Science.gov

Sample records for adult stroke patients

  1. Prothrombotic genetic risk factors in stroke: a possible different role in pediatric and adult patients.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Valentina; Stankovic, Marija; Brankovic-Sreckovic, Vesna; Rakicevic, Ljiljana; Damnjanovic, Tatjana; Antonijevic, Nebojsa; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2012-11-01

    The role of thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of stroke is still controversial, especially in the pediatric stroke. In order to examine the role of common thrombophilic mutations in children and adults with stroke, a case-control study was carried out in a group of 80 children and 73 younger adult patients. The control groups encompassed 100 healthy children and 120 healthy blood donors. Our results showed no significant differences in the frequency of factor V (FV) Leiden, FII G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T variants between patient groups and corresponding controls. According to our results, carriers of 677CT genotype have 3.62 higher risks to develop stroke in children than in adults (P < .001). The obtained data indicate that heterozygosity for MTHFR C677T variant represents a possible important risk factor for pediatric stroke and suggest a different role of this gene variant in etiology of stroke in pediatric and adult patients.

  2. Clinical Trials of Adult Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bang, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is considered a potential regenerative strategy for patients with neurologic deficits. Studies involving animal models of ischemic stroke have shown that stem cells transplanted into the brain can lead to functional improvement. With current advances in the understanding regarding the effects of introducing stem cells and their mechanisms of action, several clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been conducted in patients with stroke since 2005, including studies using mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, several clinical trials of the use of adult stem cells to treat ischemic stroke are ongoing. This review presents the status of our understanding of adult stem cells and results from clinical trials, and introduces ongoing clinical studies of adult stem cell therapy in the field of stroke.

  3. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  4. Ethnic Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Among Young Adult Patients With Stroke in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Ito, Cherisse S; King, Sage L

    2017-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with ischemic stroke have younger age of stroke onset compared with whites. However, ethnic differences in stroke subtypes in this population have been inadequately studied. Consecutive young adult patients (aged ≤55 years) who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between 2006 and 2012 at a tertiary center in Honolulu were studied. Clinical characteristics and stroke subtypes based on pathophysiological TOAST classification (Trial of Org 10172) of NHOPI and Asians were compared with whites. A total of 427 consecutive young adult (mean age, 46.7±7.8 years) patients (NHOPI 45%, Asians 38%, and whites 17%) were studied. NHOPI had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prosthetic valve, higher body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, and lower high-density lipoprotein than whites (all P<0.05). Stroke subtype distribution was not different between the ethnic groups. Specifically, the prevalence of small-vessel disease was similar between NHOPI (26.6%), whites (28.4%), and Asians (24.8%). In the univariate analyses, the use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator was lower among NHOPI (4.7%; P=0.01) and Asians (3.1%; P=0.002) than among whites (12.5%). In the multivariable model, NHOPI (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.98) and Asians (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.74) were less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. NHOPI have greater cardiovascular risk factors than whites, but there were no differences in stroke subtypes between the ethnic groups. Furthermore, NHOPI and Asians may be less likely to be treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator than whites. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%-15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden.

  6. [Stroke in young adults: incidence and clinical picture in 280 patients according to their aetiological subtype].

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià; Massons, Joan; García-Eroles, Luís; Oliveres, Montserrat

    2016-03-04

    To assess the clinical features and incidence rate of stroke in young adults (less than 55 years of age). Hospital-based descriptive study of 280 young inpatients consecutively admitted for stroke over a period of 24 years. We conducted a comparison with the remaining 4,312 patients admitted for stroke. Stroke in young adults represented 6.1% of all strokes, 5.7% of transient ischaemic attacks, 5.8% of cerebral infarctions and 8.4% of brain haemorrhages. However, reported minimal frequency of cardioembolic (2.1%) and atherothrombotic (3.4%) infarctions, accounted for 5.9% of lacunar and for 10.7% of essential infarctions and showed a maximum frequency in those infarctions of unusual aetiology (36%). Factors independently associated with stroke in young adults were cigarette smoking (OR 4.23; 95% CI 3.02-5.93; P=.000), unusual aetiology (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.15-7.84; P=.000), headache (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.59-8.07; P=.000), alcohol abuse (OR 3.93; 95% CI 2.46-6.29; P=.000), oral contraceptives (OR 14.07; 95% CI 2.37-83.40; P=.004), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.08-0.28; P=.000), arterial hypertension (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.33-0.57; P=.000), COPD (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.09-0.44; P=.000), atherothrombotic infarction (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.34-0.77; P=.001), female sex (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.97; P=.029), diabetes mellitus (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.98; P=.030), ischaemic heart disease (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.95; P=.032) and intermittent claudication (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.94; P=.033). Stroke in young adults is infrequent (6.1% of the total), but represents the highest frequency of cerebral infarcts of unusual aetiology (36%). We conclude that stroke in younger patients presents its own and differentiated clinical profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia secondary to stroke in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Berman, Casey Melissa; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is often recommended for children with spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. SDR reduces spasticity in the lower extremities for these children with spastic paraplegia. However, SDR is infrequently recommended for adults with spasticity. Spastic diplegia in adult patients can be due to stroke, brain or spinal cord injury from trauma, infection, toxic-metabolic disorders, and other causes. Although rarely considered, SDR is an option for adult patients with spastic diplegia as well. Case Description: The authors describe a patient who underwent a SDR with a successful postoperative outcome. This man suffered a hypertensive and hemorrhagic stroke secondary to intravenous drug abuse at age 46. A SDR was performed after two failed intrathecal baclofen pump placements due to recurrent infections, likely resulting from his immunocompromised status. The patient underwent lumbar laminectomies and dorsal rhizotomies at levels L1-S1 bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity was significantly reduced. His Ashworth spasticity score decreased from 4/5 to 1/5, and the reduction in tone has been durable over 3 years. Conclusion: SDR in older patients with spastic paraparesis may be considered as a treatment option. PMID:26167363

  8. Transcranial color Doppler in stroke-free adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Graziadei, G; Casoni, F M; Annoni, F; Cortinovis, I; Ridolfi, P; Gandolfi, I; Marcon, A; Di Pierro, E; Cappellini, M D

    2017-09-01

    The threshold velocity ≥200 cm/s at transcranial Doppler (TCD) evaluation is a useful cut-off for preventing the stroke (STOP trial) in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), term including different types of sickle genotypes. Scanty data are available for adult SCD patients. We compared intracranial blood flow velocities between adult SCD patients and controls using transcranial color Doppler (TCCD), measuring the peak of systolic velocity (PSV) with the insonation angle correction and the pulsatility index (PI), an indicator of endothelial elasticity. Fifty-three adult SCD patients (aged >18 years) were enrolled (15 sickle cell anemia, 26 sickle cell thalassemia, and 12 HbS/HbC). None of the patients presented neurological signs. PSVs in middle cerebral artery (MCA) were higher in SCD patients than in controls (p = 0.001). In sickle cell anemia patients, PSVs were higher when compared to HbS/βThal (p < 0.0060) and HbS/HbC patients (p < 0.0139). PI was within the lower range of normality in SCD patients compared to controls. Moreover, MCA-PSV was higher with lower Hb levels and higher HbS%; PI did not change with variation of Hb levels and HbS%.PSV and PI in SCD adult patients could be a relevant index to indicate the abnormal cerebral blood flow and to detect the sickle endothelial damage, in order to prevent cerebrovascular accidents.

  9. Effects of two exercise training techniques on walking function in adult patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Olawale, O A; Jaja, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Appiah-Kubi, K O; Jones-Okai, D

    2009-01-01

    Patients with stroke usually demonstrate activity limitations manifested by reduced ability to perform daily functions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of treadmill walking and overground walking exercise training on walking function in adult patients with stroke. Participants were forty (40) patients with stroke comprising 22 males and 18 females. Inclusion criteria included absence of any co-morbidity that could affect rehabilitation. They were randomly assigned to 2 exercise training groups (20 in each group). All study subjects received conventional physiotherapy rehabilitation for 12 weeks. During the same period, subjects in Group A had treadmill walking exercise training (TWET) while those in Group B had overground walking exercise training (OWET) in addition to the conventional physiotherapy. Outcomes were measured as (i) Ten-metre walk time and (ii) Six-minute walk distance. They were evaluated at entry into the study and at the end of every 4 weeks. Results at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12 were used for analysis. For each of the 2 groups, paired t-tests were used to evaluate the significance of the differences between the pre-intervention (week 0) mean scores on both tests and the mean scores at weeks 4, 8 and 12. With 12 weeks of exercise training, both TWET and OWET produced significant improvement in walking function (P < 0.05). However, OWET resulted in significantly greater reduction (26.8%) in mean walking time over 10 metres than TWET (22.6%); and significantly greater increase (45.2%) in mean walking distance over 6 minutes than TWET (31.0%). Exercise training, especially overground walking, could be integrated into the traditional rehabilitation care given to adult patients with stroke.

  10. Correlation between brain injury and dysphagia in adult patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Maria Cristina de Alencar; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Furkim, Ana Maria; Massi, Giselle; Pinto, Gisele Sant Ana; Lange, Marcos Christiano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: In the literature, the incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with cerebrovascular accident (AVE) ranges 20–90%. Some studies correlate the location of a stroke with dysphagia, while others do not. Objective: To correlate brain injury with dysphagia in patients with stroke in relation to the type and location of stroke. Method: A prospective study conducted at the Hospital de Clinicas with 30 stroke patients: 18 women and 12 men. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and swallowing nasolaryngofibroscopy (FEES®), and were divided based on the location of the injury: cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, subcortical areas, and type: hemorrhagic or transient ischemic. Results: Of the 30 patients, 18 had ischemic stroke, 10 had hemorrhagic stroke, and 2 had transient stroke. Regarding the location, 10 lesions were in the cerebral cortex, 3 were in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, 3 were in the cerebral cortex and subcortical areas, and 3 were in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices and subcortical areas. Cerebral cortex and subcortical area ischemic strokes predominated in the clinical evaluation of dysphagia. In FEES®, decreased laryngeal sensitivity persisted following cerebral cortex and ischemic strokes. Waste in the pharyngeal recesses associated with epiglottic valleculae predominated in the piriform cortex in all lesion areas and in ischemic stroke. A patient with damage to the cerebral and cerebellar cortices from an ischemic stroke exhibited laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration of liquid and honey. Conclusion: Dysphagia was prevalent when a lesion was located in the cerebral cortex and was of the ischemic type. PMID:25991951

  11. Upper Extremity Motion Assessment in Adult Ischemic Stroke Patients: A 3-D Kinematic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Botox , motion analysis, hemiplegia, stroke I. INTRODUCTION Recovery from ischemic stroke has been explained by patients learning new skills, by...University and the Medical College of Wisconsin and to Allergan, Inc.(Irvine, CA), makers of BOTOX ®, for their sponsorship. REFERENCES [1] Gracies

  12. [Ischemic stroke in the young adult].

    PubMed

    Calvet, D

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke.

  13. Sonographic Evaluation of Endothelial Function in Brachial Arteries of Adult Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Omisore, Adeleye Dorcas; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga Oluwole; Ibitoye, Bolanle Olubunmi; Fawale, Michael Bimbola; Adetiloye, Victor Adebayo

    2017-02-01

    Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation on sonography is used to evaluate endothelial dysfunction, which is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis and predates structural atherosclerotic lesions by many years. Atherosclerosis has been implicated in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to determine the association between brachial flow-mediated dilatation, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, and acute stroke. We evaluated right brachial arteries of 150 participants (50 stroke patients, 50 patients with cardiovascular risk factors, and 50 healthy control individuals) with B-mode sonography before and 5 minutes after sphygmomanometer cuff application to their forearms. Analysis of variance for multiple comparisons was used between each group. Mean ages of the stroke, risk factor, and control groups ± SD were 57.5 ± 14.8, 52.4 ± 16.0, and 56.1 ± 14.9 years, respectively (P = .235). Flow-mediated dilatation rates were 4.37% ± 1.50%, 5.62% ± 1.23%, and 10.33% ± 1.96% in the stroke, risk factor, and control groups (P ≤ .001). Dilatation was 3.79% ± 0.92% in ischemic stroke compared with 6.02% ± 1.62% in intracerebral hemorrhage (P < .001), but there was no significant difference in dilatation between ischemic stroke subtypes according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification (P = .301). Brachial flow-mediated dilatation was significantly lower in patients with acute stroke compared with controls matched for vascular risk factors and healthy controls. Decreased vascular endothelial function in stroke patients was particularly related to cerebral infarction compared with intracerebral hemorrhage. Brachial flow-mediated dilatation did not differentiate ischemic stroke subtypes by the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Flow-mediated dilatation was therefore found to be a marker of cardiovascular risk

  14. Strokes in adults.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-06-15

    Essential facts There are two types of stroke - around 85% are ischaemic and 15% are haemorrhagic. According to the Stroke Association's State of the Nation report, published in January 2016, stroke occurs around 152,000 times a year in the UK. It is the fourth largest cause of death in the UK and one of the largest causes of disability.

  15. Influence of posturographic platform biofeedback training on the dynamic balance of adult stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Janusz; Borawska, Sylwia; Wojcikiewicz, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to analyze the influence of posturographic platform biofeedback training on the dynamic balance of patients who experienced ischemic stroke. The study included 21 patients treated at the Rehabilitation Center of the District Hospital in Białogard, in the Ward of Neurological Rehabilitation with the Stroke Division. The age of the patients (11 in the experimental and 10 in the control group) ranged between 55 and 65 years. The level of dynamic balance was determined with Timed Up and Go Test. The experimental group was subjected to the biofeedback training, practicing maintenance of body balance (forced sway training) on posturographic platform for 15 consecutive days. The perception of dynamic balance in the group subjected to biofeedback training improved to a markedly greater extent (P < .05) as compared with conventionally rehabilitated group. Participation in biofeedback training exerted stronger effect on the dynamic balance of patients who experienced the stroke of the left hemisphere with right-sided hemiparesis than in those with right hemisphere stroke and left-sided hemiparesis. The utilization of feedback mechanisms during training on a posturographic platform can be reflected by enhanced stimulation and further improvement of the control of performed motor tasks.

  16. Stroke in young adults: about 128 cases.

    PubMed

    Chraa, Mohamed; Louhab, Nesrine; Kissani, Najib

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the Neurology department Mohammed VI universitary hospital in Marrakesh interesting 128 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was assessed through clinical and radiological confrontation. The age of our patients varied from 18 to 45 years old, 76 males and 52 females giving a male: female ratio of 1:46. Hypertension was the first risk factor involved with 63 (49.2%) cases, followed by smoking with 52 (40.6%) patients. The causes of ischemic stroke were characterized by the predominance of the cardio embolic origin with 43 (33.5%) cases, the existence of 14 (11%) cases of syphilitic arthritis, and the 52 (40.6%) cases of unknown etiologies. The authors stress the difficulties faced on supporting ischemic stroke in southern Morocco in particular when concerned by the etiological finding and the rehabilitation after the acute phase of the stroke. Our study points out the high incidence of embolic heart disease in our context. The lack of neurologists, low coverage of the population and the underestimation by physicians are factors that can explain why ischemic stroke remain undiagnosed.

  17. Stroke in young adults: about 128 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chraa, Mohamed; Louhab, Nesrine; Kissani, Najib

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the Neurology department Mohammed VI universitary hospital in Marrakesh interesting 128 patients. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was assessed through clinical and radiological confrontation. Results: The age of our patients varied from 18 to 45 years old, 76 males and 52 females giving a male: female ratio of 1:46. Hypertension was the first risk factor involved with 63 (49.2%) cases, followed by smoking with 52 (40.6%) patients. The causes of ischemic stroke were characterized by the predominance of the cardio embolic origin with 43 (33.5%) cases, the existence of 14 (11%) cases of syphilitic arthritis, and the 52 (40.6%) cases of unknown etiologies. The authors stress the difficulties faced on supporting ischemic stroke in southern Morocco in particular when concerned by the etiological finding and the rehabilitation after the acute phase of the stroke. Our study points out the high incidence of embolic heart disease in our context. The lack of neurologists, low coverage of the population and the underestimation by physicians are factors that can explain why ischemic stroke remain undiagnosed. PMID:24932348

  18. SMART syndrome (stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy) in adult and pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Amy E; Gillan, Eileen; DiMario, Francis Joseph

    2014-03-01

    SMART syndrome (stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy) is a rare condition that involves complex migraines with focal neurologic findings in patients following cranial irradiation for central nervous system malignancies. Little is known about the mechanisms behind the disorder, making successful treatment challenging. We report 2 new cases of SMART syndrome in pediatric patients as well as review all documented cases of the syndrome. Each of our 2 pediatric patients suffered multiple episodes. Attacks were characterized by severe headache, visual disturbance, aphasia, and weakness. Recovery occurred over several days to weeks. The data from all documented reports of SMART syndrome indicate a greater prevalence for male gender. An age-dependent pattern of onset was also observed, with a greater variability of syndrome onset in patients who received cranial irradiation at a younger age. SMART appears to be a reversible, recurrent long-term complication of radiation therapy with possible age- and gender-related influences.

  19. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schambra, Heidi M.; Ogden, R. Todd; Martínez-Hernández, Isis E.; Lin, Xuejing; Chang, Y. Brenda; Rahman, Asif; Edwards, Dylan J.; Krakauer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. TMS measures should be used based on their reliability in particular contexts. More work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed. PMID:26388729

  20. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Schambra, Heidi M; Ogden, R Todd; Martínez-Hernández, Isis E; Lin, Xuejing; Chang, Y Brenda; Rahman, Asif; Edwards, Dylan J; Krakauer, John W

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. TMS measures should be used based on their reliability in particular contexts. More work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  1. Imaging Stroke Patients with Unclear Onset Times

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ona; Schwamm, Lee H.; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant progress in stroke prevention and acute treatment, stroke remains a leading cause of death and adult morbidity worldwide. By defining “stroke symptom onset” in the most conservative manner, namely the time the patient was last known to be well, many patients whose onsets are unwitnessed are automatically ineligible for thrombolytic therapy even if their true time of onset would make them eligible. Many groups are trying to determine if advanced brain imaging can serve as a substitute “witness” to estimate stroke onset and duration in those patients who do not have a human witness. We review and compare some of these imaging-based approaches to thrombolysis eligbility, which if successful, can potentially expand the use of thrombolytic therapy to a broader stroke patient population. PMID:21640303

  2. Contribution of Established Stroke Risk Factors to the Burden of Stroke in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Annette; Grittner, Ulrike; Rolfs, Arndt; Norrving, Bo; Siegerink, Bob; Busch, Markus A

    2017-07-01

    As stroke in young adults is assumed to have different etiologies and risk factors than in older populations, the aim of this study was to examine the contribution of established potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors to the burden of stroke in young adults. A German nationwide case-control study based on patients enrolled in the SIFAP1 study (Stroke In Young Fabry Patients) 2007 to 2010 and controls from the population-based GEDA study (German Health Update) 2009 to 2010 was performed. Cases were 2125 consecutive patients aged 18 to 55 years with acute first-ever stroke from 26 clinical stroke centers; controls (age- and sex-matched, n=8500, without previous stroke) were from a nationwide community sample. Adjusted population-attributable risks of 8 risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, smoking, heavy episodic alcohol consumption, low physical activity, and obesity) and their combinations for all stroke, ischemic stroke, and primary intracerebral hemorrhage were calculated. Low physical activity and hypertension were the most important risk factors, accounting for 59.7% (95% confidence interval, 56.3-63.2) and 27.1% (95% confidence interval, 23.6-30.6) of all strokes, respectively. All 8 risk factors combined explained 78.9% (95% confidence interval, 76.3-81.4) of all strokes. Population-attributable risks of all risk factors were similar for all ischemic stroke subtypes. Population-attributable risks of most risk factors were higher in older age groups and in men. Modifiable risk factors previously established in older populations also account for a large part of stroke in younger adults, with 4 risk factors explaining almost 80% of stroke risk. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effects of mental practice embedded in daily therapy compared to therapy as usual in adult stroke patients in Dutch nursing homes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Susy M; Beurskens, Anna J; van Kroonenburgh, Susanne M; Demarteau, Jeroen; Schols, Jos M; Wade, Derick T

    2007-01-01

    Background Mental practice as an additional cognitive therapy is getting increased attention in stroke rehabilitation. A systematic review shows some evidence that several techniques in which movements are rehearsed mentally might be effective but not enough to be certain. This trial investigates whether mental practice can contribute to a quicker and/or better recovery of stroke in two Dutch nursing homes. The objective is to investigate the therapeutic potential of mental practice embedded in daily therapy to improve individually chosen daily activities of adult stroke patients compared to therapy as usual. In addition, we will investigate prognostic variables and feasibility (process evaluation). Methods A randomised, controlled, observer masked prospective trial will be conducted with adult stroke patients in the (sub)acute phase of stroke recovery. Over a six weeks intervention period the control group will receive multi professional therapy as usual. Patients in the experimental group will be instructed how to perform mental practice, and will receive care as usual in which mental practice is embedded in physical, occupation and speech therapy sessions. Outcome will be assessed at six weeks and six months. The primary outcome measure is the patient-perceived effect on performance of daily activities as assessed by an 11-point Likert Scale. Secondary outcomes are: Motricity Index, Nine Hole Peg Test, Barthel Index, Timed up and Go, 10 metres walking test, Rivermead Mobility Index. A sample size of the patients group and all therapists will be interviewed on their opinion of the experimental program to assess feasibility. All patients are asked to keep a log to determine unguided training intensity. Discussion Advantages and disadvantages of several aspects of the chosen design are discussed. Trial registration ISRCTN27582267 PMID:17937798

  4. [Spanish translation and validation of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) to assess balance and postural control in adult post-stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Girabent-Farrés, Monserrat; Cánovas-Vergé, David; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda M; Germán-Romero, Ana; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat

    2015-02-16

    Introduccion. En los ultimos años, la Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS) se ha convertido en la escala mas utilizada para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos que han sufrido un ictus, especialmente en la fase aguda y subaguda. Objetivo. Traducir y validar la PASS para la poblacion española como instrumento de valoracion del equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus. Pacientes y metodos. Se tradujo al español la version original francesa de la PASS; dicha version fue consensuada por un equipo de expertos. Posteriormente se hizo una retrotraduccion al frances y se envio al autor de la escala, el cual aprobo dicha version. Seguidamente se evaluo la fiabilidad intra e interobservador; para ello se llevaron a cabo cuatro mediciones a 60 pacientes postictus, a partir de una videograbacion. Dos de estas mediciones fueron realizadas por el mismo observador, y la tercera y cuarta, por un segundo y tercer observadores. Resultados. Los valores obtenidos referidos a la puntuacion total de la escala reflejan un indice de fiabilidad del 0,999; tambien muestran una fiabilidad superior a 0,90 en cada uno de los items, tanto en las comparaciones intraobservador como interobservador, y una consistencia interna del 0,94. Conclusion. La version española de la PASS es valida y fiable para valorar el equilibrio y el control postural en pacientes adultos postictus.

