultural contributors into the analyses of perceived stress. PMID:27642631

  13. ADULT ANXIETY DISORDERS IN RELATION TO TRAIT ANXIETY AND PERCEIVED STRESS IN CHILDHOOD.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen; Rauch, Scott L; Killgore, William D S; Simon, Naomi M; Pollack, Mark H; Rosso, Isabelle M

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that objective early life stressors increase risk for anxiety disorders and that environmental stressors interact with dispositional factors such as trait anxiety. There is less information on how subjective perception of stress during childhood relates to later clinical anxiety. This study tested whether childhood perceived stress and trait anxiety were independently and interactively associated with adult anxiety disorders. Forty-seven adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders (M age = 34 yr., SD = 11) and 29 healthy participants (M = 33 yr., SD = 13) completed the adult Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Global Perceived Early Life Events Scale as a measure of perceived stress during childhood. In a logistic regression model, high childhood perceived stress (β = 0.64) and trait anxiety (β = 0.11) were associated with significantly greater odds of adult anxiety disorder. The association between childhood perceived stress and adult anxiety remained significant when controlling for adult perceived stress. These findings suggest that children's perception of stress in their daily lives may be an important target of intervention to prevent the progression of stress into clinically significant anxiety.

  14. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  15. Cortisol response to interpersonal stress in young adults with borderline personality disorder: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Marc; Bureau, Jean-François; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Bertha, Eszter A.; Hollander, Michael; Wheelis, Joan; Brooks, Nancy Hall; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2008-01-01

    Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation after stress was found to be associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Nine female BPD young adults and 12 control subjects were investigated for stress reactivity and recovery after an interpersonal conflict discussion with their mothers. BPD subjects showed a delayed cortisol response after psychosocial stress. PMID:18325742

  16. Adult Literacy Education Program Administrators' Perceptions of Occupational Stress and Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Job performance may be adversely affected by stress. Job stress is a primary contributor to serious physical and emotional health consequences. This quantitative study examined adult literacy program administrator perceptions of occupational stress and coping mechanisms related to job satisfaction, job efficacy, career longevity, and overall…

  17. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  18. Adult Literacy Education Program Administrators' Perceptions of Occupational Stress and Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Job performance may be adversely affected by stress. Job stress is a primary contributor to serious physical and emotional health consequences. This quantitative study examined adult literacy program administrator perceptions of occupational stress and coping mechanisms related to job satisfaction, job efficacy, career longevity, and overall…

  19. Stress, kappa manipulations, and aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel I.; Agoglia, Abigail E.; Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated ethanol use during adolescence, a potentially stressful developmental period, is accompanied by insensitivity to many aversive effects of ethanol relative to adults. Given evidence that supports a role for stress and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in mediating aversive properties of ethanol and other drugs, the present study assessed the role of KOR antagonism by norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in stressed (exposed to repeated restraint) and non-stressed male rats (Experiment 1), with half of the rats pretreated with nor-BNI before stressor exposure. In Experiment 2, CTA induced by the kappa agonist U62,066 was also compared in stressed and non-stressed adolescents and adults. A highly palatable solution (chocolate Boost) was used as the conditioned stimulus (CS), thereby avoiding the need for water deprivation to motivate consumption of the CS during conditioning. No effects of stress on ethanol-induced CTA were found, with all doses eliciting aversions in adolescents and adults in both stress conditions. However, among stressed subjects, adults given nor-BNI before the repeated stressor displayed blunted ethanol aversion relative to adults given saline at that time. This effect of nor-BNI was not seen in adolescents, findings that support a differential role for the KOR involvement in ethanol CTA in stressed adolescents and adults. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that all doses of U62,066 elicited aversions in non-stressed animals of both ages that were attenuated in stressed animals, findings that support a modulatory role for stress in aversive effects of KOR activation. Collectively, these results suggest that although KOR sensitivity appears to be reduced in stressed subjects, this receptor system does not appear to contribute to age differences in ethanol-induced CTA under the present test circumstances. PMID:23276674

  20. Tai chi diminishes oxidative stress in Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    Rosado-Pérez, J; Santiago-Osorio, E; Ortiz, R; Mendoza-Núñez, V M

    2012-07-01

    To determine the effect of Tai Chi on oxidative stress in a population of elderly Mexican subjects. It was carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 55 healthy subjects randomly divided into two age-matched groups: (i) a control group with 23 subjects and (ii) an experimental group with 32 subjects. The experimental group received daily training in Tai Chi for 50 min. It was measured before and after 6-month of exercise period: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). It was found that the experimental group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in glucose levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and systolic blood pressure, as well as an increase in SOD and GPx activity and TAS compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the daily practice of Tai Chi is useful for reducing OxS in healthy older adults.

  1. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  2. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Methods: Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. Results: No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (P<.001), but no differences were seen between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (P<.027). Conclusions: Both the combined and inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective

  3. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (P<.001), but no differences were seen between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (P<.027). Both the combined and inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The

  4. Enhanced acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult rats with neonatal isolation stress experience.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T A; Miserendino, M J; Kehoe, P

    2000-09-01

    That stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine is well-documented in adult rats, but whether early life stress endures into adulthood to affect responsivity to cocaine is less clear. We now report that neonatal isolation stress (1 h per day isolation on postnatal days 2-9) enhances acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult rats. This effect was specific to cocaine and not due to learning or performance differences. Neither acquisition of operant responding for food nor locomotor activity differed between groups. These results have important implications for the role of early childhood stress in vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  5. Age-related Decline of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Young Drosophila melanogaster Adults.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Chertemps, Thomas; Boulogne, Isabelle; Siaussat, David

    2016-12-01

    Stress tolerance generally declines with age as a result of functional senescence. Age-dependent alteration of stress tolerance can also occur in early adult life. In Drosophila melanogaster, evidence of such a decline in young adults has only been reported for thermotolerance. It is not known whether early adult life entails a general stress tolerance reduction and whether the response is peculiar to thermal traits. The present work was designed to investigate whether newly eclosed D melanogaster adults present a high tolerance to a range of biotic and abiotic insults. We found that tolerance to most of the abiotic stressors tested (desiccation, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, deltamethrin, and malathion) was high in newly eclosed adults before dramatically declining over the next days of adult life. No clear age-related pattern was found for resistance to biotic stress (septic or fungal infection) and starvation. These results suggest that newly eclosed adults present a culminating level of tolerance to extrinsic stress which is likely unrelated to immune process. We argue that stress tolerance variation at very young age is likely a residual attribute from the previous life stage (ontogenetic carryover) or a feature related to the posteclosion development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Bahareh

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the level of posttraumatic stress disorder between adults with and without congenital heart disease, and to examine the correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., sociodemographics). Cross-sectional. Two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A sample of 347 adults with congenital heart disease aged 18-64 years (52% women), and 353 adults without congenital heart disease matched by sex and age (±2 years) was recruited. The PTSD Scale: Self-report version was used to assess the diagnosis and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among each group of participants. The posttraumatic stress disorder in the patients was comparable to those of the control group, except for increased arousal (P = .027) which was scored higher among the patients. Over 52% of adults with congenital heart disease met the criteria for a likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis compared with 48% of adults without congenital heart disease. The regression analyses among patients revealed that elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 1.27) and a positive history of cardiac surgery (OR = 2.02) were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The model could explain 29% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder. The high and comparable prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among patients and nonpatients highlight the significance of the context in which adults with congenital heart disease may face other/additional stressors than disease-related ones, an issue that clinicians need also take into account. Furthermore, the association of posttraumatic stress disorder with elevated depressive symptoms warrant a comprehensive psychological assessment and management of adults with congenital heart disease, in particular among those with a history of

  7. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  8. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Slavich, George M.

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals’ resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants’ recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals’ perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function. PMID:28114849

  9. Chronic Social Stress Affects Synaptic Maturation of Newly Generated Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic stress has been found to suppress adult neurogenesis, but it remains unclear whether it may affect the maturation process of adult-born neurons. Here, we examined the influence of chronic social defeat stress on the morphological and electrophysiological properties of adult-born dentate granule cells at different developmental stages. Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 10 days of chronic social defeat stress followed by a social interaction test 24 hours after the last defeat. Defeated mice were segregated into susceptible and unsusceptible subpopulations based on a measure of social interaction test. Combining electrophysiology with retrovirus-mediated birth-dating and labeling, we examined the impact of chronic social defeat stress on temporal regulation of synaptic plasticity of adult-born dentate granule cells along their maturation. Results: Chronic social defeat stress decreases the survival and dendritic complexity of adult-born dentate granule cells. While chronic social defeat stress doesn’t alter the intrinsic electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission of surviving adult-born dentate granule cells, it promotes the developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors from predominant GluN2B- to GluN2A-containing receptors, which transform the immature synapse of adult-born dentate granule cells from one that exhibits enhanced long-term potentiation to one that has normal levels of long-term potentiation. Furthermore, chronic social defeat stress increases the level of endogenous repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor mRNA in adult-born dentate granule cells, and knockdown of the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor in adult-born dentate granule cells rescues chronic social defeat stress-induced morphological deficits and accelerated developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit composition. Conclusions: These results uncover a previously

  10. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Schwieren, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.

  11. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  12. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood.

  13. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Boyle, Michael H.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  14. Does Expressive Writing Reduce Stress and Improve Health for Family Caregivers of Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health outcomes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical populations. Design and Methods: Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were randomly…

  15. Acculturative Stress, Perceived Discrimination, and Vulnerability to Suicide Attempts among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the…

  16. Second Language Acquisition, Culture Shock and Language Stress of Adult Latina Students in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…

  17. Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder among adults in flood district

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Flood is one of the most common and severe forms of natural disasters. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common disorder among victims of various disasters including flood. Early prediction for PTSD could benefit the prevention and treatment of PTSD. This study aimed to establish a prediction model for the occurrence of PTSD among adults in flood districts. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2000 among individuals who were affected by the 1998 floods in Hunan, China. Multi-stage sampling was used to select subjects from the flood-affected areas. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Study subjects were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 was used to establish the prediction model and group 2 was used to validate the model. We first used the logistic regression analysis to select predictive variables and then established a risk score predictive model. The validity of model was evaluated by using the model in group 2 and in all subjects. The area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction model. Results A total of 2336 (9.2%) subjects were diagnosed as probable PTSD-positive individuals among a total of 25,478 study subjects. Seven independent predictive factors (age, gender, education, type of flood, severity of flood, flood experience, and the mental status before flood) were identified as key variables in a risk score model. The area under the ROC curve for the model was 0.853 in the validation data. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of this risk score model were 84.0%, 72.2%, 23.4%, and 97.8%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 67.5 in the validation data. Conclusions A simple risk score model can be used to predict PTSD among victims of flood. PMID:20420677

  18. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diathesis-Stress and Depressed Mood among Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Benson, Betsey A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of diatheses, stress, and their interaction on depressed mood was evaluated to determine the appropriateness of cognitive diathesis-stress models of depression for adults with mental retardation. We also tested hopelessness as a mediator in the prediction of depressed mood to evaluate the hopelessness theory of depression. Seventy-three…

  20. Dealing with the Stress of College: A Model for Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler Giancola, Jennifer; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Borchert, Dana

    2009-01-01

    With an increase in nontraditional students attending college, there is a need to understand how work/school/life stress affects adult students. The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive stress model that posits appraisal (cognitive evaluation) and coping as mediators between stressors/interrole conflict and psychosocial outcomes. The…

  1. Stress in Parents of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Olympics Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Diamond, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Background: It is important to determine how programmes serving the individual with intellectual disability may also help to reduce stress in parents of adult children with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test whether parents who frequently watch their children at Special Olympics (SO) competitions report less stress than…

  2. Dealing with Stress. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 16. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on dealing with stress on the job and in daily life in the United States. Topics covered include the following: analyzing one's schedule and listing stressful times; applying four…

  3. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  4. Long-Term Effects of Leisure Education on Leisure Needs and Stress in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, I-Chan; Chang, Liang-Chih

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether a 12-week leisure education program could promote leisure autonomy and leisure competence and reduce stress in older adults. Forty subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Before the experiment, pretest data were collected using leisure autonomy, leisure competence, and stress scales.…

  5. An Investigation of Adult Attachment and Coping with Exam-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…

  6. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  7. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  8. An Investigation of Adult Attachment and Coping with Exam-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…

  9. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  10. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  11. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  12. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  13. Rise Time Perception and Detection of Syllable Stress in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Victoria; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perception of syllable stress has not been widely studied in developmental dyslexia, despite strong evidence for auditory rhythmic perceptual difficulties. Here we investigate the hypothesis that perception of sound rise time is related to the perception of syllable stress in adults with developmental dyslexia. Methods: A…

  14. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  15. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  16. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  17. Visual Stress in Adults with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris; Trotter, Susannah

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between dyslexia and visual stress (sometimes known as Meares-Irlen syndrome) is uncertain. While some theorists have hypothesised an aetiological link between the two conditions, mediated by the magnocellular visual system, at the present time the predominant theories of dyslexia and visual stress see them as distinct, unrelated…

  18. The Association Between Muslim Religiosity and Young Adult College Students' Depression, Anxiety, and Stress.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Mohammad; Ali, Akhtar; Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub

    2017-01-03

    Depression, anxiety, and stress are among major psychological disorders being predominant in present day. This study proposed to analyze the role of Muslim religiosity in male students showing these mental indications. A sample including 723 Pakistani young adults enrolled at college level was randomly chosen. Muslim Religiosity Measurement Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were utilized to gather information. Discoveries uncover an inverse relationship between conduct and affiliation with the symptoms of mental disorders, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results bolster the incorporation of religious dimensions in psychological wellness and mental well-being thought of young adults in Pakistan.

  19. Emerging adults' stress and health: the role of parent behaviors and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-02-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers' behaviors (via the Parental Bonding Instrument and Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), their cognitions (via the Stress Appraisal Measure, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Ruminative Response Scale-Abbreviated), and their stress/health outcomes (via the Perceived Stress Scale and Short-Form Health Survey). Results of this study suggested that emerging adults' cognitions partially mediated the relationship between their mothers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes and fully mediated the relationship between their fathers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes. Future research should examine parent behaviors as important distal variables in emerging adults' stress/health outcomes but should examine cognitions as more salient, immediate predictors of their stress/health outcomes.

  20. When we test, do we stress? Impact of the testing environment on cortisol secretion and memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2013-08-01

    The majority of studies find that older adults have worse memory performance than young adults. However, contextual features in the testing environment may be perceived as stressful by older adults, increasing their stress hormone levels. Given the evidence that older adults are highly sensitive to the effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on memory performance, it is postulated that a stressful testing environment in older adults can lead to an acute stress response and to memory impairments. The current study compared salivary cortisol levels and memory performance in young and older adults tested in environments manipulated to be stressful (unfavourable condition) or not stressful (favourable condition) for each age group. 28 young adults and 32 older adults were tested in two testing conditions: (1) a condition favouring young adults (constructed to be less stressful for young adults), and (2) a condition favouring older adults (constructed to be less stressful for older adults). The main outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Additionally, immediate and delayed memory performances were assessed during each condition. In older adults only, we found significantly high cortisol levels and low memory performance in the condition favouring young adults. In contrast, cortisol levels were lower and memory performance was better when older adults were tested in conditions favouring them. There was no effect of testing condition in young adults. The results demonstrate that older adults' memory performance is highly sensitive to the testing environment. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings in which older adults are tested for memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites.

  2. Thermal imprinting modifies adult stress and innate immune responsiveness in the teleost sea bream.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Ana Patrícia; Costa, Rita A; Cardoso, João C R; Andree, Karl B; Estévez, Alicia; Gisbert, Enric; Power, Deborah M

    2017-06-01

    The impact of thermal imprinting on the plasticity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and stress response in an adult ectotherm, the gilthead sea bream (Sparusaurata, L.), during its development was assessed. Fish were reared under 4 thermal regimes, and the resulting adults exposed to acute confinement stress and plasma cortisol levels and genes of the HPI axis were monitored. Changes in immune function, a common result of stress, were also evaluated using histomorphometric measurements of melanomacrophages centers (MMCs) in the head kidney and by monitoring macrophage-related transcripts. Thermal history significantly modified the HPI responsiveness in adult sea bream when eggs and larvae were reared at a higher than optimal temperature (HT, 22°C), and they had a reduced amplitude in their cortisol response and significantly upregulated pituitary pomc and head kidney star transcripts. Additionally, after an acute stress challenge, immune function was modified and the head kidney of adult fish reared during development at high temperatures (HT and LHT, 18-22°C) had a decreased number of MMCs and a significant downregulation of dopachrome tautomerase. Thermal imprinting during development influenced adult sea bream physiology and increased plasma levels of glucose and sodium even in the absence of an acute stress in fish reared under a high-low thermal regime (HLT, 22-18°C). Overall, the results demonstrate that temperature during early development influences the adult HPI axis and immune function in a teleost fish. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Perception of Life as Stressful, Not Biological Response to Stress, Is Associated with Greater Social Disability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…

  4. Perception of Life as Stressful, Not Biological Response to Stress, Is Associated with Greater Social Disability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…

  5. Altered coronary vascular control during cold stress in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaohui; Wilson, Thad E; Drew, Rachel C; Ettinger, Joshua; Monahan, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality increases in the cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Previously, we reported that determinants of myocardial O(2) demand, such as the rate-pressure product, increase more in older adults compared with young adults during cold stress. The aim of the present study was to determine if aging influences the coronary hemodynamic response to cold stress in humans. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used to noninvasively measure peak coronary blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery before and during acute (20 min) whole body cold stress in 10 young adults (25 ± 1 yr) and 11 older healthy adults (65 ± 2 yr). Coronary vascular resistance (diastolic blood pressure/peak coronary blood velocity), coronary perfusion time fraction (coronary perfusion time/R-R interval), and left ventricular wall stress were calculated. We found that cooling (via a water-perfused suit) increased left ventricular wall stress, a primary determinant of myocardial O(2) consumption, in both young and older adults, although the magnitude of this increase was nearly twofold greater in older adults (change of 9.1 ± 3.5% vs. 17.6 ± 3.2%, P < 0.05, change from baseline in young and older adults and young vs. older adults). Despite the increased myocardial O(2) demand during cooling, coronary vasodilation (decreased coronary vascular resistance) occurred only in young adults (3.22 ± 0.23 to 2.85 ± 0.18 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P < 0.05) and not older adults (3.97 ± 0.24 to 3.79 ± 0.27 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P > 0.05). Consistent with a blunted coronary vascular response, absolute coronary perfusion time tended to decrease (P = 0.13) and coronary perfusion time fraction decreased (P < 0.05) during cooling in older adults but not young adults. Collectively, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate an altered coronary hemodynamic response to acute cold stress.

  6. Perinatal programming of adult hippocampal structure and function; emerging roles of stress, nutrition and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Paul J; Naninck, Eva F G; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Fitzsimons, Carlos; Joels, Marian; Korosi, Aniko

    2013-11-01

    Early-life stress lastingly affects adult cognition and increases vulnerability to psychopathology, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this Opinion article, we propose that early nutritional input together with stress hormones and sensory stimuli from the mother during the perinatal period act synergistically to program the adult brain, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. We hypothesize that stress during gestation or lactation affects the intake of macro- and micronutrients, including dietary methyl donors, and/or impairs the dam's metabolism, thereby altering nutrient composition and intake by the offspring. In turn, this may persistently modulate gene expression via epigenetic programming, thus altering hippocampal structure and cognition. Understanding how the combination of stress, nutrition, and epigenetics shapes the adult brain is essential for effective therapies.

  7. The Relationship between Stress and Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and without Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n=38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n=37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized-controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than did healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571

  8. Age, stress, and isolation in older adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Webel, Allison R; Longenecker, Chris T; Gripshover, Barbara; Hanson, Jan E; Schmotzer, Brian J; Salata, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have increasingly longer life spans. This age group faces different challenges than younger PLWH, which may include increased stress and social isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the age and sex of PLWH are associated with measures of physiologic stress, perceived stress, and social isolation. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 102 PLWH equally into four groups divided by age (younger or older than 50 years) and gender. Participants completed well-validated survey measurements of stress and isolation, and their heart rate variability over 60 minutes was measured by Holter monitor. The mean (SD) Perceived Stress Scale score was 17.4 (6.94), mean Visual Analog Stress Scale score was 3.51 (2.79), and mean Hawthorne Friendship Scale score, a measure of social isolation, was 17.03 (4.84). Mean heart rate variability expressed as the SD of successive N-N intervals was 65.47 (31.16) msec. In multivariable regression models that controlled for selected demographic variables, there was no relationship between the Perceived Stress Scale and age (coefficient = -0.09, p =-0.23) or female gender (coefficient = -0.12, p = 0.93); however, there was a modest relationship between female gender and stress using the Visual Analog Stress Scale (coefficient = 1.24, p = 0.05). Perceived Stress was negatively associated with the Hawthorne Friendship score (coefficient = -0.34, p = 0.05). Hawthorne Friendship score was positively associated with younger age (coefficient = 0.11, p = 0.02). Age was the only independent predictor of physiologic stress as measured by heart rate variability (coefficient = -1.3, p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that younger PLWH may experience more social isolation; however, age-related changes in heart rate variability do not appear to be related to perceived stress or social isolation. Future longitudinal research is required to more thoroughly understand this relationship and its impact on the

  9. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locomotor behavior in a novel environment, and assessed depression-related behavior in the Porsolt Forced Swim test. We also measured the expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in limbic brain areas such as hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and amygdala in control and stressed drd3-EGFP mice in adulthood. Adult male mice subjected to restraint stress during preadolescence exhibited both anxiety- and depression-related behaviors; however, adult female mice subjected to preadolescent restraint stress exhibited only depression-related behaviors. The development of preadolescent stress-derived psychiatric disorders was blocked by D3 receptor selective antagonist, SB 277011-A, and absent in D3 receptor null mice. Adult male mice that experienced stress during preadolescence exhibited a loss of D3 receptor expression and function in the amygdala but not in hippocampus or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, adult female mice that experienced preadolescent stress exhibited increased D3 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in amygdala or hippocampus. Our results suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is centrally involved in the etiology of adult anxiety- and depression-related behaviors that arise from repeated stressful experiences during childhood. PMID:26619275

  10. Alcohol use Exacerbates Acculturative Stress Among Recently Immigrated, Young Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Melissa M; Dillon, Frank R; Martin, Jessica L; Babino, Rosa; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-04-19

    Associations between theorized sociocultural factors and acculturative stress were examined among Latina immigrants (aged 18-23 years) during their initial months in the US. Participants' quantity of alcohol use was hypothesized to be linked with more acculturative stress. Using respondent-driven sampling, 530 Latinas who recently immigrated to Miami-Dade County, Florida, were recruited from community activities, Latino health fairs, advertisements at community agencies, and online postings. A path analysis revealed associations between acculturative stress and more time in the US and greater commitment to ethnic identity. Marianismo gender role beliefs differentially related with acculturative stress. Quantity of alcohol use moderated the positive association between time in US and acculturative stress, such that women in the US for less time who drank more alcohol experienced higher levels of acculturative stress than their peers. Findings suggest quantity of alcohol use may exacerbate acculturative stress during some Latina young adult immigrants' initial months in the US.

  11. Career Readiness: A Potential Pathway through which Urban Youth Exposure to Stress Influences Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Tandon, S. Darius; Cheng, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research provides support for the detrimental effects of stress during childhood on future adult health, however, less is known about how stress disrupts normal developmental processes. This pathway may be particularly relevant for urban adolescents who are exposed to additional contextual stressors. This study will longitudinally explore how psychological stress from multiple domains influences urban adolescents' career readiness. Two hundred youth (ages 14-21) completed surveys assessing their school, family, neighborhood and health stress. Path analysis using a parallel process model found that school and neighborhood stress at 6 months were significantly associated with decreased career readiness at 15 months. Health stress at baseline was related to an increased report of career readiness at 15 months, which was moderated by parental closeness. These findings suggest that experiences of stress for urban youth negatively impact their planning for the future, particularly in the absence of supportive parental relationships. PMID:26937057

  12. Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis and Plasticity by (Early) Stress, Glucocorticoids, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lucassen, Paul J.; Oomen, Charlotte A.; Naninck, Eva F.G.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; van Dam, Anne-Marie; Czeh, Boldizsár; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to stress is one of the best-known negative regulators of adult neurogenesis (AN). We discuss changes in neurogenesis in relation to exposure to stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and inflammation, with a particular focus on early development and on lasting effects of stress. Although the effects of acute and mild stress on AN are generally brief and can be quickly overcome, chronic exposure or more severe forms of stress can induce longer lasting reductions in neurogenesis that can, however, in part, be overcome by subsequent exposure to exercise, drugs targeting the stress system, and some antidepressants. Exposure to stress, particularly during the sensitive period of early life, may (re)program brain plasticity, in particular, in the hippocampus. This may increase the risk to develop cognitive or anxiety symptoms, common to brain diseases like dementia and depression in which plasticity changes occur, and a normalization of neurogenesis may be required for a successful treatment response and recovery. PMID:26330520

  13. Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent skin disease that affects both children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the association of perceived stress (single-item, self-reported) with AD (self-reported) in a sample of Korean adults using a cross-sectional research design. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older collected in the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). An increased level of self-reported stress was positively associated with an increased prevalence of AD in Korean adults (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios (ORs) of AD among participants reporting high and very high levels of stress were 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.67) and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.42), respectively, compared with those who reported low levels of stress. This study found a statistically significant association between perceived stress and AD among Korean adults. PMID:27472355

  14. STRESS REGULATION AS A LINK BETWEEN EXECUTIVE FUNCTION AND PRE-FRAILTY IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Roiland, R.A.; Lin, F.; Phelan, C.; Chapman, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Both pre-frailty and frailty are linked with impaired executive function (EF) but the mechanism underlying this relationship is not known. Williams and colleagues’ model posits EF affects health outcomes via stress regulation. This model was utlized to test indicators of stress regulation as mediators of the relationship between EF and pre-frailty in older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Academic general clinical research centers. Participants 690 community-dwelling older adults ≥ 50 years of age. Measurements Pre-frailty was measured using a modified form of the Fried Frailty measure. EF was assessed via telephone-based neurocognitive assessments. Indicators of stress regulation included: stress exposure (measured by perceived stress), reactivity and recovery (measured by heart rate) and restoration (measured by serum interleukin-6 and sleep quality). Results 396 individuals were classified as non-frail, 277 as pre-frail, and 17 as frail. Pre-frail and non-frail individuals were included in data analyses. Compared to non-frail individuals, prefrail were older and exhibited poorer EF, higher levels of stress exposure and poorer stress restoration. Poorer EF was associated with greater stress exposure, less stress reactivity, longer stress recovery and poorer stress restoration. The total effect of the relationship between EF and pre-frailty was significant with significant indirect effects supporting stress exposure and restoration as mediators of the relationship. Conclusion Stress exposure and restoration appear to mediate the relationship between EF and pre-frailty. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality and determine whether stress regulation processes are appropriate targets for interventions aiming to prevent declines in EF and the development of pre-frailty. PMID:26412287

  15. Parenting Stress as a Mediator between Childhood ADHD and Early Adult Female Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Chanelle T.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the mediating role of parenting stress (both parental distress and stress due to dysfunctional interactions in the mother-daughter relationship [PSDI]) in the link between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status and several important young-adult outcomes. Methods The diverse sample comprised 140 girls with ADHD and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparisons, evaluated at ages 6–12 years and followed prospectively for 5 years (mean age = 14.2) and 10 years (mean age = 19.6). Results (a) The PSDI experienced by a mother during her daughter’s adolescence mediated the link between her daughter’s childhood ADHD status and adult externalizing and internalizing symptoms. (b) PSDI also mediated the link between ADHD status and young adult non-suicidal self-injury and had an indirect effect in the relation between childhood ADHD and young-adult depressive symptoms. (c) The mediating role of PSDI with respect to internalizing symptoms and depressive symptoms remained in place even when covarying adolescent internalizing/depressive symptoms. Conclusion Parenting stress, particularly related to maternal perceptions of dysfunctional interactions with adolescent daughters, serves as a key mediator in the association between childhood ADHD status and important domains of young-adult functioning. Minimizing parenting stress and dysfunctional mother-daughter interactions during adolescence might reduce the risk of adverse adult outcomes for girls with ADHD. PMID:26042524

  16. Reciprocal MicroRNA Expression in Mesocortical Circuit and Its Interplay with Serotonin Transporter Define Resilient Rats in the Chronic Mild Stress.

