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Sample records for adult striped bass

  1. Posttournament survival and dispersal of adult striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a telemetry study from November 2004 to June 2005 at J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir in South Carolina and Georgia to quantify posttournament survival of striped bass and their dispersal from tournament weigh-in sites. During November-December 2004, 30 adult striped bass weighing 1.0-10.0 kg were angled, held in "striped bass tube" live-holding systems for 2-5 h, transported to a predetermined weigh-in and release site, and surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters. All striped bass survived transport, recovered from the surgical procedure, and were immediately released. The postrelease survival rate after 120 d was 87%. Surviving striped bass dispersed from the release site within 2-9 d. Fifty-four percent returned to their capture sites. Capture, holding, displacement, and weigh-in appeared to have no long-term adverse affects on behavior. Live release of striped bass may now be a viable option after tournaments during periods of cool water temperatures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  2. The fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have described the temperatures selected by landlocked striped bass Morone saxatilis in different locales throughout the USA. However, seasonally low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in many systems prevented striped bass from using the cool waters (<22??C) they may have preferred. In Melton Hill Reservoir, a 92-km-long impoundment on the Clinch River in east Tennessee, 15 adult striped bass were tagged with temperature-sensing radio tags and tracked for an average of 418 d in 1999-2000. Cold, hypolimnetic discharges from an upstream dam and heated discharge from a steam-generating electric facility near the midpoint of this run-of-the-river reservoir provided a broad range of temperatures in most seasons, and hypoxic habitats were uncommon even during stratification. The mean temperature occupied by striped bass varied seasonally (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P < 0.0001) and was highest in summer (17.5??C), intermediate in spring and fall (15.4-16.9??C), and lowest in winter (13.0??C). The mean and modal temperatures occupied during the growing season (May-October 1999) were 17.5??C and 19.0??C, respectively; 30% of the observations were between 9??C and 15??C. These data indicate that the fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass may be lower than literature estimates. These results also represent the first unbiased field estimates of the influence of season on the thermal ecology of adult striped bass. The thermal characteristics of habitats considered optimal in habitat suitability index models for adult landlocked striped bass (i.e., 18-24??C) should be revised to include cooler waters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  3. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  4. Mycobacteriosis in striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a bacterial disease in which striped bass (rockfish) may be disfigured as a result of skin ulcers and internal lesions. The bass may also be skinny or in extremely poor condition due to the chronic nature of this wasting disease. Stripers are a highly prized target species for both recreational anglers and commercial fishermen. As such, the economic impact of diseased and devalued fish could be significant. In addition, some of the mycobacteria that commonly infect fishes can cause infections in people and therefore are a human health concern. The total extent to which the disease is occurring along the Eastern seaboard is unknown but the disease has been reported from stripers taken from North Carolina to New York. During 1998-99, skin ulcers attributed to mycobacterial infection were observed in up to 28% of the striped bass from some Virginia tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Data obtained during 2002—2003 from fish harvested in Virginia and Maryland waters indicated that, at least in some areas, over 80% of striped bass may be infected with the mycobacteria that are associated with the disease. Given the persistence over the last 8 years of this mycobacteriosis outbreak, this does not appear to be a short-term problem.

  5. Distribution and migration of adult striped bass in Lake Whitney, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farquhar, B.W.; Gutreuter, S.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty adult (3.2a??8.6 kg) striped bass Morone saxatilis were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked for up to 475 d in 9,510-hectare Lake Whitney, a Texas reservoir, to determine seasonal distribution, migration patterns, and water temperatures occupied. Striped bass distribution in summer was limited to an area near the dam, where they survived temperatures as high as 29.0A?C. Tagged fish generally were found in the coolest water available (27.0a??29.0A?C) that contained adequate dissolved oxygen (>4.0 mg/L) in summer and occupied the warmest water (7.4a??8.8A?C) in winter. For the rest of the year, the fish were distributed throughout available water temperatures. Beginning in autumn, most striped bass moved up the reservoir to and into the main tributaries and remained there until spring, when they returned to the main reservoir. No spawning run up main tributaries was observed in either of the two study years, possibly due to low inflows. Individual fish displayed a preference for certain areas to which they returned yearly.

  6. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Striped Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    contribute to striped bass of age V and older in the the further reduction of adult striped Estuary, which has been estimated bass in the Estuary...harvest of adult bass of age V and older increased from The striped bass situation in the 15% to 27% (Stevens et al. 1985). The Sacramento-San Joaquin...7 Adults ................................................................. 7*7 GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS

  7. Environmental quality for striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of environmental changes on the quality of life for striped bass populations can be evaluated objectively with modern procedures of environmental risk analysis. Such analysis requires knowledge of the sources of risk in the context of environmental requirements of the species. A prime environmental requirement of striped bass appears to be a suitable thermal structure that accommodates the hereditary thermal niche, which changes with age. Strong thermal preferences had promoted striped bass survival in the pristine natural estuaries of eastern North America, but they may increase risks to the species in some new environments and in native ones that are altered by man. The magnitude and likelihood of risks for striped bass from many pollutants and physical changes (structures or water flow, for example) depend upon the fish's thermally controlled distribution. The importance of a species' thermal niche and of the thermal structure of aquatic environments for population success is only beginning to be recognized and included in risk assessments.

  8. Benzocaine as an anesthetic for striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, Philip A.; Lemm, Carol A.; Woods, L. Curry

    1991-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested as an anesthetic on juvenile and mature adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis ). Concentrations of 55 mg/L at 22 degree C to 80 mg/L at 11 degree C effectively anesthetized fish in about 3 min. Recovery was more rapid as temperature increased. Fish survived concentrations of twice the effective concentration and exposure times up to 60 min at the effective concentration. Striped bass required higher concentrations for anesthetization than had been previously demonstrated for salmonid fishes, but safety margins for both concentration and exposure time were wider than for the salmonids.

  9. Spatial and temporal diet patterns of subadult and small adult striped bass in Massachusetts estuaries: Data, a synthesis, and trends across scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferry, K.H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Subadult and small adult (375–475 mm total length) striped bass Morone saxatilis are abundant and represent an important component of the recovered U.S. Atlantic coast stocks. However, little is known about these large aggregations of striped bass during their annual foraging migrations to New England. A quantitative understanding of trends in the diets of subadult and small adult migrants is critical to research and management. Because of the complexity of the Massachusetts coast, we were able to compare diets at multiple spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales and evaluate which of these provided the greatest insights into the foraging patterns of this size of fish. Specifically, during spring through autumn, we quantified the diets of 797 migratory striped bass collected from 13 Massachusetts estuaries distributed among three geographic regions in two biogeographic provinces. Our data provided three useful results. First, subadult and young adult striped bass ate a season-specific mixture of fish and invertebrates. For example, more juvenile Atlantic herring Clupea harengus were eaten in spring than in summer or autumn, more juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were eaten in autumn than in spring or summer, amphipods were eaten primarily in the southern biogeographic province, and shrimp Crangon sp. were eaten in all locations and seasons. Second, examining diets by season was essential because of the temporal variability in striped bass prey. Grouping prey by fish and invertebrates revealed the potential for predictable differences in growth across geographic locations and seasons, based on the output from simple bioenergetics simulations. Third, of the three spatial scales examined, region provided the most quantitative and interpretable ecological trends. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparing multiple scales to evaluate the best way to depict diet trends in a migrating predator that seasonally uses different geographic locations.

  10. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Striped Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    also the dominant prey of adult striped bass in the Santee-Cooper Striped bass undergo an ontogenetic shift in system, although nymphs of burrowing ...Fuller 1965; occurred in the South Atlantic Region. For Smith 1973; Barkuloo 1967). In general, the example, a parasitic nematode (Goezia sp.) has

  11. Testing the thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis for estuarine striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Richard T.; Secor, D.H.; Wingate, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many stratified coastal ecosystems, conceptual and bioenergetics models predict seasonal reduction in quality and quantity of fish habitat due to high temperatures and hypoxia. We tested these predictions using acoustic telemetry of 2 to 4 kg striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) and high-resolution spatial water quality sampling in the Patuxent River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, during 2008 and 2009. Striped bass avoided hypoxic (dissolved oxygen ≤2 mg·l−1) subpycnocline waters, but frequently occupied habitats with high temperatures (>25 °C) in the summer months, as cooler habitats were typically not available. Using traditional concepts of the seasonal thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze, most of the Patuxent estuary would beconsidered unsuitable habitat for adult striped bass during summer. Application of a bioenergetics model revealed that habitats selected by striped bass during summer would support positive growth rates assuming fish could feed at one-half ofmaximum consumption. Occupancy of the estuary during summer by striped bass in this study was likely facilitated by sufficient prey and innate tolerance of high temperatures by sub-adult fish of the size range that we tagged. Our results help extend the thermalniche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis to native populations of striped bass in semi-enclosed coastal systems. Tolerance of for supraoptimal temperatures in our study supports recent suggestions by others that the thermal-niche concept for striped bass should be revised to include warmer temperatures.

  12. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  13. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  14. Feeding activity and spawning time of striped bass in the Colorado River Inlet, Lake Powell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Bulkly, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from Lake Powell, Utah spawned in or near the mixing zone of the reservoir and the Colorado River in 1980 and 1981. The fish did not move through Cataract Canyon rapids just above the reservoir in either year. Of 321 adult striped bass stomachs examined, 30% contained food and 28% contained threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense. No stomachs contained native threatened or endangered Colorado River fishes.

  15. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture in the US. To construct a linkage map of striped bass, 480 microsatellite markers were screened for polymorphism among three parents of two half-sib mapping families that shared a common dam. A total of 289 markers ...

  16. Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Savoy, Tom; Brundage, Harold M.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Almost three-quarters of the 46 young adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis that were acoustically tagged in Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in the summer of 2006 were detected in one or more southern coastal arrays during their autumn migration. On the basis of the trajectories along which these M. saxatilis moved from feeding to overwintering areas, three migratory groups emerged. After leaving Plum Island Estuary, about half of the fish were detected only in a mid-latitude array, Long Island Sound. The other half of the tagged fish were detected during autumn and winter in a more southern array, the Delaware Estuary. This latter group of fish may have used two routes. Some travelled to the Delaware Estuary through Long Island Sound while other fish may have taken a second, more direct, coastal route that did not include Long Island Sound. Consequently, a seemingly homogeneous group of fish tagged at the same time in the same non-natal feeding location exhibited a diversity of southward movement patterns that could affect population-level processes. These three groups that differed in overwintering location and migration route could be movement contingents with migratory connectivity.

  17. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam; Peatman, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white bass (Morone chrysops) are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass, a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass, white bass, and their hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species. Current resources consist of a medium-density genetic linkage map and a well-annotated ovarian transcriptome. A well-annotated transcriptome from across striped bass and white bass tissues is needed to advance both broad-based RNA-seq studies of gene expression as well as aid in more targeted studies of important genes and pathways critical for reproductive physiology and immunity. Here, we carried out Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing and annotation in both species utilizing the trinity and trinotate packages. The assembled Moronid reference transcriptomes and identified SSRs and SNPs should advance ongoing studies of reproduction, physiology, and immunology in these species and provide markers for broodstock management and selection.

  18. Hooking mortality and physiological responses of striped bass angled in freshwater and held in live-release tubes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettinger, J.M.; Tomasso, J.R.; Isely, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses of adult striped bass Morone saxatilis angled from Lake Murray, South Carolina, and held in live-release tubes were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2003. To estimate mortality, we attached external ultrasonic transmitters to 59 striped bass (mean total length [TL] = 585 mm). Striped bass were caught with angling gear, tagged, and immediately released or held in live-release tubes for 2, 4, or 6 h prior to release. No mortality of striped bass was observed during spring. Overall mortality during summer was 83%. Mortality of summer-caught striped bass was not related to tube residence time, fish TL, depth of capture, or surface water temperature. To characterize physiological stress, we measured the plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels of 62 additional striped bass (mean TL = 563 mm) that were angled and immediately released or angled and held in live-release tubes. Plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality were positively related to tube residence time. When the hematological characteristics were considered only in relation to tube residence time, responses indicative of physiological stress continued for about 150 min, after which blood chemistry began to return to normal. Live-release tubes appear to be useful for keeping striped bass alive when they are angled from cool water, but they are not effective for striped bass angled from warm water. The high summer mortality of striped bass suggests a need for restrictive fishing regulations during the summer for the Lake Murray striped bass fishery. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  19. Immunological discrimination of Atlantic striped bass stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, W.B.; Dorazio, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Stocks of Atlantic striped bass Morone saxatilis that were assumed to be geographically isolated during spawning showed strong antigenic differences in blood serum albumin. A discriminant function was estimated from the immunologic responses of northern (Canadian and Hudson River) and southern (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River) stocks to two reference antisera. The function correctly classified 92% of the northern and 95% of the southern fish in the training set. Cross-validation revealed similar percentages of correct classification for fish that were of known origin but not used to estimate the discriminant function. Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate the ability of the discriminant function to predict the relative contribution of northern fish in samples of various size and stock composition. Averages of predicted proportions of northern fish in the samples agreed well with actual proportions. Coefficients of variation (100 × SD/mean) in the predicted proportions ranged from 1.5 to 36% for samples of 50–400 fish that contained at least 10% northern stock. In samples that contained only 2% northern stock, however, at least 1,600 fish were required to achieve similar levels of precision.

  20. Experimental mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis were infected intraperitoneally with approximately 105 Mycobacterium marinum, M. shottsii sp. nov., or M. gordonae. Infected fish were maintained in a flow-through freshwater system at 18 to 21??C, and were examined histologically and bacteriologically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 26, 36 and 45 wk post-infection (p.i.). M. marinum caused acute peritonitis, followed by extensive granuloma development in the mesenteries, spleen and anterior kidney. Granulomas in these tissues underwent a temporal progression of distinct morphological stages, culminating in well-circumscribed lesions surrounded by normal or healing tissue. Mycobacteria were cultured in high numbers from splenic tissue at all times p.i. Standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining, however, did not demonstrate acid-fast rods in most early inflammatory foci and granulomas. Large numbers of acid-fast rods were present in granulomas beginning at 8 wk p.i. Between 26 and 45 wk p.i., reactivation of disease was observed in some fish, with disintegration of granulomas, renewed inflammation, and elevated splenic bacterial densities approaching 109 colony-forming units g-1. Infection with M. shottsii or M. gordonae did not produce severe pathology. Mild peritonitis was followed by granuloma formation in the mesenteries, but, with 1 exception, granulomas were not observed in the spleen or anterior kidney. M. shottsii and M. gordonae both established persistent infections in the spleen, but were present at densities at least 2 orders of magnitude less than M. marinum at all time points observed. Granulomas in the mesenteries of M. shottsii- and M. gordonae-infected fish resolved over time, and no reactivation of disease was observed.

  1. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  2. Hybrid striped bass National Breeding Program: Research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  3. Hybrid striped bass national breeding program: research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  4. Comparative cost analysis of hybrid striped bass fingerling production in ponds and tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-round production of hybrid striped bass (female white bass Morone chrysops×male striped bass M. saxatilis) fingerlings would allow food fish growers to sell their product throughout the year, which would improve the consistency of market supply and cash flow for the farm. However, pond producti...

  5. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Inland stocks of striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1984-01-01

    The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and instream flow Suitability Index (SI) presented in this publication aid in identifying important variables that determine the quality of striped bass habitat. Facts, ideas, and opinions obtained from published and unpublished reports, a Delphi panel of 18 striped bass experts/authorities, and the Striped Bass Committee, Southern Division, American Fisheries Society, are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for habitat impact assessment and development of management alternatives.

  7. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  8. Summer habitat selection by striped bass, Morone Saxatilis, in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, H.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Wilson, J.L.

    1980-02-01

    Summer habitat selection patterns of 18 adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Cherokee Reservoir were monitored with externally attached temperature-sensing acoustic or radio transmitters from June through September 1977. Mortalities of adult striped bass in this reservoir were hypothesized to be related to high summer temperatures and low dissolved oxygen (DO). The inhabited areas or refuges differed from noninhabited areas by maintaining temperatures less than or equal to 22 C and DO concentrations greater than 5 mg/liter. Total water hardness, pH, and water transparency were not significantly different among refuges and noninhabited areas. Movement of fish outside refuges occurred more frequently and for longer periods during June when the summer pattern of high temperatures and low DO was less severe. Fish experienced temperatures between 15 and 27 C with mean temperatures of individuals ranging from 18.5 to 22.0 C. Several tagged fish migrated outside the refuges and selected the lowest available temperature, generally near 21 C, even though DO concentrations at these temperatures were 3 mg/liter or less. Long-term survival of tagged and nontagged fish outside refuges was undetermined because no fish were tracked outside a refuge for more than 12 days without being lost. This study indicates that temperature strongly influences the behavior of striped bass and that adults of this species may have a thermal preferendum of approximately 21 C.

  9. Genetic population structure of US atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T; Audemard, Corinne A; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Darden, Tanya L; Denson, Michael R; Reece, Kimberly S; Carlsson, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001). Population structure followed an isolation-by-distance model and temporal sampling indicated a stable population structure more than 2 years at all locations. Significant structure was absent within Hudson River, whereas weak but significant genetic differences were observed between northern and southern samples in Chesapeake Bay. The largest and smallest effective striped bass population sizes were found in Chesapeake Bay and South Carolina, respectively. Coalescence analysis indicated that the highest historical gene flow has been between Chesapeake Bay and Hudson River populations, and that exchange has not been unidirectional. Bayesian analysis of contemporary migration indicated that Chesapeake Bay serves as a major source of migrants for Atlantic coastal regions from Albemarle Sound northward. In addition to examining population genetic structure, the data acquired during this project were capable of serving as a baseline for assigning fish with unknown origin to source region.

  10. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  11. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  12. Food and feeding habits of larval striped bass: an analysis of larval striped bass stomachs from 1976 Potomac Estuary collections. Potomac River fisheries program. Final report. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Beaven, M.; Mihursky, J.

    1980-01-01

    The stomachs of 605 striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae collected from the Potomac River Estuary during the spring of 1976 were examined, and food organisms identified to species when possible. Copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers were the most abundant organisms found. Electivity indices indicated positive selection for the larger stages of copepods and cladocerans, and negative selection for copepod nauplii and most rotifer species, regardless of the size or stage of striped bass larvae.

  13. Modeling the effects of potential salinity shifts on the recovery of striped bass in the Savannah River estuary, Georgia-South Carolina, United States.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Thomas R; Peterson, James T

    2008-05-01

    Increased salinity in spawning and nursery grounds in the Savannah River estuary was cited as the primary cause of a 97% decrease in adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and a concomitant 96% decrease in striped bass egg production. Restoration efforts focused on environmental remediation and stock enhancement have resulted in restored salinity patterns and increased egg and adult abundances. However, future water needs or harbor development may preclude further recovery by reducing freshwater inflow or increasing salinity intrusion. To assess the effect of potential changes in the salinity regime, we developed models relating discharge, tidal phase, and salinity to striped bass egg and early larval survival and re-cast these in a quantitative Bayesian belief network. The model indicated that a small upstream shift (< or =1.67 km) in the salinity regime would have the least impact on striped bass early life history survival, whereas shifts >1.67 km would have progressively larger impacts, with a 8.33-km shift potentially reducing our estimated survival probability by >28%. Such an impact could have cumulative and long-term detrimental effects on the recovery of the Savannah River striped bass population. The available salinity data were collected during average and low flows, so our model represents some typical and some extreme conditions during a striped bass spawning season. Our model is a relatively simplistic, "first-order" attempt at evaluating potential effects of changes in the Savannah River estuarine salinity regime and points to areas of concern and potential future research.

  14. Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging epizootic of mycobacteriosis currently threatens striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum, species resembling M. avium, M. gordonae, M. peregrinum, M. scrofulaceum and M. terrae, and the new species M. shottsii have been isolated from diseased and healthy bass. In this study, we describe the ultrastructure of developing M. marinum granulomas in experimentally infected bass over a period of 45 wk. The primary host response to injected mycobacteria was formation of large macrophage aggregations containing phagocytosed bacilli, M. marinum were always contained within phagosomes. Close association of lysosomes with mycobacterial phagosomes, as well as the presence of electron-opaque material within phagosomes, suggested phagolysosomal fusion. Development of granulomas involved epithelioid transformation of macrophages, followed by appearance of central necrosis. Desmosomes were present between mature epithelioid cells. The necrotic core region of M. marinum granulomas was separated from overlying epithelioid cells by several layers of flattened, electron-opaque spindle-shaped cells. These cells appeared to be formed by compression of epithelioid cells and, aside from a flattened nucleus, did not possess recognizable organelles. Following the development of well-defined, paucibacillary granulomas, secondary disease was observed. Recrudescence was marked by bacterial replication followed by disruption of granuloma architecture, including loss of epithelioid and spindle cell layers. In advanced recrudescent lesions, normal tissue was replaced by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other inflammatory leukocytes. Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris.

  15. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  16. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  17. Apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning striped bass in the upper Chesapeak Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sidell, B.D.; Otto, R.G.; Powers, D.A. Karweit, M.; Smith, J.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of genetically distinct populations of spawning striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the river systems of the upper Chesapeake Bay was investigated by a biochemical genetic approach. Samples of blood and liver from adult fish were obtained during the 1976 spawning runs from the Rappanhannock (Virginia), Potomac, Choptank, Sassafras, Bohemia, and Elk rivers (Maryland), and Maryland waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Samples were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of a polymorphic liver enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and variable serum proteins which were not correlated with age or sex. Multivariate and Bayesian analyses of these data indicate apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning bass within the upper Chesapeake Bay. If natal stream homing occurs, a sufficient number of wanderers may provide significant gene flow among river systems. The results suggest that long-term management of the fishery need not be totally on the basis of separate river units.

  18. Mycobacterium-Inducible Nramp in Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burge, E.J.; Gauthier, David T.; Ottinger, C.A.; Van Veld, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene, Nramp1, plays a major role in resistance to mycobacterial infections. Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is currently experiencing an epizootic of mycobacteriosis that threatens the health of this ecologically and economically important species. In the present study, we characterized an Nramp gene in this species and obtained evidence that there is induction following Mycobacterium exposure. The striped bass Nramp gene (MsNramp) and a 554-amino-acid sequence contain all the signal features of the Nramp family, including a topology of 12 transmembrane domains (TM), the transport protein-specific binding-protein-dependent transport system inner membrane component signature, three N-linked glycosylation sites between TM 7 and TM 8, sites of casein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation in the amino and carboxy termini, and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site between TM 6 and TM 7. Phylogenetic analysis most closely grouped MsNramp with other teleost Nramp genes and revealed high sequence similarity with mammalian Nramp2. MsNramp expression was present in all tissues assayed by reverse transcription-PCR. Within 1 day of injection of Mycobacterium marinum, MsNramp expression was highly induced (17-fold higher) in peritoneal exudate (PE) cells compared to the expression in controls. The levels of MsNramp were three- and sixfold higher on days 3 and 15, respectively. Injection of Mycobacterium shottsii resulted in two-, five-, and threefold increases in gene expression in PE cells over the time course. This report is the first report of induction of an Nramp gene by mycobacteria in a poikilothermic vertebrate.

  19. Zooplankton variability and larval striped bass foraging: Evaluating potential match/mismatch regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified temporal and spatial variability of zooplankton in three potential nursery sites (river, transition zone, lake) for larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Lake Marion, South Carolina, during April and May 1993-1995. In two of three years, microzooplankton (rotifers and copepod nauplii) density was significantly greater in the lake site than in the river or transition zone. Macrozooplankton (>200 ??m) composition varied among the three sites in all years with adult copepods and cladocerans dominant at the lake, and juvenile Corbicula fluminea dominant at the river and transition zone. Laboratory feeding experiments, simulating both among-site (site treatments) and within-site (density treatments) variability, were conducted in 1995 to quantify the effects of the observed zooplankton variability on foraging success of larval striped bass. A greater proportion of larvae fed in the lake than in the river or transition-zone treatments across all density treatments: mean (x), 10x and 100x. Larvae also ingested significantly more dry mass of prey in the lake treatment in both the mean and 10x density treatments. Field zooplankton and laboratory feeding data suggest that both spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton influence larval striped bass foraging. Prey density levels that supported successful foraging in our feeding experiments occurred in the lake during late April and May in 1994 and 1995 but were never observed in the river or transition zone. Because the rivers flowing into Lake Marion are regulated, it may be possible to devise flow management schemes that facilitate larval transport to the lake and thereby increase the proportion of larvae matched to suitable prey resources.

  20. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  1. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass to acute and chronic hypoxic insult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis), white bass (Morone chrysops), and their hybrid are an important group of recreational and farmed species in the United States. Regardless of habitat, it is not uncommon for fish of the genus Morone to encounter and cope with conditions of scarce oxygen availability....

  2. US Atlantic coast striped bass: Issues with a recovered population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), is an anadromous species naturally occurring along the US Atlantic coast, which historically supported valuable commercial and recreational fisheries. In response to a near order-of-magnitude decline in landings, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission enacted a management plan in 1981 protecting fish until they could spawn at least once. By 1989, recruitment increased in natal rivers and regulations were relaxed, permitting limited fisheries by 1990. By 1995, the stock was declared fully recovered. Since the recovery, concern has increased over the health of the stocks. In the 1990s, fish in poor physical condition with dermal lesions became common in Chesapeake Bay. Pathogens of most concern in cultures from fish include the genus Mycobacterium. Coincident with declines in fish health were changes in diets, declines of preferred prey, and reduced growth and condition. Theories were suggested linking declines in condition to reductions in forage base or pathogens. Diets have changed since the 1950s and while many Chesapeake fish are infected with mycobacteria, it is still not known how or if these factors are linked. The highest priorities for research were considered to be: linking numerous local and regional studies to provide a coast-wide perspective; continuation of investigations linking population health to the prey-base; determination of the cause-effect of mycobacteria infections; and formulation of management options.

  3. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  4. Modeling the effects of potential salinity shifts on the recovery of striped bass in the Savannah River estuary, Georgia-South Carolina, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, T.R.; Peterson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Increased salinity in spawning and nursery grounds in the Savannah River estuary was cited as the primary cause of a 97% decrease in adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and a concomitant 96% decrease in striped bass egg production. Restoration efforts focused on environmental remediation and stock enhancement have resulted in restored salinity patterns and increased egg and adult abundances. However, future water needs or harbor development may preclude further recovery by reducing freshwater inflow or increasing salinity intrusion. To assess the effect of potential changes in the salinity regime, we developed models relating discharge, tidal phase, and salinity to striped bass egg and early larval survival and re-cast these in a quantitative Bayesian belief network. The model indicated that a small upstream shift (???1.67 km) in the salinity regime would have the least impact on striped bass early life history survival, whereas shifts >1.67 km would have progressively larger impacts, with a 8.33-km shift potentially reducing our estimated survival probability by >28%. Such an impact could have cumulative and long-term detrimental effects on the recovery of the Savannah River striped bass population. The available salinity data were collected during average and low flows, so our model represents some typical and some extreme conditions during a striped bass spawning season. Our model is a relatively simplistic, "first-order" attempt at evaluating potential effects of changes in the Savannah River estuarine salinity regime and points to areas of concern and potential future research. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F.; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  6. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  7. The effects of bupropion on hybrid striped bass brain chemistry and predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lauren E; Bisesi, Joseph H; Lei, E N Y; Lam, Michael H W; Klaine, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Increased use of antidepressants has led to an increase in their detection in final treated wastewater effluents and receiving streams. Antidepressants are intended to modify human behavior by altering brain chemistry, and because of the high functional conservation of antidepressant target receptors in vertebrates, aquatic organisms may be at risk. The antidepressant bupropion is designed to alter brain norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in humans. The objective of the present study was to understand if alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops) brain by bupropion would alter this predator's ability to capture prey. The authors exposed hybrid striped bass to bupropion in a static system for 6 d, followed by a 6-d recovery period. During the present study's 12-d experiment, each hybrid striped bass was fed 4 unexposed fathead minnows every 3 d, and the time it took the hybrid striped bass to consume each of those 4 fathead minnows was quantified. After each feeding event, hybrid striped bass brains were harvested and analyzed for changes in several brain neurotransmitter concentrations, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and many of their metabolites. Although bupropion altered the concentration of dopamine and many of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations in the brains on day 3 of the exposure, it did not alter the time to capture prey. This suggests that alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass brain does not alter a predator's ability to capture prey. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2058-2065. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth of fingerling hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in production ponds is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis; HSB) f...

  9. Responses of hybrid striped bass to waterborne and dietary copper in freshwater and saltwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bielmyer, G.K.; Gatlin, D.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.; Klaine, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of copper toxicity and consequences of exposure vary due to uptake route and ionoregulatory status. The goal of this research was to develop a model fish system to assess the influence of different Cu exposure routes (waterborne or dietary) on bioavailability, uptake, and effects in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops??Morone saxatilis) acclimated to fresh- or saltwater. Initially, hybrid striped bass were exposed to dietary Cu concentrations of 571, 785, and 1013 ??g Cu/g, along with a control (??? 5 ??g Cu/g), for 14 days in saltwater. Intestinal and liver Cu accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in fish exposed to increasing levels of dietary Cu. Chronic (42 days) experiments were then conducted to determine sub-lethal effects of aqueous, dietary, and combined aqueous and dietary Cu exposures to both freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass. Growth and Cu accumulation in the gill, intestine, and liver were measured. Although no significant effects were observed in fish exposed to waterborne Cu, those exposed through the diet accumulated significant liver and intestinal Cu but showed no significant change in growth. Overall, these results suggest that at the levels tested, exposure to elevated waterborne Cu did not cause significant long-term tissue Cu accumulation, whereas dietary Cu exposure caused significant liver and intestinal Cu accumulation in hybrid striped bass which was comparable in both freshwater and saltwater (15 g/L). ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity of trace element and salinity mixtures to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests with reconstituted water were conducted to investigate the relationship between water hardness, salinity, and a mixture of trace elements found in irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA), near Fallon, Nevada. The SWMA has been the site of many fish kills in recent years, and previous toxicity studies indicated that one drain water, Pintail Bay, was acutely toxic to organisms acclimated or cultured in fresh water or salt water. This toxicity could reflect both the ionic composition of this saline water and the presence of trace elements. The lowest water salinity tested with Daphnia magna was near the upper salinity tolerance of these organisms; therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the toxic effects of ion composition and those of trace elements. In toxicity tests conducted with striped bass (Morone saxatilis), we found that the extent to which salinity was lethal to striped bass depended on the ion composition of that salinity. Survival of striped bass increased as hardness increased. In addition, a trace element mixture was toxic to striped bass, even though the concentrations of individual elements were below expected acutely lethal concentrations. Although salinity is an important water quality characteristic, the ionic composition of the water must be considered when one assesses the hazard of irrigation drain waters to aquatic organisms.

  11. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Vogelbein, W K; Rhodes, M W; Reece, K S

    2008-12-01

    Wild striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay are experiencing a high prevalence of mycobacteriosis, which produces granulomatous lesions of the skin and visceral organs. Culture-based studies have indicated that the newly described species Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates from diseased fish. The classical fish pathogen M. marinum is also found, albeit at much lower frequencies. Both M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are extremely slow-growing on standard selective media, and up to 12 months may be required for isolation and characterization. Epidemiological studies of mycobacteriosis in Chesapeake Bay would therefore benefit from rapid molecular assays with which to detect these species in fish. In this paper, we describe the development of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays capable of detecting M. shottsii, M. pseudoshottsii, and, in most instances, coinfections thereof in striped bass tissues. In addition, PCR-RFLP assays were designed to detect M. marinum and other as-yet-undescribed Mycobacterium spp. present in Chesapeake Bay striped bass. Comparison of these molecular assays with culture-based techniques using splenic tissue from wild striped bass yielded generally concordant results and demonstrated the applicability of these techniques to the study of wild fish.

  12. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in striped bass Morone saxatilis and sunshine bass M. chrysops X M. saxatilis diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of waste by-products from the Alaskan fishery and use in fish feeds can potentially reduce pressure on fish harvested for animal feed applications. However, little data exist evaluating these by-products in moronid diets. Striped bass and sunshine bass growth, body composition, and imm...

  13. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  14. Effects of salinity on striped bass eggs and larvae from the Savannah River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Operation of a tide gate installed in the Savannah River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reduce dredging activities increased salinities upstream in important spawning habitat for striped bass Morone saxatilis. To assess the effects of salinity on survival and growth of striped bass at early life stages, newly fertilized eggs and 48-h-posthatch were exposed to serial dilutions of seawater, with salinities ranging from 0 to 33 permill (g/L) in increments of 3 permill in addition, older larvae (5-d posthatch) were exposed to salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 permill. Eggs were exposed until 24 h posthatch, 48-h-posthatch larvae were exposed for 10 d, and 5-d-posthatch larvae were exposed for 6 d. Eggs died within 24 h in salinities greater than 18 permill. Both survival and total length of larvae hatched from eggs exposed to salinities of 15 permill or higher were reduced. Percent mortality and mean total lengths of newly hatched larvae followed the same pattern for each of three sets of salinity regimes (i.e., changes in salinities over time) that striped bass eggs might encounter during passage downstream in the Savannah River. Hardening eggs in freshwater did not increase survival or length of hatched larvae over that shown by eggs hardened in saline water. The 5-d-posthatch larvae were less sensitive to salinity than the 48-h-posthatch larvae. Survival of larvae was negatively con-elated with both salinity and exposure time. For 48-h-posthatch larvae, the 10-d LC50 (the salinity lethal to 50% of the test fish within 10 d) was 10 permill. Probabilities of survival for larval striped bass exposed to different salinities for different amounts of time can be estimated from curves generated from models of survival analysis. Salinities judged to be critical to Savannah River striped bass eggs and larvae are those greater than 9 permill.

  15. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Sixin; Rexroad, Caird E; Couch, Charlene R; Cordes, Jan F; Reece, Kimberly S; Sullivan, Craig V

    2012-04-01

    The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetics technologies in striped bass breeding programs, we previously developed nearly 500 microsatellite markers. The objectives of this study were to construct a microsatellite linkage map of striped bass and to examine conserved synteny between striped bass and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Of 480 microsatellite markers screened for polymorphism, 289 informative markers were identified and used to genotype two half-sib mapping families. Twenty-six linkage groups were assembled, and only two markers remain unlinked. The sex-averaged map spans 1,623.8 cM with an average marker density of 5.78 cM per marker. Among 287 striped bass microsatellite markers assigned to linkage groups, 169 (58.9%) showed homology to sequences on stickleback chromosomes or scaffolds. Comparison between the stickleback genome and the striped bass linkage map revealed conserved synteny between these two species. This is the first linkage map for any of the Morone species. This map will be useful for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection of genes of interest in striped bass breeding programs. The conserved synteny between striped bass and stickleback will facilitate fine mapping of genome regions of interest and will serve as a new resource for comparative mapping with other Perciform fishes such as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and tilapia (Oreochromis ssp.).

  16. Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic Coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, P.; Hilker, D.; Meyer, C.; Aldous, K.; Shane, L.; Donnelly, R.; Smith, R.; Sloan, R.; Skinner, L.; Horn, E.

    1984-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass.

  17. Differential expression of hoxa2a and hoxa2b genes during striped bass embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Scemama, Jean-Luc; Vernon, Jamie L; Stellwag, Edmund J

    2006-10-01

    Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of two previously uncharacterized paralogs group 2 Hox genes, striped bass hoxa2a and hoxa2b, and the developmental regulatory gene egr2. We demonstrate that both Hox genes are expressed in the rhombomeres of the developing hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches albeit with different spatio-temporal distributions relative to one another. While both hoxa2a and hoxa2b share the r1/r2 anterior boundary of expression characteristic of the hoxa2 paralog genes of other species, hoxa2a gene expression extends throughout the hindbrain, whereas hoxa2b gene expression is restricted to the r2-r5 region. Egr2, which is used in this study as an early developmental marker of rhombomeres 3 and 5, is expressed in two distinct bands with a location and spacing typical for these two rhombomeres in other species. Within the pharyngeal arches, hoxa2a is expressed at higher levels in the second pharyngeal arch, while hoxa2b is more strongly expressed in the posterior arches. Further, hoxa2b expression within the arches becomes undetectable at 60hpf, while hoxa2a expression is maintained at least up until the beginning of chondrogenesis. Comparison of the striped bass HoxA cluster paralog group 2 (PG2) genes to their orthologs and trans-orthologs shows that the striped bass hoxa2a gene expression pattern is similar to the overall expression pattern described for the hoxa2 genes in the lobe-finned fish lineage and for the hoxa2b gene from zebrafish. It is notable that the pharyngeal arch expression pattern of the striped bass hoxa2a gene is more divergent from its sister paralog, hoxa2b, than from the zebrafish hoxa2b gene. Overall, our results suggest that differences in the Hox PG2 gene complement of striped bass and zebrafish affects both their rhombomeric and pharyngeal arch expression patterns and may account for the similarities in pharyngeal arch expression between striped bass hoxa2a and zebrafish hoxa2b.

  18. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Striped Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is a highly valued recreational and commercial fish species and is surpassed in total recreational catch (weight) only by bluefish and Atlantic mackerel on the Atlantic coast. Males mature at age 2 or 3, and females at age 4 or 5. Striped bass are anadromous, spawning in fresh or nearly fresh water, from April through June in the Mid-Atlantic region. Upper Chesapeake Bay, its major tributaries, and the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal are the most important spawning grounds on the Atlantic coast. Eggs are semibuoyant, and require a minimum current velocity of 30.5 cm/s during development to keep them from settling and smothering on the bottom. Environmental conditions during the larval stage are considered most crucial in terms of future year class strength. Juveniles remain in or near areas of origin for 2 or 3 years, at which time a portion of the juveniles may join coastal migratory stocks, moving north in spring and summer and south in fall and winter. Temperature, salinity, current velocity, and turbidity are important environmental factors for striped bass. Eggs require water temperatures between 14/sup 0/C and 23/sup 0/C, salinities between 0 and 10 ppt, water currents of at least 30.5 cm/s, and turbidities less than 1000 mg/l for successful development and hatching. Larvae require temperatures between 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C, salinities between 0 and 15 ppt, and turbidities less than 500 mg/1 for survival. Juvenile and adult tolerances are generally wider. 171 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Development of summer diets for hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature and ammonia increase dramatically during summer production of sunshine bass. Global temperatures are projected to increase. A factorial experiment investigated the effects of three digestible protein (DP; 33, 40, 47%), two lipid (L; 10, 18 %) and two ration levels (satiation, restricted)...

  20. Assimilation and retention of selenium and other trace elements from crustacean food by juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, Stephen B.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Stewart, Robin

    2002-01-01

     Estimates of the assimilation and retention of trace elements from food by fish are useful for linking toxicity with the biogeochemical cycling of these elements through aquatic food webs. Here we use pulse-chase radiotracer techniques to estimate the assimilation and retention of Se and four trace metals, Ag, Am, Zn, and Cd, by 43- and 88-d-old juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from crustacean food. Brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia franciscana, or adult copepods,Acartia tonsa, were fed radiolabeled diatoms and then fed to juvenile striped bass. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs ± SD) for 43-d-old fish were 18 ± 2%, 6 ± 1%, 23 ± 4%, 33 ± 3%, and 23 ± 2% for Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. For 88-d-old fish, the AEs were 28 ± 1%, 42 ± 5%, and 40 ± 5% for Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. The higher AEs in the older fish may result from longer gut passage times for larger fish. The 44-d-old fish excreted 5 ± 0.8%, 4 ± 2.0%, 7 ± 0.3%, 9 ± 0.4%, and 1.3 ± 0.9% of the Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively, they ingested from food per day, whereas the 88-d-old fish excreted 3 ± 1.0%, 8 ± 0.5%, and 3 ± 0.5% of the assimilated Cd, Se, and Zn per day, respectively. Predictions of steady state Se concentrations in juvenile striped bass tissues made using a biokinetic model and the measured AE and efflux rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 mg Se g-1dry wt for muscle tissue and 6.8 to 11.6 mg Se g-1 dry wt for gut tissue. These predictions agreed well with average values of 2.1 and 13 mg Se g-1 dry wt measured independently in North San Francisco Bay, where elevated Se concentrations are of concern. The model results imply that the planktonic food web, including juvenile striped bass, does not transfer Se as efficiently to top consumers as does the benthic food web.

  1. Striped bass, temperature, and dissolved oxygen: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis has a paradoxical record of distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions. This record is analyzed for consistency with a hypothesis that striped bass are squeezed between their thermal and dissolved oxygen preferences or requirements. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports an inherent thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences alone or coupled with avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathology and overfishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 139 references, 12 figures.

  2. Genetic effects and estimates for the heritability of size in fingerling hybrid striped bass reared indoors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability of body length and body weight was evaluated in 44 families of hybrid striped bass raised in replicated indoor tanks to 42 days post hatch. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (' 2.6 SD) (range 27.7-45.3) mm and 0.53 (' 0.10) (0.22-1.22) g across all families after 42 days of indoor rearing. An...

  3. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  4. Influence of nitrite and chloride concentrations on survival and hematological profiles of striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Mazik, P.M.; Parker, N.C. ); Hinman, M.L.; Winkelmann, D.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Simco, B.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The 24-h median lethal concentration of nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) for striped bass Morone saxatilis was 163 mg/L in static toxicity tests. Exogenous chloride ions increased the tolerance of the fish for NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}; CaCl{sub 2} was more than twice as effective as NaCl. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, cortisol, and methemoglobin were correlated positively with environmental NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and methemoglobin were correlated negatively with environmental Cl{sup {minus}}, but cortisol was not reduced by the presence of environmental Cl{sup {minus}}. Striped bass maintained NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} in the plasma (0-45 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L) at concentrations below those in the environment (0-250 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L). However, striped bass were sensitive to NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} that entered the plasma; methemoglobin levels greater than 60% and plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} levels greater than 70 mg/L resulted in significant mortalities.