  5. Propensity Score-Based Analysis of Percutaneous Closure Versus Medical Therapy in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale: The IPSYS Registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults).

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Zini, Andrea; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Sessa, Maria; Cavallini, Anna; Marcheselli, Simona; Marco Bonifati, Domenico; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Tancredi, Lucia; Chiti, Alberto; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Spalloni, Alessandra; Giorli, Elisa; Costa, Paolo; Giacalone, Giacomo; Ferrazzi, Paola; Poli, Loris; Morotti, Andrea; Piras, Valeria; Rasura, Maurizia; Simone, Anna Maria; Gamba, Massimo; Cerrato, Paolo; Zedde, Maria Luisa; Micieli, Giuseppe; Melis, Maurizio; Massucco, Davide; Guido, Davide; De Giuli, Valeria; Bonaiti, Silvia; D'Amore, Cataldo; La Starza, Sara; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We sought to compare the benefit of percutaneous closure to that of medical therapy alone for the secondary prevention of embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and otherwise unexplained ischemic stroke, in a propensity scored study. Between 2000 and 2012, we selected consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 45 years with PFO and no other cause of brain ischemia, as part of the IPSYS registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults), who underwent either percutaneous PFO closure or medical therapy for comparative analysis. Primary end point was a composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral embolism. Secondary end point was brain ischemia. Five hundred and twenty-one patients qualified for the analysis. The primary end point occurred in 15 patients treated with percutaneous PFO closure (7.3%) versus 33 patients medically treated (10.5%; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.32; P=0.285). The rates of the secondary end point brain ischemia were also similar in the 2 treatment groups (6.3% in the PFO closure group versus 10.2% in the medically treated group; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.21; P=0.168). Closure provided a benefit in patients aged 18 to 36 years (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.81; P=0.026) and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.68; P=0.011). PFO closure seems as effective as medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Whether device treatment might be more effective in selected cases, such as in patients younger than 37 years and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size, deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Family History in Young Patients With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Kolodny, Edwin; Kropp, Peter; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Rothwell, Peter M; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt

    2015-07-01

    Family history of stroke is an established risk factor for stroke. We evaluated whether family history of stroke predisposed to certain stroke subtypes and whether it differed by sex in young patients with stroke. We used data from the Stroke in Fabry Patients study, a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young patients (aged <55 years) with stroke in whom cardiovascular risk factors and family history of stroke were obtained and detailed stroke subtyping was performed. A family history of stroke was present in 1578 of 4232 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients (37.3%). Female patients more often had a history of stroke in the maternal lineage (P=0.027) than in the paternal lineage. There was no association with stroke subtype according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment nor with the presence of white matter disease on brain imaging. Patients with dissection less frequently reported a family history of stroke (30.4% versus 36.3%; P=0.018). Patients with a parental history of stroke more commonly had siblings with stroke (3.6% versus 2.6%; P=0.047). Although present in about a third of patients, a family history of stroke is not specifically related to stroke pathogenic subtypes in patients with young stroke. Young women with stroke more often report stroke in the maternal lineage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. A randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial to improve medication adherence in adult stroke patients with prescription tailored Short Messaging Service (SMS)-SMS4Stroke study.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Shaikh, Quratulain; Pasha, Omrana; Azam, Iqbal; Islam, Muhammad; Memon, Adeel Ali; Rehman, Hasan; Akram, Masood Ahmed; Affan, Muhammad; Nazir, Sumaira; Aziz, Salman; Jan, Muhammad; Andani, Anita; Muqeet, Abdul; Ahmed, Bilal; Khoja, Shariq

    2015-10-21

    The effectiveness of mobile technology to improve medication adherence via customized Short Messaging Service (SMS) reminders for stroke has not been tested in resource poor areas. We designed a randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of SMS on improving medication adherence in stroke survivors in Pakistan. This was a parallel group, assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled, superiority trial. Participants were centrally randomized in fixed block sizes. Adult participants on multiple medications with access to a cell phone and stroke at least 4 weeks from onset (Onset as defined by last seen normal) were eligible. The intervention group, in addition to usual care, received reminder SMS for 2 months that contained a) Personalized, prescription tailored daily medication reminder(s) b) Twice weekly health information SMS. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive theory were used to design the language and content of messages. Frontline SMS software was used for SMS delivery. Medication adherence was self-reported and measured on the validated Urdu version of Morisky Medication Adherence Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was used to model the outcome against intervention and other covariates. Analysis was conducted by intention-to-treat principle. Two hundred participants were enrolled. 38 participants were lost to follow-up. After 2 months, the mean medication score was 7.4 (95 % CI: 7.2-7.6) in the intervention group while 6.7 (95 % CI: 6.4-7.02) in the control group. The adjusted mean difference (Δ) was 0.54 (95 % CI: 0.22-0.85). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the intervention group was 2.6 mmHg (95 % CI; -5.5 to 0.15) lower compared to the usual care group. A short intervention of customized SMS can improve medication adherence and effect stroke risk factors like diastolic blood pressure in stroke survivors with complex medication regimens living in resource poor areas. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01986023 last accessed at https

  8. Neuroimaging of young adults with stroke in Ilorin Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Olalekan; Nzeh, Donald; Adesiyun, Olusola; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Akande, Halimat; Sanya, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Stroke in young adults is relatively uncommon. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most valuable tools for the diagnosis of stroke. Recent data on stroke in young adults in Nigeria is sparse. The aim of this study is to document the imaging pattern in young patients aged 15-45 years with suspected cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in the Nigerian environment. This was a retrospective study of 69 patients aged 15-45 years, with clinical diagnosis of stroke, referred for neuro-imaging, from October 2008 to November 2013. All patients with the clinical diagnosis of stroke within this age group were recruited into the study. Images were obtained from a four slice channel general electric CT machine and a 0.2 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Concerto MRI scanner. A total of 69 patients (44 males and 25 females) were studied. Sixty out of 69 (87.0%) patients were accurately diagnosed with CVA, with 9 (13.0) cases of misdiagnoses. A total of 21 (35%) out of the 60 cases confirmed on imaging had intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 10 (16.7%) had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and 29 (48.3%) had cerebral infarct (CI). Hypertension was the common risk factor for all stroke subtypes. The most common location for ICH, was the basal ganglia in 8 (38.8%), while the commonest pattern for CI, was lacunar infarct in the basal ganglia (51.7%). The incidence of hemorrhagic CVA (ICH and SAH combined) was slightly higher than ischemic CVA in this study. Lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia and also ICH in the basal ganglia were the most common patterns, both are strongly linked to hypertension. A diagnostic protocol of stroke in young adults, to include neuroimaging and other ancillary investigations is advocated for stroke in young adults as some of the etiologies are treatable.

  9. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:27733032

  10. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress.

    PubMed

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke.

  11. Neuromagnetic beta and gamma oscillations in the somatosensory cortex after music training in healthy older adults and a chronic stroke patient.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Shahab; Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Extensive rehabilitation training can lead to functional improvement even years after a stroke. Although neuronal plasticity is considered as a main origin of such ameliorations, specific subtending mechanisms need further investigation. Our aim was to obtain objective neuromagnetic measures sensitive to brain reorganizations induced by a music-supported training. We applied 20-Hz vibrotactile stimuli to the index finger and the ring finger, recorded somatosensory steady-state responses with magnetoencephalography, and analyzed the cortical sources displaying oscillations synchronized with the external stimuli in two groups of healthy older adults before and after musical training or without training. In addition, we applied the same analysis for an anecdotic report of a single chronic stroke patient with hemiparetic arm and hand problems, who received music-supported therapy (MST). Healthy older adults showed significant finger separation within the primary somatotopic map. Beta dipole sources were more anterior located compared to gamma sources. An anterior shift of sources and increases in synchrony between the stimuli and beta and gamma oscillations were observed selectively after music training. In the stroke patient a normalization of somatotopic organization was observed after MST, with digit separation recovered after training and stimulus induced gamma synchrony increased. The proposed stimulation paradigm captures the integrity of primary somatosensory hand representation. Source position and synchronization between the stimuli and gamma activity are indices, sensitive to music-supported training. Responsiveness was also observed in a chronic stroke patient, encouraging for the music-supported therapy. Notably, changes in somatosensory responses were observed, even though the therapy did not involve specific sensory discrimination training. The proposed protocol can be used for monitoring changes in neuronal organization during training and will improve

  12. Stroke: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... of medications used to prevent stroke (for example: aspirin, warfarin, heparin, clopidogrel) is that they increase the ... warfarin or dabigatran), or antiplatelet therapy (such as aspirin), a beta blocker, or antiarrhythmic medications, depending on ...

  13. HIV, antiretroviral treatment, hypertension, and stroke in Malawian adults

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Connor, Myles D.; Mzinganjira, Henry; Kampondeni, Sam; Choko, Augustine; Hopkins, Mark; Emsley, Hedley C.A.; Bryer, Alan; Faragher, Brian; Heyderman, Robert S.; Allain, Theresa J.; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate HIV, its treatment, and hypertension as stroke risk factors in Malawian adults. Methods: We performed a case-control study of 222 adults with acute stroke, confirmed by MRI in 86%, and 503 population controls, frequency-matched for age, sex, and place of residence, using Global Positioning System for random selection. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for case-control comparisons. Results: HIV infection (population attributable fraction [PAF] 15%) and hypertension (PAF 46%) were strongly linked to stroke. HIV was the predominant risk factor for young stroke (≤45 years), with a prevalence of 67% and an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% confidence interval) of 5.57 (2.43–12.8) (PAF 42%). There was an increased risk of a stroke in patients with untreated HIV infection (aOR 4.48 [2.44–8.24], p < 0.001), but the highest risk was in the first 6 months after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) (aOR 15.6 [4.21–46.6], p < 0.001); this group had a lower median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (92 vs 375 cells/mm3, p = 0.004). In older participants (HIV prevalence 17%), HIV was associated with stroke, but with a lower PAF than hypertension (5% vs 68%). There was no interaction between HIV and hypertension on stroke risk. Conclusions: In a population with high HIV prevalence, where stroke incidence is increasing, we have shown that HIV is an important risk factor. Early ART use in immunosuppressed patients poses an additional and potentially treatable stroke risk. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome may be contributing to the disease mechanisms. PMID:26683649

  14. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Terni, Eva; Giannini, Nicola; Brondi, Marco; Montano, Vincenzo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke may be a clinical expression of several inherited disorders in humans. Recognition of the underlined genetic disorders causing stroke is important for a correct diagnosis, for genetic counselling and, even if rarely, for a correct therapeutic management. Moreover, the genetics of complex diseases such the stroke, in which multiple genes interact with environmental risk factors to increase risk, has been revolutionized by the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach. Scope of review Here we review the single-gene causes of ischemic stroke, bringing the reader from the candidate gene method toward the exciting new horizons of genetic technology. Major conclusions The aetiological diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young adults is more complex than in the elderly. The identification of a genetic cause is important to provide appropriate counseling and to start a correct therapy, when available. The advent of GWAS technology, such as for other complex pathological conditions, has contributed enormously to the understanding of many of these genetic bases. For success large, well phenotyped case cohorts are required, and international collaborations are essential. General significance This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26672892

  15. Education in stroke: strategies to improve stroke patient care.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Patrick; Slack, Andrew; Vogel, Mira; Burrows, Sharon; Clark, Philippa

    2002-07-01

    'Stroke units save lives', but organized care requires expert staff and regular training to be effective. However, the quality of inpatient care for stroke remains poor, and stroke education is often fragmented between the health-care professions. This review describes some national and local strategies aimed at ensuring that all patients are cared for by expert staff.

  16. Potential of adult neural stem cells in stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Andres, Robert H; Choi, Raymond; Steinberg, Gary K; Guzman, Raphael

    2008-11-01

    Despite state-of-the-art therapy, clinical outcome after stroke remains poor, with many patients left permanently disabled and dependent on care. Stem cell therapy has evolved as a promising new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of stroke in experimental studies, and recent clinical trials have proven its feasibility and safety in patients. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of different cell types, such as embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells, human fetal tissue and genetically engineered cell lines. Adult neural stem cells offer the advantage of avoiding the ethical problems associated with embryonic or fetal stem cells and can be harvested as autologous grafts from the individual patients. Furthermore, stimulation of endogenous adult stem cell-mediated repair mechanisms in the brain might offer new avenues for stroke therapy without the necessity of transplantation. However, important scientific issues need to be addressed to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical steps in cell-based repair to allow the introduction of these experimental techniques into clinical practice. This review describes up-to-date experimental concepts using adult neural stem cells for the treatment of stroke.

  17. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  18. Fatigue after Stroke: The Patient's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Victoria Louise; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fatigue after stroke is common and distressing to patients. Aims. Our aims were to explore patients' perceptions of post-stroke fatigue, including the causes of fatigue and the factors that alleviate fatigue, in a mixed methods study. Results. We interviewed 15 patients who had had a stroke and were inpatients on stroke rehabilitation wards. A substantial proportion of patients reported that their fatigue started at the time of their stroke. Various different factors were reported to improve fatigue, including exercise, good sleep, rehabilitation and rest. Fatigue influences patients' sense of "control" after their stroke. Conclusion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that poststroke fatigue might be triggered by factors that occur at the time of the stroke (e.g., the stroke lesion itself, or admission to hospital) and then exacerbated by poor sleep and boredom. These factors should be considered when developing complex interventions to improve post-stroke fatigue.

  19. [Nutritional support in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Segurola Gurrutxaga, Hegoi; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a public health problem of the first order. In developed countries is one of the leading causes of death, along with cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in adulthood. Many of the patients who survive do so with significant sequelae that limit them in their activities of daily living. Most strokes (80-85%) are due to ischemia, while the rest are hemorrhagic. We have identified many modifiable risk factors, some with an important relationship with dietary factors or comorbidities in wich the diet has a significant impact. The incidence of malnutrition in stroke patients is not well known, but most likely impacts on patient prognosis. Furthermore, the nutritional status of patients admitted for stroke often deteriorates during hospitalization. It is necessary to perform a nutritional assessment of the patient in the early hours of admission, to determine both the nutritional status and the presence of dysphagia. Dysphagia, through alteration of the safety and efficacy of swallowing, is a complication that has an implication for nutritional support, and must be treated to prevent aspiration pneumonia, which is the leading cause of mortality in the stroke patient. Nutritional support should begin in the early hours. In patients with no or mild dysphagia that can be controlled by modifying the texture of the diet, they will start oral diet and oral nutritional supplementation will be used if the patient does not meet their nutritional requirements. There is no evidence to support the use of nutritional supplements routinely. Patients with severe dysphagia, or decreased level of consciousness will require enteral nutrition. Current evidence indicates that early nutrition should be initiated through a nasogastric tube, with any advantages of early feeding gastrostomy. Gastrostomy will be planned when the enteral nutrition support will be expected for long-term (4 weeks). Much evidence points to the

  20. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults and Preexisting Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified. After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age <30 years) was only associated with the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.47∼11.72). Patients who had experienced ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities. PMID:26402806

  1. Occupational Therapy Interventions for Adults With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Dawn; Gillen, Glen; Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice project. The clinical condition discussed in this inaugural Evidence Connection article is adults with stroke. Findings from the systematic reviews on this topic were published in the January/February 2015 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and in AOTA's Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Stroke (Wolf & Nilsen, 2015). Each article in this series will summarize the evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case. Evidence Connection articles illustrate how the research evidence from the reviews can be used to inform and guide clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Examining Factors Associated with Pre-Admission to Discharge of Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Shao-Ping; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Liao, Hung-Chang; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of adult disability in Taiwan. This research established correlations between pre-admission and discharge data in stroke patients to promote education of the general public, prevention, treatment and high standards of chronic care. A total of 790 stroke patients at Chung Shan Medical…

  3. Examining Factors Associated with Pre-Admission to Discharge of Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Shao-Ping; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Liao, Hung-Chang; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of adult disability in Taiwan. This research established correlations between pre-admission and discharge data in stroke patients to promote education of the general public, prevention, treatment and high standards of chronic care. A total of 790 stroke patients at Chung Shan Medical…

  4. Practical Assessment of Dysphagia in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Moo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative and organ-specific practical test for the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia based on assessment of stroke patients. Methods An initial test composed of 24 items was designed to evaluate the function of the organs involved in swallowing. The grading system of the initial test was based on the analysis of 50 normal adults. The initial test was performed in 52 stroke patients with clinical symptoms of dysphagia. Aspiration was measured via a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The odds ratio was obtained to evaluate the correlation between each item in the initial test and the VFSS. A polychotomous linear logistic model was used to select the final test items. Results Eighteen of 24 initial items were selected as significant for the final tests. These 18 showed high initial validity and reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficient for the total score of the test and functional dysphagia scale was 0.96 (p<0.001), indicating a statistically significant positive correlation. Conclusion This study was carried out to design a quantitative and organ-specific test that assesses the causes of dysphagia in stroke patients; therefore, this test is considered very useful and highly applicable to the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia. PMID:26798618

  5. Factors associated with strain in informal caregivers of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jen-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ching; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liao, Li-Na; Lin, Chun-Ju; Chuo, Chia-Ying; Chang, Ku-Chou

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is one of the most prevalent causes of adult disability and handicap. Informal caregivers play an important role in poststroke care. However, informal caregivers may experience strain, which threatens the recovery of stroke subjects. This study aimed to describe changes in strain experienced by informal caregivers from 3 to 6 months after the stroke, and identify the predicting factors. We recruited pairs of inpatients with ischemic stroke and informal caregivers from a tertiary referral hospital and interviewed them at 3 and 6 months after the stroke. Caregiver strain was evaluated using the Caregiver Strain Index (CSI), with a CSI ≥ 7 indicating considerable caregiver strain. Various factors associated with caregiver strain were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Eighty-nine stroke patients and caregivers completed the study. Considerable strain was reported in 46% and 43% of the caregivers at the 3rd and 6th month, respectively. Patient factors such as severe disabilities (Barthel Index ≤ 60), poor cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 23), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] ≥ 10), and recurrent stroke were predictors for caregiver strain. Caregiver factors, such as changed employment status, help from formal caregivers, and depression (BDI ≥ 10) were also associated with considerable caregiver strain. Nearly 50% of caregivers experienced considerable strain. Interventions aimed at reducing the caregivers' strain should focus on enhancing the functional and emotional status of stroke subjects, prevention of recurrent stroke, and efficient management of depression symptoms in caregivers.