    PubMed

    Zurawek, Dariusz; Kusmider, Maciej; Faron-Gorecka, Agata; Gruca, Piotr; Pabian, Paulina; Solich, Joanna; Kolasa, Magdalena; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2016-09-22

    Prolonged stress perturbs physiological balance of a subject and thus can lead to depression. Nevertheless, some individuals are more resilient to stress than the others. Defining molecular factors underlying resilience to stress may contribute to the development of a new antidepressant strategy based on the restoration of resilient phenotype in depressed subjects. We used chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm-well-characterized animal model of depression which caused in rats behavioral deficits (anhedonia) manifested by decreased consumption of sucrose solution. CMS also generated a proportion of resilient rats which did not alter sucrose consumption despite being stressed. Recently, regulation of a gene expression associated with microRNA (miRNA) is considered as an important factor modulating biochemical response to stress. Based on our previous work and literature survey, we investigated changes in the expression level of seven miRNAs (i.e., miR-18a-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-135a-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-320-3p, miR-674-3p, miR-872-5p) in mesocortical circuit-crucially involved in stress response in order to find differences between susceptible and resilient phenotype. Bioinformatic analysis showed that all miRNAs of interest potentially target serotonin transporter (SERT). Chronic stress caused global increase in the expression of the abovementioned miRNAs in ventral tegmental area (VTA) of stressed rats followed by parallel decrease in miRNA expression in prefrontal cortex (PCx). This effect was more profound in resilient than anhedonic animals. Moreover, we observed decreased level of SERT in VTA of resilient rats. Our findings show that mesocortical circuit is involved in the response to stress and this phenomenon is more efficient in resilient animals.

  17. The Stress Gym: An Online Intervention to Improve Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Adults.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Julie F

    2015-01-01

    Finding methods to facilitate efficient assimilation of relevant health care information is important for quality outcomes, including promoting maximal wellness and optimal patient outcomes in vulnerable populations. The Internet is a promising information resource that can be used to reach those suffering from depression, but evidence of its efficacy in this population is lacking. This study was designed to examine The Stress Gym intervention, a web-enhanced behavioral self-management program (WEB-SM) consisting of nine modules focused on the management of stress and depression. The effect of the Stress Gym intervention on depressive symptoms, stress, and attention was examined, from pre- to post-intervention, in participants with stress and in participants who were experiencing both stress and depressive symptoms. A statistically significant decrease in depressive symptoms and stress was observed and there was a statistically significant increase in attention after the Stress Gym intervention, on average, for all participants. This study supports the efficacy of Stress Gym as a tool to reduce depressive symptoms, stress, and attentional difficulties. There were significant improvements in participants overall and for participants when they were segregated into two groups, those with stress only and those with depressive symptoms and stress. With many patients choosing to explore health concerns online, it is important to have evidence-based programs available online that can help them manage their symptoms.

  18. Perceived injustice predicts stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Molokie, Robert E; Wilkie, Diana J; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei

    2015-06-01

    Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. We examined the contribution of patients' perceived injustice regarding interactions with health care providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated comprehensive sickle cell clinic. Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ± 11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African American (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p < .001) and pain (p = .002). Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p < .001) and pain (p = .02). The procedural, distributive, and informational domains of perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients' perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients' pain. Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Psychosocial Stress and Change in Weight Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Block, Jason P.; He, Yulei; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ding, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with weight gain may have important implications for clinical practice and workplace and public health interventions. To determine whether multiple domains of psychosocial stress were associated with weight gain from 1995 to 2004, the authors analyzed a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of 1,355 men and women in the United States. Change in body mass index was assessed for multiple domains of psychosocial stress related to work, personal relationships, life constraints, and finances, controlling for other factors associated with weight gain. All analyses were stratified by sex and weighted to account for the complex survey design. Among men with high baseline body mass index, weight gain was associated with increasing levels of psychosocial stress related to job-related demands (P < 0.001 for interaction with baseline body mass index), lack of skill discretion (P = 0.014), lack of decision authority (P = 0.026), and difficulty paying bills (P = 0.004). Among women with high baseline body mass index, weight gain was associated with job-related demands (P < 0.001 for interaction with baseline body mass index), perceived constraints in life (P < 0.001), strain in relations with family (P = 0.016), and difficulty paying bills (P = 0.010). Interventions to address psychosocial stress may limit weight gain among overweight and obese men and women. PMID:19465744

  20. Acute consolidation stress enhances reality monitoring in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Smeets, T; Sijstermans, K; Gijsen, C; Peters, M; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H

    2008-05-01

    Source monitoring refers to cognitive processes involved in making attributions about the origins of memories, knowledge, and beliefs. One particular type of source monitoring with ample practical significance is reality monitoring, i.e., the ability to discriminate between internally vs. externally generated memories. Abundant evidence indicates that exposure to acute stress enhances declarative memory consolidation. To date, no study has looked at whether exposure to acute stress during the consolidation phase may promote reality monitoring performance. The authors examined this by administering cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure to participants (N = 80) after they had either performed or only imagined performing simple motor acts, and assessing reality monitoring 24 h later. When compared with the control condition, CPS significantly elevated salivary free cortisol concentrations and enhanced reality monitoring. Stress-induced cortisol responses, however, were found not to be related to improved reality monitoring performance. Our findings are consistent with the view that post-learning stress hormone-related activity may modulate source memory consolidation.

  1. Interplay between plasma hormone profiles, sex and body condition in immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) subjected to a capture stress protocol.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Tim S; Sumner, Joanna M; Limpus, Colin J; Whittier, Joan M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated plasma hormone profiles of corticosterone and testosterone in immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in response to a capture stress protocol. Further, we examined whether sex and body condition were covariates associated with variation in the adrenocortical response of immature turtles. Hawksbill turtles responded to the capture stress protocol by significantly increasing plasma levels of corticosterone over a 5 h period. There was no significant sex difference in the corticosterone stress response of immature turtles. Plasma testosterone profiles, while significantly different between the sexes, did not exhibit a significant change during the 5 h capture stress protocol. An index of body condition was not significantly associated with a turtle's capacity to produce plasma corticosterone both prior to and during exposure to the capture stress protocol. In summary, while immature hawksbill turtles exhibited an adrenocortical response to a capture stress protocol, neither their sex nor body condition was responsible for variation in endocrine responses. This lack of interaction between the adrenocortical response and these internal factors suggests that the inactive reproductive- and the current energetic- status of these immature turtles are important factors that could influence plasma hormone profiles during stress.

  2. Two Prospective Studies of Changes in Stress Generation across Depressive Episodes in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. Participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mother’s history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6 through 12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with ≤ 2 prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with ≥ 3 prior MDEs. In Study 2, participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were re-assessed for depression and stress approximately eight months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multi-factorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

  3. Tissue adaptations to gravitational stress - Newborn versus adult giraffes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R; Gershuni, David H.; Danzig, Larry A.; Millard, Ronald W.; Pettersson, Knut

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results on developmental alterations in load-bearing tissues of newborn and adult giraffes are presented. Attention is focused on vascular wall thickness in relation to local blood pressure, and on meniscal adaptations to increased load bearing in the developing giraffe. It is believed that the developing giraffe provides an excellent model for investigations of adaptive mechanisms of increased weight bearing.

  4. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  5. Are adult life history traits in oriental fruit moth affected by a mild pupal heat stress?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jincheng; Cheng, Xiongbin; Hoffmann, Ary A; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2017-10-01

    Thermal stress at one life stage can affect fitness at a later stage in ectotherms with complex life cycles. Most relevant studies have focused on extreme stress levels, but here we also show substantial fitness effects in a moth when pupae are exposed to a relatively mild and sublethal heat stress. We consider the impact of a 35°C heat stress of 2h in three geographically separate populations of the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) from northern, middle and southern China. Heat stress negatively affected fecundity but increased adult heat resistance and adult longevity. Fitness effects were mostly consistent across populations but there were also some population differences. In the Shenyang population from northern China, there was a hormetic effect of heat on female longevity not evident in the other populations. Adults from all populations had higher LT50s due to heat stress after pupal exposure to the sublethal stress. These results highlight that the pupal stage is a particularly sensitive window for development and they have implications for seasonal adaptation in uncertain environments as well as changes in pest dynamics under climate warming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress Eating and Health: Findings from MIDUS, a National Study of U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tsenkova, Vera; Boylan, Jenifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its related chronic diseases has provoked interest in the predictors of eating behavior. Eating in response to stress has been extensively examined, but currently unclear is whether stress eating is associated with obesity and morbidity. We tested whether self-reported stress eating was associated with worse glucose metabolism among nondiabetic adults as well as with increased odds of prediabetes and diabetes. Further, we investigated whether these relationships were mediated by central fat distribution. Participants were 1138 adults (937 without diabetes) in the Midlife in the U.S. study (MIDUS II). Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMAIR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), prediabetes, and diabetes status. Multivariate-adjusted analyses showed that stress eating was associated with significantly higher nondiabetic levels of glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and HbA1c as well as higher odds of prediabetes or diabetes. Relationships between stress eating and all outcomes were no longer statistically significant once waist circumference was added to the models, suggesting that it mediates such relationships. Findings add to the growing literature on the relationships among psychosocial factors, obesity, and chronic disease by documenting associations between stress eating and objectively measured health outcomes in a national sample of adults. The findings have important implications for interventive targets related to obesity and chronic disease, namely, strategies to modify the tendency to use food as a coping response to stress. PMID:23747576

  7. Stress eating and health. Findings from MIDUS, a national study of US adults.

    PubMed

    Tsenkova, Vera; Boylan, Jenifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its related chronic diseases has provoked interest in the predictors of eating behavior. Eating in response to stress has been extensively examined, but currently unclear is whether stress eating is associated with obesity and morbidity. We tested whether self-reported stress eating was associated with worse glucose metabolism among nondiabetic adults as well as with increased odds of prediabetes and diabetes. Further, we investigated whether these relationships were mediated by central fat distribution. Participants were 1138 adults (937 without diabetes) in the Midlife in the US study (MIDUS II). Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMAIR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), prediabetes, and diabetes status. Multivariate-adjusted analyses showed that stress eating was associated with significantly higher nondiabetic levels of glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and HbA1c as well as higher odds of prediabetes or diabetes. Relationships between stress eating and all outcomes were no longer statistically significant once waist circumference was added to the models, suggesting that it mediates such relationships. Findings add to the growing literature on the relationships among psychosocial factors, obesity, and chronic disease by documenting associations between stress eating and objectively measured health outcomes in a national sample of adults. The findings have important implications for interventive targets related to obesity and chronic disease, namely, strategies to modify the tendency to use food as a coping response to stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OXIDATIVE STRESS CONTRIBUTES TO SEX DIFFERENCES IN BLOOD PRESSURE IN ADULT GROWTH RESTRICTED OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Norma B.; Hennington, Bettye Sue; Williamson, Danielle T.; Hill, Melanie L.; Betson, Nicole E.E.; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.; Royals, Thomas P.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension and importantly, that oxidative stress plays a more definitive role in mediating hypertension in males than in females. Intrauterine growth-restriction induced by reduced uterine perfusion initiated at day 14 of gestation in the rat programs hypertension in adult male growth-restricted offspring; yet, female growth-restricted offspring are normotensive. The mechanisms mediating sex differences in blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring are not clear. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that sex specific differences in renal oxidative stress contribute to the regulation of blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring. A significant increase in blood pressure measured by telemetry in male growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05) was associated with a marked increase in renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with the antioxidant tempol had no effect on blood pressure in male control offspring, but it normalized blood pressure (P<0.05) and renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05) in male growth-restricted relative to male control. Renal markers of oxidative stress were not elevated in female growth-restricted offspring; however, renal activity of the antioxidant catalase was significantly elevated relative to female control (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with tempol did not significantly alter oxidative stress or blood pressure measured by telemetry in female offspring. Thus, these data suggest that sex differences in renal oxidative stress and antioxidant activity are present in adult growth-restricted offspring, and that oxidative stress may play a more important role in modulating blood pressure in male, but not female growth-restricted offspring. PMID:22585945

  9. The role of cortisol reactivity in children's and adults' memory of a prior stressful experience.

    PubMed

    Quas, Jodi A; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Cahill, Larry; Rush, Elizabeth B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether cortisol reactivity to a stressful laboratory event was related to children's memory of that event and to determine whether this relation was comparable to that observed in adults. Nine- to 12-year-olds and young adults completed an impromptu speech and math task during which repeated cortisol samples and self-reported stress ratings were collected. Two weeks later, participants' memory for the tasks was examined. Greater cortisol reactivity was associated with enhanced memory, most prominently in children. Self-reported stress was unrelated to memory. Findings reveal that an important mechanism underlying the association between emotion and memory in adults, namely activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, appears to operate similarly in late childhood. Findings also demonstrate that positive associations between cortisol reactivity and memory are evident when the event that actually elicited that reactivity serves as the to-be-remembered event.

  10. The Interplay of In Situ Stress Ratio and Transverse Isotropy in the Rock Mass on Prestressed Concrete-Lined Pressure Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, T. D. Y. F.; Marence, M.; Schleiss, A. J.; Mynett, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of passively prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels embedded in elastic transversely isotropic rocks subjected to non-uniform in situ stresses. Two cases are distinguished based on whether the in situ vertical stress in the rock mass is higher, or lower than the in situ horizontal stress. A two-dimensional finite element model was used to study the influence of dip angle, α, and horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio, k, on the bearing capacity of prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels. The study reveals that the in situ stress ratio and the orientation of stratifications in the rock mass significantly affect the load sharing between the rock mass and the lining. The distribution of stresses and deformations as a result of tunnel construction processes exhibits a symmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with either horizontal or vertical stratification planes, whereas it demonstrates an unsymmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with inclined stratification planes. The results obtained for a specific value α with coefficient k are identical to that for α + 90° with coefficient 1/ k by rotating the tunnel axis by 90°. The maximum internal water pressure was determined by offsetting the prestress-induced hoop strains at the final lining intrados against the seepage-induced hoop strains. As well as assessing the internal water pressure, this approach is capable of identifying potential locations where longitudinal cracks may occur in the final lining.

  11. Exploring stress-induced cognitive impairment in middle aged, centrally obese adults.

    PubMed

    Lasikiewicz, N; Hendrickx, H; Talbot, D; Dye, L

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that psychosocial stress can induce cognitive impairment. However, few studies have explored impairment following acute stress exposure in individuals with central obesity. Central obesity co-occurs with glucocorticoid excess and can lead to elevated cortisol responses to stress. It is not clear whether centrally obese individuals exhibit greater cognitive impairment following acute stress. Cortisol responses to stress versus no-stress control were compared in 66 high- and low waist to hip ratio (WHR) middle-aged adults (mean age of 46 ± 7.17 years). Cognitive performance post exposure was assessed using Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery. It was hypothesised that high WHR would exhibit greater cortisol in response to stress exposure and would show poorer cognitive performance. Males, particularly of high WHR, tended to secrete greater cortisol during stress exposure. Exposure to stress and increasing WHR were specifically associated with poorer performance on declarative memory tasks (spatial recognition memory and paired associates learning). These data tentatively suggest a reduction in cognitive performance in those with central obesity following exposure to acute stress. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of stress on cognition in this population.

  12. Exposure to stressors and trajectories of perceived stress among older adults.

    PubMed

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Lynch, Scott M; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2015-03-01

    Models of stress incorporate both the environmental demands experienced by individuals (stressors) and the appraisal of these life events (perceptions). Because little is known about the extent to which experience and perceptions are related, we examine this relationship in a nationally representative population of older Taiwanese adults. Using growth models applied to data from 3 waves (1999, 2003, and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging, we (a) investigate patterns of change in perceived stress in later adulthood and (b) examine how experienced stressors influence perceived stress. Participants were asked to report the presence of, and in some cases the degree of, exposure to stressors including total number of medical conditions, difficulty with activities of daily living, difficulty with mobility functions, being financially worse off compared with the prior wave, experiencing the death of a child, and experiencing a marital disruption. Items reflecting perceived stress included concerns about various domains pertaining to the respondent and his/her family member. Our results indicate that exposure to stressors increases, whereas perceived stress decreases, over time. Change in exposure to stressors is not generally associated with change in perceptions of stress, with the exception of a summary measure of health-related exposure to stressors. An increase in poor health over time is related to an increase in perceived stress in all domains. The results underscore the importance of distinguishing between perceptions of stress and exposure to stressors when studying the links between stress and health among older adults. Furthermore, the diminishing linkage between experienced stressors and perceptions of stress suggests that older adults' appraisal may be an adaptive coping strategy that emerges to buffer some of the difficulties that are inevitable in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The

  13. Depression in Adults With Mild Intellectual Disability: Role of Stress, Attributions, and Coping

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The experience of stressful social interactions, negative causal attributions, and the use of maladaptive coping efforts help maintain depression over time in the general population. We investigated whether a similar experience occurs among adults with mild intellectual disability. We compared the frequency and stress impact of such interactions, identified causal attributions for these interactions, and determined the coping strategies of 47 depressed and 47 nondepressed adults with mild intellectual disability matched on subject characteristics. The depressed group reported a higher frequency and stress impact of stressful social interactions, more negative attribution style, and more avoidant and less active coping strategies did than the nondepressed group. Findings have implications for theory building and development of psychotherapies to treat depression. PMID:19374469

  14. Appeasing pheromone inhibits cortisol augmentation and agonistic behaviors during social stress in adult miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Koori, Miyuki; Kikusui, Takefumi; Mori, Yuji

    2009-11-01

    Pairing and physical confrontation In adult sows causes social stress reactions and aggressive behaviors. Recently, maternal pig skin secretions were Isolated and a mixture containing several fatty acids, now called pig appeasing pheromone (PAP), was synthesized. In this study, we Investigated the effects of PAP on social and Immune stress response In adult female miniature pigs. PAP or vehicle solvents were sprayed Into the pens of Individually housed adult sows. A two-week exposure to the pheromone did not alter basal salivary Cortisol levels or clrcadlan rhythms. Following this treatment, the animals were paired and placed In a new pen that was divided with a wire-mesh fence. Although salivary cortisol Increased markedly In the vehicle-treated group, the PAP-treated group exhibited a drastic Inhibition of cortisol secretion. This effect was sustained even after they were allowed to physically Interact following fence removal. Moreover, the latency time of agonistic behaviors, such as escaping or biting, was significantly extended after PAP exposure. When lipopolysaccharide was Injected Intramuscularly, Cortisol levels, rectal temperatures, and lying time lengths Increased substantially. No differences were observed between the pheromone-treated and untreated groups. These results suggest that this synthetic pheromone alleviates social stress In adult pigs, although It does not affect Immune stress responses. Our findings demonstrate the potential benefit of this pheromone In field applications and clinical disciplines relating to adult female pigs.

  15. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-07-31

    Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities, completed the questionnaire survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior. Bayesian network was further adopted to probe their probabilistic relationships. Of the 5972 students, 7.64% reported the presence of suicidal behavior (attempt or ideation) within the past one year period. Stressful life events such as strong conflicts with classmates and a failure in study exam constituted strong risk factors for suicidal behavior. The influence of coping skills varied according to the strategies adapted toward problems with a high score of approach coping skills significantly associated with a reduced risk of suicidal behavior. The Bayesian network indicated that the probability of suicidal behavior associated with specific life events was to a large extent conditional on coping skills. For instance, a stressful experience of having strong conflicts with classmates could result in a probability of suicidal behavior of 21.25% and 15.36% respectively, for female and male students with the score of approach coping skills under the average. Stressful life events and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal behavior among youth students. The results underscore the importance of prevention efforts to improve coping skills towards stressful life events.

  16. The relationship between perceived stress and morbidity among adult inner-city asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Wisnivesky, Juan P; Lorenzo, Jessica; Feldman, Jonathan M; Leventhal, Howard; Halm, Ethan A

    2010-02-01

    Background. Psychological stress has been linked in some studies to asthma prevalence and outcomes in children. The authors sought to evaluate the relationship between perceived stress and morbidity among inner-city adults with asthma. Methods. The authors interviewed a prospective cohort of 326 moderate-to-severe asthmatics receiving care at two large, urban, hospital-based general medicine clinics in New York City and New Jersey. Psychological stress was assessed at baseline using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), a validated 4-item instrument. Outcomes included the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), and the Medication Adherence Reporting Scale (MARS) measured at baseline, 1, 3, and 12 months of enrollment. Results. Higher perceived stress was significantly correlated with worse asthma control (ACQ scores; r = .30 to .37, p < .0001), poor quality of life (AQLQ scores; r = -.49 to - .35, p < .0001), and decreased medication adherence (MARS scores; r = -.25 to -.15, p < .028) at baseline and across the follow-up interviews. In multivariate analyses, increased stress remained a significant predictor of worse ACQ (p < .0001), AQLQ scores (p < .0001), and MARS (p < .0001) after adjusting for age, sex, income, number of years with asthma, and comorbidities. Conclusions. Among inner-city asthmatics, higher perceived stress is strongly associated with increased asthma morbidity across a 1-year follow-up. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms mediating the association between stress and asthma morbidity in adults.

  17. Interplay of demographic variables, birth experience, and initial reactions in the prediction of symptoms of posttraumatic stress one year after giving birth

    PubMed Central

    König, Julia; Schmid, Sabine; Löser, Eva; Neumann, Olaf; Buchholz, Stefan; Kästner, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been increasing research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth in the last two decades. The literature on predictors of who develops posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) suggests that both vulnerability and birth factors have an influence, but many studies measure predictors and outcomes simultaneously. Objective In this context, we aimed to examine indirect and direct effects of predictors of PSS, which were measured longitudinally. Method We assessed women within the first days (n=353), 6 weeks, and 12 months (n=183) after having given birth to a healthy infant. The first assessment included questions on demographics, pregnancy, and birth experience. The second and third assessments contained screenings for postpartum depression, PTSD, and general mental health problems, as well as assessing social support and physical well-being. We analysed our data using structural equation modelling techniques (n=277). Results Our final model showed good fit and was consistent with a diathesis-stress model of PSS. Women who had used antidepressant medication in the 10 years before childbirth had higher PSS at 6 weeks, independent of birth experiences. Subjective birth experience was the early predictor with the highest total effect on later PSS. Interestingly, a probable migration background also had a small but significant effect on PSS via more episiotomies. The null results for social support may have been caused by a ceiling effect. Conclusions Given that we measured predictors at different time points, our results lend important support to the etiological model, namely, that there is a vulnerability pathway and a stress pathway leading to PSS. PSS and other psychological measures stayed very stable between 6 weeks and 1 year postpartum, indicating that it is possible to identify women developing problems early. Highlights of the article Our results are consistent with a diathesis-stress model: vulnerability (antidepressant use

  18. Interplay of demographic variables, birth experience, and initial reactions in the prediction of symptoms of posttraumatic stress one year after giving birth.

    PubMed

    König, Julia; Schmid, Sabine; Löser, Eva; Neumann, Olaf; Buchholz, Stefan; Kästner, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth in the last two decades. The literature on predictors of who develops posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) suggests that both vulnerability and birth factors have an influence, but many studies measure predictors and outcomes simultaneously. In this context, we aimed to examine indirect and direct effects of predictors of PSS, which were measured longitudinally. We assessed women within the first days (n=353), 6 weeks, and 12 months (n=183) after having given birth to a healthy infant. The first assessment included questions on demographics, pregnancy, and birth experience. The second and third assessments contained screenings for postpartum depression, PTSD, and general mental health problems, as well as assessing social support and physical well-being. We analysed our data using structural equation modelling techniques (n=277). Our final model showed good fit and was consistent with a diathesis-stress model of PSS. Women who had used antidepressant medication in the 10 years before childbirth had higher PSS at 6 weeks, independent of birth experiences. Subjective birth experience was the early predictor with the highest total effect on later PSS. Interestingly, a probable migration background also had a small but significant effect on PSS via more episiotomies. The null results for social support may have been caused by a ceiling effect. Given that we measured predictors at different time points, our results lend important support to the etiological model, namely, that there is a vulnerability pathway and a stress pathway leading to PSS. PSS and other psychological measures stayed very stable between 6 weeks and 1 year postpartum, indicating that it is possible to identify women developing problems early. Our results are consistent with a diathesis-stress model: vulnerability (antidepressant use in the previous 10 years) influenced posttraumatic stress symptoms at 6

  19. Larval nutritional stress affects vector immune traits in adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    PubMed

    Telang, A; Qayum, A A; Parker, A; Sacchetta, B R; Byrnes, G R

    2012-09-01

    We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chong, Cecilia S M; Tsunaka, Megumi; Tsang, Hector W H; Chan, Edward P; Cheung, Wai Ming

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a systematic review and critical appraisal of the effect of yoga on stress management in healthy adults. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) that assessed the effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults. Selected studies were classified according to the types of intervention, duration, outcome measures, and results. They were also qualitatively assessed based on Public Health Research, Education and Development standards. The systematic review was based on eight RCTs and CCTs that indicated a positive effect of yoga in reducing stress levels or stress symptoms. However, most of the studies had methodological problems in that the intervention duration was short and limited follow-up data was available. This review revealed positive effects of yoga on stress reduction in healthy adult populations. However, the result should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the associated methodological problems. Further studies to ascertain yoga's long-term effects and the underlying biological mechanisms leading to its stress reduction effect should be conducted.

  1. Stress and coping among children of alcoholic parents through the young adult transition.

    PubMed

    Hussong, Andrea M; Chassin, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    The transition to young adulthood is both a time when risky health behaviors such as substance misuse peak and a time of opportunity for growth and development through the acquisition of adult roles. In this transition, coping styles include responses to the stressors and opportunities associated with the emergence of adulthood. The extent to which such coping styles are skillfully employed in part determines adjustment into adulthood. The current study used a high-risk, longitudinal design to examine the development of coping styles over adolescence, continuity in these coping styles from adolescence to adulthood, the impact of coping on adult stress and substance misuse, the ability of coping to buffer effects of stress on substance use, and differences in coping between at-risk youth (i.e., children of alcoholics [COAs]) and their peers. A sample of 340 adolescents completed four assessments over ages 11-23. We used latent trajectory models to examine interindividual and intraindividual change in coping over time. Evidence for both change and continuity in the development of coping from adolescence to adulthood was found, although adolescent coping had limited impact on stress and substance use in adulthood. Support was also found for complex stress-buffering and stress-exacerbating effects of coping on the relations between major life events and adult drug use and between stress associated with the new roles of adulthood and heavy alcohol use. Implications of these findings for development and adjustment in the transition to adulthood are discussed.

  2. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Whyne, Erum

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e. SF36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elders Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Results: Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with higher levels of trait mindfulness. Conclusions: The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on mental health. PMID:24940847

  3. Known players, new interplay in atherogenesis: Chronic shear stress and carbamylated-LDL induce and modulate expression of atherogenic LR11 in human coronary artery endothelium.

    PubMed

    Bajari, Tarek M; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Gensberger, Eva-Theres; Scharrer, Susanna I; Regele, Heinz; Aumayr, Klaus; Kopecky, Chantal; Gmeiner, Bernhard M; Hermann, Marcela; Zeillinger, Robert; Sengölge, Gürkan

    2014-02-01

    In this study we examined whether low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family members represent a link between blood flow characteristics and modified low-density lipoproteins involved in endothelial injury, a pivotal factor in atherogenesis. We demonstrated the expression of pro-atherogenic LDL receptor relative (LR11) for the first time in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) in vitro and in vivo. Next, LR11 expression and regulation were explored in HCAEC cultured conventionally or on the inner surface of hollow fiber capillaries under exposure to shear stress for 10 days in the presence or absence of LDL. There was no LR11 expression under static conditions. When exposed to chronic low shear stress (2.5 dynes/cm²) transmembrane and soluble endothelial-LR11 were detected in high levels irrespective of the type of LDL added (carbamylated or native). In contrast, chronic high shear stress (25 dynes/cm²) inhibited the LR11-inducing effect of LDL such that transmembrane and soluble LR11 expression became non-detectable with native LDL. Carbamylated LDL significantly counteracted this atheroprotective effect of high shear stress as shown by lower, yet sustained expression of soluble and transmembrane LR11. Oxidised LDL showed similar effects compared to carbamylated LDL but caused significantly lower LR11 expression under chronic high shear stress. Medium from HCAEC under LR11-inducing conditions enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell migration, which was abrogated by the anti-LR11 antibody. Expression of LR11 depended entirely on p38MAPK phosphorylation. We conclude that coronary endothelial LR11 expression modulated by LDL and chronic shear stress contributes to atherogenesis. LR11 and p38MAPK are potential targets for prevention of atherosclerosis.