  5. Characterization of photochromogenic Mycobacterium spp. from Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Helenthal, A M; Rhodes, M W; Vogelbein, W K; Kator, H I

    2011-06-16

    A large diversity of Mycobacterium spp. has been isolated from striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The new species M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates, while the classical fish pathogen M. marinum is found much less frequently. M. fortuitum and M. chelonae, other Mycobacterium spp. known to commonly infect fishes, have not yet been aseptically isolated from striped bass within Chesapeake Bay. While M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii have been phenotypically and genotypically characterized, other less common mycobacterial isolates have not. In the present study, we describe 17 photochromogenic isolates from Chesapeake Bay striped bass using phenotypic characterization and multilocus sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes. Genetic characterization reveals that these isolates are related to widely divergent portions of the mycobacterial phylogeny; however, some interesting trends are observed, such as a majority of isolates (10/17) belonging to the M. simiae-related grouping. Five additional isolates were assigned to the slow-growing mycobacteria (including 2 identified as M. marinum), while 2 are clearly shown to belong genetically to the fast-growing mycobacteria.

  6. High density culture of white bass X striped bass fingerlings in raceways using power plant heated effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Burton, G.L.; Schweinforth, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    White bass (Morone chrysops) X striped bass (M. saxatilis) hybrids weighing 1691/lb were initially stocked in five 24 ft/sup 3/ floating screen cages for 20 days. Hybrids averaging one inch in total length and 361 fish/lb were released in four 614 ft/sup 3/ concrete raceways. Two stocking densities, 2.6 and 5.1 fish/ft/sup 3/, were evaluated in the 94-day study using a flow rate of 300 gpm/raceway. Water temperatures averaged 79/sup 0/F and water quality was adequate throughout the production period. Fish were hand fed to satiation daily. Columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila caused the most serious disease problems. Gas supersaturation was suspect in high mortality levels during cage culture of hybrid bass fry. Cannibalism may have been responsible for unaccountable losses prior to raceway stocking and at harvest. The study yielded 5773 hybrids weighing 658 lb. The high density treatment showed greater weight gain, average weight, average length and percent survival as well as improved food conversion. Results suggest that higher stocking densities and periodic grading may increase production and suppress cannibalism. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Maturation and fecundity of a stock-enhanced population of striped bass in the Savannah River Estuary, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Will, T.A.; Reinert, T.R.; Jennings, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The striped bass Morone saxatilis population in the Savannah River (south-eastern U.S.A.) collapsed in the 1980s, and recent efforts to restore the population have resulted in increased catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of striped bass in the Savannah River Estuary (SRE). The abundance of eggs and larvae, however, remain well below historic levels. The primary cause of the population decline was remedied, and environmental conditions seem suitable for striped bass spawning. Regression analysis of data derived from ultrasonic imaging of 31 striped bass resulted in a statistical model that predicted ovary volume well (r2=0.95). The enumeration of oocytes from ovarian tissue samples and the prediction of ovary volume allowed fecundity to be estimated without sacrificing the fish. Oocyte maturation in Savannah River striped bass seemed to progress normally, with oocytes developing to final stages of maturity in larger fish (>750 mm LT). Additionally, fecundity estimates were comparable to a neighbouring striped bass population. The environmental cues needed to trigger development and release of striped bass oocytes into the SRE appeared to be present. If most of the striped bass females in the SRE are still young (<7 years), the ability to produce large numbers of eggs will be limited. As these young fish mature, egg production probably will increase and the density of striped bass eggs eventually will approach historic levels, provided suitable habitat and water quality are maintained. ?? 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Biotelemetry study of spring and summer habitat selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, B.A.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-08-01

    Habitat selection of 31 adult striped bass was monitored by temperature sensing ultrasonic and radio transmitters in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, from March through October 1978. This study sought to corroborate summer data obtained by Waddle (1979) in 1977 and to examine mechanisms of habitat selection by observing establishment of the summer distribution. During the spring and early summer months the striped bass ranged throughout the study area in the downstream half of the reservoir. Fish stayed near the bottom at the preferred temperatures throughout the whole study, and no individuals were observed in open water. Movement rates of up to 2.6 km/day were estimated, and rates of 1 km/day were common in the spring. By late July they were apparently avoiding low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations (<3 mg/l) near the bottom of the main reservoir and epilimnion temperatures greater than 22/sup 0/C, and they moved into cool, oxygenated spring or creek channels (refuges). Low movement rates of 0 to 25 m/day within these refuges occurred. The rates of the few migrations between refuges could not be estimated. Tagged fish moved out of the refuges 3 to 4 weeks after the fall overturn when reservoir temperatures approximated 22 to 24/sup 0/C.

  9. Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries Resulting from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound in Two Sizes of Hybrid Striped Bass

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of loud sounds on fishes, such as those produced during impulsive pile driving, are an increasing concern in the management of aquatic ecosystems. However, very little is known about such effects. Accordingly, a High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid Filled wave Tube (HICI-FT) was used to investigate the effects of sounds produced by impulsive pile driving on two size groups of hybrid striped bass (white bass Moronechrysops x striped bass Moronesaxatilis). The larger striped bass (mean size 17.2 g) had more severe injuries, as well as more total injuries, than the smaller fish (mean size 1.3 g). However, fish in each size group recovered from most injuries within 10 days of exposure. A comparison with different species from previously published studies show that current results support the observation that fishes with physoclistous swim bladders are more susceptible to injury from impulsive pile driving than are fishes with physostomous swim bladders. PMID:24040089

  10. Recovery of barotrauma injuries resulting from exposure to pile driving sound in two sizes of hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Halvorsen, Michele B; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2013-01-01

    The effects of loud sounds on fishes, such as those produced during impulsive pile driving, are an increasing concern in the management of aquatic ecosystems. However, very little is known about such effects. Accordingly, a High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid Filled wave Tube (HICI-FT) was used to investigate the effects of sounds produced by impulsive pile driving on two size groups of hybrid striped bass (white bass Moronechrysops x striped bass Moronesaxatilis). The larger striped bass (mean size 17.2 g) had more severe injuries, as well as more total injuries, than the smaller fish (mean size 1.3 g). However, fish in each size group recovered from most injuries within 10 days of exposure. A comparison with different species from previously published studies show that current results support the observation that fishes with physoclistous swim bladders are more susceptible to injury from impulsive pile driving than are fishes with physostomous swim bladders.

  11. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-12-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt brackish water (BW) to either FW or SW, respectively. Each transfer induced minor deflections in serum [Na+] and muscle water content, both being corrected rapidly (24 hr). Transfer from FW to SW increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter expression after 3 days. Abundance of Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA and protein was unchanged. Changes in Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter protein were preceded by increased mRNA expression after 24 hr. Expression of V-type H+-ATPase mRNA decreased after 3 days. Transfer from SW to FW induced no change in expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase. However, Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter mRNA and protein levels decreased after 24 hr and 7 days, respectively. Expression of H+-ATPase mRNA increased in response to FW after 7 days. In BW fish transferred to FW and SW, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was stimulated by both challenges, suggesting both a hyper- and a hypo-osmoregulatory response of the enzyme. Acclimation of striped bass to SW occurs on a rapid time scale. This seems partly to rely on the relative high abundance of gill Na+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter in FW fish. In a separate study, we found a smaller response to SW in expression of these ion transport proteins in striped bass when compared with the less euryhaline brown trout. In both FW and SW, NEM-sensitive gill H+-ATPase activity was negligible in striped bass and approximately 10-fold higher in brown trout. This suggests that in striped bass Na+-uptake in FW may rely more on a relatively high abundance/activity of Na+,K+-ATPase compared to trout, where H+-ATPase is critical for establishing a thermodynamically favorable gradient for Na+-uptake.

  12. Valuation and the consequences of multiple sources of environmental deterioration: The case of the New York striped bass fishery

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.R. ); Buerger, R.B. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper examines two sources of environmental degradation in the New York striped bass fishery. The first is the decline in environmental quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the spawning ground for the majority of fish in New York waters. The second is the PCB contamination of striped bass from the Hudson River, the other primary spawning ground for striped bass in New York waters. The paper develops methodologies for examining loss in economic value, when the loss stems from two sources. The estimates resulting from the application of these methodologies suggest that the general deterioration of the Chesapeake Bay generated 2[center dot]3 to 7[center dot]7 million dollars in annual losses to the New York striped bass fishery, and that the annual losses from PCB contamination of the Hudson striped bass are between 0[center dot]745 and 3[center dot]7 million dollars. The paper also discusses how the dual sources of degradation generate barriers to the formation of effective management policy, and develops policy recommendations based on the estimated losses. 9 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  14. Isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from striped bass Morone saxatilis from the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kaattari, I.; Gauthier, D.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis of Chesapeake Bay, USA, was first diagnosed in 1997 based on the presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria in skin and spleen. To confirm histopathology, bacteriological detection and identification of mycobacteria were begun using splenic tissue from fish with and without skin ulcerations. On the basis of initial studies using a variety of selective and nonselective media, decontamination, homogenization and incubation conditions, a simple and quantitative recovery method using aseptic necropsy of splenic tissue was developed. Optimal recovery was obtained by spread-plating homogenates on Middlebrook 7H10 agar with incubation for 3 mo at 23??C. Mycobacteria were recovered from 76% (n = 149/196) of fish examined. Mycobacterial densities exceeded 104 colony forming units??g tissue-1 in 38% of samples (n = 63/168) that were examined using a quantitative approach. The most frequently recovered mycobacterium, present in 57% (n = 109/192) of characterized samples, was the recently named new species Mycobacterium shottsii. Polyinfections of M. shottsii and other mycobacteria were observed in 25% of samples (n = 47/192) with densities of M. shottsii usually 1 or more orders of magnitude higher than co-isolate(s). Other mycobacteria recovered included isolates that, based on phenotypic traits, resembled M. interjectum, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai and M. triplex. M. marinum, commonly associated with fish mycobacteriosis and human disease, was recovered infrequently (3%, n = 6/192). The presence of multiple mycobacterial types occurring at high densities suggests that a variety of mycobacteria could be causative agents of mycobacteriosis in striped bass from the Chesapeake Bay. Striped bass is the major recreational fish species in the Chesapeake Bay, and the significance of the current epizootic to human health and the potential adverse effects on fish stocks are not known.

  15. An empirical comparison of stock identification techniques applied to striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldman, John R.; Richards, R. Anne; Schill, W. Bane; Wirgin, Isaac; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    Managers of migratory striped bass stocks that mix along the Atlantic coast of the USA require periodic estimates of the relative contributions of the individual stocks to coastal mixed- stock fisheries; however, to date, a standard approach has not been adopted. We compared the performances of alternative stock identification approaches, using samples taken from the same sets of fish. Reference (known) samples were collected from three Atlantic coast spawning systems: the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, and the Roanoke River. Striped bass of mixed-stock origin were collected from eastern Long Island, New York, and were used as test (unknown) samples. The approaches applied were discriminant analysis of morphometric data and of meristic data, logistic regression analysis of combined meristic and morphometric data, discriminant analysis of scale-shape features, discriminant analysis of immunoassay data, and mixed-stock analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data. Overall correct classification rates of reference samples ranged from 94% to 66% when just the Hudson and Chesapeake stocks were considered and were comparable when the Chesapeake and Roanoke stocks were grouped as the ''southern'' stock. When all three stocks were treated independently, correct classification rates ranged from 82% to 49%. Despite the moderate range in correct classification rates, bias due to misallocation was relatively low for all methods, suggesting that resulting stock composition estimates should be fairly accurate. However, relative contribution estimates for the mixed-stock sample varied widely (e.g., from 81% to 47% for the Hudson River stock, when only the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay stocks were considered). Discrepancies may be related to the reliance by all of these approaches (except mtDNA) on phenotypic features. Our results support future use of either a morphometrics-based approach (among the phenotypic methods) or a genotypic approach based on mtDNA analysis. We further

  16. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  17. A novel method to develop an otolith microchemistry model to determine striped bass habitat use in the San Francisco Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Phillis, C C; Ostrach, D J; Gras, M; Yin, Q; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G; Weber, P K

    2006-06-14

    Otolith Sr/Ca has become a popular tool for hind casting habitat utilization and migration histories of euryhaline fish. It can readily identify habitat shifts of diadromous fish in most systems. Inferring movements of fish within estuarine habitat, however, requires a model of that accounts of the local water chemistry and the response of individual species to that water chemistry, which is poorly understood. Modeling is further complicated by the fact that high marine Sr and Ca concentrations results in a rapid, nonlinear increase in water Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between fresh and marine waters. Here we demonstrate a novel method for developing a salinity-otolith Sr/Ca model for the purpose of reconstructing striped bass (Morone saxatilis) habitat use in the San Francisco Bay estuary. We used correlated Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios measurements from adult otoliths from striped bass that experienced a range of salinities to infer striped bass otolith Sr/Ca response to changes in salinity and water Sr/Ca ratio. Otolith {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr can be assumed to accurately record water {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr because there is no biological fractionation of Sr isotopes. Water {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr can in turn be used to estimate water salinity based on the mixing of fresh and marine water with known {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. The relationship between adjacent analyses on otoliths of Sr/Ca and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr by LA-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.65, n = 66) is used to predict water salinity from a measured Sr/Ca ratio. The nature of this non-linear model lends itself well to identifying residence in the Delta and to a lesser extent Suisun Bay, but does not do well locating residence within the more saline bays west of Carquinez Strait. An increase in the number of analyses would improve model confidence, but ultimately the precision of the model is limited by the variability in the response of individual fish to water Sr/Ca.

  18. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Mackinnon, A-M; Boston, L; Souter, B; Cook-Versloot, M; Griffiths, S; Olivier, G

    2007-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from mortalities occurring in populations of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus, brown trout, Salmo trutta, and striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The isolated viral strains produced a cytopathic effect on the epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell line. Serum neutralization indicated the virus was VHSV and sequencing identified the rhabdovirus isolates as the North American strain of VHSV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass.

  19. Age-at-maturity estimates for Atlantic coast female striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlinsky, David L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; O'Brien, John F.; Specker, Jennifer L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the percentage of mature female striped bass Morone saxatilis present in each age-class during annual coastal feeding migration. Migratory striped bass (N = 302) were sampled in coastal Rhode Island waters during spring (May-June) and fall (September-November) from 1985 to 1987. Stocks were identified by analysis of morphometric characters and isoelectric focusing of eye-lens proteins. Histological sections of ovarian tissue were used to categorize maturity state. Fish were considered mature if a class of oocytes measuring at least 150 μm and containing cytoplasmic inclusions was found in the ovarian sections. All females whose age at next potential spawning was 7 and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature. The estimate of the proportion of mature fish in age-class 5 differs significantly from that of Merriman (1941), who also examined coastal migrants. No significant differences were found in maturity estimates of fish from stocks of different origin.

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta response to mycobacterial infection in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Howard, Kristina E; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Smith, Stephen A; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2003-10-15

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were experimentally infected with Mycobacterium marinum. Splenic mononuclear cell transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA was measured by reverse transcription quantitative-competitive PCR (RT-qcPCR). In histologic sections of liver and anterior kidney, the area of each section that was occupied by granulomas and the total area of each section were measured by computer-assisted image analysis and compared as a proportion (the granuloma proportion). Infected striped bass splenic mononuclear cell TGF-beta mRNA expression was significantly lower than uninfected controls, while for tilapia there was no significant difference between infected and control fish. Mycobacterial granuloma proportion of liver and anterior kidney sections was significantly greater for infected striped bass than tilapia. Three (of 10) infected tilapia with the most pronounced inflammatory response displayed a decrease in TGF-beta mRNA expression, similar to the overall striped bass response to mycobacterium challenge. Downregulation of TGF-beta and failure to modulate the immune response may be related to excessive inflammatory damage to organs observed in mycobacteria-sensitive fish species.

  1. The dietary branched chain amino acid requirements of hybrid striped bass(Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The requirements for branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are unknown in hybrid striped bass and necessary for formulating efficient and nutritious diets. Moreover, the dietary balance among these three amino acids can substantially influence the performance of meat animals fed those diets. The diet...

  2. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in striped bass, Morone saxatilis: molecular characterization and processing during oocyte growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Williams, V N; Reading, B J; Hiramatsu, N; Amano, H; Glassbrook, N; Hara, A; Sullivan, C V

    2014-04-01

    The multiple vitellogenin (Vtg) system of striped bass, a perciform species spawning nearly neutrally buoyant eggs in freshwater, was investigated. Vitellogenin cDNA cloning, Western blotting of yolk proteins (YPs) using Vtg and YP type-specific antisera, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of the YPs revealed the complex mechanisms of yolk formation and maturation in this species. It was discovered that striped bass possesses a tripartite Vtg system (VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC) in which all three forms of Vtg make a substantial contribution to the yolk. The production of Vtg-derived YPs is generally similar to that described for other perciforms. However, novel amino-terminal labeling of oocyte YPs prior to MS/MS identified multiple alternative sites for cleavage of these proteins from their parent Vtg, revealing a YP mixture far more complex than reported previously. This approach also revealed that the major YP product of each form of striped bass Vtg, lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH), undergoes limited degradation to smaller polypeptides during oocyte maturation, unlike the case in marine fishes spawning buoyant eggs in which LvHAa undergoes extensive proteolysis to osmotically active free amino acids. These differences likely reflect the lesser need for hydration of pelagic eggs spawned in freshwater. The detailed characterization of Vtgs and their proteolytic fate(s) during oocyte growth and maturation establishes striped bass as a freshwater model for investigating teleost multiple Vtg systems.

  3. Hypoxia affects performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) in response to hypoxia were evaluated in replicate tanks maintained at constant dissolved oxygen concentrations that averaged 23.0 +/- 2.3%, 39.7 +/- 3.0%, and 105.5 +/- 9.5% dissolved oxygen sat...

  4. Toxicity of water from three South Carolina rivers to larval striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Susan E.; Bulak, James S.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of water from three rivers in the Santee-Cooper drainage of South Carolina was evaluated in a series of on-site studies with larval striped bass Morone saxatilis. Mortality and swimming behavior were assessed daily for larvae exposed to serial dilutions of water collected from the Santee, Congaree, and Wateree rivers. After 96 h, cumulative mortality was 90% in the Wateree River, and a dose–response pattern was evident in serial dilutions of the water. Larvae exposed to water from the Santee and Congaree rivers swam lethargically, but no appreciable mortality was observed. Acutely toxic concentrations of inorganic contaminants were not detected in the rivers; however, pentachloroanisole, a methylated by-product of pentachlorophenol, was twice as high in the Wateree River as it was in the other two rivers. Phenolic compounds may have contributed to larval mortality in the Wateree River and to lethargic activity of larvae in the Santee and Congaree rivers.

  5. Striped bass, temperature, and eutrophication: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The paradoxical record of striped bass distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions, is analyzed for consistency with a thermal niche-dissolved oxygen-squeeze hypothesis. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports a genetic-based thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences and avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathological symptoms and over fishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 141 references, 13 figures.

  6. Evaluation of an electronic fry counter with striped bass embryos and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemarie, D.P.; Weller, D.A.; Theisen, D.D.; Woods, L. Curry

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated an electronic fry counter (Jensorter, Inc., model FC-2) for accuracy. precision, and effects on embryo hatchability and larval survival of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Hatching success of embryos and 96-h survival of 5-d larvae passed through the counter did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) from controls. Mean electronic counts of embryos and larvae differed from hand counts by -5.2% and -9.7%, respectively. Precision was estimated by the coefficient of variation of repeated counts and ranged as high as 4.43% for embryos and 8.62% for larvae. Site- and species-specific factors may have increased variability that re suited in the reduced levels of accuracy and precision. The advantages of greatly increased speed of counting and ease of use, as well as potentially better performance under other conditions, warrant further evaluation of this counter with other species and water supplies.

  7. Spawning migration of telemetered striped bass in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.T.; Haeseker, S.L.; Hightower, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The spring spawning migration is a key period for effective management of anadromous populations of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Information on migratory behavior is needed in order to develop appropriate harvest regulations and to conduct effective surveys while fish are on the spawning grounds. We used ultrasonic telemetry to estimate the timing and duration of the upriver spawning migration for the Roanoke River, North Carolina, population and to evaluate whether a short-term fluctuation in temperature or flow would alter the distribution of telemetered fish on the spawning grounds. Seventy-eight fish implanted with transmitters were released during 1993 and 1994. Twenty-nine telemetered fish migrated upriver in 1994, and 14 telemetered fish entered the river in 1995. Migration of telemetered fish began in mid- to late April when water temperatures in the lower river reached 17-18??C. Males began their spawning migration significantly earlier than females in 1994; the difference was not significant in 1995. The 165-km upriver migration took about a week, as did the downriver migration after the spawning season. In 1994 and 1995 respectively, males remained on the spawning grounds for averages of 22 and 21 d, females for 8 and 11 d. Because of shorter residency times only about half the telemetered females were on the spawning grounds at any one time during the peak of the spawning season. Striped bass remained on the spawning grounds during a short-term temperature decrease of about 4??C (over 5 d) and an increase in flow from about 190 to 390 m3/s (over 1 d).

  8. Waste-heat mariculture of striped bass for population enhancement and food production. Final report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Olst, J.C.; Carlberg, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    Biological and economic data were obtained to determine whether the culture of striped bass (Morona saxatilis) in power plant thermal effluent could be a cost-effective means of utilizing an otherwise wasted energy resource to provide additional supplies of high-quality seafood. Experiments were conducted to provide some of the data necessary to predict tank-carrying capacity, food-conversion efficiency, and water flow requirements for striped bass cultured at high density in future commercial-scale operations. Computer models were developed for several modes of operation of a theoretical commercial production facility, and return-on-investment calculations were made which indicated that substantial profits are possible. At these sites, no heating or pumping of water would be required, and an annual return-on-operating costs of 103% was estimated.

  9. Disparate effects of constant and annually-cycling daylength and water temperature on reproductive maturation of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.W.; Henderson-Arzapalo, A.; Sullivan, C.V.

    2005-01-01

    Adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were exposed to various combinations of constant or anually-cycling daylength and water temperature. Constant conditions (15 h days, 18??C) were those normally experienced at spawning and cycling conditions simulated natural changes at Chesapeake Bay latitude. Females exposed to constant long (15 h) days and cycling water temperature (TEMPERATURE group) had blood plasma levels of sex steroids (testosterone [T] and estradiol-17?? [E2]) and vitellogenin (Vg), and profiles of oocyte growth, that were nearly identical to those of females held under a natural photothermal cycle (CONTROL group). Several fish from these two groups were induced to spawn fertile eggs. Females constantly exposed to warm water (18??C), with or without a natural photoperiod cycle (PHOTOPERIOD and STATIC groups, respectively), had diminished circulating levels of gonadal steroid hormones and Vg, impaired deposition of yolk granules in their ooplasm, and decreased oocyte growth, and they underwent premature ovarian atresia. Males exposed to cycling water temperature (CONTROL and TEMPERATURE groups) spermiated synchronously during the natural breeding season, at which time they also had had high plasma androgen (T and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]) levels. The timing of spermiation was highly asynchronous among males in groups of fish held constantly at 18??C (STATIC and PHOTOPERIOD groups) and this asynchrony was associated with diminished plasma androgen levels. Termination of spermiation by males exposed to cycling water temperature coincided with a sharp decline in levels of plasma androgens about a month after water temperature rose above 18??C. In contrast, most males held constantly at 18??C sustained intermediate levels of plasma androgens and spermiated until the end of the study in late July. The annual cycle of water temperature clearly plays a prominent role in the initiation, maintenance, and termination of the striped bass reproductive cycle. In

  10. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  11. Influence of nutritional state on the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, John M; Rhodes, Matt R; Baya, Ana; Reimschuessel, Renate; Townsend, Howard; Harrell, Reginal M

    2009-12-03

    Challenge studies with Mycobacterium marinum clearly demonstrate that a poor diet affects the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Fish (n = 512 total, wt = 65 +/- 15 g) were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) body weigth (BW) or a physiological saline solution (controls) and evaluated for 8 mo. Inoculated fish fed a low-ration diet (0.15% BW d(-1)) developed a severe, systemic infection characterized by a high bacterial load (>10(8) CFU g(-1) spleen) and poor granuloma formation, which commonly progressed to mortality by 6 wk. In contrast, inoculated fish fed an adequate ration diet (1% BW d(-1)) developed classic granulomatous inflammation of reduced severity and total body energy similar to that found in uninoculated controls (p > 0.05). After 4 wk, fish fed adequate rations maintained an equilibrium state throughout the study period, even though 10(6) CFU g(-1) spleen mycobacteria were consistently cultured. In a second study, reactivation of an acute inflammatory state was demonstrated by placing previously infected fish on reducing diets (0.073% BW d(-1)). In both studies, the energetic demand of this disease was only appreciable when associated with active, severe, inflammatory states. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the interaction of diet and mycobacteriosis in fish.

  12. Effects of an antidepressant mixture on the brain serotonin and predation behavior of hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Sweet, Lauren E; van den Hurk, Peter; Klaine, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Antidepressants have been found in measurable concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent and receiving waters throughout the world. Studies have shown that these concentrations are typically not overtly toxic, but the psychotropic mode of action of these chemicals warrants examination of their behavioral effects. Exposure of hybrid striped bass to the antidepressants fluoxetine or venlafaxine alone has been shown to cause decreased brain serotonin levels and increased time to capture prey at concentrations typically 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than environmentally relevant concentrations. In the present study, equally effective doses of fluoxetine and venlafaxine were used to perform a mixture study, using a toxic unit approach to determine whether these antidepressants may act in an additive manner at lower concentrations. The results indicated that mixtures of these antidepressants caused decreased brain serotonin and increased time to capture prey at concentrations lower than reported in previous studies. Low concentration mixtures caused an additive effect on brain serotonin levels and time to capture prey, whereas higher concentrations were less than additive. The results were consistent with the dose addition concept, with higher concentration mixtures potentially saturating the effects on serotonin in the brain. Results from the present study indicate that antidepressants have the potential to be additive on the biochemical and individual scale, which necessitates more robust analysis of antidepressant mixtures and their potential to act together in low concentration scenarios.

  13. Structure and Specificity of a Binary Tandem Domain F-Lectin from Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchet, M.; Odom, E; Vasta, J; Amzel, M

    2010-01-01

    The plasma of the striped bass Morone saxatilis contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrical 81-A-long and 60-A-wide trimer divided into two globular halves: one containing N-terminal CRDs (N-CRDs) and the other containing C-terminal CRDs (C-CRDs). The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N-CRDs and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. Analysis of the carbohydrate binding sites provides the structural basis for the observed specificity of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. Modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-type lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking 'non-self' carbohydrate ligands and 'self' carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host.

  14. Mycobacterium shottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kotob, S.; van Berkum, P.; Kaattari, I.; Vogelbein, W.; Quinn, F.; Floyd, M.M.; Butler, W.R.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Slowly growing, non-pigmented mycobacteria were isolated from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) during an epizootic of mycobacteriosis in the Chesapeake Bay. Growth characteristics, acid-fastness and results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were consistent with those of the genus Mycobacterium. A unique profile of biochemical reactions was observed among the 21 isolates. A single cluster of eight peaks identified by analysis of mycolic acids (HPLC) resembled those of reference patterns but differed in peak elution times from profiles of reference species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. One isolate (M175T) was placed within the slowly growing mycobacteria by analysis of aligned 16S rRNA gene sequences and was proximate in phylogeny to Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum. However, distinct nucleotide differences were detected in the 16S rRNA gene sequence among M175T, M. ulcerans and M. marinum (99.2% similarity). Isolate M175T could be differentiated from other slowly growing, non-pigmented mycobacteria by its inability to grow at 37??C, production of niacin and urease, absence of nitrate reductase and resistance to isoniazid (1 ??g ml-1), thiacetazone and thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide. Based upon these genetic and phenotypic differences, isolate M175T (= ATCC 700981T = NCTC 13215T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Mycobacterium shottsii sp. nov.

  15. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  16. Use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to trace the larval striped bass food chain in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary, California, April to September 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rast, Walter; Sutton, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    To assess one potential cause for the decline of the striped bass fishery in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were used to examine the trophic structures of the larval striped bass food chain, and to trace the flux of these elements through the food chain components. Study results generally confirm a food chain consisting of the elements, phytoplankton/detritus-->zooplankton/Neomysis shrimp-->larval striped bass. The stable isotope ratios generally become more positive as one progresses from the lower to the higher trophic level food chain components, and no unusual trophic structure was found in the food chain. However, the data indicate an unidentified consumer organism occupying an intermediate position between the lower and higher trophic levels of the larval striped bass food chain. Based on expected trophic interactions, this unidentified consumer would have a stable carbon isotope ratio of about 28/mil and a stable nitrogen isotope ratio of about 8/mi. Three possible feeding stages for larval striped bass also were identified, based on their lengths. The smallest length fish seem to subsist on their yolk sac remnants, and the largest length fish subsist on Neomysis shrimp and zooplankton. The intermediate-length fish represent a transition stage between primary food sources and/or use of a mixture of food sources. (USGS)

  17. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Regional variation in morphology of vertebral centra and intervertebral joints in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, B N; Harper, C J; De Kegel, B; Adriaens, D; Brainerd, E L

    2012-04-01

    The vertebral column of fishes has traditionally been divided into just two distinct regions, abdominal and caudal. Recently, however, developmental, morphological, and mechanical investigations have brought this traditional regionalization scheme into question. Alternative regionalization schema advocate the division of the abdominal vertebrae into cervical, abdominal, and in some cases, transitional regions. Here, we investigate regional variation at the level of the vertebrae and intervertebral joint (IVJ) tissues in the striped bass, Morone saxatilis. We use gross dissection, histology, and polarized light imaging to quantify vertebral height, width, length, IVJ length, IVJ tissue volume and cross-sectional area, and vertical septum fiber populations, and angles of insertion. Our results reveal regional differences between the first four (most rostral) abdominal vertebrae and IVJs and the next six abdominal vertebrae and IVJs, supporting the recognition of a distinct cervical region. We found significant variation in vertebral length, width, and height from cranial to caudal. In addition, we see a significant decline in the volume of notochordal cells and the cross-sectional area of the fibrous sheath from cranial to caudal. Further, polarized light imaging revealed four distinct fiber populations within the vertical septum in the cervical and abdominal regions in contrast with just one fiber population found in the caudal region. Measurement of the insertion angles of these fiber populations revealed significant differences between the cervical and abdominal regions. Differences in vertebral, IVJ, and vertical septum morphology all predict greater range of motion and decreased stiffness in the caudal region of the fish compared with the cervical and abdominal regions.

  19. Problems of stock definition in estimating relative contributions of Atlantic striped bass to the coastal fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldman, John R.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1994-01-01

    Stock contribution studies of mixed-stock fisheries rely on the application of classification algorithms to samples of unknown origin. Although the performance of these algorithms can be assessed, there are no guidelines regarding decisions about including minor stocks, pooling stocks into regional groups, or sampling discrete substocks to adequately characterize a stock. We examined these questions for striped bass Morone saxatilis of the U.S. Atlantic coast by applying linear discriminant functions to meristic and morphometric data from fish collected from spawning areas. Some of our samples were from the Hudson and Roanoke rivers and four tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. We also collected fish of mixed-stock origin from the Atlantic Ocean near Montauk, New York. Inclusion of the minor stock from the Roanoke River in the classification algorithm decreased the correct-classification rate, whereas grouping of the Roanoke River and Chesapeake Bay stock into a regional (''southern'') group increased the overall resolution. The increased resolution was offset by our inability to obtain separate contribution estimates of the groups that were pooled. Although multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among Chesapeake Bay substocks, increasing the number of substocks in the discriminant analysis decreased the overall correct-classification rate. Although the inclusion of one, two, three, or four substocks in the classification algorithm did not greatly affect the overall correct-classification rates, the specific combination of substocks significantly affected the relative contribution estimates derived from the mixed-stock sample. Future studies of this kind must balance the costs and benefits of including minor stocks and would profit from examination of the variation in discriminant characters among all Chesapeake Bay substocks.

  20. Puncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deju; Szewciw, Lawrence; Vernerey, Franck; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-08-01

    The structure and mechanics of fish scales display unusual and attractive features which could inspire new protective materials and systems. This natural material is therefore attracting attention over the past few years, and recent work demonstrated the remarkable performance of individual fish scales. A puncture event as would occur from a predator's attack however involves more than one scale, and in this article we therefore investigate collective mechanisms occurring within the scaled skin of a fish in the event of a predator's attack. We first demonstrate that in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the scales increase by four to five times the force required to puncture the skin. We show that individual scales from striped bass provide a remarkable barrier against sharp puncture, regardless of the stiffness of the substrate. The scalation pattern in striped bass is such that three scales overlap at any point on the surface of the fish, which we show effectively multiplies the puncture force by three. We determined that the friction between scales is negligible and therefore it does not contribute to increasing puncture force. Likewise, we found that the local arrangement of the scales had little effect on the puncture performance. Interestingly, because the scales are several orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate, indenting a few isolated scales results in "sinking" of the scales into the substrate. The high local deflections and strain within the soft tissue may then result in blunt injury before the sharp indenter penetrates the scales. Stereo-imaging and image correlation performed around a puncture site in fish reveal that the surrounding scales collectively contribute to redistributing the puncture force over large volume, limiting local deflections and strains in the soft tissues. The structure and mechanisms of natural fish scales therefore offer an effective protection against several types of threat, and may inspire novel versatile protective

  1. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) as vectors of contaminants to human consumers in northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Lange, Ted; Gibson, Suzanne; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew E.; Rao, K. Ranga

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of regular consumption of fish and seafood have been espoused for many years. However, fish are also a potential source of environmental contaminants that have well known adverse effects on human health. We investigated the consumption risks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; n = 104) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus; n = 170), two commonly harvested and consumed fish species inhabiting fresh and estuarine waters in northwest Florida. Skinless fillets were analyzed for total mercury, inorganic arsenic, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. Largemouth bass were found to contain high levels of total mercury at all sampling locations (0.37-0.89 ug/g) and one location exhibited elevated total PCBs (39.4 ng/g). All of the samples exceeded Florida fish consumption advisory trigger levels for total mercury and one location exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs. As a result of the high mercury levels, the non-cancer health risks (hazard index-HI) for bass were above 1 for all locations. Striped mullet from several locations with known point sources contained elevated levels of PCBs (overall range 3.4-59.3 ng/g). However, total mercury levels in mullet were low. Eight of the 16 mullet sampling locations exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs and two locations exceeded an HI of 1 due to elevated PCBs. Despite the elevated levels of total PCBs in some samples, only two locations exceeded the acceptable cancer risk range and therefore cancer health risks from consumption of bass and mullet were determined to be low at most sampling locations.

  2. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) as vectors of contaminants to human consumers in northwest Florida.

    PubMed

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Snyder, Richard A; Lange, Ted; Gibson, Suzanne; Allison, Jeffrey G; Wagner, Matthew E; Ranga Rao, K

    2011-09-01

    The health benefits of regular consumption of fish and seafood have been espoused for many years. However, fish are also a potential source of environmental contaminants that have well known adverse effects on human health. We investigated the consumption risks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; n = 104) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus; n = 170), two commonly harvested and consumed fish species inhabiting fresh and estuarine waters in northwest Florida. Skinless fillets were analyzed for total mercury, inorganic arsenic, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. Largemouth bass were found to contain high levels of total mercury at all sampling locations (0.37-0.89 ug/g) and one location exhibited elevated total PCBs (39.4 ng/g). All of the samples exceeded Florida fish consumption advisory trigger levels for total mercury and one location exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs. As a result of the high mercury levels, the non-cancer health risks (hazard index-HI) for bass were above 1 for all locations. Striped mullet from several locations with known point sources contained elevated levels of PCBs (overall range 3.4-59.3 ng/g). However, total mercury levels in mullet were low. Eight of the 16 mullet sampling locations exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs and two locations exceeded an HI of 1 due to elevated PCBs. Despite the elevated levels of total PCBs in some samples, only two locations exceeded the acceptable cancer risk range and therefore cancer health risks from consumption of bass and mullet were determined to be low at most sampling locations.

  3. Potential effects of maternal contribution on egg and larva population dynamics of striped bass: Integrated individual-based model and directed field sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H., Jr. . Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. )

    1991-01-01

    We have used a bioenergetically-driven, individual-based model (IBM) of striped bass as a framework for synthesizing available information on population biology and quantifying, in a relative sense, factors that potentially affect year class success. The IBM has been configured to simulate environmental conditions experienced by several striped bass populations; i.e., in the Potomac River, MD; in Hudson River, NY; in the Santee-Cooper River System, SC, and; in the San Joaquin-Sacramento River System CA. These sites represent extremes in the geographic distribution and thus, environmental variability of striped bass spawning. At each location, data describing the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the spawning population and nursery area are being collected and synthesized by means of a prioritized, directed field sampling program that is organized by the individual-based recruitment model. Here, we employ the striped bass IBM configured for the Potomac River, MD from spawning into the larval period to evaluate the potential for maternal contribution to affect larva survival and growth. Model simulations in which the size distribution and spawning day of females are altered indicate that larva survival is enhanced (3.3-fold increase) when a high fraction of females in the spawning population are large. Larva stage duration also is less ({bar X} = 18.4 d and 22.2 d) when large and small females, respectively, are mothers in simulations. Although inconclusive, these preliminary results for Potomac River striped bass suggest that the effects of female size, timing of spawning nad maternal contribution on recruitment dynamics potentially are important and illustrate our approach to the study of recruitment in striped bass. We hope to use the model, field collections and management alternatives that vary from site to site, in an iterative manner for some time to come. 54 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

  5. An evaluation of introgression of Atlantic coast striped bass mitochondrial DNA in a Gulf of Mexico population using formalin-preserved museum collections.

    PubMed

    Wirgin, I; Maceda, L; Stabile, J; Mesing, C

    1997-10-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in drainages along the Gulf of Mexico coast (Gulf) were depleted in the 1950s and 1960s, probably because of anthropogenic influences. It is believed that only the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (A-C-F) river system continually supported a naturally reproducing population of Gulf lineage. Striped bass juveniles of Atlantic coast (Atlantic) ancestry were introduced to restore population abundances in the A-C-F from the late 1960s to the mid 1970s and in many other Gulf rivers from the 1960s to the present. We previously identified mtDNA polymorphisms that were unique to approximately 60% of striped bass from the A-C-F and which confirmed the continued successful natural reproduction of striped bass of Gulf maternal ancestry within the system. However, the genetic relatedness of the extant A-C-F population to 'pure' Gulf striped bass was not addressed. In this study, we determined the frequency of a diagnostic mtDNA XbaI polymorphism in samples of 'pure' Gulf striped bass that were collected from the A-C-F prior to the introduction of Atlantic fish, that were obtained from museum collections, and that were originally preserved in formalin. PCR primers were developed that allowed for amplification of a 191-bp mtDNA fragment that contained the diagnostic XbaI restriction site. Using RFLP and direct sequence analyses of the PCR amplicons, we found no significant differences in mtDNA XbaI genotype frequencies between the archived samples and extant A-C-F samples collected over a 15-year period. This indicates that significant maternally mediated introgression of Atlantic mtDNA genomes into the A-C-F gene pool has not occurred. Additionally, we found no evidence of the unique Gulf mtDNA genotype in striped bass from extant populations in Texas, Louisiana and the Mississippi River. These results highlight the importance of the A-C-F as a repository of striped bass to restore extirpated Gulf populations and the potential use of

  6. Intestinal uptake of lipovitellin from brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) by larval inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Kishida, M; Johanning, K M; Bengtson, D A; Specker, J L

    1998-01-01

    Intestinal uptake of lipovitellin (LV) from brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in larval inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) was described using immunocytochemistry. Polyclonal antisera were raised against two subunits of LV (LV68 and LV190). When tested by immunocytochemistry, anti-LV68 showed cross-reactivity with some of the pancreatic cells especially in inland silversides. Therefore anti-LV190 was used to localize immunoreactive LV. Inland silversides at 14 days after hatching were fed Artemia nauplii and then sampled 4, 8, 12 hr after feeding. Similar experiments were carried out by using striped bass at 5 days and 15 days of age. They were sampled at 2, 4, 8, and 12 hr after feeding. Anterior enterocytes showed no evidence of uptake; however, the brush border of the cells of inland silversides reacted with the antiserum. Posterior enterocytes took up the LV and/or, possibly, their immunoreactive breakdown products. The pattern of uptake included accumulation in supranuclear vacuoles and digestion in supranuclear vacuoles, as suggested by the decay of the immunoreactivity over time. Thus, the posterior intestine of these larval fishes is the site of uptake and digestion of LV, an important nutritive component in the food of many larval fishes; this supports earlier findings using non-nutritive marker proteins.

  7. A comparison of congeneric PCB patterns in American eels and striped bass from the Hudson and Delaware River estuaries.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Jeffrey T F; Horwitz, Richard; Steinbacher, Joseph C; Ruppel, Bruce

    2003-10-01

    The Hudson River estuary has enormous spatial variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination due in large part to historical point source discharges above Troy Dam. The Delaware River estuary has accumulated significant levels of PCBs through decades of industrial, municipal, and non-point source inputs. The overall goal of this research was to use existing data sets to compare and contrast the patterns of accumulated PCB congeners in sub-populations of American eels and striped bass inhabiting these two estuaries and surrounding coastal waters. Using principal component analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), inter- and intra-estuarine differences in accumulated congeneric patterns were denoted for both species. Results from our study support the idea that migratory behaviors of striped bass hamper the use of accumulated congener-specific PCB patterns in providing information on localized contamination, although major regional differences were seen between upriver Hudson River fish, downriver Hudson River fish and fish from other areas within this study. This study provides additional evidence for the use of the American eel as a biomonitoring tool, since its limited home range provides finer resolution of regional contamination.