  6. Characteristics of cryptogenic stroke in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gon, Yasufumi; Okazaki, Shuhei; Terasaki, Yasukazu; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    To clarify the characteristics of cryptogenic stroke in patients with active cancer. Patients with or without cancer diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke between January 2006 and February 2015 were extracted from a prospectively collected stroke database of Osaka University Hospital. Patients were categorized according to the presence of active cancer and known stroke mechanisms. Among 1191 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 145 (12%) had active cancer. Patients with active cancer were diagnosed more often with cryptogenic stroke than were patients without cancer (47% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). Compared with cryptogenic stroke patients without cancer, cryptogenic stroke patients with active cancer had fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, lower nutrition status, higher plasma D-dimer levels, and multiple vascular lesions. In a multivariate logistic analysis, plasma D-dimer level (odds ratio [OR] per 1 standard deviation increase: 6.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.94-15.69; P < 0.001), and the presence of multiple vascular lesions (OR: 6.40; 95% CI: 2.35-18.35; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of active cancer. When comparing active cancer patients who had known stroke mechanisms with those who had cryptogenic stroke, high plasma D-dimer levels, multiple vascular lesions, and receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy were associated with cryptogenic stroke etiology. In cryptogenic stroke, patients with active cancer has a unique pathology characterized by high plasma D-dimer levels and multiple vascular lesions. The hypercoagulable state and malnutrition due to cancer and its treatments potentially influence the development of cryptogenic stroke in cancer patients.

  7. Stroke after adult-onset epilepsy: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wannamaker, Braxton B; Wilson, Dulaney A; Malek, Angela M; Selassie, Anbesaw W

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies indicate a higher risk of subsequent stroke in PWE aged ≥60. However, little is known of the incidence of subsequent stroke in people with epilepsy (PWE) aged 35 through 60. We determined the risk factors that increase the incidence of stroke following adult-onset epilepsy in a large statewide population over a 10-year period. South Carolina hospital discharge and emergency department (ED) data from 2000 to 2011 were used. The study was limited to persons aged ≥35years without prior stroke. Cases included patients diagnosed with epilepsy who were hospitalized or visited the ED. Controls were people with an isolated fracture of the lower extremity without any history of epilepsy or seizure disorders, presumed to approximate the health status of the general population. Epilepsy, fracture, stroke, and comorbid conditions were ascertained by diagnostic codes from health-care encounters. Only persons having stroke occurring ≥6months after the onset of epilepsy or after the first clinical encounter for controls were included. Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to determine the risk of stroke. There were 21,035 cases with epilepsy and 16,638 controls who met the inclusion criteria. Stroke incidence was 2.5 times higher following adult-onset epilepsy (6.3%) compared with controls (2.5%). After adjusting for comorbidities and other factors, cases with epilepsy showed a 60% higher risk of stroke (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.42-1.80) compared with controls. Nearly half of the strokes in cases with epilepsy occurred in those with first diagnosis between ages 35 and 55. Somatic comorbidities associated with increased risk of stroke were more prevalent in cases with epilepsy than controls yet similar in both groups with stroke. Risk of stroke increased with increasing age in both groups. However, the risk of stroke in cases with epilepsy increased faster and was similar to that in controls who were ≥10years older. Adult-onset epilepsy at age 35 and

  8. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  9. Sexuality after stroke: patient counseling preferences.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joel; Hillinger, Marni; Clancy, Cait; Bishop, Lauri

    2013-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common after stroke, but is frequently not addressed by healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to examine patient preferences for counseling related to sexuality post-stroke. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients from a stroke registry were provided an anonymous paper or online survey. Thirty-eight patients responded and completed the survey. The survey included demographic information, and scales of sexual dysfunction, fatigue, depression and functional independence. In addition, we queried subjects about stroke-related sexual dysfunction and their preferences for counseling and education materials. Most respondents (71%) identified sexuality as a moderately to very important issue in their post-stroke rehabilitation. Sexual dysfunction was common, with 47% of respondents indicating that their sexual function had declined since the stroke. Eighty-one percent reported receiving insufficient information about sexuality post-stroke, and the majority (60%) expressed a preference for receiving counseling regarding sexuality from a physician. A substantial portion (26.5%) of patients wanted to receive counseling prior to discharge from a hospital or rehabilitation center, with 71% wishing to receive counseling within 1 year post-stroke. Many stroke survivors experience sexual dysfunction and indicate a desire for additional information and counseling from healthcare providers. Preferences regarding the timing of such counseling vary, creating challenges for optimizing the delivery of this care. IMPLICATIONS FOR STROKE REHABILITATION: Sexual dysfunction is common after stroke, but is frequently not addressed by healthcare providers. Many stroke survivors experience sexual dysfunction and indicate a desire for additional information and counseling from healthcare providers. Most stroke survivors identify sexuality as an important issue in their post-stroke rehabilitation. Exploring individual stroke survivor counseling preferences

  10. Incidence and risk conditions of ischemic stroke in older adults.

    PubMed

    Satue, E; Vila-Corcoles, A; Ochoa-Gondar, O; de Diego, C; Forcadell, M J; Rodriguez-Blanco, T; Barnes, L; Jariod, M

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate incidence and mortality from ischemic stroke in older adults with specific underlying chronic conditions, evaluating the influence of these conditions in developing stroke. Population-based cohort study involving 27,204 individuals ≥60 years old in Southern Catalonia, Spain. All cases of hospitalization from ischemic stroke (confirmed by neuro-imaging) were collected from 01/12/2008 until 30/11/2011. Incidence rates and 30-day mortality were estimated according to age, sex, chronic illnesses, and underlying conditions. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to calculate Hazards Ratio (HR) and estimate the association between baseline conditions and risk of developing stroke. Mean incidence rate reached 453 cases per 100,000 person-years. Maximum rates appeared among individuals with history of prior stroke (2926 per 100,000), atrial fibrillation (1815 per 100,000), coronary artery disease (1104 per 100,000), nursing-home residence (1014 per 100,000), and advanced age ≥80 years (1006 per 100,000). Thirty-day mortality was 13% overall, reaching 21% among patients over 80 years. Age [HR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.07], history of prior stroke (HR: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.96-6.51), history of coronary artery disease (HR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.21-2.25), atrial fibrillation (HR: 2.96; 95% CI: 2.30-3.81), diabetes mellitus (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.23-1.95), and smoking (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.15-2.34) emerged independently associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Incidence and mortality from ischemic stroke remains considerable. Apart from age and history of atherosclerosis (prior stroke or coronary artery disease), atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and smoking were the underlying conditions most strongly associated with an increased risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Risk of Stroke and Post-Stroke Adverse Events in Patients with Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-Shun; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chung, Chi-Li

    2017-01-01

    Background The risk and outcomes of stroke in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations (COPDe) remain unclear. We examined whether patients with COPDe faced increased risk of stroke or post-stroke outcomes. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 1918 adults with COPDe and selected comparison cohorts of 3836 adults with COPD no exacerbations and 7672 adults without COPD who were frequency matched by age and sex in 2000–2008 (Study 1). Stroke event was identified during 2000–2013 follow-up period. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stroke associated with COPDe were calculated. In a nested cohort study (Study 2) of 261686 new-diagnosed stroke patients in 2000–2009, we calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of adverse events after stroke in patients with COPDe. Results Patients with COPDe had increased stroke incidence, with an adjusted HR of 1.28 (95% CI, 1.03–1.59). In the Study 2, COPDe were associated with post-stroke mortality (OR, 1.34, 95% CI 1.20–1.52), epilepsy (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, (1.22–1.67), and pneumonia (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.39–1.62). Previous intubation for COPD and inpatient admissions due to COPD were factors associated with post-stroke adverse events. Conclusion Patients who have had COPDe face increased risks of stroke and post-stroke adverse events. PMID:28060955

  12. Anesthetic management of patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Flexman, Alana M; Donovan, Anne L; Gelb, Adrian W

    2012-06-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Anesthesiologists are likely to encounter patients with stroke and must be aware of the anesthetic considerations for these patients. Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombolysis are effective treatments for acuteischemic stroke as well as evolving endovascular techniques such as mechanical clot retrieval. Recent retrospective studies have found an association between general anesthesia and poor clinical outcome. The results of these studies have several limitations, and current evidence is inadequate to guide the choice of anesthesia in patients with acute stroke. The choice of anesthesia must be based on individual patient factors until further research is completed.

  13. Are semantic and phonological fluency based on the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes? Insights from factor analyses in healthy adults and stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Charlotte S M; Schumacher, Lena V; Römer, Pia; Leonhart, Rainer; Beume, Lena; Martin, Markus; Dressing, Andrea; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2017-05-01

    Verbal fluency for semantic categories and phonological letters is frequently applied to studies of language and executive functions. Despite its popularity, it is still debated whether measures of semantic and phonological fluency reflect the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes. Word generation in the two task variants is believed to involve different types of search processes. Findings from the lesion and neuroimaging literature further suggest a stronger reliance of phonological and semantic fluency on frontal and temporal brain areas, respectively. This evidence for differential cognitive and neural contributions is, however, strongly challenged by findings from factor analyses, which have consistently yielded only one explanatory factor. As all previous factor-analytical approaches were based on very small item sets, this apparent discrepancy may be due to methodological limitations. In this study, we therefore applied a German version of the verbal fluency task with 8 semantic (i.e. categories) and 8 phonological items (i.e. letters). An exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation in N=69 healthy young adults indeed revealed a two-factor solution with markedly different loadings for semantic and phonological items. This pattern was corroborated by a confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of N=174 stroke patients. As results from both samples also revealed a substantial portion of common variance between the semantic and phonological factor, the present data further demonstrate that semantic and phonological verbal fluency are based on clearly distinct but also on shared sets of cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agreement between the spatio-temporal gait parameters from treadmill-based photoelectric cell and the instrumented treadmill system in healthy young adults and stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myungmo; Song, Changho; Lee, Kyoungjin; Shin, Doochul; Shin, Seungho

    2014-01-01

    Background Treadmill gait analysis was more advantageous than over-ground walking because it allowed continuous measurements of the gait parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity and the test-retest reliability of the OPTOGait photoelectric cell system against the treadmill-based gait analysis system by assessing spatio-temporal gait parameters. Material/Methods Twenty-six stroke patients and 18 healthy adults were asked to walk on the treadmill at their preferred speed. The concurrent validity was assessed by comparing data obtained from the 2 systems, and the test-retest reliability was determined by comparing data obtained from the 1st and the 2nd session of the OPTOGait system. Results The concurrent validity, identified by the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC [2, 1]), coefficients of variation (CVME), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for the spatial-temporal gait parameters, were excellent but the temporal parameters expressed as a percentage of the gait cycle were poor. The test-retest reliability of the OPTOGait System, identified by ICC (3, 1), CVME, 95% LOA, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimum detectable change (MDC95%) for the spatio-temporal gait parameters, was high. Conclusions These findings indicated that the treadmill-based OPTOGait System had strong concurrent validity and test-retest reliability. This portable system could be useful for clinical assessments. PMID:25017613

  15. Agreement between the spatio-temporal gait parameters from treadmill-based photoelectric cell and the instrumented treadmill system in healthy young adults and stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungmo; Song, Changho; Lee, Kyoungjin; Shin, Doochul; Shin, Seungho

    2014-07-14

    Treadmill gait analysis was more advantageous than over-ground walking because it allowed continuous measurements of the gait parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity and the test-retest reliability of the OPTOGait photoelectric cell system against the treadmill-based gait analysis system by assessing spatio-temporal gait parameters. Twenty-six stroke patients and 18 healthy adults were asked to walk on the treadmill at their preferred speed. The concurrent validity was assessed by comparing data obtained from the 2 systems, and the test-retest reliability was determined by comparing data obtained from the 1st and the 2nd session of the OPTOGait system. The concurrent validity, identified by the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC [2, 1]), coefficients of variation (CVME), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for the spatial-temporal gait parameters, were excellent but the temporal parameters expressed as a percentage of the gait cycle were poor. The test-retest reliability of the OPTOGait System, identified by ICC (3, 1), CVME, 95% LOA, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimum detectable change (MDC95%) for the spatio-temporal gait parameters, was high. These findings indicated that the treadmill-based OPTOGait System had strong concurrent validity and test-retest reliability. This portable system could be useful for clinical assessments.

  16. Painting as Language for a Stroke Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmi, Shulamit; Mashiah, Tonni

    1996-01-01

    Painting may provide an outlet for self-expression for stroke patients experiencing physical, emotional, and social difficulties during rehabilitation. A case study of a stroke patient demonstrates the value of the artistic process as a vehicle for integration and communication. (LSR)

  17. Painting as Language for a Stroke Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmi, Shulamit; Mashiah, Tonni

    1996-01-01

    Painting may provide an outlet for self-expression for stroke patients experiencing physical, emotional, and social difficulties during rehabilitation. A case study of a stroke patient demonstrates the value of the artistic process as a vehicle for integration and communication. (LSR)

  18. Stroke in adult polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, M.; Gonzalo, A.; Gobernado, J. M.; Orte, L.; Quereda, C.; Ortuño, J.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the incidence of acute cerebrovascular events, 142 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease were retrospectively reviewed. Fourteen patients (9.8%) had 19 cerebral attacks. Six patients (4.2%) had intracranial haemorrhage attacks (three ruptured intracranial aneurysms and three cerebral haemorrhages). Ischaemic events occurred in nine patients (five cerebral infarctions and four transient ischaemic attacks). Patients with ischaemic attacks had a better outcome than patients with haemorrhagic events even when transient ischaemic attacks were excluded. Patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were younger. Cerebral complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with adult polycystic kidney disease. They can prove disabling prior to or after dialysis and transplantation. PMID:1480536

  19. Stroke assessment in the perioperative orthopaedic patient.

    PubMed

    Weinhardt, Janice; Jacobson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    A growing elderly population with an increasing number of comorbidities is presenting for orthopaedic procedures and interventions, lending themselves to greater risk for complications, including stroke. Prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, carotid stenosis, and advanced age are the most common risk factors for perioperative stroke. A comprehensive neurologic assessment should include a thorough history including identification of risk factors, pertinent medications, and a physical examination. This assessment is important to establish a baseline for subsequent neurologic evaluations in the postoperative period. Neurologic physical assessment can be an intimidating task, especially for the orthopaedic nurse who lacks experience in caring for the neurologic patient. Patients who are found with a focal neurologic deficit that is suspicious for stroke require urgent assessment, exclusion of stroke mimics, and activation of the institution's stroke team to allow for brain saving interventions. Time is brain.

  20. Cocaine Use and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Qadwai, Saad A; Shah, Jay; Sparks, Mary J; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Phipps, Michael S; Cronin, Carolyn A; Magder, Laurence S; Cole, John W; Kittner, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Although case reports have long identified a temporal association between cocaine use and ischemic stroke (IS), few epidemiological studies have examined the association of cocaine use with IS in young adults, by timing, route, and frequency of use. A population-based case-control study design with 1090 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of cocaine use and young-onset IS. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between cocaine use and IS with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Ever use of cocaine was not associated with stroke with 28% of cases and 26% of controls reporting ever use. In contrast, acute cocaine use in the previous 24 hours was strongly associated with increased risk of stroke (age-sex-race adjusted odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-18.6). Among acute users, the smoking route had an adjusted odds ratio of 7.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-35.0), whereas the inhalation route had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-16.9). After additional adjustment for current alcohol, smoking use, and hypertension, the odds ratio for acute cocaine use by any route was 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.7). Of the 26 patients with cocaine use within 24 hours of their stroke, 14 reported use within 6 hours of their event. Our data are consistent with a causal association between acute cocaine use and risk of early-onset IS. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. [Nutrition for elderly acute stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Ha, Lisa; Iversen, Per Ole; Hauge, Truls

    2008-09-11

    Elderly people have an increased risk of malnutrition due to biological and physiological changes and underlying disease. Almost 90% of the stroke patients are older than 65 years, and the consequences of acute stroke may lead to additional nutritional problems. This paper reviews nutritional therapy for stroke patients. PubMed was searched (non-systematically) for prospective cohort studies of occurrence, diagnostics and consequences of undernutrition in stroke patients. Randomized trials were examined to identify clinical effects of oral protein and energy supplements or tube feeding on nutritional status and intake, functional status, infections, length of stay, quality of life and mortality. 8-35% of stroke patients are undernourished. Body weight is one of the most important parameters for assessment of nutritional status. Dysphagia occurs in up to 80% of patients with acute stroke and increases the risk of undernutrition, which again leads to prolonged length of stay, reduced functional status and poorer survival. Early nasogastric tube feeding does not increase the risk of pneumonia and may improve survival after six months. Oral supplements lead to a significantly improved nutritional intake in undernourished stroke patients, as well as improved nutritional status and survival in undernourished elderly. Nutritional treatment can improve the clinical outcome after an acute stroke, provided that there are good procedures for follow-up and monitoring of the treatment.

  2. Palliative Care Consultations in Hospitalized Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Robb, Jessica; Kelly, Adam; Nielsen, Eric; Quill, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the pattern and characteristics of palliative care (PC) consultations in patients with stroke and compare them with the characteristics of nonstroke consultations. Methods The palliative care program at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) was established in October 2001. SMH is a 765-bed academic medical center with approximately 38,000 discharges. For each consult from 2005 to 2007, we collected demographic, clinical, and service-related information. We explored similarities and differences in patients with different types of stroke, including patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. In addition, we compared these data to the nonstroke patients who had a palliative care consultation during the same time period. Results Over the 3-year period from 2005 to 2007, there were a total of 101 consultations in patients with stroke (6.3% of all PC consultations). Of the 101 consultations, 31 were in patients with ischemic stroke, 26 in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 30 in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 14 in patients with subdural hematoma. Patients with stroke who had a PC consult were more functionally impaired, less likely to have capacity, more likely to die in the hospital, and to have fewer traditional symptom burdens than other common diagnoses seen on the PC consultation service. The most common trajectory to death was withdrawal of mechanical ventilation, but varied by type of stroke. Common treatments negotiated in these consultations included mechanical ventilation, artificial nutrition, tracheostomy, and less likely antibiobics, intravenous fluids, and various neurosurgical procedures. Conclusions Patients with stroke are a common diagnosis seen on an inpatient palliative care consult service. Each stroke type represents patients with potentially distinct palliative care needs. PMID:20384501

  3. Young adults' experience of stroke: a qualitative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Maggie

    Stroke is a life-threatening event that has a devastating impact on young adults and their families. The author conducted a systematic review of the qualitative literature to explore the experience of stroke from the perspective of young adults. Four primary research 'papers' were analyzed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument; 60 findings were extracted from the papers and merged into 13 categories, from which three synthesized findings were developed - disorientation, disrupted sense of self, and roles and relationships. Many of the effects of stroke are 'invisible' but have significant impact on social participation, including the ability to return to work and to enjoy an active social life. Young adults feel the same and yet different following stroke, which may have a profound effect on relationships. Effective communication between patients, families and health professionals is crucial to all aspects of recovery.

  4. Ethical and legal issues regarding consent in research with adult stroke patients: case study in the ethics of mental health research.

    PubMed

    Pope, Anne

    2012-03-01

    This case study describes research into interventions to enhance stroke patients' ability to communicate. Because patients' cognitive abilities are compromised, it is argued that they may lack the capacity to consent and that surrogate consent should be required. In South Africa, this would make conducting the research difficult because only court-appointed curators are "legally appropriate" substitutes for research enrolment. Here, the research ethics committee must balance legal requirements and ethical concerns. It must also balance protection and respect for autonomy, even for cognitively compromised participants. First, incapacity should not simply be assumed but should be individually assessed. However, stroke patients present a further complication for capacity assessment because they may retain the capacity to reason but have lost the ability to communicate effectively. Second, the research ethics committee must decide whether recruitment should be restricted or whether incapacitated participants may be enrolled. Given the low risk of harm, incapacitated persons could be enrolled by proxies.

  5. Neuroimaging in stroke and non-stroke pusher patients.

    PubMed

    Santos-Pontelli, Taiza Elaine Grespan; Pontes-Neto, Octavio Marques; Araujo, Draulio Barros de; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Pusher behavior (PB) is a disorder of postural control affecting patients with encephalic lesions. This study has aimed to identify the brain substrates that are critical for the occurrence of PB, to analyze the influence of the midline shift (MS) and hemorrhagic stroke volume (HSV) on the severity and prognosis of the PB. We identified 31 pusher patients of a neurological unit, mean age 67.4 ± 11.89, 61.3% male. Additional neurological and functional examinations were assessed. Neuroimaging workup included measurement of the MS, the HSV in patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the analysis of the vascular territory, etiology and side of the lesion. Lesions in the parietal region (p=0.041) and thalamus (p=0.001) were significantly more frequent in PB patients. Neither the MS nor the HSV were correlated with the PB severity or recovery time.