  4. Cognitive and perceptual responses during passive heat stress in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy; Rivas, Eric; Cullum, C. Munro

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that attention, memory, and executive function are impaired to a greater extent in passively heat-stressed older adults than in passively heat-stressed younger adults. In a randomized, crossover design, 15 older (age: 69 ± 5 yr) and 14 younger (age: 30 ± 4 yr) healthy subjects underwent passive heat stress and time control trials. Cognitive tests (outcomes: accuracy and reaction time) from the CANTAB battery evaluated attention [rapid visual processing (RVP), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory [spatial span (SSP), pattern recognition memory (PRM)], and executive function [one touch stockings of Cambridge (OTS)]. Testing was undertaken on two occasions during each trial, at baseline and after internal temperature had increased by 1.0 ± 0.2°C or after a time control period. For tests that measured attention, reaction time during RVP and CRT was slower (P ≤ 0.01) in the older group. During heat stress, RVP reaction time improved (P < 0.01) in both groups. Heat stress had no effect (P ≥ 0.09) on RVP or CRT accuracy in either group. For tests that measured memory, accuracy on SSP and PRM was lower (P < 0.01) in the older group, but there was no effect of heat stress (P ≥ 0.14). For tests that measured executive function, overall, accuracy on OTS was lower, and reaction time was slower in the older group (P ≤ 0.05). Reaction time generally improved during heat stress, but there was no effect of heat stress on accuracy in either group. These data indicate that moderate increases in body temperature during passive heat stress do not differentially compromise cognitive function in younger and older adults. PMID:25786484

  5. Cognitive and perceptual responses during passive heat stress in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy; Rivas, Eric; Cullum, C Munro; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-05-15

    We tested the hypothesis that attention, memory, and executive function are impaired to a greater extent in passively heat-stressed older adults than in passively heat-stressed younger adults. In a randomized, crossover design, 15 older (age: 69 ± 5 yr) and 14 younger (age: 30 ± 4 yr) healthy subjects underwent passive heat stress and time control trials. Cognitive tests (outcomes: accuracy and reaction time) from the CANTAB battery evaluated attention [rapid visual processing (RVP), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory [spatial span (SSP), pattern recognition memory (PRM)], and executive function [one touch stockings of Cambridge (OTS)]. Testing was undertaken on two occasions during each trial, at baseline and after internal temperature had increased by 1.0 ± 0.2°C or after a time control period. For tests that measured attention, reaction time during RVP and CRT was slower (P ≤ 0.01) in the older group. During heat stress, RVP reaction time improved (P < 0.01) in both groups. Heat stress had no effect (P ≥ 0.09) on RVP or CRT accuracy in either group. For tests that measured memory, accuracy on SSP and PRM was lower (P < 0.01) in the older group, but there was no effect of heat stress (P ≥ 0.14). For tests that measured executive function, overall, accuracy on OTS was lower, and reaction time was slower in the older group (P ≤ 0.05). Reaction time generally improved during heat stress, but there was no effect of heat stress on accuracy in either group. These data indicate that moderate increases in body temperature during passive heat stress do not differentially compromise cognitive function in younger and older adults. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of juvenile stress combined with adult immobilization in male rats.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Silvia; Carrasco, Javier; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence increases vulnerability to developing several psychopathologies in adulthood and alters the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypical stress system. Rodent models of juvenile stress appear to support this hypothesis because juvenile stress can result in reduced activity/exploration and enhanced anxiety, although results are not always consistent. Moreover, an in-depth characterization of changes in the HPA axis is lacking. In the present study, the long-lasting effects of juvenile stress on adult behavior and HPA function were evaluated in male rats. The juvenile stress consisted of a combination of stressors (cat odor, forced swim and footshock) during postnatal days 23-28. Juvenile stress reduced the maximum amplitude of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (reduced peak at lights off), without affecting the circadian corticosterone rhythm, but other aspects of the HPA function (negative glucocorticoid feedback, responsiveness to further stressors and brain gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosteroid receptors) remained unaltered. The behavioral effects of juvenile stress itself at adulthood were modest (decreased activity in the circular corridor) with no evidence of enhanced anxiety. Imposition of an acute severe stressor (immobilization on boards, IMO) did not increase anxiety in control animals, as evaluated one week later in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), but it potentiated the acoustic startle response (ASR). However, acute IMO did enhance anxiety in the EPM, in juvenile stressed rats, thereby suggesting that juvenile stress sensitizes rats to the effects of additional stressors.

  7. The Mediating Role of Socio-Motivational Relationships in the Interplay of Perceived Stress, Neuroticism, and Test Anxiety among Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether socio-motivational relationships, such as student-student relationships (SSR) and teacher-student relationships (TSR), as well as peers as positive motivators (PPM) and teachers as positive motivators (TPM), would mediate the association of both perceived stress and neuroticism with test anxiety in 1,088 German…

  8. The Mediating Role of Socio-Motivational Relationships in the Interplay of Perceived Stress, Neuroticism, and Test Anxiety among Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether socio-motivational relationships, such as student-student relationships (SSR) and teacher-student relationships (TSR), as well as peers as positive motivators (PPM) and teachers as positive motivators (TPM), would mediate the association of both perceived stress and neuroticism with test anxiety in 1,088 German…

  9. Assessing the Perceived Stress Scale for African American adults with asthma and low literacy.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Lisa K; Kimmel, Linda G; Kee, Romina; Saltoun, Carol; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2007-05-01

    The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a widely used measure of stress that has not been validated in asthma patients. The psychometric properties of the PSS were explored using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. Study 1 involved 312 ambulatory care patients with asthma who completed the PSS during a routine visit. Study 2 involved 247 community-dwelling adults with asthma who completed the PSS as a part of a larger asthma study. Four items showed acceptable psychometric performance across ethnic groups and literacy. The short PSS is a rapid, valid measure of subjective stress in diverse asthma populations.

  10. Exogenous prenatal corticosterone exposure mimics the effects of prenatal stress on adult brain stress response systems and fear extinction behavior.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Brian C; Sheela Rani, C S; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PNS) in rats results in long-term, stable changes in central stress-response systems and impairs the ability to extinguish conditioned fear responding, a component of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maternal corticosterone (CORT), released during prenatal stress, is a possible mediator of these effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether fetal exposure to CORT at levels induced by PNS is sufficient to alter the development of adult stress neurobiology and fear extinction behavior. Pregnant dams were subject to either PNS (60 min immobilization/day from ED 14-21) or a daily injection of CORT (10mg/kg), which approximated both fetal and maternal plasma CORT levels elicited during PNS. Control dams were given injections of oil vehicle. Male offspring were allowed to grow to adulthood undisturbed, at which point they were sacrificed and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, hypothalamus, and a section of the rostral pons containing the locus coeruleus (LC) were dissected. PNS and prenatal CORT treatment decreased glucocorticoid receptor protein levels in the mPFC, hippocampus, and hypothalamus when compared to control offspring. Both treatments also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the LC. Finally, the effect of prenatal CORT exposure on fear extinction behavior was examined following chronic stress. Prenatal CORT impaired both acquisition and recall of cue-conditioned fear extinction. This effect was additive to the impairment induced by previous chronic stress. Thus, these data suggest that fetal exposure to high levels of maternal CORT is responsible for many of the lasting neurobiological consequences of PNS as they relate to the processes underlying extinction of learned fear. The data further suggest that adverse prenatal environments constitute a

  11. Patterns of Perinatal Depression and Stress in Late Adolescent and Young Adult Mothers.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar; Goyal, Deepika; Burke-Aaronson, Amanda C; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A

    2017-09-06

    To compare symptoms of depression, maternal adjustment, and perceived stress in late adolescent and young adult mothers and to examine the patterns of these symptoms during the first 3 months after birth. Secondary analysis of extant longitudinal data. San Francisco Bay Area, with participants in their home environments. Ethnically diverse women expecting their first infants recruited during the third trimester from childbirth education classes and antenatal clinics. The final sample included 34 participants in the late adolescent group (18-20 years) and 48 participants in the young adult group (21-24 years). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to assess depression symptoms, the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale was used to assess maternal adjustment, and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes over time in depression, maternal adjustment, and perceived stress scores. Compared with young adult participants, late adolescent participants had greater mean depression scores (F(1, 61) = 8.02, p = .006) and perceived stress scores (F(1, 62) = 9.45, p = .003) at all time points. Scores for maternal adjustment could not be compared because of the low internal validity of the instrument. Our results indicated that late adolescent mothers may have more symptoms of depression and stress in late pregnancy and the early postpartum period than young adult mothers. Clinicians in maternity and pediatric settings should be vigilant in screening for depression and stress in this vulnerable population during their transitions to motherhood. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adult Mental Health: Evidence for Gene-Environment Interplay as a Function of Maternal and Paternal Discipline and Affection.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Jarnecke, Amber M

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have long theorized that genetic influence on mental health may differ as a function of environmental risk factors. One likely moderator of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathological symptoms is parenting behavior, as phenotypic research shows that negative aspects of parent-child relationships are associated with greater likelihood of mental illness in adulthood. The current study examined whether levels of reported parental discipline and affection experienced in childhood act as a trigger, or buffer, for adult mental health problems. Results from a nationwide twin sample suggest level of father's discipline and affection, as reported by now-adult twins, moderated genetic and environmental influences on internalizing symptoms in adulthood, such that heritability was greatest at the highest levels of discipline and affection. Father's affection also moderated the etiological influences on alcohol use problems, with greater heritability at the lowest levels of affection. No moderating effect was found for mothers. Findings suggest relationships with fathers in childhood can have long-lasting effects on the etiological influences on adult mental health outcomes.

  13. The influence of childhood abuse, adult stressful life events and temperaments on depressive symptoms in the nonclinical general adult population.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yukiei; Inoue, Takeshi; Toda, Hiroyuki; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Nakato, Yasuya; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Kameyama, Rie; Hayashishita, Yoshiyuki; Wakatsuki, Yumi; Oba, Koji; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the interaction between heredity and childhood stress or life events on the pathogenesis of major depression. We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult stressful life events interact and influence depressive symptoms in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis in this study. The 294 participants from the nonclinical general adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Life Experiences Survey (LES), Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regressions and structural equation modeling (Amos 20.0). Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the severity of the depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in the structural equation modeling. Four temperaments - depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious - directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms and the negative appraisal of life events during the past year. The negative appraisal of life events during the past year mildly, but significantly, predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The subjects of this study were nonclinical. The findings might not be generalized to patients with mood disorders. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increased depressive symptoms through increased affective temperaments, which, in turn, increase the negative appraisal of stressful life events. An important role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse and stressful life events on depressive symptoms was suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire: Measuring Minority Stress Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beadnell, Blair; Molina, Yamile

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a three-phase, mixed-methods study to develop a self-report measure assessing the unique aspects of minority stress for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire has 50 items and nine subscales with acceptable internal reliability, and construct and concurrent validity. Mean sexual orientation and gender differences were found. PMID:24058262

  15. Outcome Benchmarks for Adaptations of Research-Supported Treatments for Adult Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.; Washburn, Micki

    2016-01-01

    This article provides benchmark data on within-group effect sizes from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of research-supported treatments (RSTs) for adult traumatic stress. Agencies can compare these benchmarks to their treatment group effect size to inform their decisions as to whether the way they are…

  16. Stress, Social Support, and Outcomes in Two Probability Samples of Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…

  17. Gender Effect According to Item Directionality on the Perceived Stress Scale for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…

  18. Physiological Indicators of Stress and Intellectual Performance among Anxious Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Older adults (n=27) concerned about declining cognitive functioning performed cognitive tasks, completed questionnaires, and were given measures of anxiety and physiological change. Negative correlations appeared between level of cortisol, a stress-related hormone, and self-efficacy on measures of fluid intelligence. Epstein-Barr virus levels were…

  19. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  20. Cognitive correlates of white matter growth and stress hormones in female squirrel monkey adults.

    PubMed

    Lyons, David M; Yang, Chou; Eliez, Stephan; Reiss, Allan L; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2004-04-07

    Neurobiological studies of stress and cognitive aging seldom consider white matter despite indications that complex brain processes depend on networks and white matter interconnections. Frontal and temporal lobe white matter volumes increase throughout midlife adulthood in humans, and this aspect of aging is thought to enhance distributed brain functions. Here, we examine spatial learning and memory, neuroendocrine responses to psychological stress, and regional volumes of gray and white matter determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 31 female squirrel monkeys between the ages of 5 and 17 years. This period of lifespan development corresponds to the years 18-60 in humans. Older adults responded to stress with greater increases in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and modest reductions in glucocorticoid feedback sensitivity relative to young adults. Learning and memory did not differ with age during the initial cognitive test sessions, but older adults more often failed to inhibit the initial learned response after subsequent spatial reversals. Impaired cognitive response inhibition correlated with the expansion of white matter volume statistically controlling for age, stress hormones, gray matter, and CSF volumes. These results indicate that instead of enhancing cognitive control during midlife adulthood, white matter volume expansion contributes to aspects of cognitive decline. Cellular and molecular research combined with brain imaging is needed to determine the basis of white matter growth in adults, elucidate its functions during lifespan development, and provide potential new targets for therapies aimed at maintaining in humans cognitive vitality with aging.

  1. Enduring and sex-specific effects of adolescent social isolation in rats on adult stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Ari; Singaravelu, Janani; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2010-07-09

    In adolescence, gender differences in rates of affective disorders emerge. For both adolescent boys and girls, peer relationships are the primary source of life stressors though adolescent girls are more sensitive to such stressors. Social stressors are also powerful stressors for non-human social species like rodents. In a rat model, we examined how social isolation during adolescence impacts stress reactivity and specific neural substrates in adult male and female rats. Rats were isolated during adolescence by single housing from day 30 to 50 of age and control rats were group housed. On day 50, isolated rats and control rats were re-housed in same-treatment same-sex groups. Adult female rats isolated as adolescents exhibited increased adrenal responses to acute and to repeated stress and exhibited increased hypothalamic vasopressin mRNA and BDNF mRNA in the CA3 hippocampal subfield. In contrast, adult male rats isolated as adolescents exhibited a lower corticosterone response to acute stress, exhibited a reduced state of anxiety as assessed in the elevated plus maze and reduced Orexin mRNA compared to adult males group-housed as adolescents. These data point to a markedly different impact of isolation experienced in adolescence on endocrine and behavioral endpoints in males compared to females and identify specific neural substrates that may mediate the long-lasting effects of stress in adolescence.

  2. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  3. Gender Effect According to Item Directionality on the Perceived Stress Scale for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…

  4. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  5. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  6. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    PubMed

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001), had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002), had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001), and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001) and anxiety (p<0.0001) than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001) than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001), after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been

  7. Are You Sleeping? Dyadic Associations of Support, Stress, and Worries Regarding Adult Children on Sleep.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Amber J; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Polenick, Courtney A; Zarit, Steven H; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-01-24

    Sleep is a key factor in maintaining positive health and well-being throughout life. Although the negative outcomes of sleep problems are becoming better understood, less is known about how intergenerational relationships might affect sleep. Thus, this investigation examines the dyadic associations of support for, stress over, and worrying about adult children on sleep quality for husbands and wives. The sample included 186 heterosexual married couples drawn from the Family Exchanges Study. To account for nonindependence in the dyadic data and explore questions of mutual influence, we used actor-partner interdependence models. Husbands' and wives' reports of supporting their adult child and husbands' worry were associated with husbands' sleep quality. Conversely, wives' stress about supporting their adult child was associated with wives' sleep quality. Findings suggest that relationships with adult children have different associations for sleep quality among middle-aged husbands and wives. Our findings have implications for health-related research with couples and families and for providers who work with individuals struggling with sleep problems. Assisting aging parents to be aware of and manage ways that stress, support, and concern for adult children relate to their sleep may benefit them in multifaceted ways.

  8. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  10. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, J M; Watral, V; Schreck, C B; Kent, M L

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. PMID:19531062

  11. The effects of exercise on perceived stress and IL-6 levels among older adults.

    PubMed

    Starkweather, Angela R

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical markers of inflammation have been used in recent physical activity intervention studies. However, these same biochemical markers, mainly proinflammatory cytokines, may also be influenced by the individual's level of stress and mood. Accordingly, this pilot study was implemented to determine the effect of a physical activity intervention on perceived stress, mood, quality of life, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cortisol among 10 older adults, age 60 to 90. The results were compared to those of 10 older adults who were not engaging in regular physical activity. The 10-week intervention was applied using student nurses who taught the older adults how to calculate 60% of their maximum heart rate while ambulating for 30-min intervals. After the 10-week period, the participants in the exercise group reported significant improvements in stress, mood, and several quality of life indices. They also demonstrated a significant decrease in serum IL-6. Stress, mood, and quality of life scores in the exercise group were also significantly improved compared to the control group. This study adds information on the specific intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise necessary to achieve improvements in psychological variables and IL-6 levels. It also supports the need to measure psychological stress in physical activity intervention studies. Although the psychological variables were highly correlated, there were only weak correlations found with IL-6, suggesting that other factors are likely involved in reducing IL-6 when engaging in low-impact physical activity.

  12. Adult Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) show increased stress-responsiveness in logged forests.

    PubMed

    Leshyk, Rhiannon; Nol, Erica; Chin, Eunice H; Burness, Gary

    2013-12-01

    Forest harvesting is a form of anthropogenic disturbance, yet the effects of such disturbance on the endocrine physiology of wildlife have been infrequently studied. We investigated the effect of two methods of forest harvesting ('intensive' and 'typical' group-selection silviculture) and un-harvested control sites on the glucocorticoid levels of adult Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a forest interior bird species. We collected blood samples from adult males immediately after capture to examine baseline corticosterone, and then following a standardized capture and restraint protocol, to examine stress-induced levels. There was no significant repeatability in either baseline or stress-induced corticosterone levels for eleven individuals measured in both years of study. Despite no differences across harvesting treatments in male body mass or baseline corticosterone levels, males captured in sites subjected to intensive harvesting had significantly higher stress-induced corticosterone levels than males in other treatments. Currently, the mechanism driving differences in stress-reactivity is unknown although we hypothesize that the size of gaps resulting from intensive group-selection silviculture may increase perceived predation risk. In comparison to our previous work on nestling Ovenbirds, adults respond differently to stress from group-selection silviculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Linda L; Carvalho, John P; Tyrka, Audrey R; Wier, Lauren M; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Anderson, George M; Wilkinson, Charles W; Price, Lawrence H

    2007-11-15

    Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress challenge has been reported in adult patients with major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test were examined in healthy adults (n = 50) without current psychopathology. Subjects with a self-reported history of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment (MAL) (n = 23) as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared with subjects without such a history (CTL) (n = 27). Compared with CTLs, MAL subjects exhibited significantly lower cortisol and ACTH baseline-to-peak deltas. A significant group effect was seen in the (repeated measures) cortisol response to the stress challenge, reflecting lower concentrations among MAL subjects. A significant group x time effect characterized the relatively blunted ACTH response of the MAL group. Emotional neglect (-.34, p = .02) and sexual abuse (.31, p = .03) strongly predicted maximal cortisol release. In adults without diagnosable psychopathology, childhood maltreatment is associated with diminished HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. Possible explanations for the finding are discussed.

  14. The Role of Lexical Stress on the Use of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female Speakers.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Vocal fry is a voice register often used by young adult women for sociolinguistic purposes. Some acoustic correlates of lexical stress, however, appear incompatible with the use of vocal fry. The objective of this study was to systematically examine the role of lexical stress in the use of vocal fry by young adult women. This is a semi-randomized controlled laboratory study. Fifty female undergraduate students were recorded repeating one-, two-, three-, and four-syllable nonwords that conformed to English phonotactics. Nonwords were presented in order from shorter to longer lengths, with stimuli randomized within syllable length. Perceptual analyses of recordings were augmented by acoustic analyses to identify each syllable in which vocal fry occurred. Eighty-six percent of participants produced at least one episode of vocal fry. Vocal fry was more likely to occur in unstressed than stressed position, and the likelihood increased as distance from the stressed syllable increased. There was considerable variability in the use of vocal fry. Frequent and infrequent users varied on the degree to which they used vocal fry in single-syllable nonwords. Vocal fry use persists among young adult women even in the absence of syntactic and pragmatic influences. Lexical stress appeared to dramatically reduce the use of vocal fry. Patterns of vocal fry use appeared to be different for frequent and infrequent users of this vocal register. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood stress, grown-up brain networks: corticolimbic correlates of threat-related early life stress and adult stress response.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R H; Clegg, R; Goer, F; Pechtel, P; Beltzer, M; Vitaliano, G; Olson, D P; Teicher, M H; Pizzagalli, D A

    2017-09-25

    Exposure to threat-related early life stress (ELS) has been related to vulnerability for stress-related disorders in adulthood, putatively via disrupted corticolimbic circuits involved in stress response and regulation. However, previous research on ELS has not examined both the intrinsic strength and flexibility of corticolimbic circuits, which may be particularly important for adaptive stress responding, or associations between these dimensions of corticolimbic dysfunction and acute stress response in adulthood. Seventy unmedicated women varying in history of threat-related ELS completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan to evaluate voxelwise static (overall) and dynamic (variability over a series of sliding windows) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of bilateral amygdala. In a separate session and subset of participants (n = 42), measures of salivary cortisol and affect were collected during a social-evaluative stress challenge. Higher severity of threat-related ELS was related to more strongly negative static RSFC between amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and elevated dynamic RSFC between amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Static amygdala-DLPFC antagonism mediated the relationship between higher severity of threat-related ELS and blunted cortisol response to stress, but increased dynamic amygdala-rACC connectivity weakened this mediated effect and was related to more positive post-stress mood. Threat-related ELS was associated with RSFC within lateral corticolimbic circuits, which in turn was related to blunted physiological response to acute stress. Notably, increased flexibility between the amygdala and rACC compensated for this static disruption, suggesting that more dynamic medial corticolimbic circuits might be key to restoring healthy stress response.

  16. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High-resolution interferometric imaging of stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conerty, Michelle D.; Castracane, James; Clow, Lawrence P., Jr.; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason

    1997-05-01

    Variations based on bone growth and development make stress and fracture propagation differ greatly in pediatric skulls as compared to adult skulls. Differentiating the stress propagation between the pediatric and adult skulls can improve diagnostic prediction when presented with direct frontal impact on a pediatric skull, a fairly common occurrence in the clinical environment. Critical diagnostic information can be learned from an in depth study of stress propagation as a function of impact force at critical locations on the periorbital region of the human skull. The Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology at Albany Medical College and InterScience, Inc. are utilizing electronic speckle pattern interferometry detection (ESPI) and high resolution imaging to evaluate and compare stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls. A dual detection ESPI system was developed which integrates a medium resolution (2/3') CCD capable of real-time image processing, with a high resolution, megapixel detector capable of limited real time acquisition and image processing in software. Options to allow for high speed detection include integrating a custom, high performance image intensifier with the megapixel detector leg to be used as a high speed gate. The dual optical layout will allow for continuous and pulsed ESPI evaluation of calibrated impacts at specific landmarks on the skull. The goal of this work is to produce a full quantitative analysis of the stress propagation in pediatric versus adult skulls for a better understanding of bone dynamics. The work presented below concentrates on the development of the dual detection ESPI system and initial results achieved with an adult cadaver skull.

  18. Perceived Injustice Predicts Stress and Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molokie, Robert E.; Wilkie, Diana J.; Suarez, Marie L.; Yao, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. Aims We examined the contribution of patients’ perceived injustice regarding interactions with healthcare providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Design This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Setting Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated Comprehensive Sickle Cell Clinic. Participants/Subjects Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ±11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African Americans (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Methods Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Results Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress, p<.001 and pain, p=.002. Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress, p<.001 and pain, p=.02. The procedural, distributive, and informational domains of perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients’ perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients’ pain. Conclusions Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample. PMID:25439119

  19. Neonatal experience interacts with adult social stress to alter acute and chronic Theiler's virus infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R R; Maldonado Bouchard, S; Prentice, T W; Bridegam, P; Rassu, F; Young, C R; Steelman, A J; Welsh, T H; Welsh, C J; Meagher, M W

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that neonatal handling has prolonged protective effects associated with stress resilience and aging, yet little is known about its effect on stress-induced modulation of infectious disease. We have previously demonstrated that social disruption stress exacerbates the acute and chronic phases of the disease when applied prior to Theiler's virus infection (PRE-SDR) whereas it attenuates disease severity when applied concurrently with infection (CON-SDR). Here, we asked whether neonatal handling would protect adult mice from the detrimental effects of PRE-SDR and attenuate the protective effects of CON-SDR on Theiler's virus infection. As expected, handling alone decreased IL-6 and corticosterone levels, protected the non-stressed adult mice from motor impairment throughout infection and reduced antibodies to myelin components (PLP, MBP) during the autoimmune phase of disease. In contrast, neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR elevated IL-6 and reduced corticosterone as well as increased motor impairment during the acute phase of the infection. Neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR continued to exacerbate motor impairment during the chronic phase, whereas only neonatal handling X PRE-SDR increased in antibodies to PLP, MOG, MBP and TMEV. Together, these results imply that while handling reduced the severity of later Theiler's virus infection in non-stressed mice, brief handling may not be protective when paired with later social stress.

  20. Psychological stress in adolescent and adult mice increases neuroinflammation and attenuates the response to LPS challenge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is ample evidence that psychological stress adversely affects many diseases. Recent evidence has shown that intense stressors can increase inflammation within the brain, a known mediator of many diseases. However, long-term outcomes of chronic psychological stressors that elicit a neuroinflammatory response remain unknown. Methods To address this, we have modified previously described models of rat/mouse predatory stress (PS) to increase the intensity of the interaction. We postulated that these modifications would enhance the predator-prey experience and increase neuroinflammation and behavioral dysfunction in prey animals. In addition, another group of mice were subjected to a modified version of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), an often-used model of chronic stress that utilizes a combination of stressors that include physical, psychological, chemical, and other. The CUS model has been shown to exacerbate a number of inflammatory-related diseases via an unknown mechanism. Using these two models we sought to determine: 1) whether chronic PS or CUS modulated the inflammatory response as a proposed mechanism by which behavioral deficits might be mediated, and 2) whether chronic exposure to a pure psychological stressor (PS) leads to deficits similar to those produced by a CUS model containing psychological and physical stressors. Finally, to determine whether acute PS has neuroinflammatory consequences, adult mice were examined at various time-points after PS for changes in inflammation. Results Adolescent mice subjected to chronic PS had increased basal expression of inflammation within the midbrain. CUS and chronic PS mice also had an impaired inflammatory response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge and PS mice displayed increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Finally, adult mice subjected to acute predatory stress had increased gene expression of inflammatory factors. Conclusion Our results

  1. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  2. Do painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults with high levels of psychosocial stress?

    PubMed

    Black, Pamela; Hendy, Helen M

    2017-07-05

    Nonmedical use of painkillers has increased in recent years, with some authors suggesting that painkillers serve as "hillbilly heroin": a drug chosen by rural adults to cope with psychosocial stresses in their lives. The present study compared rural and urban adults for their reported use of 5 drugs during the past year (painkillers, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin) and for associations between these 5 drugs and their reported psychosocial stressors. This study conducted secondary analyses of anonymous survey data provided by the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health with responses from 8,699 rural and 18,481 urban adults. The survey included demographics (gender, age, race, education, marital status, family income), reports of whether participants had used each of 5 illicit drugs during the past year, and measures of psychological distress and social functioning problems. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no greater prevalence of painkiller use than urban adults, but rural adults were more likely than urban adults to use methamphetamine and less likely to use marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Controlling for demographics, rural adults showed no associations between psychological or social stressors and the use of painkillers, but such stressors were significantly associated with the use of marijuana, methamphetamine, and heroin. Urban adults showed significant associations of psychological and social stressors with the use of painkillers, as well as with the use of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Results suggest that painkillers are unlikely to serve as "hillbilly heroin" for rural adults, but they may serve as "big-city heroin" for urban adults.

  3. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-02-13

    Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in different contexts. The evidence of the validity of

  4. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress is a common experience in today’s society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. Objective The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. Methods A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. Results A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Conclusions Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in

  5. Differential Effects of Controllable Stress Exposure on Subsequent Extinction Learning in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Brande-Eilat, Noa; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS) avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC), followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC), as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL), but not prelimbic (PL) cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place.