  8. Lysine supplementation of commercial fishmeal-free diet in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis affects expression of growth related genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent results in hybrid striped bass (HSB) concluded that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting amino acids in commercial diet formulations if accurate amino acid availability data are used and that appropriate levels of supplemental lysine are needed in order to improve fish ...

  9. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells (Morone saxatilis) on viability, intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, mitochondrial membrane potential (''m), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation as determined by flow cytometry; motion activati...

  10. Effects of hypothermic storage of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm on intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial function, motility, and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hypothermic 24 h storage of striped bass sperm cells on viability, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (D'm), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (oxidation of hydroethidine to ethidium) as determined by flow cy...

  11. Selenium and other elements in juvenile striped bass from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Palawski, Donald U.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of selenium and other trace elements were determined in 55 whole body samples of juvenile anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California. The fish (≤1 yr old—the predominant life stage in the San Joaquin Valley) were collected in September–December 1986 from 19 sites in the Valley and 3 sites in the Estuary, and analyzed for the following elements: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). When compared to concentrations in whole freshwater fish measured by surveys from other waters, a few samples contained higher levels, of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se. The median concentrations of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Sr also differed significantly (P⩽0.05) among sites. However, only Se concentrations were highest (up to 7.9 μg/g dry weight) in samples from Valley sites exposed to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainwater; concentrations were lower in samples collected elsewhere. Water quality variables—especially those strongly influenced by tile drainwater (conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, and total hardness)—were also significantly correlated (P⩽0.05) with Se concentrations in fish. Selenium concentrations in striped bass from the Estuary were only one-fourth to one-half the concentrations measured in the most contaminated fish from the San Joaquin River.

  12. Selenium and other elements in juvenile striped bass from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California.

    PubMed

    Saiki, M K; Palawski, D U

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of selenium and other trace elements were determined in 55 whole body samples of juvenile anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Joaquin Valley and San Francisco Estuary, California. The fish (≤1 yr old-the predominant life stage in the San Joaquin Valley) were collected in September-December 1986 from 19 sites in the Valley and 3 sites in the Estuary, and analyzed for the following elements: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). When compared to concentrations in whole freshwater fish measured by surveys from other waters, a few samples contained higher levels, of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se. The median concentrations of Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Sr also differed significantly (P[Symbol: see text]0.05) among sites. However, only Se concentrations were highest (up to 7.9 μg/g dry weight) in samples from Valley sites exposed to agricultural subsurface (tile) drainwater; concentrations were lower in samples collected elsewhere. Water quality variables-especially those strongly influenced by tile drainwater (conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, and total hardness)-were also significantly correlated (P[Symbol: see text]0.05) with Se concentrations in fish. Selenium concentrations in striped bass from the Estuary were only one-fourth to one-half the concentrations measured in the most contaminated fish from the San Joaquin River.

  13. Aquatic Francisella-like bacterium associated with mortality of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Ostland, V E; Stannard, J A; Creek, J J; Hedrick, R P; Ferguson, H W; Carlberg, J M; Westerman, M E

    2006-10-17

    The present study identifies an emerging disease associated with an aquatic Francisella-like bacterium that can cause mortality in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis reared intensively in freshwater. Clinically affected fish were lethargic, had scattered haemorrhagic cutaneous lesions and diffuse gill pallor. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen and contained numerous interstitial granulomas; histological examination revealed small, pleomorphic Gram-negative coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. The bacterium could not be cultured from head kidney homogenates either with standard or enriched microbiological media or following inoculation of a Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE)-214 cell line. No amplification product was obtained from head kidney DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using Piscirickettsia salmonis-specific primers. PCR analysis of infected head kidney homogenate with primers designed for the eubacterial 16S rRNA produced a single amplicon. Phylogenetic analysis of this DNA sequence demonstrated that the sequence aligned most closely with members of the genus Francisella, identified from tilapia Oreochromis spp. in Taiwan and an aquatic Francisella species that was recently isolated from the three-line grunt Parapristipoma trilineatum in Japan. This Francisella-like disease was transmitted to naive hybrid striped bass fingerlings by intraperitoneal injection of tissue homogenates prepared from a natural outbreak. All fish developed gross and histological lesions identical to those from natural outbreaks. Intracellular Gram-negative bacteria were observed within the cytoplasm of cells (presumably macrophages) within the granulomas, but bacteria were not recovered. The 16S DNA sequence of the bacterium obtained from tissues of experimentally infected fish was identical to that obtained from the fish used as infected donor tissue.

  14. Correlation of transforming growth factor-β messenger RNA (TGF-β mRNA) expression with cellular immunoassays in Triamcinolone-treated captive hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, Craig A.; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S.

    2000-01-01

    Assessing fish immune status with molecular markers has been hampered by a lack of specific reagents. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (reverse transcription quantitative–competitive PCR, RT-qcPCR) for measuring transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) transcription from a broad range of teleost fish has recently been developed. The quantitative PCR now permits monitoring production of this important immunosuppressive cytokine in response to immunomodulating agents and conditions. We examined anterior kidney and spleen mononuclear cells from hybrid striped bass (female striped bass Morone saxatilis× male white bass M. chrysops) for production of TGF-β messenger RNA (mRNA) in response to administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone. We also compared TGF-β transcription with anterior kidney macrophage bactericidal activity and splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis. Anterior kidney mononuclear cell TGF-β mRNA levels decreased, whereas bactericidal activity increased. Spleen TGF-β mRNA levels did not change significantly, and splenic lymphocyte pokeweed mitogen stimulation index increased in triamcinolone-treated fish. Since triamcinolone is used therapeutically as a suppressive immunomodulator, the enhanced immune functions indicated by the cellular immunoassays were unexpected; however, the inverse response of TGF-β production and macrophage bactericidal activity was consistent with the known relationship between TGF-β and macrophage activation in mammals. Induced immunomodulation in hybrid striped bass was detectable by both traditional cellular immunoassays and the new RT-qcPCR for TGF-β.

  15. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and tautog (Tautoga onitis) from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA).

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2009-04-01

    We examined the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in two marine finfish species, striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and tautog (Tautoga onitis), collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA). For each of these target fish, white muscle tissue was analyzed for total mercury (Hg) and results were evaluated relative to fish age, body size, and Hg content of preferred prey. Dietary and stable isotope analysis was also used to elucidate the effect of trophic processes on Hg concentrations in fish. The Hg content of muscle tissue was positively correlated with fish age and length for both species, although striped bass accumulated Hg faster than tautog. Accelerated Hg bioaccumulation in striped bass is consistent with its high trophic level (trophic level = 4.07) and Hg-enriched prey (forage fish and macrocrustaceans; mean Hg content = 0.03 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1)). In contrast, tautog maintain a lower trophic status (trophic level=3.51) and consume prey with lower Hg levels (mussels and crabs; mean Hg content = 0.02 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1)). Despite differences in Hg bioaccumulation between target fish, the mean Hg concentration of tautog exceeded levels in striped bass (0.24 and 0.16 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1), respectively) due to a disparity in age-at-catch between sampled groups (mean age of tautog and bass = 11.3 and 4.3 yr, respectively). Taking into account legal minimum catch lengths further revealed that 75.0% of legal-size striped bass (>70.2 cm TL; n = 4) and 44.8% of tautog (> 40.6 cm TL; n = 29) had Hg levels beyond the US EPA regulatory threshold of 0.3 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1). Moreover, Hg-length relationships suggest that each target fish meets this threshold near their minimum legal catch length. Our findings reiterate the value of species ecology to improve predictions of fish Hg and permit better management of human contamination by this important dietary source.

  16. Effect of low-head lock and dam structures on migration and spawning of American shad and striped bass in the Cape Fear River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations within the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, have declined substantially since the late 1800s. Three low-head lock-and-dam (LD) structures on the river (LD-1–3) contributed to this decline by limiting access to upstream spawning habitat. We used egg sampling and sonic telemetry to examine the effects of the LD structures on migration and spawning activity of American shad Alosa sapidissima and striped bassMorone saxatilis. Egg distribution and stage of development suggested that most of the American shad spawning took place downstream from the lowermost structure, LD-1. The predicted mean density of stage-1 American shad eggs at a water temperature of 21°C was 895 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% credible interval [CI] = 800–994) below LD-1; 147 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 103–197) below LD-2; and 32 eggs/1,000 m3 (95% CI = 17–49) below the uppermost structure, LD-3. The probability of capturing a stage-1 American shad egg was strongly dependent on water temperature and hour of egg collection. Transmitter detections for 20 sonic-tagged American shad and 20 striped bass in 2008 showed that for both species, the majority of fish moved upstream of LD-1; 35% of American shad and 25% of striped bass migrated upstream of LD-3. Based on passage rates at the three LD structures, American shad would be expected to be most abundant downstream of LD-1 and upstream of LD-3. For striped bass, the river section between LD-2 and LD-3 had the highest egg collections and highest predicted proportion of the run. In combination, these results demonstrate that the locking program provides some access to historical spawning habitat, although further improvements in fish passage could benefit both species.

  17. Depletion of the chloramine-T marker residue, para-toluenesulfonamide, from skin-on fillet tissue of hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Greseth, Shari L.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Waterborne exposure to n-sodium-n-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T) is an effective treatment for controlling fish mortalities caused by bacterial gill disease (BGD). Currently, data are being generated to gain United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T in aquaculture. As part of the data required for an approval, depletion of the chloramine-T marker residue (para-toluenesulfonamide [p-TSA]) from the edible fillet tissue of exposed fish must be determined. Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis??Morone chrysops; mean weight 357 g), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; mean weight 457 g), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens; mean weight 144 g) were exposed to 20 mg/l of chloramine-T for 60 min on 4 consecutive days (the most aggressive treatment expected for approved use in the United States). Groups of fish (n=15 or 19) were sampled immediately after the last treatment and periodically through 48 or 168 h after the treatment phase. Duplicate subsamples of skin-on fillet tissue from each fish were analyzed for p-TSA. Mean p-TSA concentrations in fillet tissue from fish sampled immediately after the last treatment were 142 ng/g (hybrid striped bass), 97 ng/g (rainbow trout), and 150 ng/g (yellow perch). Mean p-TSA concentrations at terminal sample times were 94 (168 h; hybrid striped bass), 74 (48 h; rainbow trout), and 35 ng/g (168 h; yellow perch). The half-lives of p-TSA in fillet tissue from fish near or at market size were 11.4 (hybrid striped bass), 4.3 (rainbow trout), and 3.2 days (yellow perch).

  18. Effect of daily minimum pond dissolved oxygen concentration on hybrid striped bass fingerling yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to quantify the production and water quality responses of hybrid striped ...

  19. Blood plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin in striped bass (morone saxatilis) exposed to 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Monosson, E.; Fleming, W.J.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1996-05-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) can impair reproductive processes in fish. Laboratory studies have demonstrated adverse effects in several different fish species. Evidence also exits for an association between exposure to PCBs and related compounds and impaired reproduction in wild fish. Although the mechanism of reproductive toxicity of PCBs is unclear, it appears that PCBs act of several different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG). Because of their structural similarity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), planar PCB congengers (e.g. 3,3`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)) are among the most toxic PCBs. Both TCB and dioxon are reproductive toxicants in fish. TCB exposure (via intraperitoneal injections) impaired maturation in adult female white perch (Monroe americana) and reduced egg deposition in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Larval or fry survival was also reduced following either maternal exposure to TCB for white perch or injections of TCB into fertilized eggs of rainbow trout. This study investigate the effects of exposure to TCB on reproductive processes in female striped bass. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  1. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  2. Effects of antenna placement and antibiotic treatment on loss of simulated transmitters and mortality in hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Young, S.P.; Jones, T.A.; Schaffler, James J.

    2002-01-01

    We compared the effects of two antenna placements (trailing and nontrailing) and antibiotic treatments (treated and nontreated) on mortality and transmitter loss in hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis ?? M. chrysops (364 ?? 28 mm total length, 645 ?? 129 g [mean ?? SD]) implanted with simulated transmitters and held in the laboratory for 90 d. Although antibiotic treatment significantly increased the time to first mortality in fish surgically implanted with simulated transmitters (by an average of 14 d), we did not detect an effect on cumulative mortality. We also did not detect an effect of antenna type on the time to first mortality, but cumulative mortality was higher in the trailing antenna groups (50%) than in the nontrailing antenna groups (12%). Three transmitters were expelled during the study, all from trailing-antenna treatment groups, indicating a significant effect of antenna placement on the level of transmitter expulsion. Antibiotic treatment appears to be effective in preventing initial postsurgical infection; however, the antenna may serve as a continuous source of irritation and route of infection into the body cavity. The potential for infection and mortality in experimental animals must be weighed against the improved performance of transmitters with trailing antennas.

  3. Effects of implantation method and temperature on mortality and loss of simulated transmitters in hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.G.; Bjorgo, K.A.; Isely, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effects of surgical implantation method and temperature on mortality and transmitter loss, we compared two antenna placements (trailing antenna versus shielded needle) and two suture materials (absorbable versus nonabsorbable) in hybrid striped bass Morone saxitilis x Morone chrysops (227-410 mm total length) that had been surgically implanted with simulated transmitters and held at high (22-29??C) and low (12-18??C) temperatures for 120 d. Fish were individually examined after 7, 30, 60. 90. and 120 d to evaluate suture and wound condition as well as transmitter loss. Neither suture material nor antenna placement affected transmitter loss, mortality, or growth at either high or low temperatures. Absorbable sutures were lost more quickly than were nonabsorbable sutures, but they persisted beyond incision closure at both high and low temperatures. At high temperatures, 50% suture loss occurred by 30 d for absorbable sutures and by 60 d for nonabsorbable sutures. Mortality occurred only at high temperatures but was delayed and was likely caused by peritoneal infection. Transmitter loss was not significant; it occurred only in the low-temperature trial and was caused by pressure necrosis at the incision rather than by suture failure. Temperature significantly affected all responses examined in this study. Significant irritation, infection, and mortality occurred in all treatment groups at high temperatures.

  4. Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing chromogenic species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; McNabb, A.; Deshayes, C.; Reyrat, J.-M.; Brown-Elliott, B. A.; Wallace, R.; Trott, K.A.; Parker, J.M.; Lifland, B.; Osterhout, G.; Kaattari, I.; Reece, K.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    A group of slowly growing photochromogenic mycobacteria was isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) during an epizootic of mycobacteriosis. Growth characteristics, acid-fastness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing results were consistent with those of the genus Mycobacterium. Biochemical reactions, growth characteristics and mycolic acid profiles (HPLC) resembled those of Mycobacterium shottsii, a non-pigmented mycobacterium also isolated during the same epizootic. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, the gene encoding the exported repeated protein (erp) and the gene encoding the 65 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp65) and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene demonstrated that this group of isolates is unique. Insertion sequences associated with Mycobacterium ulcerans, IS2404 and IS2606, were detected by PCR. These isolates could be differentiated from other slowly growing pigmented mycobacteria by their inability to grow at 37 ??C, production of niacin and urease, absence of nitrate reductase, negative Tween 80 hydrolysis and resistance to isoniazid (1 ??g ml-1), p-nitrobenzoic acid, thiacetazone and thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide. On the basis of this polyphasic study, it is proposed that these isolates represent a novel species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov. The type strain, L15T, has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC BAA-883T and the National Collection of Type Cultures (UK) as NCTC 13318T. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  5. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert W; Reading, Benjamin J; Sullivan, Craig V

    2014-01-01

    Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis), a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233) representing <2% of the queried ovary transcriptome explained >90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold), with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1%) to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive

  6. The effects of prebiotics on the digestive enzymes and gut histomorphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Anguiano, Maritza; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2013-02-28

    The effects of four prebiotics (fructo-oligosaccharide, Bio-MOS, transgalacto-oligosaccharide and GroBiotic-A) on digestive enzymes and intestinal morphology were studied in juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using two separate 8-week feeding trials. Red drum were fed experimental diets with the four prebiotics each individually supplemented at 1% and hybrid striped bass were fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic-A at 1 and 2%. Both trials were conducted with each diet fed to apparent satiation twice per d to three replicate groups of fifteen juvenile fish. For histomorphological analysis, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) samples from three randomly selected fish per tank were taken at 4 and 8 weeks for hybrid striped bass and at 8 weeks for red drum. For both trials, GIT samples from two randomly selected fish per tank were taken at 4 and 8 weeks and analysed for pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, aminopeptidase, α-amylase, lipase, and both acid and alkaline phosphatase activities. The results of the histological evaluation indicated that the inclusion of prebiotics was adequate to elicit structural changes in the GIT of both species. On the other hand, no significant changes in the enzyme activities were detected at week 8 in both species. However, there was a transient effect of Bio-MOS supplementation on the activities of aminopeptidase, α-amylase and alkaline phosphatase at week 4 in red drum only. Thus, previously observed improvements in nutrient digestibility by these fish in response to prebiotic supplementation appear to be mostly related to changes in GIT structure as opposed to the enhancement of digestive enzyme activity.

  7. Effects of frozen and liquid hypothermic storage and extender type on calcium homeostasis in relation to viability and ATP content in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) sperm.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H D; Welch, G R; Woods, L C

    2014-05-01

    The effect of hypothermic storage on striped bass sperm calcium homeostasis was determined by Fluo-3 flow cytometry. Calcium homeostasis was defined as the ability of cells to maintain a low concentration of intracellular free calcium as measured by Fluo-3 fluorescence. Sperm were stored frozen in striped bass extender (SBE) and Tris-NaCl medium (T350) modified with 50 mM glycine and 7.5% dimethylsulfoxide and in nonfrozen form diluted 1:3 (vol/vol) in SBE and T350 for 1, 24, and 48 hours at 4 °C in an oxygen atmosphere. Fluo-3 fluorescence was detected in less than 5% of fresh viable sperm cells indicating maintenance of calcium homeostasis. In contrast to sperm in fresh semen, frozen-thawed and nonfrozen sperm cells lost to a considerable extent the ability to maintain low intracellular free calcium even in the absence of exogenous calcium; positive Fluo-3 fluorescence was found in 26% and 39% of thawed sperm frozen in SBE- and T350-based freezing diluents, respectively, and increased (P < 0.05) to 67% during nonfrozen storage in SBE and T350 at 24 and 48 hours. Sperm viability measured by exclusion of propidium iodide by flow cytometry was 99% in fresh milt and maintained at 86% (P > 0.05) in SBE after 48 hours of nonfrozen storage but decreased (P < 0.05) to 55.7% after 48 hours in T350. Energy status in terms of ATP content, determined by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay, was higher (P < 0.05) in sperm frozen in SBE than in T350 during the first 5 minutes post-thaw and decreased to essentially zero by 15 minutes post-thaw and did not differ among nonfrozen storage treatments. In conclusion, sperm cells impervious to propidium iodide after frozen or nonfrozen storage were unable to maintain low intracellular calcium content. SBE is a better medium than T350 for frozen or nonfrozen storage of striped bass sperm. The inability to regulate intracellular calcium in striped bass sperm may be associated with poor activation of motility after 4 °C storage

  8. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  9. The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B., Ed.; Grace, Andre P., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from leading experts in the field, The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education collects in one volume the best previously published literature on the issues and trends affecting adult education today. The volume includes influential pieces from foundational authors in the profession such as Eduard C.…

  10. A comparison of mercury burdens between St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Evaluation of fish body burdens and physiological responses in largemouth bass, spotted seatrout, striped mullet, and sunfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huge, D.H.; Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wieser, F.M.; Hemming, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Musculature from the dorsal region of 130 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 140 sunfish (Lepomis sp.), 41 spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and 67 striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) were collected from five estuarine and five freshwater sites within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and two estuarine and two freshwater sites from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, United States of America. Musculature was analyzed for total mercury content, sagittal otoliths were removed for age determination and physiological responses were measured. Largemouth bass and sunfish from the refuge had higher mercury concentrations in musculature than those from the bay. Male spotted seatrout, male striped mullet, male and female sunfish and female largemouth bass had mercury burdens positively correlated with length. The majority of all four species of fish from both study areas contained mercury levels below 1.5 part per million, the limit for safe consumption recommended the Florida Department of Health. In comparison, a significant percentage of largemouth bass and sunfish from several sampled sites, most notably Otter Lake and Lake Renfroe within St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, had mercury levels consistent with the health department's guidelines of 'limited consumption' or 'no consumption guidelines.'

  11. Low prevalence of splenic mycobacteriosis in migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis from North Carolina and Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Matsche, Mark A; Overton, Anthony; Jacobs, John; Rhodes, Matt R; Rosemary, Kevin M

    2010-07-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a chronic bacterial disease causing an ongoing epizootic in striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Prevalence of disease is high in pre-migratory fish, and multiple species of Mycobacterium spp. have been isolated. However, prevalence of mycobacteriosis in the coastal migratory population is unknown and is of concern to multiple coastal states, as disease-related mortality may impact the long-term health of the population. Histological examinations of spleens collected from fish caught by recreational anglers during the winter fishery in coastal North Carolina (2005-2006, n=249) and during the spring fishery in Chesapeake Bay (2006, n=120) indicated a low prevalence of mycobacteriosis (6.8% of all fish examined) in comparison to smaller, pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish. Genus-level PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed that all bacteria were phylogenetically related, but species is unknown. Location of survey, gender of fish, and total length of fish had no significant effect on prevalence of mycobacteriosis, parasitic granulomas, or the density of splenic granulomas (p > 0.05). These results may indicate that either granulomas resolve after Chesapeake Bay fish enter the coastal migratory population, or that there is disease-related mortality among pre-migratory Chesapeake Bay fish.

  12. Identification of QTL for adult plant resistance to stripe rust in Chinese wheat landrace Caoxuan 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow (or stripe) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important wheat disease worldwide. The development of wheat cultivars with adult plant resistance (APR) has been given increasing emphasis in recent years because of the reputed durability of APR compared to all-stag...

  13. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  14. Histology and ultrastructure of transitional changes in skin morphology in the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu; Ihunwo, Amadi Ogonda

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin.

  15. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    PubMed

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  16. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  17. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  18. Effect of contrasting agents on survival, performance, and condition of larval hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis in tanks.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turbidity is important in the tank culture of larval cannibalistic fish. The principal goal of these studies were to characterize the utility and feasibility of select contrasting agents, either algae or inert soil, at improving sunshine bass survival and uniformity of size at time of weaning to an ...

  19. Developing Teaching Style in Adult Education. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Norland, Emmalou

    Designed for adult educators in various settings who are seeking to improve as teachers, this book describes a process adult educators can use to examine their beliefs about teaching and current teaching behavior in depth. It is intended to guide them through an exploration of who they really are as teachers, and then, through experiential…

  20. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Lee, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population.

  1. Summer movements of sub-adult brook trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon, and smallmouth bass in the Rapid River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Casey A. L.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Summer movement patterns and spatial overlap of native sub-adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), non-native landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Rapid River, Maine, were investigated with radio telemetry in 2005. Fishes were captured by angling, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked actively from June through September. Most brook trout (96%) and landlocked salmon (72%) displayed long distance movements (>1 km) to open water bodies (28 June to 4 July) followed by periods of time spent in presumed thermal refigia (5 July to 16 September). Summer water temperature rose above 25 °C, near the reported lethal limits for these coldwater species. In contrast, the majority of smallmouth bass (68%), a warrnwater species, did not make long distance movements from areas of initial capture, remaining in mainstem sections of the river (28 June to 16 September). Spatial overlap of smallmouth bass and brook trout in the summer is unlikely because brook trout presumably move to thermal rehgia during this time. However, interspecific competition between brook trout and landlocked salmon may occur since they select similar habitats June through September.

  2. Characterization and molecular mapping of Yr52 for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat germplasm PI 183527

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best approach to control the disease. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance has proven to be race non-specific and durable. However, genes...

  3. Mapping of Yr62 and a small effect QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat PI 192252

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. Spring wheat germplasm PI 192252 showed a high level of high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust in germplasm evaluation over eight years in the State of Washington. ...

  4. Quantitative Trait Loci for High-Temperature Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust (Puccinia Striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a Hard Red Winter Wheat Germplasm IDO444

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a durable type of resistance in wheat. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring the HTAP resistance to stripe rust in a population consisted of 179 F7:8...

  5. The dissection and SSR mapping of a high-temperature adult-plant stripe rust resistance gene in American spring wheat cultivar Alturas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust is one of major diseases in wheat production worldwide. The best economic and efficient method is to utilize resistant varieties. Alturas has high-temperature adult-plant resistance. In order to determine stripe rust resistance characteristics, resistance gene combination and molecular m...

  6. Learning and Change in the Adult Years: A Developmental Perspective. First Edition. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark; Pogson, Philip

    Aimed at adult education practitioners engaged in graduate study, this book draws on the field of developmental psychology to provide new insights into the critical connections between experience and learning in adult education and training. Chapter 1 introduces the role of psychological development in adult learning, investment of "self" in…

  7. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  8. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  9. Rearing sunshine bass using diets formulated for summer water temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adult black bass and yellow perch were not associated with their reproductive success in the upper Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Maceina, Michael J; Sammons, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Although production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ceased nearly 35 yr ago, questions still remain concerning the potential chronic effects these compounds may have on wild fish, including their reproductive success. In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to PCBs primarily from 2 manufacturing plants located approximately 320 km upstream of New York City, New York, from the 1940s to 1977. The authors collected yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) using electrofishing, measured PCBs in these adults, and estimated abundance and size of their offspring at age 1 yr (age-1 fish). Fish were collected annually from 2004 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge sites and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. These sites (pools) are separated by a series of dams, locks, and canals. Muscle tissue wet weight PCB and lipid-based PCB concentrations in adults in the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 1 to 3 µg/g and 100 to 500 µg/g, respectively. Age-1 abundances were not related to adult PCB concentrations but were inversely related to river flow. Size of age-1 fish was slightly greater at the PCB-exposure sites. Levels of PCBs in yellow perch, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass in the upper Hudson River did not impair or reduce recruitment or reproductive success.

  11. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  12. Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Su, Yan-Qiu; Yuan, Shu; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst), is one of the most serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the protective mechanism against stripe rust at the adult plant stage, the differences in photosystem II and antioxidant enzymatic systems between susceptible and resistant wheat in response to stripe rust disease (P. striiformis) were investigated. We found that chlorophyll fluorescence and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were higher in resistant wheat than in susceptible wheat after stripe rust infection. Compared with the susceptible wheat, the resistant wheat accumulated a higher level of D1 protein and a lower level of reactive oxygen species after infection. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that D1 and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation are involved in the resistance to stripe rust in wheat. The CP29 protein was phosphorylated under stripe rust infection, like its phosphorylation in other monocots under environmental stresses. More extensive damages occur on the thylakoid membranes in the susceptible wheat compared with the resistant wheat. The findings provide evidence that thylakoid protein phosphorylation and antioxidant enzyme systems play important roles in plant responses and defense to biotic stress. PMID:26442087

  13. The Design of Education. Second Edition. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book, which is intended primarily for specialists in the field of adult education (AE) who wish to improve their performance, presents a systematic plan for designing, establishing, and evaluating successful programs for adult learners. The following topics are among those discussed in the book's six chapters: credos and systems (growth of…

  14. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 3. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This review contains current information on research, policy, and practice in adult literacy and learning for individuals and organizations focused on adult basic education (ABE), adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), and adult secondary education (ASE) programs. "The Year 2000 In Review" (Lennox L. McLendon) describes…

  15. Anoplastie périnéale simple pour le traitement des malformations anorectales basses chez l'adulte, à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Echchaoui, Abdelmoughit; Benyachou, Malika; Hafidi, Jawad; Fathi, Nahed; Mohammadine, Elhamid; ELmazouz, Samir; Gharib, Nour-eddine; Abbassi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Les malformations anorectales chez l'adulte sont des anomalies congénitales rares du tube digestif qui prédominent chez le sexe féminin. Notre étude porte sur deux observations de malformation anorectale basses vues et traitées au stade adulte par les 2 équipes (plasticiens et viscéralistes) à l'Hôpital Avicenne à Rabat. Il s'agit d'un homme de 24 ans avec une dyschésie anale l'autre cas est une femme de 18 ans avec une malformation anovulvaire Les caractéristiques cliniques combinées avec les imageries radiologiques (lavement baryté, et la manométrie anorectale) ont confirmé qu'il s'agit d'une malfomation anorectale basse. Les deux cas sont corrigés par une reconstruction sphinctérienne, réimplantation anale avec anoplastie périnéale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples, pas de souffrance cutanée ou nécrose, avec changement de pansement gras chaque jour. Le résultat fonctionnel (la continence) était favorable pour les 2 patients. La présentation des MAR à l’âge adulte est rare, d’étiologie mal connu, elles apparaissent selon le mode sporadique. Les caractéristiques cliniques, couplées à l'imagerie (lavement baryté, IRM pelvienne), l'endoscopie et la manométrie anorectale, permettent de confirmer le diagnostic et classer ces anomalies en 3 types: basses, intermédiaires, et hautes. Les formes basses sont traités d'emblée par une réimplantation anale et anoplastie périnéale simple tels nos deux cas, elles peuvent être traités dans certains cas par un abaissement anorectale associé à une plastie V-Y permettant ainsi un emplacement anatomique correct de l'anus; alors que les formes hautes ou intermédiaires relèvent d'une chirurgie complexe avec souvent une dérivation digestive transitoire. Contrairement aux autres formes, Les formes basses ont un pronostic fonctionnel favorable. PMID:25667689

  16. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 2. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This document contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy research and practice. "The Year 1999 in Review" (Dave Speights) presents an overview of adult learning and literacy research funding, policy, and activities in 1999. "Making Sense of Critical Pedagogy in Adult Literacy Education" (Sophie C. Degener) details a…

  17. Offshore Habitat Preference of Overwintering Juvenile and Adult Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata, and the Relationship to Year-Class Success

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alicia S.; Shepherd, Gary R.; Fratantoni, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) migrations are believed to play a role in overwinter survival and connectivity between juvenile and adult populations. This study investigated oceanographic drivers of winter habitat choice and regional differences between populations of juvenile and adult black sea bass. Trends in cohort strength, as a result of juvenile survival, were also identified. Oceanographic and fisheries survey data were analyzed using generalized additive models. Among the oceanographic variables investigated, salinity was the main driver in habitat selection with an optimal range of 33–35 practical salinity units (PSU) for both juveniles and adults. Preferred temperature ranges varied between juveniles and adults, but held a similar minimum preference of >8°C. Salinity and temperature ranges also differed by regions north and south of Hudson Canyon. Shelf water volume had less of an effect than temperature or salinity, but showed an overall negative relationship with survey catch. The effect of winter conditions on juvenile abundance was also observed across state and federal survey index trends. A lack of correlation observed among surveys in the fall paired with a strong correlation in the spring identifies the winter period as a factor determining year-class strength of new recruits to the population. A rank order analysis of spring indices identified three of the largest year classes occurring during years with reduced shelf water volumes, warmer winter shelf waters, and a 34 PSU isohaline aligned farther inshore. While greater catches of black sea bass in the northwest Atlantic Ocean remain south of Hudson Canyon, the species’ range has expanded north in recent years. PMID:26824350

  18. Offshore Habitat Preference of Overwintering Juvenile and Adult Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata, and the Relationship to Year-Class Success.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alicia S; Shepherd, Gary R; Fratantoni, Paula S

    2016-01-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) migrations are believed to play a role in overwinter survival and connectivity between juvenile and adult populations. This study investigated oceanographic drivers of winter habitat choice and regional differences between populations of juvenile and adult black sea bass. Trends in cohort strength, as a result of juvenile survival, were also identified. Oceanographic and fisheries survey data were analyzed using generalized additive models. Among the oceanographic variables investigated, salinity was the main driver in habitat selection with an optimal range of 33-35 practical salinity units (PSU) for both juveniles and adults. Preferred temperature ranges varied between juveniles and adults, but held a similar minimum preference of >8°C. Salinity and temperature ranges also differed by regions north and south of Hudson Canyon. Shelf water volume had less of an effect than temperature or salinity, but showed an overall negative relationship with survey catch. The effect of winter conditions on juvenile abundance was also observed across state and federal survey index trends. A lack of correlation observed among surveys in the fall paired with a strong correlation in the spring identifies the winter period as a factor determining year-class strength of new recruits to the population. A rank order analysis of spring indices identified three of the largest year classes occurring during years with reduced shelf water volumes, warmer winter shelf waters, and a 34 PSU isohaline aligned farther inshore. While greater catches of black sea bass in the northwest Atlantic Ocean remain south of Hudson Canyon, the species' range has expanded north in recent years.

  19. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 1. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy. "The Year 1998 in Review" (Fran Tracy-Mumford) examines educational legislation and policy and developments in adult education program development, program accountability, strategic alliances and partnerships, and instructional methodologies and technologies. "Lessons…

  20. Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Wheat Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust at the Adult Plant Stage

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yingbin; Wang, Ting; Wang, Kang; Wang, Xiaojie; Fu, Yanping; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    Stripe rust (or yellow rust), which is caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most devastating wheat diseases worldwide. The wheat cultivar Xingzi 9104 (XZ) is an elite wheat germplasm that possesses adult plant resistance (APR), which is non–race-specific and durable. Thus, to better understand the mechanism underlying APR, we performed transcriptome sequencing of wheat seedlings and adult plants without Pst infection, and a total of 157,689 unigenes were obtained as a reference. In total, 2,666, 783 and 2,587 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be up- or down-regulated after Pst infection at 24, 48 and 120 hours post-inoculation (hpi), respectively, based on a comparison of Pst- and mock-infected plants. Among these unigenes, the temporal pattern of the up-regulated unigenes exhibited transient expression patterns during Pst infection, as determined through a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. In addition, a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that many biological processes, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species, photosynthesis and thiamine metabolism, which mainly control the mechanisms of lignification, reactive oxygen species and sugar, respectively, are involved in APR. In particular, the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species may potentially contribute to the ability of the adult plant to inhibit fungal growth and development. To validate the bioinformatics results, 6 candidate genes were selected for further functional identification using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system, and 4 candidate genes likely contribute to plant resistance against Pst infection. Our study provides new information concerning the transcriptional changes that occur during the Pst-wheat interaction at the adult stage and will help further our understanding of the detailed mechanisms underlying APR to Pst. PMID:26991894

  1. Learning from Our Lives: Using Educational Biographies with Adults. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominice, Pierre

    This nine-chapter book, written in Europe by a French-speaking Swiss educator, explores the rationale for using educational biography approaches in adult education and presents examples that illustrate various uses of these life history activities. Chapter 1 provides an introduction and overview of educational biography, and Chapter 2 describes…

  2. Taking Learning to Task: Creative Strategies for Teaching Adults. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Jane

    This book examines an approach to teaching adults, in which teaching and learning are integrated and where the learning task is the overall design, incorporating the lecture or input along with practice. In 12 chapters, the book challenges the reader to describe the difference between teaching tasks and learning tasks and to examine both the…

  3. Women as Learners: The Significance of Gender in Adult Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.

    This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…

  4. Identification of Yr59 conferring high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat germplasm PI 178759

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Resistant cultivars are the preferred means of control. The spring wheat germplasm ‘PI 178759’ originating from Iraq showed effective resistance to stripe rust in fie...

  5. Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping of QTL for Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Chinese Wheat Population Linmai 2 × Zhong 892

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jindong; He, Zhonghu; Wu, Ling; Bai, Bin; Wen, Weie; Xie, Chaojie; Xia, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Stripe rust is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Adult-plant resistance (APR) is an efficient approach to provide long-term protection of wheat from the disease. The Chinese winter wheat cultivar Zhong 892 has a moderate level of APR to stripe rust in the field. To determine the inheritance of the APR resistance in this cultivar, 273 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between Linmai 2 and Zhong 892. The RILs were evaluated for maximum disease severity (MDS) in two sites during the 2011–2012, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping seasons, providing data for five environments. Illumina 90k SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) chips were used to genotype the RILs and their parents. Composite interval mapping (CIM) detected eight QTL, namely QYr.caas-2AL, QYr.caas-2BL.3, QYr.caas-3AS, QYr.caas-3BS, QYr.caas-5DL, QYr.caas-6AL, QYr.caas-7AL and QYr.caas-7DS.1, respectively. All except QYr.caas-2BL.3 resistance alleles were contributed by Zhong 892. QYr.caas-3AS and QYr.caas-3BS conferred stable resistance to stripe rust in all environments, explaining 6.2–17.4% and 5.0–11.5% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. The genome scan of SNP sequences tightly linked to QTL for APR against annotated proteins in wheat and related cereals genomes identified two candidate genes (autophagy-related gene and disease resistance gene RGA1), significantly associated with stripe rust resistance. These QTL and their closely linked SNP markers, in combination with kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) technology, are potentially useful for improving stripe rust resistances in wheat breeding. PMID:26714310

  6. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  7. Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack, Ed.

    Stemming from a 1998 Columbia University conference on transformative learning, this 3-part book contains 12 articles that examine the concept of how adults learn to change ("transform") their frames of reference. The following are included in Part One: Developing Concepts of Transformative Learning: "Learning To Think Like an Adult: Core Concepts…

  8. Hierarchical Bass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  9. Copper sulfate controls fungus on mat-spawned largemouth bass eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish and hybrid striped bass industries as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on eggs; these industries use hatching troughs and McDonald jars, respectively, in moderate alkalinity waters. This study determined the effectivene...

  10. Planning Programs for Adult Learners: A Practical Guide for Educators, Trainers, and Staff Developers. Second Edition. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    This how-to guide and resource book is designed to help in planning educational and training programs for adults in settings from the corporate sector to educational organizations. Chapters 1-3 lay the groundwork for the rest of the guide by introducing the 12-component Interactive Model of Program Planning. Chapter 1 describes adult programs and…

  11. Adult Education in the American Experience from the Colonial Period to the Present. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.; Keane, Patrick

    This book offers a comprehensive history of adult education in the United States from the colonial period to the present day. Chapter 1 discusses definitions of adult education and explores formative influences. Chapters 2-3 on the colonial and post-Revolutionary periods trace an Atlantic information network, rise of a literate culture, Puritan…

  12. Learning To Listen, Learning To Teach: The Power of Dialogue in Educating Adults. Revised Edition. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Jane

    This book, based on the work of a teacher and community development expert with many years of teaching adult education in numerous developing countries all over the world, provides a process for teaching and learning with adults. The book is illustrated with stories from the author's experience and examples that show how to begin, set up, carry…

  13. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  14. Leadership for the Emerging Age: Transforming Practice in Adult and Continuing Education. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apps, Jerold W.

    This book provides adult educators with a blueprint for developing a profoundly different approach to leadership that is all-embracing of ideas and people, capitalizes on diversity, and remains open and responsive to change. Chapter 1 introduces this new approach that has its foundation in the arts, humanities, and sciences. Chapter 2 examines a…

  15. Power in Practice: Adult Education and the Struggle for Knowledge and Power in Society. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervero, Ronald M.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    This book contains 14 papers on adult education and the struggle for knowledge and power in society. The following papers are included: "At the Heart of Practice: The Struggle for Knowledge and Power" (Ronald M. Cervero, Arthur L. Wilson); "The Power of Economic Globalization: Deskilling Immigrant Women through Training"…

  16. Production of hybrid striped bass stockers in a biofloc system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High yields can be obtained from an outdoor biofloc technology (BFT) production system in response to high stocking and feeding rates because a complex of living organisms, including phytoplankton and bacteria, closely associated with particulate organic matter that is maintained in suspension in th...

  17. Hybridization between introduced spotted bass and smallmouth bass in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, P.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Introductions of black basses Micropterus spp. beyond their native ranges have led to hybridization within the genus. In the southeastern USA, the potential for hybridization appears high because species introductions have been common in reservoirs. We determined the extent of hybridization between smallmouth bass M. dolomieu and spotted bass M. punctulatus in reservoirs in which introductions of either species into the native range of the other species had occurred. Three allozyme loci were used to distinguish the two species and their hybrids. Significant hybridization occurred in two of three reservoirs where introductions had been reported. In Lake Chatuge, Georgia-North Carolina, where the Alabama subspecies of spotted bass M.p. henshalli was introduced, 77 of 276 fish had hybrid genotypes, and only 2 fish had genotypes of the native smallmouth bass. In Thurlow Reservoir, Alabama, where smallmouth bass were introduced and Alabama spotted bass were native, 3 of 17 fish had hybrid genotypes. Only I fish with a possible hybrid genotype was identified in two reservoirs containing native smallmouth bass and northern spotted bass M.p. punctulatus.

  18. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  19. Striped tertiary storage arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drapeau, Ann L.

    1993-01-01

    Data stripping is a technique for increasing the throughput and reducing the response time of large access to a storage system. In striped magnetic or optical disk arrays, a single file is striped or interleaved across several disks; in a striped tape system, files are interleaved across tape cartridges. Because a striped file can be accessed by several disk drives or tape recorders in parallel, the sustained bandwidth to the file is greater than in non-striped systems, where access to the file are restricted to a single device. It is argued that applying striping to tertiary storage systems will provide needed performance and reliability benefits. The performance benefits of striping for applications using large tertiary storage systems is discussed. It will introduce commonly available tape drives and libraries, and discuss their performance limitations, especially focusing on the long latency of tape accesses. This section will also describe an event-driven tertiary storage array simulator that is being used to understand the best ways of configuring these storage arrays. The reliability problems of magnetic tape devices are discussed, and plans for modeling the overall reliability of striped tertiary storage arrays to identify the amount of error correction required are described. Finally, work being done by other members of the Sequoia group to address latency of accesses, optimizing tertiary storage arrays that perform mostly writes, and compression is discussed.

  20. Identification and mapping of adult plant stripe rust resistance in soft red winter wheat VA00W-38, Pioneer brand 26R46, and Coker 9553

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2000, many of the previously effective wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling stripe rust (pathogen Puccinia striiformis Westend. f.sp. tritici Eriks) resistance genes have become ineffective to the new more aggressive races of the pathogen. Because seedling resistance genes work on a gene for...