  6. Management of depression in elderly stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lökk, Johan; Delbari, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) in elderly patients has been considered the most common neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke up to 6–24 months after stroke onset. When depression appears within days after stroke onset, it is likely to remit, whereas depression at 3 months is likely to be sustained for 1 year. One of the major problems posed by elderly stroke patients is how to identify and optimally manage PSD. This review provides insight to identification and management of depression in elderly stroke patients. Depression following stroke is less likely to include dysphoria and more likely characterized by vegetative signs and symptoms compared with other forms of late-life depression, and clinicians should rely more on nonsomatic symptoms rather than somatic symptoms. Evaluation and diagnosis of depression among elderly stroke patients are more complex due to vague symptoms of depression, overlapping signs and symptoms of stroke and depression, lack of properly trained health care personnel, and insufficient assessment tools for proper diagnosis. Major goals of treatment are to reduce depressive symptoms, improve mood and quality of life, and reduce the risk of medical complications including relapse. Antidepressants (ADs) are generally not indicated in mild forms because the balance of benefit and risk is not satisfactory in elderly stroke patients. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first choice of PSD treatment in elderly patients due to their lower potential for drug interaction and side effects, which are more common with tricyclic ADs. Recently, stimulant medications have emerged as promising new therapeutic interventions for PSD and are now the subject of rigorous clinical trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy can also be useful, and electroconvulsive therapy is available for patients with severe refractory PSD. PMID:20856917

  7. Aspirin resistant patients with recent ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Navas-Alcántara, M S; Fernández-Moreno, M C

    2014-04-01

    Some patients with a recent ischemic stroke who are being treated with aspirin as an antiaggregant suffer a new ischemic stroke. These patients (15-25%) have been called unresponsive to aspirin or aspirin resistant. The aspirin-resistant patients have a four-time greater risk of suffering a stroke. Furthermore, these strokes are generally more severe, with increased infarct volume and greater risk of recurrence. There is currently no ideal laboratory test to detect the resistance to the antiaggregant effect of aspirin. The study of resistance to aspirin would only be indicated in selected cases. In these patients, one should first rule out any "pseudo-resistance" to aspirin (lack of compliance, concomitant treatments that interfere with the action of the aspirin). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Recurrent thromboembolic events after ischemic stroke in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Samuel; Merkler, Alexander E.; Cheng, Natalie T.; Stone, Jacqueline B.; Kamel, Hooman; Iadecola, Costantino; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cumulative rate and characteristics of recurrent thromboembolic events after acute ischemic stroke in patients with cancer. Methods: We retrospectively identified consecutive adult patients with active systemic cancer diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke at a tertiary-care cancer center from 2005 through 2009. Two neurologists independently reviewed all electronic records to ascertain the composite outcome of recurrent ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, TIA, or venous thromboembolism. Kaplan-Meier statistics were used to determine cumulative outcome rates. In exploratory analyses, Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to evaluate potential independent associations between a priori selected clinical factors and recurrent thromboembolic events. Results: Among 263 study patients, complete follow-up until death was available in 230 (87%). Most patients had an adenocarcinoma as their underlying cancer (60%) and had systemic metastases (69%). Despite a median survival of 84 days (interquartile range 24–419 days), 90 patients (34%; 95% confidence interval 28%–40%) had 117 recurrent thromboembolic events, consisting of 57 cases of venous thromboembolism, 36 recurrent ischemic strokes, 13 myocardial infarctions, 10 cases of systemic embolism, and one TIA. Kaplan-Meier rates of recurrent thromboembolism were 21%, 31%, and 37% at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively; cumulative rates of recurrent ischemic stroke were 7%, 13%, and 16%. Adenocarcinoma histology (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.02–2.68) was independently associated with recurrent thromboembolism. Conclusions: Patients with acute ischemic stroke in the setting of active cancer (especially adenocarcinoma) face a substantial short-term risk of recurrent ischemic stroke and other types of thromboembolism. PMID:24850486

  9. TOOTH (The Open study Of dental pulp stem cell Therapy in Humans): Study protocol for evaluating safety and feasibility of autologous human adult dental pulp stem cell therapy in patients with chronic disability after stroke.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Anjali; Kremer, Karlea L; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A; Kaidonis, Xenia; Milton, Austin G; Levi, Christopher; Shi, Songtao; Carey, Leeanne; Hillier, Susan; Rose, Miranda; Zacest, Andrew; Takhar, Parabjit; Koblar, Simon A

    2016-07-01

    -specific rehabilitation. Advanced magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography neuro-imaging, and clinical assessment will be employed to probe any change afforded by stem cell therapy in combination with rehabilitation. Nine participants will step-wise progress in Stage 2 to a dose of up to 10 million dental pulp stem cell, employing a cumulative 3 + 3 statistical design with low starting stem cell dose and subsequent dose escalation, assuming that an acceptable probability of dose-limiting complications is between 1 in 6 (17%) and 1 in 3 (33%) of patients. In Stage 3, another 18 participants will receive an intracranial injection with the maximum tolerable dose of dental pulp stem cell. The primary outcomes to be measured are safety and feasibility of intracranial administration of autologous human adult DPSC in patients with chronic stroke and determination of the maximum tolerable dose in human subjects. Secondary outcomes include estimation of the measures of effectiveness required to design a future Phase 2/3 clinical trial. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Claw toes in hemiplegic patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Laurent, G; Valentini, F; Loiseau, K; Hennebelle, D; Robain, G

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of claw toes and its correlation to other lower limb disorders as well as the global functional recovery in a population of hemiplegic patients 1year post-stroke. This prospective study included 39 stroke patients hospitalized in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) department of a hospital between September2000 and September2001. The evaluation looked for incidence of claw toes during the first year post-stroke and whether there was a potential link to triceps surae spasticity, motor impairment of the leg and patients' functional abilities (Barthel Index, postural assessment scale for stroke patients [PASS], functional ambulation classification [FAC]). We conducted a total of 64 evaluations (one to four by patient). In 18 out of 39 (46%) patients, we found an occurrence of claw toes. In 15 out of 18 (83%) patients, who regained average functional capacities, its onset took place before the end of the third month post-stroke (Barthel: 30-70, PASS: 15-33, FAC: 3-4) and it was significantly linked to equinus and/or varus foot (p<0.0001). The occurrence of claw toes in hemiplegic patients is common and happens early on post-stroke. Equinus and/or varus foot and average functional capacities were associated to claw toes. Despite the few studies devoted to this condition in stroke patients, this condition must be diagnosed early and taken into account to improve the patient's rehabilitation care. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety Outcomes After Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Recent Stroke.

    PubMed

    Merkler, Alexander E; Salehi Omran, Setareh; Gialdini, Gino; Lerario, Michael P; Yaghi, Shadi; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Navi, Babak B

    2017-08-01

    It is uncertain whether previous ischemic stroke within 3 months of receiving intravenous thrombolysis (tPA [tissue-type plasminogen activator]) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Using administrative claims data, we identified adults with AIS who received intravenous tPA at California, New York, and Florida hospitals from 2005 to 2013. Our primary outcome was intracerebral hemorrhage, and our secondary outcomes were unfavorable discharge disposition and inpatient mortality. We used logistic regression to compare rates of outcomes in patients with and without previous ischemic stroke within 3 months of intravenous tPA for AIS. We identified 36 599 AIS patients treated with intravenous tPA, of whom 568 (1.6%) had a previous ischemic stroke in the past 3 months. Of all patients who received intravenous tPA, the rate of intracerebral hemorrhage was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7%-5.1%), and death occurred in 10.7% (95% CI, 10.4%-11.0%). After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, previous ischemic stroke within 3 months of thrombolysis for AIS was not associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.4; P=0.62), but was associated with an increased risk of death (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9; P=0.001) and unfavorable discharge disposition (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7; P=0.04). Among patients who receive intravenous tPA for AIS, recent ischemic stroke is not associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage but is associated with a higher risk of death and unfavorable discharge disposition. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Mutations of the GLA gene in young patients with stroke: the PORTYSTROKE study--screening genetic conditions in Portuguese young stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Miguel Viana; Ferreira, Susana; Pinho-E-Melo, Teresa; Carvalho, Marta; Cruz, Vítor T; Carmona, Cátia; Silva, Fernando A; Tuna, Assunção; Rodrigues, Miguel; Ferreira, Carla; Pinto, Ana A N; Leitão, André; Gabriel, João Paulo; Calado, Sofia; Oliveira, João Paulo; Ferro, José M

    2010-03-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene. Recent data suggest that stroke in young adults may be associated with Fabry disease. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of this disorder among young adult patients with stroke in Portugal by GLA genotyping. During 1 year, all patients aged 18 to 55 years with first-ever stroke, who were admitted into any of 12 neurology hospital departments in Portugal, were prospectively enrolled (n=625). Ischemic stroke was classified according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Alpha-galactosidase activity was further assayed in all patients with GLA mutations. Four hundred ninety-three patients (mean age, 45.4 years; 61% male) underwent genetic analyses: 364 with ischemic stroke, 89 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 26 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 14 with cerebral venous thrombosis. Twelve patients had missense GLA mutations: 9 with ischemic stroke (p.R118C: n=4; p.D313Y: n=5), including 5 patients with an identified cause of stroke (cardiac embolism: n=2; small vessel disease: n=2; other cause: n=1), 2 with intracerebral hemorrhage (p.R118C: n=1; p.D313Y: n=1), and one with cerebral venous thrombosis (p.R118C: n=1). Leukocyte alpha-galactosidase activity was subnormal in the hemizygous males and subnormal or low-normal in the heterozygous females. Estimated prevalence of missense GLA mutations was 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3% to 4.1%). Despite a low diagnostic yield, screening for GLA mutations should probably be considered in different types of stroke. Restricting investigation to patients with cryptogenic stroke may underestimate the true prevalence of Fabry disease in young patients with stroke.

  13. The Migraine-Ischemic Stroke Relation in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by specific risk factors such as patent foramen ovale or endothelial dysfunction and more frequent in particular conditions like spontaneous cervical artery dissection; (2) migraine is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; (3) the link is caused by migraine-specific drugs; (4) migraine and ischemic vascular events are linked via a genetic component. In the present paper, we will review epidemiological studies, discuss potential mechanisms of migraine-induced stroke and comorbid ischemic stroke, and pose new research questions. PMID:21197470

  14. Malnutrition in Patients with Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bouziana, Stella D.; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a devastating event that carries a potential for long-term disability. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with stroke, and dysphagia contributes to malnutrition risk. During both the acute phase of stroke and rehabilitation, specific nutritional interventions in the context of a multidisciplinary team effort can enhance the recovery of neurocognitive function. Early identification and management of malnutrition with dietary modifications or specific therapeutic strategies to ensure adequate nutritional intake should receive more attention, since poor nutritional status appears to exacerbate brain damage and to contribute to adverse outcome. The main purpose of nutritional intervention should be the prevention or treatment of complications resulting from energy-protein deficit. This paper reviews the evaluation and management of malnutrition and the use of specialized nutrition support in patients with stroke. Emphasis is given to enteral tube and oral feeding and to strategies to wean from tube feeding. PMID:22254136

  15. Visual field dependence influences balance in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Slaboda, J C; Barton, J E; Maitin, I B; Keshner, E A

    2009-01-01

    To compare the occurrence of visual field independence/dependence in healthy subjects with patients who are post-stroke using the Rod and Frame Test, and determine whether increased visual dependence is reflected in their postural responses when immersed in a moving visual environment. Eight older and twelve young adults, and twelve patients with cortical or sub-cortical stroke, were asked to align a rod enclosed in a tilted frame to vertical and horizontal. Angular deviations of rod position were calculated and compared. Center-of-mass (COM) of the body was calculated for two patients and two young adults standing in the dark and in an immersive virtual environment to examine their postural responses. Balance of the patients did not appear different from healthy subjects when standing in the dark suggesting they were not dependent on the presence of vision, but more rapid and larger COM displacements emerged in the patients when immersed in a moving visual scene. Patients also exhibited greater errors when aligning the rod compared to both healthy groups. Thus, patients with stroke may be more dependent on visual inputs when they are present, and have more difficulty resolving conflict between the visual and somatosensory cues compared to healthy young or older subjects. This impaired conflict resolution may underlie the rapid instability observed in patients when they were placed in a moving visual environment.

  16. [Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients after stroke].

    PubMed

    Corsalini, M; Grassi, R; Di Venere, D; Carella, M; Caprio, S; Covelli, M

    2004-03-01

    Stroke is actually the 3rd cause of death in the world after cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In Italy, every year there are 100000 new cases; 2/3 of them die or become heavily disabled. The greatest part of patients which survive is old-aged and 70% of patients that survive is a removable denture wearer. At the Neurological Clinic of the Polyclinic Hospital of Bari we have studied 14 removable denture wearers that had had a stroke. We observed that 85.7 % of removable dentures were inefficient, in 50% there will need a new removable prosthesis; 50% of persons had a bad dental hygiene; 93% of denture wearers with stroke didn't make an odontoiatric control after stroke. Although the analysis of the orodental status has been carried out on a limited number of patients, the need of a greater motivation and solicitation in dental check-up is underlined. The role of the dentist in oral rehabilitation and in rehabilitation of post stroke dysphagia in stroke survivors is also examined.

  17. Non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis and patent foramen ovale in young adults with cryptogenic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V

    2017-05-01

    Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with <50% stenosis. PFO was diagnosed with transesophageal echocardiography. A total of 164 patients [mean age (SD) = 43.7 (8.5) years; 104 men] were included. A PFO was found in 79/164 (48.2%) patients. NOCA was demonstrated in 41/164 (25%) patients. NOCA was more common in patients without PFO [37.6% vs. 11.4%, P < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.24 (0.10-0.56)]. Older age (P = 0.046) and subcortical location of cerebral infarct (P = 0.015) were also associated with the absence of PFO, whereas hypertension, diabetes and smoking were not. This study demonstrates that NOCA is common in young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.

  18. Acupuncture therapy for stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is one of the most important parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used for more than 3000 years as prevention and treatment for various diseases in China as well as in adjacent regions, and is widely accepted in western countries in recent years. More and more clinical trials revealed that acupuncture shows positive effect in stroke, not only as a complementary and alternative medicine for poststroke rehabilitation but also as a preventive strategy which could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance, especially when combined with modern electrotherapy. Acupuncture has some unique characteristics, which include acupoint specificity and parameter-dependent effect. It also involves complicated mechanism to exert the beneficial effect on stroke. Series of clinical trials have shown that acupuncture primarily regulates the release of neurochemicals, hemorheology, cerebral microcirculation, metabolism, neuronal activity, and the function of specific brain region. Animal studies showed that the effects of acupuncture therapy on stroke were possibly via inhibition of postischemic inflammatory reaction, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and influence on neural plasticity. Mechanisms for its preconditioning effect include activity enhancement of antioxidant, regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although being controversial, acupuncture is a promising preventive and treatment strategy for stroke, but further high-quality clinical trials would be needed to provide more confirmative evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contraversive pushing in non-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Pontes-Neto, Octávio M; Colafêmina, José Fernando; de Araujo, Dráulio B; Santos, Antônio Carlos; Leite, João P

    2004-11-01

    Pusher syndrome is a disorder of postural control observed in patients with right or left brain damage associated with hemiparesis. Those patients show a peculiar behavior of actively pushing away from the nonhemiparetic side and resisting against passive correction, with a tendency to fall toward the paralyzed side. Thus far this phenomenon has been exclusively associated with stroke patients. We investigate the occurrence, imaging features and clinical evolution of pusher behavior in patients with acute encephalic lesions at a tertiary emergency hospital. Pusher patients were identified from 530 inpatients during a 1 year period. Patients were evaluated using a standardized Scale for Contraversive Pushing (SCP), neurological examination, assessment of neuropsychological symptoms, activities of daily living function and neuroimaging studies. We found eight patients (1.5%) with severe contraversive pushing, three female and five male. Age at symptoms onset ranged from 48 to 80 years (mean 65.4). All patients had scores equal or above 1.5 in each tested parameter of the SCP. Six patients (75 %) had right-hemisphere brain damage. A stroke etiology was found in four patients. The other four patients had non-stroke etiology (three traumatic, one metastatic tumor). Stroke patients showed complete recovery of pusher behavior at a mean duration of 15.3 weeks. In patients with brain trauma, pushing behavior was completely resolved in a mean time of 5 weeks. The results demonstrate that contraversive pushing may also occur in patients with non-stroke neurological lesions and suggest that resolution of symptoms may vary according to the underlying etiology.

  20. Thromboelastography in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Andrea; Wetzel, Jeremy; Roper, Tiffany; Pivalizza, Evan; McCarthy, James; Wallace, Cristina; Hess, Mary Jane; Peng, Hui; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Sangha, Navdeep; Grotta, James C

    2015-02-01

    Thromboelastography measures the dynamics of coagulation. There are limited data about thromboelastography in acute ischemic stroke other than a single study from 1974 suggesting that acute ischemic stroke patients are hypercoagulable. There have been no studies of thromboelastography in the thrombolytic era despite its potential usefulness as a measure of clot lysis. This study was designed to provide initial thromboelastography data in stroke patients before and after tissue plasminogen activator therapy and to provide the necessary preliminary data for further study of thromboelastography's ability to identify clot subtype and predict response to tissue plasminogen activator therapy. All acute ischemic stroke patients presenting between 11/2009 and 2/2011 eligible for tissue plasminogen activator therapy were screened and 56 enrolled. Blood was drawn before (52 patients) and 10 mins after tissue plasminogen activator bolus (30 patients). Demographics, vitals, labs, 24 h National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and computed tomography scan results were collected. Patients were compared with normal controls. Acute ischemic stroke patients had shorter R (4.8 ± 1.5 vs. 6.0 ± 1.7 min, P = 0.0004), greater α Angle (65.0 ± 7.6 vs. 61.5 ± 5.9°, P = 0.01), and shorter K (1.7 ± 0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.7 min, P = 0.002) indicating faster clotting. Additionally, a subset formed clots with stronger platelet-fibrin matrices. Treatment with tissue plasminogen activator resulted in reduction in all indices of clot strength (LY30 = 0 (0-0.4) vs. 94.4 (15.2-95.3) P < 0.0001); however, there was considerable variability in response. Thromboelastography demonstrates that many acute ischemic stroke patients are hypercoaguable. Thromboelastography values reflect variable clot subtype and response to tissue plasminogen activator. Further study based on these data will determine if thromboelastography is useful for measuring the dynamic aspects of clot formation and monitoring lytic

  1. The association baseline NIH Stroke Scale score with ABO blood-subtypes in young patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Zhang, Bin; Xie, Longchang; Yin, Jianrui; He, Yihua; Yang, Xinguang; Gao, Cong

    2014-09-01

    The presence of the A and B blood group antigens has been associated with risk of arterial thrombosis. The aim of the current study was to design a new simpler form of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) for use on admission, and assess the association of blood groups with NIHSS score in young stroke patients. We conducted this study in 1311 young Chinese adults with acute ischemic cerebral stroke. The outcome measures included a composite favorable outcome (defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 0 or 2) and poor outcome (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 3 or 6) at discharge; a minor strokes (NIHSS scores 0-5) and severe strokes (NIHSS scores ≥6). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between ABO blood groups and stroke severity. Regression analysis confirmed in relative to patients with AB subtype, Oxfordshire community stroke project classification (OCSP) subtype and serum white blood cell (WBC) were the major predictors for stroke severity. Meanwhile, diabetes, serum triglyceride and uric acid levels were determined as independent indicators of stroke severity in A, B and O blood subtype respectively. The optimal cutoff score of the baseline NIHSS was ≤5 for patients with non-O subtype, the optimal cutoff score of the baseline NIHSS was ≤7 for patients with blood O subtype. Our analysis provide compelling information regarding the ABO blood groups differences in predictors of stroke severity and the different validity of NIHSS scores in predicting prognosis at discharge between O subtype and non-O subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced Resting Metabolic Rate in Adults with Hemiparetic Chronic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Serra, Monica C; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E; Ryan, Alice S