  6. Differential Effects of Controllable Stress Exposure on Subsequent Extinction Learning in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Brande-Eilat, Noa; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS) avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC), followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC), as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL), but not prelimbic (PL) cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place. PMID:26793083

  7. Acculturation stress, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence in a select population of young adult Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gilder, David A.; Criado, Jose R.; Caetano, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the U.S. and within this population the process of acculturation has been suggested to be associated with some mental health problems. This study sought to ascertain quantitative information indexing acculturation stress and its association with mental health disorders in a select community sample of Mexican Americans. Methods Demographic information, DSM-III-R diagnoses, and information on cultural identity and acculturation stress were obtained from 240 Mexican American young adults that were recruited by fliers and were residing in selected areas of San Diego. Results No associations were found between measures of cultural identification and lifetime diagnoses of drug or alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders or antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder in this sample of Mexican American young adults. However, lifetime diagnoses of alcohol dependence, substance dependence, and anxiety disorders were associated with elevations in acculturation stress. Conclusion Quantitative measures of acculturation stress, but not cultural identity per se, were found to be significantly associated with substance dependence and anxiety disorders in this select population of Mexican American young adults. These data may be helpful in designing prevention and intervention programs for this high risk population. PMID:20161543

  8. Variation in adult stress resistance does not explain vulnerability to climate change in copper butterflies.

    PubMed

    Klockmann, Michael; Wallmeyer, Leonard; Fischer, Klaus

    2017-03-15

    Ongoing climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. However, although many species clearly suffer from ongoing climate change, others benefit from it, for example, by showing range expansions. However, which specific features determine a species' vulnerability to climate change? Phenotypic plasticity, which has been described as the first line of defence against environmental change, may be of utmost importance here. Against this background, we here compare plasticity in stress tolerance in 3 copper butterfly species, which differ arguably in their vulnerability to climate change. Specifically, we investigated heat, cold and desiccation resistance after acclimatization to different temperatures in the adult stage. We demonstrate that acclimation at a higher temperature increased heat but decreased cold tolerance and desiccation resistance. Contrary to our predictions, species did not show pronounced variation in stress resistance, though plastic capacities in temperature stress resistance did vary across species. Overall, our results seemed to reflect population-rather than species-specific patterns. We conclude that the geographical origin of the populations used should be considered even in comparative studies. However, our results suggest that, in the 3 species studied here, vulnerability to climate change is not in the first place determined by stress resistance in the adult stage. As entomological studies focus all too often on adults only, we argue that more research effort should be dedicated to other developmental stages when trying to understand insect responses to environmental change. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Effects of low-dose mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-ld) on working adults.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Maryanna D; Buckworth, Janet; Malarkey, William B

    2009-06-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological, and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of stress in healthy working adults to determine if results similar to those obtained in traditional MBSR could be demonstrated. Participants were randomized into MBSR-ld and wait-list control groups. Self-reported perceived stress, sleep quality, and mindfulness were measured at the beginning and end of the 6-week intervention. Salivary cortisol was assessed weekly. Significant reductions in perceived stress (p = .0025) and increases in mindfulness (p = .0149) were obtained for only the MBSR-ld group (n = 22). Scores on the global measure of sleep improved for the MBSR-ld group (p = .0018) as well as for the control group (p = .0072; n = 20). Implications and future research are discussed.

  10. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  11. Is smoking related to body image satisfaction, stress, and self-esteem in young adults?

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Bronars, Carrie; Patten, Christi A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Nirelli, Liza M; Thomas, Janet L; Clark, Matthew M; Vickers, Kristin S; Foraker, Randi; Lane, Kristi; Houlihan, Daniel; Offord, Kenneth P; Hurt, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    To examine the association of smoking and gender with body image satisfaction, perceived stress, and self-esteem in young adults. Respondents completed a survey consisting of Perceived Stress Scale, Body-Areas Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Current smokers (n = 483) and never smokers (n = 973) are included. Smoking and female gender were independently associated with higher perceived stress (P < 0.001). Female gender was associated with lower body image satisfaction and lower self-esteem (P < 0.001). Current smoking was associated with lower self-esteem (P = 0.007). Smoking treatment should include stress management and self-esteem and body image improvement.

  12. Everyday life for black american adults: stress, emotions, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Debra J

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stress process in Black Americans by exploring chronic stress, emotions, age, body mass index, and blood pressure within the context of gender and socioeconomic position (SEP). The convenience sample of middle-class Black Americans ( N = 211) ranged from ages 25 to 79 years. A sociopsychophysiological model of everyday life for Black American adults was tested using structural equation modeling. The model explained 27% of the variance in systolic and 17% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure. SEP had a significant effect on chronic stress, and chronic stress had a significant effect on negative affect. Although men had lower negative affect scores than women, men's diastolic blood pressures were on average 4 mm Hg higher than women's. These findings are useful to the development and implementation of interventions to eliminate health disparities and improve years of healthy life for Black Americans.

  13. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Examination of the dynamic interplay between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol misuse among combat-exposed Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Veterans.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Fox, Annie B; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Eisen, Susan; Vogt, Dawne

    2016-05-15

    Although alcohol misuse co-occurs with PTSD symptoms at a strikingly high rate (i.e., nearly 52% of men and 28% of women with PTSD also meet diagnostic criteria for an Alcohol Use Disorder), the functional associations between these symptom types remain unclear. The current study sought to clarify the nature of posttraumatic stress-alcohol misuse relations by employing a prospective longitudinal methodology-the latent difference score approach-to examine dynamic change in posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol misuse among 478 combat-exposed Veterans completing a longitudinal survey of post-deployment mental and physical health. This study builds on the existing literature, as most prior research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and has not explored prospective relations between specific PTSD symptom clusters and alcohol misuse. Consistent with the self-medication model, results indicated that PTSD symptoms demonstrate a prospective and proximal association with alcohol misuse during the assessment period; however, alcohol misuse did not appear to be a unique contributor to overall PTSD symptom exacerbation over time. Examination of individual PTSD symptom clusters revealed that more severe symptoms of intrusion and numbing, but not avoidance and hyperarousal, predicted greater alcohol misuse at subsequent time intervals. The constructs examined within this investigation relied on self-report data; diagnostic criteria for PTSD and/or Alcohol Use Disorders were not assessed. Future work may benefit from replicating these findings in clinical populations formally diagnosed with PTSD via clinician-administered structured interviews. Findings underscore the importance of addressing PTSD symptoms in the context of alcohol treatment to facilitate improved drinking outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Mayara; Rezende Morais, Enyara; Graciano de Paula, Renato; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Afonso, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Tomie Ouchida, Amanda; Curti, Carlos; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them. PMID:27875592

  16. Interplay of cognitive and motivational resources for out-of-home behavior in a sample of cognitively heterogeneous older adults: findings of the SenTra project.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wettstein, Markus; Shoval, Noam; Oswald, Frank; Kaspar, Roman; Issacson, Michal; Voss, Elke; Auslander, Gail; Heinik, Jeremia

    2013-09-01

    We examined in this study the hypothesis that cognitive resources are more closely linked with out-of-home behavior than motivational resources. A cognitively heterogeneous sample of 222 older adults aged 59-91 years (M = 72.7; SD = 6.2), including 146 cognitively healthy persons and 76 persons with mild cognitive impairment-recruited in the German and Israeli arm of the SenTra project-was used for the analysis. Out-of-home behavior was assessed by means of global positioning system technology (time out of home; number of nodes visited) as well as by questionnaire (out-of-home activities). Mini-Mental State Examination and trail-making tests A and B were used to assess cognitive resources. Well-being, depression, and environmental mastery were assessed as motivational resources. Findings at the zero-order and latent variable levels confirmed that cognitive resources were more closely linked with out-of-home behavior than motivational resources. Findings support the view that well-being-related motivations to exert out-of-home behavior may become less important in old age because of the increasing cognitive resources required by such behavior.

  17. Interactions of stress and CRF in ethanol-withdrawal induced anxiety in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wills, Tiffany A; Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H; Breese, George R

    2010-09-01

    Repeated stress or administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) prior to ethanol exposure sensitizes anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Current experiments determined whether adolescent rats were more sensitive to these challenges in sensitizing ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety and altering CRF levels in brain during withdrawal. Male adult and adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were restraint stressed (1 hour) twice 1 week apart prior to a single 5-day cycle of ethanol diet (ED; stress/withdrawal paradigm). Other rats received control diet (CD) and three 1-hour restraint stress sessions. Rats were then tested 5, 24, or 48 hours after the final withdrawal for anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction (SI) test. In other experiments, adolescent rats were given two microinjections of CRF icv 1 week apart followed by 5 days of either CD or ED and tested in social interaction 5 hours into withdrawal. Finally, CRF immunoreactivity was measured in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after rats experienced control diet, repeated ethanol withdrawals, or stress/withdrawal. Rats of both ages had reduced SI following the stress/withdrawal paradigm, and this effect recovered within 24 hours. Higher CRF doses were required to reduce SI in adolescents than previously reported in adults. CRF immunohistochemical levels were higher in the PVN and CeA of CD-exposed adolescents. In adolescent rats, repeated ethanol withdrawals decreased CRF in the CeA but was not associated with decreased CRF cell number. There was no change in CRF from adult treatments. In the production of anxiety-like behavior, adolescent rats have equal sensitivity with stress and lower sensitivity with CRF compared to adults. Further, adolescents had higher basal levels of CRF within the PVN and CeA and reduced CRF levels following repeated ethanol withdrawals. This reduced CRF within the CeA could indicate increased release of CRF, and future work will

  18. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity during cold stress and isometric exercise in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-09-15

    Cardiovascular mortality increases in cold weather in older adults, and physical activity may impart even greater cardiovascular risk than cold exposure alone. Human aging is associated with exaggerated pressor responses to whole body cooling; however, the sympathetic response to cold stress alone and in combination with isometric exercise is unknown. We hypothesized that cold stress would 1) increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and 2) augment the MSNA response to isometric handgrip in older adults. Whole body cooling (water-perfused suit) was conducted in 11 young (23 ± 1 yr) and 12 healthy older adults (60 ± 2 yr). Blood pressure (BP; Finometer) and MSNA (microneurography) were measured throughout cooling and during isometric handgrip at 30% maximal voluntary contraction performed at a mean skin temperature (Tsk) of 34 and 30.5°C. MSNA was greater in older adults at Tsk = 34.0°C and throughout cooling (P < 0.05). MSNA increased during cooling in older, but not young, adults (young: Δ0 ± 1 vs. older: Δ8 ± 1 bursts/min; P < 0.05). The cooling-induced increase in BP was greater in older adults (P < 0.05). During handgrip, the increases in MSNA and BP were not different between conditions in either young (Δ14 ± 2 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ12 ± 3 Tsk 30.5°C bursts/min; Δ20 ± 3 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ19 ± 3 Tsk 30.5°C mmHg; both P > 0.05) or older adults (Δ12 ± 1 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ8 ± 1 Tsk 30.5°C bursts/min; Δ18 ± 3 Tsk 34°C vs. Δ17 ± 2 Tsk 30.5°C mmHg; both P > 0.05). In summary, MSNA increased during cold stress in older, but not young, adults. Furthermore, concomitant cold stress did not alter the sympathetic responses to isometric exercise in either age group, suggesting preserved sympathetic responsiveness during exercise in the cold in healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Cross-Country Differences in Basal and Stress-Induced Cortisol Secretion in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lupien, Sonia J.; Fiocco, Alexandra; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Objective Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries. Methods Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were nalyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in both populations. Results Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants. Conclusion These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health. PMID:25153322

  20. Work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control among working adults with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Annor, Francis B; Roblin, Douglas W; Okosun, Ike S; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and four subscales of work-related psychosocial stress at study baseline and over time. We used survey data from a major HMO located in the Southeastern part of the US on health and healthy behaviors linked with patients' clinical, pharmacy and laboratory records for the period between 2005 and 2009. Study participants (n=537) consisted of working adults aged 25-59 years, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without advanced micro or macrovascular complications at the time of the survey. We estimated the baseline (2005) association between HbA1c and work-related psychosocial stress and their interactions using linear regression analysis. Using individual growth model approach, we estimated the association between HbA1c over time and work-related psychosocial stress. Each of the models controlled for socio-demographic variables, diet and physical activity factor, laboratory factor, physical examinations variables and medication use in a hierarchical fashion. After adjusting for all study covariates, we did not find a significant association between work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control either at baseline or over time. Among fairly healthy middle aged working adults with DM, work-related psychosocial stress was not directly associated with glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of juvenile chronic stress on adult cortico-accumbal function: Implications for cognition and addiction.

    PubMed

    Watt, Michael J; Weber, Matthew A; Davies, Shaydel R; Forster, Gina L

    2017-10-03

    Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress. Evidence of aberrations in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens function following repeated exposure of juvenile (pre- and adolescent) organisms to a variety of different stressors would account not only for the similarity in symptoms across the wide range of childhood stress-associated mental illnesses, but also their persistence into adulthood in the absence of further stress. Therefore, the goal of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge regarding disruption to executive function and reward processing in adult animals or humans exposed to chronic stress over the juvenile period, and the underlying neurobiology, with particular emphasis on the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. First, the role of these brain regions in mediating executive function and reward processing is highlighted. Second, the neurobehavioral development of these systems is discussed to illustrate how juvenile stress may exert long-lasting effects on prefrontal cortex-accumbal activity and related behavioral functions. Finally, a critical review of current animal and human findings is presented, which strongly supports the supposition that exposure to chronic stress (particularly social aggression and isolation in animal studies) in the juvenile period produces impairments in executive function in adulthood, especially in working memory and inhibitory control. Chronic juvenile stress also results in aberrations to reward processing

  2. Effects of maternal stress and perinatal fluoxetine exposure on behavioral outcomes of adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Kiryanova, V; Meunier, S J; Vecchiarelli, H A; Hill, M N; Dyck, R H

    2016-04-21

    Women of child-bearing age are the population group at highest risk for depression. In pregnant women, fluoxetine (Flx) is the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of depression. While maternal stress, depression, and Flx exposure have been shown to effect neurodevelopment of the offspring, separately, combined effects of maternal stress and Flx exposure have not been extensively examined. The present study investigated the effects of prenatal maternal stress and perinatal exposure to the SSRI Flx on the behavior of male mice as adults. C57BL/6 dams exposed to chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic (E) day 4 to E18 and non-stressed dams were administered Flx (25 mg/kg/d) in the drinking water from E15 to postnatal day 12. A separate control group consisted of animals that were not exposed to stress or Flx. At 12 days of age, brain levels of serotonin were assessed in the male offspring. At two months of age, the male offspring of mothers exposed to prenatal stress (PS), perinatal Flx, PS and Flx, or neither PS or Flx, went through a comprehensive behavioral test battery. At the end of testing brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in the frontal cortex of the offspring. Maternal behavior was not altered by either stress or Flx treatment. Treatment of the mother with Flx led to detectible Flx and NorFlx levels and lead to a decrease in serotonin levels in pup brains. In the adult male offspring, while perinatal exposure to Flx increased aggressive behavior, prenatal maternal stress decreased aggressive behavior. Interestingly, the combined effects of stress and Flx normalized aggressive behavior. Furthermore, perinatal Flx treatment led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in male offspring. PS led to hyperactivity and a decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal cortex regardless of Flx exposure. Neither maternal stress or Flx altered offspring performance in tests of cognitive

  3. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  4. Physical activity, stress, disease activity, and quality of life in adults with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Crumbock, Sean C; Loeb, Susan J; Fick, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity and stress reduction are recognized strategies for chronic disease management. They are recommended for people with a variety of diseases; however, little attention has been paid to the effects of regular physical activity and stress reduction in people with Crohn disease (CD). The aim of this pilot study was to examine the relationship that both physical activity and stress levels have with disease activity (a subscale of a quality of life [QOL] measure). A 2-pronged approach to sampling, using an online Crohn support forum and snowball sampling, was implemented over a period of 3 months to conduct this survey. Seventeen adults with CD completed 3 questionnaires measuring physical activity, stress levels, disease activity, and QOL. Although no significant correlations were found for disease activity with stress or physical activity, significant relationships were revealed for QOL with both stress and physical activity. The direct relationship between physical activity and QOL and the inverse relationship between stress and QOL are noteworthy for persons with CD, as well as their healthcare providers. Suggestions for important research design considerations are presented, along with future research needs.

  5. Doxorubicin-Mediated Bone Loss in Breast Cancer Bone Metastases Is Driven by an Interplay between Oxidative Stress and Induction of TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Tapasi; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Freeman, Michael; Biswas, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer patients, who are already at increased risk of developing bone metastases and osteolytic bone damage, are often treated with doxorubicin. Unfortunately, doxorubicin has been reported to induce damage to bone. Moreover, we have previously reported that doxorubicin treatment increases circulating levels of TGFβ in murine pre-clinical models. TGFβ has been implicated in promoting osteolytic bone damage, a consequence of increased osteoclast-mediated resorption and suppression of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that in a preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis model, administration of doxorubicin would accelerate bone loss in a TGFβ-mediated manner. Administration of doxorubicin to 4T1 tumor-bearing mice produced an eightfold increase in osteolytic lesion areas compared untreated tumor-bearing mice (P = 0.002) and an almost 50% decrease in trabecular bone volume expressed in BV/TV (P = 0.0005), both of which were rescued by anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11). Doxorubicin, which is a known inducer of oxidative stress, decreased osteoblast survival and differentiation, which was rescued by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, doxorubicin treatment decreased Cu-ZnSOD (SOD1) expression and enzyme activity in vitro, and treatment with anti-TGFβ antibody was able to rescue both. In conclusion, a combination therapy using doxorubicin and anti-TGFβ antibody might be beneficial for preventing therapy-related bone loss in cancer patients. PMID:24205081

  6. Interplay between pro-inflammatory cytokines and brain oxidative stress biomarkers: evidence of parallels between butyl paraben intoxication and the valproic acid brain physiopathology in autism rat model.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Hoda G; Ali, Elham H A; Elgoly, Amany H Mahmoud

    2015-02-01

    Butyl paraben is a preservative used in food, drugs and cosmetics. Neurotoxic effect was reported recently beside the potential estrogenic activity of parabens. There is controversy as to the potential harmful effects of butyl parabens, which are suspected to contribute to autism and learning disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities between paraben intoxication signs in the rat brain and brain markers in an autistic like rat model. This study provides evidence of many parallels between the two, including (1) oxidative stress, (2) decreased reduced glutathione levels and elevated oxidised glutathione, (3) mitochondrial dysfunction, and (4) neuroinflammation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the brain (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1-beta, and interleukin-6). (5) Increased protein oxidation reported by a significant increase in 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT)/tyrosine ratio. (6) A marked disturbance was found in the production of energy carriers (AMP, ATP and AMP/ATP ratio) in comparison with the control. The evidence suggests that paraben may, to some extent, either cause or contribute to the brain physiopathology in ASDs or pathogens that produce the brain pathology observed in the diagnosed rat model of ASD.

  7. Constitutive Interplay midst Discourse of East and West: Modernity & Postmodernity Renderings in Adult & Continuing Education. Proceedings of the International Adult & Continuing Education Conference (Seoul, Korea, May 27-28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 17 papers, organized in three sections, presented at a conference on Eastern and Western adult and continuing education. The following papers are included in Section I, "Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education: Views of East and West": "Imagineries of 'East and West': Slippery Curricular Signifiers in…

  8. Constitutive Interplay midst Discourse of East and West: Modernity & Postmodernity Renderings in Adult & Continuing Education. Proceedings of the International Adult & Continuing Education Conference (Seoul, Korea, May 27-28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 17 papers, organized in three sections, presented at a conference on Eastern and Western adult and continuing education. The following papers are included in Section I, "Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education: Views of East and West": "Imagineries of 'East and West': Slippery Curricular Signifiers in…

  9. Examining the association between adult attachment style and cortisol responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Tara; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The quality of social relationships may contribute to variations in biological stress responses, thereby affecting health risk. The association between an important indicator of social relationships, adult attachment style, and cortisol has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined adult romantic attachment style and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to two behavioural tasks, a colour/word interference task and mirror tracing task, in 498 healthy men and women from the Heart Scan study, a subsample of the Whitehall II cohort. Participants were classified as secure, fearful, preoccupied or dismissive on the basis of responses to the Relationship Questionnaire. Cortisol output was lowest in the fearful group, followed by the preoccupied group, with both secure and dismissive groups having higher levels. The results from this study tentatively support the proposition that attachment style is a factor in determining the manifestation of HPA dysregulation.

  10. Examining the association between adult attachment style and cortisol responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Tara; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Summary The quality of social relationships may contribute to variations in biological stress responses, thereby affecting health risk. The association between an important indicator of social relationships, adult attachment style, and cortisol has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined adult romantic attachment style and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to two behavioural tasks, a colour/word interference task and mirror tracing task, in 498 healthy men and women from the Heart Scan study, a subsample of the Whitehall II cohort. Participants were classified as secure, fearful, preoccupied or dismissive on the basis of responses to the Relationship Questionnaire. Cortisol output was lowest in the fearful group, followed by the preoccupied group, with both secure and dismissive groups having higher levels. The results from this study tentatively support the proposition that attachment style is a factor in determining the manifestation of HPA dysregulation. PMID:21106296

  11. Effect of the Interplay between Trauma Severity and Trait Neuroticism on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents Exposed to a Pipeline Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Shao, Di; Long, Zhou-Ting; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background While numerous studies have explored relevant factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, there have been few joint investigations of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on the development of PTSD symptoms. This study aims to assess the involvement and interrelationship of trauma severity and neuroticism in the expression of PTSD symptoms among adolescents exposed to an accidental explosion. Methods Six hundred and sixty-two adolescents were recruited from a junior middle school closest to the 2013 pipeline explosion site in China and were assessed using the Explosion Exposure Questionnaire, the NEO Five Factor Inventory-Neuroticism Subscale (FFI-N), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). A battery of hierarchical multiple regression analyses and two-way ANOVAs were performed to examine the effect of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on adolescent PTSD symptoms. Results Eighty-seven adolescents (13.1%) showed PTSD symptoms after the pipeline explosion. Correlation analysis showed that all the factors of explosion exposure and trait neuroticism were positively associated with adolescent PTSD symptoms. Being male and younger was linked to lower risk for PTSD symptoms. The regression models identified explosion exposure and neuroticism as independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms, and the interactions between trait neuroticism and trauma exposure (personal casualty, degree of influence, total traumatic severity) were related to PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The results highlight the role of trauma exposure and trait neuroticism as risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Therefore, the combination of these two factors should be investigated in clinical settings due to an augmented risk for more severe PTSD symptoms. PMID:25793606

  12. Maternal high fat diet programs stress-induced behavioral disorder in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Lin, ChengCheng; Shao, Bei; Huang, HuanJie; Zhou, YuLei; Lin, YuanShao

    2015-12-01

    Early life exposure to specific environmental factors can contribute to development of behavioral disorders in adulthood. Although maternal high fat diet (HFD) consumption during the perinatal period has been reported to program offspring behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of maternal HFD on offspring behavior under nonstressed and stressful conditions, using male Sprague-Dawley offspring, which mothers were fed with HFD or normal diet (ND), receiving chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in the adulthood. We found that although the detrimental effects of maternal HFD consumption on offspring depressive behavior did not persist into adulthood, it markedly aggravated the behavioral disorder response to stressful challenge in adult offspring. Moreover, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentration in CSF and hippocampus were increased in the HFD+CUMS rats, compared to the ND+CUMS subjects. Another separate groups were fitted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulae. Central infusion of αCGRP8-37, a CGRP antagonist, produced antidepressant effects in HFD+CUMS rats, implying that the programming of maternal HFD on offspring behavior responses to stress may be mediated partially by endogenous central CGRP signaling. Moreover, we found that maternal HFD significantly exacerbated HPA profile response to acute restraint stress and attenuated the habituation of HPA responses to repeated restraint stress, suggesting that maternal HFD may program the changes of HPA-regulatory mechanisms. Overall, our findings suggest that maternal HFD influence adult depressive disorder response to stressful challenge, through the modulation of endogenous central CGRP signaling and HPA-regulatory components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kotaro; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3) and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:28243100

  14. Restraint stress enhances alcohol intake in adolescent female rats but reduces alcohol intake in adolescent male and adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Wille-Bille, Aranza; Ferreyra, Ana; Sciangula, Martina; Chiner, Florencia; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2017-08-14

    Adolescents may be more sensitive to stress-induced alcohol drinking than adults, which would explain the higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in late adolescence than in adulthood. The present study analyzed the impact of restraint stress on the initiation of alcohol intake across 2 weeks of intermittent, two-bottle choice intake in male and female adolescent rats and adult female rats. Restraint stress significantly increased alcohol intake and preference in female adolescent rats but decreased alcohol intake and preference in male adolescent and female adult rats. The effects of restraint stress on alcohol intake were mitigated in adolescent females following administration of the κ opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine. Adolescent but not adult female rats that were subjected to restraint stress spent more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Female adolescents exposed to stress also exhibited greater risk-taking behaviors in a concentric square field test compared with non-stressed controls. These results indicate age- and sex-related differences in the sensitivity to alcohol-stress interactions that may facilitate the initiation of alcohol use in female adolescents. The facilitatory effect of stress on alcohol intake was related to greater exploratory and risk-taking behaviors in young females after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. College men's intimate partner violence attitudes: contributions of adult attachment and gender role stress.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. [Salivary cortisol as an indicator of physological stress in children and adults; a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; García García, I; Rodríguez López, M A; Ortegón Piñero, A; Cortés Castell, E

    2014-05-01

    Salivary cortisol is a steroid hormone that is produced in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secreted into saliva when persons are under stress. High levels of cortisol in saliva can be produced by many different factors, including obesity and certain psychological disorders. The articles selected for inclusion in this review were identified using Google Scholar and Medline, and this search obtained a total of 57 items. The validity of these studies was established according to the degree of evidence presented, by citations and by their applicability to the healthcare context in Spain. Specifically, this review takes into consideration studies of salivary cortisol and stress in children and adults, and those examining the relation between high levels of salivary cortisol and other disorders such as anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia or emotional deprivation. These studies show that salivary cortisol is a clear indicator of stress in both children and adults. High levels of this hormone in saliva are associated with the following main consequences: reduced immune function, affecting healing and thus prolonging recovery time; delayed growth in children; increased blood pressure and heart rate in both children and adults.

  17. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Hoyk, Zsófia; Mészáros, Mária; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Tóth, Andrea E.; Kiss, Lóránd; Kincses, András; Oláh, Zita; Seprényi, György; Rákhely, Gábor; Dér, András; Pákáski, Magdolna; Kálmán, János; Kittel, Ágnes; Deli, Mária A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress is well-known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognized in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3, and 21 days) were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occluding, and glucose transporter-1) and astroglia (GFAP). Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, 1-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5, and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes, cognitive and

  18. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-10-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

  19. Acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and vulnerability to suicide attempts among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-11-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the racial/ethnic composition included Asian, Latino, Black, and White (US-born and non-US-born) individuals. There were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in endorsement of a suicide attempt history, with an overall rate of 8% in the sample. Asian participants reported higher acculturative stress than all other racial/ethnic groups, while both Asian and Black participants reported having experienced more discrimination in the previous year, compared to other groups. Logistic regression analyses suggested that familial acculturative stress was associated with 2 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt, overall. More specifically, it was associated with over 2 times higher odds among Asian participants, over 4 times higher odds among Black participants, and over 3 times higher odds among non-US-born White participants, while social acculturative stress was associated with over 3 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt among Latino participants. Environmental acculturative stress was associated with decreased odds of endorsing a suicide attempt history, overall, but not when examined separately by racial/ethnic group. Perceived discrimination was associated with over 5 times higher odds of a suicide attempt, overall, and specifically was associated with over 3 times higher odds among Latino participants and over 10 times higher odds among White, US-born participants. These findings suggest the importance of addressing culturally-related variables in treatment with emerging adults of racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to reduce risk for suicidal behavior.

  20. Participation in recreational activities buffers the impact of perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith DaWalt, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2017-05-01

    As the number of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) grows, the need to identify modifiable correlates of positive outcomes and quality of life (QoL) gains in importance. Research indicates that perceived stress is significantly correlated with QoL in adults with ASD. Studies in the general population of individuals without disabilities indicate that greater participation in social and recreational activities may lessen the negative impact of perceived stress on well-being, and this association may also hold among adults with ASD. We hypothesized that: (1) perceived stress would be negatively associated with QoL; and (2) higher frequency of participation in social activities and recreational activities would moderate the relationship between perceived stress and QoL. We used data collected from 60 adults with ASD aged 24-55 and their mothers to address our hypotheses. Findings indicate that adults with ASD with higher perceived stress are likely to have poorer QoL. Furthermore, greater participation in recreational activities buffers the impact of perceived stress on QoL, but no buffering effect was observed for participation in social activities. These findings suggest that interventions and services that provide supports and opportunities for participation in recreational activities may help adults with ASD manage their stress and lead to better QoL. Autism Res 2017, 10: 973-982. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Psychosocial stress is associated with obesity and diet quality in Hispanic/Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Jung, Molly M; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Espinoza, Rebeca A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Schneiderman, Neil; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial stress with obesity, adiposity, and dietary intake in a diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults. Participants were 5077 men and women, aged 18 to 74 years, from diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds. Linear regression models were used to assess the association of ongoing chronic stressors and recent perceived stress with measures of adiposity (waist circumference and percentage body fat) and dietary intake (total energy, saturated fat, alternative healthy eating index-2010). Multinomial logistic models were used to describe the odds of obesity or overweight relative to normal weight. Greater number of chronic stressors and greater perceived stress were associated with higher total energy intake. Greater recent perceived stress was associated with lower diet quality as indicated by alternative healthy eating index-2010 scores. Compared with no stressors, reporting three or more chronic stressors was associated with higher odds of being obese (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.1), greater waist circumference (β = 3.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.5), and percentage body fat (β = 1.5, 95% CI 0.4-2.6). The study found an association between stress and obesity and adiposity measures, suggesting that stress management techniques may be useful in obesity prevention and treatment programs that target Hispanic/Latino populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations among stress, gender, sources of social support, and health in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association of neurotrophins, inflammation and stress with suicide risk in young adults.