  1. Expression of high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance against stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in wheat landraces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) is an important disease of wheat in the United States and Pakistan. Genetic resistance in wheat is a cost-effective and convenient control measure. In the present study, resistance testing of 115 wheat landraces from Pakistan was carried out ini...

  2. Effects of variation in streamflow and channel structure on smallmouth bass habitat in an alluvial stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason, Remshardt W.; Fisher, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of streamflow-related changes in channel shape and morphology on the quality, quantity, availability and spatial distribution of young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu habitat in an alluvial stream, the Baron Fork of the Illinois River, Oklahoma. We developed Habitat Suitability Criteria (HSC) for young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass to assess changes in available smallmouth bass habitat between years, and compare predicted smallmouth bass Weighted Usable Area (WUA) with observed WUA measured the following year. Following flood events between 1999 and 2000, including a record flood, changes in transect cross-sectional area ranged from 62.5% to 93.5% and channel mesohabitat overlap ranged from 29.5% to 67.0% in study three study reaches. Using Physical HABitat SIMulation (PHABSIM) system analysis, we found that both young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass habitat were differentially affected by intra- and inter-annual streamflow fluctuations. Maximum WUA for young-of-year and adults occurred at streamflows of 1.8 and 2.3m3 s-1, respectively, and WUA declined sharply for both groups at lower streamflows. For most microhabitat variables, habitat availability was similar between years. Habitat suitability criteria developed in 1999 corresponded well with observed fish locations in 2000 for adult smallmouth bass but not for young-of-year fish. Our findings suggest that annual variation in habitat availability affects the predictive ability of habitat models for young-of-year smallmouth bass more than for adult smallmouth bass. Furthermore, our results showed that despite the dynamic nature of the gravel-dominated, alluvial Baron Fork, HSC for smallmouth bass were consistent and transferable between years.

  3. The function of zebra stripes.

    PubMed

    Caro, Tim; Izzo, Amanda; Reiner, Robert C; Walker, Hannah; Stankowich, Theodore

    2014-04-01

    Despite over a century of interest, the function of zebra stripes has never been examined systematically. Here we match variation in striping of equid species and subspecies to geographic range overlap of environmental variables in multifactor models controlling for phylogeny to simultaneously test the five major explanations for this infamous colouration. For subspecies, there are significant associations between our proxy for tabanid biting fly annoyance and most striping measures (facial and neck stripe number, flank and rump striping, leg stripe intensity and shadow striping), and between belly stripe number and tsetse fly distribution, several of which are replicated at the species level. Conversely, there is no consistent support for camouflage, predator avoidance, heat management or social interaction hypotheses. Susceptibility to ectoparasite attack is discussed in relation to short coat hair, disease transmission and blood loss. A solution to the riddle of zebra stripes, discussed by Wallace and Darwin, is at hand.

  4. Stripes and superconductivity in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, John M.

    2012-06-01

    Holes doped into the CuO2 planes of cuprate parent compounds frustrate the antiferromagnetic order. The development of spin and charge stripes provides a compromise between the competing magnetic and kinetic energies. Static stripe order has been observed only in certain particular compounds, but there are signatures which suggest that dynamic stripe correlations are common in the cuprates. Though stripe order is bad for superconducting phase coherence, stripes are compatible with strong pairing. Ironically, magnetic-field-induced stripe order appears to enhance the stability of superconducting order within the planes.

  5. Stripe sensor tomography.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Mladen; Vltava, Lvcian; Barrett, Christopher P; Emery, Teresa H; Scherer, Axel

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a general concept of tomographic imaging for the case of an imaging sensor that has a stripelike shape. We first show that there is no difference, in principle, between two-dimensional tomography using conventional electromagnetic or particle radiation and tomography where a stripe sensor is mechanically scanned over a sample at a sequence of different angles. For a single stripe detector imaging, linear motion and angular rotation are required. We experimentally demonstrate single stripe sensor imaging principle using an elongated inductive coil detector. By utilizing an array of parallel stripe sensors that can be individually addressed, two-dimensional imaging can be performed with rotation only, eliminating the requirement for linear motion, as we also experimentally demonstrate with parallel coil array. We conclude that imaging with a stripe-type sensor of particular width and thickness (where the width is much larger than the thickness) is resolution limited only by the thickness (smaller parameter) of the sensor. We give examples of multiple sensor families where this imaging technique may be beneficial such as magnetoresistive, inductive, superconducting quantum interference device, and Hall effect sensors, and, in particular, discuss the possibilities of the technique in the field of magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal “quasiparticles” and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  7. Tamper resistant magnetic stripes

    DOEpatents

    Naylor, Richard Brian; Sharp, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a magnetic stripe comprising a medium in which magnetized particles are suspended and in which the encoded information is recorded by actual physical rotation or alignment of the previously magnetized particles within the flux reversals of the stripe which are 180.degree. opposed in their magnetic polarity. The magnetized particles are suspended in a medium which is solid, or physically rigid, at ambient temperatures but which at moderately elevated temperatures, such as 40.degree. C., is thinable to a viscosity permissive of rotation of the particles therein under applications of moderate external magnetic field strengths within acceptable time limits.

  8. Stars and Stripes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... (left) View Larger Image (right) On February 12, 2000, before the cover of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... The brightness of these stripes is typically less than 0.5% above the average background level with the camera cover closed. MISR ...

  9. BASS Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading

  10. Striped holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico; Papanikolaou, Stefanos

    2011-03-15

    We study inhomogeneous solutions of a 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. Our results provide a holographic model of superconductivity in the presence of a charge density wave sourced by a modulated chemical potential. We find that below a critical temperature T{sub c} superconducting stripes develop. We show that they are thermodynamically favored over the normal state by computing the grand canonical potential. We investigate the dependence of T{sub c} on the modulation's wave vector, which characterizes the inhomogeneity. We find that it is qualitatively similar to that expected for a weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieer theory, but we point out a quantitative difference. Finally, we use our solutions to compute the conductivity along the direction of the stripes.

  11. Spotted bass Micropterus punctulatus (Rafinesque 1819)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Timothy N.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2015-01-01

    Three subspecies of Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus were historically recognized: the smaller Northern Spotted Bass M. p. punctulatus, the larger, longer-lived Alabama Spotted Bass M. p. henshalli, and the now invalidated Wichita Spotted Bass M. p. wichitae (Bailey and Hubbs 1940; Cofer 1995; Warren 2009; Rider and Maceina 2015, this volume). The subspecific status has been examined over the past decade as advanced genetic analyses have been developed (e.g., Kassler et al. 2002; Baker et al. 2008; Tringali et al. 2015, this volume). The American Fisheries Society has recently changed the designation of the Alabama Spotted Bass to a separate species, Alabama Bass M. henshalli (Page et al. 2013). The remainder of this paper will discuss the biology and conservation of only Spotted Bass. Both species have been observed to hybridize with other Micropterus spp. (Koppelman 1994; Pierce and Van Den Avyle 1997; Barwick et al. 2006).

  12. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues. PMID:27706080

  13. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3'-UTR, a 455 bp 5'-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 10⁶ cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  14. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind.

  15. Exploding Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of a pattern of X-ray "stripes" in the remains of an exploded star may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth. This result comes from a very long observation of the Tycho supernova remnant with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. It could explain how some of the extremely energetic particles bombarding the Earth, called cosmic rays, are produced. "We've seen lots of intriguing structures in supernova remnants, but we've never seen stripes before," said Kristoffer Eriksen, a postdoctoral researcher at Rutgers University who led the study. "This made us think very hard about what's happening in the blast wave of this powerful explosion." This latest study from Chandra provides support for a theory about how magnetic fields can be dramatically amplified in such blast waves. In this theory, the magnetic fields become highly tangled and the motions of the particles very turbulent near the expanding supernova shock wave at the front edge of the supernova remnant. High-energy charged particles can bounce back and forth across the shock wave repeatedly, gaining energy with each crossing. Theoretical models of the motion of the most energetic particles -- which are mostly protons -- are predicted to leave a messy network of holes and dense walls corresponding to weak and strong regions of magnetic fields, respectively. The X-ray stripes discovered by the Chandra researchers are thought to be regions where the turbulence is greater and the magnetic fields more tangled than surrounding areas, and may be the walls predicted by the theory. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines. However, the regular and almost periodic pattern of the X-ray stripes was not predicted by the theory. "It was a big surprise to find such a neatly arranged set of stripes," said co

  16. Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams.

    PubMed

    Whitledge, Gregory W; Rabeni, Charles F; Annis, Gust; Sowa, Scott P

    2006-08-01

    Moderation of stream temperatures by riparian shading and groundwater are known to promote growth and survival of salmonid fishes, but effects of riparian shade and groundwater on to be growth of warmwater stream fishes are poorly understood or assumed to be negligible. We used stream temperature models to relate shading from riparian vegetation and groundwater inflow to summer water temperatures in Missouri Ozark streams and evaluated effects of summer water temperatures on smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, growth using a bioenergetics model. Bioenergetics model simulations revealed that adult smallmouth bass in non-spring-fed streams have lower growth potential during summer than fish in spring-fed streams, are subject to mass loss when stream temperatures exceed 27 degrees C, and will likely exhibit greater interannual variation in growth during summer if all growth-influencing factors, other than temperature, are identical between the two stream types. Temperature models indicated that increased riparian shading will expand the longitudinal extent of thermal habitat capable of supporting adult smallmouth bass growth in spring-fed stream reaches when mean daily air temperatures exceed 27 degrees C. Optimum growth temperature (22 degrees C) will be present only in spring-fed streams under these conditions. Potential for increasing shade through riparian restoration is greatest for streams <5 m wide and along north-south reaches of larger streams. However, temperature models also indicated that restoring riparian shading to maximum levels throughout a watershed would increase the total stream mileage capable of supporting positive growth of adult smallmouth bass by only 1-6% when air temperatures are at or near average summer maxima; increases in suitable thermal habitat would be greatest in watersheds with higher spring densities. Riparian management for maintenance or restoration of the thermal habitat of adult smallmouth bass during summer should be

  17. Reduction in recruitment of white bass in Lake Erie after invasion of white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Knight, Roger L.; Bur, Michael; Forney, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment to the adult population of white bass Morone chrysops in Lake Erie sharply declined during the early 1980s. To explain this phenomenon, we formulated the following four hypotheses: (1) the biological characteristics of adult spawners changed during the early 1980s, so that the ability to produce eggs decreased; (2) the decrease in phosphorus loadings to Lake Erie during the 1970s resulted in a lower abundance of crustacean zooplankton and thus in reduced survival of age-0 white bass; (3) the increase in the population of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum in Lake Erie during the 1970s and 1980s led to reduced survival of age-0 white bass; and (4) establishment of the white perch Morone americana population in Lake Erie during the early 1980s led to reduced survival of the early life stages of white bass. The growth, maturity, and fecundity of adults during the period 1981-1997 were compared with the same characteristics found by earlier studies. The mean length, weight, and condition factors that we calculated were higher than those reported for Lake Erie in 1927-1929 for all age groups examined, and white bass in Lake Erie matured at an earlier age during 1981-1997 than during 1927-1929. Fecundity estimates ranged from 128,897 to 1,049,207 eggs/female and were similar to estimates from other populations. Therefore, the first hypothesis was rejected. With respect to the second hypothesis, zooplankton surveys conducted during 1970 and 1983-1987 indicated that the abundance of crustacean zooplankton in Lake Erie did not change between the two time periods. However, these results were not conclusive because only a single-year survey was conducted before 1980. Based on walleye diet studies and estimates of walleye population size, walleye predation pressure on age-0 white bass in Lake Erie during 1986-1988 was just slightly higher than that during 1979-1981. Thus, such pressure can explain only a minor portion of the reduction in white bass recruitment. To

  18. 33 CFR 117.588 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bass River. 117.588 Section 117.588 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.588 Bass River. The Hall Whitaker...

  19. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bass River. 117.703 Section 117.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9...

  20. 33 CFR 117.588 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bass River. 117.588 Section 117.588 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.588 Bass River. The Hall Whitaker...

  1. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) From January 1 through February 28, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in, or harvested from, the...

  2. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  3. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  4. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  5. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in,...

  6. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 20 black sea bass in,...

  7. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Black sea bass gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass gear restrictions....

  8. 75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension... Federal Register a temporary rule to extend the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass... recreational harvest limit (RHL) based on the increased 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings...

  9. 75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule... emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial fishing quota... year. Extending the increase to the 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings (TAL) will...

  10. Freezing of a stripe liquid.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Tranquada, J M; Yamada, K; Buttrey, D J; Li, Q; Cheong, S-W

    2002-03-25

    The existence of a stripe-liquid phase in a layered nickelate, La(1.725)Sr(0.275)NiO(4), is demonstrated through neutron scattering measurements. We show that incommensurate magnetic fluctuations evolve continuously through the charge-ordering temperature, although an abrupt decrease in the effective damping energy is observed on cooling through the transition. The energy and momentum dependence of the magnetic scattering are parametrized with a damped-harmonic-oscillator model describing overdamped spin waves in the antiferromagnetic domains defined instantaneously by charge stripes.

  11. Freezing of a Stripe Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Tranquada, J. M.; Yamada, K.; Buttrey, D. J.; Li, Q.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2002-03-01

    The existence of a stripe-liquid phase in a layered nickelate, La1.725Sr0.275NiO4, is demonstrated through neutron scattering measurements. We show that incommensurate magnetic fluctuations evolve continuously through the charge-ordering temperature, although an abrupt decrease in the effective damping energy is observed on cooling through the transition. The energy and momentum dependence of the magnetic scattering are parametrized with a damped-harmonic-oscillator model describing overdamped spin waves in the antiferromagnetic domains defined instantaneously by charge stripes.

  12. The Safety of AQUAFLOR (50% Florfenicol; Type A Medicated Article) Administered in feed to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial diseases are a major problem in aquaculture and account for significant losses of fish (Clarke and Scott 1989; Frerichs and Roberts 1989; Bjorndal 1990). Therefore, the use of antimicrobial therapy plays an important role in aquaculture (Klontz 1987; Alderman 1988). Florfenicol (FFC) is a...

  13. Reproductive and biochemical biomarkers in largemouth bass sampled downstream of a pulp and paper mill in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Wieser, C.M.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents (B/UKME) on the reproductive parameters of free-ranging Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus). The reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads, and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17??-estradiol, and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured as a marker of exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing agents in these effluents. Endpoints were compared among adult bass sampled from tributary and mainstream effluent-contaminated and reference sites. Females sampled from the site closest to the mill outfall had a significant five-fold increase in EROD activity compared to bass sampled from reference streams. Although sex hormones were significantly reduced in bass from exposed sites, there were no differences in VTG and GSI across sites. The absence of organism-level responses was probably not related to a lack of sensitivity, as previous studies in our laboratory have shown that bass exposed to these effluents exhibit changes in GSI and in other measures associated with reproductive success. In females, inverse relationships were observed between VTG and GSI and EROD activity. These relationship, however, were not consistent within all of the sites studied. Collectively, our findings indicate that hepatic EROD induction is an effective marker of B/UKME exposure in largemouth bass and that it might be associated with antiestrogenic effects in this species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1999-05-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

  15. Physiological disturbances and overwinter mortality of largemouth bass from different latitudes.

    PubMed

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Wagner, Curtis P; Wahl, David H; Suski, Cory D

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conditions associated with winter can influence the distribution of a species. Because winter severity varies along latitudes, populations of temperate fish located along a latitudinal gradient may display variation in both sublethal and lethal responses to cold stressors. Sublethal physiological disturbances were quantified in age 1 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from populations originating from Alabama and Illinois but raised in a common environment. Fish were exposed to 6 h of rapid cold shock from 20° to 8°C (controls were held at 20°C) and then sampled for white muscle, whole blood, and plasma. After cold shock, glucose concentrations were elevated in Alabama but not Illinois fish. Sodium was lower and chloride was higher in Alabama largemouth bass, but fish from Illinois had a greater propensity for potassium loss during cold shock. In Illinois ponds, Alabama largemouth bass exhibited lower overwinter survival (adult: 10%; age 0: 22%) than did those from Illinois (adult: 80%; age 0: 82%). Latitudinal variation in physiological responses to cold stressors may therefore influence overwinter survival of largemouth bass and the ability of a fish species to exist over large geographic areas.

  16. Widespread occurrence of intersex in black basses (Micropterus spp.) from U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Schmitt, C.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    largemouth bass older than five years and was most common in 1-3-year-old male largemouth bass. The cause(s) of intersex in these species is also unknown, and it remains to be determined whether the intersex we observed in largemouth and smallmouth bass developed during sex differentiation in early life stages, during exposure to environmental factors during adult life stages, or both.

  17. 76 FR 14804 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Bass River, Beverly, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Bass River, Beverly, MA AGENCY... the Hall Whitaker Bridge at mile 0.6 across the Bass River ] at Beverly, Massachusetts. The deviation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hall Whitaker Bridge, across the Bass River at Beverly, Massachusetts, has...

  18. Relations between habitat variability and population dynamics of bass in the Huron River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Newcomb, Tammy J.; Coon, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the assumption of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) is that the dynamics of fish populations are directly or indirectly related to habitat availability. Because this assumption has not been successfully tested in coolwater streams, questions arise regarding the validity of the methodology in such streams. The purpose of our study was to determine whether relations existed between habitat availability and population dynamics of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in a 16-km reach of the Huron River in southeastern Michigan. Both species exhibited strong to moderate carryover of year classes from age 0 through age 2, indicating that adult populations were related to factors affecting recruitment. Year-class strength and subsequent numbers of yearling bass were related to the availability of young-of-year habitat during the first growing season for a cohort. Number of age-0, age-1, and adult smallmouth bass were related to the average length at age 0 for the cohort. Length at age 0 was associated with young-of-year habitat and thermal regime during the first growing season. Rock bass populations exhibited similar associations among age classes and habitat variables. Compared to smallmouth bass, the number of age-2 rock bass was associated more closely with their length at age 0 than with year-class strength. Length at age 0 and year-class strength of rock bass were associated with the same habitat variables as those related to age-0 smallmouth bass. We hypothesize that an energetic mechanism linked thermal regime to length at age 0 and that increased growth resulted in higher survival rates from age 0 to age 1. We also postulate that young-of-year habitat provided protection from predators, higher production of food resources, and increased foraging efficiency. We conclude that the IFIM is a valid methodology for instream flow investigations of coolwater streams. The results for our study support the

  19. Lysine supplementation of commercial fishmeal-free diet in hybrid striped bass affect growth expression genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substitution of fishmeal with alternate proteins in aquafeeds often results in dietary imbalances of first-limiting essential amino acids (EAA) and poorer fish performance. Previously, we conducted a growth trial to test the hypothesis that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting ami...

  20. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is reduced hatch rates due to fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on other species of fish eggs in different hatching systems has only recently been investigat...

  1. Isolation of RNA striped bass Monrone saxatilis spermatozoa: Implications for teleost male fertility and beyond?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertebrate sperm has been shown to provide more than paternal genomic material to the oocyte. For example, specific transcripts have been identified in bull sperm associated with fertility and with motility in boar sperm. Very little is currently known about functional, residual RNA in spermatozoa a...

  2. Isolation of RNA from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa: implications for teleost male fertility and beyond?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertebrate sperm has been shown to provide more than paternal genomic material to the oocyte. For example, specific transcripts have been identified in bull sperm associated with fertility and with motility in boar sperm. Very little is currently known about functional, residual RNA in spermatozoa a...

  3. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is the inevitable fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on fish eggs hatched using different systems has only recently been investigated. Fish were spawn...

  4. Stripes on a 6-leg Hubbard ladder.

    PubMed

    White, Steven R; Scalapino, D J

    2003-09-26

    While density matrix renormalization group calculations find stripes on doped n-leg t-J ladders, little is known about the possible formation of stripes on n-leg Hubbard ladders. Here we report results for a 7x6 Hubbard model with four holes. We find that a stripe forms for values of U/t ranging from 6 to 20. For U/t approximately 3-4, the system exhibits the domain wall feature of a stripe, but the hole density is very broadened.

  5. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  6. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  7. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  8. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  9. An Investigation of Double Bass Vibrato Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe various vibrato characteristics of university double bass students. The primary objectives were: (1) to describe vibrato rate and width for commonly used fingers in first, fourth, and thumb positions; (2) to investigate whether students initiate vibrato in an upward or downward direction;…

  10. Sunshine bass fingerling production without rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  11. Evaluating the potential for stock size to limit recruitment in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Michael S.; Rogers, Mark W.; Catalano, Mathew J.; Gwinn, Daniel G.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Compensatory changes in juvenile survival allow fish stocks to maintain relatively constant recruitment across a wide range of stock sizes (and levels of fishing), but few studies have experimentally explored recruitment compensation in fish populations. We evaluated the potential for recruitment compensation in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides by stocking six 0.4-ha hatchery ponds with adult densities ranging from 6 to 40 fish over 2 years. Ponds were drained in October each year, and the age-0 fish densities were used as a measure of recruitment. We found no relationship between stock abundance and recruitment; ponds with low adult densities produced nearly as many recruits as the higher-density ponds in some cases. Both prey abundance and the growth of age-0 largemouth bass declined with age-0 fish density. Recruit abundance was highly variable both within and among the adult density groups, and thus we were unable to identify a clear stock–recruit relationship for largemouth bass. Our results indicate that reducing the number of effective spawners via angling practices would not reduce recruitment over a relatively large range in stock size.

  12. Potential error with in situ surveys of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, as determined by radio-telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In situ surveys using scuba are important tools in the management of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in boreal, clear lakes of North America. Population estimates that are derived from such surveys may be erroneous if the size composition of the fish observed by divers differs from that of the entire population. Forty-four adult smallmouth bass of three size classes were radio-tagged and tracked during the summer of 1993 (mid June to early September) in Green Lake, Maine, USA, to investigate possible size-related error from observations by divers being towed along the lake shore. Our results indicate that scuba divers may fail to count a significant portion of large smallmouth bass during late summer (mid July to early September), compared to small- or medium-sized fish. The results suggest that scuba surveys should be conducted during early summer (mid June to mid July) to derive more accurate population estimates.

  13. Riblets for Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    Stars and Stripes racing yacht brought the American's Cup back to the United States. Originating from NASA's drag reduction technology, the boats "secret weapon" was that the hull's underside was coated with riblets. Riblets are small, barely visible grooves on the surface of an airplane intended to reduce skin friction by smoothing the turbulent airflow next to the skin. Grooves are V-shaped with the angle pointing in the direction of the airflow. No deeper than a scratch, they have a pronounced beneficial influence on air turbulence. *No longer commercially available.

  14. Stripe phases in high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Emery, V. J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Tranquada, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials. PMID:10430848

  15. Stripe Phases in High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, V. J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Tranquada, J. M.

    1999-08-01

    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials.

  16. Stripe phases in high-temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Emery, V J; Kivelson, S A; Tranquada, J M

    1999-08-03

    Stripe phases are predicted and observed to occur in a class of strongly correlated materials describable as doped antiferromagnets, of which the copper-oxide superconductors are the most prominent representatives. The existence of stripe correlations necessitates the development of new principles for describing charge transport and especially superconductivity in these materials.

  17. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  18. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The instream flow suitability curves are intended for use with the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used by the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Smallmouth bass habitat.

  20. Invasion of the striped mollusks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Introduced to this country only five years ago, the prolific zebra mussel has infested the Great Lakes and has already begun to move into fresh waters beyond the region. Dense populations in utility water systems have caused serious problems, reducing plant efficiency and blocking lines used for cooling and fire fighting. Experts say the striped mollusk has the potential to become the industry's worst biological problem, possibly affecting 70% of US power plants. While it appears that the invader is here to stay, EPRI and others continue to develop and refine techniques to control mussel growth. This article describes how the mollusk got here, reviews the problems it can cause and what is being done to mitigate the problems and control the growth and spread of the mollusk.

  1. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  2. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Molecular characterization, quantification in plasma, liver and ovary, and maturational proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibáñez, A Jose; Köksoy, Sadi; Amano, Haruna; Sullivan, Craig V

    2016-01-01

    Three complete vitellogenin (Vtg) polypeptides of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an acanthomorph teleost spawning pelagic eggs in seawater, were deduced from cDNA and identified as VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC based on current Vtg nomenclature and phylogeny. Label free quantitative mass spectrometry verified the presence of the three sea bass Vtgs or their product yolk proteins (YPs) in liver, plasma and ovary of postvitellogenic females. As evidenced by normalized spectral counts, VtgAb-derived protein was 2- to 5-fold more abundant, depending on sample type, than for VtgAa, while VtgC-derived protein was less abundant, albeit only 3-fold lower than for VtgAb in the ovary. Western blotting with Vtg type-specific antisera raised against corresponding gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipovitellins (Lvs) detected all three types of sea bass Vtg in the blood plasma of gravid females and/or estrogenized males and showed that all three forms of sea bass Lv undergo limited partial degradation during oocyte maturation. The comparatively high levels of VtgC-derived YPs in fully-grown oocytes and the maturational proteolysis of all three types of Lv differ from what has been reported for other teleosts spawning pelagic eggs in seawater but are similar to recent findings for two species of North American Moronidae, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana), which spawn pelagic and demersal eggs, respectively in fresh water. Together with the high Vtg sequence homologies and virtually identical structural features of each type of Vtg between species, these findings indicate that the moronid multiple Vtg systems do not substantially vary with reproductive environment.

  3. Noise-induced striped trajectories of Rossler systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Hua; Dong, Ya-Li

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the generation of striped trajectories in phase space by noise-injection is considered. With suitable amplitudes of noise, the steady-state system orbits appear in rectangular striped shape. The relationship between the shape (including the range and the number of stripes) and some parameters is discussed. The result shows that noise can also generate the striped shape effectively and simply, which is similar to the newly-discovered striped pattern generated by controlled Rossler systems.

  4. Stripe states in photonic honeycomb ribbon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sul-Ah; Son, Young-Woo; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2015-01-01

    We reveal new stripe states in deformed hexagonal array of photonic wave guides when the array is terminated to have a ribbon-shaped geometry. Unlike the well-known zero energy edge modes of honeycomb ribbon, the new one-dimensional states are shown to originate from high-energy saddle-shaped photonic bands of the ribbon's two-dimensional counterpart. We find that the strain field deforming the ribbon generates pseudo-electric fields in contrast to pseudo-magnetic fields in other hexagonal crystals. Thus, the stripe states experience Bloch oscillation without any actual electric field so that the spatial distributions of stripes have a singular dependence on the strength of the field. The resulting stripe states are located inside the bulk and their positions depend on their energies. PMID:27547090

  5. Stripes and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    One type of order that has been observed to compete with superconductivity in cuprates involves alternating charge and antiferromagnetic stripes. Recent neutron scattering studies indicate that the magnetic excitation spectrum of a stripe-ordered sample is very similar to that observed in superconducting samples. In fact, it now appears that there may be a universal magnetic spectrum for the cuprates. One likely implication of this universal spectrum is that stripes of a dynamic form are present in the superconducting samples. On cooling through the superconducting transition temperature, a gap opens in the magnetic spectrum, and the weight lost at low energy piles up above the gap; the transition temperature is correlated with the size of the spin gap. Depending on the magnitude of the spin gap with respect to the magnetic spectrum, the enhanced magnetic scattering at low temperature can be either commensurate or incommensurate. Connections between stripe correlations and superconductivity are discussed.

  6. STRIPES AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN CUPRATE SUPERCONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    TRANQUADA, J.M.

    2005-08-22

    One type of order that has been observed to compete with superconductivity in cuprates involves alternating charge and antiferromagnetic stripes. Recent neutron scattering studies indicate that the magnetic excitation spectrum of a stripe-ordered sample is very similar to that observed in superconducting samples. In fact, it now appears that there may be a universal magnetic spectrum for the cuprates. One likely implication of this universal spectrum is that stripes of a dynamic form are present in the superconducting samples. On cooling through the superconducting transition temperature, a gap opens in the magnetic spectrum, and the weight lost at low energy piles up above the gap; the transition temperature is correlated with the size of the spin gap. Depending on the magnitude of the spin gap with respect to the magnetic spectrum, the enhanced magnetic scattering at low temperature can be either commensurate or incommensurate. Connections between stripe correlations and superconductivity are discussed.

  7. Characterization of annual reproductive cycles for pond-reared Florida largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, T.S.; Wieser, C.M.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Schoeb, T.R.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of hatchery-raised largemouth bass (Florida subspecies Micropterus salmoides floridanus) was characterized over a one-year period. Largemouth bass have a distinct annual reproductive cycle with a spring spawning season (approximately between mid-January and mid-June). Cycle characterization focused on an evaluation of gonadal development and plasma concentrations of several sex steroids and vitellogenin (VTG). Adult largemouth bass (n = 20: 10 females and 10 males) were collected monthly from hatchery ponds for one full calendar year. Plasma samples were analyzed for estradiol-17?? (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), testosterone (T), progesterone (P), and VTG. Gonadal tissues were weighed to calculate gonadosomatic index (GSI) and evaluated histologically to characterize reproductive stage. In both sexes, GSI began to increase in November, and peaked in February-March. Increases in gonad weights were correlated with maturation of gonads as evidenced by histological evaluations. Bass exhibited seasonal changes in plasma sex steroids and VTG. In males, 11-KT was the only sex steroid that showed strong seasonality, with highest values in February. In females, although E2 and T concentrations followed a similar annual cycle, with highest and lowest values in February and August, respectively, the strongest pattern was observed with E2. 11-KT concentrations were less variable across months, and values were about half of those observed in males. In females, P peaked two months after E2, with high values still in May and June and decreased thereafter, and VTG began to increase in October, but peaked a month prior to the observed peaked in E2. VTG was also detected in males but at concentrations that were about 1/12 that of females, and no seasonal pattern was evident. This study is the first to fully characterize the seasonal endocrine cycle for largemouth bass. These data will be useful when conducting reproductive evaluations of free

  8. Effect of an experimental oil spill on vertebral bone tissue quality in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Deschamps, Marie-Hélène; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Le Floch, Stéphane; Quentel, Claire; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify biomarkers of oil pollution in fish we tested the effects of an experimental Light Cycle Oil (LCO) exposure on vertebral bone of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. A total of 60 adult fish were acclimated for fifteen days, then twenty were collected as controls (Day 0) while 40 were exposed to a soluble fraction of LCO (1136 ng L(-1) of ten Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) for seven days. Twenty of them were sampled at the end of the exposure period and the twenty last after a recovery period of fourteen days in clean seawater. Vertebral abnormalities were counted and bone mineralization, total bone area and bone density profiles were established for several post-cranial and caudal vertebrae. In sea bass, seven days of LCO exposure did not affect the frequency and severity of the vertebral abnormalities. No significant differences were observed in bone density and bone repartition (parameters of bone area profiles) between unexposed (Day 0), exposed (D7) and decontaminated (D21) fish. In contrast, bone mineralization of the vertebrae decreased in contaminated sea bass, but in a reversible way, which confirms a previous study in trout showing that this parameter is an early stress indicator. Our results suggest that vertebral bone mineralization could be used as a biomarker of PAH pollution in sea bass. It would be interesting to check this new biomarker in other teleost species exposed to various xenobiotics.

  9. Reliability of multi-stripe laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N. K.; Nash, F. R.

    2008-10-01

    Multi-stripe laser diodes are important for a wide range of applications including pump sources for high power fiber amplifiers and industrial applications. It is now believed that multimode single stripe laser diodes with high reliability have been designed and fabricated by several manufacturers. We have data which show FIT (failure in 109 hours) rates of ~ 12 FIT for 100 μm wide multimode emitters at power levels 2.5 W for a 15 year operation at 20 C. We have developed a method for calculating the survival probability of such multimode lasers when they are assembled in the form of a multi-stripe array. For a demanding application, a multi-stripe array can be considered a failure if one emitter in the array fails whereas for some other applications higher number of emitter failures is acceptable. The survival probability of the entire ensemble of lasers in the array as a function of number of stripes, number of failures, operating power level, and, near neighbor thermal interaction has been studied.

  10. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  11. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Black sea bass

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, L.P.

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The black sea bass, Centropristis striata, is an abundant species associated with the inshore sponge-coral habitat in the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (each individual is first a female and then a male) that spawns from January to June on the Continental shelf. Juveniles utilize estuaries, as well as offshore areas, for nurseries. It is a slow growing species with a life span of about 10 years. Juveniles and adults are bottom-feeding carnivores. Adults have been collected at temperatures as low as 6 /degree/C but are most abundant at temperatures of 8 to 10 /degree/C and above. Juveniles tolerate lower temperatures and greater salinity ranges than adults. Black sea bass are primarily harvested by the recreational hook and line fishery and the commercial trap fishery. Yield-per-recruit analyses indicate that the harvest of black sea bass is less than the maximum possible due to a combination of high fishing pressure and harvest of small fish. 58 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. BASS2000-Tarbes: current status and THEMIS data processing .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, N.; Lafon, M.; Maeght, P.; Grimaud, F.; Roudier, Th.

    I will review the history and status of the data archive BASS2000 and will concentrate my presentation on the BASS2000-Tarbes data base, which contains a very large volume of THEMIS data, i.e. spectropolarimetric data. I will insist the implementation of the processing of MTR-THEMIS (multi-line spectropolarimetry) data by the BASS2000 team, which has been our main project in 2006. New data levels are Stokes profiles and clean spectra, maps of continuum intensity and line-center intensity, Dopplergrams, magnetograms and vector magnetic field maps. I will also present the tools and services that we are providing.

  13. Survival of foul-hooked largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment to determine the survival rate of foul-hooked (hooked external to the oral cavity) largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) caught and released by recreational anglers. Of 42 largemouth bass caught with hard-plastic baits containing three treble hooks, 15 were hooked only within the mouth and 27 had at least one hook penetrating the external surface of the fish (i.e., foul-hooked). There was no difference in survival of mouth-hooked (100%), foul-hooked (100%), or control (100%) largemouth bass.

  14. The IAC stripe82 legacy project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Javier; Fliri, Juergen; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2017-03-01

    We present new deep co-adds of data taken within Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), especially stacked to reach the faintest surface brightness limits of this data set. Our reduction puts special emphasis on preserving the characteristics of the background (sky + diffuse light) in the input images using a non-aggressive sky subtraction strategy, resulting in an exquisite quality on extremely faint structures. The IAC Stripe 82 co-adds offer a rather unique possibility to study the low surface brightness Universe like stellar haloes and disc truncations, low surface brightness, tidal galactic interactions, extremely faint dwarf galaxies, intra-cluster light or diffuse light from galactic dust. The imaging data is publicly available at http://www.iac.es/proyecto/stripe82/.

  15. Spin Dynamics in an Ordered Stripe Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.; Wochner, P.; Buttrey, D. J.

    1997-09-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to measure the low-energy spin excitations in the ordered charge-stripe phase of La2NiO4+δ with δ = 0.133. Spin-wave-like excitations disperse away from the incommensurate magnetic superlattice points with a velocity ~60% of that in the δ = 0 compound. Incommensurate inelastic peaks remain well resolved up to at least twice the magnetic ordering temperature. Paramagnetic scattering from a δ = 0.105 sample, which has a Néel-ordered ground state, shows anomalies suggestive of incipient stripe correlations. Similarities between these results and measurements on superconducting cuprates are discussed.

  16. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jelks, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Review info: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation. Edited by Michael D. Tringali, James M. Long, Timothy W. Birdsong, and Michael S. Allen, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-934874-40-0, 685 pp.

  17. Review on the immunology of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Hellemans, B; Volckaert, F A M

    2007-05-15

    European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is a marine species of great economic importance, particularly in Mediterranean aquaculture. However, numerous pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites affect the species, causing various infectious diseases and thereby leading to the most heavy losses in aquaculture production of sea bass. In this respect, knowledge on molecular and genetic mechanisms of resistance to pathogens and specific features of immune response against various infectious agents should greatly benefit the development of effective vaccines and proper vaccination strategies in marker-assisted selection of fish resistant to a range of infections. To date, genetic knowledge on sea bass immune regulatory genes responsible for resistance to pathogens is relatively poor but tends to accumulate rapidly. In this review, we summarize and update current knowledge on the immune system and immune regulatory genes of the sea bass.

  18. Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS): Electronics Check-Out Procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna A.; Williams, Albert

    1993-01-01

    Summary The procedures described here are presented so that a technician with limited experience with BASS can perform basic tests which, when executed properly, should be a thorough evaluation of the health of the system. This is not intended as an in depth explanation of how BASS works. Should any significant problems be found, it is suggested that you contact the manufacturer, Oceanographic Instrument Systems, North Falmouth, MA. The Tattletale controller is manufactured by the Onset Computer Corporation, Cataumet, MA.

  19. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. For example, the magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, thanks to the strong out-of-plane anisotropy, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 50 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern, which sets the onset of the glass transition.

  20. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. The magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both the stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 30 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern.

  1. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Fletcher, D E; Jones, T; Dyer, S A; Isely, J J; Littrell, J W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access (137)Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of (137)Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River.

  2. Structure, molecular evolution, and hydrolytic specificities of largemouth bass pepsins.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoko; Suzuki-Matsubara, Mieko; Kageyama, Takashi; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2016-02-01

    The nucleotide sequences of largemouth bass pepsinogens (PG1, 2 and 3) were determined after molecular cloning of the respective cDNAs. Encoded PG1, 2 and 3 were classified as fish pepsinogens A1, A2 and C, respectively. Molecular evolutionary analyses show that vertebrate pepsinogens are classified into seven monophyletic groups, i.e. pepsinogens A, F, Y (prochymosins), C, B, and fish pepsinogens A and C. Regarding the primary structures, extensive deletion was obvious in S'1 loop residues in fish pepsin A as well as tetrapod pepsin Y. This deletion resulted in a decrease in hydrophobic residues in the S'1 site. Hydrolytic specificities of bass pepsins A1 and A2 were investigated with a pepsin substrate and its variants. Bass pepsins preferred both hydrophobic/aromatic residues and charged residues at the P'1 sites of substrates, showing the dual character of S'1 sites. Thermodynamic analyses of bass pepsin A2 showed that its activation Gibbs energy change (∆G(‡)) was lower than that of porcine pepsin A. Several sites of bass pepsin A2 moiety were found to be under positive selection, and most of them are located on the surface of the molecule, where they are involved in conformational flexibility. The broad S'1 specificity and flexible structure of bass pepsin A2 are thought to cause its high proteolytic activity.

  3. 75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... fax to the attention of the Sustainable Fisheries Division. Include ``Comments on 2010 Black Sea Bass... remaining 3,589,000 lb (1,628 mt) is divided 49 percent for the revised commercial fishery quota and...

  4. Daily and seasonal expression of clock genes in the pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Jesús; Lepesant, Julie M J

    2014-11-01

    The expression of select clock genes (clock, bmal, per1, per2, cry1, cry2) was investigated throughout the day and across the four seasons for two consecutive years in the pituitary of adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A rhythmic pattern of daily expression was consistently observed in summer and autumn, while arrhythmicity was observed for some clock genes during spring and winter, concomitant with low water temperatures. The expression of clock and bmal showed highest values at the end of the day and during the night, while that of per and cry was mostly antiphasic, with high values during the day. Melatonin affects clock-gene expression in the pituitary of mammals. We therefore sought to test the effect of melatonin on clock-gene expression in the pituitary of sea bass both in vivo and in vitro. Melatonin modestly affected the expression of some clock genes (in particular cry genes) when added to the fish diet or the culture medium of pituitary glands. Our data show that clock genes display rhythmic daily expression in the pituitary of adult sea bass, which are profoundly modified according to the season. We suggest that the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression may be mediated, at least in part, by melatonin, and that temperature may have a key role adjusting seasonal variations.

  5. Overcompensatory response of a smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) population to harvest: Release from competition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, E.F.; Sullivan, P.J.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraft, C.E.; Shuter, B.J.; Weidel, B.C.

    2008-01-01

    An intensive seven-year removal of adult, juvenile, and young-of-the-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from a north temperate lake (Little Moose Lake, New York, USA) resulted in an increase in overall population abundance, primarily due to increased abundance of immature individuals. We developed a density-dependent, stage-structured model to examine conditions under which population control through harvest could result in the increase of a targeted species. Parameter values were derived from a 54-year data set collected from another north temperate lake (Lake Opeongo, Ontario, Canada) smallmouth bass population. Sensitivity analyses identified the demographic conditions that could lead to increased abundance in response to harvest. An increase in population abundance with harvest was most likely to occur when either (i) per capita recruitment at low levels of spawner abundance was large, juvenile survivorship was high, and maturation of age-4 and older juveniles was moderately high or (ii) per capita recruitment at low levels of spawner abundance was slightly lower, yet the maturation rate of age-3 juveniles and adult survivorship were high. Our modeling results together with empirical evidence further demonstrate the importance of overcompensation as a substantial factor to consider in efforts to regulate population abundance through harvest. ?? 2008 NRC.

  6. Notes on Myxobolus inoratus, n sp, a Myxosporidian, parasitic in the black bass (Huro floridana, Le Sueur)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    A largemouth black bass fingerling preserved in formalin was sent to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Pathology Laboratory at Seattle, Washington, during the autumn of 1937, by a hatchery employee at Miles City, Montana. The fish exhibited several wart-like protuberances on the caudal peduncle, which aroused the curiosity of Mr. H. C. Topel, in charge of fish distribution at Miles City. He had observed the gradually increasing numbers of these lesions on the fish at this station for several years previous to 1937. Mr. Topel estimated that in 1937, 20 per cent of the adult bass were infected at the time of distribution, and lesions were noted on the fingerling and yearling stock as well.