    2015-12-22

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the component of energy expenditure that explains the largest proportion of total daily energy requirements. Since RMR is determined largely by fat-free mass and a low RMR predicts weight gain in healthy adults, identifying the role of muscle atrophy following stroke on RMR may help identify ways to mitigate the development of obesity post-stroke. Thirty-nine stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis (mean ± SEM: age: 61 ± 1 years, latency from stroke: 107 ± 40 months, BMI: 31 ± 3 kg/m2) underwent DXA scans for measurement of body composition, including total, paretic, and non-paretic leg lean mass and fasted, 30-min indirect calorimetry for measurement of RMR. Predicted RMR was calculated by the Mifflin-St Jeor equation, which considers weight, height, and age for both men and women. RMR was 14% lower than predicted (1438 ± 45 vs. 1669 ± 38 kcals/24 hrs; P<0.01). Total (r=0.73, P<0.01), paretic (r=0.72, P<0.01) and non-paretic (r=0.67, P<0.01) leg lean mass predicted RMR. These data indicate that muscle atrophy post stroke may lead to a reduced RMR. This substantiates the need to attenuate the loss of lean mass after a stroke to prevent declines in RMR and possible weight gain common post-stroke.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome in Polish Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Fudala, Małgorzata; Goral, Anna; Kasprzyk, Marta; Szczuchniak, Wiktor; Pejas-Dulewicz, Renata; Przybylski, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predisposes individuals to cardiovascular disease or stroke development. We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of MetS in a population of acute ischemic stroke (IS) patients from central Poland and at estimating the relationship between MetS and stroke risk. We analyzed 672 IS patients who were consecutively admitted to stroke units. The control group was composed of 612 patients with other neurologic disorders. MetS was diagnosed if 3 of 5 factors were present (obesity, increased blood pressure, increased triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and fasting hyperglycemia) according to the Unified Criteria for Clinical Diagnosis of the Metabolic Syndrome (2009). MetS was diagnosed in 61.2% of stroke patients versus 18.1% of the control group (P < .001). Multiple logistic regression showed that MetS was 1.8 times more common in women than in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.5). The adjusted OR (95% CI) associated with MetS was 2.44 (1.48-3.64; P < .001) for IS. Hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were the most frequent disturbances of IS patients (87.2% and 68.2%, respectively). The analysis of the interaction between MetS and its components showed significant associations with hypertension (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, .98-4.24; P < .01), high triglyceride levels (OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.87-9.43; P < .0001), and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR, 5.12; 95% CI, 3.15-8.20; P < .001). Over 60% of Polish IS patients have MetS. The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in women than in men. Thus, MetS may be a risk factor for IS. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery from visuospatial neglect in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, T.; Lewis, S.; Gray, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the natural recovery of visuospatial neglect in stroke patients and the distribution of errors made on cancellation tests using a standardised neuropsychological test battery.
METHOD—A prospective study of acute (< seven days) patients with right hemispheric stroke. Patients identified with visuospatial neglect were followed up for three months with monthly clinical and neuropsychological testing
RESULTS—There were 66 patients with acute right hemispheric stroke assessed of whom 27 (40.9%) had evidence of visuospatial neglect. Patients with neglect, on admission, had a mean behavioural inattention test (BIT) score of 56.3, range 10-126 (normal>129). Three of the subtests identified errors being made in both the right and left hemispaces. During follow up, recovery occurred across both hemispaces, maximal in the right hemispace. Recovery from visuospatial neglect was associated with improvement in function as assessed by the Barthel score. At the end of the study period only six (31.5%) patients had persisting evidence of neglect. On admission the best predictor of recovery of visuospatial neglect was the line cancellation test (Spearman's rank correlation r=−0.4217, p=0.028).
CONCLUSION—The demonstration of errors in both hemispaces has implications for the theory that neglect is a lateralised attentional problem and is important to recognise in planning the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

 PMID:9576556

  5. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  6. [Association between sleep duration and stroke in adults].

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; Wang, Hao; Hu, Ruying; Zhong, Jieming; Qian, Yijian; Wang, Chunmei; Xie, Kaixu; Chen, Lingli; Gong, Weiwei; Guo, Yu; Yu, Min; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-11-01

    To explore the association between sleep duration and stroke in adults. Baseline data of 57 704 subjects who were aged 30-79 years and enrolled into China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from Tongxiang county, Zhejiang province were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the putative association between sleep duration and stroke after adjusting for potential confounders. The mean age of the subjects was (53.15 ± 10.20) years in males and (51.72 ± .69) years in females, respectively. There were 14.43% of males and 15.30% of females reporting sleep durations ≤ 6 hours per day and 5.39% of males and 5.95% of females reporting long duration of sleep (≥ 10 hours per day). The prevalence of stroke was 0.92% in males compared with 0.44% in females. The prevalence of stroke showed a U-shaped distribution with sleep duration. Compared with 7 hours sleep duration per day, long sleep duration (≥ 10 hours per day) was associated with stroke. The odds ratios (OR) were 2.11 (95%CI: 1.32-3.37) for males and 2.13 (95%CI: 1.24-3.65) for females after adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, health behaviors and health status. No statistical significant association was found between short sleep duration and stroke. Meanwhile, frequent sleep snoring was found to be associated with stroke in females (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.11-2.40). Longer sleep duration was found to be associated with higher risk of stroke in both males and females. Frequent sleep snoring would increase the risk of stroke in females.

  7. Determining the needs, priorities, and desired rehabilitation outcomes of young adults who have had a stroke.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Maggie; Kinn, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background. Guidelines state that young adults' (aged 18-55 years) rehabilitation needs and priorities following stroke are different from older adults'. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding young adults' perspectives of their needs and priorities. Aim. To gain an understanding of young adults' experience of stroke and associated rehabilitation needs, priorities, and desired outcomes. Methods. A qualitative approach was adopted, based on the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty. Longitudinal data were gathered using unstructured interviews and analysed using phenomenological reduction. Results. Ten young adults took part in up to four interviews over two years. An overarching theme, Embodied Disorientation, and three subthemes: Mortal Body, Situated Body, and Embodied Perception of Difference, described the young adults' experience. A subsequent iterative process enabled tabulation of patient-centred rehabilitation needs, priorities, and outcomes. Conclusion. Rehabilitation professionals can use the evidence-based outcomes table to work with young adults to develop meaningful patient-centred goals and select appropriate interventions which align with identified needs and outcomes throughout the stroke recovery trajectory.

  8. Clinical study of 222 patients with pure motor stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, A; Padilla, I; Massons, J; Garcia-Eroles, L; Comes, E; Targa, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to assess the frequency of pure motor stroke caused by different stroke subtypes and to compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and outcome data of pure motor stroke with those of patients with other lacunar stroke as well as with those of patients with non-lacunar stroke.
Data from 2000 patients with acute stroke (n=1761) or transient ischaemic attack (n=239) admitted consecutively to the department of neurology of an acute care 350 bed teaching hospital were prospectively collected in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona stroke registry over a 10 year period. For the purpose of the study 222 (12.7%) patients with pure motor stroke were selected. The other study groups included 218 (12.3%) patients with other lacunar strokes and 1321 (75%) patients with non-lacunar stroke.
In relation to stroke subtype, lacunar infarcts were found in 189 (85%) patients, whereas ischaemic lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts occurred in 23 (10.4%) patients (atherothrombotic stroke in 12, cardioembolic stroke in seven, infarction of undetermined origin in three, and infarction of unusual aetiology in one) and haemorrhagic lacunar syndromes in 10 (4.5%). Patients with pure motor stroke showed a better outcome than patients with non-lacunar stroke with a significantly lower number of complications and in hospital mortality rate, shorter duration of hospital stay, and a higher number of symptom free patients at hospital discharge. After multivariate analysis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, non-sudden stroke onset, internal capsule involvement, and pons topography seemed to be independent factors of pure motor stroke in patients with acute stroke.
In conclusion, about one of every 10 patients with acute stroke had a pure motor stroke. Pure motor stroke was caused by a lacunar infarct in 85% of patients and by other stroke subtypes in 15%. Several clinical features are more frequent in patients with pure motor stroke than in

  9. Emergency transfer of acute stroke patients within the East Saxony telemedicine stroke network: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Kepplinger, Jessica; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Barlinn, Kristian; Puetz, Volker; Wojciechowski, Claudia; Schneider, Hauke; Gahn, Georg; Back, Tobias; Schackert, Gabriele; Reichmann, Heinz; von Kummer, Ruediger; Bodechtel, Ulf

    2014-02-01

    Telemedicine may facilitate the selection of stroke patients who require emergency transfer to a comprehensive stroke center to receive additional therapies other than intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. We sought to analyze frequency, patient characteristics, and specific therapies among emergently transferred patients within the telemedical Stroke East Saxony Network. We reviewed consecutive patients who were transferred emergently from remote spoke sites to hub sites. Certified stroke neurologists performed teleconsultations 24/7, with access to high-speed videoconferencing and transfer of brain images. Emergent transfers were initiated when considered necessary by the stroke neurologist. In 2009 and 2010, we conducted 1413 teleconsultations and subsequently recommended transfer in 339 (24%) patients [mean age 64 ± 14 years, 54% males, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 5 (interquartile range, IQR 12). The mean teleconsultation-to-arrival time was 1·7 ± 0·8 h (median 1·6 h). Sixty-eight (20%) transferred patients had a nonstroke diagnosis. The remaining 271 (80%) patients had stroke diagnoses [ischemic stroke, 114 (34%); transient ischemic attack, 8 (2%); and intracranial haemorrhage, 149 (44%)]. Forty (35%) ischemic stroke patients received tissue plasminogen activator at spoke sites ('drip and ship'). Of the 240 stroke patients emergently transferred to the main hub site, 119 (49·6%) received at least one specific stroke therapy. A remarkable number of stroke patients can be transferred within a telemedical network to enable the delivery of specific stroke therapies that require advanced multispecialty expertise. Whether associated logistic efforts and costs have an impact on patients' clinical outcomes needs to be evaluated. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Development of sensors to monitor stroke patients

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, S.A.; Glass, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    In the United States, approximately 550,000 new cases of stroke are reported annually, resulting in 150,000 deaths and leaving 300,000 survivors disabled. Thromboembolic strokes account for an estimated 300,000-400,000 of the 550,000 reported new cases of stroke each year. These thromboembolic strokes may be treatable by thrombolytic therapy which involves injecting a thrombolytic agent directly into the thrombus. As the clot dissolves, it breaks into fragments. One particular diagnostic fragment is the D dimer fragment which has antigenic properties. At LLNL, the authors are developing various catheter-based microtools to treat stroke. As part of the package, fiber optic pH sensors and D dimer biosensors are being developed for novel applications, in that they will be coaxially threaded through a catheter to the damaged area of the brain. The pH sensor would allow local measurements of tissue viability, providing an assessment on the patient`s status and indicating the optimal treatment plan. The D dimer biosensor would allow local measurements of the products of thrombolysis, i.e., D dimer, assisting in the identification of clot type and providing feedback on the dosage and infusion rate of the thrombocytic agent.

  11. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Stroke About Stroke Stroke -- A Serious Event A stroke is serious, just ... lifestyle can help you prevent stroke. What Is Stroke? A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." ...

  12. Communication in conversation in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Marc; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile

    2010-07-01

    In stroke patients, it has been suggested that communication disorders could result from lexical and syntactic disorders in left hemisphere lesions and from pragmatics problems in right lesions. However, we have little information on patient behaviour in dyadic communication, especially in conversation. Here, we analyzed the various processes participating in communication difficulties at the rehabilitation phase (1-6 months) post-stroke, in order to define the main mechanisms of verbal and non-verbal communication (VC, NVC) disorders and their relationship with aphasic disorders. Sixty-three patients were recruited, who belonged to six groups, with left or right cortico-sub-cortical (L-CSC, R-CSC) or sub-cortical (L-SC, R-SC), frontal (Fro) or posterior fossa (PF) lesions. They were compared with an equivalent control group (gender, age, education level). We used the Lille Communication Test, which comprises three parts: participation to communication (greeting, attention, engagement), verbal communication (verbal comprehension, speech outflow, intelligibility, word production, syntax, verbal pragmatics and verbal feedback) and non-verbal communication (understanding gestures, affective expressivity, producing gestures, pragmatics and feedback). We also used the Functional Communication Profile and the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Decrease in participation was found in L-CSC, R-CSC and Fro patients. Verbal communication was essentially disrupted in L-SCS and L-SC groups, including by verbal pragmatic disorders, and to a lesser degree in frontal patients. Nonverbal communication was mainly affected in R-CSC patients, especially by pragmatic difficulties. L-CSC patients showed an increase in gesture production, compensating for aphasia. In conclusion, communication disorders were relatively complex and could not be summarised by syntactical and lexical difficulties in left stroke and pragmatic problems in right stroke. The former also showed severe

  13. Importance and Repercussions of Renal and Cardiovascular Pathology on Stroke in Young Adults: An Anatomopathologic Study of 52 Clinical Necropsies

    PubMed Central

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Fernández-Abreu, Mary; Cardozo-Duran, José; Vilchez-Barrios, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stroke in young adults has seldom been studied in a necropsy series. The objective of the present clinical necropsy-based investigation was to analyze stroke and its relationship with cardiovascular and renal pathology in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS The protocols of 52 clinical necropsies with diagnoses of stroke in patients aged 18 – 49 years, performed between the years 1990–2006, were reviewed. RESULTS Hemorrhagic stroke was diagnosed in 36 patients (69.3%), whereas the remaining 16 (30.7%) had ischemic stroke. Hypertensive cardiopathy was evident in 88.4% of the cases. Chronic renal pathology, directly or indirectly related to hypertension, was observed in 55.7% of the patients. Ischemic stroke as a result of occlusive atherosclerotic disease was seen in 50% of cases. Cardiogenic emboli were found in 25% of the cadavers. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with hypertension in 43% of the cases, with ruptured vascular malformations in 29%, and coagulopathies in 17% of the cases. Hypertensive cardiopathy was present in patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (81.2% and 91.6%, respectively). The most frequently observed renal ailments were chronic pyelonephritis (23%) and nephrosclerosis (21.1%). These were associated with ischemic stroke in 43.7%, and 12.5% of the cases, respectively, and with 13.8% and 25% of the hemorrhagic stroke cases. DISCUSSION Hypertensive cardiopathy, occlusive atherosclerotic disease, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrosclerosis are among the pathophysiologycal mechanisms that apparently and eventually interact to induce a significant number of cases of stroke in young adults. A chronic systemic inflammatory state appears to be an important related condition because it possibly constitutes an accelerant of the pathophysiologycal process. PMID:18297202

  14. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes.

  15. Oro-facial impairment in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, M; Ono, T; Lam, O L T; Müller, F

    2017-01-27

    Stroke is considered one of the leading causes of death and acquired disability with a peak prevalence over the age of 80 years. Stroke may cause debilitating neurological deficiencies that frequently result in sensory deficits, motor impairment, muscular atrophy, cognitive deficits and psychosocial impairment. Oro-facial impairment may occur due to the frequent involvement of the cranial nerves' cortical representation areas, central nervous system pathways or motoneuron pools. The aim of this narrative, non-systematic review was to discuss the implications of stroke on oro-facial functions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Stroke patients demonstrate an impaired masticatory performance, possibly due to reduced tongue forces and disturbed oral sensitivity. Furthermore, facial asymmetry is common, but mostly discrete and lip restraining forces are reduced. Bite force is not different between the ipsi- and contra-lesional side. In contrast, the contra-lesional handgrip strength and tongue-palate contact during swallowing are significantly impaired. OHRQoL is significantly reduced mainly because of the functional impairment. It can be concluded that impaired chewing efficiency, dysphagia, facial asymmetry, reduced lip force and OHRQoL are quantifiable symptoms of oro-facial impairment following a stroke. In the absence of functional rehabilitation, these symptoms seem not to improve. Furthermore, stroke affects the upper limb and the masseter muscle differently, both, at a functional and a morphological level. The rehabilitation of stroke survivors should, therefore, also seek to improve the strength and co-ordination of the oro-facial musculature. This would in turn help improve OHRQoL and the masticatory function, subsequently preventing weight loss and malnutrition.

  16. Endocarditis is a common stroke mechanism in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Koto; Brown, Mesha Gay; Weiner, Mark; Kobrin, Sidney; Kasner, Scott E; Messé, Steven R

    2014-04-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for ischemic stroke, and previous studies have noted a high rate of cardioembolism in this population. The aim of this study was to determine ischemic stroke causes among hemodialysis patients and elucidate specific cardioembolic stroke mechanisms. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study of hemodialysis patients admitted with acute stroke to the University of Pennsylvania Health System between 2003 and 2010. Strokes were classified using modified Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria as large vessel, cardioembolism, small vessel, atypical, multiple causes, or cryptogenic. Cardioembolic strokes were further characterized for specific mechanism. We identified 52 patients hospitalized with acute stroke while receiving hemodialysis. Mean age was 64±13 years, 56% were female, and 67% were black. Stroke subtypes included 3 (6%) large vessel, 20 (38%) cardioembolism, 6 (11%) small vessel, 3 (6%) other, 4 (8%) with multiple causes, and 16 (31%) were unknown. Among patients who had an echocardiogram performed, 5 of 52 (10%; 95% confidence interval, 1%-18%) had a patent foramen ovale. Cardioembolic stroke mechanisms included 6 with infective endocarditis (accounting for 12% of all strokes). Cardioembolism and cryptogenic stroke are the predominant stroke mechanisms among hemodialysis patients. Infective endocarditis was identified frequently relative to other stroke cohorts, and a raised index of suspicion is warranted in the hemodialysis population.

  17. HIV infection, hypercoagulability and ischaemic stroke in adults at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Stanley; Ntanda, Patrice Mukomena; Lakhi, Shabir; Atadzhanov, Masharip

    2017-05-18

    In Zambia, 14.2% of adults have HIV/AIDS. There has been a substantial and significant increase in patients hospitalized for ischaemic stroke with co-existing HIV infection. However, little is known about the mechanism of stroke in these HIV + ve patients let alone studied in our region. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the association of hypercoagulability state in HIV + ve patients with ischaemic stroke. This was achieved by comparing hypercoagulability state markers between HIV + ve ischaemic stroke patients with HIV-ve and HIV + ve patients with and without ischaemic stroke respectively. A matched case control study in which a total of 52 HIV + ve patients with ischaemic stroke were prospectively compared with control groups for the presence of protein S, protein C deficiencies and hyperhomocysteinaemia. The control groups comprised an equal number of consecutively matched for age and sex HIV-ve and HIV + ve patients with and without ischaemic stroke respectively. Data was analysed in contingency tables using Paired t- test, Chi square and conditional logistic regression. Ischaemic stroke of undetermined aetiology occurred more frequently in HIV + ve compared to HIV-ve patients (p < 0.001). In addition, protein S deficiency and Hyperhomocysteinaemia were more prominent in HIV + ve than HIV-ve ischaemic stroke patients (P = 0.011). There was no difference in the presence of hyperhomocysteinaemia or protein S deficiency in HIV + ve patients with or without ischaemic stroke. Protein C deficiency was not noted to be significantly different between the cases and the two control arms. Protein S deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia were associated with HIV infection, but not stroke in our study population. However, this is an area that requires extensive research and one that we cannot afford to ignore as it is an important bridge to all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

  18. Helicopter Scene Response for Stroke Patients: A 5-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Andrew; Marco, Catherine; Huang, Matt; Chow, Bonnie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of an emergency medical service (EMS)-requested air medical helicopter response directly to the scene for a patient with clinical evidence of an ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and transport to a regional comprehensive CVA center. CareFlight, an air medical critical care transportation service, is based in Dayton, OH. The 3 CareFlight helicopters are geographically located and provided transport to all CVA scene patients in this study. A retrospective chart review was completed for all CareFlight CVA scene flights for 5 years (2011-2015). A total of 136 adult patients were transported. EMS criteria included CVA symptom presence for less than 3 hours or awoke abnormal, nonhypoglycemia, and a significantly positive Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. The majority of patients (75%) met all 3 EMS CVA scene criteria; 27.5% of these patients received peripheral tissue plasminogen activator, and 9.8% underwent a neurointerventional procedure. Using a 3-step EMS triage for acute CVA, air medical transport from the scene to a comprehensive stroke center allowed for the timely administration of tissue plasminogen activator and/or a neurointerventional procedure in a substantive percentage of patients. Further investigation into air medical scene response for acute stroke is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Provision of Stroke Care in Younger and Older Patients: Findings from the South London Stroke Register

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Siobhan L.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Rudd, Anthony G.; McKevitt, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background. Evidence-based stroke care should be available to all patients. However, evidence exists of inequalities according to age. This study compared access to care for younger adults to that for over 65s. Methods. Using population-based data from 4229 patients with first-ever stroke between 1995 and 2010, associations between age and 21 care indicators were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Age was not associated with stroke unit admission for ischaemic stroke (P = 0.666). Younger PICH patients were least likely to be admitted to stroke units (P = 0.001), instead treated on neurosurgical or ICU wards. Younger age was also associated with admission to neurosurgery or ICU after SAH (P = 0.006), increased occupational or physiotherapy at 1 year (P = 0.043), and contact with a GP 3 months after stroke (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Younger patients have equal or greater access to evidence-based care. However, there is a need to ensure that services meet the needs of this group. PMID:22593833

  20. [Nutritional intervention in patients with cerebrovascular stroke].