    PubMed

    Priya, P Kaviya; Rajappa, Medha; Kattimani, Shivanand; Mohanraj, P S; Revathy, G

    2016-06-01

    Stress, anxiety and various neurobiological changes have been postulated to be associated with increased suicidal ideation. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the serum concentrations of neurotrophins, inflammatory markers and stress concentrations as predictors of suicidal risk among young adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral center in South India from March 2014 to February 2015. We recruited 42 suicide attempters and 42 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The serum concentrations of neurotrophins (BDNF and NT-3), inflammatory markers (hs-CRP and IL-6) were assessed. Stress severity was assessed by Presumptive Stressful Life Events scale (PSLE) and Daily Hassles and Uplifts Scale-revised (DHUS-R). Psychological distress and Suicide risk was assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) respectively. Suicide attempters tend to show significantly lower concentrations of neurotrophins and significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers. We observed significant negative correlation of neurotrophins with inflammatory markers, stress, and suicide risk. In multivariate linear regression model, hs-CRP [adjusted β=0.333, p<0.0001], PSLE [adjusted β=0.133, p=0.029], DHUS-R [adjusted β=0.159, p=0.018] emerged as independent predictors of suicide risk (R(2)=0.76). Our results suggest that inflammation and stress scores have a moderate association with suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Daily stress and cortisol patterns in parents of adult children with a serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Barker, Erin T; Greenberg, Jan S; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Almeida, David M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether parenting an adult child with a serious mental illness (SMI) has a physiological impact on parents. Multiple samples of saliva were collected on 4 days from 61 parents (mean age = 60.07 years, SD = 10.01) of individuals with a SMI (bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depression; mean age = 32.46 years, SD = 10.57) and a comparison group of 321 parents (mean age = 58.09 years, SD = 12.88) of individuals without a SMI (mean age = 32.36; SD = 13.87). Saliva samples were assayed for the hormone cortisol and group differences in diurnal cortisol patterns and their association with daily stress severity were explored. On days after elevated stress, a hypoactivation pattern of diurnal cortisol suggestive of chronic stress was evident for parents of individuals with a SMI. After more stressful days, cortisol levels increased less from waking to 30 min after waking and declined less from 30 min after waking to bedtime for parents of individuals with a SMI. The results of the current study add to a growing body of evidence that the long-term effects of parenting an adult with a disability has a biological impact on aging parents and support the need for family interventions across adulthood and into old age for parents of individuals with SMI.

  5. Relationship between impacts attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress in young Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Murakami, Takashi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Ogura, Toshio; Morita, Manabu

    2011-10-01

    Identifying risk factors is important to prevent a wide range of health-damaging behaviours and to improve the quality of life of young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress in healthy young Japanese adults. Medical and oral health data were collected during a cross-sectional examination conducted by the Health Service Center of Okayama University. Systemically healthy non-smoking students aged 18 and 19 years (n = 641; 329 males and 312 females) were included. Malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress were assessed using self-reported questionnaires, the condition-specific oral impacts on daily performances (CS-OIDP), and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Mann-Whitney U- and chi-square tests and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used for statistical analysis. Forty per cent of subjects had a malocclusion (n = 255). Subjects with impacts on daily performance had a significantly higher prevalence of malocclusion than those without impacts (P < 0.001). SEM showed that psychological stress, especially interpersonal sensitivity and depression, was significantly correlated with CS-OIDP and malocclusion. Negative impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion may contribute to psychological stress in young Japanese adults.

  6. Antenatal Maternal Stress Alters Functional Brain Responses In Adult Offspring During Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation. PMID:21300034

  7. Resilience in the Context of Chronic Stress and Health in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Dolbier, Christyn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, stress research has experienced a broadening of its pathologic focus to encompass the concept of resilience. There is a wealth of research on resilience but no general consensus regarding its conceptualization. Some define resilience as attaining eventual favorable outcomes following exposure to adversity. Others define it as specific relatively short-term responses characterized by a return to homeostasis after initial disruption due to a stressor, and still others refer to resilience as resources that enable the individual to withstand or recover from major stressors. Many of the existing conceptualizations of resilience are not applicable in the context of chronic stress which is particularly harmful to health. How do adults who experience chronic stress survive, manage, and thrive, and what resources enable them to do so? In this paper, we consider these questions by reviewing traditions of research and definitions of resilience in order to inform an understanding of resilience in general, and for the study of chronic stress in adults. Based on a review of the literature, we developed a taxonomy of resilience resources that can be applied broadly, and guide future research. PMID:26161137

  8. The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on the stress response of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Planeta, C S; Berliner, J; Russ, A; Kosofsky, B E

    2001-01-01

    The neurotoxic consequences of intrauterine exposure to drugs of abuse, including cocaine, may include compromised fetal brain development with associated lasting behavioral alterations. Some infants exposed to cocaine in utero demonstrate impairments in reactivity and altered behavioral responses to stressful conditions. Alterations in arousal regulation can impact on socialization, adaptation, and educability. Moreover, such alterations may render cocaine-exposed children more vulnerable to the adverse developmental impact of stressful situations, with implications for subsequent behavior and psychopathology. Animal models facilitate the independent analysis and identification of genetic, intrauterine, and postnatal environmental factors in contributing to cocaine-induced alterations in behavioral and neurochemical responses to stressors. Utilizing a prenatal mouse model of gestational cocaine exposure we have identified a behavioral alteration evident as decreased duration of footshock-induced immobility termed "freezing" in cocaine-exposed adults as compared with controls. However, this attenuated behavioral response was not accompanied by demonstrable alterations in corticosterone response, nor was the corticosterone response altered in cocaine-exposed adults following a more protracted restraint-induced stress. The dissociation of these behavioral and neurochemical indices of altered response to stressors may provide insights regarding brain mechanisms underlying alterations in behavioral reactivity to stressful conditions following in utero cocaine exposure. In addition, this preclinical study may have implications for improved diagnostics and therapeutics for infants and children exposed to cocaine in the womb.

  9. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.

  10. Older Adults' Coping With the Stress Involved in the Use of Everyday Technologies.

    PubMed

    Yagil, Dana; Cohen, Miri; Beer, Jonathan D

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the frequency of reported use of everyday technologies (EDT) and its associations with self-efficacy, stress appraisal, and coping strategies. Cross-sectional data were collected from 150 participants (aged ≥ 65 years), measuring use of EDT by means of self-report questionnaires and a computerized simulator of an automatic teller machine (ATM), and EDT-related self-efficacy, stress appraisal, and coping strategies questionnaires. Structured equation modeling analysis showed that EDT-related self-efficacy was related to higher use of EDT, through the mediation of EDT-related stress and coping strategies. Logistic regression showed that use of ATM simulator was predicted by self-efficacy, younger age, and female gender. Enhancing EDT-self efficacy is suggested to increase the use of EDT among elder adults. The use of simulators may be an efficient mean to promote EDT self-efficacy and use. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Conscientiousness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaodong; Dong, Xinqi

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined whether individuals' personality traits, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Data analysis was based on the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Three thousand one hundred and fifty-nine Chinese adults aged 60 years and older participated in the PINE study. They completed scales that assessed their personality (ie, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory), perceived stress (the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale), and depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire). Perceived stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. No moderation effects were found for Neuroticism. Conscientiousness significantly moderated the perceived stress-depressive symptom relationship. The positive relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms was weaker for people who were higher in Conscientiousness than those who were lower in Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness mitigated the stress-depressive symptom relationship among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to identify the psychological and sociocultural profiles of individuals who show stress resilience and those who are vulnerable. Social services and psychological interventions are needed to promote health and well-being among U.S. Chinese older adults.

  12. Perceived Stress, Parent-Adolescent/Young Adult Communication, and Family Resilience Among Adolescents/Young Adults Who Have a Parent With Cancer in Taiwan: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Mi; Du, Bao-Feng; Ho, Ching-Liang; Ou, Wei-Jen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chen, Wei-Ching

    2017-04-13

    Family resilience helps family members successfully overcome adversity, for example, chronic disease or unpleasant situations. However, few studies have identified correlates of family resilience among adolescents/young adults having a parent with cancer. This longitudinal study explored (1) relationships among family resilience, adolescents' perceived stress, and parent-adolescent/young adult communication; (2) trends in family resilience with data collection time; and (3) differences in parent-adolescent/young adult communication by parent gender (ie, father or mother). Participants were teenagers and young adults (12-25 years) with a parent who had cancer. Data were collected using structured questionnaires at 3 times for 4 to 5 months, with 2 months between each collection. Of 96 adolescent/young adult participants enrolled at T1, only 32 completed all measurements at T3. We found that (1) family resilience was negatively associated with adolescents' perceived stress (B=-0.35) and positively associated with adolescent/young adult communication with both the father (B=0.58) and the mother (B=0.36), (2) the degree of family resilience at T3 was significantly lower than at T1 (B=-4.79), and (3) at all 3 data collection times, the degree of adolescent/young adult communication was higher with mothers than with fathers, whether the mother had cancer or did not have cancer. Family resilience was positively associated with parent-adolescent/young adult communication and negatively related to perceived stress. Family resilience tended to decline with longer parental survival since cancer diagnosis. We suggest nursing interventions to reduce adolescent/young adult stress and develop optimal parent-adolescent/young adult communication to enhance family resilience.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults: a systematic review of the psychotherapy treatment literature.

    PubMed

    Dinnen, Stephanie; Simiola, Vanessa; Cook, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest growing segment of the US and industrialized populations. However, older adults have generally not been included in randomized clinical trials of psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review examined reports of psychological treatment for trauma-related problems, primarily PTSD, in studies with samples of at least 50% adults aged 55 and older using standardized measures. A systematic review of the literature was conducted on psychotherapy for PTSD with older adults using PubMed, Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PILOTS, and Google Scholar. A total of 42 studies were retrieved for full review; 22 were excluded because they did not provide at least one outcome measure or results were not reported by age in the case of mixed-age samples. Of the 20 studies that met review criteria, there were: 13 case studies or series, three uncontrolled pilot studies, two randomized clinical trials, one non-randomized concurrent control study and one post hoc effectiveness study. Significant methodological limitations in the current older adult PTSD treatment outcome literature were found reducing its internal validity and generalizability, including non-randomized research designs, lack of comparison conditions and small sample sizes. Select evidence-based interventions validated in younger and middle-aged populations appear acceptable and efficacious with older adults. There are few treatment studies on subsets of the older adult population including cultural and ethnic minorities, women, the oldest old (over 85), and those who are cognitively impaired. Implications for clinical practice and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Covariation in oxidative stress markers in the blood of nestling and adult birds.

    PubMed

    Romero-Haro, Ana Angela; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the state of the antioxidant machinery-that is, oxidative stress-has recently grown among comparative physiologists and evolutionary/behavioral ecologists. The number and types of markers used to estimate oxidative stress is, however, under debate. The study of covariation among these markers is necessary to better interpret the information content of each independent variable. Here, the covariation in levels of 10 blood parameters in a group of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as nestlings and adults was analyzed across a large data set. Total glutathione levels in erythrocytes were negatively correlated with plasma carotenoid values in nestlings only, supporting the implication of carotenoids in the antioxidant machinery during a particularly stressful period of life. Plasma lipid levels (triglycerides [TRGs]) as well as plasma antioxidant capacity-the latter tested with and without control for uric acid levels-showed individual consistency with age. Plasma TRG and uric acid levels were strongly correlated with plasma lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity, respectively, suggesting an influence of recent intake or mobilization of energy stores on these variables. The meaning of oxidative stress markers, whether corrected or uncorrected for levels of nutritional metabolites, remains to be explored. Experiments manipulating diet composition and oxidative stress are necessary to confirm or reject the hypothesized causalities.

  15. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  16. Childhood trauma and emotional reactivity to daily life stress in adult frequent attenders of general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Jean-Paul; van Os, Jim; Portegijs, Piet J M; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2006-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) has consistently been associated with neuroticism--a personality trait reflecting vulnerability to stress. However, not much is known about the impact of a history of trauma on moment-to-moment emotions and experiences in the flow of daily life. The relationship between CT and emotional reactivity to daily life stress was investigated. Ninety frequent attenders of general practitioners, of which 29 fulfilled criteria for CT (sexual and/or physical trauma before the age of 19 years), were studied with the Experience Sampling Method (a structured diary technique assessing current context and mood in daily life) to assess: (a) appraised subjective stress related to daily events and activities, and (b) emotional reactivity conceptualized as changes in negative affect (NA). Multilevel regression analysis revealed that subjects with a history of CT reported significantly increased emotional reactivity to daily life stress, as reflected in an increase in NA. This effect was significantly stronger for subjects who experienced trauma before the age of 10 years. These results confirm that CT may have long-lasting and enduring effects on adult psychological functioning, as exposed individuals continually react more strongly to small stressors occurring in the natural flow of everyday life. The finding that emotional stress reactivity is most pronounced for subjects who experienced trauma early in life confirms prior evidence suggesting that the effects of trauma are more detrimental when trauma occurs at a younger age.

  17. Introducing young dairy goats into the adult herd after parturition reduces social stress.

    PubMed

    Szabò, S; Barth, K; Graml, C; Futschik, A; Palme, R; Waiblinger, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare social stress, as measured by social behavior and adrenocortical activity, in young dairy goats during the first week after introduction into a herd of adult goats either during the dry period of the herd (i.e., all goats in the herd being pregnant or dry: PD) or shortly after parturition (i.e., all animals lactating or with their kids: LK). Thirty-two young goats that had had no contact with adult goats from the age of 7 wk were introduced into adult goat groups. Adult goats were kept in 2 groups of 36 animals each. Young goats were introduced (in groups of 4 animals each) into each of these 2 groups either during the PD period (2 repetitions) or during LK (2 repetitions); goats with different rearing experience were balanced over introduction periods. Young goats were more often receivers of agonistic social interactions when introduced during PD than during LK. Irrespective of the period of introduction, young goats had other young goats as neighbors more frequently than expected by chance alone, although this was even more distinct during PD. Cortisol metabolite levels increased markedly from baseline during PD, but not after parturition. Rearing showed an effect only on the nearest neighbors, with mother-reared young goats staying closer together. Our results indicate that young goats experience less social stress when being introduced into a herd of adult dairy goats shortly after parturition and with kids still present rather than during the dry period. Whether this effect is due to the period and lactational stage itself or to the presence of kids needs to be tested in future studies. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Volume loading augments cutaneous vasodilatation and cardiac output of heat stressed older adults.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Ngo, Hai; Sarma, Satyam; Cornwell, William K; Poh, Paula Y S; Stoller, Douglas; Levine, Benjamin D; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-08-21

    Age-related changes in cutaneous microvascular and cardiac functions limit the extent of cutaneous vasodilatation and the increase in cardiac output that healthy older adults can achieve during passive heat stress. However, it is unclear if these age-related changes in microvascular and cardiac functions maximally restrain the levels of cutaneous vasodilatation and cardiac output that healthy older adults can achieve during heat stress. We observed that rapid volume loading, performed during passive heat stress, augments both cutaneous vasodilatation and cardiac output in healthy older humans. These findings demonstrate that the microcirculation of healthy aged skin can further dilate during passive heat exposure, despite peripheral limitations to vasodilatation. Furthermore, healthy older humans can augment cardiac output when cardiac pre-load is increased during heat stress. Primary ageing markedly attenuates cutaneous vasodilatation and the increase in cardiac output during passive heating. However, it remains unclear if these responses are maximally restrained by age-related changes in cutaneous microvascular and cardiac functions. We hypothesized that rapid volume loading performed during heat stress would increase cardiac output in older adults without parallel increases in cutaneous vasodilatation. Twelve young (Y: 26 ± 5 years) and ten older (O: 69 ± 3 years) healthy adults were passively heated until core temperature increased by 1.5°C. Cardiac output (thermodilution), forearm vascular conductance (FVC, venous occlusion plethysmography) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser-Doppler) were measured before and after rapid infusion of warmed saline (15 mL kg(-1) , ∼7 min). While heat stressed, but prior to saline infusion, cardiac output (O: 6.8 ± 0.4 vs. Y: 9.4 ± 0.6 L min(-1) ), FVC (O: 0.08 ± 0.01 vs. Y: 0.17 ± 0.02 mL (100 mL min(-1)  mmHg(-1) )(-1) ), and CVC (O: 1.29 ± 0.34 vs. Y: 1.93 ± 0.30

  19. Association of PER2 genotype and stressful life events with alcohol drinking in young adults.

    PubMed

    Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Lascorz, Jesus; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Esser, Günter; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Schmidt, Martin H; Banaschewski, Tobias; Schumann, Gunter; Laucht, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Clock genes govern circadian rhythms and shape the effect of alcohol use on the physiological system. Exposure to severe negative life events is related to both heavy drinking and disturbed circadian rhythmicity. The aim of this study was 1) to extend previous findings suggesting an association of a haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphism of PER2 gene with drinking patterns, and 2) to examine a possible role for an interaction of this gene with life stress in hazardous drinking. Data were collected as part of an epidemiological cohort study on the outcome of early risk factors followed since birth. At age 19 years, 268 young adults (126 males, 142 females) were genotyped for PER2 rs56013859 and were administered a 45-day alcohol timeline follow-back interview and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Life stress was assessed as the number of severe negative life events during the past four years reported in a questionnaire and validated by interview. Individuals with the minor G allele of rs56013859 were found to be less engaged in alcohol use, drinking at only 72% of the days compared to homozygotes for the major A allele. Moreover, among regular drinkers, a gene x environment interaction emerged (p = .020). While no effects of genotype appeared under conditions of low stress, carriers of the G allele exhibited less hazardous drinking than those homozygous for the A allele when exposed to high stress. These findings may suggest a role of the circadian rhythm gene PER2 in both the drinking patterns of young adults and in moderating the impact of severe life stress on hazardous drinking in experienced alcohol users. However, in light of the likely burden of multiple tests, the nature of the measures used and the nominal evidence of interaction, replication is needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  20. Effect of agomelatine on adult hippocampus apoptosis and neurogenesis using the stress model of rats.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Atakan; Yucel, Nermin; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Polat, Elif; Kara, Adem; Ozcan, Halil; Gulec, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Agomelatine (AG) is an agonist of melatonin receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2C-receptor subtype. The chronobiotic properties of AG are of significant interest due to the disorganization of internal rhythms, which might play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study was designed to assess the effects of the antidepressant-like activity of AG, a new antidepressant drug, on adult neurogenesis and apoptosis using stress-exposed rat brains. Over the period of 1 week, the rats were exposed to light stress twice a day for 1h. After a period of 1 week, the rats were given AG treatment at a dose of either 10mg/kg or 40mg/kg for 15 days. The animals were then scarified, and the obtained tissue sections were stained with immuno-histochemical anti-BrdU, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2 antibodies. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations were measured biochemically using a BDNF Elisa kit. Biochemical BDNF analysis revealed a high concentration of BDNF in the serum of the stress-exposed group, but the concentrations of BDNF were much lower those of the AG-treated groups. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed that AG treatment decreased the BrdU-positive and Bcl-2-positive cell densities and increased the Caspase-3-positive cell density in the hippocampus of stress-induced rats as compared to those of the stress group. The results of the study demonstrated that AG treatment ameliorated the hippocampal apoptotic cells and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These results also strengthen the possible relationship between depression and adult neurogenesis, which must be studied further.

  1. Elderly Mothers of Adult Children with Intellectual Disability: An Exploration of a Stress Process Model for Caregiving Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Go-en; Chung, Soondool

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Methods: Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability…

  2. Elderly Mothers of Adult Children with Intellectual Disability: An Exploration of a Stress Process Model for Caregiving Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Go-en; Chung, Soondool

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Methods: Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability…

  3. The association between physical activity and sex-specific oxidative stress in older adults.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Shik; Nakamura, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress increases with advancing age and is a mediator of several diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Moreover, postmenopausal women have a lower estrogen concentration, which is associated with elevated oxidative stress. However, there is no definitive evidence regarding the relationship between daily physical activity and oxidative stress status in older adults, including postmenopausal women. Twenty-nine adults (age, 70.1 ± 1.0 years, mean ± SE; 12 women and 17 men) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to blood collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for 4 consecutive weeks to determine their level of physical activity. After a 48-h period of physical activity avoidance and a 10-h overnight fast, venous blood samples were obtained from each participant. Fasting plasma derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of oxidative stress markers were negatively correlated with the amount of physical activity in women (d-ROMs; r = -0.708, p = 0.002) (MDA; r = -0.549, p = 0. 028), but not in men. Fasting plasma biological antioxidant potential of antioxidant capacity marker was positively correlated with the amount of physical activity in women (BAP; r = 0.657, p = 0.006) (GSH; r = 0.549, p = 0.028), but not in men. Moreover, superoxide dismutase activity of antioxidant capacity marker was positively correlated with the amount of physical activity in men (r = 0.627, p = 0.039), but not in women. There were no associations between physical activity and other oxidative stress markers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, thioredoxin). These findings suggest that regular physical activity may have a protective effect against oxidative stress by increasing total antioxidant capacity, especially in postmenopausal women. Key PointsIt is important to consider daily physical activity status when evaluating antioxidant

  4. The Association Between Physical Activity and Sex-Specific Oxidative Stress in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Shik; Nakamura, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress increases with advancing age and is a mediator of several diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Moreover, postmenopausal women have a lower estrogen concentration, which is associated with elevated oxidative stress. However, there is no definitive evidence regarding the relationship between daily physical activity and oxidative stress status in older adults, including postmenopausal women. Twenty-nine adults (age, 70.1 ± 1.0 years, mean ± SE; 12 women and 17 men) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to blood collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for 4 consecutive weeks to determine their level of physical activity. After a 48-h period of physical activity avoidance and a 10-h overnight fast, venous blood samples were obtained from each participant. Fasting plasma derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of oxidative stress markers were negatively correlated with the amount of physical activity in women (d-ROMs; r = -0.708, p = 0.002) (MDA; r = -0.549, p = 0. 028), but not in men. Fasting plasma biological antioxidant potential of antioxidant capacity marker was positively correlated with the amount of physical activity in women (BAP; r = 0.657, p = 0.006) (GSH; r = 0.549, p = 0.028), but not in men. Moreover, superoxide dismutase activity of antioxidant capacity marker was positively correlated with the amount of physical activity in men (r = 0.627, p = 0.039), but not in women. There were no associations between physical activity and other oxidative stress markers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, thioredoxin). These findings suggest that regular physical activity may have a protective effect against oxidative stress by increasing total antioxidant capacity, especially in postmenopausal women. Key Points It is important to consider daily physical activity status when evaluating antioxidant

  5. The relationship between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zebrack, Brad; Kwak, Minyoung; Salsman, John; Cousino, Melissa; Meeske, Kathleen; Aguilar, Christine; Embry, Leanne; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2015-02-01

    Theories of posttraumatic growth suggest that some degree of distress is necessary to stimulate growth; yet, investigations of the relationship between stress and growth following trauma are mixed. This study aims to understand the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. 165 AYA patients aged 14-39 years at diagnosis completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth at 12 months following diagnosis. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing and regression were used to examine linear and curvilinear relationships between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. No significant relationships between overall posttraumatic stress severity and posttraumatic growth were observed at 12-month follow-up. However, curvilinear relationships between re-experiencing (a posttraumatic stress symptom) and two of five posttraumatic growth indicators (New Possibilities, Personal Strengths) were observed. Findings suggest that re-experiencing is associated with some aspects of posttraumatic growth but not others. Although re-experiencing is considered a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, it also may represent a cognitive process necessary to achieve personal growth for AYAs. Findings call into question the supposed psychopathological nature of re-experiencing and suggest that re-experiencing, as a cognitive process, may be psychologically adaptive. Opportunities to engage family, friends, cancer survivors, or health care professionals in frank discussions about fears, worries, or concerns may help AYAs re-experience cancer in a way that enhances their understanding of what happened to them and contributes to positive adaptation to life after cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Perceived social support predicts lower cardiovascular reactivity to stress in older adults.

    PubMed

    Howard, Siobhán; Creaven, Ann-Marie; Hughes, Brian M; O'Leary, Éanna D; James, Jack E

    2017-02-22

    The benefits of perceived social support for physical and psychological health are well-established. However, little research has explored associations between perceived social support and cardiovascular reactivity in older adults. This exploratory study recruited a sample of older adults (Mage=69years, SD=5.62) and examined quality and quantity of perceived social support as predictors of cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory-based stress (N=39 participants) and ambulatory cardiovascular activity in everyday life (n=28). The results suggest that quality, but not quantity, of perceived social support predicts reduced blood pressure reactivity to stress in the laboratory. Although quality of support was not associated with ambulatory blood pressure, results suggest that quantity of daily social support may be associated with higher ambulatory heart rate, but not with social contact during measurement. This preliminary study extends prior work on social support and cardiovascular function to a group of older adults in both laboratory and field settings. Challenges for much-needed future research in this area are discussed.

  7. Health-related stress, affect, and depressive symptoms experienced by caregiving mothers of adults with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Meeks, Suzanne

    2004-09-01

    The interrelationships among health-related stress, positive and negative affect, and depressive symptoms patterned in the dynamic model of affect (J. Reich, A. Zautra, & M. Davis, 2003) were examined using data from 932 women having an adult child with a developmental disability. Results indicate that women experience a moderate inverse correlation between positive and negative affect under conditions of low levels of health-related stress, whereas at high levels of stress, positive and negative affect become more strongly inversely correlated. Under high-stress conditions, both negative affect and positive affect have a stronger relationship to depressive symptoms than they do under low-stress conditions. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  8. Parenting stress in mothers of adults with an intellectual disability: parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    PubMed

    Hill, C; Rose, J

    2009-12-01

    There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to mothers of adults with ID. Of particular interest were the parental cognitions of parenting self-esteem and parental locus of control. Face-to face interviews were administered with 44 mothers of adults with ID. They completed the Vineland Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour Scale, the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened version of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Correlations were observed between parenting stress and the other study variables. Regression analysis revealed that parental cognitive variables predicted 61% of the variance in parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction, a subscale of the measure of parenting sense of competence, mediated the relationships between adaptive behaviour and parenting stress and between family support and parenting stress. These results indicate the importance of cognitive variables in the stress of mothers of adults with ID. Potential avenues of future research might focus on the experience of fathers and the impact of positive perceptions as a cognitive factor.

  9. Prenatal stress affects placental cytokines and neurotrophins, commensal microbes, and anxiety-like behavior in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Gur, Tamar L; Shay, Lena; Palkar, Aditi Vadodkar; Fisher, Sydney; Varaljay, Vanessa A; Dowd, Scot; Bailey, Michael T

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that exposure to stress changes the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which is associated with development of stress-induced changes to social behavior, anxiety, and depression. Stress during pregnancy has also been related to the emergence of these disorders; whether commensal microbes are part of a maternal intrauterine environment during prenatal stress is not known. Here, we demonstrate that microbiome changes are manifested in the mother, and also found in female offspring in adulthood, with a correlation between stressed mothers and female offspring. Alterations in the microbiome have been shown to alter immune responses, thus we examined cytokines in utero. IL-1β was increased in placenta and fetal brain from offspring exposed to the prenatal stressor. Because IL-1β has been shown to prevent induction of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), we examined BDNF and found a reduction in female placenta and adult amygdala, suggesting in utero impact on neurodevelopment extending into adulthood. Furthermore, gastrointestinal microbial communities were different in adult females born from stressed vs. non-stressed pregnancies. Adult female offspring also demonstrated increased anxiety-like behavior and alterations in cognition, suggesting a critical window where stress is able to influence the microbiome and the intrauterine environment in a deleterious manner with lasting behavioral consequences. The microbiome may be a key link between the intrauterine environment and adult behavioral changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parental Cognitions in Relation to Child Characteristics and Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, C.; Rose, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to…

  12. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parental Cognitions in Relation to Child Characteristics and Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, C.; Rose, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to…

  13. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  14. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  15. Effects of chronic treatment with methylphenidate on oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-04-21

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a central stimulant, prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The long-term behavioral consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. In this study, the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by various doses of MPH were investigated. Forty adult male rats were divided into 5 groups; and treated with different doses of MPH for 21 days. Twenty four hours after drug treatment, Open Field Test (OFT) was performed in all animals. At the end of the study, blood cortisol level (BCL) was measured and hippocampus was isolated and oxidative stress and inflammation parameters and histological changes were analyzed. Chronic MPH at all doses decreased central square entries, number of rearing, ambulation distance and time spent in central square in OFT. BCL increased in doses 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH. Furthermore, MPH in all doses markedly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level, Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampus. MPH (10 and 20mg/kg) treated groups had decreased mitochondrial reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) activities. 10 and 20mg/kg of MPH change cell density and morphology of cells in Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of hippocampus. Chronic treatment with high doses of MPH can cause oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in hippocampus of adult rats.