  7. Nasitrema sp.-associated encephalitis in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Homer, Bruce L.; Greiner, Ellis C.; Layton, A. William

    1991-01-01

    An immature female striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) found dead on a northwestern Florida beach in 1988 exhibited severe inflammation bilaterally in the dorsal and mid-thalamus in association with adult trematodes (Nasitrema sp.) and trematode eggs. Numerous specimens of Nasitrema sp. also were present in the pterygoid sinuses. Pneumonia in association with a heavy growth of Vibrio damsela was observed also. This report confirms the occurrence of Nasitrema sp.-associated encephalitis in striped dolphins and in small cetaceans from the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. The influence of logjams on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) concentrations on the lower Roanoke River, a large sand-bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Edward R.; McCargo, Jeremy W.; Moulin, Bertrand; Hupp, Cliff R.; Richter, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relation between logjams and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the alluvial sand-bed lower Roanoke River. Disparate data sets from previous bank erosion, fisheries, and large wood studies were used to compare the distribution of largemouth bass with logjam frequency. Logjams are related to the frequency of bank mass wasting increasing from near an upstream dam to the middle reach of the study segment and then decreasing as the river approaches sea level. The highest concentration of largemouth bass and logjams was in the middle reach (110 fish per hour and 21 jams per km). Another measure of largemouth bass distribution, fish biomass density (g h1 ), had a similar trend with logjams and was a better predictor of fish distribution versus logjams (R2= 0.6 and 0.8 and p = 0.08 and 0.02 for fish per hour and g h1 versus logjam, respectively). We theorize that the preference for adult bass to congregate near logjams indicates the use of the jams as feeding areas. The results of a principal component analysis indicate that fish biomass concentration is much more related to logjam frequency than channel geometry (width, depth, and bank height), bed grain size, bank erosion, or turbidity. The results of this research support recent studies on in-channel wood and fisheries: Logjams appear to be important for maintaining, or increasing, both largemouth bass numbers and total biomass of fish in large eastern North American rivers. Persistent logjams, important as habitat, exist where relatively undisturbed river reaches allow for bank erosion inputs of wood and available anchoring locations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  10. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  11. Genetic Architecture of Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Global Winter Wheat Germplasm Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Peter; Zhang, Junli; Chao, Shiaoman; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Virulence shifts in populations of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, are a major challenge to resistance breeding. The majority of known resistance genes are already ineffective against current races of Pst, necessitating the identification and introgression of new sources of resistance. Germplasm core collections that reflect the range of genetic and phenotypic diversity of crop species are ideal platforms for examining the genetic architecture of complex traits such as resistance to stripe rust. We report the results of genetic characterization and genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for resistance to stripe rust in a core subset of 1175 accessions in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) winter wheat germplasm collection, based on genotyping with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay and phenotyping of seedling and adult plants under natural disease epidemics in four environments. High correlations among the field data translated into high heritability values within and across locations. Population structure was evident when accessions were grouped by stripe rust reaction. GWAS identified 127 resistance loci that were effective across at least two environments, including 20 with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values. Based on relative map positions of previously reported genes and QTL, five of the QTL with significant genome-wide adjusted P-values in this study represent potentially new loci. This study provides an overview of the diversity of Pst resistance in the NSGC winter wheat germplasm core collection, which can be exploited for diversification of stripe rust resistance in breeding programs. PMID:27226168

  12. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  13. Filarial dermatitis in a striped skunk.

    PubMed

    Saito, E K; Little, S E

    1997-10-01

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Kansas (USA) with severe diffuse dermatitis characterized by extensive alopecic areas, thickened skin, and multiple, scattered cutaneous abscesses on the dorsal aspect of the head, neck, and trunk was submitted for diagnostic evaluation. More than 50 nematodes identified as Filaria taxideae were found in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Histologic examination of the skin revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional larvated nematode eggs, moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and mild acanthosis. The lesions resemble those reported from badgers (Taxidea taxus) and a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) with dermatitis caused by Filaria taxideae. Although F. taxideae has been previously collected from skunks, this is the first report of filarid dermatitis caused by this nematode in a striped skunk.

  14. Geysers from the Tiger Stripes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Enceladus, the sixth-largest moon of Saturn, is a cold, icy world but its also remarkably active. Recent studies have charted over a hundred geysers venting gas and dust into space from Enceladus south polar region. New research addresses the question of how the moons extreme surface terrain influences the locations and behavior of these geysers.Active PlumesEnceladus orbiting within Saturns E ring. Enceladus plumes probably created this ring. [NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]A decade ago, scientists discovered that Enceladus south polar region is home to a prominent set of four fractures known as the tiger stripes. This region was found to contain roughly 100 geyser jets, which form plumes of gas and dust venting into space at a combined rate of ~200 kilograms per second! These plumes are probably the source of the material in Saturns E ring, in which Enceladus orbits.Recently, Carolyn Porco (UC Berkeley and CICLOPS Space Science Institute) led a study that analyzed 6.5 years of Cassini data, surveying the locations and orientations of 101 geysers. The outcome was peculiar: the geysers are distributed along the tiger stripes, but their directions are not all pointing vertically from the surface (see the video below!).Now, Paul Helfenstein (Cornell University) has teamed up with Porco to examine whether the surface terrain surrounding the geysers affects where the jets erupt, what direction they point, and even when theyre active.Surface InfluenceHelfenstein and Porco demonstrate that the locations and behavior of the geysers are very likely influenced by Enceladus surface features in this region. In particular, they find:The spacing of the geyser jets on Enceladus is not random.The jets are roughly uniformly distributed along the three most active tiger stripes, spaced about 5 kilometers apart. This fixed spacing might be due to shear fractures produced by fault motion along the tiger stripes cutting across the stripes at regular intervals and providing

  15. European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

    2014-05-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 °C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 μatm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 °C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 °C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 °C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

  16. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple

  17. Parallel Vegetation Stripe Formation Through Hydrologic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg; Engel, Victor

    2010-05-01

    It has long been a challenge to theoretical ecologists to describe vegetation pattern formations such as the "tiger bush" stripes and "leopard bush" spots in Niger, and the regular maze patterns often observed in bogs in North America and Eurasia. To date, most of simulation models focus on reproducing the spot and labyrinthine patterns, and on the vegetation bands which form perpendicular to surface and groundwater flow directions. Various hypotheses have been invoked to explain the formation of vegetation patterns: selective grazing by herbivores, fire, and anisotropic environmental conditions such as slope. Recently, short distance facilitation and long distance competition between vegetation (a.k.a scale dependent feedback) has been proposed as a generic mechanism for vegetation pattern formation. In this paper, we test the generality of this mechanism by employing an existing, spatially explicit, advection-reaction-diffusion type model to describe the formation of regularly spaced vegetation bands, including those that are parallel to flow direction. Such vegetation patterns are, for example, characteristic of the ridge and slough habitat in the Florida Everglades and which are thought to have formed parallel to the prevailing surface water flow direction. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a simple model encompassing a nutrient accumulation mechanism along with biomass development and flow is used to demonstrate the formation of parallel stripes. We also explore the interactive effects of plant transpiration, slope and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity on the resulting vegetation pattern. Our results highlight the ability of the short distance facilitation and long distance competition mechanism to explain the formation of the different vegetation patterns beyond semi-arid regions. Therefore, we propose that the parallel stripes, like the other periodic patterns observed in both isotropic and anisotropic environments, are self-organized and form

  18. Survey of intersex largemouth bass from impoundments in Georgia USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellock, Kristen A.; Trushel, Brittany E.; Ely, Patrick C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Bringolf, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Intersex fish are increasingly being reported worldwide, primarily in rivers that receive treated wastewater, but few studies have investigated intersex in waters that do not receive wastewater. In a recent reconnaissance survey of intersex fish in North America, a high rate of intersex was reported for Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides in some southeastern U.S. rivers; however, the occurrence of intersex in impoundments has not been well described, especially on a statewide scale. Therefore, our objective for this project was to survey the occurrence of intersex Largemouth Bass in a variety of impoundment habitats across Georgia. Largemouth Bass were collected from 11 impoundments without direct municipal or agricultural wastewater inputs. Gonads from all male Largemouth Bass were evaluated for the incidence and severity of the intersex condition based on presence and arrangement of testicular oocytes. Overall 48% of male Largemouth Bass collected from impoundments were intersex, which was found in 9 of the 11 impoundments. Among impoundments, incidence of intersex ranged from 0 to 82% of the males sampled and surface area of the impoundment was a significant predictor of intersex incidence. Intersex fish were smaller than normal males, but population-level effects of intersex and causative factors of endocrine disruption in the impoundments remain unknown. The high incidence of intersex males in small impoundments demonstrates that the condition is not confined to rivers and suggests that factors other than those previously associated with intersex (i.e., municipal wastewater) may be involved.

  19. Sub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Suski, C D; Kieffer, J D; Killen, S S; Tufts, B L

    2007-03-01

    Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined using static exposure tests with immature fish over a 96-h period. These results may not be relevant to aquaculture, hauling or angling tournament scenarios where mature fish can be exposed to ammonia for shorter durations, often following additional stressors such as handling. The current study sought to quantify (1) the impact of ambient ammonia on the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise, (2) the behavioural response of largemouth bass to elevated ambient ammonia and (3) the concentration of ammonia that can accumulate in a live-release vessel at an angling tournament. After approximately 3 h, total ammonia (T(amm)) concentrations in a live-release vessel at an angling tournament were almost 200 muM. Exposure of fish to 1000 microM T(amm) (a value approximately 80% below the criteria maximum concentration for largemouth bass) caused significant reductions in ventilation rates, and increases in erratic swimming and irregular ventilation. Exposure to 100 microM T(amm) impaired the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise relative to fish recovering in fresh water. Therefore, sub-lethal ambient ammonia concentrations cause physiological disturbances that can impair the recovery of largemouth bass from exercise.

  20. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A. ); Hill, K.C. ); Smith, M.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received [approximately]10[sup 6] km[sup 3] of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana's Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960's, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana's Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable [approximately]300[prime] gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  1. Dealing with largemouth bass virus: benefits of multisector collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terre, David R.; Schramm, Harold; Grizzle , John M.; Fries, Loraine T.

    2015-01-01

    Largemouth bass virus (LMBV), a recently identified pathogen, affected largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the southeastern United States beginning in the 1990s. Concern about the impacts of this little-known pathogen on largemouth bass populations, effects on fisheries management, and the need to provide anglers and the media with consistent and accurate information prompted a private organization (Bass Anglers Sportsman Society) to invite managers and researchers from state and federal agencies and universities to a series of five annual public workshops beginning in 2000. These workshops provided a mechanism to share information, identify and prioritize action items, and develop consensus information and outreach materials that could be provided to bass anglers and the media. Regionalizing the LMBV issue and collaboration among researchers, managers, and a fishing organization may also have allayed angler and media concerns. The process embodied in these workshops is offered as a successful example of multi-agency, multi-sector collaboration to facilitate information acquisition and guide action to address a regional fisheries management issue.

  2. Development and characterization of a largemouth bass cell line.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Cornwell, Emily R; Schumacher, Vanessa L; Glasner, Lindsay I; Baker, Barry J; Frattini, Stephen A; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The development and characterization of a new cell line, derived from the ovary of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is described. Gonad tissue was collected from Largemouth Bass that were electrofished from Oneida Lake, New York. The tissue was processed and grown in culture flasks at approximately 22°C for more than 118 passages during an 8-year period from 2004 to 2011. The identity of these cells as Largemouth Bass origin was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene. Growth rate at three different temperatures was documented. The cell line was susceptible to Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) and its replication was compared with that of Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus fry (BF-2), one of the cell lines recommended for LMBV isolation by the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Blue Book. Quantitative PCR results from the replication trial showed the BF-2 cell line produced approximately 10-fold more LMBV copies per cell than the new Largemouth Bass cell line after 6 d, while the titration assay showed similar quantities in each cell line after 1 week. Received February 18, 2014; accepted April 16, 2014.

  3. Growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in five lakes of northeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1942-01-01

    Rock bass of corresponding length from Allequash, Silver, and Trout Lakes were so nearly of the same weight that one curve described the length-weight relationship of the three stocks. Muskellunge Lake rock bass were considerably lighter than fish of the same length from these three lakes, and Nebish Lake rock bass were somewhat lighter than those from Muskellunge Lake.

  4. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Preliminary 2013 Quota Adjustments; 2013... the 2013 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, as well as the 2014 summer flounder and... necessary to comply with regulations implementing the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass...

  5. 78 FR 32355 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME AGENCY... Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) special Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action...

  6. 75 FR 59078 - Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME... temporary safety zone around a ledge removal project in Bass Harbor, Maine. The United States Army Corps of... and around Bass Harbor both to increase mooring capacity for fishing trawlers and recreational...

  7. 78 FR 18931 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  8. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit has been exceeded. No one may fish for or possess black sea bass in Federal waters for the remainder...

  9. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  10. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  11. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  12. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  13. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  14. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  15. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  16. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule Correction and Extension AGENCY... recreational black sea bass fishery in the Federal waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 3 to 200... implemented with no end date, and to extend the prohibition on recreational fishing for black sea bass in...

  17. A 66-bp deletion in growth hormone releasing hormone gene 5'-flanking region with largemouth bass recessive embryonic lethal.

    PubMed

    Ma, D M; Han, L Q; Bai, J J; Li, S J; Fan, J J; Yu, L Y; Quan, Y C

    2014-06-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) regulates the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary gland. A 66-bp deletion (c.-923_-858del) was detected in the 5'-flanking sequence of the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) GHRH gene. In two cultured random populations of adult individuals (A: n = 170 and B: n = 150), the genotype ratios of +/+:+/- were 2.5:1 and 2.8:1 respectively. Only one -/- fish was detected. A Largemouth bass family was constructed with two heterozygous individuals (+/-) as parents. The genotype ratio of +/+:+/-:-/- in the filial generation embryos was 1:1.6:0.1 at the neurula and 1:2:0 at hatched larvae stages. This indicated that the 66-bp deletion was a recessive lethal site and that homozygous individuals (-/-) died off in embryonic development. The growth traits (body weight, body length and body depth) were measured, and the GHRH mRNA expression levels in brain tissue were detected using real-time PCR. The effects of genotype (+/-) on growth traits and GHRH mRNA expression were not significant. Although the cause of death was not clear, the results hint that the 66-bp deletion site in GHRH 5'-flanking sequence significantly affects the livability in largemouth bass embryonic development.

  18. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops) to acute and chronic hypoxic insult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypoxia is a state of oxygen deficiency that can lead to impairment of organismal function or in extreme cases, death. Irrespective of their environment, at some point in their life cycle farmed fish will likely experience varying degrees of hypoxia, particularly during summer months. The temperat...

  19. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). STRIPED BASS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    between swimming efforts. They require enough turbu- 1) Active spawning stock con- lence to keep them from settling to tinualiy migrates upstream the...In movement" of larvae. laboratory aquaria, yolk sac larvae were able to swim horizontally and 2) Differential (higher) mor- exhibited positive...Middaugh et al. (1977) Egg 0.07 3.5% hatch, scoliosis Middaugh et al. (1977) Egg 0.01 23% hatch, difficult Middaugh et al. chorion detachment (1977

  20. Lysine optimization of a commercial fishmeal-free diet for hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substitution of fishmeal with alternate proteins in aquafeeds often results in dietary imbalances of firstlimiting essential amino acids (EAA) and poorer fish performance. This growth trial was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting amino acids...

  1. Lysine optimization of a commercial fishmeal-free diet for hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substitution of fishmeal with alternate proteins in aquafeeds often results in dietary imbalances of first-limiting essential amino acids (EAA) and poorer fish performance. This 12-week growth trial was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting am...

  2. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF BREVETOXIN AND B-NAPHTHOFLAVONE ON XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN STRIPED BASS (MORONE SAXATILIS). (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Fourier removal of stripe artifacts in IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Dave

    1987-01-01

    By working in the Fourier plane, approximate removal of stripe artifacts in IRAS images can be effected. The image of interest is smoothed and subtracted from the original, giving the high-spatial-frequency part. This 'filtered' image is then clipped to remove point sources and then Fourier transformed. Subtracting the Fourier components contributing to the stripes in this image from the Fourier transform of the original and transforming back to the image plane yields substantial removal of the stripes.

  4. Charge stripes in cuprate superconductors: The middle way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Charge and spin stripe order is a type of electronic crystal observed in certain layered cuprates associated with high-temperature superconductivity. Quantum-disordered stripes could be relevant for understanding the superconductivity. Here I discuss recent experimental characterizations of the stripe-ordered state in La{1.875}Ba{0.125}CuO4, and compare them with properties of superconducting compositions.

  5. Recurrence, mortality, and dispersal of prairie striped skunks, Mephitis mephitis, and implications to rabies epizootiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Piehl, J.L.; Bicknell, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed study of radio-equipped individuals of the Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) in a North Dakota population provided insight into possible mechanisms for spread of rabies during spring and summer. Annual recurrence rates of 138 skunks marked on a study area averaged 11% for adult males, 43% for adult females and 9% for kits. Population changes were from mortality (including rabies) and dispersal. Five instances of adult dispersal (four by males) were recorded; maximum straight-line distance was 119 km. Some males initiated dispersal in spring. Communal denning by adults occurred rarely after whelping began but resulted in intraspecific conflict. Evidence of intraspecific and interspecific strife leading to kit mortality and some adult mortality was found at dens of 9 of 40 litters studied.

  6. Competitive interactions between walleye (Sander vitreus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) under various controlled conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wuellner, M.R.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Willis, D.W.; Galster, B.J.; Selch, T.M.; Chipps, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The range of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is expanding northward, creating new interactions with native predators, including walleye (Sander vitreus). We used a series of experiments to investigate competition between walleye (WAE) and smallmouth bass (SMB) at different life stages and light conditions, identified behaviors that allowed one fish to outcompete another, and evaluated whether prey switching mitigated competitive interactions. Juvenile and adult SMB appeared to outcompete WAE when fed during the daytime; neither species dominated when fed near dusk. Attack rates and capture efficiencies of both species were similar with an intra- or interspecific competitor, but SMB often exploited prey before the competitor had a chance to feed (exploitative competition) or displayed agonistic behaviors toward a potential competitor (interference competition). Prey selectivity of WAE or SMB did not differ when by themselves or with a potential competitor. These results indicate that SMB could outcompete WAE under limiting prey conditions due to the aggressive nature of SMB, but resources may be partitioned at least along a temporal scale. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  7. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  8. Groundwater influences on the distribution and abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in pasture landscapes of the midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how spring-flow (SF) contributions to streams related to the distribution and abundance of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in a predominately pasture landscape in Missouri, USA. Stream segments (N=13) with similar landscape characters were classified by SF volume into high SF (HSF) or low SF (LSF) groups. The densities of smallmouth bass, channel unit (CU) use and temperature-selection patterns were assessed for several life stages and frequency distributions for age 0 fish. More smallmouth bass were present in stream segments with HSF influence. Age 0 fish were twice as likely to be present in HSF stream segments. Older age classes were present in stream reaches independent of SF contribution. For all age classes, the use of particular CUs did not depend on SF influence. All age classes were more likely to be present in pools than other CUs. Microhabitat temperature selection differed among age classes. Age 0 fish selected warmer temperatures with a gradual shift towards cooler temperatures for older age classes. The length frequency of age 0 fish was skewed towards larger individuals in streams with limited SF influence, whereas the length frequency in HSF stream segments was skewed towards smaller individuals. The benefits of significant groundwater via SF influence seem to be related to increased hatch or survival of age 0 fish and the availability of optimal temperatures for adult smallmouth bass growth. Thermal refugia and stable flows provided by springs should be recognised for their biological potential to provide suitable habitat as climate change and other land-use alterations increase temperature regimes and alter flow patterns.

  9. Population dynamics modeling of introduced smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breton, André R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Hawkins, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to identify an effective control strategy to further reduce smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin from the current level. Our simulation results showed that “the surge”, an early to mid-summer increase in electrofishing effort targeting nest-guarding male smallmouth bass, should be made a core component of any future smallmouth bass management strategy in the upper basin. Immigration from off channel reservoirs is supporting smallmouth bass popualtions in the Yampa River and our modeling analyses suggest that smallmouth bass  in Little Yampa Canyon might go extinct in a few years under the present level of exploitation.

  10. Forecasting Diffusion of Technology by using Bass Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hoi; Shin, Young-Geun; Park, Sang-Sung; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Generally, researching method of technology forecasting has been depended on intuition of expert until now. So there were many defects like consuming much time and money and so on. In this paper, we forecast diffusion of technology by using Bass model that is one of the quantitative analysis methods. We applied this model at technology market. And for input data of experiment, we use patent data that is representing each technology in technology market. We expect this research will be suggest new possibility that patent data can be applied in Bass model.

  11. Response by anglers to a differential harvest regulation on three black bass species at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Hyler, Randy G.; Fisher, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Angler responses to a differential harvest regulation on black bass, Micropterus spp. at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma was assessed from 1997 to 1999. This regulation allowed anglers to harvest 15 spotted bass, M. punctulatus (Rafinesque) of any size and six largemouth bass, M. salmoides (Lacepède) and smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu Lacepède greater than 356 mm (in aggregate) per day. Anglers’ ability to differentiate spotted bass increased after the first year of the study, but their willingness to target or harvest spotted bass declined. Mean angler catch rates (number of fish per angling hour) for all three species remained steady throughout the study. Total harvest of largemouth bass and smallmouth bass was reduced by 1999 while total harvest of spotted bass remained steady throughout the study period. Despite the more liberal regulations as incentive, the regulation failed to accomplish the primary objective of increasing angler harvest of spotted bass because of high rates of voluntary catch and release.

  12. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Berney, Simon; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovic, Mislav; Baronchelli, Linda; Gehrels, Neil; Stern, Daniel; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Harrison, Fiona; Fischer, Travis C.; Treister, Ezequiel; BASS Team; Swift BAT Team

    2017-01-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at z<0.2. Starting from an all-sky catalog of AGN detected based on their 14-195 keV flux from the 70-month Swift/BAT catalog, we analyze a total of 1279 optical spectra, taken from twelve dierent telescopes, for a total of 642 spectra of unique AGN. We present the absorption and emission line measurements as well as black hole masses and accretion rates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (473), representing more than a factor of 10 increase from past studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics. Additionally, we discuss follow-on efforts to study the variation of [OIII] to Xray measurements, a new method to measure accretion rates from using line ratios, a sample of 100 AGN observed with NIR spectroscopy, and an effort to measure the accretion rates and obscuration with merger stage in a subsample of mergers.

  13. NMR metabolic profiling of organic and aqueous sea bass extracts: implications in the discrimination of wild and cultured sea bass.

    PubMed

    Mannina, L; Sobolev, A P; Capitani, D; Iaffaldano, N; Rosato, M P; Ragni, P; Reale, A; Sorrentino, E; D'Amico, I; Coppola, R

    2008-10-19

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used as analytical tool to determine the complete metabolic profiling of sea bass extracts: water-soluble metabolites belonging to different classes such as sugars, amino acids, dipeptides and organic acids as well as metabolites soluble in organic solvent such as lipids, sterols and fatty acids were identified. The metabolite profiling together with a suitable statistical analysis were used to discriminate between wild and cultured sea bass samples. Preliminary results show that discrimination between wild and cultured sea bass was obtained not only using fatty acid composition but also cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine and some water-soluble metabolites such as choline, trimethylamine oxide, glutamine, fumaric and malic acids.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BANYAN. VII. Candidate YMG members from BASS (Gagne+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, J.; Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Lafreniere, D.; Doyon, R.; Malo, L.; Burgasser, A. J.; Naud, M.-E.; Artigau, E.; Bouchard, S.; Gizis, J. E.; Albert, L.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained low-resolution NIR spectra of 241 candidate young moving group (YMG) members from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), LP-BASS, and PRE-BASS samples. A description of individual observations is included in Table 1. There are three samples that are referred to in this Paper: (1) PRE-BASS consists of targets that were initially selected as potential members and followed up with spectroscopy, but that were later rejected as we modified our selection criteria to reject contaminants; (2) Low-Priority BASS (LP-BASS) consists of targets that have NIR colors only slightly redder than field dwarfs; and (3) BASS is the final sample presented in Paper V (Gagne et al., 2015, J/ApJ/798/73) that contains targets at least 1σ redder than field dwarfs and that has a lower fraction of contaminants. (6 data files).

  15. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two "golden basses" found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3-135 m, 30-150 m, 133-411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182-241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  16. F-type lectin from the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): purification, cDNA cloning, tissue expression and localization, and opsonic activity.

    PubMed

    Salerno, G; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Benenati, G; Vizzini, A; Vazzana, M; Vasta, G R; Cammarata, M

    2009-08-01

    Recently described biochemical and structural aspects of fucose-binding lectins from the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) led to the identification of a novel lectin family ("F-type" lectins) characterized by a unique sequence motif and a characteristic structural fold. The F-type fold is shared not only with other members of this lectin family, but also with apparently unrelated proteins ranging from prokaryotes to vertebrates. Here we describe the purification, biochemical and molecular properties, and the opsonic activity of an F-type lectin (DlFBL) isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) serum. DlFBL exhibits two tandemly arranged carbohydrate-recognition domains that display the F-type sequence motif. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that DlFBL is specifically expressed and localized in hepatocytes and intestinal cells. Exposure of formalin-killed Escherichia coli to DlFBL enhanced their phagocytosis by D. labrax peritoneal macrophages relative to the unexposed controls, suggesting that DlFBL may function as an opsonin in plasma and intestinal mucus.

  17. Nutrition and behavior of striped skunks.

    PubMed

    Dragoo, Jerry W

    2009-05-01

    Skunks are an integral part of the environment and a fascinating component of the earth's biodiversity. Their behavioral idiosyncrasies, made possible by their unique method of defense, make them entertaining to watch in the wild, and their beneficial habits far outweigh any potential negative attributes. Striped skunks can be a benefit in urban and agricultural areas because they prey on harmful and damaging insects and rodents that plague gardens and crops. The general public should be encouraged to live in harmony with skunks, as opposed to viewing them as nuisances. Keeping captive or pet skunks should be considered only after feeding, care, disease, and legal information has been investigated.

  18. Identification and mapping of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance quantitative trait loci and their interactions in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Pandey, M P; Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Ammar, K; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, R P; Pozniak, C J; Depauw, R M; McCallum, B D; Cuthbert, R D; Randhawa, H S; Fetch, T G

    2013-02-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) cause major production losses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The objective of this research was to identify and map leaf, stripe and stem rust resistance loci from the French cultivar Sachem and Canadian cultivar Strongfield. A doubled haploid population from Sachem/Strongfield and parents were phenotyped for seedling reaction to leaf rust races BBG/BN and BBG/BP and adult plant response was determined in three field rust nurseries near El Batan, Obregon and Toluca, Mexico. Stripe rust response was recorded in 2009 and 2011 nurseries near Toluca and near Njoro, Kenya in 2010. Response to stem rust was recorded in field nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, in 2010 and 2011. Sachem was resistant to leaf, stripe and stem rust. A major leaf rust quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on chromosome 7B at Xgwm146 in Sachem. In the same region on 7B, a stripe rust QTL was identified in Strongfield. Leaf and stripe rust QTL around DArT marker wPt3451 were identified on chromosome 1B. On chromosome 2B, a significant leaf rust QTL was detected conferred by Strongfield, and at the same QTL, a Yr gene derived from Sachem conferred resistance. Significant stem rust resistance QTL were detected on chromosome 4B. Consistent interactions among loci for resistance to each rust type across nurseries were detected, especially for leaf rust QTL on 7B. Sachem and Strongfield offer useful sources of rust resistance genes for durum rust breeding.

  19. Polarotactic tabanids find striped patterns with brightness and/or polarization modulation least attractive: an advantage of zebra stripes.

    PubMed

    Egri, Adám; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Farkas, Róbert; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-03-01

    The characteristic striped appearance of zebras has provoked much speculation about its function and why the pattern has evolved, but experimental evidence is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that a zebra-striped horse model attracts far fewer horseflies (tabanids) than either homogeneous black, brown, grey or white equivalents. Such biting flies are prevalent across Africa and have considerable fitness impact on potential mammalian hosts. Besides brightness, one of the likely mechanisms underlying this protection is the polarization of reflected light from the host animal. We show that the attractiveness of striped patterns to tabanids is also reduced if only polarization modulations (parallel stripes with alternating orthogonal directions of polarization) occur in horizontal or vertical homogeneous grey surfaces. Tabanids have been shown to respond strongly to linearly polarized light, and we demonstrate here that the light and dark stripes of a zebra's coat reflect very different polarizations of light in a way that disrupts the attractiveness to tabanids. We show that the attractiveness to tabanids decreases with decreasing stripe width, and that stripes below a certain size are effective in not attracting tabanids. Further, we demonstrate that the stripe widths of zebra coats fall in a range where the striped pattern is most disruptive to tabanids. The striped coat patterns of several other large mammals may also function in reducing exposure to tabanids by similar mechanisms of differential brightness and polarization of reflected light. This work provides an experimentally supported explanation for the underlying mechanism leading to the selective advantage of a black-and-white striped coat pattern.

  20. Response of sunshine bass to ration at elevated culture temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature and ammonia increase dramatically during summer production of sunshine bass. Global temperatures are projected to increase. A factorial experiment investigated the effects of three digestible protein (DP; 33, 40, 47%), two lipid (L; 10, 18 %) and two ration levels (satiation, restricted)...

  1. Results from BASS, the BANYAN All-Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), a systematic all-sky survey for brown dwarf candidates in young moving groups. We describe a cross-match of the 2MASS and ALLWISE catalogs that provides a list of 98 970 potential nearby dwarfs with spectral types later than M5 with measurements of proper motion at precisions typically better than 15 masyr, as well as the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II) which we use to build the BASS catalog from this 2MASS-ALLWISE cross-match, consisting of more than 300 candidate members of young moving groups. We present the first results of a spectroscopic follow-up of those candidates, which allowed us to identify several new low-mass stars and brown dwarfs displaying signs of low gravity. We use the BASS catalog to show tentative evidence for mass segregation in AB Doradus and Argus, and reveal a new ˜ 13 Mjup\\ co-moving companion to a young low-mass star in BASS. We obtain a moderate-resolution near-infrared spectrum for the companion, which reveals typical signs of youth and a spectral type L4γ.

  2. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings in tanks without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  3. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted protocol for production of fingerling size sunshine bass in tanks included the feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists and the cultures are ...

  4. Tank culture of sunshine bass without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocols for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to Artemia nauplii and prepared feed. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, and trai...

  5. Magnetic Excitations from Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.; Woo, H.; Perring, T. G.; Goka, H.; Gu, G. D.; Xu, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-03-01

    While it is generally believed that antiferromagnetic spin excitations play a significant role in the pairing mechanism of copper-oxide superconductors [1], the nature of the magnetic excitations themselves remains a matter of controversy. Recent measurements of the dispersion of spin excitations in superconducting YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x (YBCO) have attracted much attention. Here we present the results of comprehensive inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the momentum- and energy-dependent spectra of the magnetic fluctuations in La_0.875Ba_0.125CuO_4, which exhibits inhomogeneous, charge-stripe order. We will also point out universalities and differences in the magnetic excitation spectra compared to related charge-stripe ordered compounds and high-temperature superconductors, including La_2-xSr_xNiO4 and YBCO. JMT, HW, GDG and GX are supported by U.S. Department of Energy contract # DE-AC02-98CH1088 [1] J. Orenstein and A. J. Millis, Science 288, 468 (2000).

  6. Magnetic stripes and skyrmions with helicity reversals

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiuzhen; Mostovoy, Maxim; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Zhang, Weizhu; Kimoto, Koji; Matsui, Yoshio; Kaneko, Yoshio; Nagaosa, Naoto; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    It was recently realized that topological spin textures do not merely have mathematical beauty but can also give rise to unique functionalities of magnetic materials. An example is the skyrmion—a nano-sized bundle of noncoplanar spins—that by virtue of its nontrivial topology acts as a flux of magnetic field on spin-polarized electrons. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct visualization of skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets. Topologically, skyrmions are equivalent to magnetic bubbles (cylindrical domains) in ferromagnetic thin films, which were extensively explored in the 1970s for data storage applications. In this study we use Lorentz microscopy to image magnetic domain patterns in the prototypical magnetic oxide–M-type hexaferrite with a hint of scandium. Surprisingly, we find that the magnetic bubbles and stripes in the hexaferrite have a much more complex structure than the skyrmions and spirals in helimagnets, which we associate with the new degree of freedom—helicity (or vector spin chirality) describing the direction of spin rotation across the domain walls. We observe numerous random reversals of helicity in the stripe domain state. Random helicity of cylindrical domain walls coexists with the positional order of magnetic bubbles in a triangular lattice. Most unexpectedly, we observe regular helicity reversals inside skyrmions with an unusual multiple-ring structure. PMID:22615354

  7. Magnetic stripes and skyrmions with helicity reversals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhen; Mostovoy, Maxim; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Zhang, Weizhu; Kimoto, Koji; Matsui, Yoshio; Kaneko, Yoshio; Nagaosa, Naoto; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2012-06-05

    It was recently realized that topological spin textures do not merely have mathematical beauty but can also give rise to unique functionalities of magnetic materials. An example is the skyrmion--a nano-sized bundle of noncoplanar spins--that by virtue of its nontrivial topology acts as a flux of magnetic field on spin-polarized electrons. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct visualization of skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets. Topologically, skyrmions are equivalent to magnetic bubbles (cylindrical domains) in ferromagnetic thin films, which were extensively explored in the 1970s for data storage applications. In this study we use Lorentz microscopy to image magnetic domain patterns in the prototypical magnetic oxide-M-type hexaferrite with a hint of scandium. Surprisingly, we find that the magnetic bubbles and stripes in the hexaferrite have a much more complex structure than the skyrmions and spirals in helimagnets, which we associate with the new degree of freedom--helicity (or vector spin chirality) describing the direction of spin rotation across the domain walls. We observe numerous random reversals of helicity in the stripe domain state. Random helicity of cylindrical domain walls coexists with the positional order of magnetic bubbles in a triangular lattice. Most unexpectedly, we observe regular helicity reversals inside skyrmions with an unusual multiple-ring structure.

  8. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A.; Hill, K.C.; Smith, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received {approximately}10{sup 6} km{sup 3} of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana`s Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960`s, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana`s Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable {approximately}300{prime} gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  9. The Bass Parasites of Oneida Lake, 80 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    A survey of largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) parasite communities in Oneida Lake, New York, was conducted in the summer of 2012 and compared to an earlier survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller during the summers of 1929 to 1931. The component helminth communities between surveys were 31% similar in composition for largemouth and 28% similar for smallmouth bass. Between species, the component helminth communities were considerably more similar in the present survey (71%) than in the survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller (47%). Seven species reported by Van Cleave and Mueller were present in this survey and 21 species are new records for the bass of Oneida Lake. Van Cleave and Mueller did not report prevalence values for several taxa (Monogenea, Copepoda, Myxozoa, and a Trichodina sp.) that were important for separation of parasite infracommunities in species space for both bass species. These parasites represented 28% of all species found in the current survey and may be ecologically important. Several species of parasites exhibited differences in prevalence between surveys. Two species (Rhipidocotyle papillosa and Crepidostomum cornutum) were absent from this survey but were reported as common in the 1929-1931 survey and almost certainly represent extirpations that coincide with the loss of their native bivalve hosts from Oneida Lake. Other differences in the parasite communities may also be explained by the ecological disturbances in Oneida Lake over the past 81 yr. The changes in bass parasite communities between surveys emphasize the importance of recognizing the historical nature of parasite communities, especially in ecosystems with a history of large-scale changes. Most importantly our findings suggest that, similar to trends observed in free-living freshwater biotic communities, anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances may homogenize fish parasite communities.

  10. Discovery and validation of gene-linked diagnostic SNP markers for assessing hybridization between largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Florida bass (M. floridanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization of Florida bass (Micropterus floridanus) with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has dramatically expanded beyond a naturally-occurring intergrade zone in the Southeast U.S. Efforts to improve recreational fisheries have included widespread stocking of M. floridanus outside its n...

  11. Embryonic origins of ZebrinII parasagittal stripes and establishment of topographic Purkinje cell projections.

    PubMed

    Sillitoe, R V; Gopal, N; Joyner, A L

    2009-09-01

    The establishment of neural circuits involves both the precise positioning of cells within brain regions and projection of axons to specific target cells. In the cerebellum (Cb), the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) position of each Purkinje cell (PC) and the topography of its axon can be defined with respect to two coordinate systems within the Cb; one based on the pattern of lobules and the other on PC gene expression in parasagittal clusters in the embryo (e.g. Pcp2) and stripes in the adult (e.g. ZebrinII). The relationship between the embryonic clusters of molecularly defined PCs and particular adult PC stripes is not clear. Using a mouse genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM) approach and a Pcp2-CreER-IRES-hAP transgene, we marked three bilateral clusters of PC clusters with myristolated green fluorescent protein (mGfp) on approximately embryonic day (E) 15 and followed their fate into adulthood. We found that these three clusters contributed specifically to ZebrinII-expressing PCs, including nine of the adult stripes. This result suggests that embryonic PCs maintain a particular molecular identity, and that each embryonic cluster can contribute PCs to more than one adult M-L stripe. Each PC projects a primary axon to one of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) or the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem in an organized fashion that relates to the position of the PCs along the M-L axis. We characterized when PC axons from the three M-L clusters acquire topographic projections. Using a combination of GIFM to mark the PC clusters with mGfp and staining for human placental alkaline phosphatase (hAP) in Pcp2-CreER-IRES-hAP transgenic embryos we found that axons from each embryonic PC cluster intermingled with neurons within particular DCN or projected out of the Cb toward the vestibular nuclei by E14.5. These studies show that PC molecular patterning, efferent circuitry, and DCN nucleogenesis occur simultaneously, suggesting a link between these

  12. Suomi NPP VIIRS Striping Analysis using Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Cao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern satellite radiometers such as VIIRS have many detectors with slightly different relative spectral response (RSR). These differences can introduce artifacts such as striping in the imagery. In recent studies we have analyzed the striping pattern related to the detector level RSR difference in VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB) M15 and M16, which includes line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) detector level response study and onboard detector stability evaluation using the solar diffuser. Now we extend these analysis to the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) using MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM) for detector level radiance simulation. Previous studies analyzed the striping pattern in the images of VIIRS ocean color and reflectance in RSB, further studies about the root cause for striping are still needed. In this study, we will use the MODTRAN model at spectral resolution of 1 cm^-1 under different atmospheric conditions for VIIRS RSB, for example band M1 centered at 410nm which is used for Ocean Color product retrieval. The impact of detector level RSR difference, atmospheric dependency, and solar geometry on the striping in VIIRS SDR imagery will be investigated. The cumulative histogram method used successfully for the TEB striping analysis will be used to quantify the striping. These analysis help S-NPP and J1 to better understand the root cause for VIIRS image artifacts and reduce the uncertainties in geophysical retrievals to meet the user needs.

  13. Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Striped Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Julian; Lekkas, Ioannis; Sweetman, Adam; Djuranovic, Predrag; Guo, Quanmin; Pauw, Brian; Granwehr, Josef; Lévy, Raphaël; Moriarty, Philip

    2014-01-01

    There is now a significant body of literature which reports that stripes form in the ligand shell of suitably functionalised Au nanoparticles. This stripe morphology has been proposed to strongly affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the particles. We critique the published evidence for striped nanoparticles in detail, with a particular focus on the interpretation of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) data (as this is the only technique which ostensibly provides direct evidence for the presence of stripes). Through a combination of an exhaustive re-analysis of the original data, in addition to new experimental measurements of a simple control sample comprising entirely unfunctionalised particles, we show that all of the STM evidence for striped nanoparticles published to date can instead be explained by a combination of well-known instrumental artefacts, or by issues with data acquisition/analysis protocols. We also critically re-examine the evidence for the presence of ligand stripes which has been claimed to have been found from transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small angle neutron scattering experiments, and computer simulations. Although these data can indeed be interpreted in terms of stripe formation, we show that the reported results can alternatively be explained as arising from a combination of instrumental artefacts and inadequate data analysis techniques. PMID:25402426

  14. Critical assessment of the evidence for striped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian; Lekkas, Ioannis; Sweetman, Adam; Djuranovic, Predrag; Guo, Quanmin; Pauw, Brian; Granwehr, Josef; Lévy, Raphaël; Moriarty, Philip

    2014-01-01

    There is now a significant body of literature which reports that stripes form in the ligand shell of suitably functionalised Au nanoparticles. This stripe morphology has been proposed to strongly affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the particles. We critique the published evidence for striped nanoparticles in detail, with a particular focus on the interpretation of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) data (as this is the only technique which ostensibly provides direct evidence for the presence of stripes). Through a combination of an exhaustive re-analysis of the original data, in addition to new experimental measurements of a simple control sample comprising entirely unfunctionalised particles, we show that all of the STM evidence for striped nanoparticles published to date can instead be explained by a combination of well-known instrumental artefacts, or by issues with data acquisition/analysis protocols. We also critically re-examine the evidence for the presence of ligand stripes which has been claimed to have been found from transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small angle neutron scattering experiments, and computer simulations. Although these data can indeed be interpreted in terms of stripe formation, we show that the reported results can alternatively be explained as arising from a combination of instrumental artefacts and inadequate data analysis techniques.

  15. Quantification of red stripe variability in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae consists of two forms – leaf stripe and top rot. Symptoms of red stripe in Louisiana over the past 25 years have been limited to the leaf stripe form which causes no measurable yield losses. During 2010, the more severe top rot form ...

  16. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the w...