    PubMed

    Kozáková, S; Charvát, J; Hrdlicka, L; Soucek, M; Kvapil, M

    2003-08-01

    The patients with acute cerebral stroke suffer from stress situation which may induce the catabolic state. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of the nutrition intervention and follow-up of the nutrition parameters in the patients with acute ischemic cerebral stroke. We have examined 30 patients with acute ischemic cerebral stroke, the average age 71.4 +/- 8.6 years. In all the patients we have measured some antropometric, biochemic and immunologic parameters of the nutrition status on admission. At the same time we have evaluated the size of the neurological deficit with NIH stroke scale and Barthel index. Every day we have monitored in all the patients the nutrition intake. In case the food intake has not reached 30 kcal/kg/day we have started the nutrition intervention by giving polymer enteral nutrition: either like sipping or if necessary through nasogastric tube. The nutrition intervention has been necessary in 18 patients (60%). The measurement of antropometric, biochemical and immunologic parameters have been repeated after 14 days. The evaluation of nutrition parameters have shown no significant changes since admission. The changes of the nutrition parameters in this group of the patients we have compared with the earlier reported group of the patients where no nutrition monitoring and intervention were applied and the nutrition parameters have deteriorated significantly in 2 weeks. By comparing we have confirmed that the careful monitoring of nutrition intake and in the majority of patients also nutrition intervention are necessary, especially because the improvement of the neurological deficit have been noticed more in the group of the monitored and intervened patients. The nutrition intervention can stabilize the followed nutrition parameters which may play the significant role in the speed and efficacy of the rehabilitation.

  1. Ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy is associated with long-term memory dysfunction after ischemic stroke in young adults.

    PubMed

    Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; van Uden, Inge W M; Tuladhar, Anil M; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-07-01

    Memory impairment after stroke in young adults is poorly understood. In elderly stroke survivors memory impairments and the concomitant loss of hippocampal volume are usually explained by coexisting neurodegenerative disease (e.g., amyloid pathology) in interaction with stroke. However, neurodegenerative disease, such as amyloid pathology, is generally absent at young age. Accumulating evidence suggests that infarction itself may cause secondary neurodegeneration in remote areas. Therefore, we investigated the relation between long-term memory performance and hippocampal volume in young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. We studied all consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our academic hospital center between 1980 and 2010. Episodic memory of 173 patients was assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Rey Complex Figure and compared with 87 stroke-free controls. Hippocampal volume was determined using FSL-FIRST, with manual correction. On average 10 years after stroke, patients had smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes compared with controls after left-hemispheric stroke (5.4%) and right-hemispheric stroke (7.7%), with most apparent memory dysfunctioning after left-hemispheric stroke. A larger hemispheric stroke was associated with a smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volume (b=-0.003, P<0.0001). Longer follow-up duration was associated with smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volume after left-hemispheric stroke (b=-0.028 ml, P=0.002) and right-hemispheric stroke (b=-0.015 ml, P=0.03). Our results suggest that infarction is associated with remote injury to the hippocampus, which may lower or expedite the threshold for cognitive impairment or even dementia later in life. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Acute cerebrovascular disease in the young: the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients study.

    PubMed

    Rolfs, Arndt; Fazekas, Franz; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Martus, Peter; Holzhausen, Martin; Böttcher, Tobias; Heuschmann, Peter U; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Tanislav, Christian; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Putaala, Jukaa; Huber, Roman; Bodechtel, Ulf; Lichy, Christoph; Enzinger, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Hennerici, Michael G; Kaps, Manfred; Kessler, Christof; Lackner, Karl; Paschke, Eduard; Meyer, Wolfgang; Mascher, Hermann; Riess, Olaf; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Strokes have especially devastating implications if they occur early in life; however, only limited information exists on the characteristics of acute cerebrovascular disease in young adults. Although risk factors and manifestation of atherosclerosis are commonly associated with stroke in the elderly, recent data suggests different causes for stroke in the young. We initiated the prospective, multinational European study Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap) to characterize a cohort of young stroke patients. Overall, 5023 patients aged 18 to 55 years with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke (3396), hemorrhagic stroke (271), transient ischemic attack (1071) were enrolled in 15 European countries and 47 centers between April 2007 and January 2010 undergoing a detailed, standardized, clinical, laboratory, and radiological protocol. Median age in the overall cohort was 46 years. Definite Fabry disease was diagnosed in 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-0.8%; n=27) of all patients; and probable Fabry disease in additional 18 patients. Males dominated the study population (2962/59%) whereas females outnumbered men (65.3%) among the youngest patients (18-24 years). About 80.5% of the patients had a first stroke. Silent infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging were seen in 20% of patients with a first-ever stroke, and in 11.4% of patients with transient ischemic attack and no history of a previous cerebrovascular event. The most common causes of ischemic stroke were large artery atherosclerosis (18.6%) and dissection (9.9%). Definite Fabry disease occurs in 0.5% and probable Fabry disease in further 0.4% of young stroke patients. Silent infarcts, white matter intensities, and classical risk factors were highly prevalent, emphasizing the need for new early preventive strategies. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.Unique identifier: NCT00414583.

  3. Thrombolysis in Stroke Patients with Isolated Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Denier, C; Chassin, O; Vandendries, C; Bayon de la Tour, L; Cauquil, C; Sarov, M; Adams, D; Flamand-Roze, C

    2016-01-01

    Data about evolution of aphasia following stroke are rare and controversial especially following fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to describe the early clinical patterns of isolated aphasia in consecutive stroke patients with or without thrombolysis. Clinical and radiological data of consecutive stroke patients were routinely entered in prospective registry. Patients were considered aphasic when NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) item 9 >0. 'Isolated aphasia' was defined by aphasic patients without motor limb deficit. We created a 'composite language score' obtained by summing the NIHSS items 1b, 1c and 9, which reflects language-processing ability. Recovery of functions was evaluated as measured by global NIHSS, composite language score and language screening test (LAST) at baseline, H24 and day 7 (D7). 'Mild deficit' was defined as global NIHSS <5. A total of 100 consecutive patients met study criteria for isolated aphasia. Twenty-five underwent thrombolysis and 75 did not. There was no difference between the 2 groups concerning demographic characteristics, involved territories and presence of arterial occlusion, initial median NIHSS, composite language and LAST scores at entrance. Evolution was significantly better in thrombolysed patient for the 3 testings: NIHSS, composite language score and LAST at D7 (respective p = 0.0002; p = 0.01 and p = 0.004). Similar results were found when we focused on the subgroups of patients with initial 'mild' deficits (p = 0.01; p = 0.0003 and p = 0.007). No symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation occurred following thrombolysis. These data strongly suggest that thrombolysis is safe and effective in patients with 'isolated aphasia,' even if the global NIHSS score is <5. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A Rare Case of Stroke Secondary to Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Young Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gopalratnam, Kavitha; Sena, Kanaga; Gupta, Manisha

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic strokes occur when there is a sudden obstruction of an artery supplying blood flow to an area of the brain, leading to a focal neurological deficit. Strokes can be thrombotic or embolic in etiology and are associated with underlying conditions such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Possible etiologies of strokes include cardioembolic disease, hematologic disorders, connective tissue disorders, and substance abuse or can be cryptogenic. Most stroke cases are seen in patients over 65 years of age. However, about one-fourth of strokes occur in young adults. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been described as a known cause for strokes in children, but very few case reports describe this association in adults. We describe a 20-year-old female who presented with sudden onset left side weakness. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated ischemic infarctions. Patient was also found to be severely anemic. Patient had a thorough work-up including Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) of the brain, echocardiogram, and an extensive screen for thrombophilia disorders. This, however, did not demonstrate a clear etiology. As it has been suggested that IDA is a potential cause for stroke, it is possible the stroke in this young patient was attributable to severe IDA. PMID:28348599

  5. Hypertensive patients using thiazide diuretics as primary stroke prevention make better functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hong-Mo; Lin, Wei Chun; Wang, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Leng-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Thiazides have been used for the control of blood pressure and primary prevention of ischemic stroke. No previous studies have assessed the influence of thiazides on functional prognosis after ischemic stroke. Demographics, prestroke conditions, poststroke National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and clinical and laboratory parameters were prospectively registered in 216 Taiwanese patients. One hundred forty patients who completed follow-up 3 months after experiencing ischemic stroke were assessed with the modified Rankin scale as functional prognoses. Twenty-one patients used thiazide to control hypertension before experiencing ischemic stroke. No differences of stroke subtypes and comorbidities before stroke were observed between the 2 groups. The emergency department National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was lesser among thiazide users (4 [2-7] versus 6 [4-16], P = .02). Among 140 patients who completed follow-up in 90 days, thiazide users had more favorable functional status (modified Rankin scale ≤2: 42.4% versus 26.9%, P = .02, odds ratio 3.34, 95%, confidence interval .130-.862). Hypertensive patients treated with thiazides long term had a lesser severity of stroke and better functional outcomes after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Disability after stroke: a longitudinal study in moderate and severe stroke patients included in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program].

    PubMed

    Noe-Sebastian, E; Balasch-Bernat, M; Colomer-Font, C; Moliner-Munoz, B; Rodriguez Sanchez-Leiva, C; Ugart, P; Llorens, R; Ferri-Campos, J

    2017-05-01

    Stroke is a recognized cause of disability among adults. However the impact that the deficits that occur after a moderate/severe stroke have on long-term disability, as well as the response of the resultant deficits to rehabilitation, are not completely understood. A total of 396 patients with a modified Rankin score >= 3 after an ischemic (n = 221) or hemorrhagic (n = 175) stroke were included in this study. All patients were assessed with cognitive, behavior, emotional, motor and functional domains. All patients were assessed at baseline and six months after inclusion in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. Risk of falling (Berg Balance Scale < 45 in 83.1% of the sample at baseline and 49.5% at follow-up) and functional problems (82.8% with a Barthel Index < 75 at baseline and 53% at follow-up) were the most prevalent deficits. Emotional disturbances were those that most improved while behavioral problems were those that did less. Although global disability improved during treatment among most patients, only 11% of our patients, especially those with preserved cognitive function at baseline, could be classified as patients with mild disability at follow-up. Stroke consequences are multidimensional. The symptoms that the stroke can cause in multiple domains, as well as the pattern of recovery are widely diverse, with prevalence of behavioral long-term disturbances.

  7. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of hypertension in ischaemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hisham, Nur Fatirul; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2013-10-01

    Stroke continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are 2 main types of stroke: ischaemic strokes, which are caused by obstruction of the blood vessels leading to or within the brain, and haemorrhagic strokes, which are induced by the disruption of blood vessels. Stroke is a disease of multifactorial aetiology that may develop as an end state in patients with serious vascular conditions--most notably, uncontrolled arterial hypertension--thereby necessitating the effective control of this risk factor to prevent stroke or its recurrence. This paper focuses specifically on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke mainly in chronically hypertensive patients and pays particular attention to the efficacy of a select group of routinely used major antihypertensive drugs (i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers) in the treatment of strokes. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gerstmann'S syndrome in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Zukic, Sanela; Mrkonjic, Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patients. We prospectively analyzed 194 acute stroke patients (average age 65±11.06 years, male 113 (58.2%), female 81 (41.8%) hospitalized at department of Neurology, University Clinical Center tuzla, during the six mounths in 2010. For clinical assessment of agraphia, alexia and acalculia we used Minessota test for differential diagnosis of aphasia's. Among these acute stroke patients, 59 (30.40%) had alexia, agraphia and acalculia or different combinations of these disorders. two patients (3.4%) had agraphia and acalculia associated with other part of tetrad of GS: fi nger agnosia and left-right disorientation. they both where men, right handed, and cranial computed tomography scan showed ischemic lesion in the left parietal and left temporoparietal lobe. Gerstmann`s syndrome is rare clinical entity, and has the high value in localization and the lesion is mainly localized to angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere.

  9. Guideline-directed low-density lipoprotein management in high-risk patients with ischemic stroke: findings from Get with the Guidelines-Stroke 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Fonarow, Gregg C; Pan, Wenquin; Liang, Li; Hernandez, Adrian F; Schwamm, Lee H; Smith, Eric E

    2014-11-01

    Limited information is available on stroke prevention in high-risk patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to use admission low-density lipoprotein (LDL) values to evaluate differences in the attainment of National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines goals at the time of the index event in high-risk patients with stroke and preexisting cardio- or cerebrovascular disease. Observational study, using data from the Get-With-The-Guidelines-Stroke Registry including 913 436 patients with an acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from April 2003 to September 2012. Participants were classified as high risk if they had history of transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke (cardiovascular disease), and coronary artery disease (CAD). Of the 913 436 patients admitted with an acute stroke or TIA, 194 557 (21.3%) had previous stroke/TIA, 148 833 (16.3%) had previous CAD, and 88 605 (9.7%) had concomitant CAD and cardiovascular disease. Overall, only 68% of patients with stroke were at their preadmission National Cholesterol Education Program III guideline-recommended LDL target; 51.3% had LDL <100 mg/dL; and only 19.8% had LDL<70 mg/dL. Among those presenting with a recurrent stroke, >45% had LDL>100 mg/dL. When compared with patients with CAD, patients with previous TIA/stroke were less likely to have LDL<100 or <70 mg/dL. In multivariable analysis, older age, men, white race, lack of major vascular risk factors, previous use of cholesterol-lowering therapy, and care provided in larger hospitals were associated with meeting LDL targets on admission testing. Management of dyslipidemia in high-risk patients with preexistent CAD or stroke continues to be suboptimal. Only 1 in 5 patients with prior TIA/stroke had LDL levels <70 mg/dL. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    PubMed

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults and Preexisting Psychiatric Disorders: A Nationwide Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified. After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age <30 years) was only associated with the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.47∼11.72). Patients who had experienced ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities.

  12. Migraine and risk of stroke in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between migraine and stroke/vascular outcomes in a racially/ethnically diverse, older cohort. Methods: Participants from the Northern Manhattan Study, a population-based cohort study of stroke incidence, were assessed for migraine symptoms using a self-report questionnaire based on criteria from the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition. We estimated the association between migraine and combined vascular events including stroke and stroke only over a mean follow-up of 11 years, using Cox models adjusted for sociodemographic and vascular risk factors. Results: Of 1,292 participants (mean age 68 ± 9 years) with migraine data followed prospectively for vascular events, 262 patients (20%) had migraine and 75 (6%) had migraine with aura. No association was found between migraine (with or without aura) and risk of either stroke or combined cardiovascular events. There was an interaction between migraine and current smoking (p = 0.02 in relation to stroke and p = 0.03 for combined vascular events), such that those with migraine and smoking were at an increased risk. The hazard ratio of stroke for migraine among current smokers was 3.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–8.85) and among current nonsmokers was 0.77 (95% CI 0.44–1.35). In relation to combined vascular events, the hazard ratio for migraine vs no migraine among current smokers was 1.83 (95% CI 0.89–3.75) and among current nonsmokers was 0.63 (95% CI 0.43–0.94). Conclusion: In our racially/ethnically diverse population-based cohort, migraine was associated with an increased risk of stroke among active smokers but not among nonsmokers. PMID:26203088

  13. The epidemiology, evaluation and treatment of stroke in adults with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Strouse, John J; Lanzkron, Sophie; Urrutia, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is a frequent and severe complication in adults with sickle cell disease. Ischemic stroke often causes physical and cognitive disability, while hemorrhagic stroke has a high mortality rate. As more children survive, the number of strokes in adults is increasing, yet stroke remains poorly understood. We review the epidemiology of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in adults with sickle cell disease and outline a practical approach to the evaluation of stroke including both sickle cell disease specific and general risk factors. We discuss the acute treatment and secondary prevention of stroke in this population based on the evidence in children with sickle cell disease and the general population, in addition to the limited studies in adults with sickle cell disease. PMID:22077524

  14. Atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, David J; Spring, Melanie; Dorian, Paul; Panzov, Val; Thorpe, Kevin E; Hall, Judith; Vaid, Haris; O'Donnell, Martin; Laupacis, Andreas; Côté, Robert; Sharma, Mukul; Blakely, John A; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Hachinski, Vladimir; Coutts, Shelagh B; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Teal, Phil; Yip, Samuel; Spence, J David; Buck, Brian; Verreault, Steve; Casaubon, Leanne K; Penn, Andrew; Selchen, Daniel; Jin, Albert; Howse, David; Mehdiratta, Manu; Boyle, Karl; Aviv, Richard; Kapral, Moira K; Mamdani, Muhammad

    2014-06-26

    Atrial fibrillation is a leading preventable cause of recurrent stroke for which early detection and treatment are critical. However, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is often asymptomatic and likely to go undetected and untreated in the routine care of patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We randomly assigned 572 patients 55 years of age or older, without known atrial fibrillation, who had had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke or TIA within the previous 6 months (cause undetermined after standard tests, including 24-hour electrocardiography [ECG]), to undergo additional noninvasive ambulatory ECG monitoring with either a 30-day event-triggered recorder (intervention group) or a conventional 24-hour monitor (control group). The primary outcome was newly detected atrial fibrillation lasting 30 seconds or longer within 90 days after randomization. Secondary outcomes included episodes of atrial fibrillation lasting 2.5 minutes or longer and anticoagulation status at 90 days. Atrial fibrillation lasting 30 seconds or longer was detected in 45 of 280 patients (16.1%) in the intervention group, as compared with 9 of 277 (3.2%) in the control group (absolute difference, 12.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.0 to 17.6; P<0.001; number needed to screen, 8). Atrial fibrillation lasting 2.5 minutes or longer was present in 28 of 284 patients (9.9%) in the intervention group, as compared with 7 of 277 (2.5%) in the control group (absolute difference, 7.4 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.4 to 11.3; P<0.001). By 90 days, oral anticoagulant therapy had been prescribed for more patients in the intervention group than in the control group (52 of 280 patients [18.6%] vs. 31 of 279 [11.1%]; absolute difference, 7.5 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.6 to 13.3; P=0.01). Among patients with a recent cryptogenic stroke or TIA who were 55 years of age or older, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was common. Noninvasive ambulatory ECG monitoring for a target of

  15. META-ANALYSIS OF FACTOR V LEIDEN AND ISCHEMIC STROKE IN YOUNG ADULTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF CASE ASCERTAINMENT

    PubMed Central

    Hamedani, Ali G.; Cole, John W.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Kittner, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The Factor V Leiden mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in children, but not in adults. Whether it is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, however, is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies of ischemic stroke in adults ≤ 50 years of age published before June 2009. Across all studies, Factor V Leiden was detected in 154 of 2,045 cases (7.5%) and 217 of 5,307 controls (4.1%), yielding a fixed effect odds ratio of 2.00 (95% CI: 1.59–2.51). However, further analyses revealed substantial heterogeneity among these studies (p=0.005 for Q-test of heterogeneity). Hypothesizing that this heterogeneity could be related to differences among studies in case selection criteria, we stratified the meta-analysis into studies for which case samples were enriched or not enriched to include cases having an increased likelihood of prothrombotic genetic involvement (“selected” ischemic stroke studies, n = 9) and those that recruited cases from consecutive neurology referrals or hospitalizations (“unselected” ischemic stroke studies, n = 8). Among the nine “selected” ischemic stroke studies, Factor V Leiden was more strongly associated with stroke [OR = 2.73 (95% CI: 1.98–3.75)], whereas among the eight “unselected” ischemic stroke studies, the association between Factor V Leiden and stroke was substantially weaker [OR=1.40 (95% CI: 0.998–1.95)]. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.003 for Woolf’s test for heterogeneity). We conclude that Factor V Leiden is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in patient populations where there is an increased clinical suspicion of prothrombotic state. PMID:20616326

  16. Meta-analysis of factor V Leiden and ischemic stroke in young adults: the importance of case ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2010-08-01