  16. Extreme temperatures in the adult stage shape delayed effects of larval pesticide stress: a comparison between latitudes.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh Van, Khuong; Stoks, Robby

    2014-03-01

    Global warming and pesticide pollution are major threats for aquatic biodiversity. Yet, how pesticide effects are influenced by the increased frequency of extreme temperatures under global warming and how local thermal adaptation may mitigate these effects is unknown. We therefore investigated the combined impact of larval chlorpyrifos exposure, larval food stress and adult heat exposure on a set of fitness-related traits in replicated low- and high-latitude populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Larval pesticide exposure resulted in lighter adults with a higher water content, lower fat content, higher Hsp70 levels and a lower immune function (PO activity). Heat exposure reduced water content, mass, fat content and flying ability. Importantly, both stressors interacted across metamorphosis: adult heat exposure lowered the reduction of fat content, and generated a stronger decrease in PO activity in pesticide-exposed animals. Larval pesticide exposure and larval food stress also reduced the defense response to the adult heat stress in terms of increased Hsp70 levels. In line with strong life history differences in the unstressed control situation, high-latitude animals were less sensitive to food stress (body mass and water content), but more sensitive to pesticide stress (development time and PO activity) and heat exposure (PO activity and Hsp70 levels). While low-latitude adults could better withstand the extreme temperature as suggested by the weaker increase in Hsp70, heat exposure similarly affected the delayed effects of larval pesticide exposure at both latitudes. Our study highlighted two key findings relevant for ecological risk assessment under global warming. Firstly, the delayed effects of larval pesticide exposure on adult damselflies depended upon subsequent adult heat exposure, indicating that larval pesticide stress and adult heat stress interacted across metamorphosis. Secondly, low- and high-latitude animals responded differently to the

  17. THE ROLE OF STRESS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Christian R

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissues) caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. In older adults, progression of disease can lead to tooth loss, inadequate nutritional intake, and a higher risk of other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As the proportion of older adults continues to grow over time and rates of tooth loss decline, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease will increase. While much is known about risk factors for disease onset, gaps remain in our understanding of factors that could influence disease progression. Over the past few decades, stress has been implicated as a contributory factor. This review critically examines the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and describes a conceptual framework that could help move the research forward.

  18. The relationship between adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress symptoms: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah; Ayers, Susan; Field, Andy P

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that adult attachment plays a role in the development and perseverance of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This meta-analysis aims to synthesise this evidence and investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and PTSD symptoms. A random-effects model was used to analyse 46 studies (N=9268) across a wide range of traumas. Results revealed a medium association between secure attachment and lower PTSD symptoms (ρˆ=-.27), and a medium association, in the opposite direction, between insecure attachment and higher PTSD symptoms (ρˆ=.26). Attachment categories comprised of high levels of anxiety most strongly related to PTSD symptoms, with fearful attachment displaying the largest association (ρˆ=.44). Dismissing attachment was not significantly associated with PTSD symptoms. The relationship between insecure attachment and PTSD was moderated by type of PTSD measure (interview or questionnaire) and specific attachment category (e.g. secure, fearful). Results have theoretical and clinical significance.

  19. Work-Related Goal Appraisals and Stress during the Transition from Education to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Julia; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    People's personal goals interact with their life situations in many ways. This study examined the appraisals of personal goals during a transition from education to work and their interplay with stress in different domains of life. Finnish young adults (N = 265, 60% female) reported on their goals in the work domain, and related appraisals of…

  20. Work-Related Goal Appraisals and Stress during the Transition from Education to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Julia; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    People's personal goals interact with their life situations in many ways. This study examined the appraisals of personal goals during a transition from education to work and their interplay with stress in different domains of life. Finnish young adults (N = 265, 60% female) reported on their goals in the work domain, and related appraisals of…

  1. Lipid peroxidation markers in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new findings for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mahmut; Selek, Salih; Bez, Yasin; Cemal Kaya, Mehmet; Gunes, Mehmet; Karababa, Fatih; Celik, Hakim; Savas, Haluk Asuman

    2013-10-30

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation where paraoxonase and arylesterase are two enzymes against it. Although increased MDA has been previously shown in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD), levels of paraoxonase and arylesterase enzymes have not been studied yet. We aimed to determine the status of both MDA level and paraoxonase and arylesterase enzyme activities in A-ADHD patients. A total of 35 adults with ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria and 29 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum MDA, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels of the participants were measured. The disease severity of the patients was determined by using Turgay's Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) DSM IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. The serum MDA level of patients was significantly higher than that of healthy control subjects, whereas their paraoxonase and arylesterase levels were significantly lower. There was no correlation between the levels of biochemical parameters (MDA, paraoxonase and arylesterase) and the disease severity. Sub-types of A-ADHD were similar in terms of these biochemical parameters. Increased lipid peroxidation, a part of oxidative stress, in adults with ADHD appears to be unbuffered by antioxidant enzymes, namely paraoxonase and arylesterase.

  2. Stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male rats is altered by prenatal ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    SLIWOWSKA, J. H.; BARKER, J. M.; BARHA, C. K.; LAN, N.; WEINBERG, J.; GALEA, L. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    In adulthood, both alcohol (ethanol) and stress are known to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats. Similarly, most studies report that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces cell proliferation and/or cell survival in the hippocampus of adult males. Furthermore, PAE is known to have marked effects on behavioral and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to stressors. However, no studies have examined the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by stress in PAE animals. We hypothesized that, in accordance with previous data, PAE would suppress basal levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and further that stress acting on a sensitized HPA axis would have greater adverse effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in PAE than in control rats. Adult male offspring from PAE, pair-fed (PF) control, and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to restraint stress (9 days, 1 h/day) or left undisturbed. Rats were then injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on day 10, perfused 24 h (proliferation) or 3 weeks (survival) later, and brains processed for BrdU immunohistochemistry. We found that (1) under non-stressed conditions, PAE rats had a small but statistically significant suppressive effect on levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and (2) unexpectedly, repeated restraint stress significantly reduced neurogenesis in C and PF, but not PAE rats. We speculate that the failure of PAE males to mount an appropriate (i.e. suppressive) neurogenic response to stressors, implies reduced plasticity and adaptability or resilience, which could impact negatively on hippocampal structure and function. PMID:20536332

  3. Reported Exposure and Emotional Reactivity to Daily Stressors: The Roles of Adult-Age and Global Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The current study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (Mage = 20) and 116 older (Mage = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14 day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age, but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between young and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in old adults, and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  4. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A.; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N = 61, Ages = 18–35, M = 22.9, SD = 4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations. PMID:26362588

  5. Specific aspects of minority stress associated with depression among LDS affiliated non-heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Katherine A; Galliher, Renee V; Dehlin, John; Bradshaw, William S

    2015-01-01

    A nation-wide sample of 634 previous or current members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), non-heterosexual adults (ages 18-33), were surveyed to examine how specific aspects of minority stress are individually and collectively associated with depression, and how such associations differ across sex, sexual orientation, and level of affiliation with the LDS church. When five stressors were examined simultaneously, need for others' acceptance (NA) was the strongest predictor of depression, followed by internalized homophobia (IH). All minority stress factors were found to be individually predictive of depression and did not differ across sex or sexual orientation subgroups. Differences were observed, however, when considering current LDS status, such that participants who were no longer affiliated with the LDS church reported stronger relationships between some minority stressors and depression. Implications of religious identity salience as a potential mediator of relationships between specific stressors and depression are discussed.

  6. Global life satisfaction predicts ambulatory affect, stress, and cortisol in daily life in working adults.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Joshua M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Juth, Vanessa; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    2017-04-01

    Global life satisfaction has been linked with long-term health advantages, yet how life satisfaction impacts the trajectory of long-term health is unclear. This paper examines one such possible mechanism-that greater life satisfaction confers momentary benefits in daily life that accumulate over time. A community sample of working adults (n = 115) completed a measure of life satisfaction and then three subsequent days of ecological momentary assessment surveys (6 times/day) measuring affect (i.e., emotional valence, arousal), and perceived stress, and also provided salivary cortisol samples. Multilevel models indicated that people with higher (vs. lower) levels of life satisfaction reported better momentary affect, less stress, marginally lower momentary levels and significantly altered diurnal slopes of cortisol. Findings suggest individuals with high global life satisfaction have advantageous daily experiences, providing initial evidence for potential mechanisms through which global life satisfaction may help explain long-term health benefits.

  7. Association between exercise and posttraumatic stress symptoms among trauma-exposed adults.

    PubMed

    Harte, Christopher B; Vujanovic, Anka A; Potter, Carrie M

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation examined associations between intensities of exercise involvement and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom cluster severity (reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal). The sample was comprised of 108 adults (54.6% women; M age = 23.9, SD = 10.22, range = 18-62), who endorsed exposure to a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth edition, Text Revision) posttraumatic stress disorder Criterion A traumatic life event but did not meet criteria for any current Axis I psychopathology. After controlling for gender and lifetime number of trauma exposure types experienced, results indicated that vigorous-intensity exercise, but not light- or moderate-intensity exercise, was significantly inversely associated with hyperarousal symptom cluster severity. This study adds to the scarce, yet growing, body of exercise-PTS literature-by illuminating the inverse associations of vigorous-intensity exercise, specifically, and PTS hyperarousal symptom severity among trauma-exposed individuals. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Familial Social Support Predicts a Reduced Cortisol Response to Stress in Sexual Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Charles L.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bonanno, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. PMID:24972382

  9. A time to be stressed? Time perspectives and cortisol dynamics among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Figueroa, Lening A; Juster, Robert-Paul; Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J

    2015-10-01

    Perceptions of past, present, and future events may be related to stress pathophysiology. We assessed whether Time Perspective (TP) is associated with cortisol dynamics among healthy adults (N=61, Ages=18-35, M=22.9, SD=4.1) exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). TP was measured according to two profiles: maladaptive Deviation from Balanced TP (DBTP) and adaptive Deviation from Negative TP (DNTP). Eight salivary cortisol samples were analyzed using area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and to increase (AUCi). Statistic analyses involved partial correlations controlling for depressive symptoms. Results for both sexes showed that higher DBTP scores were associated with lower cortisol AUCg scores, while higher DNTP scores were associated with higher cortisol AUCg scores. These novel findings suggest that maladaptive TP profiles influence hypocortisolism, whereas adaptive TP profiles influence hypercortisolism. Thus, TP profiles may impact conditions characterized by altered cortisol concentrations.

  10. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.

  11. Still not adult-like: lexical stress contrastivity in word productions of eight- to eleven-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Arciuli, Joanne; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2017-09-01

    Lexical stress is the contrast between strong and weak syllables within words. Ballard et al. (2012) examined the amount of stress contrastivity across adjacent syllables in word productions of typically developing three- to seven-year-olds and adults. Here, eight- to eleven-year-olds are compared with the adults from Ballard et al. using acoustic measurements of relative contrast in duration, peak intensity, and peak fundamental frequency of the vowels within the initial two syllables of each word. While eight- to eleven-year-olds are closer to adult-like stress contrastivity than three- to seven-year-olds, they are not yet adult-like in terms of the intensity contrast for words beginning with a weak syllable.

  12. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients

    PubMed Central

    Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A.; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. Method An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Results Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. Conclusions UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction. PMID

  13. Child sexual abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use: predictors of revictimization in adult sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Filipas, Henrietta H

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N=555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse predicted more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adult sexual assault victims. Posttraumatic stress disorder numbing symptoms directly predicted revictimization, whereas other post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal) were related to problem drinking, which in turn predicted revictimization. Thus, numbing symptoms and problem drinking may be independent risk factors for sexual revictimization in adult sexual assault victims, particularly for women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

  14. The effects of chronic stress on hippocampal adult neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity are reversed by selective MAO-A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Morais, Mónica; Santos, Paulo A R; Mateus-Pinheiro, António; Patrício, Patrícia; Pinto, Luísa; Sousa, Nuno; Pedroso, Pedro; Almeida, Susana; Filipe, Augusto; Bessa, João M

    2014-12-01

    There is accumulating evidence that adult neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity in the hippocampus are neuroplastic phenomena, highly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress and treatment with most classes of antidepressant drugs, being involved in the onset and recovery from depression. However, the effects of antidepressants that act through the selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase subtype A (MAO-A) in these phenomena are still largely unknown. In the present study, adult neurogenesis and neuronal morphology were examined in the hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) and treated with the selective reversible MAO-A inhibitor (RIMA) drug, pirlindole and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine. The results provide the first demonstration that selective MAO-A inhibition with pirlindole is able to revert the behavioural effects of stress exposure while promoting hippocampal adult neurogenesis and rescuing the stress-induced dendritic atrophy of granule neurons.

  15. Baseline Functioning and Stress Reactivity in Maltreating Parents and At-Risk Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reijman, Sophie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L.; Milner, Joel S.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed and meta-analyzed 10 studies (N = 492) that examined the association between (risk for) child maltreatment perpetration and basal autonomic activity, and 10 studies (N = 471) that examined the association between (risk for) child maltreatment and autonomic stress reactivity. We hypothesized that maltreating parents/at-risk adults would show higher basal levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) and lower levels of HR variability (HRV) and would show greater HR and SC stress reactivity, but blunted HRV reactivity. A narrative review showed that evidence from significance testing within and across studies was mixed. The first set of meta-analyses revealed that (risk for) child maltreatment was associated with higher HR baseline activity (g = 0.24), a possible indication of allostatic load. The second set of meta-analyses yielded no differences in autonomic stress reactivity between maltreating/at-risk participants and nonmaltreating/low-risk comparison groups. Cumulative meta-analyses showed that positive effects for sympathetic stress reactivity as a risk factor for child maltreatment were found in a few early studies, whereas each subsequently aggregated study reduced the combined effect size to a null effect, an indication of the winner’s curse. Most studies were underpowered. Future directions for research are suggested. PMID:27462035

  16. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. PMID:27579218

  17. Social Capital, Trust, Economic Stress and Religion in a Cohort of 87,134 Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Lim, Lynette; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Social capital includes collective features such as social trust, norms, and networks. This paper examines social capital-related variables against demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of 87,134 adult distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. We have found economic stress to be higher in non-married groups, lower income groups, and those residing in rural areas. Social trust was higher among married, especially with higher income and those in rural areas. Those who were separated, divorced or widowed and those with lower socioeconomic status had the highest economic stress and the least social trust. These groups also reported high importance of religious belief, karma and spiritual belief, along with lower income groups. Despite having high economic stress, social interaction with and support from families were found to be high among those not-married, with lower income, and in rural areas. As Thailand urbanises and progresses economically, diverse patterns of social capital have emerged and some changes might have offset others. For example, we have shown that economic stress associated with low income tends to co-occur with high social interaction and family support. This observation should be reassuring to policymakers aiming to preserve and promote social capital as Thailand continues to urbanise and modernise. PMID:22003268

  18. Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress

    PubMed Central

    KIM, YOUNG OCK; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; WON, HANSOL; NAH, SEONG-SU; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; KIM, HYUNG-KI; KWON, JUN-TACK; KIM, HAK-JAE

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:25394395

  19. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem.

  20. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  1. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Walls, Melissa L; Sittner, Kelley J; Aronson, Benjamin D; Forsberg, Angie K; Whitbeck, Les B; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-16

    American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose-response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.

  2. Profiles of reminiscence among older adults: perceived stress, life attitudes, and personality variables.

    PubMed

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life Attitude Profile-Revised, the Reminiscence Functions Scale, and the Psychological State of Stress Measure. Cluster membership was determined on the basis of intra-personal functions of reminiscence (Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Identity, Bitterness Revival). These groups were subsequently compared on personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience), life attitudes (Existential Vacuum, Goal Seeking), and perceived stress. Three distinct groupings emerged. A greater tendency to ruminate about negative memories and lower extraversion characterized the negative reminiscers. Higher frequency of reminiscence related to issues of identity, life meaning and death, together with a tendency toward openness to experience, typified the meaning seekers. Lower reminiscence frequency for each of the four functions, combined with lower perceived stress and neuroticism, characterized the infrequent reminiscers. These results are interpreted in terms of differential patterns of coping and adaptation.

  3. Work Impact and Emotional Stress Among Informal Caregivers for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Margaret L; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2017-05-01

    With the growing aging population and reliance on informal caregivers in the United States, many individuals will take on the role of caregiver as an adult. We examined whether informal caregivers experience work interference or a change in work status (i.e., retiring/quitting) due to caregiving. We also explored whether experiencing work interference or a change in work status was associated with greater emotional stress. This secondary analysis is drawn from the Fifth National Survey of Older Americans Act (OAA) program participants, which included 1,793 family caregivers. The present analysis is on caregivers of working age (18-64 years) providing care to another adult, which included 922 caregivers. Ordinal logit models were used to assess associations between experiencing work interference or a change in work status and emotional stress. Study weights were applied for all analyses. At the time of the survey, more than half (52.9%) of caregivers were employed full- or part-time. Among nonworking caregivers (i.e., not working or retired) at the time of the survey, 39.8% responded that they had quit or retired early due to caregiving demands. Among employed caregivers, 52.4% reported that informal caregiving had interfered with their employment. Importantly, those respondents who reported work interference or a change in work status were more likely to report higher levels of emotional stress associated with caregiving demands. These findings suggest the need to further explore work among informal caregivers and associations with emotional stress, as well as consider work-based policy approaches, organizational and/or societal, to support informal caregivers.

  4. Associations of Perceived Stress, Resilience and Social Support with Sleep Disturbance Among Community-dwelling Adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Chunqin; Tian, Xiaohong; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is often described as sleeping poorly, difficulty falling asleep and maintaining sleep, and waking early. Currently, most studies examining sleep disturbance have focused on negative psychological variables; however, few studies have combined both negative and positive psychosocial factors to assess sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbance and psychosocial correlates in Chinese community-dwelling adults. A total of 1471 adults, between 18 and 60 years old, from eight selected community settings in Jinan, China, were surveyed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and provided sociodemographic information. We found that the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 33.9%. After adjusting for age, employment status and physical co-morbidity, perceived stress was significantly associated with sleep disturbance [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, p < 0.001], while resilience and social support were associated with a low likelihood of sleep disturbance (OR = 0.90, p < 0.001; OR = 0.97, p < 0.001). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the interaction between perceived stress and resilience was significant (p < 0.05). Resilience buffered the negative impact of perceived stress on sleep disturbance. Given the close relationship between sleep disturbance and psychosocial correlates, the development of effective intervention programmes to improve sleep quality in this population should be considered. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Anxiety, Stress-Related Factors, and Blood Pressure in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; De Pasquale Ceratti, Stefano; Fiz-Pérez, Javier; Mucci, Federico; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a long-term medical condition characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure (BP) in the arterial vessels. Although HT initially is an asymptomatic condition, it chronically evolves into a major risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases that, in turn, represent crucial causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. HT is a complex disorder that is estimated to affect more than a quarter of the world’s adult population. It is classified on the basis of both its pathophysiology (primary and secondary HT) and on the resting BP values (elevated systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure). It originates from a complicated interaction of genes and several environmental risk factors including aging, smoking, lack of exercise, overweight and obesity, elevated salt intake, stress, depression, and anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders, affecting millions of people each year and impairing every aspect of everyday life, both of them characterized by affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and neurovegetative symptoms. Moreover, work-related stress has been considered as an important risk factor for HT and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although different authors have investigated and suggested possible relations between HT, stress, anxiety, and depression during the last decades, a full understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms has not been satisfactorily achieved, especially in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anxiety and work-related stress in the development of HT amongst young health care profession students and the possible related consequences of early CVDs. PMID:27840615

  6. Differential effects of stress on fear learning and activation of the amygdala in pre-adolescent and adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Barbayannis, Georgia; Franco, Daly; Wong, Solange; Galdamez, Josselyn; Romeo, Russell D; Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2017-09-30

    Adolescence is accompanied by the maturation of several stress-responsive areas of the brain including the amygdala, a key region for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. These changes may contribute to the development of stress-related disorders in adolescence, such as anxiety and depression, and increase the susceptibility to these psychopathologies later in life. Here, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on fear learning and amygdala activation in pre-adolescent and adult male rats. Pre-adolescents exposed to stress prior to fear conditioning showed greater resistance to the extinction of fear memories than adults. At the cellular level, the combination of stress and fear conditioning resulted in a greater number of FOS-positive cells in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) than fear conditioning alone, and this increase was greater in pre-adolescents than in adults. Despite age-dependent differences, we found no changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the amygdala of either pre-adolescent or adult males. Overall, our data indicate that stress prior to fear conditioning leads to extinction-resistant fear responses in pre-adolescent animals, and that the BLA may be one neural locus mediating these age-dependent effects of stress on fear learning. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Age, cumulative trauma and stressful life events, and post-traumatic stress symptoms among older adults in prison: do subjective impressions matter?

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful life events and post-traumatic stress symptoms among older adults in prison. Data were gathered from 334 prisoners (aged 55+) housed in the New Jersey Department of Corrections, as of September 2010. An anonymous self-report, self-administered survey was mailed to the total population of 1,000 prisoners aged 55 years and older. Objective and subjective trauma was measured using the Life Stressors Checklist-Revised (LSC-R), and post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured using the Civilian Version of the Post-traumatic Stress Scale. Results of a path analysis revealed that past year subjective impressions of traumatic and stressful life events had a positive and significant relationship to current post-traumatic stress symptoms. Age was found to have a significant and inverse relationship to subjective traumatic and stressful life events. That is, younger participants reported higher levels of cumulative traumatic and stressful life events and past year subjective ratings of being bothered by these past events. These findings have significance for interdisciplinary/interprofessional practice and appropriate institutional and community care, including reentry planning of older adults in the criminal justice system.

  8. The gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A; Abdel-Daiem, Wafaa M; Sayyed Bakheet, Mohamad

    2012-08-05

    We investigated the gender difference of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine in adult rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, control males and group II, control females; group III, acute cold restraint stressed males and group IV, acute cold restraint stressed females; group V, fluoxetine-treated stressed males and group VI, fluoxetine-treated stressed females. Acute cold restraint stress was established by fixing the four limbs of the rat and placing it in a refrigerator at 4°C for 3h. Fluoxetine was given intraperitoneal in a single dose of 10mg/kg/day. After 2 weeks, stomach and brain tissues were collected for the assay of gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), catalase, nitric oxide (NO) and cortical gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Stressed animals exhibited increased total acidity in association with decreased gastric secretion volume. Gastric MDA was increased while gastric catalase, NO, and cortical GABA were decreased in stressed male rats when compared to stressed females. However, fluoxetine administration attenuated these stress-induced changes especially in stressed male animals. Stressed male rats were more responsive to the antiulcer effect of fluoxetine more than stressed females. However, fluoxetine might be considered to be the first-choice drug in depressive patients with gastric ulcers in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  10. Assessment of arterial compliance by carotid midwall strain-stress relation in normotensive adults.

    PubMed

    Bella, J N; Roman, M J; Pini, R; Schwartz, J E; Pickering, T G; Devereux, R B

    1999-03-01

    Examining left ventricular midwall as opposed to endocardial mechanics enhances understanding of left ventricular function in individuals with abnormal cardiac geometry. Accordingly, we used carotid ultrasound and applanation tonometry of arterial pressure to derive carotid midwall strain and its relation to carotid peak-systolic and end-diastolic stresses in 82 apparently normal, employed subjects (56 men, 26 women; median age, 47 years; 70% white; 21% overweight) with no evidence of coronary or valvular heart disease. Regression equations relating carotid luminal and midwall strain to the increment in carotid stress during systole (Deltacarotid stress) were used to predict strain for the observed Deltastress. Observed/predicted carotid luminal or midwall strain was calculated as a measure of carotid luminal or midwall strain for imposed stress, termed stress-corrected strain. Midwall carotid strain was similar in women and men but was negatively related to older age (r=-0.35, P=0.001) and higher body mass index (r=-0.31, P=0.005) and brachial and carotid blood pressure (r=-0.30 to -0.45, all P<0.01). The pulsatile change in arterial load, measured by Deltacarotid stress, was positively related to midwall strain (r=0. 44, P<0.001) more closely than was carotid luminal strain. Regression analyses revealed that carotid midwall strain was positively related to Deltastress, with additional negative relations to age and carotid diastolic diameter (all P<0.001). Stress-corrected carotid midwall strain was strongly and negatively correlated with midwall elastic modulus and Young's modulus (both r=-0.77, P<0.001), followed by elastic modulus (r=-0.74, P<0.001), midwall Young's modulus (r=-0.73, P<0.001), midwall stiffness index (r=-0.70, P<0.001), and stiffness index (r=-0.66, P<0.001). Thus, in normal adults, carotid midwall strain is unrelated to gender, is positively related to pulsatile carotid load as measured by Deltacarotid stress, and is negatively related to age

  11. Early life hypoxic or hypoxic/hypercapnic stress alters acute ventilatory sensitivity in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Huang, Pengjing; Tsipis, Constantinos P; Radford, Thomas; Babcock, Gerald; Boron, Walter F; Lamanna, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of early life conditioning (hypoxia ± hypercapnia) on adult acute ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Mice were exposed to either hypoxia (5% O(2)) or hypoxia/hypercapnia (5% O(2)/8% CO(2)) in a normobaric chamber for 2 h at postnatal day 2 (P2), and then returned to normoxia. At 3 months of age, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were measured using a plethysmograph system. Results showed that HVR was significantly decreased in the P2-hypoxia mice but not in the P2 hypoxia/hypercapnia mice as compared to the P2-normoxic mice, respectively. However, HCVR was significantly decreased in the P2 hypoxia-hypercapnia group but not in the P2-hypoxia group. These data suggest early postnatal hypoxic stress vs. hypoxic/hypercapnic stress plays different roles in fetal programming of the respiratory control system as shown by altered adult acute ventilatory sensitivity.

  12. Association of CRHR1 Variants and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Hurricane Exposed Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Simone; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Galea, Sandro; Gelernter, Joel; Williamson, Vernell; McMichael, Omari; Vladimirov, Vladimir I.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a moderately heritable anxiety disorder that may develop after exposure to trauma. However, only few genetic variants that relate to PTSD have been studied. This study examined the relationship between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) and post-disaster PTSD symptoms and diagnosis in adults exposed to 2004 Florida hurricanes. CRHR1 regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; dysregulation of the HPA axis is characteristic of stress phenotypes. Final analyses were conducted in the European-American (EA) subsample (n=564) due to population stratification. After correction for multiple testing, rs12938031 and rs4792887 remained associated with post-hurricane PTSD symptoms. Additionally, rs4792887 was associated with post-hurricane diagnosis of PTSD. This study is the first to examine CRHR1 in relation to PTSD in adults, and provides evidence for the importance of CRHR1 variation in the etiology of PTSD. Although results are preliminary and require replication, they justify follow-up efforts to characterize how this gene relates to PTSD. PMID:24077033

  13. Does expressive writing reduce stress and improve health for family caregivers of older adults?

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Corey S; Wiprzycka, Ursula J; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David

    2007-06-01

    We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health outcomes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical populations. Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were randomly assigned to expressive-writing (n = 14), time-management (n = 13), or history-writing (n = 13) conditions. Participants wrote for 20 minutes on four occasions over a 2-week period, and they completed self-report measures of caregiver burden and health prior to the intervention, immediately afterward, and at 1-month follow-up. Contrary to expectations, expressive-writing and history-writing participants performed similarly across outcomes. Only caregiver participants in the time-management condition experienced significant mental and physical health improvements after writing. The results of this study add to a growing body of research demonstrating equivocal effects of expressive writing with clinical samples, and they suggest the potential benefit of written time management for stressed caregivers.

  14. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  15. Stress-associated poor health among adult immigrants with a language barrier in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Hargraves, Lee

    2009-12-01

    The healthy migrant hypothesis supported by the 'Hispanic paradox' suggests that immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants. To test the generalizability of this hypothesis, we studied the stress-associated health status of adult immigrants with a language barrier in the USA. Three stress-related conditions (Unhappiness, Depression, and Anxiety) and self-reported health status were ascertained from participants of the Community Tracking Study Health Survey conducted in 2003. The associations between these conditions as well as the immigrants' length of time living in the USA and health were assessed. Our results demonstrated that the three stress-related conditions were significantly associated with a dramatically elevated poor health status (Unhappiness: OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 4.43-6.14; Depression: OR = 3.03, 95% CI: 2.31-3.98; Anxiety: OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.53-7.41). Compared to US citizens without a language barrier, immigrants with a language barrier were more likely to report poor health (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.66-2.78). After adjustment for stressors, the likelihood of reporting poor health among immigrants with a language barrier decreased significantly (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.05-2.91). In addition, these immigrants were more likely to report poor health within the first 10 years of their living in the USA (stressed, especially at the beginning of their lives as immigrants. The combined effect of stress and a language barrier led to poorer health in these immigrants. Thus, the healthy migrant hypothesis may not be generalizable to this population.