  17. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  18. Current distributions in stripe Majorana junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osca, Javier; Llorenç, Serra

    2017-02-01

    We calculate current and density distributions in stripe (2D planar) junctions between normal and Majorana nanowires having a finite ( y) transverse length. In presence of a magnetic field with vertical and in-plane components, the y-symmetry of the charge current distribution in the normal lead changes strongly across the Majorana phase transition: from center-symmetric if a Majorana mode is present to laterally-shifted (as expected by the Hall effect) if the field is tilted such as to destroy the Majorana mode due to the projection rule. We compare quasi-particle and charge distributions of current and density, as well as spin magnetizations. The Majorana mode causes opposite spin accumulations on the transverse sides of the junction and the emergence of a spin current.

  19. Rotational Electrophoresis of Striped Metallic Microrods

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Meier, J A; Dougherty, G M; Santiago, J G

    2005-11-28

    Analytical models are developed for the translation and rotation of metallic rods in a uniform electric field. The limits of thin and thick electric double layers are considered. These models include the effect of stripes of different metals along the length of the particle. Modeling results are compared to experimental measurements for metallic rods. Experiments demonstrate the increased alignment of particles with increasing field strength and the increase in degree of alignment of thin versus thick electric double layers. The metal rods polarize in the applied field and align parallel to its direction due to torques on the polarized charge. The torque due to polarization has a second order dependence on the electric field strength. The particles are also shown to have an additional alignment torque component due to non-uniform densities along their length. The orientation distributions of dilute suspensions of particles are also shown to agree well with results predicted by a rotational convective-diffusion equation.

  20. Monitoring Quasar Color Variability in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerson, J. A.; Hall, P. B.; MacLeod, C.; Ivezić, Ž.

    2012-08-01

    Broad Absorption Line (BAL) trough variability is predominantly due to cloud motion transverse to our line of sight. The rate at which the variability occurs indicates the velocity of the cloud, and that can provide constraints on the cloud's distance from the central source. Measuring this requires detailed spectroscopy during a variability event. Such spectra have proven elusive, suggesting either the timescale of variability is too short to be caught, or too long to notice until a sufficient amount of time has passed. Photometric monitoring of BAL quasar colors may potentially be used as an early warning system to trigger time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring of BAL variability. Towards this end, we are analyzing both BAL and non-BAL color variability using time series photometry from Stripe 82 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass. 2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river's water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales. 3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22%of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23 km (2009

  2. NASA OBPG Field Program and SeaBASS Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Calibrating ocean color satellite instruments and validating their data products requires temporal and spatial abundances of high quality in situ oceanographic data. To this end, the Ocean Ecology Laboratory (OEL) maintains two entities that are engaged in field data collection and archival. First, the OEL houses a Field Support Group to collect in situ oceanographic measurements, execute laboratory analyses, revise community-vetted protocols for conducting these exercises, and host community training events. Second, the OEL maintains the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) as the permanent archive for all in situ data collected under the auspices of the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program (OBB; Dr. Paula Bontempi, Program Manager). This talk provides the OBB community and interested researchers their annual update on both the Field Support Group and SeaBASS.

  3. Physiological effects of handling and hauling stress on smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, G.J.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; McCraren, J.P.; Millard, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Basic physiological information on the stress caused by current hatchery practices is helpful in developing new and improved techniques to increase survival. In view of the present fishery management requirements for stocking smallmouth bas (Micropterus dolomieu), baseline information on the physiological effects of handling and hauling hatchery-reared fish is needed to serve as the foundation for improving transport methods. Shell (1959) summarized several physiological characteristics of smallmouth bass, but little information on their physiological tolerance to stress exists. The present study was designed to determine the physiological effects of handling and short-term hauling in small mouth bass. Plasma chloride, sodium, potassium, and glucose dynamics were monitored in indicate the severity of the resulting stress and the recovery time needed.

  4. BASS2000: on-going projects and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, N.; Lafon, M.; Maeght, P.; Grimaud, F.; Roudier, Th.

    2006-06-01

    We review the current status of the services proposed by the database BASS2000. Then we describe our main on-going project, i.e. the implementation of the processing, by the BASS2000 team, of a large data set (several Terabytes) of solar multi-line spectropolarimetric data (MTR mode) obtained by many observers at the THEMIS telescope in Tenerife. The implementation of this data processing and the data products are described as well as the future services associated to this processing: data sets of magnetograms, dopplergrams, vector magnetic field maps, organization of workshops. The other projects we are involved in are also briefly described, and concerns the Pic du Midi Coronagraph (HACO, as well as the future new version CLIMSO), the Lunette Jean Rösch of the Pic du Midi (mostly imagery data) and the implications in the Virtual Observatory.

  5. Comparison of BASS and VACM current measurements during STRESS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Steven J.; Butman, Bradford; Williams, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The equations used to convert VACM rotor rotation rates to current speed we based on a calibration study by Woodward and Appell rather than one based on a study by Cherriman that is routinely used at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The former yields closer agreement between the BASS and VACM speed measurements during STRESS (mean speed difference 0.2 cm s−1 versus 1.4 cm s−1).

  6. Noise Impact on European Sea Bass Behavior: Temporal Structure Matters.

    PubMed

    Neo, Yik Yaw; Seitz, Johanna; Kastelein, Ronald A; Winter, Hendrik V; Cate, Carel Ten; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sounds come in different forms, varying not only in amplitude and frequency spectrum but also in temporal structure. Although fish are sensitive to the temporal characteristics of sound, little is known about how their behavior is affected by anthropogenic sounds of different temporal patterns. We investigated this question using groups of Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass) in an outdoor basin. Our data revealed that the temporal pattern of sound exposure is important in noise impact assessments.

  7. The BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Artigau, Etienne; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Filippazzo, Joe; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Bowsher, Emily C.; Nicholls, Christine

    2016-01-01

    I will present in this dissertation talk the construction and follow-up of the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) that we led to identify dozens of new isolated young brown dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood, several of which have physical properties such as mass, age and temperature that make them similar to exoplanets that were recently discovered using the method of direct imaging.Such isolated analogs of the giant, gaseous exoplanets are precious benchmarks that will allow a deep characterization of their atmospheres using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, which is made possible due to the absence of a nearby and bright host star.I will end by describing BASS-Ultracool, an extension of BASS that focuses on the identification of extremely cool isolated exoplanet analogs that display methane in their atmospheres. This survey has already uncovered the first bonafide T dwarf member of a moving group, the ~150 Myr AB Doradus T5, SDSS1110+0116.

  8. Gonadotropins in European sea bass: Endocrine roles and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Mazón, María José; Molés, Gregorio; Rocha, Ana; Crespo, Berta; Lan-Chow-Wing, Olivier; Espigares, Felipe; Muñoz, Iciar; Felip, Alicia; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana

    2015-09-15

    Follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are central endocrine regulators of the gonadal function in vertebrates. They act through specific receptors located in certain cell types found in the gonads. In fish, the differential roles of these hormones are being progressively elucidated due to the development of suitable tools for their study. In European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), isolation of the genes coding for the gonadotropin subunits and receptors allowed in first instance to conduct expression studies. Later, to overcome the limitation of using native hormones, recombinant dimeric gonadotropins, which show different functional characteristics depending on the cell system and DNA construct, were generated. In addition, single gonadotropin beta-subunits have been produced and used as antigens for antibody production. This approach has allowed the development of detection methods for native gonadotropins, with European sea bass being one of the few species where both gonadotropins can be detected in their native form. By administering recombinant gonadotropins to gonad tissues in vitro, we were able to study their effects on steroidogenesis and intracellular pathways. Their administration in vivo has also been tested for use in basic studies and as a biotechnological approach for hormone therapy and assisted reproduction strategies. In addition to the production of recombinant hormones, gene-based therapies using somatic gene transfer have been offered as an alternative. This approach has been tested in sea bass for gonadotropin delivery in vivo. The hormones produced by the genes injected were functional and have allowed studies on the action of gonadotropins in spermatogenesis.

  9. New slow-rusting leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr67 and Yr46 in wheat are pleiotropic or closely linked.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Lagudah, Evans S; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Hayden, Matthew J; Bariana, Harbans S; Singh, Davinder; Singh, Ravi P

    2011-01-01

    The common wheat genotype 'RL6077' was believed to carry the gene Lr34/Yr18 that confers slow-rusting adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust and stripe rust but located to a different chromosome through inter-chromosomal reciprocal translocation. However, haplotyping using the cloned Lr34/Yr18 diagnostic marker and the complete sequencing of the gene indicated Lr34/Yr18 is absent in RL6077. We crossed RL6077 with the susceptible parent 'Avocet' and developed F(3), F(4) and F(6) populations from photoperiod-insensitive F(3) lines that were segregating for resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust. The populations were characterized for leaf rust resistance at two Mexican sites, Cd. Obregon during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 crop seasons, and El Batan during 2009, and for stripe rust resistance at Toluca, a third Mexican site, during 2009. The F(3) population was also evaluated for stripe rust resistance at Cobbitty, Australia, during 2009. Most lines had correlated responses to leaf rust and stripe rust, indicating that either the same gene, or closely linked genes, confers resistance to both diseases. Molecular mapping using microsatellites led to the identification of five markers (Xgwm165, Xgwm192, Xcfd71, Xbarc98 and Xcfd23) on chromosome 4DL that are associated with this gene(s), with the closest markers being located at 0.4 cM. In a parallel study in Canada using a Thatcher × RL6077 F(3) population, the same leaf rust resistance gene was designated as Lr67 and mapped to the same chromosomal region. The pleiotropic, or closely linked, gene derived from RL6077 that conferred stripe rust resistance in this study was designated as Yr46. The slow-rusting gene(s) Lr67/Yr46 can be utilized in combination with other slow-rusting genes to develop high levels of durable APR to leaf rust and stripe rust in wheat.

  10. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  11. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; Williams, Dewight; Bian, Wen; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus.

  12. Radiative Striped Wind Model for Gamma-Ray Busrts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, D. P.; Pe'er, A.; Lyubarski, Y.

    2016-10-01

    I will show how the inclusion of radiation in the striped wind model changes the dynamics and the radial evolution of the hydrodynamical parameters. I will conclude by discussing the implications for gamma-ray bursts.

  13. Striping artifact reduction in lunar orbiter mosaic images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mlsna, P.A.; Becker, T.

    2006-01-01

    Photographic images of the moon from the 1960s Lunar Orbiter missions are being processed into maps for visual use. The analog nature of the images has produced numerous artifacts, the chief of which causes a vertical striping pattern in mosaic images formed from a series of filmstrips. Previous methods of stripe removal tended to introduce ringing and aliasing problems in the image data. This paper describes a recently developed alternative approach that succeeds at greatly reducing the striping artifacts while avoiding the creation of ringing and aliasing artifacts. The algorithm uses a one dimensional frequency domain step to deal with the periodic component of the striping artifact and a spatial domain step to handle the aperiodic residue. Several variations of the algorithm have been explored. Results, strengths, and remaining challenges are presented. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  14. Stripe Glass from Competing Short and Long Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimanyi, Gergely; Pike, Chris; Scalettar, Richard

    2006-03-01

    We investigate a film of dipoles oriented perpendicular to the film. The system's behavior is related to inhomogeneous non-Fermi liquid states, recently studied by Kivelson and Spivak and by Schmalian and Wolynes. The competition of short range ferromagnetic and long range antiferromagnetic interactions causes the formation of stripes. The system has an ordered stripe-crystal phase. However, this phase is avoided unless an extremely slow annealing protocol is utilized. Without any quenched disorder during normal annealing protocols the frustrated competing interactions self-generate a stripe-glass state. The stripe glass exhibits aging, manifesting itself in waiting-time dependent correlations. A scaling analysis of the aging is presented. The long time behavior shows stretched exponential behavior, the relaxation time surprisingly exhibiting a simple activated form. Dynamical inhomogeneities are identified, both frozen domains and instantaneous crystallites.

  15. Spin excitations in fluctuating stripe phases of doped cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Matthias; Vojta, Thomas; Kaul, Ribhu K

    2006-09-01

    Using a phenomenological lattice model of coupled spin and charge modes, we determine the spin susceptibility in the presence of fluctuating stripe charge order. We assume the charge fluctuations to be slow compared to those of the spins, and combine Monte Carlo simulations for the charge order parameter with exact diagonalization of the spin sector. Our calculations unify the spin dynamics of both static and fluctuating stripe phases and support the notion of a universal spin excitation spectrum in doped cuprate superconductors.

  16. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Ruessler, D.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Holm, S.E.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of efffluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17??-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  17. C-BASS: The C-Band All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Timothy J.; C-BASS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to image the whole sky at a wavelength of 6 cm (frequency 5 GHz), measuring both the brightness and the polarization of the sky. Correlation polarimeters are mounted on two separate telescopes, one at the Owens Valley Observatory (OVRO) in California and another in South Africa, allowing C-BASS to map the whole sky. The OVRO instrument has completed observations for the northern part of the survey. We are working on final calibration of intensity and polarization. The southern instrument has recently started observations for the southern part of the survey from its site at Klerefontein near Carnarvon in South Africa. The principal aim of C-BASS is to allow the subtraction of polarized Galactic synchrotron emission from the data produced by CMB polarization experiments, such as WMAP, Planck, and dedicated B-mode polarization experiments. In addition it will contribute to studies of: (1) the local (< 1 kpc) Galactic magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation; (2) the distribution of the anomalous dust emission, its origin and the physical processes that affect it; (3) modeling of Galactic total intensity emission, which may allow CMB experiments access to the currently inaccessible region close to the Galactic plane. Observations at many wavelengths from radio to infrared are needed to fully understand the foregrounds. At 5 GHz, C-BASS maps synchrotron polarization with minimal corruption by Faraday rotation, and complements the full-sky maps from WMAP and Planck. I will present the project status, show results of component separation in selected sky regions, and describe the northern survey data products.C-BASS (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/cbass/) is a collaborative project between the Universities of Oxford and Manchester in the UK, the California Institute of Technology (supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA) in the USA, the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (supported by the Square Kilometre

  18. Life history of the striped newt at a north-central Florida breeding pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    I studied the life history of Striped Newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) at a breeding pond in north-central Florida. Newts were captured in pitfall traps at a drift-fence as they migrated into and out of the pond basin. During the 2-year study, I recorded 10,290 captures (8,127 individuals) of newts at the drift-fence. Newts were active during each month of the study, but there were four peak activity periods, each of which included immigration and emigration events. Immigration events were almost exclusively comprised of adults, whereas emigration events were comprised of adults and recently transformed larvae. I documented 5,296 recently transformed, immature larvae (efts) and 435 recently transformed mature larvae (paedomorphs) during four distinct periods of emigration. Efts matured in the uplands before returning to the pond to breed. In the uplands, male efts (n = 16) grew 0.0183 mm/day on average, whereas average female (n = 24) growth was 0.0167 mm/day. Immigrating adults of both sexes were significantly smaller than emigrating adults. Emigrating efts were smallest, followed by emigrating paedomorphs, immigrating adults, then emigrating adults. The overall adult sex ratio was 1:1.25 (m:f). Sex ratio of emigrating paedomorphs was highly skewed towards females, with one male for every 4.43 females. Newts tended to move during wetter periods, and captures were significantly correlated with rainfall, but rainfall was a poor predictor of the magnitude of newt movements.

  19. Diversity & Motivation: Culturally Responsive Teaching. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass Education Series, Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodkowski, Raymond J.; Ginsberg, Margery B.

    This volume proposes and is a guide to a culturally responsive pedagogy for higher education instruction that respects diversity; engages the motivation of all learners; creates a safe, inclusive, and respectful learning environment; derives teaching practices from principles that cross disciplines and cultures; and promotes justice and equity in…

  20. Audiogram of a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; Hagedoorn, Monique; Au, Whitlow W. L.; de Haan, Dick

    2003-02-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivity of a striped dolphin was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up-down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using 12 narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having center frequencies between 0.5 and 160 kHz. The 50% detection threshold was determined for each frequency. The resulting audiogram for this animal was U-shaped, with hearing capabilities from 0.5 to 160 kHz (8 13 oct). Maximum sensitivity (42 dB re 1 μPa) occurred at 64 kHz. The range of most sensitive hearing (defined as the frequency range with sensitivities within 10 dB of maximum sensitivity) was from 29 to 123 kHz (approximately 2 oct). The animal's hearing became less sensitive below 32 kHz and above 120 kHz. Sensitivity decreased by about 8 dB per octave below 1 kHz and fell sharply at a rate of about 390 dB per octave above 140 kHz.

  1. Aqua MODIS Band 24 Crosstalk Striping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Graziela R.; Wang, Zhipeng; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-04-01

    Aqua MODIS, unlike its predecessor on board the Terra spacecraft, had always been thought to have been spared from significant deleterious impacts of electronic crosstalk on its imagery. However, recent efforts brought to our attention the presence of striping artifacts in Aqua MODIS images from band 24 (4.47$\\mu$m), which upon further inspection proved to have a noticeable impact on the quality of the L1B product and to have been present since the beginning of the mission, in 2002. Using images of the Moon from scheduled lunar observations, we linked the artifacts with electronic crosstalk contamination of the response of detector 1 of band 24 by signal sent from the detector 10 of band 26 (1.375$\\mu$m), a neighboring band in the same focal plane assembly. In this paper, we report on these findings, the artifact mitigation strategy adopted by us, and on our success in restoring band 24 detector 1 behavior and image quality.

  2. Treating sunshine bass eggs with copper sulfate controls fungus and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  3. Copper sulfate controls fungus on sunshine bass eggs and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  4. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  5. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  6. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  7. Habitat selection and abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass in north temperate lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Peter James; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat use during early life history plays an important role in the ecology of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in north temperate lakes. The highest levels of mortality occur during the first year of life, and the habitat selected probably affects mortality. We used resource selection functions and abundance data from two northern Wisconsin lakes to determine the habitats that influence the survival of smallmouth bass. Coarse substrates were consistently important to both nesting locations and young-of-year smallmouth bass. Young smallmouth bass used woody structure after swimming from their nests but disassociated themselves from habitats with more complex woody structure by August. Nonwoody cobble areas offer protection for young-of-year smallmouth bass without attracting predators, as woody habitats do. The decline in the abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass was best fit to an exponential decay function in woody habitats, but in rock habitats it was linear. Habitat selection by young-of-year smallmouth bass shifts over time, and the shift is linked to predation risk: woody habitats initially offer them an advantage with respect to spawning but eventually provide their predators greater opportunities for ambush. This shift underscores the importance of having a diversity of littoral habitats. This study provides the first quantifiable analyses describing the habitat features selected by young-of-year smallmouth bass and links these descriptions to population dynamics.

  8. 50 CFR 622.189 - Restrictions and requirements for sea bass pots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions and requirements for sea... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... requirements for sea bass pots. (a) Tending restriction. A sea bass pot in the South Atlantic EEZ may be...

  9. 50 CFR 622.189 - Restrictions and requirements for sea bass pots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions and requirements for sea... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... requirements for sea bass pots. (a) Tending restriction. A sea bass pot in the South Atlantic EEZ may be...

  10. The influence of dissolved oxygen on winter habitat selection by largemouth bass: an integration of field biotelemetry studies and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Hasler, C T; Suski, C D; Hanson, K C; Cooke, S J; Tufts, B L

    2009-01-01

    In this study, field biotelemetry and laboratory physiology approaches were coupled to allow understanding of the behavioral and physiological responses of fish to winter hypoxia. The biotelemetry study compared dissolved oxygen levels measured throughout the winter period with continually tracked locations of nine adult largemouth bass obtained from a whole-lake submerged telemetry array. Fish habitat usage was compared with habitat availability to assess whether fish were selecting for specific dissolved oxygen concentrations. The laboratory study examined behavioral and physiological responses to progressive hypoxia in juvenile largemouth bass acclimated to winter temperatures. Results from the dissolved oxygen measurements made during the biotelemetry study showed high variance in under-ice dissolved oxygen levels. Avoidance of water with dissolved oxygen <2.0 mg/L by telemetered fish was demonstrated, but significant use of water with intermediate dissolved oxygen levels was also found. Results from the lab experiments showed marked changes in behavior (i.e., yawning and vertical movement) at <2.0 mg/L of dissolved oxygen but no change in tissue lactate, an indicator of anaerobic metabolism. Combined results of the biotelemetry and laboratory studies demonstrate that a dissolved oxygen content of 2.0 mg/L may be a critical threshold that induces behavioral responses by largemouth bass during the winter. In addition, the use by fish of areas with intermediate levels of dissolved oxygen suggests that there are multiple environmental factors influencing winter behavior.

  11. First description of the gravid female of Philometra rubra (Leidy, 1856) (Nematoda: Philometridae), a parasite of the abdominal cavity of temperate basses Morone Spp. (Moronidae: Perciformes) in North America.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; de Buron, Isaure; Measures, Lena

    2013-06-01

    Gravid females of the little-known nematode species Philometra rubra ( Leidy, 1856 ) (Philometridae) are described from specimens from the abdominal cavity of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), in South Carolina and Canada. The specimens were studied with the use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is mainly characterized by the distribution and different sizes of cephalic papillae from the external circle, which is a unique feature compared to other philometrids. Other characteristic features are the shape of the posterior end of body, size and location of caudal projections, and the presence of a well-developed anterior esophageal inflation. The morphology of the male of P. rubra and the life cycle of this nematode are still unknown.

  12. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative pray fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vigg, Steven; Poe, Thomas P.; Prendergast , Linda A.; Hansel, Hal C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983–1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish (0.7 and 0.5 prey/predator) occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes (0.2 prey/predator) and smallmouth bass (0.04) occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn (0600–1200 hours) and near midnight (2000–2400). Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length (> 13.2 mg/g predator), for walleyes 201–250 mm (42.5 mg/g), for smallmouth bass 176–200 mm (30.4 mg/g), and for channel catfish 401–450 mm (17.1 mg/g). Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April–August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass (28.7 mg/ g) was about twice that of channel catfish (12.6), northern squawfish (14.1), and walleyes (14.2). However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Johnson, W.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with > 55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with <54% hatch rates (1,119 vs. 201 pmol/g). These results suggest that thiamine deficiency might be playing an important role in alligator embryo survival but not in reproductive failure and recruitment of largemouth bass. The cause(s) of this thiamine deficiency are unknown but might be related to differences in the nutritional value of prey items across the sites studied and/or to the presence of high concentration of contaminants in eggs. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  14. Physiological response of largemouth bass to angling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustaveson, A. Wayne; Wydoski, Richard S.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing on largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Powell and Mantua Reservoir, Utah, were evaluated, and an estimate of the time needed for recovery from hooking stress was obtained. Fatigue in Lake Powell fish, as indicated by elevated blood lactate, was directly proportional to hooking time (1–5 min) and water temperature, but recovery from the hyperlacticemia was relatively rapid (about 24 h). Hyperglycemia, an indicator of stress hormone production, did not occur in largemouth bass hooked and played for 1–5 min in the coldest water (11–13°C), was moderate in fish hooked and played at l6–20°C, and was severe in fish played for 5 min at 28–30°C. Fish held for recovery in live cages suffered further hyperglycemia, presumably because of the stress of confinement. Ionoregulation, as indicated by relatively stable plasma chloride values, was not immediately affected in largemouth bass caught at water temperatures of 11–13°C or 28–30°C, but an unusual hyperchloremia developed in fish hooked and played at 16–20°C. During recovery, the expected progressive hypochloremia developed. Plasma osmolality was somewhat affected by hooking at all water temperatures tested, but recovery was almost complete within about 8 h. Mantua Reservoir fish were hooked and played only at water temperatures of 23–26°C. The hyperlacticemia and hyperglycemia that occurred were generally more severe than in the Lake Powell fish hooked and played at either 16–20°C or 28–30°C. However, effects on plasma chloride and osmolality were similar to those occurring in Lake Powell fish.

  15. The Performance of Multileaf Collimators Evaluated by the Stripe Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sastre-Padro, Maria Lervag, Christoffer; Eilertsen, Karsten; Malinen, Eirik

    2009-10-01

    The performance of 3 multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (Varian Medical Systems, Elekta, and Siemens Medical Solutions) mounted on 7 different radiotherapy linear accelerators was investigated by a stripe test. The stripe test consisted of 8 adjacent multileaf segments of 2.5 x 40 cm{sup 2}, enclosed by all leaf pairs. With 6-MV photons, the segments were used to irradiate Agfa CR films. The optical density profile of the irradiated film in the travel direction of the MLC was used to estimate the short- and long-term leaf positioning reproducibility. The short-term reproducibility was found by analyzing 6 consecutive stripe tests. The long-term reproducibility was obtained by performing 3 to 5 stripe tests over 2 months. The short-term reproducibility was mainly within 0.3 mm for all systems. For the long-term reproducibility, the Varian and Elekta MLCs were within 0.4 to 0.5 mm, while the Siemens MLC showed a wider distribution, with values up to 1 mm for some leaf pairs. The inferior long-term reproducibility of the Siemens MLCs was mainly due to a decrease of the segment size with time. In conclusion, the stripe test is a useful method for evaluating MLC performance. Furthermore, the long-term reproducibility varied among the MLC systems investigated.

  16. The performance of multileaf collimators evaluated by the stripe test.

    PubMed

    Sastre-Padro, Maria; Lervåg, Christoffer; Eilertsen, Karsten; Malinen, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    The performance of 3 multileaf collimator (MLC) systems (Varian Medical Systems, Elekta, and Siemens Medical Solutions) mounted on 7 different radiotherapy linear accelerators was investigated by a stripe test. The stripe test consisted of 8 adjacent multileaf segments of 2.5 x 40 cm(2), enclosed by all leaf pairs. With 6-MV photons, the segments were used to irradiate Agfa CR films. The optical density profile of the irradiated film in the travel direction of the MLC was used to estimate the short- and long-term leaf positioning reproducibility. The short-term reproducibility was found by analyzing 6 consecutive stripe tests. The long-term reproducibility was obtained by performing 3 to 5 stripe tests over 2 months. The short-term reproducibility was mainly within 0.3 mm for all systems. For the long-term reproducibility, the Varian and Elekta MLCs were within 0.4 to 0.5 mm, while the Siemens MLC showed a wider distribution, with values up to 1 mm for some leaf pairs. The inferior long-term reproducibility of the Siemens MLCs was mainly due to a decrease of the segment size with time. In conclusion, the stripe test is a useful method for evaluating MLC performance. Furthermore, the long-term reproducibility varied among the MLC systems investigated.

  17. Transport properties of stripe-ordered high Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Qing; Han, Su Jung; Dimitrov, Ivo; Tranquada, J. M.; Li, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    Transport measurements provide important characterizations of the nature of stripe order in the cuprates. Initial studies of systems such as La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4 demonstrated the strong anisotropy between in-plane and c-axis resistivities, but also suggested that stripe order results in a tendency towards insulating behavior within the planes at low temperature. More recent work on La2-xBaxCuO4 with x = 1/8 has revealed the occurrence of quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity that onsets with spin-stripe order. The suppression of three-dimensional superconductivity indicates a frustration of the interlayer Josephson coupling, motivating a proposal that superconductivity and stripe order are intertwined in a pair-density-wave state. Complementary characterizations of the low-energy states near the Fermi level are provided by measurements of the Hall and Nernst effects, each revealing intriguing signatures of stripe correlations and ordering. We review and discuss this work.

  18. Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper oxide superconductors.

    PubMed

    Tranquada, J M; Woo, H; Perring, T G; Goka, H; Gu, G D; Xu, G; Fujita, M; Yamada, K

    2004-06-03

    In the copper oxide parent compounds of the high-transition-temperature superconductors the valence electrons are localized--one per copper site--by strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion. A symptom of this localization is antiferromagnetism, where the spins of localized electrons alternate between up and down. Superconductivity appears when mobile 'holes' are doped into this insulating state, and it coexists with antiferromagnetic fluctuations. In one approach to describing the coexistence, the holes are believed to self-organize into 'stripes' that alternate with antiferromagnetic (insulating) regions within copper oxide planes, which would necessitate an unconventional mechanism of superconductivity. There is an apparent problem with this picture, however: measurements of magnetic excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+x near optimum doping are incompatible with the naive expectations for a material with stripes. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. We show that the measured excitations are, surprisingly, quite similar to those in YBa2Cu3O6+x (refs 9, 10) (that is, the predicted spectrum of magnetic excitations is wrong). We find instead that the observed spectrum can be understood within a stripe model by taking account of quantum excitations. Our results support the concept that stripe correlations are essential to high-transition-temperature superconductivity.

  19. Quantum magnetic excitations from stripes in copper oxide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.; Woo, H.; Perring, T. G.; Goka, H.; Gu, G. D.; Xu, G.; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-06-01

    In the copper oxide parent compounds of the high-transition-temperature superconductors the valence electrons are localized-one per copper site-by strong intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion. A symptom of this localization is antiferromagnetism, where the spins of localized electrons alternate between up and down. Superconductivity appears when mobile `holes' are doped into this insulating state, and it coexists with antiferromagnetic fluctuations. In one approach to describing the coexistence, the holes are believed to self-organize into `stripes' that alternate with antiferromagnetic (insulating) regions within copper oxide planes, which would necessitate an unconventional mechanism of superconductivity. There is an apparent problem with this picture, however: measurements of magnetic excitations in superconducting YBa2Cu3O6+x near optimum doping are incompatible with the naive expectations for a material with stripes. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. We show that the measured excitations are, surprisingly, quite similar to those in YBa2Cu3O6+x (refs 9, 10) (that is, the predicted spectrum of magnetic excitations is wrong). We find instead that the observed spectrum can be understood within a stripe model by taking account of quantum excitations. Our results support the concept that stripe correlations are essential to high-transition-temperature superconductivity.

  20. Coupling of stripes to lattice distortions in cuprates and nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hücker, M.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Zimmermann, M. v.; Klauss, H.-H.; Curro, N. J.; Braden, M.; Büchner, B.

    2007-09-01

    In recent X-ray diffraction experiments on orthorhombic nickelates, we have observed a significant coupling between the stripe correlations and the lattice distortion. In particular, the diagonal charge stripes of this insulating material exhibit a preferred orientation parallel to the orthorhombic a-axis, similar to the diagonal spin stripes in La2-xSrxCuO4 below the metal-insulator transition. In the light of this finding, we draw a comparison between the lightly doped parts of the phase diagrams of La2-xSrxCuO4 with low-temperature orthorhombic (LTO) structure, and La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4 with low-temperature tetragonal (LTT) structure. In La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4, a local minimum in the Sr dependence of the LTO/LTT transition temperature, as well as reduced spin-glass transition temperatures, may be indicators for the presence of diagonal charge correlations. Above the metal-insulator transition the LTT phase is suited to pin parallel stripes, while below that transition the LTT phase seems instead to compete with the formation of diagonal stripes.

  1. From stripe to slab confinement for DNA linearization in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Peter; Benkova, Zuzana; Namer, Pavol

    We investigate suggested advantageous analysis in the linearization experiments with macromolecules confined in a stripe-like channel using Monte Carlo simulations. The enhanced chain extension in a stripe that is due to significant excluded volume interactions between monomers in two dimensions weakens on transition to experimentally feasible slit-like channel. Based on the chain extension-confinement strength dependence and the structure factor behavior for the chain in stripe we infer the excluded volume regime typical for two-dimensional systems. On transition to the slab geometry, the advantageous chain extension decreases and the Gaussian regime is observed for not very long semiflexible chains. The evidence for pseudo-ideality in confined chains is based on indicators such as the extension curves, variation of the extension with the persistence length or the structure factor. The slab behavior is observed when the stripe (originally of monomer thickness) reaches the thickness larger than cca 10nm in the third dimension. This maximum height of the slab to retain the advantage of the stripe is very low and this have implication for DNA linearization experiments. The presented analysis, however, has a broader relevance for confined polymers. Support from Slovak R&D Agency (SRDA-0451-11) is acknowledged.

  2. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  3. Millijansky Radio Variability in SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg2. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f var > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  4. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  5. Apparatus And Method For Reconstructing Data Using Cross-Parity Stripes On Storage Media

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, James Prescott

    2003-06-17

    An apparatus and method for reconstructing missing data using cross-parity stripes on a storage medium is provided. The apparatus and method may operate on data symbols having sizes greater than a data bit. The apparatus and method makes use of a plurality of parity stripes for reconstructing missing data stripes. The parity symbol values in the parity stripes are used as a basis for determining the value of the missing data symbol in a data stripe. A correction matrix is shifted along the data stripes, correcting missing data symbols as it is shifted. The correction is performed from the outside data stripes towards the inner data stripes to thereby use previously reconstructed data symbols to reconstruct other missing data symbols.

  6. Direct evidence for charge stripes in a layered cobalt oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkevich, P.; Freeman, P. G.; Enderle, M.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments indicate that static stripe-like charge order is generic to the hole-doped copper oxide superconductors and competes with superconductivity. Here we show that a similar type of charge order is present in La5/3Sr1/3CoO4, an insulating analogue of the copper oxide superconductors containing cobalt in place of copper. The stripe phase we have detected is accompanied by short-range, quasi-one-dimensional, antiferromagnetic order, and provides a natural explanation for the distinctive hourglass shape of the magnetic spectrum previously observed in neutron-scattering measurements of La2-xSrxCoO4 and many hole-doped copper oxide superconductors. The results establish a solid empirical basis for theories of the hourglass spectrum built on short-range, quasi-static, stripe correlations.

  7. A unified design space of synthetic stripe-forming networks.

    PubMed

    Schaerli, Yolanda; Munteanu, Andreea; Gili, Magüi; Cotterell, James; Sharpe, James; Isalan, Mark

    2014-09-23

    Synthetic biology is a promising tool to study the function and properties of gene regulatory networks. Gene circuits with predefined behaviours have been successfully built and modelled, but largely on a case-by-case basis. Here we go beyond individual networks and explore both computationally and synthetically the design space of possible dynamical mechanisms for 3-node stripe-forming networks. First, we computationally test every possible 3-node network for stripe formation in a morphogen gradient. We discover four different dynamical mechanisms to form a stripe and identify the minimal network of each group. Next, with the help of newly established engineering criteria we build these four networks synthetically and show that they indeed operate with four fundamentally distinct mechanisms. Finally, this close match between theory and experiment allows us to infer and subsequently build a 2-node network that represents the archetype of the explored design space.

  8. Spin wave quantization in continuous film with stripe domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Seok; Yoon, Jungbum; Lee, Sukmock; You, Chun-Yeol; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Young Keun

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the spin wave dynamics of CoFeSiB film, which has a stripe domain structure at a low magnetic field region (<1 kOe). We measured the spin wave excitation spectra by employing Brillouin light scattering. Abnormal field dependence and dispersion relations were observed, and they are similar to spin wave quantization in laterally confined magnetic structures such as arrays of magnetic nanowires. The observed spin wave excitation spectra must be interpreted with spin wave quantization such as Damon-Eshbach mode separation. It was found that the spin wave quantization is related to the stripe magnetic domain structure in continuous film. The physical origin of the quantization is the partial reflection of the propagating spin wave at the periodic stripe domain boundaries.

  9. Stripe noise removal for infrared images using guided filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengwei; Xiang, Wei; Xu, Baoshu; Feng, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Pixels of different columns in the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) have different readout circuit channels, amplifiers in different channels, different 1/f noise characteristics. Such noise may cause obvious stripe noise in the infrared images and degrades the quality of captured images. First, analyzed a stripe noise removal method making use of blurred infrared image based on average filter and pointed out the limitation in this method. Then, gave the reason that lead to the limitation. On the basis of this, introduced guided filter, and came up with an acquiring strip noise correction term method using 1D guided filter to handle the average row vector of the blurred image. The simulation experiment shows that this method is effective and efficient in removing stripe noise. Moreover, this method has a low time complexity, and can be easily implemented in the project.

  10. Strong-Coupling and the Stripe Phase of ^3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiman, Joshua J.; Sauls, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of superfluid 3He were predicted, based on weak-coupling BCS theory, to have a stable phase which spontaneously breaks translational symmetry in the plane of the film. This crystalline superfluid, or "stripe" phase, develops as a one-dimensional periodic array of domain walls separating degenerate B phase domains. We report calculations of the phases and phase diagram for superfluid 3He in thin films using a strong-coupling Ginzburg-Landau theory that accurately reproduces the bulk 3He superfluid phase diagram. We find that the stability of the Stripe phase is diminished relative to the A phase, but the Stripe phase is stable in a large range of temperatures, pressures, confinement, and surface conditions.

  11. Modeling magnetization curves in magnetic thin films with striped patterns.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Di Pietro; Milano, J; Eddrief, M; Marangolo, M; Bustingorry, S

    2016-04-06

    In this work, we study magnetic thin films presenting magnetic stripe patterns. A fingerprint of such domains is a linear behavior of the in-plane magnetization curves below a given saturation field. We present free energy models for the in-plane magnetization curves which permit us to extract key geometrical information about the stripe patterns, such as the maximum canted angle of the magnetization and the domain wall width. As an example, we discuss in this work magnetization curves for Fe(1-x)Ga(x) magnetic films which present a stripe pattern with a period of 160 nm and we found a typical maximum canted angle of 85° and a domain wall width around 30 nm.

  12. Modeling magnetization curves in magnetic thin films with striped patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pietro Martínez, M.; Milano, J.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.; Bustingorry, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we study magnetic thin films presenting magnetic stripe patterns. A fingerprint of such domains is a linear behavior of the in-plane magnetization curves below a given saturation field. We present free energy models for the in-plane magnetization curves which permit us to extract key geometrical information about the stripe patterns, such as the maximum canted angle of the magnetization and the domain wall width. As an example, we discuss in this work magnetization curves for Fe1-x Ga x magnetic films which present a stripe pattern with a period of 160 nm and we found a typical maximum canted angle of {{85}{^\\circ}} and a domain wall width around 30 nm.

  13. A unified design space of synthetic stripe-forming networks

    PubMed Central

    Schaerli, Yolanda; Munteanu, Andreea; Gili, Magüi; Cotterell, James; Sharpe, James; Isalan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a promising tool to study the function and properties of gene regulatory networks. Gene circuits with predefined behaviours have been successfully built and modelled, but largely on a case-by-case basis. Here we go beyond individual networks and explore both computationally and synthetically the design space of possible dynamical mechanisms for 3-node stripe-forming networks. First, we computationally test every possible 3-node network for stripe formation in a morphogen gradient. We discover four different dynamical mechanisms to form a stripe and identify the minimal network of each group. Next, with the help of newly established engineering criteria we build these four networks synthetically and show that they indeed operate with four fundamentally distinct mechanisms. Finally, this close match between theory and experiment allows us to infer and subsequently build a 2-node network that represents the archetype of the explored design space. PMID:25247316

  14. Direct evidence for charge stripes in a layered cobalt oxide

    PubMed Central

    Babkevich, P.; Freeman, P. G.; Enderle, M.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that static stripe-like charge order is generic to the hole-doped copper oxide superconductors and competes with superconductivity. Here we show that a similar type of charge order is present in La5/3Sr1/3CoO4, an insulating analogue of the copper oxide superconductors containing cobalt in place of copper. The stripe phase we have detected is accompanied by short-range, quasi-one-dimensional, antiferromagnetic order, and provides a natural explanation for the distinctive hourglass shape of the magnetic spectrum previously observed in neutron-scattering measurements of La2−xSrxCoO4 and many hole-doped copper oxide superconductors. The results establish a solid empirical basis for theories of the hourglass spectrum built on short-range, quasi-static, stripe correlations. PMID:27212023

  15. Stripe Correlations of Spins and Holes in Cuprate Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, John M.

    1996-03-01

    Several different theoretical approaches have suggested that holes doped into a CuO2 plane might segregate. In particular, a stripe phase has been proposed in which hole-rich stripes alternate periodically with antiferromagnetic domains. Such a phase was first properly identified in the insulating model compounds La_2NiO_4+δ and La_2-xSr_xNiO4 by neutron diffraction studies.(J. M. Tranquada, D. J. Buttrey, V. Sachan, and J. E. Lorenzo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73), 1003 (1994); V. Sachan, D. J. Buttrey, J. M. Tranquada, J. E. Lorenzo, and G. Shirane, Phys. Rev. B 51, 12742 (1995). That work led to an experiment(J. M. Tranquada, B. J. Sternlieb, J. D. Axe, Y. Nakamura, and S. Uchida, Nature 375), 561 (1995). which revealed evidence for static spin and charge stripes in La_1.6-xNd_0.4Sr_xCuO4 with x=0.12, a cuprate in which superconductivity is anomalously suppressed.(J. D. Axe and M. K. Crawford, J. Low Temp. Phys. 95), 271 (1994); Y. Nakamura and S. Uchida, Phys. Rev. B 46, 5841 (1992). In contrast to the nickelates, where the stripes run diagonally within a plane with one hole per site along a domain wall, the stripes in the cuprate run horizontally (or vertically) with a charge density of half a hole per site. In both cases the order appears to be driven by the charge rather than the magnetism. The magnetic scattering observed in the cuprate is closely related to the purely inelastic magnetic signal found in superconducting La_1.85Sr_0.15CuO_4, thus justifying the inference that dynamical stripe correlations occur in the superconductors. The static order found in the x=0.12 sample can be explained by pinning of the charge modulation by a well known lattice distortion, and is correlated with the suppression of superconductivity.

  16. Social kin associations and genetic structuring of striped dolphin populations (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, Stefania; Azzellino, Arianna; Airoldi, Sabina; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2007-07-01

    We investigated hierarchical patterns of genetic subdivision, and assessed kinship within and between social groups of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Tyrrhenian Sea. A total of 165 samples were analysed at eight microsatellite DNA loci, including outgroup samples from the Adriatic, Scotland and Spain for population-level comparisons. We found population genetic structure within the Mediterranean basin, including small but significant differentiation between the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas (FST=0.0047, P=0.008), and between putative 'inshore' and 'offshore' (FST=0.0217, P=0.005) populations in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Assessment of kinship within and among 12 association groups showed higher average kinship for females within than between groups, and smaller groups showed higher average kinship. Comparisons of relatedness for both sexes showed a significant difference between males and females, with females more likely to associate with adult kin. Together these data emphasize the importance of the social cohesion of kin in small groups to the structuring of striped dolphin populations in this environment.