    The factor V Leiden mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Whether it is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, however, is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies of ischemic stroke in adults 50 years of age and younger published before June 2009. Across all studies, factor V Leiden was detected in 154 of 2045 cases (7.5%) and 217 of 5307 controls (4.1%), yielding a fixed-effect odds ratio of 2.00 (95% CI, 1.59-2.51). However, further analyses revealed substantial heterogeneity among these studies (P=0.005 for Q-test of heterogeneity). Hypothesizing that this heterogeneity could be related to differences among studies in case selection criteria, we stratified the meta-analysis into studies for which case samples were enriched or not enriched to include cases having an increased likelihood of prothrombotic genetic involvement ("selected" ischemic stroke studies, n=9) and those that recruited cases from consecutive neurology referrals or hospitalizations ("unselected" ischemic stroke studies, n=8). Among the 9 "selected" ischemic stroke studies, factor V Leiden was more strongly associated with stroke (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.98-3.75), whereas among the 8 "unselected" ischemic stroke studies, the association between factor V Leiden and stroke was substantially weaker (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.998-1.95). This difference was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003 for Woolf test for heterogeneity). We conclude that factor V Leiden is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in patient populations in which there is an increased clinical suspicion of prothrombotic state.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Health Literacy on Education Retention of Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schnepel, Loretta; Smotherman, Carmen; Livingood, William; Dodani, Sunita; Antonios, Nader; Lukens-Bull, Katryne; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Johnson, Yvonne; Miller, Terri; Hodges, Wayne; Falk, Diane; Wood, David; Silliman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate health literacy is a pervasive problem with major implications for reduced health status and health disparities. Despite the role of focused education in both primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the effect of health literacy on stroke education retention has not been reported. We examined the relationship of health literacy to the retention of knowledge after recommended stroke education. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at an urban safety-net hospital. Study subjects were patients older than 18 admitted to the hospital stroke unit with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who were able to provide informed consent to participate (N = 100). Health literacy levels were measured by using the short form of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Patient education was provided to patients at an inpatient stroke unit by using standardized protocols, in compliance with Joint Commission specifications. The education outcomes for poststroke care education, knowledge retention, was assessed for each subject. The effect of health literacy on the Stroke Patient Education Retention scores was assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 100 participating patients, 59% had inadequate to marginal health literacy. Stroke patients who had marginal health literacy (mean score, 7.45; standard deviation [SD], 1.9) or adequate health literacy (mean score, 7.31; SD, 1.76) had statistically higher education outcome scores than those identified as having inadequate health literacy (mean score, 5.58; SD, 2.06). Results from multivariate analysis indicated that adequate health literacy was most predictive of education outcome retention. Conclusions This study demonstrated a clear relationship between health literacy and stroke education outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand the relationship of health literacy to key educational outcomes for primary or secondary prevention of stroke and to

  18. Comparison of Functional Outcome and Stroke Recurrence in Patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (ESUS) vs. Cardioembolic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arauz, Antonio; Morelos, Eugenia; Colín, Jonathan; Roldán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) recurrence and functional outcome from long-term follow-up is not well delineated. The purpose of this study is to compare these functional variables between ESUS vs. cardioembolic stroke (CS) patients. Methods We analyzed data of consecutive ESUS and CS patients from our institutional database, from January 2003 until April 2015. The endpoints were stroke recurrence, mortality and poor clinical outcome (Modified Rankin Score 3–6), at discharge, 6 months and final follow-up. Adjusted multivariate Cox analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the probability of recurrence and death. Results 149 ESUS (median age 44 years) and 235 CS (median age 66 years) consecutive patients were included in the study. Median follow-up period for the entire sample was 19 months (interquartile range 6.0–45.0 months). Stroke recurrence was similar between ESUS and CS patients (5.4% vs. 9.8% respectively, p = 0.12). Death occurred in 30 CS cases (12.8%), with a cumulative probability of survival of 77%. Poor functional outcome was present in 58.3%, 54.0% and 54.9% at discharge, 6 months and final follow-up respectively in CS patients, significantly worst compared to ESUS cases (HR 3.1; CI 95% 1.96–4.68). Oral anticoagulation presents with a HR 8.01 for recurrence, and antiplatelet therapy had the highest risk for recurrence for both groups (HR 24.3). Conclusion ESUS patients are substantially younger than CS patients but have a stroke recurrence rate similar to CS patients, with a lower mortality rate, and better functional outcome on long-term follow-up. PMID:27832136

  19. A case-control study on red meat consumption and risk of stroke among a group of Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Saneei, Parvane; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Shakeri, Forough; Beykverdi, Masumeh; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to examine the association between red meat consumption and stroke in a group of Iranian adults. A hospital-based case-control study. The study included stroke patients and hospital-based controls. Usual dietary intakes of participants were assessed by means of a validated 168-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Total red meat consumption was calculated by summing up the consumption of red, processed and visceral meats. One hundred and ninety-five cases were stroke patients hospitalized in the neurology ward and 195 controls were recruited from patients hospitalized in other wards with no history of cerebrovascular diseases or neurological disorders. Participants with stroke were older, more likely to be male and less likely to be obese. Individuals in the highest tertile of red meat intake were 119 % more likely to have stroke (OR=2·19; 95% CI 1·33, 3·60) compared with those in the lowest tertile. After controlling for age, sex and total energy intake, the association between red meat consumption and stroke was strengthened (OR=2·72; 95% CI 1·53, 4·83). This association remained significant even after further controlling for physical activity and smoking as well as dietary intakes. Additional adjustments for BMI, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia did not influence the association significantly (OR=2·51; 95 % CI 1·19, 5·09). Consumption of red meat was associated with greater odds of having stroke in a group of Iranian adults.

  20. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Peda, Barbara; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Nowacki, Przemysław

    2017-03-06

    Stroke is the main cause of motoric and neuropsychological disability in adults. Recent advances in research into the role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroplasticity, neuroprotection and neurogenesis might provide important information for the development of new poststroke-rehabilitation strategies. It plays a role as a mediator in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Concentrations of BDNF are lower in acute ischemic-stroke patients compared to controls. Lower levels of BDNF are correlated with an increased risk of stroke, worse functional outcomes and higher mortality. BDNF signalling is dependent on the genetic variation which could affect an individual's response to recovery after stroke. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of the BDNF gene have been studied with regard to stroke patients, but most papers analyse the rs6265 which results in a change from valine to methionine in the precursor protein. Subsequently a reduction in BDNF activity is observed. There are studies indicating the role of this polymorphism in brain plasticity, functional and morphological changes in the brain. It may affect the risk of ischemic stroke, post-stroke outcomes and the efficacy of the rehabilitation process within physical exercise and transcranial magnetic stimulation. There is a consistent trend of Met alleles' being connected with worse outcomes and prognoses after stroke. However, there is no satisfactory data confirming the importance of Met allele in stroke epidemiology and the post-stroke rehabilitation process. We present the current data on the role of BDNF and polymorphisms of the BDNF gene in stroke patients, concentrating on human studies.

  1. Comparison between Ischemic Stroke Patients <50 Years and ≥50 Years Admitted to a Single Centre: The Bergen Stroke Study

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Annette; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Thomassen, Lars; Naess, Halvor

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Young adults are likely to differ from old patients concerning cerebral infarction. Methods. We compared characteristics of patients aged under and above 50 years, admitted to the Department of Neurology with cerebral infarction between 2006 and 2009, based on prospective registration. Investigation followed one common protocol for both groups. Results and Discussion. One hundred patients (8.2%) were <50 years old, and the proportion of males was higher in this group (72% versus 55.8%, P = .002). Young stroke patients are more often current smokers (44.1% versus 23.6%, P < .001). Common causes for stroke in the young were cervical artery dissection (18% versus 0.6%, P < .001) and cardiac embolism due to disorders other than atrial arrhythmias (18% versus 5.5%, P < .001). Among the old, atrial fibrillation and flutter dominated (29.1% versus 5%, P < .001). Stroke severity and location did not differ. Old patients more often suffered from pneumonia (10.6% versus 2%, P < .003) and urinary tract infection (14.6% versus 2%, P = .001). Conclusions. Males dominate, and current smoking is more common in the young. Cervical artery dissection and nonarrhythmic heart disorders are frequent causes among young patients, while traditional risk factors dominate the old. Stroke severity is similar, but old patients seem more exposed for infectious complications. PMID:21318148

  2. Predicting Stroke Risk in Hypertensive Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Coca, Antonio; Messerli, Franz H.; Benetos, Athanase; Zhou, Qian; Champion, Annette; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Pepine, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Our understanding of factors influencing stroke risk among patients with coronary artery disease is incomplete. Accordingly, factors predicting stroke risk in hypertensive, clinically stable coronary artery disease patients were determined with data from the INternational VErapamil SR-trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Methods The effect of baseline characteristics and on-treatment blood pressure (BP) were analyzed to determine the risk of stroke (fatal or nonfatal) among the 22 576 patients enrolled. Cox proportional-hazards models (unadjusted, adjusted, and time dependent) were used to identify predictors of stroke among subgroups with these characteristics present at entry and on-treatment BP. Results Excellent BP control (at 24 months, >70% <140/90 mm Hg) was achieved during 61 835 patient-years of follow-up, as 377 patients had a stroke (6.1 strokes/1000 patient-years) and 28% of those patients had a fatal stroke. Increased age, black race, US residency, and history of prior myocardial infarction, smoking, stroke/transient ischemic attack, arrhythmia, diabetes, and coronary bypass surgery were associated with an increased risk of stroke. Achieving a systolic BP <140 mm Hg and a diastolic BP <90 mm Hg was associated with a decreased risk of stroke. There was no statistically significant difference in stroke risk comparing the verapamil SR–based with the atenolol-based treatment strategy (adjusted hazard ratio=0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.06; P=0.17). Conclusions Among hypertensive patients with chronic coronary artery disease, stroke was an important complication associated with significant mortality. Black race, US residency, and conditions associated with increased vascular disease severity and arrhythmia predicted increased stroke risk, whereas achieving a BP <140/90 mm Hg on treatment predicted a reduced stroke risk. PMID:18162623

  3. Social work after stroke: identifying demand for support by recording stroke patients' and carers' needs in different phases after stroke.

    PubMed

    Padberg, Inken; Knispel, Petra; Zöllner, Susanne; Sieveking, Meike; Schneider, Alice; Steinbrink, Jens; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wellwood, Ian; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-07-20

    Previous studies examining social work interventions in stroke often lack information on content, methods and timing over different phases of care including acute hospital, rehabilitation and out-patient care. This limits our ability to evaluate the impact of social work in multidisciplinary stroke care. We aimed to quantify social-work-related support in stroke patients and their carers in terms of timing and content, depending on the different phases of stroke care. We prospectively collected and evaluated data derived from a specialized "Stroke-Service-Point" (SSP); a "drop in" center and non-medical stroke assistance service, staffed by social workers and available to all stroke patients, their carers and members of the public in the metropolitan region of Berlin, Germany. Enquiries from 257 consenting participants consulting the SSP between March 2010 and April 2012 related to out-patient and in-patient services, therapeutic services, medical questions, medical rehabilitation, self-help groups and questions around obtaining benefits. Frequency of enquiries for different topics depended on whether patients were located in an in-patient or out-patient setting. The majority of contacts involved information provision. While the proportion of male and female patients with stroke was similar, about two thirds of the carers contacting the SSP were female. The social-work-related services provided by a specialized center in a German metropolitan area were diverse in terms of topic and timing depending on the phase of stroke care. Targeting the timing of interventions might be important to increase the impact of social work on patient's outcome.

  4. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Anne; O'Hanlon, Ann; McGee, Hannah; Donnellan, Claire; Shelley, Emer; Horgan, Frances; O'Neill, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    Background Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. Methods Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. Results Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). Conclusion Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke. PMID:19656359

  5. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Anne; O'Hanlon, Ann; McGee, Hannah; Donnellan, Claire; Shelley, Emer; Horgan, Frances; O'Neill, Desmond

    2009-08-05

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  6. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) in patients with wake-up stroke.

    PubMed

    Huisa, Branko N; Raman, Rema; Ernstrom, Karin; Tafreshi, Gilda; Stemer, Andrew; Meyer, Brett C; Hemmen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    One-quarter of ischemic strokes occur during sleep, and affected patients are excluded from thrombolytic therapy because of an unknown time of stroke onset. It has been suggested that early ischemic changes detected on computed tomography (CT) are similar in patients with acute stroke and patients who recently awoke with stroke. We compared head CT scans using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) in patients who were likely to suffer their stroke during sleep (awoke group) and a control group of patients with stroke of known onset time. Patients were recruited from a prospectively collected acute stroke database. The awoke group was defined as all ischemic stroke patients who were "last seen normal" more than 4 hours ago, arrived between 4 a.m. and 10 a.m., and underwent head CT within 15 hours of the time last seen normal. The control group was randomly selected from patients who underwent head CT within 4 hours of stroke onset. The ASPECTS evaluations were performed by investigators blinded to patient group and time of onset. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was available in 15 awoke patients and 46 control patients at 90 days after stroke. Twenty-eight awoke patients and 68 control patients had suitable imaging for the ASPECTS. Baseline demographic characteristics and risk factors were similar in the 2 groups. The dichotomized ASPECTS analysis (≤7 vs 8-10) showed no significant differences between the groups. ASPECTS was 8-10 in 89.3% the awoke group and 95.6% in the control group (P=.353). There was a trend toward higher 90-day mRS score (0-1) in the awoke group versus controls (73% vs 45%; P=.079). Initial ASPECTS was similar in patients with wake-up stroke and those with 4 hours of symptoms. This suggests that a subset of wake-up stroke patients might be suitable for thrombolytic therapy. Copyright © 2010 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stroke in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Tipping, Brent; de Villiers, Linda; Wainwright, Helen; Candy, Sally; Bryer, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Objective To report the nature of stroke in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a region with high HIV seroprevalence and describe HIV associated vasculopathy. Methods Patients with first ever stroke, infected with HIV and prospectively included in the stroke register of the Groote Schuur Hospital/University of Cape Town stroke unit were identified and reviewed. Results Between 2000 and 2006, 67 of the 1087 (6,1%) stroke patients were HIV infected. Of these, 91% (n = 61) were younger than 46 years. Cerebral infarction occurred in 96% (n = 64) of the HIV positive patients and intracerebral haemorrhage in 4% (n = 3). HIV infected young stroke patients did not demonstrate hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia or smoking as significant risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Infection as a risk factor for stroke was significantly more common in HIV positive patients (p = 0.018, OR 6.4, CI 3.1 to 13.2). In 52 (81%) patients with ischaemic stroke, an aetiology was determined. Primary aetiologies comprised infectious meningitides/vasculitides in 18 (28%) patients, coagulopathy in 12 (19%) patients and cardioembolism in nine (14%) patients. Multiple aetiologies were present in seven (11%) patients with ischaemic stroke. HIV associated vasculopathy was identified in 13 (20%) patients. The HIV associated vasculopathy manifested either extracranially (seven patients) as total or significant carotid occlusion or intracranially (six patients) as medium vessel occlusion, with or without fusiform aneurysmal dilation, stenosis and vessel calibre variation. Conclusion Investigation of HIV infected patients presenting with stroke will determine an aetiology in the majority of patients. In our cohort, 20% of patients demonstrated evidence of an HIV associated vasculopathy. PMID:17470469

  8. Proteinuria Is an Independent Risk Factor for First Incident Stroke in Adults Under Treatment for Hypertension in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Xiaobin; He, Mingli; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yu; Huo, Yong; Cai, Yefeng; Fu, Jia; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Qiang; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan

    2015-12-18

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria are independent risk factors for stroke and its subtypes in hypertensive patients. This study investigated the association of these renal measures with first incident stroke in adults under treatment for hypertension in China. The study included 19 599 adults aged 45 to 75 years who participated in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Baseline eGFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. Proteinuria was assessed by qualitative dipstick urinalysis and in a subset by the quantitative albumin-creatinine ratio method. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the effects of eGFR and proteinuria on the risk of first incident stroke. During a median of 4.5 years of follow-up, a total of 585 first strokes (472 ischemic strokes) were identified. Compared to participants without proteinuria, participants with proteinuria (trace or more by dipstick) had a 35% increased risk of first stroke: the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) was 1.35 (1.09-1.66, P=0.005). The results were robust in subgroup analyses. In a subset with data on proteinuria measured by quantitative albumin-creatinine ratio, a similar association was found. In both independent and combined analyses with proteinuria, eGFR was not significantly associated with stroke. In adults under treatment for hypertension in China, baseline proteinuria measured by dipstick or quantitative albumin-creatinine ratio, but not reduced eGFR, was found to be an independent risk factor for first incident stroke and ischemic stroke. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Cognitive profile for Chinese patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chetwyn C H; Lee, Tatia M C; Fong, Kenneth N K; Lee, Connie; Wong, Victor

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of the Chinese version of Cognistat for patients with stroke in a Chinese community. A total of 53 patients and 34 normal elderly with age, gender and literacy level matched were tested with the Chinese translated version of Cognistat. The results suggest that the patients performed significantly lower than their normal counterparts on the test. The Orientation, Attention and Calculation sub-tests were the most significant contributors to its high sensitivity (0.79) and specificity (0.85), which is largely consistent with the original English version. A two-factor structure was confirmed with the 10 sub-tests clustered into the areas of fluid and crystallized abilities, which indicates that the translation of the test content did not alter the structure of the instrument. However, the low level of literacy of the local elderly population and language structure tends to slightly alter the cognitive profile of the patients. Further studies are recommended to further explore the cross-cultural issues and clinical implications on establishing cognitive profile for patients with stroke with Cognistat.

  10. The crisis of stroke: experiences of patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Barbara J; Young, Mary Ellen; Cox, Kim J; Martz, Crystal; Creasy, Kerry Rae

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 4.8 million stroke survivors are living in the community with some level of disability requiring the assistance of family caregivers. Stroke family caregivers are often unprepared for the demands required of them. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore the needs of stroke patients and their family caregivers as they transitioned through the stroke care continuum from acute care to inpatient rehabilitation to home. Thirty-eight participants, 19 recovering stroke patients (11 male, 8 female), 15 primary family caregivers (14 spouses, 1 mother), and 4 adult children were interviewed during their stay at a rehabilitation facility and within 6 months of discharge. Interview questions were loosely structured and focused on the stroke experience and how patients and caregivers were managing postdischarge. Data were analyzed using dimensional and comparative analysis. Findings were organized in a conceptual framework illustrating the trajectory of the crisis of stroke. Stroke survivors and their caregivers faced enormous challenges as they moved through 3 phases of the trajectory: the stroke crisis, expectations for recovery, and the crisis of discharge. Findings from this study suggest that as caregivers move through the phases of the trajectory, they do not have a good understanding of the role to which they are committing, and they are often underprepared to take on even the basic tasks to meet the patients' needs on discharge. Stroke survivors and their caregivers do not have adequate time to deal with the shock and crisis of the stroke event, let al.one the crisis of discharge and all of the new responsibilities with which they must deal.