  16. Neonatal stress alters LTP in freely moving male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, P; Bronzino, J D

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that neonatal isolation stress significantly changes measures of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in male and female juvenile rats, i.e., at 30 days of age. The changes in dentate granule population measures, i.e., excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and population spike amplitude (PSA), evoked by tetanization of the medial perforant pathway, indicated that juvenile rats exposed to neonatal isolation exhibit different enhancement profiles with respect to both the magnitude and duration of LTP in a sex-specific manner. Isolated males showed a significantly greater enhancement of LTP, while female "isolates" showed significantly longer LTP duration when compared to all other groups. The present study was designed to determine whether the effects of the neonatal isolation stress paradigm endures into adulthood. Rats isolated from their mothers for 1 h per day during postnatal days 2-9 were surgically prepared at 70-90 days of age, with stimulating and recording electrodes placed in the medial perforant pathway and the hippocampal dentate gyrus, respectively. Prior to tetanization, no significant effect of sex or treatment was obtained for baseline measures of EPSP slope or PSA. In order to rule out baseline differences in hippocampal cell excitability in female adult rats, we measured the response of dentate granule cells for one estrus cycle and found no pretetanization enhancement in the evoked response in either controls or previously stressed rats. Following tetanization, there was a significant treatment and sex effect. During the induction of LTP, PSA values were significantly enhanced in both isolated males and females and had significantly longer LTP duration when compared to the unhandled control group. Additionally, we observed that females took longer to reach baseline levels than males. Taken together, these results indicate that repeated infant isolation stress enhances LTP induction and duration in both males and

  17. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  18. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  19. Separation from parents during childhood trauma predicts adult attachment security and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R A; Creamer, M; O'Donnell, M; Forbes, D; Felmingham, K L; Silove, D; Malhi, G; van Hoof, M; McFarlane, A C; Nickerson, A

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress. Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7-8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist. Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = -3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = -0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p < 0.001) symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.18, p = 0.001), numbing (B = 0.03, β = 0.30, s.e. = 0.01, p < 0.001) and arousal (B = 0.04, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.43, p < 0.001) symptoms. These findings demonstrate that brief separation from attachments during childhood trauma can have long-lasting effects on one's attachment security, and that this can be associated with adult post-traumatic psychopathology.

  20. Untangling the influences of voluntary running, environmental complexity, social housing and stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel "Alternating EE" paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this "Alternating EE" paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity.

  1. Adolescent Chronic Unpredictable Stress Exposure Is a Sensitive Window for Long-Term Changes in Adult Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Blendy, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a time period in development when the brain undergoes substantial remodeling in response to the environment. To determine whether a stressful experience during adolescence affects adult behavior, we exposed adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 12 days starting at postnatal day 28 (PND28). We also exposed adult male and female mice to CUS for 12 days beginning at PND70 to determine whether adolescence is a sensitive time period when stress can have long-lasting effects on behavior. Regardless of when mice were exposed to stress, they were all tested exactly 30 days later in the marble burying task, elevated zero maze, acoustic startle response, and forced swim test. Adolescent stress exposure increased anxiety-like behaviors in adult male and female mice and decreased acoustic startle response in a sex-dependent manner. However, adult stress exposure did not change anxiety or response to an acoustic tone in adult male or female mice as compared with nonstressed animals. Of interest, increased depression-like behavior in the forced swim test was observed in all mice, regardless of when the stress occurred. Gene expression analysis showed significant upregulation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CrfR2) in the amygdala of males subjected to CUS during adolescence, but not in males that experienced CUS during adulthood. In contrast, females, regardless of when they were exposed to CUS, were not affected. These data support clinical evidence suggesting that early-life stress may predispose individuals to increased anxiety and depression later in life.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.11.

  2. Neonatal nociception elevated baseline blood pressure and attenuated cardiovascular responsiveness to noxious stress in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ya-Chun; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Ho-Tien; Chen, Pin-Tarng; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Kuo, Terry B J

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal nociception has significant long-term effects on sensory perception in adult animals. Although neonatal adverse experience affect future responsiveness to stressors is documented, little is known about the involvement of early nociceptive experiences in the susceptibility to subsequent nociceptive stress exposure during adulthood. The aim of this study is to explore the developmental change in cardiovascular regulating activity in adult rats that had been subjected to neonatal nociceptive insults. To address this question, we treated neonatal rats with an intraplantar injection of saline (control) or carrageenan at postnatal day 1. The carrageenan-treated rats exhibited generalized hypoalgesia at basal state, and localized hyperalgesia after re-nociceptive challenge induced by intraplantar injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) as adults. Then we recorded baseline cardiovascular variables and 24-h responsiveness to an injection of CFA in the free-moving adult rats with telemetric technique. The carrageenan-treated rats showed significantly higher basal blood pressures (110.3±3.16 vs. control 97.0±4.28 mmHg). In control animals, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased, sympathetic vasomotor activity increased, and parasympathetic activity was inhibited after CFA injection. Blood pressure elevation was evident (107.0±2.75 vs. pre-injection 97.0±4.28 mmHg). Comparatively, the carrageenan-treated rats showed a higher BRS (BrrLF 1.03±0.09 vs. control 0.70±0.06 ms/mmHg) and higher parasympathetic activity [0.93±0.17 vs. control 0.32±0.02 ln(ms²)] after CFA injection. The change in blood pressure is negligible (111.9±4.05 vs. pre-injection 110.3±3.16 mmHg). Our research has shown that neonatal nociception alters future pain sensation, raises basal blood pressure level, and attenuates cardiovascular responsiveness to nociceptive stress in adult rats. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leptin Attenuates the Contractile Function of Adult Rat Cardiomyocytes Involved in Oxidative Stress and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liu-Jin; Liu, Ying-Ping; Yuan, Xun; Zhang, Gui-Ping; Hou, Ning; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Luo, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Gen-Shui

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. Methods Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour. The calcium transients and the contraction of adult rat cardiomyocytes were recorded with SoftEdge MyoCam system. Apocynin, tempol and rapamycin were added respectively, and Western blotting was employed to evaluate the expression of LC3B and Beclin-1. Results The peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (± dL/dtmax) of cell shortening were significantly decreased, and the time to 50% relengthening was prolonged with leptin perfusion. Leptin also significantly reduced the baseline, peak and time to 50% baseline of calcium transient. Leptin attenuated autophagy as indicated by decreased LC3-II and Beclin-1. All of the abnormalities were significantly attenuated by apocynin, tempol or rapamycin. Conclusions Our results indicated that leptin depressed the intracellular free calcium and myocardial systolic function via increasing oxidative stress and inhibiting autophagy. PMID:27899860

  4. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments.

  5. Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol misuse in young adult veterans: The transdiagnostic role of distress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is common among young adult veterans, and is commonly associated with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, rates of comorbid depression, PTSD, and problem drinking are high in this population. Although distress tolerance, the capacity to experience and withstand negative psychological states, has been examined as a potential transdiagnostic factor that accounts for the development of mental health disorders, problem drinking, and the comorbidity between these presenting concerns, its role has not been evaluated in a veteran population. Methods Young adult veterans were recruited for an online survey related to alcohol use. Participants (n = 783) completed self-report measures of alcohol use, depression and PTSD symptoms, and distress tolerance. Mediation models were conducted to examine whether distress tolerance mediated the relationship between (1) probable PTSD, (2) probable depression, and (3) comorbid probable PTSD and depression with alcohol misuse. Moderated mediation models were conducted to examine gender as a moderator. Results Significant bivariate associations were observed among mental health symptoms, distress tolerance, and alcohol misuse. Distress tolerance significantly mediated the relationship between probable depression and PTSD (both alone and in combination) and alcohol misuse. Evidence of moderated mediation was present for probable PTSD and probable comorbid PTSD and depression, such that the indirect effect was stronger among males. Conclusions These results suggest that distress tolerance may be a transdiagnostic factor explaining the comorbidity of depression and PTSD with alcohol misuse in young adult veterans. These findings may inform screening and intervention efforts with this high-risk population. PMID:26948757

  6. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders.

  7. Stress responses in adult cattle due to surgical dehorning using three different types of anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lepková, Renata; Sterc, Jan; Vecerek, Vladimír; Doubek, Jaroslav; Kruzíková, Kamila; Bedánová, Iveta

    2007-01-01

    Dehorning adult cattle is a surgical procedure causing distress of varying intensities that can be reflected in behavioural changes and alterations in plasma cortisol levels. Stress responses during the dehorning process were evaluated in 18 Red Pied cows. The cows were divided into 3 groups of six and kept in tie-stall housing. Those in the first group were dehorned under general anaesthesia (GA) induced by intravenous administration of xylazine and ketamine. The second group was dehorned under sedation and local anaesthesia (SLA) induced by intramuscular administration of xylazine and local anaesthesia with lidocaine. The third group was dehorned under local anaesthesia (LA) with lidocaine. Dehorning was performed with a foetotomy wire. Blood samples were taken 0.5 h before dehorning to determine cortisol levels, and, by means of a central venous catheter inserted into the jugular vein, during surgery at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h post-surgery. Concurrently, occurrence of stress behaviours was assessed. Cortisol levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The lowest mean peak levels of plasma cortisol (82.53 +/- 6.04 nmol l(-1)), the most rapid return of plasma cortisol levels to baseline values (1.92 +/- 1.11 h), and the lowest occurrence of stress behaviours (2.38 +/- 5.83%) were noted in the SLA group. The highest mean peak levels plasma cortisol (113.86 +/- 25.65 nmol l(-1)), the slowest return of plasma cortisol levels to baseline values (3.83 +/- 2.18 h) and the most frequent occurrence of stress behaviours (65.48 +/- 28.72%) were observed in the LA group. There were significant differences between the SLA and LA groups in peak plasma cortisol levels (p = 0.011) and in occurrence of stress behaviours (p = 0.003). Sedation induced by intramuscular administration of xylazine in conjunction with local anaesthesia with lidocaine is considered the most suitable method of anaesthesia when dehorning adult cattle. Local anaesthesia

  8. Metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Shenouda, Sylvia K; Varner, Kurt J; Carvalho, Felix; Lucchesi, Pamela A

    2009-03-01

    Repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (ecstasy) produces eccentric left ventricular (LV) dilation and diastolic dysfunction. While the mechanism(s) underlying this toxicity are unknown, oxidative stress plays an important role. MDMA is metabolized into redox cycling metabolites that produce superoxide. In this study, we demonstrated that metabolites of MDMA induce oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction in adult rat left ventricular myocytes. Metabolites of MDMA used in this study included alpha-methyl dopamine, N-methyl alpha-methyl dopamine and 2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA. Dihydroethidium was used to detect drug-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in ventricular myocytes. Contractile function and changes in intracellular calcium transients were measured in paced (1 Hz), Fura-2 AM loaded, myocytes using the IonOptix system. Production of ROS in ventricular myocytes treated with MDMA was not different from control. In contrast, all three metabolites of MDMA exhibited time- and concentration-dependent increases in ROS that were prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). The metabolites of MDMA, but not MDMA alone, significantly decreased contractility and impaired relaxation in myocytes stimulated at 1 Hz. These effects were prevented by NAC. Together, these data suggest that MDMA-induced oxidative stress in the left ventricle can be due, at least in part, to the metabolism of MDMA to redox active metabolites.

  9. Socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  10. Expression of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes in prostate of adult rats after environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Castro, Beatriz; Olmo, Asunción; del Moral, Raimundo G; Ortega, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    The elevated incidence of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy is a cause of increasing public health concern in the Western world. The normal and pathological growth of the prostate are both dependent on stimulation by dihydrotestosterone, which is synthesized from circulating testosterone by two 5α-reductase (5α-R) isozymes, 5α-reductase type 1 (5α-R1) and 5α-reductase type 2 (5α-R2). Both isozymes have been implicated in prostate disease. We used quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, to quantify mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R isozymes in the ventral prostate of adult rats under environmental stress conditions analogous to those found in some common workplace situations, i.e. artificial light, excessive heat, and the sensation of immobility in a small space. Transcription and expression levels of both 5α-R isozymes were significantly higher in environmentally stressed rats than in unstressed rats. Increased 5α-R isozyme levels may play a role in the development or maintenance of prostate disease. Further research is warranted to explore these effects of environmental stress on human health and their implications for environmental and occupational health policies. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  11. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health.

  12. Acute exercise increases resistance to oxidative stress in young but not older adults.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Trevor C; Done, Aaron J; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2014-01-01

    A single bout of acute exercise increases oxidative stress and stimulates a transient increase in antioxidant enzymes. We asked whether this response would induce protection from a subsequent oxidative challenge, different from that of exercise, and whether the effects were affected by aging. We compared young (20 ± 1 years, n = 8) and older (58 ± 6 years, n = 9) healthy men and women. Resistance to oxidative stress was measured by the F2-isoprostane response to forearm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) trial. Each participant underwent the I/R trial twice, in random order; once after performing 45 min of cycling on the preceding day (IRX) and a control trial without any physical activity (IRC). Baseline F2-isoprostane levels were significantly lower at IRX compared to IRC (P < 0.05) and not different between groups. F2-isoprostane response to IRX was significantly lower compared to IRC in young (P < 0.05) but not different in the older group. Superoxide dismutase activity in response to acute exercise was significantly higher in young compared to older adults (P < 0.05). These data suggest that signal transduction of acute exercise may be impaired with aging. Repeated bouts of transient reactive oxygen species production as seen with regular exercise may be needed to increase resistance to oxidative stress in older individuals.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Related to Hyperglycemia: Prevalence in Adults with Type I Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Renna, Chelsea P; Boyer, Bret A; Prout, Maurice F; Scheiner, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of hyperglycemia-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) was assessed in 239 adults with type 1 diabetes using the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale (PDS; Foa, Posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1995) by an anonymous online survey. Additionally, this study aimed to identify variables related to hyperglycemia-related PTS. Over 30 % of participants reported symptoms consistent with PTSD related to hyperglycemia with standard PDS scoring, and 10 % with more conservative scoring. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that diabetes self-management behavior and perceived helplessness about hyperglycemia predicted PTSD with standard scoring. Perceived death threat, self-management behavior, helplessness about hyperglycemia, and severity of hypoglycemia in past month predicted PTSD using more conservative scoring. Perceived helplessness, hypoglycemia severity, perceived death-threat, HbA1c, and self-management behavior predicted PTS severity. When fear, helplessness, and perceived death-threat were combined to represent an overall cognitive appraisal factor, this variable was the strongest predictor of PTSD and PTS severity. Scores for PTSD symptom clusters appeared similar to data on hypoglycemia-related PTS.

  14. Maternal nicotine exposure leads to higher liver oxidative stress and steatosis in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P; Peixoto-Silva, N; Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-04-01

    Early nicotine exposure causes future obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated the long-term effect of the maternal nicotine exposure during lactation in liver oxidative status, insulin sensitivity and morphology in adult offspring. Two days after birth, osmotic minipumps were implanted in the dams: nicotine (N), 6 mg/kg/day for 14 days or saline (C). Offspring were killed at 180 days. Protein content of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nitrotyrosine, 4HNE, IRS1, Akt1 and PPARs were measured. MDA, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD, GPx and catalase activities were determined in liver and plasma. Hepatic morphology and triglycerides content were evaluated. Albumin and bilirubin were determined. In plasma, N offspring had higher catalase activity, and SOD/GPx ratio, albumin and bilirubin levels but lower MDA content. In liver, they presented higher MDA and 4HNE levels, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD activity but lower GPx activity. N offspring presented an increase of lipid droplet, higher triglyceride content and a trend to lower PPARα in liver despite unchanged insulin signaling pathway. Early nicotine exposure causes oxidative stress in liver at adulthood, while protect against oxidative stress at plasma level. In addition, N offspring develop liver microsteatosis, which is related to oxidative stress but not to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of hindlimb unloading on motor activity in adult rats: impact of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Canu, M H; Darnaudéry, M; Falempin, M; Maccari, S; Viltart, O

    2007-02-01

    Environmental changes that occur in daily life or, in particular, in situations like actual or simulated microgravity require neuronal adaptation of sensory and motor functions. Such conditions can exert long-lasting disturbances on an individual's adaptive ability. Additionally, prenatal stress also leads to behavioral and physiological abnormalities in adulthood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (a) to evaluate in adult rats the behavioral motor adaptation that follows 14 days of exposure to simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading) and (b) to determine whether restraint prenatal stress influences this motor adaptation. For this purpose, the authors assessed rats' motor reactivity to novelty, their skilled walking on a ladder, and their swimming performance. Results showed that unloading severely impaired motor activity and skilled walking. By contrast, it had no effect on swimming performance. Moreover, results demonstrated for the first time that restraint prenatal stress exacerbates the effects of unloading. These results are consistent with the role of a steady prenatal environment in allowing an adequate development and maturation of sensorimotor systems to generate adapted responses to environmental challenges during adulthood.

  16. The role of minority stress in second-generation Black emerging adult college students' high-risk drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Delishia M; Cho Kim, Sara; Hunter, Carla D; Obasi, Ezemenari M

    2017-07-01

    This study used a minority stress framework to investigate the relationships between multiple stressors (e.g., general life stress, race related stress, and acculturative stress) and high-risk drinking behaviors in a sample of second-generation Black emerging adult college students across the United States. Participants (n = 148) were recruited from U.S. colleges and universities as part of a large, multiwave cross-sectional study. Findings from this study mirrored those in the extant literature: the positive relationship between race-related stress and high-risk drinking behaviors found in other marginalized groups. However, when all stressors were entered into the model, acculturative stress accounted for significant variance in high-risk drinking behaviors above and beyond general life and race-related stressors in second generation Black emerging adult college students. Findings underscore the need to better understand the influence of acculturative stress on high-risk drinking behaviors among second-generation Black emerging adult college students: an understudied population in both the acculturation and alcohol use literatures. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Distinct effects of repeated restraint stress on basolateral amygdala neuronal membrane properties in resilient adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Andrea; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2014-08-01

    Severe and repeated stress has damaging effects on health, including initiation of depression and anxiety. Stress that occurs during development has long-lasting and particularly damaging effects on emotion. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in many affective behaviors, and repeated stress causes different forms of BLA hyperactivity in adolescent and adult rats. However, the mechanism is not known. Furthermore, not every individual is susceptible to the negative consequences of stress. Differences in the effects of stress on the BLA might contribute to determine whether an individual will be vulnerable or resilient to the effects of stress on emotion. The purpose of this study is to test the cellular underpinnings for age dependency of BLA hyperactivity after stress, and whether protective changes occur in resilient individuals. To test this, the effects of repeated stress on membrane excitability and other membrane properties of BLA principal neurons were compared between adult and adolescent rats, and between vulnerable and resilient rats, using in vitro whole-cell recordings. Vulnerability was defined by adrenal gland weight, and verified by body weight gain after repeated restraint stress, and fecal pellet production during repeated restraint sessions. We found that repeated stress increased the excitability of BLA neurons, but in a manner that depended on age and BLA subnucleus. Furthermore, stress resilience was associated with an opposite pattern of change, with increased slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) potential, whereas vulnerability was associated with decreased medium AHP. The opposite outcomes in these two populations were further distinguished by differences of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze that were correlated with BLA neuronal excitability and AHP. These results demonstrate a substrate for BLA hyperactivity after repeated stress, with distinct membrane properties to target, as well as age-dependent factors that

  18. Distinct Effects of Repeated Restraint Stress on Basolateral Amygdala Neuronal Membrane Properties in Resilient Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, Andrea; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2014-01-01

    Severe and repeated stress has damaging effects on health, including initiation of depression and anxiety. Stress that occurs during development has long-lasting and particularly damaging effects on emotion. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a key role in many affective behaviors, and repeated stress causes different forms of BLA hyperactivity in adolescent and adult rats. However, the mechanism is not known. Furthermore, not every individual is susceptible to the negative consequences of stress. Differences in the effects of stress on the BLA might contribute to determine whether an individual will be vulnerable or resilient to the effects of stress on emotion. The purpose of this study is to test the cellular underpinnings for age dependency of BLA hyperactivity after stress, and whether protective changes occur in resilient individuals. To test this, the effects of repeated stress on membrane excitability and other membrane properties of BLA principal neurons were compared between adult and adolescent rats, and between vulnerable and resilient rats, using in vitro whole-cell recordings. Vulnerability was defined by adrenal gland weight, and verified by body weight gain after repeated restraint stress, and fecal pellet production during repeated restraint sessions. We found that repeated stress increased the excitability of BLA neurons, but in a manner that depended on age and BLA subnucleus. Furthermore, stress resilience was associated with an opposite pattern of change, with increased slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) potential, whereas vulnerability was associated with decreased medium AHP. The opposite outcomes in these two populations were further distinguished by differences of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze that were correlated with BLA neuronal excitability and AHP. These results demonstrate a substrate for BLA hyperactivity after repeated stress, with distinct membrane properties to target, as well as age-dependent factors that

  19. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-12-01

    ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice after exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress may counteract some of the effects of stress.

    PubMed

    Culig, Luka; Surget, Alexandre; Bourdey, Marlene; Khemissi, Wahid; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Vogel, Elise; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René; Belzung, Catherine

    2017-09-07

    Major depression is hypothesized to be associated with dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Adult-born hippocampal neurons are required for several effects of antidepressants and increasing the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) before exposure to chronic corticosterone is sufficient to protect against its harmful effects on behavior. However, it is an open question if increasing AHN after the onset of chronic stress exposure would be able to rescue behavioral deficits and which mechanisms might be involved in recovery. We investigated this question by using a 10-week unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model on a transgenic mouse line (iBax mice), in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax can be inducibly ablated in neural stem cells following Tamoxifen injection, therefore enhancing the survival of newborn neurons in the adult brain. We did not observe any effect of our treatment in non-stress conditions, but we did find that increasing AHN after 2 weeks of UCMS is sufficient to counteract the effects of UCMS on certain behaviors (splash test and changes in coat state) and endocrine levels and thus to display some antidepressant-like effects. We observed that increasing AHN lowered the elevated basal corticosterone levels in mice exposed to UCMS. This was accompanied by a tamoxifen-induced reversal of the lack of stress-induced decrease in neuronal activation in the anteromedial division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMA) after intrahippocampal dexamethasone infusion, pointing to a possible mechanism through which adult-born neurons might have exerted their effects. Our results contribute to the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression by suggesting that increasing AHN may be beneficial not just before, but also after exposure to stress by counteracting several of its effects, in part through regulating the HPA axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Minority stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults: A resiliency-based conditional process analysis.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Christianson, Nathan; Cochran, Bryan N

    2016-12-01

    Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences. Sexual minority young adults (N=412) were recruited nationally. Survey measures included demographic questions, minority stressors, Five Factor personality traits, and current psychological distress and alcohol misuse symptoms. We used a data-driven two-stage cluster analytic technique to empirically derive personality trait profiles, and conducted mediation and moderated mediation analyses using a regression-based approach. Our results supported a two-group personality profile solution. Relative to at-risk individuals, those classified as adaptive scored lower on neuroticism, and higher on agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. As predicted, psychological distress mediated the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse. However, personality moderated these relationships to the degree that they did not exist among individuals classified as adaptive. In the current study, we found that personality moderated the established relationships between distal stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults. Future research is needed to further explicate these relationships, and in order to develop tailored interventions for sexual minority young adults at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative control rats, (Ib): Positive control rats received distilled water, (II): Stressed rats, (III): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (IV): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (V): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). (VI): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). At the end of the 4th week, total leukocyte count (WBCs) and differential count were determined, anti-sheep RBC antibody (Anti-SRBC) titer and interleukin-2 (IL-2) level were assessed, thymus glands, lymph nodes, spleens and abdominal aortae were submitted to histopathological examination. Alprazolam was found to induce a significant increase in neutrophil count and a significant decrease in lymphocytes, anti-SRBC titer and IL-2 level with severe depletion of the splenic, thymal and nodal lymphocytes, accompanied by congestion and eosinophilic vasculitis of all organs tested in comparison to clonazepam treated rats. Stress enhanced the toxic effects. It was concluded that the immune system and blood vessels can be adversely affected to a greater extent by short-term chronic administration of alprazolam than by clonazepam, and these toxic effects are aggravated by stress. PMID:22058654

  3. Associations of Bisexual-Specific Minority Stress and Health Among Cisgender and Transgender Adults with Bisexual Orientation.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Mereish, Ethan H; Woulfe, Julie

    2016-11-11

    Among sexual minorities, bisexuals are at the greatest risk for poor health due in part to prejudice and stigma. This research examined associations of bisexual-specific minority stress and health among cisgender (non-transgender) and transgender adults with bisexual orientation. Participants were 488 adults (378 cisgender women, 49 cisgender men, 61 transgender individuals), age 18 to 66 years, with bisexual orientation based on identity and/or attractions to multiple genders. Participants completed an online survey. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with sexual minority stress and bisexual-specific minority stress as the predictors and physical health, measured by the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), as the outcome. Models controlled for demographic variables. Moderation analyses were conducted to test for gender differences. Greater bisexual-specific minority stress significantly predicted poorer overall physical health (β = -0.16), greater pain (β = -0.16), and poorer general health (β = -0.25) above and beyond the effects of sexual minority stress. Gender moderated the association between bisexual-specific minority stress and health, such that bisexual-specific minority stress predicted overall physical health and role limitations for transgender individuals but not for cisgender women. Addressing bisexual-specific minority stress is necessary to improve the health and well-being of bisexual individuals.

  4. Sirt1 Protects Stressed Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The immune system relies on a stable pool of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to respond properly to injury or stress. Maintaining genomic integrity and appropriate gene expression is essential for HSPC homeostasis, and dysregulation can result in myeloproliferative disorders or loss of immune function. Sirt1 is a histone deacetylase that can protect embryonic stem (ES) cells from accumulating DNA damage and has been linked to hematopoietic differentiation of ES cells. Satyendra Singh, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow working with Philipp Oberdoerffer, Ph.D., in CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and their colleagues set out to determine whether Sirt1 could play a similar protective role in adult HSPCs.

  5. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among adult survivors two months after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuqing; Shi, Zhanbiao; Wang, Wenzhong

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and associated risk factors among adult survivors 2 mo. after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. 228 survivors completed the Chinese version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 43%. The significant predictive factors for the severity of PTSD symptoms included being female, having lower educational level, being bereaved, and witnessing death. Findings of this study suggest that PTSD is a common mental health problem among earthquake survivors in China. Given inadequate knowledge and practices concerning the mental health of disaster victims in China, the information provided by this study is useful for directing, strengthening, and evaluating disaster-related mental health needs and interventions after earthquakes.

  6. Disability, Health Insurance and Psychological Distress among US Adults: An Application of the Stress Process

    PubMed Central

    Alang, Sirry M.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Henning-Smith, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008–2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability. PMID:25767740

  7. Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization.

    PubMed

    Filipas, Henrietta H; Ullman, Sarah E

    2006-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined as predictors of revictimization. Results indicated that individuals who reported both CSA and ASA had more PTSD symptoms, were more likely to use drugs or alcohol to cope, act out sexually, withdraw from people, and seek therapy services. In addition, the revictimized group reported more self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently. The only factor that predicted revictimization in this study was the number of maladaptive coping strategies used. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among young male adults in India: a dimensional and categorical diagnoses-based study.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Saddichha; Khess, Christoday R J

    2010-12-01

    The lifetime prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescents and young adults around the world is currently estimated to range from 5% to 70%, with an Indian study reporting no depression among college going adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence of current depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms on a Dimensional and Categorical basis among young adults in Ranchi city of India. A stratified sample of 500 students was selected to be representative of the city's college going population (n = 50,000) of which 405 were taken up for final analysis. Data were obtained using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to assess symptoms on dimensional basis and using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose on categorical basis. Mean age of students was 19.3 years with an average education of 14.7 years. Ranging from mild to extremely severe, depressive symptoms were present in 18.5% of the population, anxiety in 24.4%, and stress in 20%. Clinical depression was present in 12.1% and generalized anxiety disorder in 19.0%. Comorbid anxiety and depression was high, with about 87% of those having depression also suffering from anxiety disorder. Detecting depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms in the college population is a critical preventive strategy, which can help in preventing disruption to the learning process. Health policies must integrate young adults' depression, stress, and anxiety as a disorder of public health significance.