  17. Experimental increase of testosterone increases boldness and decreases anxiety in male African striped mouse helpers.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Julien; Schradin, Carsten

    2014-04-22

    Males of many species can adjust their behaviors to environmental conditions by changing reproductive tactics. Testosterone surges in adult breeding males typically inhibit the expression of paternal care while facilitating the expression of aggression during environmental changes. Similarly, in non-breeding philopatric males of cooperatively breeding species, up-regulation of testosterone may inhibit alloparental care while facilitating dispersal, i.e. males might become bolder and more explorative. We tested this hypothesis in philopatric male African striped mice, Rhabdomys pumilio. Striped mouse males can either remain in their natal groups providing alloparental care or they can disperse seeking mating opportunities. Compared to philopatric males, dispersed males typically show higher testosterone levels and lower corticosterone levels, and more aggression toward pups and same sex conspecifics. We experimentally increased the testosterone levels of the philopatric males kept in their family groups when pups were present. Testosterone-treated males did not differ significantly from control males in alloparental care and in aggression toward same-sex conspecifics. Compared to the control males, testosterone treated males were bolder, more active, and less anxious; they also showed lower corticosterone levels. The philopatric males were sensitive to our testosterone treatment for dispersal- and anxiety-like behavior but insensitive for social behaviors. Our results suggest a role of testosterone in dispersal.

  18. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification. Lake Acidification and Fisheries Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of hepcidin regulation in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Neves, J V; Caldas, C; Wilson, J M; Rodrigues, P N S

    2011-12-01

    Hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide described as a key regulator of iron metabolism, is known to respond in mammals to several stimuli, including iron overload, anemia, hypoxia and inflammation, through a number of molecular pathways. In order to understand the molecular pathways involved in the regulation of hepcidin expression in teleost fish, we have isolated for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) several coding sequences of known molecules involved on these pathways in mammals, namely jak3, stat3, tmprss6, bmp6, bmpr2, hjv, smad4, smad5, tfr1 and tfr2. The transcription levels of the isolated genes were evaluated by real-time PCR on fish subjected to experimental iron modulation (overload/deficiency) or infection with Photobacterium damsela. Results show that genes associated with the major pathway of the inflammatory response (IL6/JAK/STAT pathway) in mammals are also modulated in sea bass, being up-regulated during infection. Similarly, genes of the pathways classically associated with the response to variations in iron status (the HJV/BMP/SMAD and HFE/TfR pathways) are also modulated, mostly through down-regulation in iron deficiency and up-regulation during iron overload. Interestingly, many of these genes are also found to be up-regulated during infection, which may indicate a crosstalk between the known pathways of hepcidin regulation. These observations suggest the evolutionary conservation of the mechanisms of hepcidin regulation in teleost fish.

  20. Embryonic occurrence of ionocytes in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Grousset, Evelyse; Charmantier, Guy; Cucchi-Mouillot, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Because of the permeability of the chorion, sea bass embryos are exposed to seawater before hatching and hence require precocious osmoregulatory processes. Several studies of other species have demonstrated the existence of ion-transporting cells located on the yolk sac membrane of embryos. In these cells, called ionocytes, ion movements are controlled by a pool of transmembrane proteins. Among them, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an abundant driving enzyme, has been used to reveal the presence or absence of ionocytes. We have immunostained the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in sea-bass embryos and shown the presence of the first ionocytes on the yolk sac membrane at stage 12 somites and the occurrence of ionocytes at other sites before hatching. Ionocytes located on the first gill slits have been identified at stage 14 somites. Primitive enteric ionocytes have also been detected at stage 14 somites in the mid and posterior gut. The presence of these cells might be related to the early opening of the gut to perivitelline fluids, both anteriorly by the gill slits and posteriorly by the anus. The role of embryonic ionocytes in osmoregulation before hatching is discussed.

  1. Selectively splitting a droplet using superhydrophobic stripes on hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Hu, Haibao; Du, Xiaosong; Zhou, Feng

    2015-06-07

    Superhydrophobic patterns were fabricated on hydrophilic surfaces by selective painting. The impinging process of water droplets on these hybrid surfaces was investigated. The droplet can be split by impinging on the hydrophilic surface with a single stripe at a high velocity. The time to split the droplet is independent of the impact velocity and it is smaller than the contact time of a droplet impinging on the fully superhydrophobic surface. The volume ratios of the split mini-droplets could be precisely controlled by adjusting the landing position of the original droplet. The droplet could be split uniformly into more mini-marbles by increasing the stripe numbers.

  2. Nonreciprocal spin wave spectroscopy of thin Ni-Fe stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Rejaei, Behzad; Vroubel, Marina; Zhuang, Yan

    2007-08-01

    The authors report on the observation of nonreciprocal spin wave propagation in a thin (˜200nm) patterned Ni-Fe stripe. The spin wave transmission spectrum is measured using a pair of microstrip lines as antennas. The nonreciprocity of surface wave dispersion brought about by an adjacent aluminum ground leads to a nonreciprocal coupling of the antennas. The effects of Ni-Fe film conductivity, thickness, and reflections caused by the lateral confinement of the magnetic stripe are discussed. The nonreciprocity observed in this structure can potentially be used to realize nonreciprocal microwave devices on silicon.

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and...

  8. Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).

    PubMed

    Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Mancin, M; Cappellozza, E; Panzarin, V; Bovo, G; Cattoli, G; Capua, I; Terregino, C

    2014-04-01

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a severe pathological condition caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. The disease, described in more than 50 fish species worldwide, is considered as the most serious viral threat affecting marine farmed species in the Mediterranean region, thus representing one of the bottlenecks for further development of the aquaculture industry. To date, four different genotypes have been identified, namely red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence of these genetically different strains could be the reason for the differences in mortality observed in the field. However, very little experimental data are available on the pathogenicity of these viruses in farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, the pathogenicity of 10 isolates has been assessed with an in vivo trial. The investigation was conducted using the European sea bass, the first target fish species for the disease in the Mediterranean basin. Naive fish were challenged by immersion and clinical signs and mortality were recorded for 68 days; furthermore, samples collected at selected time points were analysed to evaluate the development of the infection. Finally, survivors were weighed to estimate the growth reduction. The statistically supported results obtained in this study demonstrated different pathogenicity patterns, underlined the potential risk represented by different strains in the transmission of the infection to highly susceptible species and highlighted the indirect damage caused by a clinical outbreak of VER/VNN.

  9. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several smallmouth bass. Presence of gas bubble syndrome corresponded to the spring runoff when total dissolved gas supersaturations in river water exceeded 115%.

  10. Anisotropic material synthesis by capillary flow in a fluid stripe.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Matthew J; Piraino, Francesco; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Rasponi, Marco; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-09-01

    We present a simple bench-top technique to produce centimeter long concentration gradients in biomaterials incorporating soluble, material, and particle gradients. By patterning hydrophilic regions on a substrate, a stripe of prepolymer solution is held in place on a glass slide by a hydrophobic boundary. Adding a droplet to one end of this "pre-wet" stripe causes a rapid capillary flow that spreads the droplet along the stripe to generate a gradient in the relative concentrations of the droplet and pre-wet solutions. The gradient length and shape are controlled by the pre-wet and droplet volumes, stripe thickness, fluid viscosity and surface tension. Gradient biomaterials are produced by crosslinking gradients of prepolymer solutions. Demonstrated examples include a concentration gradient of cells encapsulated in three dimensions (3D) within a homogeneous biopolymer and a constant concentration of cells encapsulated in 3D within a biomaterial gradient exhibiting a gradient in cell spreading. The technique employs coated glass slides that may be purchased or custom made from tape and hydrophobic spray. The approach is accessible to virtually any researcher or student and should dramatically reduce the time required to synthesize a wide range of gradient biomaterials. Moreover, since the technique employs passive mechanisms it is ideal for remote or resource poor settings.

  11. Striped gold nanoparticles: New insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velachi, Vasumathi; Bhandary, Debdip; Singh, Jayant K.; Cordeiro, M. Natália D. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recent simulations have improved our knowledge of the molecular-level structure and hydration properties of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with equal and unequal alkyl thiols at three different arrangements, namely, random, patchy, and Janus. In our previous work [V. Vasumathi et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 3199-3209 (2015)], we showed that the bending of longer thiols over shorter ones clearly depends on the thiols' arrangements and chemical nature of their terminal groups. In addition, such a thiol bending revealed to have a strong impact on the structural and hydration properties of SAMs coated on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this paper, we extend our previous atomistic simulation study to investigate the bending of longer thiols by increasing the stripe thickness of mixed SAMs of equal and unequal lengths coated on AuNPs. We study also the effect of stripe thickness on the structural morphology and hydration of the coated SAMs. Our results show that the structural and hydration properties of SAMs are affected by the stripe thickness for mixtures of alkyl thiols with unequal chain length but not for equal length. Hence, the stability of the stripe configuration depends on the alkyl's chain length, the length difference between the thiol mixtures, and solvent properties.

  12. Spins, stripes, and superconductivity in hole-doped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, John M.

    2013-08-01

    One of the major themes in correlated electron physics over the last quarter century has been the problem of high-temperature superconductivity in hole-doped copper-oxide compounds. Fundamental to this problem is the competition between antiferromagnetic spin correlations, a symptom of strong Coulomb interactions, and the kinetic energy of the doped carriers, which favors delocalization. After discussing some of the early challenges in the field, I describe the experimental picture provided by a variety of spectroscopic and transport techniques. Then I turn to the technique of neutron scattering, and discuss how it is used to determine spin correlations, especially in model systems of quantum magnetism. Neutron scattering and complementary techniques have determined the extent to which antiferromagnetic spin correlations survive in the cuprate superconductors. One experimental case involves the ordering of spin and charge stripes. I first consider related measurements on model compounds, such as La2-xSrxNiO4+δ, and then discuss the case of La2-xBaxCuO4. In the latter system, recent transport studies have demonstrated that quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity coexists with the stripe order, but with frustrated phase order between the layers. This has led to new concepts for the coexistence of spin order and superconductivity. While the relevance of stripe correlations to high-temperature superconductivity remains a subject of controversy, there is no question that stripes are an intriguing example of electron matter that results from strong correlations.

  13. Bond-Stretching Phonons in a Stripe-Ordered Nickelate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.; Nakajima, K.; Braden, M.; Pintschovius, L.; Reichardt, W.; McQueeney, R.

    2001-03-01

    We have used neutron scattering at the Orphée Reactor, LLB, to study the bond-stretching optical phonons in a stripe-ordered single crystal of La_2-xSr_xNiO4 with x≈0.32. The stripes run along a [110] direction, at 45^circ to the Ni-O bond direction. We have measured the dispersion of the highest-energy Σ1 mode; because of twinning of the stripe domains in the tetragonal structure, we simultaneously sample phonons in directions parallel and perpendicular to the stripes. At zone center, a single strong peak appears at 21 THz (87 meV); however, on moving across the zone the mode appears to split, with half of the weight staying near 20 THz and the other half softening to ~17.5 THz at the zone boundary. The splitting is strong at the ordering wave vector, but changes little from there to the zone boundary. In the [100] direction, the Δ1 mode shows a similar softening but with no splitting. Comparisons with the cuprates will be discussed. This work supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886, and the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Research Program on Neutron Scattering.

  14. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-three striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) without demonstrable antibodies in 1:25 serum dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT) were fed sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocysts (9 skunks) or tissue cysts (10 skunks), and 4 skunks (controls) were not given T. gondii. Skunks were bled be...

  15. Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, A.S.; Moreno, J.C.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1993-07-01

    One method of improving the transverse spatial coherence of x-ray lasers (XRLS) is by adaptive spatial filtering of XRL apertures using geometric shaping in the form of bowtie or wedge XRLS. However, we must maintain the desired geometric shapes in exploding foil or slab configurations during the lasing period. As a first step toward understanding Lasing in such geometries we study the behavior of simple stripe XRLs. Past experience with stripe XRLs deposited on thick plastic substrates resulted in significantly weaker laser intensities as compared to line-focused slab XRLs. Possible reasons for this intensity reduction of stripe XRLs could include mixing at the laser boundary, and changes in plasma, kinetics, and hydrodynamic properties which affect laser gains and propagation. We will present experimental and theoretical characterizations of germanium line-focused and stripe XRLs. Key experimental parameters we will study include images of emission profiles of the laser blow-off, angular divergences, XRL output intensities, and ionization balances as we vary XRL designs. We will compare the experimental results with two-dimensional (2-D) laser deposition and hydrodynamics simulations using LASNEX, and study the changes in ionization balances and level populations from post-processing LASNEX results.

  16. Critical Casimir forces between homogeneous and chemically striped surfaces.

    PubMed

    Parisen Toldin, Francesco; Tröndle, Matthias; Dietrich, S

    2013-11-01

    Recent experiments have measured the critical Casimir force acting on a colloid immersed in a binary liquid mixture near its continuous demixing phase transition and exposed to a chemically structured substrate. Motivated by these experiments, we study the critical behavior of a system, which belongs to the Ising universality class, for the film geometry with one planar wall chemically striped, such that there is a laterally alternating adsorption preference for the two species of the binary liquid mixture, which is implemented by surface fields. For the opposite wall we employ alternatively a homogeneous adsorption preference or homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, which within a lattice model are realized by open boundary conditions. By means of mean-field theory, Monte Carlo simulations, and finite-size scaling analysis we determine the critical Casimir force acting on the two parallel walls and its corresponding universal scaling function. We show that in the limit of stripe widths small compared with the film thickness, on the striped surface the system effectively realizes Dirichlet boundary conditions, which generically do not hold for actual fluids. Moreover, the critical Casimir force is found to be attractive or repulsive, depending on the width of the stripes of the chemically patterned surface and on the boundary condition applied to the opposing surface.

  17. CRSP Hyperspectral Stripe Array Targets: Preliminary Results and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrie, Gregory; Jenner, Jeff; Tate, Steve; Muston, Shaun; Schaefer, Jason; Grant, Brennan; Sellers, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Objectives of this program: Assess the capability of a spaceborne hyperspectral sensor/algorithm system to perform target detection; Provide information to guide the design and construction of surrogate targets and stripe arrays; Target development cost of less than 50,000.

  18. Insecticide pyrethroids in liver of striped dolphin from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Giménez, Joan; de Stephanis, Renaud; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-03-07

    Pyrethroid pesticides were analysed in liver of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Alboran Sea (south of Spain, Mediterranean Sea). The occurrence and bioaccumulation of pyrethroid insecticides in marine mammal tissues from the northern hemisphere had never been determined before. Pyrethroids were detected in 87% of the specimens with a mean total concentration of 300 ng g(-1) lw ± 932 (range 2.7-5200 ng g(-1) lw). Permethrin and tetramethrin were the main contributors to the pyrethroid profiles, with enantiospecific accumulation for the first and isomer specific accumulation for the latter. Bioaccumulation of pyrethroids was unlike that of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), as pyrethroid concentrations were not correlated to the maturity stage of the specimens. Concentrations slightly increased from calves to juveniles, whereas juveniles presented similar concentrations to adults. Metabolization of pyrethroids after achieving sexual maturity might account for this pattern.

  19. Age and growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1941-01-01

    studies of the age and growth of the rock bass (Wright, 1929), whitefish (Hile and Deason, 1934), yellow perch (Schneberger, 1935), cisco (Hile, 1936a), muskellunge (Schloemer, 1936, 1938), largemouth black bass (Bennett, 1937), common sucker (Spoor, 1938), and smalimouth black bass (Bennett, 1938). A total of five mimeographed reports on the growth of game fish in Wisconsin has been issued by Juday and Schneberger (1930, 1933), Juday and Bennett (1935), and Juday and Schloemer (1936,. 1938). In addition there have appeared two publications on the morphometry of the cisco (Hile 193Gb, 1937), three dealing with the parasites of fishes in the region (Cross 1934, 1935, 1938) and one on the food of fishes (Couey, 1935). A paper by Hile and Juday on the bathymetric distribution of fish will appear simultaneously with the present study of the rock bass. A contribution on the growth of the bluegill by Schloemer will be published in the near future.

  20. Rice stripe virus counters reduced fecundity in its insect vector by modifying insect physiology, primary endosymbionts and feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guijun; Jiang, Shoulin; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Guoqing; Tao, Xiaorong; Pan, Weidong; Sword, Gregory A.; Chen, Fajun

    2015-01-01

    Virus-vector relationships can be complex and diverse as a result of long-term coevolution. Understanding these interactions is crucial for disease and vector management. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is known to be transovarially transmitted within its vector, Laodelphax striatellus, and causes serious rice stripe disease. In RSV-infected L. striatellus, we found contrasting changes in vector fecundity, physiology, primary endosymbionts (i.e. yeast-like symbionts, YLS) and feeding behavior that can interact to affect the spread of RSV. RSV-infected L. striatellus exhibited a significant decrease in fecundity that could lead a reduction of viruliferous individuals in populations. As a potential response to this loss, RSV infection also significantly shortened nymphal stage duration, which can strengthen RSV vertical circulation in L. striatellus populations and promote RSV spreading by adult migration and dispersal. Down-regulated JHAMT and up-regulated CYP307A1 in the juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid pathways, respectively, were linked to accelerated development. RSV-infected adults were also found to have higher body weight in conjunction with increased YLS abundance. Furthermore, prolonged host plant phloem exposure to salivation by RSV-infected adults should further enhance RSV horizontal transmission. Our study highlights potential strategies of RSV in enhancing its transmission, and provides new insights into the complexity of virus-vector interactions. PMID:26211618

  1. Organized Stone Stripes in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Polygonally-patterned ground at scales of meters to tens of meters is nearly ubiquitous in the northern plains of Mars. Collections of cobble to boulder-sized clasts are commonly found superimposed on polygonal terrain in a regular pattern that resembles the surface of a basketball [Mellon et al., 2008; Malin and Edgett, 2001]. Here we describe a variation of this basketball terrain, dubbed "stone stripes," in which piles of clastic debris are arranged into a series of parallel to subparallel ridges spaced at intervals of ~40 m. Stone stripes appear to be continuous or nearly continuous over areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometers. This type of landform is most prevalent poleward of ~70°N latitude, at the northern margin of Utopia Planitia . We hypothesize that the orientation of stone stripes is controlled by regional structures, such as wrinkle ridges. First results from a survey of THEMIS VIS images within the area from 60°N-80°N and from 70°E-130°E show no obvious correlation between wrinkle ridge orientation and the orientation of stone stripes. Work is ongoing to further characterize the orientation of stone stripes in relation to regional structures and local and regional topographic slopes. Mellon et al., (2008), Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JE003039, in press. Malin and Edgett, (2001), Mars global surveyor mars orbiter camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 23429-23570.

  2. Skin mucus proteome map of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Brinchmann, Monica F; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

    2015-12-01

    Skin mucus is the first barrier of fish defence. Proteins from skin mucus of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were identified by 2DE followed by LC-MS/MS. From all the identified proteins in the proteome map, we focus on the proteins associated with several immune pathways in fish. Furthermore, the real-time PCR transcript levels in skin are shown. Proteins found include apolipoprotein A1, calmodulin, complement C3, fucose-binding lectin, lysozyme and several caspases. To our knowledge, this is the first skin mucus proteome study and further transcriptional profiling of the identified proteins done on this bony fish species. This not only contributes knowledge on the routes involved in mucosal innate immunity, but also establishes a non-invasive technique based on locating immune markers with a potential use for prevention and/or diagnosis of fish diseases.

  3. Microsatellite markers for the Amazon peacock bass (Cichla piquiti).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D C; Oliveira, D A A; Sampaio, I; Beheregaray, L B

    2009-01-01

    A set of primers to amplify 10 microsatellite DNA loci was developed for the Neotropical fish Cichla piquiti, one of the largest sized cichlids in the Amazon Basin. These loci were used to genotype individuals from two populations, one native population from the Tocantins River, the other an introduced population in southeast Brazil, Upper Paraná River. Cross-amplification was also successful for another species of peacock bass, C. kelberi. An average of 4.4 alleles per locus (2-9 alleles) was detected. These markers will be useful for the characterization of genetic structure of native populations, and also for invasive biology studies since Cichla species have been introduced in many river basins outside their native ranges.

  4. A CD4 homologue in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): molecular characterization and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Casani, Daniela; Guerra, Laura; Picchietti, Simona; Costantini, Susan; Facchiano, Angelo M; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2008-06-01

    CD4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein fundamental for cell-mediated immunity. Its action as a T cell co-receptor increases the avidity of association between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell by interacting with portions of the complex between MHC class II and TR molecules. In this paper we report the cDNA cloning, expression and structural analysis of a CD4 homologue from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The sea bass CD4 cDNA consists of 2071 bp that translates in one reading frame to give the entire molecule containing 480 amino acids. The analysis of the sequence shows the presence of four putative Ig-like domains and that some fundamental structural features, like a disulphide bond in domain D2 and the CXC signalling motif in the cytoplasmic tail, are conserved from sea bass to mammals. Real-time PCR analysis showed that very high levels of CD4 mRNA transcripts are present in thymus, followed by gut and gills. In vitro stimulation of head kidney leukocytes with LPS and PHA-L gave an increase of CD4 mRNA levels after 4h and a decrease after 24h. Homology modelling has been applied to create a 3D model of sea bass CD4 and to investigate its interaction with sea bass MHC-II. The analysis of the 3D complex between sea bass CD4 and sea bass MHC-II suggests that the absence of a disulfide bond in the CD4 D1 domain could make this molecule more flexible, inducing a different conformation and affecting the binding and the way of interaction between CD4 and MHC-II. Our results will add new insights into the sea bass T cell immune responses and will help in the identification of T cell subsets in teleost fishes to better understand the evolution of cell-mediated immunity from fish to mammals.

  5. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PIV Application to Fluid Dynamics of Bass Reflex Ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Esposito, Enrico; Tomasini, Enrico Primo

    A bass reflex (or vented or ported) loudspeaker system (BRS) is a particular type of loudspeaker enclosure that makes use of the combination of two second-order mechanic/acoustic devices, i.e., the driver and a Helmotz resonator, in order to create a new system with reinforced emission in the low frequency region. The resonator is composed by the box itself in which one or more ports are present with suitable shapes and dimensions. This category of loudspeaker presents several advantages compared to closed-box systems such as higher efficiency and power, smaller dimensions and reduced distortion at lower frequencies. Notwithstanding these advantages, they present some drawbacks like more complexity and unloading of the cone below the tuning frequency. Moreover, at high power levels the airflow in the port(s) may generate unwanted noises due to turbulence as well as distortion and acoustic compression. In this work we will present and compare a series of experiments conducted on two different bass reflex ports designs to assess their performance in terms of flow turbulence and sound-level compression at high input power levels. These issues are quite important in professional sound systems, where increasing power levels and sound clarity require exponentially growing cost and weight. For these reasons it is vital to optimize port design. To the knowledge of the authors there does not exist an accurate, nonintrusive experimental full-field study of air flows emitting from reflex ports in operating conditions. In this work, the experimental fluid dynamic investigation has been conducted by means of PIV and LDA techniques.

  7. Effects of live-well conditions on mortality and largemouth bass virus prevalence in largemouth bass caught during summer tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Walters, A.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Beck, B.H.; Hanson, L.A.; Rees, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of improved live-well conditions and the interaction of tournament stress and largemouth bass virus (LMBV) on tournament-associated mortality of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides caught during 12 summer tournaments. Improvements in live-well conditions (reduction in water temperature by 2-5??C; addition of NaCl; continuous aeration) significantly reduced initial mortality of largemouth bass from 7% to 3% (F 1,11 = 10.29, P < 0.01). However, postrelease mortality of fish held for 5 d in net-pens or raceways was not reduced by the improved live-well conditions and averaged 76% for all tournament fish (F1,11 = 0.09, P = 0.77). The percentage of angler-caught fish infected with LMBV at the end of tournaments (14%) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) than the percentage infected in the general population (7%). The percentage of LMBV-infected fish increased during the post-tournament retention period to 64% for fish from live wells with improved conditions and 70% for fish from control live wells. Reference fish collected by electrofishing and held with tournament fish for 5 d also had high mortality (59%) and LMBV prevalence (47%), but these variables were significantly lower than those for tournament fish (mortality: F 2,30 = 3.63, P = 0.04; prevalence [Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test]: P < 0.01). Many of the fish also had bacterial diseases during the post-tournament period, so the effect of LMBV on postrelease mortality could not be determined. However, the higher postrelease mortality of tournament and reference fish in our study relative to that observed in previous tournaments on lakes presumed free of LMBV suggests that this newly discovered pathogen influences measurement of post-tournament mortality. Increases in LMBV prevalence after typical fishing tournaments without prolonged post-tournament fish confinement will probably be lower than those we observed, but further research on the effects of LMBV on fish released from tournaments

  8. The influence of diet, consumption and lipid use on recruitment of white bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckmayer, W.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of white bass (Morone chrysops) in Lake Erie has declined in recent years, sparking interest in mechanisms influencing its recruitment. We evaluate two mechanisms affecting recruitment: diet and the potential for competition, and storage of lipid energy reserves and the relationship to overwinter survival. The fish in our study were characteristic of white bass in the northern portion of their range, feeding predominantly on zooplankton. Only the largest age-0 white bass ate fish as a significant portion of their diet. Over the summer sampling period, we found decreasing ration sizes, expressed as a percentage of maximum ration, as the summer progressed with a concomitant decrease in the relative amount of lipid storage. In laboratory experiments, age-0 white bass held at 5??C and given food ad libitum did feed, but at rates that were insufficient to maintain body weight. Loss in weight was accompanied with a loss in lipids at a rate of 2.8 mg of lipids per gram of body weight per day. Based on our data, we concluded that age-0 white bass in Lake Erie were food-limited. Food limitation resulted in reduced growth rates, presumably related to competition with other planktivorous fishes. Reduced growth results in increased mortality and, ultimately, low recruitment through increased risk of predation by larger piscivorous fishes, reduced ability for white bass to switch to more energetically profitable piscivory and the increased likelihood of higher overwinter mortality because of reduced lipid stores.

  9. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  10. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Black Sea Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    length, depths >12 m werp mature, and all age weight, and age. IV females were mature. Black sea bass eggs are pelagic, Sex ratios of black sea bass...fluorescent Management regulations for black sea blue and green around eyes and bass caught in the Fishery Conserva- nape; females are lighter and brownish...hermaphrodites. Most individuals usually absent ir young. Bortone function first as females , undergo (1977), who compared the osteology of sexual

  11. Novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for distinguishing rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), Roanoke bass (Ambloplites cavifrons), and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Eschenroeder, Jackman C; Roberts, James H

    2016-10-01

    The rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) is a popular sport-fish native to the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins of North America. The species has been widely introduced outside its native range, including into Atlantic-slope streams of Virginia where it may hybridize with an imperiled, similar-looking congener, the Roanoke bass (Ambloplites cavifrons). In this study, we identified and evaluated novel molecular markers to facilitate identification of these species and study the extent of hybridization. Using molecular libraries developed from A. rupestris, we identified a suite of candidate nuclear microsatellite loci, synthesized primer sets, and tested these markers for amplification and polymorphism in populations of both species. We then calculated standard diversity statistics within and differentiation statistics between species, the latter providing an indication of marker power for distinguishing the species and their hybrids. Additionally, we evaluated our efficiency for identifying hybrids by classifying simulated genotypes of known ancestry. Eleven loci were polymorphic (2-22 alleles per locus) and reliably amplified in both species. Multilocus genetic differentiation between A. cavifrons and A. rupestris was quite high (F ST  = 0.66; D LR  = 19.3), indicating the high statistical power of this marker set for species and hybrid identification. Analyses of simulated data suggested these markers reliably distinguish between hybrids and non-hybrids, as well as between F1 hybrids and backcrossed individuals. This panel of 11 loci should prove useful for understanding patterns of hybridization between A. rupestris and A. cavifrons. As the first microsatellite markers developed for Ambloplites, these markers also should prove broadly useful for population genetic studies of this genus.

  12. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  13. Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) User's Manual Beta Test Version 2.1. EPA/600/R-01/035

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    this report describes the theoretical development, parameterization, and application software of a generalized, community-based, bioaccumulation model called BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator).

  14. The relationship between the abundance of smallmouth bass and double-crested cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Eckert, T.H.; Schneider, C.P.; Chrisman, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Available population and diet data on double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) numbers, demographics, and exploitation rates were synthesized to examine the relationship between cormorant and smallmouth bass abundance in the U.S. waters of the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. It was found that after the number of cormorants nesting on Little Galloo Island in New York exceeded 3,500 pairs in 1989, survival of young smallmouth bass, not yet of legal size for the sport harvest (< 305 mm), began to decline. Despite production of strong year classes in 1987 and 1988, abundance of smallmouth bass measured from gill net surveys declined to its lowest level by 1995 and remained there through 1998. Stable or increasing catch and harvest rates in other local fisheries along the U.S. shore suggested that declines in smallmouth bass abundance in the eastern basin were not related to water quality. Stable or increasing growth rates for smallmouth bass age 2 and older since the 1980s further indicated that food resource limitation was also not the cause for declines in abundance. Comparisons of estimates of size and age-specific predation on smallmouth bass by cormorants with projected smallmouth bass population size indicated that much of the increased mortality on young smallmouth bass, could be explained by cormorant predation.

  15. Comparison of growth between Morone hybrids (palmetto & sunshine)in earthen ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmetto bass are produced by crossing the female striped bass, Morone saxatilis with the male white bass, M. chrysops; whereas, the sunshine bass is the reciprocal cross. The hybrid striped bass industry typically rears sunshine bass in earthen ponds, because of the ease of handling, availability,...

  16. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  17. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  18. Foods and foraging of prairie striped skunks during the avian nesting season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Sargeant, A.B.; Piehl, J.L.; Buhl, D.A.; Hanson, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Food habits of prairie skunks are not well understood, yet such knowledge might provide insight into factors influencing nest depredation. We studied food habits of radiocollared adult striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) during 1976-78 in North Dakota, where skunks are regarded as important predators of ground-nesting birds. Plant foods, primarily grain and sunflower seeds, occurred in a larger percentage of scats in spring (15 Apr 31 May) than summer (1 Jun 15 July, P=0.04), but overall, plant foods were a minor part of skunk diets. Animal foods, primarily birds (including eggs), small rodents, and insects occurred annually in a large percentage of scats of all skunks. These foods were acquired nearly exclusively in grasslands. Percentage of scats containing animal foods was similar, irrespective of sex, season, or year (P>0.45). In spring, vertebrates occurred in a smaller percentage of scats of females than males (P0.15). Insects were mostly adult and larval Coleoptera, larval Lepidoptera, and adult and nymph Orthoptera.

  19. Patterns of relatedness and parentage in an asocial, polyandrous striped hyena population.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Aaron P; Creel, Scott; Frank, Laurence G; Kalinowski, Steven T

    2007-10-01

    We investigated patterns of relatedness and reproduction in a population of striped hyenas in which individuals are behaviourally solitary but form polyandrous spatial groups consisting of one adult female and multiple adult males. Group-mate males were often close relatives, but were unrelated or distantly related in some cases, indicating that male coalitions are not strictly a result of philopatry or dispersal with cohorts of relatives. Most male-female pairs within spatial groups were unrelated or only distantly related. Considering patterns of relatedness between groups, relatedness was significantly higher among adult males living in non-neighbouring ranges than among neighbouring males. Mean relatedness among male-female dyads was highest for group-mates, but relatedness among non-neighbouring males and females was also significantly higher than among dyads of opposite-sex neighbours. Female-female relatedness also increased significantly with increasing geographic separation. These unusual and unexpected patterns may reflect selection to settle in a nonadjacent manner to reduce inbreeding and/or competition among relatives for resources (both sexes), or mates (males). Finally, resident males fathered the majority of the resident female's cubs, but extra-group paternity was likely in 31% of the cases examined, and multiple paternity was likely in half of the sampled litters.

  20. How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions

    PubMed Central

    Larison, Brenda; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Thomassen, Henri A.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Li, Elizabeth; Smith, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive significance of zebra stripes has thus far eluded understanding. Many explanations have been suggested, including social cohesion, thermoregulation, predation evasion and avoidance of biting flies. Identifying the associations between phenotypic and environmental factors is essential for testing these hypotheses and substantiating existing experimental evidence. Plains zebra striping pattern varies regionally, from heavy black and white striping over the entire body in some areas to reduced stripe coverage with thinner and lighter stripes in others. We examined how well 29 environmental variables predict the variation in stripe characteristics of plains zebra across their range in Africa. In contrast to recent findings, we found no evidence that striping may have evolved to escape predators or avoid biting flies. Instead, we found that temperature successfully predicts a substantial amount of the stripe pattern variation observed in plains zebra. As this association between striping and temperature may be indicative of multiple biological processes, we suggest that the selective agents driving zebra striping are probably multifarious and complex. PMID:26064590

  1. Three Red Variable Stars in SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Kyle; Lutz, Julie H.

    2016-06-01

    We examined light curves of stars with g-r values greater than 0.6 in the LSST project's re-reduction of the SDSS Stripe 82 photometric data. A few stars have interesting light curves in which we chose for spectroscopic follow-up with DIS on the Apache Point 3.5-m telescope. In this poster we will report our findings on three of the most interesting red variable stars. One of the stars (GI Cet) has a period of 219.86 days, as determined from the Stripe 82 light curve. Spectra of GI Ceti taken at 3 epochs will be discussed. A second variable, TY Aqr, does not have a period. We will present the light curve and spectra taken in 2013 and 2014. The third variable is very red and a-periodic. The spectrum obtained in 2013 is that of a carbon star.

  2. Efficient Management of Complex Striped Files in Active Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Piernas Canovas, Juan; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2008-08-25

    Active Storage provides an opportunity for reducing the band- width requirements between the storage and compute elements of cur- rent supercomputing systems, and leveraging the processing power of the storage nodes used by some modern file systems. To achieve both objec- tives, Active Storage allows certain processing tasks to be performed directly on the storage nodes, near the data they manage. However, Active Storage must also support key requirements of scientific applications. In particular, Active Storage must be able to support striped files and files with complex formats (e.g., netCDF). In this paper, we describe how these important requirements can be addressed. The experimental results on a Lustre file system not only show that our proposal can re- duce the network traffic to near zero and scale the performance with the number of storage nodes, but also that it provides an efficient treatment of striped files and can manage files with complex data structures.

  3. Controlled particle transport in a plasma chamber with striped electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Ke; Li Yangfang; Shimizu, T.; Konopka, U.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-12-15

    The controlled transport of micrometer size dust particles in a parallel-plate radio frequency discharge has been investigated. The lower stainless steel electrode consisted of 100 independently controllable electrical metal stripes. The voltage signals on these stripes were modulated, causing traveling plasma sheath distortions. Because the particles trapped in local potential wells moved according to the direction of the distortion, the transport velocity could be actively controlled by adjusting frequencies and phase shifts of the applied periodic voltage signals. To investigate the detailed principle of this transport, molecular dynamic simulations was performed to reproduce the observations with the plasma background conditions calculated by separated particle-in-cell simulations for the experimental parameters. The findings will help develop novel technologies for investigating large-scale complex plasma systems and techniques for achieving clean environments in plasma processing reactors.

  4. Very high coercivity magnetic stripes produced by particle rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, R.B.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a current research program at Sandia National Laboratories whereby magnetic stripes are produced through the use of a new particle rotation technology. This new process allows the stripes to be produced in bulk and then held in a latent state so that they may be encoded at a later date. Since particle rotation is less dependent on the type of magnetic particle used, very high coercivity particles could provide a way to increase both magnetic tamper-resistance and accidental erasure protection. This research was initially funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguard and Security as a portion of their Science and Technology Base Development, Advanced Security Concepts program. Current program funding is being provided by Sandia National Laboratories as part of their Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  5. Non-stripe charge order in dimerized organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper demonstrates charge order is important in dimerized β - and κ -phase organic conductors similar to the uniform θ - and α -phase conductors. Here the magnitude of the dimerization represents the deviation from the ideal triangular lattice in analogy with the anisotropy in the θ phase. Since the ratio of the intradimer transfer integral to the interdimer transfer integral is as large as ˜2.6 , these dimerized phases lead to a dimer Mott insulator, whereas the Coulomb repulsion is closer to the triangular lattice because the ratio of the intradimer Coulomb repulsion to the interdimer Coulomb repulsion is comparatively small (˜1.7 ). Accordingly, in the static-limit calculation, non-stripe charge order with threefold periodicity appears between the uniform and the stripe phases, and the analogy with the θ phase suggests the first-order nature of the metal-insulator transition.

  6. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique.

  7. Charge stripes and spin correlations in copper-oxide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    1997-08-01

    Recent neutron diffraction studies have yielded evidence that, in a particular cuprate family, holes doped into the CuO 2 planes segregate into stripes that separate antiferromagnetic domains. Here it is shown that such a picture provides a quantitatively consistent interpretation of the spin fluctuations measured by neutron diffraction in La 1.85Sr 0.15CuO 4 and YBa 2Cu 3O 6+ x.

  8. Characterization of endocrine-disruption and clinical manifestations in large-mouth bass from Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, D.A.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, B.; Folmar, L.

    1995-12-31

    Previous efforts from this laboratory have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefore, a survey of large mouth bass populations was conducted on several lakes in North Central Florida to examine reproductive and clinical health. Large-mouth bass were collected from lakes Apopka, Griffin, Jessup and Woodruff. Approximately 24 fish (12 males and 12 females) were collected from each lake during the spawning (March--April) and non-reproductive (July--August) seasons. Plasma samples were collected for analysis of estrogen, testosterone and 11-keto-testosterone concentrations. Gonadal and liver tissues were collected for histological analysis. General blood chemistry analyses and parasite surveys were also conducted to estimate general health. Additionally, fillet samples were collected and analyzed for pesticide levels. Fish from Lake Apopka had unusual concentrations of estrogen and 11-keto-testosterone in plasma when compared to bass from Lakes Woodruff, Jessup and Griffin. Parasites loads were significantly higher for bass from lake Apopka than from the other lakes. Male bass on Apopka had depressed concentrations of 11-keto-testosterone, skewing the E/T ratios upward while female bass had higher concentrations of estrogens than females from the other lakes, again resulting in skewed E/T ratios. These skewed E/T ratios are similar to those observed for alligators on the same lake and raise the possibility that they are caused by contaminants. However, contaminant levels in fillets did not differ significantly between lakes. These studies indicate potentially altered reproductive and immunological function for large-mouth bass living in a contaminated lake.

  9. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westhoff, Jacob T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  10. Lateralized behavior in the attacks of largemouth bass on Rhinogobius gobies corresponding to their morphological antisymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yasugi, Masaki; Hori, Michio

    2012-07-15

    Vertebrates show left-right biases in turning direction, limb usage, predator-escape response and use of sensory organs. In particular, some fishes are known to have lateral biases in predatory behaviors corresponding to their morphological antisymmetry. To reveal the effects of these laterally biased behaviors on predator-prey interaction, we conducted behavioral tests of predatory events between largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and freshwater gobies, Rhinogobius sp., both of which have individuals with a well-developed left side and individuals with a well-developed right side. The left-developed bass tended to approach the goby clockwise from behind, whereas right-developed individuals tended to approach counterclockwise. Congruently, left-developed gobies began their escape maneuvers at a longer distance from bass when they were approached clockwise than when they were approached counterclockwise, whereas right-developed gobies showed the reverse tendency. The longer the distance between bass and gobies at the start of goby escape, the more the subsequent bass strike or dash was delayed. Under these conditions, predation should be more successful when a left (right)-developed bass meets a right (left)-developed goby, and less successful when a left (right)-developed bass meets a left (right)-developed goby. This prediction was consistent with the difference in predation success in our test and in field data from Lake Biwa, Japan. We conclude that lateral biases in the behavioral direction of each morphological type will generate bias in predation success between different combinations of predator and prey types, leading to the maintenance of antisymmetric dimorphism through negative frequency-dependent natural selection.

  11. Habitat selection and overlap of Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, J.; Trial, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat ofAtlantic salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species.We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment.We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by Atlantic salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 Atlantic salmon to shallower water that coincided with the period of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 Atlantic salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by Atlantic salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  12. Differential activation of kiss receptors by Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides in the sea bass.

    PubMed

    Felip, Alicia; Espigares, Felipe; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Two forms of kiss gene (kiss1 and kiss2) have been described in the teleost sea bass. This study assesses the cloning and characterization of two Kiss receptor genes, namely kissr2 and kissr3 (known as gpr54-1b and gpr54-2b, respectively), and their signal transduction pathways in response to Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that these paralogs originated by duplication of an ancestral gene before teleost specific duplication. The kissr2 and kissr3 mRNAs encode proteins of 368 and 378 amino acids, respectively, and share 53.1% similarity in amino acid sequences. In silico analysis of the putative promoter regions of the sea bass Kiss receptor genes revealed conserved flanking regulatory sequences among teleosts. Both kissr2 and kissr3 are predominantly expressed in brain and gonads of sea bass, medaka and zebrafish. In the testis, the expression levels of sea bass kisspeptins and Kiss receptors point to a significant variation during the reproductive cycle. In vitro functional analyses revealed that sea bass Kiss receptor signals are transduced both via the protein kinase C and protein kinase A pathway. Synthetic sea bass Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 peptides activated Kiss receptors with different potencies, indicating a differential ligand selectivity. Our data suggest that Kissr2 and Kissr3 have a preference for Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides, respectively, thus providing the basis for future studies aimed at establishing their physiologic roles in sea bass.

  13. Fabrication of magnetic trilayer stripes using interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng; MacArthur, James; McMichael, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Both theoretical (PRB, 74, 024424, 2006) and experimental (APL, 90, 232504, 2007) studies of a single layer magnetic film edge have shown that the edge-mode of magnetization precession detected by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is an effective tool to probe magnetic properties of thin film edges. To extend the measurement technique to realistic devices such as spin-valves or tunnel junctions, magnetic multilayer stripes have to be fabricated. Here, we present the fabrication of Py/Cu/Co magnetic trilayer stripes by interference lithography. A resist stack consisting of positive photoresist 1805 and WIDE-B anti-reflective coating (ARC) is exposed by a blue laser at 405nm using Lloyd's mirror interferometer. Optimal soft-baking temperature of ARC results in an undercut during the development of the photoresist. This undercut facilitates the lift-off process after the evaporation of Py/Cu/Co trilayer. A uniform array of trilayer stripes with a period of ˜620nm was obtained. This work has been supported in part by the NIST-CNST/UMD-NanoCenter Cooperative Agreement and NIST CNST-NSF REU #DMR-0754115.

  14. Ultrafast charge localization in a stripe-phase nickelate

    SciTech Connect

    Coslovich, Giacomo; Huber, Bernhard; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Sasagawa, Takao; Hussain, Zahid; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; W. Schoenlein, Robert; A. Kaindl, Robert

    2013-08-30

    Self-organized electronically-ordered phases are a recurring feature in correlated materials, resulting in e.g. fluctuating charge stripes whose role in high-Tc superconductivity is under debate. However, the relevant cause-effect relations between real-space charge correlations and low-energy excitations remain hidden in time-averaged studies. Here, we reveal ultrafast charge localization and lattice vibrational coupling as dynamical precursors of stripe formation in the model compound La1.75Sr0.25NiO4, using ultrafast and equilibrium mid-infrared spectroscopy. The opening of a pseudogap at a crossover temperature T* far above long-range stripe formation establishes the onset of electronic localization which is accompanied by an enhanced Fano asymmetry of Ni-O stretch vibrations. Ultrafast excitation triggers a sub-picosecond dynamics exposing the synchronous modulation of electron-phonon coupling and charge localization. These results illuminate the role of localization in forming the pseudogap in nickelates, opening a path to understanding this mysterious phase in a broad class of complex oxides.

  15. Spin waves of a current-injected thin ferromagnetic stripe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, R. P.; Pappas, D. P.

    2008-10-01

    Within a micromagnetic model we present the theory of linearized spin waves of a current-carrying rectangular ferromagnetic stripe treated as a slab of infinite extent. After determining the nonuniform scissorlike magnetic ground state that results when a dc electric current is applied along an in-plane easy axis, we calculate both ferromagnetic resonances and spin-wave dispersion as a function of slab thickness. For Permalloy stripes less than 1μm in thickness, increasing current stiffens the response of bulk spin waves, and their dispersion becomes increasingly asymmetric with respect to the easy axis—shifting to lower (higher) frequencies with (opposite) the direction of current. Also, the frequency and direction of propagation of the Damon-Eshbach surface mode are substantially modified by the current, with changed surface-mode behavior exhibited. Above 1μm in thickness the lowest-lying resonance frequency of the Permalloy stripe softens to zero with increasing current and a gap opens up to finite wavelengths along the direction of current, indicative of a ground-state instability. We discuss the implication of our results to the characterization of the magnetic state of these rectangular structures.

  16. Survey of cardiac pathologies in captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Benato, Livia; Wack, Allison; Cerveny, Shannon N S; Rosenthal, Steven L; Bronson, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac disease is a common finding in small mammals but it is rarely reported in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac disease in striped skunks and to characterize the types of cardiac disease that might be present. In April 2010, a questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in zoologic collections with membership in the International Species Inventory System. Surveys were distributed to 55 institutions in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Twenty collections with a total of 95 skunks replied to the questionnaire. Of these, five collections reported at least one skunk with cardiac conditions for a total of 11 cases. In these 11 animals, the following conditions were diagnosed: myocardial fibrosis (n = 4), myxomatous valve degeneration (n = 4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 1), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and valvular endocarditis (n = 1). Based on these findings, cardiac diseases should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in captive striped skunks presenting with weakness, lethargy, and decreased appetite. Cardiac ultrasound also should be considered at the time of annual health examinations to evaluate for possible cardiac conditions at an early stage.

  17. Discovery and validation of gene-linked diagnostic SNP markers for assessing hybridization between Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Florida bass (M. floridanus).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Gowan, Spencer; Anil, Ammu; Beck, Benjamin H; Thongda, Wilawan; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Peatman, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to improve recreational fisheries have included widespread stocking of Micropterus floridanus outside its native range of peninsular Florida. Hybridization of Florida bass (M. floridanus) with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has now dramatically expanded beyond a naturally occurring intergrade zone in the southeast U.S. In recent years, there has been growing interest in protecting the genetic integrity of native basses and assessing the impact and nature of M. salmoides/M. floridanus introgression from the standpoint of hatchery and sport-fishery managers, fish biologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Here, we conducted RNA-seq-based sequencing of the transcriptomes of M. salmoides, M. floridanus and their F1 hybrid and identified a set of 3674 SNP markers with fixed-allelic differences from 2112 unique genes. We then developed a subset of 25 of these markers into a single diagnostic multiplex assay and validated its capacity for assessing integrity and hybridization in hatchery and wild populations of largemouth and Florida bass. The availability of this resource, high-quality transcriptomes and a large set of gene-linked SNPs, should greatly facilitate functional and population genomics studies in these key species and allow the identification of traits and processes under selection during introgressive hybridization.

  18. Edge instability in a chiral stripe domain under an electric current and skyrmion generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shi -Zeng

    2016-07-05

    Motivated by the recent experimental observations on the skyrmion creation by cutting chiral stripe domains under a current drive [Jiang et al., Science 349, 283 (2015)], we study the mechanism of skyrmion generation by simulating the dynamics of stripe domains. Our theory for skyrmion generation is based on the fact that there are two half skyrmions attached to the ends of a stripe domain. These half skyrmions move due to the coupling between the skyrmion topological charge and current. As a consequence, the stripe domain is bent or stretched depending on the direction of motion of the half skyrmions. For a large current, skyrmions are created by chopping the stripe domains via strong bending or stretching. Our theory provides an explanation to the experiments and is supported by the new experiments. Moreover, we predict that skyrmions can also be generated using a Bloch stripe domain under a spin transfer torque which can be realized in B20 compounds.

  19. In vitro kinetics of hepatic glutathione s-transferase conjugation in largemouth bass and brown bullheads

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, E.P.; Sheehy, K.M.; Lame, M.W.; Segall, H.J.

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of glutathione 5-transferase (GST) catalysis were investigated in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and brown bullheads (Amerius nebulosus), two freshwater fish species found in a variety of polluted waterways in the eastern US. The initial rates of hepatic GST activity toward four GST substrates, including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid, {Delta}5-androstene-17-dione, and nitrobutyl chloride, were significantly higher in brown bullheads than in largemouth bass. Hepatic GST activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, a {mu}-class GST substrate in rodents, was not detectable in either species. Liver cytosolic GSTs were more efficient in bullheads than in bass at catalyzing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-reduced glutathione (CDNB-GSH) conjugation over a broad range of electrophile (CDNB) concentrations, including those representative of environmental exposure. In contrast, largemouth bass maintained higher ambient concentrations of GSH, the nucleophilic cofactor for GST-mediated conjugation, than brown bullheads. Biphasic kinetics for GST-CDNB conjugation under conditions of variable GSH concentration were apparent in Eadie-Hofstee plots of the kinetic data, suggesting the presence of at least two hepatic GST isozymes with markedly different K{sub m} values for GSH in both species. The GST-CDNB reaction rate data obtained under conditions of variable GSH were well fitted (R{sup 2} = 0.999) by the two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation. In addition, Western blotting experiments confirmed the presence of two different hepatic GST-like proteins in both largemouth bass and brown bullhead liver. Collectively, these findings indicate that largemouth bass and brown bullhead GSTs catalyze the conjugation of structurally diverse, class-specific GST substrates, and that brown bullheads exhibit higher initial rates of GST activity than largemouth bass. The relatively higher rates of in vitro liver GST activity at the low substrate concentrations

  20. Osmoregulatory response to low salinities in the European sea bass embryos: a multi-site approach.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Bossus, Maryline; Bodinier, Charlotte; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier, Guy; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Cucchi, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic osmoregulation effected by embryonic ionocytes in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax has been studied at several sites, including the yolk sac membrane, the first gill slits and the gut ionocytes. D. labrax embryos, spawned in seawater (SW) (39 ‰), were exposed to dilute seawater (DSW) (5 ‰) during 48 h, from stage 10 pairs of somites (10S) to hatching time (HT). Control embryos originating from the same spawn were maintained in SW. Both SW and DSW embryos were examined after 24- and 48-h exposure. Nanoosmometric measurements of the embryonic fluids osmolality suggest that late embryos are confronted with the variations in external salinity and that they were able to slightly regulate their osmolality. Immunolocalization of Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase, NKCC and CFTR has shown that DSW-exposed embryos can limit ion losses due to compensatory physiological mechanisms. CFTR and NKCC were not observed in DSW embryos in the yolk sac ionocytes and in the tegumentary ionocytes of the gill slits. The quantification of mRNA indicated that NKA, NKCC1 and CFTR transcript levels increased from stage 10S to stage HT. At stage HT, following 48 h of DSW- or SW-exposure, different responses were observed according to salinity. These results, when compared to those obtained in D. labrax juveniles and adults long-term exposed to fresh water (FW), show that in embryos the physiological response following a short-term DSW exposure is different. The mechanisms of hyper-osmoregulation observed in D. labrax embryos, although not fully efficient, allow their survival for several days in DSW.

  1. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin 1a in the Sea-Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Giffard-Mena, Ivone; Boulo, Viviane; Abed, Charline; Cramb, Gordon; Charmantier, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The successful establishment of a species in a given habitat depends on the ability of each of its developing stages to adapt to the environment. In order to understand this process we have studied the adaptation of a euryhaline fish, the sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax, to various salinities during its ontogeny. The expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a (AQP1a) mRNA and protein were determined in different osmoregulatory tissues. In larvae, the sites of AQP1a expression are variable and they shift according to age, implying functional changes. In juveniles after metamorphosis (D32–D48 post-hatch, 15–25 mm) and in pre-adults, an increase in AQP1a transcript abundance was noted in the digestive tract, and the AQP1a location was observed in the intestine. In juveniles (D87–D100 post-hatch, 38–48 mm), the transcript levels of AQP1a in the digestive tract and in the kidney were higher in sea water (SW) than at lower salinity. These observations, in agreement with existing models, suggest that in SW-acclimated fish, the imbibed water is absorbed via AQP1a through the digestive tract, particularly the intestine and the rectum. In addition, AQP1a may play a role in water reabsorption in the kidney. These mechanisms compensate dehydration in SW, and they contribute to the adaptation of juveniles to salinity changes during sea-lagoon migrations. These results contribute to the interpretation of the adaptation of populations to habitats where salinity varies. PMID:21808622

  2. Modeling the effects of land use and climate change on riverine smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, J.T.; Kwak, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in temperature and stream flow, associated with watershed land use and climate change, are critical influences on the distribution and abundance of riverine fishes. To project the effects of changing land use and climate, we modeled a smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) population in a midwestern USA, large river- floodplain ecosystem under historical (1915-1925), present (1977-1990), and future (2060, influenced by climate change) temperature and flow regimes. The age-structured model included parameters for temperature and river discharge during critical seasonal periods, fish population dynamics, and fishing harvest. Model relationships were developed from empirical field data collected over a 13-yr period. Sensitivity analyses indicated that discharge during the spawning/rearing period had a greater effect on adult density and fishing yield than did spawning/rearing temperature or winter discharge. Simulations for 100 years projected a 139% greater mean fish density under a historical flow regime (64.9 fish/ha) than that estimated for the present (27.1 fish/ha) with a sustainable fishing harvest under both flow regimes. Simulations under future climate-change-induced temperature and flow regimes with present land use projected a 69% decrease in mean fish density (8.5 fish/ha) from present and an unstable population that went extinct during 56% of the simulations. However, when simulated under a future climate-altered temperature and flow regime with historical land use, the population increased by 66% (45.0 fish/ha) from present and sustained a harvest. Our findings suggest that land-use changes may be a greater detriment to riverine fishes than projected climate change and that the combined effects of both factors may lead to local species extinction. However, the negative effects of increased temperature and precipitation associated with future global warming could be mitigated by river channel, floodplain, and watershed restoration.

  3. Magnetic Fe stripes created by self-organized MnAs template: Stripe edge pinning and high-frequency properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchi, S.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Marangolo, M.; Milano, J.; Breitwieser, R.; Etgens, V. H.; Stamps, R. L.; Pini, M. G.

    2009-10-01

    Self-organization is an interesting route to the fabrication of nanostructured magnetic materials. Here we show that, near room temperature, an ultrathin Fe film deposited on a suitable MnAs template spontaneously breaks into a “lateral” superlattice of magnetic stripes. The magnetic superstructure originates from the temperature-dependent morphological change in the substrate: an epitaxially grown MnAs/GaAs(001) film, whose groove-ridge structure was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Owing to the stray magnetic fields produced by the underlying MnAs template, the Fe stripe domains have opposite magnetizations, and behave essentially as independent magnetic entities because of strong stripe edge pinning. This is shown dramatically in terms of a split microwave resonance that can be controlled with an external magnetic field, as proved by Brillouin light-scattering data and analysis of the Fe spin-wave frequencies. Additionally, the potential for device applications of such lateral magnetic superlattices, displaying an “inverse” exchange-spring behavior, is discussed.

  4. Immersion booster vaccination effect on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, P

    2006-02-01

    In each challenge 30 sea bass juveniles (mean weight 3.3 +/- 0.2 g SD) were used. During the whole experiment (water T: 18 +/- 1 degrees C) the fish were held in four 50l seawater independent recirculation systems (one fish group per 50l system). The protection to the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum was tested on booster vaccinated sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles. The vaccination was performed by immersion for 60 s in a commercial anti-V. anguillarum vaccine suspension. Booster vaccination took place 60 days after the initial immunization. Thirty days after the booster vaccination all the fish received intraperitoneally (IP) 3.0 x 10(6) cfu/fish (colony forming units) virulent V. anguillarum bacteria. The booster vaccination showed a strong protection effect on the challenged sea bass. In the next 20 days after the challenge the mortality was 0% among the booster vaccinated sea bass, 10% among the once vaccinated fish and 50% in the control group (unvaccinated fish). No mortality was observed among the unvaccinated sea bass injected IP with sterile normal saline by the challenge.

  5. Mercury levels in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from regulated and unregulated rivers.

    PubMed

    Dharampal, Prarthana S; Findlay, Robert H

    2017-03-01

    Within areas of comparable atmospheric mercury deposition rates methylmercury burden in largemouth bass populations vary significantly between regulated and unregulated rivers. To investigate if trophic dynamics strongly influenced pollutant body load, we sampled largemouth bass from two adjacent rivers, one regulated and one unregulated, and applied a suite of biochemical and stable isotope assays to compare their trophic dynamics. Total mercury burden in the bass from the unregulated Sipsey River (Elrod, AL, USA) and the regulated Black Warrior River (Demopolis, AL, USA) averaged 0.87 mg kg(-1) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. For both populations, age, weight, and length were positively correlated with muscle mercury concentration. Compound specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids showed the trophic position of both populations was just under four. Quantitative and isotopic analysis of neutral lipid fatty acid of Sipsey River bass indicated a greater reliance upon the detrital component of the food web compared to Demopolis Reservoir bass which fed within the autochthonous, pelagic component of the food web. Since the close proximity of the rivers makes differences in atmospheric deposition unlikely and both populations had similar trophic position, our findings indicate that food web dynamics should be included among the factors that can strongly influence mercury concentration in fish.

  6. Proteomic profiling of sea bass muscle by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Pisanu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Preziosa, Elena; Saroglia, Marco; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the proteome profile of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of providing a more detailed characterization of its specific protein expression profile. A highly populated and well-resolved 2-DE map of the sea bass muscle tissue was generated, and the corresponding protein identity was provided for a total of 49 abundant protein spots. Upon Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the proteins mapped in the sea bass muscle profile were mostly related to glycolysis and to the muscle myofibril structure, together with other biological activities crucial to fish muscle metabolism and contraction, and therefore to fish locomotor performance. The data presented in this work provide important and novel information on the sea bass muscle tissue-specific protein expression, which can be useful for future studies aimed to improve seafood traceability, food safety/risk management and authentication analysis. This work is also important for understanding the proteome map of the sea bass toward establishing the animal as a potential model for muscular studies.

  7. Achieving high survival of tournament-caught black bass: past efforts and future needs and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold; Gilliland, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of black bass (Micropterus spp.) tournaments in the 1960s and 1970s caused concern among fisheries managers and anglers about the impacts of tournament-caused mortality on bass populations. Tournament organizers voluntarily implemented live-release events in the early 1980s. As catch-and-release practices became more common, procedures to improve the survival of tournament-caught fish were developed and have evolved. The objectives of this paper are to review education and outreach efforts to improve survival of tournament-caught black bass, suggest research needs and opportunities to achieve greater survival, and show the relevance of high survival to contemporary black bass management. Since 1985, a succession of informational products describing those techniques have been developed and distributed to anglers. Although research has confirmed the effectiveness of the recommended procedures and documented that angler and tournament organizer behavior has changed and the survival of tournament-caught black bass has increased, the impacts of the outreach efforts on tournament practices have not been quantified. Continued efforts towards increasing angler awareness of proper handling techniques may benefit from better communication, endorsement by professional anglers, and the use of incentives by state agencies to encourage better fish care.

  8. Dispersal of smallmouth bass from a simulated tournament weigh-in site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaintz, Melissa A.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Simulated smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu fishing tournaments were staged in Dale Hollow Lake, a 12,400-ha reservoir in Tennessee, between March 2004 and February 2005 to investigate posttournament dispersal. Smallmouth bass (n = 54) were captured with conventional hook-and-line tackle and artificial lures, placed in live wells, and subjected to a weigh-in procedure before being externally tagged with an ultrasonic transmitter and released. Water temperatures ranged from 7.4°C to 29.3°C (mean [SE] = 17.6°C [2.5]), fish ranged in total length from 330 to 572 mm (mean = 452 [8.3]), and no fish were dead at the weigh-ins. Smallmouth bass dispersed rapidly away from the release site, which was located at the head of a 68-ha embayment. After 3-5d, survivors (n = 44) traversed an average distance of 1,475 m [213]. Most (72%) fish swam uplake and out of the 385-ha study area after 6 d. The rapid dispersal of smallmouth bass may be relevant in systems that experience heavy tournament activity. The smallmouth bass caught and subjected to simulated tournament conditions on Dale Hollow Lake did not stockpile near the release site.

  9. Prey vulnerability to peacock cichlids and largemouth bass based on predator gape and prey body depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Jeffrey E.; Nico, Leo G.; Cichra, Charles E.; Gilbert, Carter R.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of prey fish body depth and predator gape size may produce prey assemblages dominated by invulnerable prey and excessive prey-to-predator biomass ratios. Peacock cichlids (Cichla ocellaris) were stocked into southeast Florida canals to consume excess prey fish biomass, particularly spotted tilapia (Tilapia mariae). The ecomorphologically similar largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was already present in the canals. We present relations of length-specific gape size for peacock cichlids and largemouth bass. Both predators have broadly overlapping gape size, but largemouth bass ?126 mm total length have slightly larger gape sizes than peacock cichlids of the same length. Also, we experimentally tested the predictions of maximum prey size for peacock cichlids and determined that a simple method of measuring gape size used for largemouth bass also is appropriate for peacock cichlids. Lastly, we determined relations of body depth and length of prey species to investigate relative vulnerability. Using a simple predator-prey model and length frequencies of predators and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), and spotted tilapia prey, we documented that much of the prey biomass in southeast Florida canals is unavailable for largemouth bass and peacock cichlid predation.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterisation of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-3 gene.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marta I R; Nascimento, Diana S; do Vale, Ana; Silva, Manuel T; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2007-02-01

    Caspase-3 is one of the major caspases operating in apoptosis, cleaving and inactivating a number of molecules and largely contributing to the apoptotic phenotype and the dismantling of the apoptoting cell. The opening reading frame of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-3 has 281 amino acids. The complete sequence of caspase-3 shows a very close homology to the correspondent sequence from other vertebrates, in particularly with that of Takifugu rubripes and Oryzias latipes, with 87.7 and 87.9% of similarity, respectively. Furthermore, the sea bass caspase-3 sequence retains the motifs that are functionally important, such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. In the sea bass genome, the caspase-3 gene exists as a single copy gene and is organised in six exons and five introns. A very low expression of caspase-3 was detected by RT-PCR in various organs of non-stimulated sea bass, with slightly higher levels in thymus and heart and was increased in head kidneys of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infected sea bass. This increased expression was accompanied by the occurrence of high numbers of apoptoting cells with activated caspase-3.

  11. Microwave permeability of stripe patterned FeCoN thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuping; Yang, Yong; Ma, Fusheng; Zong, Baoyu; Yang, Zhihong; Ding, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic stripe patterns are of great importance for microwave applications owing to their highly tunable microwave permeability by adjusting the geometrical dimensions. In this work, stripe patterned FeCoN films with 160 nm thickness are fabricated by using standard UV photolithography. Their microwave permeability are investigated systematically via both experiment and micromagnetic simulation. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results suggests that stripe width is crucial for the microwave magnetic properties of the stripe pattern. It is demonstrated by simulation that with increasing stripe width from 1 to 80 μm the initial permeability shows a continuous growth from about 8-322, whiles the resonance frequency drops dramatically from 18.7 to 3.1 GHz at 4 μm gap size. Smaller gap size would result in slightly increased initial permeability due to larger magnetic volume ratio, accompanied by decreased resonance frequency because of stronger magnetostatic interaction. Moreover, the experimental investigation on stripe length effect indicates that the stripe length should be kept as long as possible to achieve uniform bulk resonance mode and high permeability value. Insufficient stripe length would result in low frequency edge mode and decayed bulk mode. This study could provide valuable guidelines on the selection of proper geometry dimensions of FeCoN stripe patterns for high frequency applications.

  12. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Amanda D.; Kline, Donald W.; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras’ primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra’s outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage. PMID:26799935

  13. Magnetotransport properties of Fe0.8Ga0.2 films with stripe domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, M.; Bustingorry, S.; Pontello, D. E.; Barturen, M.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.; Milano, J.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetotransport properties of Fe0.8Ga0.2 films with stripe domains are studied. The anisotropic magnetoresistance dominates the low field behavior, which is extremely dependent on the magnetic domains configuration. The magnetoresistance measured at different temperatures displays qualitatively different behaviors depending on the measurement configuration. When the stripes are oriented along the electric current, the low-field magnetoresistance changes sign with temperature, while when the stripes are perpendicular to the electric current the magnetoresistance curves are nearly temperature independent. A simple model considering parallel (series) conduction along (across) the stripes, plus the temperature dependence of anisotropic magnetoresistance and domains configuration, accounts for these experimental results.

  14. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields.

  15. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Kline, Donald W; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight) and 30 m (twilight) zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  16. GABAA and GABAC receptors on hybrid bass retinal bipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, H; Dowling, J E

    1995-11-01

    1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) responses from solitory hybrid bass retinal bipolar cells were studied with the use of conventional and perforated whole cell patch-clamp recording. 2. GABA elicited a chloride current in bipolar cells that had both transient and sustained components. The transient component was sensitive to bicuculline and resembled GABAA-mediated currents, whereas the more sustained component was resistant to bicuculline and resembled the responses mediated by GABAC receptors. 3. The bicuculline-resistant GABA responses recorded from the bipolar cells could not be modulated by either diazepam or pentobarbital sodium, and they were unaffected by phaclofen and 2-hydroxysaclofen, GABAB receptor antagonists. On the other hand, the bicuculline-resistant GABA responses could be blocked substantially by imidazole-4-acetic acid (I4AA), a competitive antagonist of GABAC receptors. 4. Noise analysis of the GABA-elicited currents suggested a different single channel conductance for GABAA (10.1 pS) and GABAC receptors (3.6 pS). 5. Zinc, a putative modulator of synaptic transmission, strongly inhibited the GABAC responses on bipolar cells, whereas the GABAA responses were not significantly affected by zinc. 6. The proportion of the GABAC to GABAA responses varied widely between bipolar cells. Local application of GABA onto dendrites or axon terminals showed that both types of GABA receptors are present on both regions of the cell. 7. The distinct properties of these two GABA receptor types suggest that they play different roles in retinal function.

  17. Electrofishing capture probability of smallmouth bass in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abundance estimation is an integral part of understanding the ecology and advancing the management of fish populations and communities. Mark-recapture and removal methods are commonly used to estimate the abundance of stream fishes. Alternatively, abundance can be estimated by dividing the number of individuals sampled by the probability of capture. We conducted a mark-recapture study and used multiple repeated-measures logistic regression to determine the influence of fish size, sampling procedures, and stream habitat variables on the cumulative capture probability for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in two eastern Oklahoma streams. The predicted capture probability was used to adjust the number of individuals sampled to obtain abundance estimates. The observed capture probabilities were higher for larger fish and decreased with successive electrofishing passes for larger fish only. Model selection suggested that the number of electrofishing passes, fish length, and mean thalweg depth affected capture probabilities the most; there was little evidence for any effect of electrofishing power density and woody debris density on capture probability. Leave-one-out cross validation showed that the cumulative capture probability model predicts smallmouth abundance accurately. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  18. Confinement and water quality-induced stress in largemouth bass

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, G.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1984-11-01

    Plasma values of corticosteroids, glucose, chloride, and osmolality were determined in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides under various environmental conditions. No differences were observed in quiescent fish due to sex, size, time of day, or the types of holding facilities tested (tanks, raceways, ponds). Differences were observed in plasma glucose, chloride, and osmolality values among fish acclimated to 10, 16, and 23 C. Abrupt temperature changes caused elevations in plasma corticosteroid and glucose concentrations and reduced plasma chloride and osmolality. Confinement in a net, for up to 48 hours, caused elevated glucose and corticosteroids and reduced chloride and osmolality values. After 48 hours of confinement, fish required up to 14 days to recover normal plasma characters. Generally, short-term exposure to poor water quality (high concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen) altered plasma corticosteroids and glucose but had little effect on plasma chloride or osmolality. Net confinement plus poor water quality caused additional stress. Plasma glucose and corticosteroid values were good indicators of stress during application of acute stressors whereas chloride and osmolality were useful indicators of long-term stress and patterns of recovery after stressors were removed.

  19. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Roberts, Thomas J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-07-14

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes.

  20. Embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Patricia; Sucré, Elliott; Santos, Raphaël; Leclère, Jeremy; Charmantier, Guy; Castille, René

    2012-06-01

    The embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax during the endotrophic period is discussed. An 8 cells stage, not reported for other studied species, results from two rapid successive cleavages. Blastula occurs at the eighth division when the embryo is made of 128 cells. During gastrulation, the infolded blastoderm creates the endomesoblastic layer. The Kupffer's vesicle is reported to drive the left/right patterning of brain, heart and digestive tract. Heart formation starts at 8 pairs of somites, differentiation of myotomes and sclerotomes starts at the stage 18 pairs of somites; main parts of the digestive tract are entirely formed at 25 pairs of somites. At 28 pairs of somites, a rectal region is detected, however, the digestive tube is closed at both ends, the jaw appears the fourth day after hatching, but the mouth is not opened before the fifth day. Although cardiac beating and blood circulation are observed, gills are not reported in newly hatched individuals; eye melanization appears concomitant with exotrophic behavior.

  1. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream. [Largemouth Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-09-17

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components.

  2. Effect of contrasting agents on survival, performance, and condition of larval hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis in tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contrasting agents, either algae or inert soil, cause turbidity, which is important in the tank culture of larval cannibalistic fish. Optimization of turbidity is critical to successful tank culture of new larval fish, which should include 100 mg/L of sub 5 um particle size in the assessed range. ...

  3. Relative persistence and dispersal of age-0 and age-1 largemouth bass stocked into two Ohio River embayments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    In October of 1998 the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources stocked age-0 [mean total length (MTL) = 178 mm] and age-1 (MTL = 273 mm) hatchery-reared largemouth bass into two embayments of the Ohio River. Stocked fish were fitted with both an anchor tag and a visible implant elastomer mark. A multifaceted sampling approach was undertaken to (1) evaluate the persistence of stocked largemouth bass, (2) estimate fidelity of stocked largemouth bass to release sites, and (3) compare return rates of the two age classes. Although stocked largemouth bass comprised the majority (81%) of all bass captured in electrofishing surveys of the stocked embayments during fall 1998, catches declined rapidly during winter 1998, and by spring and summer 1999 stocked largemouth bass were virtually absent from electrofishing surveys. Creel surveys indicated no catch of stocked largemouth bass in the release sites after winter 1998. Electrofishing surveys, creel surveys, and angler call-ins all suggested stocked fish did not persist and either moved out of the stocked embayments or died. The results suggest that stocking advanced-size largemouth bass into these embayments only provided a limited and short-term enhancement of the fishery in those areas.

  4. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2013-2014 Summer Flounder... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, and the 2014 summer flounder and scup fisheries, and... Fishery Management Council's Research Set-Aside Program. The implementing regulations for the...

  5. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... December 28, 2010, NMFS published in the Federal Register the final rule to implement the 2011 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder...

  6. Population structure and dynamics of northern pike and smallmouth bass in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous species have been introduced to Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho over the last century, but minimal research has been completed to understand their population dynamics. The objective of this study was to describe the population demographics and dynamics of northern pike (Esox lucius) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), two important nonnative sport fishes in the system to provide information that will assist with guiding management decisions. The oldest northern pike was age 7 and the oldest smallmouth bass was age 11. Populations of both species exhibited very stable recruitment with a recruitment coefficient of determination of 0.99 for northern pike and 0.98 for smallmouth bass. Total annual mortality was estimated as 66% for northern pike and 42% for smallmouth bass. Growth of northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake was comparable to the 50–75th percentiles of growth exhibited by lentic northern pike populations across North America. Northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake were most similar to populations in the north-central and northeast United States with fast growth rates and short life spans. In contrast, smallmouth bass grew slowly and generally fell within the 5th percentile of lentic smallmouth bass populations in North America. Smallmouth bass in Coeur d'Alene Lake were similar to other populations in northern regions of the United States displaying slow growth rates with high longevity. Results of this study provide important insight on nonnative northern pike and smallmouth bass population dynamics.

  7. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: heavier females are more likely to breed solitarily than communally.

    PubMed

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are discrete reproductive phenotypes governed by decision rules called strategies. ARTs are fixed for life in species with alternative strategies, while tactic expression is plastic in species with a single strategy. ARTs have been investigated in males of many species, but few studies have tested whether the same theoretical framework applies in females. Female striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a nest shared with female kin and a breeding male and show allo-parental care; returners give birth away from the shared nest and later return to it; and solitary breeders give birth away from the shared nest and do not return to the group. Here, studying free-living female striped mice over six breeding seasons, we tested whether ARTs arise from alternative strategies or a single strategy. We also asked to what extent stochastic extrinsic factors explain whether individuals become solitary rather than group living. Females switched tactics, consistent with a single strategy, so we tested whether this represented a mixed or conditional single strategy. Only the latter predicts differences between ARTs in traits indicating competitive ability, such as body mass or age, before individuals adopt a tactic. We weighed females at conception when they were still group living to eliminate potential confounding effects of gestation and subsequent social tactic (solitary versus group living) on body mass. Females that went on to use a solitary ART were heavier than those that became communal breeders and returners, in support of a conditional strategy. Solitary breeders also arose through extrinsic factors (mortality of all adult female group members). They weighed less than females that became solitary while relatives were alive, but did not differ in body mass from communal breeders and returners. We conclude that ART theory applies to both sexes, with female striped mice following a

  8. Cloning of Wap65 in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) and expression in sea bass tissues.

    PubMed

    Pierre, S; Coupé, S; Prévot-d'Alvise, N; Gaillard, S; Richard, S; Gouze, E; Aubert, J; Grillasca, J P

    2010-04-01

    The complementary DNA encoding WAP65 protein was cloned from the liver of two fish species sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata). Full-length cDNA sequences were obtained from reverse transcribed total RNA, followed by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) experiments. The full-length cDNA sequence of D. labrax is 1709bp and the coding sequence is flanked by a 67bp 5'-UTR and a 358bp 3'-UTR. The full-length cDNA sequence of S. aurata is 1599bp, and the coding sequence is flanked by a 48bp 5'-UTR and a 273bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid putative primary sequences are composed of 427 and 425 amino acid residues for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. They display high homologies with previously described fish WAP65 and other hemopexin-like proteins from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Expression of Wap65 has proved to be a natural physiological adaptive answer of teleost fish to warm temperature acclimation. In all fish species studied to date, Wap65 was found expressed mainly by the liver, although other tissues seem able to express Wap65 in response to a warm temperature acclimation, in a specie specific manner. Here, we investigate the tissue specific expression of Wap65 in D. labrax and S. aurata in response to a warm temperature acclimation, by RT-PCR analysis.

  9. Is high pressure treatment able to modify the allergenicity of the largemouth bass allergens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Tao, Sha; Liu, Rong; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xue, Wen-Tong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of high pressure treatment on the structural changes and allergenicity of largemouth bass. We treated the allergens at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa for 15 min and at 300 MPa for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min at 20 °C. The treated samples from largemouth bass were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. In summary, we can determine that the greatest structure changes were found for samples treated by 400 MPa for 15 min. High pressure treatment did change the structure, subunit composition and molecular weight of largemouth bass allergens, but it did not change the allergenicity of the allergens.

  10. Effect of seasonal changes on the gelling properties of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Carlos L; Mendes, Rogério O; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Nunes, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of seasonal changes (summer versus winter) upon the quality of heat-induced gel products from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was studied. Moreover, the effect of microbial transglutaminase addition (0.5%, w/w) on the quality was assessed. Fat content of gel products attained from sea bass grown during summer was higher (12.0% versus 7.6%). Textural properties of the gels from the summer fish were higher. Protein of gels from winter fish was less soluble in SDS + DTT (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS; dithiothreitol, DTT). Contrary to some literature, higher fat level may have played a protective role during processing. Accordingly, season via fat content variation had a strong effect on the gelling ability of heat-induced gels prepared from sea bass.

  11. Hierarchical Bass model: a product diffusion model considering a diversity of sensitivity to fashion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new product diffusion model including the number of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met until he/she adopts the product, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing it. By this effect not considered in the Bass model, we can depict a diversity of sensitivity to fashion. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod and the iPhone unit sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model for the iPod data. We also present a new method to estimate the number of advertisements in a society from fitting parameters of the Bass model and this new model.

  12. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature.

  13. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; Ictalurus punctatus; Oncorhynchus spp

    SciTech Connect

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  14. Bi-sensory, striped representations: comparative insights from owl and platypus.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, John D

    2004-01-01

    Bi-sensory striped arrays are described in owl and platypus that share some similarities with the other variant of bi-sensory striped array found in primate and carnivore striate cortex: ocular dominance columns. Like ocular dominance columns, the owl and platypus striped systems each involve two different topographic arrays that are cut into parallel stripes, and interdigitated, so that higher-order neurons can integrate across both arrays. Unlike ocular dominance stripes, which have a separate array for each eye, the striped array in the middle third of the owl tectum has a separate array for each cerebral hemisphere. Binocular neurons send outputs from both hemispheres to the striped array where they are segregated into parallel stripes according to hemisphere of origin. In platypus primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the two arrays of interdigitated stripes are derived from separate sensory systems in the bill, 40,000 electroreceptors and 60,000 mechanoreceptors. The stripes in platypus S1 cortex produce bimodal electrosensory-mechanosensory neurons with specificity for the time-of-arrival difference between the two systems. This "thunder-and-lightning" system would allow the platypus to estimate the distance of the prey using time disparities generated at the bill between the earlier electrical wave and the later mechanical wave caused by the motion of benthic prey. The functional significance of parallel, striped arrays is not clear, even for the highly-studied ocular dominance system, but a general strategy is proposed here that is based on the detection of temporal disparities between the two arrays that can be used to estimate distance.

  15. WE-EF-207-10: Striped Ratio Grids: A New Concept for Scatter Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a new method for estimating scatter in x-ray imaging. We propose the “striped ratio grid,” an anti-scatter grid with alternating stripes of high scatter rejection (attained, for example, by high grid ratio) and low scatter rejection. To minimize artifacts, stripes are oriented parallel to the direction of the ramp filter. Signal discontinuities at the boundaries between stripes provide information on local scatter content, although these discontinuities are contaminated by variation in primary radiation. Methods: We emulated a striped ratio grid by imaging phantoms with two sequential CT scans, one with and one without a conventional grid, and processed them together to mimic a striped ratio grid. Two phantoms were scanned with the emulated striped ratio grid and compared with a conventional anti-scatter grid and a fan-beam acquisition, which served as ground truth. A nonlinear image processing algorithm was developed to mitigate the problem of primary variation. Results: The emulated striped ratio grid reduced scatter more effectively than the conventional grid alone. Contrast is thereby improved in projection imaging. In CT imaging, cupping is markedly reduced. Artifacts introduced by the striped ratio grid appear to be minimal. Conclusion: Striped ratio grids could be a simple and effective evolution of conventional anti-scatter grids. Unlike several other approaches currently under investigation for scatter management, striped ratio grids require minimal computation, little new hardware (at least for systems which already use removable grids) and impose few assumptions on the nature of the object being scanned.

  16. Physiological changes in largemouth bass exposed to paper mill effluents under laboratory and field conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report here on studies designed to asses the effects of paper mill effluents on non-reproductive functions of free-ranging and captive Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) This was accomplished by conducting an outdoor tank study, in which fish were exposed to well water or to 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% full strength effluent for 28 or 56 days, and by sampling largemouth bass from sites within the St. Johns River, Florida, upstream and downstream from a paper mill plant. Blood and plasma samples from fish from the tank study and from fish sampled from the ambient sites were analyzed for over 20 variables. We also determined liver and spleen weights and examined them histologically. The most significant finding from the tank study was an increase in the concentration of albumin and hepatosomatic index for bass exposed to ???20% effluents for 56 days. Spleenosomatic index and number of melanomacrophage centers were decreased in bass from effluent-dominated sites (Palatka and Rice Creek), whereas concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, glucose, and creatinine were elevated in fish from these sites, compared to fish from reference streams. Fish from Rice Creek also had fewer red blood cells, and male bass from Palatka had lower concentrations of cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of albumin and hepatic concentrations of glutathione were elevated in males from Palatka, and both females and males from Rice Creek had higher concentrations of globulin. These results indicate a complex pattern of effects of paper mill effluents on several physiological functions. However, despite the myriad of treatment and site-related effects, most physiological parameters fell within normal ranges when compared to reports on largemouth bass and other freshwater species.

  17. Evaluation of a 16-inch minimum length limit for smallmouth bass in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, S.P.; Hoff, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a 16-in minimum length limit and two-fish daily bag limit for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin, from 1989 to 1996. Fish abundance, biomass, growth, survival, and angler harvest were compared with data from years when no length or bag limits were in force. Angler harvest and fishing effort were monitored by a complete mandatory creel census. Following the regulation changes, fishing effort increased by 62% despite a 95% decline in smallmouth bass harvest. The number and biomass of smallmouth bass 12.0-15.9 in and 16.0 in and greater increased, whereas the number of fish 6.0-11.9 in declined. Annual survival rates of fish age 3 and older increased from 0.21 during the no-limit years to 0.60 during the length-limit years. Annual exploitation rates for fish 8 in and greater averaged 0.53 during the no-limit years and 0.10 during the length-limit years. Smallmouth bass growth rates did not change. During the no-limit years, 27% of the anglers harvested smallmouth bass compared with only 3% of anglers during the length-limit years. The bag limit reduced harvest during only 3 years by an average of 11% (3 fish/year). Anglers accepted the restrictive regulations well and were primarily concerned about catch rates of fish 16.0 in and greater. For managers wishing to increase angler interest and numbers of fish 16.0 in and greater, we recommend considering similar or even more restrictive regulations. However, a sharp reduction in the number of smallmouth bass above the minimum length limit should be expected.

  18. Differential freshwater adaptation in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax: involvement of gills and urinary system.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Catherine; Romestand, Bernard; Nègre-Sadargues, Geneviève; Grousset, Evelyse; Aujoulat, Fabien; Bacal, Julien; Bonhomme, François; Charmantier, Guy

    2005-10-01

    The effects of long-term freshwater acclimatization were investigated in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax to determine whether all sea-bass juveniles are able to live in freshwater and to investigate the physiological basis of a successful adaptation to freshwater. This study particularly focused on the ability of sea-bass to maintain their hydromineral balance in freshwater and on their ion (re)absorbing abilities through the gills and kidneys. Two different responses were recorded after a long-term freshwater acclimatization. (1) Successfully adapted sea-bass displayed standard behavior; their blood osmolality was maintained almost constant after the freshwater challenge, attesting to their efficient hyperosmoregulation. Their branchial and renal Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity were high compared to seawater fish due to a high number of branchial ionocytes and to the involvement of the urinary system in active ion reabsorption, producing hypotonic urine. (2) Sea-bass that had not successfully adapted to freshwater were recognized by abnormal schooling behavior. Their blood osmolality was low (30% lower than in the successfully adapted sea-bass), which is a sign of acute osmoregulatory failure. High branchial Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity compared to successfully adapted fish were coupled to a proliferation of gill chloride cells, whose ultrastructure did not display pathological signs. The large surface used by the gill chloride cells might negatively interfere with respiratory gas exchanges. In their urinary system, enzyme abundance and activity were low, in accordance with the observed lower density of the kidney tubules. Urine was isotonic to blood in unsuccessfully adapted fish, ruling out any participation of the kidney in hyperosmoregulation. The kidney failure seems to generate a compensatory ion absorption through increased gill activity, but net ion loss through urine seems higher than ion absorption by the gills, leading to lower hyper

  19. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    PubMed

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  20. Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French Sea Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885