  9. Cytogenetic Effects of Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment and Chronic Social Stress in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kittel-Schneider, S; Spiegel, S; Renner, T; Romanos, M; Reif, A; Reichert, S; Heupel, J; Schnetzler, L; Stopper, H; Jacob, C

    2016-07-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used to treat childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there are still safety concerns about side effects in long-term treatment. The aim of this study was to assess cytogenetic effects of chronic MPH treatment in adult ADHD and to find out if chronic social stress is attenuated by medication and to investigate whether chronic psychosocial stress leads to mutagenic effects by itself. Lymphocytes for micronucleus assay and saliva samples for cortisol measurement were collected from adult ADHD patients and healthy controls. Stress exposure of the last 3 months was assessed by TICS (Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress). We could not detect an influence of MPH treatment on cytogenetic markers. ADHD patients displayed significantly higher chronic stress levels measured by TICS compared to healthy controls which were influenced by duration of MPH treatment. ADHD patients also showed significantly lower basal cortisol levels. We could corroborate that there are neither cytogenetic effects of chronic stress nor of chronic MPH intake even after several years of treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Perkonigg, Axel; Pfister, Hildegard; Stein, Murray B; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Maercker, Andreas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Few studies have focused on the natural course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its determinants in samples of the general population. The authors examined determinants of remission and chronicity of PTSD and associations with other disorders in a prospective community sample. The data were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study of adolescents and young adults (age 14-24 years) in Munich, Germany (N=2,548). The course of PTSD from baseline to follow-up 34-50 months later was studied in 125 respondents with DSM-IV PTSD or subthreshold PTSD at baseline. Although 52% of the PTSD cases remitted during the follow-up period, 48% showed no significant remission of PTSD symptoms. Respondents with a chronic course were more likely to experience new traumatic event(s) during follow-up (odds ratio=5.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95-13.92), to have higher rates of avoidant symptoms at baseline (odds ratio=10.16, 95% CI=1.73-59.51), and to report more help seeking (odds ratio=5.50, 95% CI=1.04-29.05), compared to respondents with remission. Rates of incident somatoform disorder (odds ratio=4.24, 95% CI=1.60-11.19) and other anxiety disorders (odds ratio=4.07, 95% CI=1.15-14.37) were also significantly associated with a chronic course. PTSD is often a persistent and chronic disorder. Specific symptom clusters--especially avoidant symptoms--might be associated with the course of PTSD. In addition, the occurrence of new traumatic events differentiates PTSD cases with a chronic course from those with remission.

  11. Early postnatal stress alters the extinction of context-dependent conditioned fear in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko; Konno, Kohtaro; Koseki, Hiroyo; Hirata, Riki; Izumi, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2008-05-01

    Fear extinction is hypothesized to be a learning process based on a new inhibitory memory. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effect of early postnatal stress on the extinction of context-dependent fear memory in adult rats, with a focus on the serotonergic system. Extinction was estimated by the expression of freezing behavior during repeated extinction trials (i.e., repeated exposure to contextual fear conditioning) on consecutive days. The decrease in fear expression was attenuated in adult rats that had been subjected to footshock (FS) at the third postnatal week (3wFS), but not in those exposed to footshock at the second postnatal week (2wFS). The decreased attenuation of freezing behavior observed in 3wFS was abolished by repeated treatment with the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist D-cycloserine (15 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days), which has been shown to facilitate cue-dependent extinction. Repeated treatment with the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor agonist tandospirone (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days) prevented the expression of freezing behavior in 3wFS, whereas diazepam treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days) in 3wFS did not. These results suggest that exposure to early postnatal stress at the third week is responsible for attenuating extinction of contextual fear conditioning and is mediated by a serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptor mechanism. In other words, exposure to traumatic events during the early postnatal period might precipitate long-lasting alterations in synaptic function that underlie extinction processes of context-dependent fear memory.

  12. Lifelong amateur endurance practice attenuates oxidative stress and prevents muscle wasting in senior adults.

    PubMed

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo; Casals, Cristina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Villa-González, Emilio; Huertas, Jesús R

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate oxidative stress, muscle damage, enzymatic antioxidant defense and body composition in senior adults who have performed different lifelong physical activity practices. Twenty-three healthy senior men (60±1.88 years old) were divided into three groups according to their lifelong physical activity practice as follows: A) sedentary (N.=7); B) recreational (N.=9); and C) amateur (N.=7). Blood sampling was performed at rest to analyze plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by TBARs-assay, nuclear DNA-damage in peripheral lymphocytes using Comet-Assay, the plasma enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase by spectrophotometry and serum alpha-actin release as skeletal muscle damage marker through western blot. Body composition was evaluated using anthropometric assessments by the ISAK protocol through skinfold thickness. The lowest value of MDA was shown in the amateur group. Nuclear DNA-damage was significantly lower in the recreational group than in sedentary and amateur groups (MD=5.53±1.70; P=0.013. MD=5.61±1.62; P=0.008), respectively. The amateur group showed trends toward higher glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity than recreational and sedentary groups. Alpha-actin levels were significantly higher in the amateur compared with recreational (MD=4.34±0.46; P<0.001) and sedentary groups (MD=4.89±0.46; P<0.001). The sedentary group showed significantly lower muscle mass (MD=3.67±1.10; P=0.011) and higher fat mass (MD=4.19±0.98; P=0.001) than amateur group. The results described above suggest that the lifelong amateur endurance practice seems to improve oxidative stress response and strengthens hypertrophy mechanisms that might preserve muscle mass in senior adults.

  13. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult Offspring Performance in Trace Fear Conditioning after Prenatal and Postnatal Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress parad...

  14. Interplay of migratory and division forces as a generic mechanism for stem cell patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Coucke, Alice; Joanny, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    In many adult tissues, stem cells and differentiated cells are not homogeneously distributed: stem cells are arranged in periodic "niches," and differentiated cells are constantly produced and migrate out of these niches. In this article, we provide a general theoretical framework to study mixtures of dividing and actively migrating particles, which we apply to biological tissues. We show in particular that the interplay between the stresses arising from active cell migration and stem cell division give rise to robust stem cell patterns. The instability of the tissue leads to spatial patterns which are either steady or oscillating in time. The wavelength of the instability has an order of magnitude consistent with the biological observations. We also discuss the implications of these results for future in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  15. Stress Management Interventions for HIV+ Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.; Fielder, Robyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies document that stress accelerates disease processes in a variety of diseases including HIV. As a result, investigators have developed and evaluated interventions to reduce stress as a means to improve health among persons living with HIV. Therefore, the current meta-analysis examines the impact of stress-management interventions at improving psychological, immunological, hormonal, and other behavioral health outcomes among HIV+ adults. Design This meta-analytic review integrated the results of 35 randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of 46 separate stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults (N = 3,077). Main Outcome Measures Effect sizes were calculated for stress processes (coping and social support), psychological/psychosocial (anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life), immunological (CD4+ counts and viral load), hormonal (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S], cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, and testosterone) and other behavioral health outcomes (fatigue). Results Compared to controls, stress-management interventions reduce anxiety, depression, distress, and fatigue and improve quality of life (d+s = 0.16 to 0.38). Stress-management interventions do not appear to improve CD4+ counts, viral load, or hormonal outcomes compared with controls. Conclusion Overall, stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults significantly improve mental health and quality of life but do not alter immunological or hormonal processes. The absence of immunological or hormonal benefits may reflect the studies' limited assessment period (measured typically within 1-week post-intervention), participants' advanced stage of HIV (HIV+ status known for an average of 5 years), and/or sample characteristics (predominately male and Caucasian participants). Future research might test these hypotheses and refine our understanding of stress processes and their amelioration. PMID:18377131

  16. Stress management interventions for HIV+ adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, 1989 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Kalichman, Seth C; Carey, Michael P; Fielder, Robyn L

    2008-03-01

    Numerous studies document that stress accelerates disease processes in a variety of diseases including HIV. As a result, investigators have developed and evaluated interventions to reduce stress as a means to improve health among persons living with HIV. Therefore, the current meta-analysis examines the impact of stress-management interventions at improving psychological, immunological, hormonal, and other behavioral health outcomes among HIV+ adults. This meta-analytic review integrated the results of 35 randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of 46 separate stress management interventions for HIV+ adults (N=3,077). Effect sizes were calculated for stress processes (coping and social support), psychological/psychosocial (anxiety, depression, distress, and quality of life), immunological (CD4+ counts and viral load), hormonal (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S], cortisol/DHEA-S ratio, and testosterone) and other behavioral health outcomes (fatigue). Compared to controls, stress-management interventions reduce anxiety, depression, distress, and fatigue and improve quality of life (d+s=0.16 to 0.38). Stress-management interventions do not appear to improve CD4+ counts, viral load, or hormonal outcomes compared with controls. Overall, stress-management interventions for HIV+ adults significantly improve mental health and quality of life but do not alter immunological or hormonal processes. The absence of immunological or hormonal benefits may reflect the studies' limited assessment period (measured typically within 1-week postintervention), participants' advanced stage of HIV (HIV+ status known for an average of 5 years), and/or sample characteristics (predominately male and White participants). Future research might test these hypotheses and refine our understanding of stress processes and their amelioration. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-10-02

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  18. Psychological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Karen; Jonas, Daniel E; Forneris, Catherine A; Wines, Candi; Sonis, Jeffrey; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Feltner, Cynthia; Brownley, Kimberly A; Olmsted, Kristine Rae; Greenblatt, Amy; Weil, Amy; Gaynes, Bradley N

    2016-02-01

    Numerous guidelines have been developed over the past decade regarding treatments for Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, given differences in guideline recommendations, some uncertainty exists regarding the selection of effective PTSD therapies. The current manuscript assessed the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and adverse effects of psychological treatments for adults with PTSD. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PILOTS, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. Two reviewers independently selected trials. Two reviewers assessed risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). We included 64 trials; patients generally had severe PTSD. Evidence supports efficacy of exposure therapy (high SOE) including the manualized version Prolonged Exposure (PE); cognitive therapy (CT), cognitive processing therapy (CPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-mixed therapies (moderate SOE); eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and narrative exposure therapy (low-moderate SOE). Effect sizes for reducing PTSD symptoms were large (e.g., Cohen's d ~-1.0 or more compared with controls). Numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were <4 to achieve loss of PTSD diagnosis for exposure therapy, CPT, CT, CBT-mixed, and EMDR. Several psychological treatments are effective for adults with PTSD. Head-to-head evidence was insufficient to determine these treatments' comparative effectiveness, and data regarding adverse events was absent from most studies.

  19. Orthostatic hypotension in young adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Ania E; Dennis, Paul A; Calhoun, Patrick S; Watkins, Lana L; Sherwood, Andrew; Dedert, Eric A; Green, Kimberly T; Stein, Jacob N; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research is (a) to evaluate differences in orthostatic hypotension (OH) among young adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and (b) to examine whether group differences may be attributable to behavioral risk factors frequently associated with PTSD. Volunteers and U.S. veterans 18 to 39 years old (N = 222) completed a semistructured interview assessment of PTSD status. Direct measurements were obtained for supine and standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure at study visits, as well as height and weight, from which body mass index (BMI) was calculated. After controlling for use of psychotropic medications, a logistic regression model revealed that PTSD status was positively associated with OH, such that participants with PTSD were at 4.51 greater odds of having OH than control participants. Moreover, this effect was partially mediated by lifetime alcohol dependence (bootstrapped 95% confidence interval [-0.83, -0.20]). Overall, PTSD may pose a significant risk for OH among younger adults. In the present sample, this relationship was primarily driven by the disproportionately high history of alcohol dependence among individuals with PTSD. These results suggest that traditional therapy for PTSD should be coupled with treatment for alcohol dependency, when applicable, to reap both psychological and physiological benefits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Orthostatic Hypotension in Young Adults with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Ania E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Watkins, Lana L.; Sherwood, Andrew; Dedert, Eric A.; Green, Kimberly T.; Stein, Jacob N.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this research is (1) to evaluate differences in orthostatic hypotension (OH) among young adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and (2) to examine whether group differences may be attributable to behavioral risk factors frequently associated with PTSD. METHOD Volunteers and U.S. veterans 18–39 years old (n = 222) completed a semi-structured interview assessment of PTSD status. Direct measurements were obtained for supine and standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure at study visits as well as height and weight, from which body-mass index (BMI) was calculated. RESULTS After controlling for use of psychotropic medications, a logistic regression model revealed that PTSD status was positively associated with OH, such that participants with PTSD were at 4.51 greater odds of having OH than control participants. Moreover, this effect was partially mediated by lifetime alcohol dependence (bootstrapped 95% CI: −0.83 to −0.20). CONCLUSIONS Overall, PTSD may pose a significant risk for OH amongst younger adults. In the present sample, this relationship was primarily driven by the disproportionately high history of alcohol dependence amongst individuals with PTSD. These results suggest that traditional therapy for PTSD be coupled with treatment for alcohol dependency where applicable to reap both psychological and physiological benefits. PMID:25961117

  1. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress.

  2. Posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety among adult long-term survivors of cancer in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Diana C M; Besier, Tanja; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Grabow, Desiree; Dieluweit, Ute; Hinz, Andreas; Kaatsch, Peter; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2010-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety in adults who have survived cancer (5 years) diagnosed in adolescence, as compared to healthy controls. Survivors (n=820) of cancer during adolescence (age M=30.4+/-6.0 years; M=13.7+/-6.0 years since diagnosis) and 1027 matched controls without history of cancer (age M=31.5+/-6.9 years) completed standardised questionnaires measuring posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety. Additionally, sub-groups of 202 survivors and 140 controls with elevated scores received structured interviews to ascertain DSM-IV-diagnoses. A total of 22.4% of the survivors reported clinically relevant symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and/or depression compared to 14.0% of the controls (odds ratios [ORs] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-2.26). The odds of posttraumatic stress symptoms in male (OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.80-8.51) and female (OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.54-5.76) survivors were more than three times those in the controls. However, only female survivors reported symptoms of depression and anxiety significantly more often (respectively: OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.16-3.85; and OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.33-2.59) than the controls. A relevant subgroup of 24.3% of the survivors met DSM-IV criteria for at least one mental disorder compared to 15.3% of the controls. Survivors of cancer during adolescence show an elevated risk of presenting symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and/or depression during adulthood which is also reflected in a greater number of DSM-IV diagnoses when compared to controls. Comprehensive follow-up assessments should include the examination of possible psychological late effects of a cancer diagnosis in adolescence in order to identify survivors needing psychosocial interventions even years after the completion of successful medical treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased Default Network Connectivity is Associated with Early Life Stress in Medication-Free Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Bloom, Rachel F.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for psychopathology, although there are few functional imaging studies investigating its effects. Previous literature suggests that ELS is associated with changes in structure and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which forms the main anterior node of the default network (DN). This study investigated the impact of ELS history on resting state DN connectivity, using seed-based correlation analyses (SCA) involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Data were analyzed from 22 adult subjects without psychiatric or medical illness (13 with and 9 without ELS); none were taking psychotropic medication. Relative to controls, the ELS group had significant decreases in DN connectivity, observed between the PCC seed and the MPFC and inferior temporal cortex. Further analyses revealed a trend-level increase in connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC associated with ELS history. In conclusion, this study found that subjects with ELS, in the absence of psychiatric illness and medication exposure, demonstrated decreased DN connectivity, and trend-level increases in connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC. These findings suggest that altered resting state connectivity is a correlate of stress exposure, rather than a product of medication or psychiatric morbidity. PMID:23141153

  4. Larval stress alters dengue virus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti (L.) adult females.

    PubMed

    Kang, David S; Alcalay, Yehonatan; Lovin, Diane D; Cunningham, Joanne M; Eng, Matthew W; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W

    2017-10-01

    In addition to genetic history, environmental conditions during larval stages are critical to the development, success and phenotypic fate of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In particular, previous studies have shown a strong genotype-by-environment component to adult mosquito body size in response to optimal vs stressed larval conditions. Here, we expand upon those results by investigating the effects of larval-stage crowding and nutritional limitation on the susceptibility of a recent field isolate of Aedes aegypti to dengue virus serotype-2. Interestingly, female mosquitoes from larvae subjected to a stressed regime exhibited significantly reduced susceptibility to disseminated dengue infection 14days post infection compared to those subjected to optimal regimes. Short term survivorship post-infected blood feeding was not significantly different. As with body size, dengue virus susceptibility of a mosquito population is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and is likely maintained by balancing selection. Here, we provide evidence that under different environmental conditions, the innate immune response of field-reared mosquitoes exhibits a large range of phenotypic variability with regard to dengue virus susceptibility. Further, as with body size, our results suggest that mosquitoes reared under optimal laboratory conditions, as employed in all mosquito-pathogen studies to date, may not always be realistic proxies for natural populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses’ Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p<0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value<0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  6. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-03-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18-50 years; women: n = 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses' Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p < 0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value <0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex.

  7. Perceived Stress and Elder Abuse: A Population-Based Study of Adult Protective Services Cases in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Roepke-Buehler, Susan K; Dong, XinQi

    2015-09-01

    To characterize the relationship between perceived stress and Adult Protective Services (APS) elder abuse cases in a population-based sample. Cross-sectional. Chicago. community-dwelling, older adults (N = 8,558; mean age 74 ± 7, 62% female, 64% African American). Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), APS database linkage. Bivariate and adjusted analyses showed that perceived stress was significantly higher in APS clients than in participants without any APS interaction for various subtypes of abuse (e.g., abuse from a perpetrator and self-neglect). This relationship was strongest for those with a confirmed history of abuse from a perpetrator, with a medium-large effect size (t = -5.8, P < .001, Cohen D = -0.6). Those in the highest stress tertile had a likelihood of having confirmed history of abuse from a perpetrator that was nearly three times as great as that of those in lower stress tertiles (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.2). Analyses of individual PSS items revealed a robust relationship between distress items and APS involvement. Items reflecting coping were inconsistently associated with elder abuse. Clients of APS have higher levels of perceived stress, and abuse from a perpetrator strengthens this relationship. Therefore, victims of abuse from a perpetrator may be at the highest risk of stress-related consequences and should be targeted for intervention efforts that enhance empowerment and effective coping strategies. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. The impact of perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity on mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).

  9. Protective role of quercetin on PCBs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Bavithra, Senthamilselvan; Suganthi, Muralidharan; Benson, Chellakan Selvanesan; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2012-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure produces neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress. Neuroprotective role of quercetin, on PCBs induced apoptosis in hippocampus has not yet been studied. The present study is focused to see whether quercetin supplementation precludes against PCBs induced oxidative stress and hippocampal apoptosis. The results have shown that quercetin at 50 mg/kg bwt/30 days has protected oxidative stress in hippocampus of adult male rats. Quercetin, a free radical scavenger decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus of simultaneous PCB+quercetin treated rats. The pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bad, Bid, Bax and Bcl2 were altered in the hippocampus of experimental animals. PCBs increased the DNA damage and induced neurodegeneration were assessed by histological studies. PCB induced ROS may be linked to increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Quercetin supplementation decreased the neuronal damage and scavenged the free radicals induced by PCBs and protects PCBs induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  10. Still Stressed but Feeling Better: Well-Being in Autism Spectrum Disorder Families as Children Become Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Pilar; Sarriá, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The transition to adulthood and adulthood itself have been identified as times of stress for parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Longitudinal studies, however, show improvements in the well-being of mothers of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 102 Spanish…

  11. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  12. Still Stressed but Feeling Better: Well-Being in Autism Spectrum Disorder Families as Children Become Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Pilar; Sarriá, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The transition to adulthood and adulthood itself have been identified as times of stress for parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Longitudinal studies, however, show improvements in the well-being of mothers of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 102 Spanish…

  13. Elderly Mothers of Adult Children with Intellectual Disability: An Exploration of a Stress Process Model for Caregiving Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Go-En; Chung, Soondool

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability aged 18 or above were selected purposively from community rehabilitation centre users. A total of 392 participants responded to the survey. The structural equation modelling method was used to evaluate the suitability of the stress process model and to test the hypotheses. The stress model proved to be a good fit to the data. The results showed that a mediating variable - a problem-centred coping strategy - transmitted the effect of stress variables such as recognition of ageing, establishment of permanency planning, and worries about the future on caregiving satisfaction. The relationship of adult children with intellectual disability also transmitted the effect of establishment of permanency planning on caregiving satisfaction. However, an indirect effect of an emotion-centred coping strategy was not shown. The findings of this study shed light on the development of intervention strategies for elderly mothers who provide care permanently to adult children with intellectual disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. How Adult Children Influence Older Parents' Mental Health: Integrating Stress-Process and Life-Course Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Bierman, Alex; Schieman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we integrate insights from the life-course and stress-process perspectives to argue that adult children's negative treatment of parents, as well as negative events that children experience, detrimentally affect elderly parents' mental health over time. We argue that these strains may affect mothers more than fathers, and blacks more…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  17. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  18. How Adult Children Influence Older Parents' Mental Health: Integrating Stress-Process and Life-Course Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Bierman, Alex; Schieman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we integrate insights from the life-course and stress-process perspectives to argue that adult children's negative treatment of parents, as well as negative events that children experience, detrimentally affect elderly parents' mental health over time. We argue that these strains may affect mothers more than fathers, and blacks more…

  19. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  20. The Scars of Childhood Adversity: Minor Stress Sensitivity and Depressive Symptoms in Remitted Recurrently Depressed Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients. Method Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138). Results We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02–0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03–0.55). No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusion No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment. Trial Registration Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503 PMID:25393812

  1. Honey Bee Workers That Are Pollen Stressed as Larvae Become Poor Foragers and Waggle Dancers as Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Hailey N.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees’ access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  2. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Hailey N; Mattila, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  3. Stress Judgment and Production in English Derivation, and Word Reading in Adult Mandarin-Speaking English Learners.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2017-02-09

    For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading. A correlational design was used to examine the contributions of English stress in derivation with neutral and non-neutral suffixes to English word and nonword reading. Stress judgment in non-neutral derivation predicted word reading after controlling for working memory and English vocabulary; whereas stress production in neutral derivation contributed to word reading and pseudoword decoding, independent of working memory and English vocabulary. Although AELs could use stress and suffix cues for word reading, AELs were different from native English speakers in awareness of non-neutral suffix cues conditioning lexical stress placement. AELs may need to rely on lexical storage of primary stress in derivations with non-neutral suffixes.

  4. Prenatal stress alters diazepam withdrawal syndrome and 5HT1A receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lakehayli, S; Said, N; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2016-08-25

    Early-life events have long-term effects on brain structures and cause behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on diazepam-induced withdrawal syndrome and serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. The results of the present study reveal that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress increased the anxiety-like behavior in the prenatally stressed (PS) animals withdrawn from chronic diazepam (2.5mg/kg/day i.p for 1week). Moreover, prenatal stress induced a down-regulation of 5HT1A mRNA in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress enhances diazepam withdrawal symptoms and alters 5HT1A receptor gene expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. Thus, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the decrease of 5HT1A receptors expression in the raphe nuclei of PS rats.

  5. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner.

  6. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arpawong, Thalida E.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Milam, Joel E.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools (n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs. PMID:26640507

  7. Disruption of peri-adolescent endocannabinoid signaling modulates adult neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Hill, Matthew N; Hillard, Cecilia J; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is known to regulate neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to stress in adults; however there is little knowledge regarding how this system governs the development and maturation of these responses. Previous work has reported dynamic and time-specific changes in CB1 receptor expression, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) content and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity within corticolimbic structures throughout the peri-adolescent period. To examine whether fluctuations in adolescent eCB activity contribute to the development of adult stress responsivity and emotionality, we treated male Sprague-Dawley rats daily with the CB1R antagonist, AM-251 (5 mg/kg), or vehicle between post-natal days (PND) 35-45. Following this treatment, emotional behavior, HPA axis stress reactivity and habituation to repeated restraint stress, as well as corticolimbic eCB content were examined in adulthood (PND 75). Behaviorally, AM-251-treated males exhibited more active stress-coping behavior in the forced swim test, greater risk assessment behavior in the elevated plus maze and no significant differences in general motor activity. Peri-adolescent AM-251 treatment modified corticosterone habituation to repeated restraint exposure compared to vehicle. Peri-adolescent CB1R antagonism induced moderate changes in adult corticolimbic eCB signaling, with a significant decrease in amygdalar AEA, an increase in hypothalamic AEA and an increase in prefrontal cortical CB1R expression. Together, these data indicate that peri-adolescent endocannabinoid signaling contributes to the maturation of adult neurobehavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived stress, behavior, and body mass index among adults participating in a worksite obesity prevention program, Seattle, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Ceballos, Rachel M; Bishop, Sonia K; McGregor, Bonnie A; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2012-01-01

    Stress in numerous contexts may affect the risk for obesity through biobehavioral processes. Acute stress has been associated with diet and physical activity in some studies; the relationship between everyday stress and such behavior is not clear. The objective of this study was to examine associations between perceived stress, dietary behavior, physical activity, eating awareness, self-efficacy, and body mass index (BMI) among healthy working adults. Secondary objectives were to explore whether eating awareness modified the relationship between perceived stress and dietary behavior and perceived stress and BMI. Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating (PACE) was a group-randomized worksite intervention to prevent weight gain in the Seattle metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A subset of 621 participants at 33 worksites provided complete information on perceived stress at baseline. Linear mixed models evaluated cross-sectional associations. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) Perceived Stress Scale-10 score among all participants was 12.7 (6.4), and the mean (SD) BMI was 29.2 kg/m2 (6.3 kg/m2). Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with lower levels of eating awareness, physical activity, and walking. Among participants who had low levels of eating awareness, higher levels of perceived stress were associated with fewer servings of fruit and vegetables and greater consumption of fast food meals. Dietary and physical activity behaviors of workers may be associated with average levels of perceived stress. Longitudinal studies are needed, however, to support inclusion of stress management or mindfulness techniques in workplace obesity prevention efforts.

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical features and familial transmission.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Kaul, Prashant; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Hier, Bridget O; Hendricks, Kaitlin; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by clinically significant functional impairment due to symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Previous research suggests a link, in child samples, between ADHD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by (1) chronically reexperiencing a traumatic event, (2) hyperarousal, and (3) avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma while exhibiting numbed responsiveness. This study sought to address the link between ADHD and PTSD in adults by providing a comprehensive comparison of ADHD patients with and without PTSD across multiple variables including demographics, patterns of psychiatric comorbidities, functional impairments, quality of life, social adjustment, and familial transmission. Participants in our controlled family study conducted between 1998 and 2003 were 190 adults with DSM-IV ADHD who were attending an outpatient mental health clinic in Boston, Massachusetts; 16 adults with DSM-IV ADHD who were recruited by advertisement from the greater Boston area; and 123 adult controls without ADHD who were recruited by advertisement from the greater Boston area. All available first-degree relatives also participated. Subjects completed a large battery of self-report measures (the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, items from the Current Behavior Scale, the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report, and the Four Factor Index of Social Status) designed to assess various psychiatric and functional parameters. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version, and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Epidemiologic Version). The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was significantly higher among adults with ADHD compared with controls (10.0% vs 1.6%; P = .004). Participants with ADHD and those with ADHD + PTSD

  10. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions.

    PubMed

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3-10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively.

  11. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  12. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28 days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18 months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  13. Juvenile stress potentiates aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and freezing during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic experiences that occur during adolescence can render individuals vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders. A model in juvenile rats (age: 27-29 days) was developed previously to study the long-term effects of adolescent stress exposure on behaviour and physiology. This paradigm, termed juvenile stress, involves subjecting juvenile rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we investigated the effects of the juvenile stress paradigm on freezing behaviour and aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats (age: 68-90 days). We found that rats previously subjected to juvenile stress increased aversive 22-kHz USVs (total calls and time spent calling) compared with controls during fear-conditioning training. The acoustic USV parameters between control and juvenile stress rats were largely equivalent, including duration, peak frequency and amplitude. While rats did not differ in freezing behaviour during fear conditioning, juvenile stress rats exhibited greater cue-conditioned freezing upon testing 24 h later. Our results show that juvenile stress elicited different long-term changes in freezing and aversive USVs during fear conditioning. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing USVs to detect experience-dependent differences between control and stress-exposed animals which are not detectable by measuring visible behaviour.

  14. Anticipating an Easier Day: Effects of Adult Day Services on Daily Cortisol and Stress.

    PubMed

    Klein, Laura Cousino; Kim, Kyungmin; Almeida, David M; Femia, Elia E; Rovine, Michael J; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-04-01

    Family caregivers experience high levels of stress that place them at risk for poor health outcomes. We explore whether an intervention which lowers caregivers' daily exposure to stressors, adult day services (ADS), leads to improved regulation of the stress hormone, cortisol, which has implications for health and well-being. Participants (N = 158) were family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) who were using ADS. Eligibility included: the IWD had a dementia diagnosis, IWD used ADS at least twice a week, and IWD and caregiver lived in the same household. A within-subject treatment design was used to compare caregivers' diurnal cortisol responses on days they received the intervention (ADS use by the IWD) and days they did not. Participants completed daily interviews over eight consecutive days and provided five saliva samples on each of those days. Primary outcomes were salivary cortisol awa