  11. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines for the management of temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ntaios, George; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Michel, Patrik; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Petersson, Jesper; Staykov, Dimitre; Thomas, Brenda; Steiner, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Hyperthermia is a frequent complication in patients with acute ischemic stroke. On the other hand, therapeutically induced hypothermia has shown promising potential in animal models of focal cerebral ischemia. This Guideline Document presents the European Stroke Organisation guidelines for the management of temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A multidisciplinary group identified related questions and developed its recommendations based on evidence from randomized controlled trials elaborating the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. This Guideline Document was reviewed within the European Stroke Organisation and externally and was approved by the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and the European Stroke Organisation Executive Committee. We found low-quality evidence, and therefore, we cannot make any recommendation for treating hyperthermia as a means to improve functional outcome and/or survival in patients with acute ischemic stroke and hyperthermia; moderate evidence to suggest against routine prevention of hyperthermia with antipyretics as a means to improve functional outcome and/or survival in patients with acute ischemic stroke and normothermia; very low-quality evidence to suggest against routine induction of hypothermia as a means to improve functional outcome and/or survival in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The currently available data about the management of temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke are limited, and the strengths of the recommendations are therefore weak. We call for new randomized controlled trials as well as recruitment of eligible patients to ongoing randomized controlled trials to allow for better-informed recommendations in the future. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Increased Risk of Stroke in Patients With Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chun-Hung; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neuropsychiatric diseases might enhance stroke development, possibly through inflammation and atherosclerosis. Approximately 25% to 40% of patients with stroke, largely younger patients, are not associated with any conventional stroke risk factors. In this research, we explored whether fibromyalgia (FM), a neuropsychosomatic disorder, increases stroke risk. From a claims dataset with one million enrollees sourced of the Taiwan National Health Insurance database, we selected 47,279 patients with FM and randomly selected 189,112 age- and sex-matched controls within a 3-year period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. Stroke risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Comorbidities associated with increased stroke risk, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis, were more prevalent in patients with FM and high stroke risk than in the controls. The overall stroke risk was 1.25-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–1.30) higher in the FM group than in the non-FM group. Even without comorbidities, stroke risk was higher in patients with FM than in the controls (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.35–1.53, P < 0.001). The relative risk of stroke was 2.26-fold between FM and non-FM groups in younger patients (age <35 years, 95% CI: 1.86–2.75). This is the first investigation associating FM with an increased risk of stroke development. The outcomes imply that FM is a significant risk factor for stroke and that patients with FM, particularly younger patients, require close attention and rigorous measures for preventing stroke. PMID:26937918

  13. Audiological findings in aphasic patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193

  14. Acupuncture treatment for ischaemic stroke in young adults: protocol for a randomised, sham-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lifang; Fang, Jianqiao; Jin, Xiaoming; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Gao, Hong; Fang, Zhen; Chen, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke in young adults is not uncommon. Although the overall incidence of stroke has been recently declining, the incidence of stroke in young adults is increasing. Traditional vascular risk factors are the main cause of young ischaemic stroke. Acupuncture has been shown to benefit stroke rehabilitation and ameliorate the risk factors for stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether acupuncture treatment will be effective in improving the activities of daily living (ADL), motor function and quality of life (QOL) in patients of young ischaemic stroke, and in preventing stroke recurrence by controlling blood pressure, lipids and body weight. Methods and analysis In this randomised, sham-controlled, participant-blinded and assessor-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients between 18 and 45 years of age with a recent (within 1 month) ischaemic stroke will be randomised for an 8-week acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment. The primary outcome will be the Barthel Index for ADL. The secondary outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for motor function; the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) for QOL; and risk factors that are measured by ambulatory blood pressure, the fasting serum lipid, body mass index and waist circumference. Incidence of adverse events and long-term mortality and recurrence rate during a 10-year and 30-year follow-up will also be investigated. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Protocol V.3 was approved in June 2013. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone during follow-up calls enquiring on the patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC- 13003317; Pre-results. PMID:26739742

  15. Risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Lung; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chang, Wei-Pin; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Poststroke sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) can hinder communication between patients and healthcare professionals, thereby restricting participation in rehabilitation programs and limiting improvements in physical performance. However, the relationship between stroke and SSNHL remains unclear. This study employed a nationwide population-based dataset to investigate the relationship between stroke and SSNHL. The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database was used to compile data from 11,115 stroke patients and a comparison cohort of 33,345 matched nonstroke enrollees. Each patient was followed for 5 years to identify new-onset SSNHL. Stratified Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to examine the association of stroke with subsequent SSNHL. Among the 44,460 patients, 66 patients (55,378 person-years) from the stroke cohort and 105 patients (166,586 person-years) from the comparison cohort were diagnosed with SSNHL. The incidence of SSNHL was approximately twice as high among stroke patients than among nonstroke patients (1.19 and 0.63/1000 person-years, respectively). Stroke patients had a 71% increased risk of SSNHL, compared with nonstroke patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–2.36). We also observed a remarkable increase in risk of SSNHL in stroke patients within 1-year of follow-up (adjusted HR 5.65, 95% CI 3.07–10.41) or under steroid therapy during hospitalization (adjusted HR 5.14, 95% CI 2.08–12.75). Patients with stroke had a higher risk of subsequent SSNHL compared with patients without stroke. In particular, stroke patients within 1-year follow-up and those undergoing steroid therapy during hospitalization should be treated with the utmost caution, considering that the risk of SSNHL increases by more than 5-fold. PMID:27603402

  16. The Crisis of Stroke: Experiences of Patients and Their Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Barbara J.; Young, Mary Ellen; Cox, Kim J.; Martz, Crystal; Creasy, Kerry Rae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Approximately 4.8 million stroke survivors are living in the community with some level of disability requiring the assistance of family caregivers. Stroke family caregivers are often unprepared for the demands required of them. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore the needs of stroke patients and their family caregivers as they transitioned through the stroke care continuum from acute care to inpatient rehabilitation to home. Methods Thirty-eight participants, 19 recovering stroke patients (11 male, 8 female), 15 primary family caregivers (14 spouses, 1 mother), and 4 adult children were interviewed during their stay at a rehabilitation facility and within 6 months of discharge. Interview questions were loosely structured and focused on the stroke experience and how patients and caregivers were managing postdischarge. Data were analyzed using dimensional and comparative analysis. Results Findings were organized in a conceptual framework illustrating the trajectory of the crisis of stroke. Stroke survivors and their caregivers faced enormous challenges as they moved through 3 phases of the trajectory: the stroke crisis, expectations for recovery, and the crisis of discharge. Findings from this study suggest that as caregivers move through the phases of the trajectory, they do not have a good understanding of the role to which they are committing, and they are often underprepared to take on even the basic tasks to meet the patients’ needs on discharge. Conclusion Stroke survivors and their caregivers do not have adequate time to deal with the shock and crisis of the stroke event, let alone the crisis of discharge and all of the new responsibilities with which they must deal. PMID:22436315

  17. Evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in Iraqi patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeki N; Al-Shimmery, Ehsan K; Taha, Mufeed A

    2010-04-01

    To clinically assess neurogenic dysphagia, and to correlate its presence with demographic features, different stroke risk factors, anatomical arterial territorial stroke types, and pathological stroke types. Seventy-two stroke inpatients were studied between July 2007 and February 2008, at the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, and Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. All patients were assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability score (MASA), Modified Rankin Scale, and the Stroke Risk Scorecard. All patients were reassessed after one month. There were 40 males and 32 females. Sixty-eight patients had ischemic stroke, and 4 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the MASA score, 55% of anterior circulation stroke (ACS) cases were associated with dysphasia, and 91% of lateral medullary syndrome cases were associated with dysphagia. Fifty-six percent of ACS dysphagic cases improved within the first month. Forty percent of dysphagic patients died in the one month follow up period, and in most, death was caused by aspiration pneumonia. We observed no significant differences regarding demographic features of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be an indicator of the severity of stroke causing higher mortality and morbidity in affected patients. It was not related to the stroke risk factors and the type of stroke. It is essential from a prognostic point of view to assess swallowing, and to treat its complications early.

  18. Outcomes management for stroke patients using thrombolytics.

    PubMed

    Hickman, J L

    1998-03-01

    In the current health care market, there is a sharp awareness by both consumers and managed care providers that hospitals are only as good as the outcomes they can produce. Collaboration among disciplines that provide services, in this case treatment for stroke has enhanced patient outcomes. The synergy that has developed among those involved has thus far created a win-win situation. The key to successful outcomes is to have all those involved possessing a clear picture of their role, accepting it, and taking ownership of it.

  19. Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Strokes in the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients Study.

    PubMed

    Huber, Roman; Grittner, Ulrike; Weidemann, Frank; Thijs, Vincent; Tanislav, Christian; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wolf, Markus; Hennerici, Michael G; McCabe, Dominick J H; Putaala, Jukaa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Kessler, Christoph; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Martus, Peter; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is disproportionately prevalent in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Without alternative explanations, it is frequently considered to be causative. A detailed stratification of these patients may improve the identification of incidental PFO. We investigated the PFO prevalence in 3497 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 55 years in the prospective multicenter SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients 1) using the ASCO classification. Patients without an obvious cause for transient ischemic attack/stroke (ASCO 0) were divided into subgroups with and without vascular risk factors (ASCO 0+ and 0-). In addition, we looked for PFO-related magnetic resonance imaging lesion patterns. PFO was identified in 25% of patients. Twenty percent of patients with a definite or probable cause of transient ischemic attack/stroke (≥1 grade 1 or 2 ASCO criterion; n=1769) had a PFO compared with 29% of cryptogenic stroke patients (ASCO 0 and 3; n=1728; P<0,001); subdivision of cryptogenic strokes revealed a PFO in 24% of 978 ASCO 3 patients (n.s. versus ASCO 1 and 2) and a higher prevalence of 36% in 750 ASCO 0 cases (P<0.001 versus ASCO 3 and versus ASCO 1 and 2). PFO was more commonly observed in ASCO 0- (n=271) than in ASCO 0+ patients (n=479; 48 versus 29%; P<0.001). There was no PFO-associated magnetic resonance imaging lesion pattern. Cryptogenic stroke patients demonstrate a heterogeneous PFO prevalence. Even in case of less conclusive diseases like nonstenotic arteriosclerosis, patients should preferentially be considered to have a non-PFO-mediated stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Protocol of the Stroke in Korean Young Adults Study: A Multicenter Case-Control Study and Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Kim, Chulho; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Kim, Young Dae; Kwon, Hyung-Min; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Young Seo

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of ischemic stroke in young adults has been rising over recent decades, but there is still limited information on its risk factors, etiologies, and outcomes. Because these patients generally participate in social life, risk factors associated with lifestyle may have a great impact and need to be identified. The SKY (Stroke in Korean Young Adults) study is a multicenter case-control study and a prospective cohort study in 8 tertiary medical centers in the Republic of Korea. The case subjects are patients aged 18-44 years with first-ever ischemic stroke occurring within 1 month of stroke onset, and the control subjects are age- and gender-matched community controls. Our aim is to include 470 cases and 470 controls. The main objective of our study is to determine the risk factors and the causes of ischemic stroke in Korean young adults. Both well-documented risk factors and little-known lifestyle-related risk factors such as lifestyle habits and psychological distress including job strain will be evaluated by comparing cases and controls using a structured questionnaire. Secondary objectives are to determine the risks of mortality, recurrent vascular events, and poststroke epilepsy in these patients. Conditional logistic regression analysis will be used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The SKY study is designed to obtain more insights into relatively little-known risk factors in young Korean adults with ischemic stroke. The results may also help identify the frequencies of uncommon etiologies and outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening for coagulation disorders in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    de Lau, Lonneke Ml; Leebeek, Frank Wg; de Maat, Moniek Pm; Koudstaal, Peter J; Dippel, Diederik Wj

    2010-08-01

    The role of coagulation disorders in the pathogenesis of (recurrent) ischemic stroke is uncertain. Therefore, the clinical utility of screening patients with ischemic stroke for these conditions and the therapeutic implications of a detected coagulation disorder in a patient who experienced ischemic stroke are uncertain. We reviewed the currently available data on the relationship between various inherited and acquired coagulation abnormalities (factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations, deficiencies of protein C, protein S and anti-thrombin, hyperhomocysteinemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and increased levels of fibrinogen) and ischemic stroke. Based on the existing evidence we discuss the usefulness of screening stroke patients for prothrombotic conditions and current recommendations regarding the optimal management of ischemic stroke patients in whom a coagulation disorder is found.

  2. High-quality Health Information Provision for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong-Sheng; Ma, Jing-Jian; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High-quality information provision can allow stroke patients to effectively participate in healthcare decision-making, better manage the stroke, and make a good recovery. In this study, we reviewed information needs of stroke patients, methods for providing information to patients, and considerations needed by the information providers. Data Sources: The literature concerning or including information provision for patients with stroke in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all the relevant articles on information provision for stroke patients in English, with no limitation of study design. Results: Stroke is a major public health concern worldwide. High-quality and effective health information provision plays an essential role in helping patients to actively take part in decision-making and healthcare, and empowering them to effectively self-manage their long-standing chronic conditions. Different methods for providing information to patients have their relative merits and suitability, and as a result, the effective strategies taken by health professionals may include providing high-quality information, meeting patients’ individual needs, using suitable methods in providing information, and maintaining active involvement of patients. Conclusions: It is suggested that to enable stroke patients to access high-quality health information, greater efforts need to be made to ensure patients to receive accurate and current evidence-based information which meets their individual needs. Health professionals should use suitable information delivery methods, and actively involve stroke patients in information provision. PMID:27569241

  3. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01). The multivariable Cox method analyzed adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.19) for all stroke types and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05–1.20) for ischemic stroke and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.94–1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-specific aHR of stroke for contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195

  4. Increased stroke risk in Bell's palsy patients without steroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-C; Su, Y-C; Chien, S-H; Ho, H-C; Hung, S-K; Lee, M-S; Chou, P; Chiu, B C-H; Huang, Y-S

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the risk of stroke development following a diagnosis of Bell's palsy in a nationwide follow-up study. Information on Bell's palsy and other factors relevant for stroke was obtained for 433218 eligible subjects without previous stroke who had ambulatory visit in 2004. Of those, 897 patients with Bell's palsy were identified. Over a median 2.9 years of follow-up, 4581 incident strokes were identified. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] with Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, co-morbidities, and important risk factors. Standardized incidence ratio of stroke amongst patients with Bell's palsy was analyzed. Compared with non-Bell's palsy patients, patients with Bell's palsy had a 2.02-times (95% CI, 1.42-2.86) higher risk of stroke. The adjusted HR of developing stroke for patients with Bell's palsy treated with and without systemic steroid were 1.67 (95% CI, 0.69-4) and 2.10 (95%, 1.40-3.07), respectively. Patients with Bell's palsy carry a higher risk of stroke than the general population. Our data suggest that these patients might benefit from a more intensive stroke prevention therapy and regular follow-up after initial diagnosis. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  5. [Characteristics of serum albumin in patients with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Martynov, M Iu; Koplik, E V; Shchukin, I A; Smolina, N V; Kapel'nitskiĭ, P V; Chubykin, V I; Glukhareva, A P; Makarov, A N; Sudakov, K V

    2012-01-01

    Authors studied the influence of the psychoemotional stress preceding the stroke on the dynamics of neurological symptoms (Glasgo coma scale, Scandinavian stroke scale and Barthel index) and on the conformational changes of albumin in 59 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage due to arterial hypertension. The psychoemotional stress was associated with less favorable clinical course and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage. Conformational properties of albumin were changed in all patients with intracerebral hemorrhage compared to controls. Psychoemotional stress preceding stroke aggravated changes in albumin molecule.

  6. The Use of Transitional Care Models in Patients With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Puhr, M Irene; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-08-01

    Transitional care (TC) models are used to reduce adverse outcomes and hospital readmissions. This article reviews the scholarly literature to identify TC models that have been used successfully in patients with stroke. Literature in CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2000 to June 2013 was searched using the keywords "transitional care," "discharge planning," "care-coordination," "continuity of care," "follow-up after discharge," and "stroke." Web sites of established TC models were also reviewed to identify additional studies meeting review criteria. To be included in the review, studies must have been written in the English language and focused on adult patients aged 19 years and older with stroke, discharged from the hospital or acute rehabilitation facility to home. TC interventions were defined as those that employed one or more of the National Transitions of Care Coalition intervention categories: medication management, transition planning, patient and family engagement or education, information transfer, follow-up care, healthcare provider engagement, or shared accountability across providers and organizations (National Transitions of Care Coalition, 2011). The author examined the title and abstract of each study for eligibility against stated criteria. Thirteen articles representing 11 studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria. In the identified studies, TC was compared with usual care; however, what constituted usual care was not consistently elucidated. Fewer than half of the studies reported significantly improved results on selected outcomes. Across all the studies, TC did not result in a reported significant decrease in emergency department visits or hospital readmission rates. There was substantive heterogeneity in (a) intervention providers, (b) interventions used in TC, and (c) measures of outcome identified. Six of the 13 studies were identified as having successful interventions. Some evidence

  7. Persistent racial disparity in stroke hospitalization and economic impact in young adults in the buckle of stroke belt.

    PubMed

    Boan, Andrea D; Feng, Wuwei Wayne; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Bachman, David L; Ellis, Charles; Adams, Robert J; Kautz, Steven A; Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-07-01

    Mounting evidence points to a decline in stroke incidence. However, little is known about recent patterns of stroke hospitalization within the buckle of the stroke belt. This study aims to investigate the age- and race-specific secular trends in stroke hospitalization rates, inpatient stroke mortality rates, and related hospitalization charges during the past decade in South Carolina. Patients from 2001 to 2010 were identified from the State Inpatient Hospital Discharge Database with a primary discharge diagnosis of stroke (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes: 430-434, 436, 437.1). Age- and race-stroke-specific hospitalization rates, hospital charges, charges associated with racial disparity, and 30-day stroke mortality rates were compared between blacks and whites. Of the 84,179 stroke hospitalizations, 31,137 (37.0%) were from patients aged<65 years and 29,846 (35.5%) were blacks. Stroke hospitalization rates decreased in the older population (aged≥65 years) for both blacks and whites (P<0.001) but increased among the younger group (aged<65 years; P=0.004); however, this increase was mainly driven by a 17.3% rise among blacks (P=0.001), with no difference seen among whites (P=0.84). Of hospital charges totaling $2.77 billion, $453.2 million (16.4%) are associated with racial disparity (79.6% from patients aged<65 years). Thirty-day stroke mortality rates decreased in all age-race-stroke-specific groups (P<0.001). The stroke hospitalization rate increased in the young blacks only, which results in a severe and persistent racial disparity. It highlights the urgent need for a racial disparity reduction in the younger population to alleviate the healthcare burden. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Disrupted Structural and Functional Connectivity Networks in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Li; Sang, Linqiong; Yang, Jun; Yan, Rubing; Li, Pengyue; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Mingguo

    2017-09-13

    Local lesions caused by stroke may result in extensive structural and functional reorganization in the brain. Previous studies of this phenomenon have focused on specific brain networks. Here, we aimed to discover abnormalities in whole-brain networks and to explore the decoupling between structural and functional connectivity in patients with stroke. Fifteen ischemic stroke patients and 23 normal controls (NCs) were recruited in this study. A graph theoretical analysis was employed to investigate the abnormal topological properties of structural and functional brain networks in patients with stroke. Both patients with stroke and NCs exhibited small-world organization in brain networks. However, compared to NCs, patients with stroke exhibited abnormal global properties characterized by a higher characteristic path length and lower global efficiency. Furthermore, patients with stroke showed altered nodal characteristics, primarily in certain motor- and cognition-related regions. Positive correlations between the nodal degree of the inferior parietal lobule and the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) score and between the nodal betweenness centrality of the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) and immediate recall were observed in patients with stroke. Most importantly, the strength of the structural-functional connectivity network coupling was decreased, and the coupling degree was related to the FMA score of patients, suggesting that decoupling may provide a novel biomarker for the assessment of motor impairment in patients with stroke. Thus, the topological organization of brain networks is altered in patients with stroke, and our results provide insights into the structural and functional organization of the brain after stroke from the viewpoint of network topology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Management of acute ischaemic stroke in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Subic, A; Cermakova, P; Norrving, B; Winblad, B; von Euler, M; Kramberger, M G; Eriksdotter, M; Garcia-Ptacek, S

    2017-04-01

    An estimated 10% of stroke patients have an underlying dementia. As a consequence, health professionals often face the challenge of managing patients with dementia presenting with an acute stroke. Patients with dementia are less likely to receive thrombolysis (0.56-10% vs. 1-16% thrombolysis rates in the general population), be admitted to a stroke unit or receive some types of care. Anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention is sometimes withheld, despite dementia not being listed as an exclusion criterion in current guidelines. Studies in this population are scarce, and results have been contradictory. Three observational studies have examined intravenous thrombolysis for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in patients with dementia. In the two largest matched case-control studies, there were no significant differences between patients with and without dementia in the risks of intracerebral haemorrhage or mortality. The risk of intracerebral haemorrhage ranged between 14% and 19% for patients with dementia. Studies of other interventions for stroke are lacking for this population. Patients with dementia are less likely to be discharged home compared with controls (19% vs. 41%) and more likely to be disabled (64% vs. 59%) or die during hospitalization (22% vs. 11%). The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge about the management of ischaemic stroke in patients with pre-existing dementia, including organizational aspects of stroke care, intravenous thrombolysis, access to stroke unit care and use of supportive treatment. Evidence to support anticoagulation for secondary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and antiplatelet therapy in nonembolic stroke will be discussed, as well as rehabilitation and how these factors influence patient outcomes. Finally, ethical issues, knowledge gaps and pathways for future research will be considered. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need

  11. [Stroke in paediatric patients with sickle-cell anaemia].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Díaz, Judit; Camacho-Salas, Ana; Núñez-Enamorado, Noemí; Carro-Rodríguez, Miguel A; Sánchez-Galán, Victoria; Martínez de Aragón, Ana; Simón-De Las Heras, Rogelio

    2014-08-16

    Sickle-cell anaemia is the severe homozygotic form of drepanocytosis, a genetic disorder that often occurs among black people and which is characterised by the production of haemoglobin S, chronic hemolytic anaemia and tissue ischaemia due to alterations in blood flow. A quarter of the patients presented neurological manifestations; 8-10% of children will have a stroke. AIM. To analyse the cases of stroke in children with sickle-cell anaemia in our centre. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of children with sickle-cell anaemia and stroke. Five patients (two Dominicans and three Guineans) with sickle-cell anaemia and stroke; one patient suffered two episodes of stroke. The mean age was 27 months. Five of the episodes were ischaemic infarctions. Stroke was the initial form of presentation of drepanocytosis on three occasions. Two of the strokes occurred within a context of pneumococcal meningitis. Four of the patients had previously reported fever. The initial clinical picture was hemiparesis in four cases. Mean haemoglobin on diagnosing the stroke was 6.5 g/dL. Transcranial ultrasound imaging revealed alterations in three patients and, in all the patients, magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions, which were bilateral in half the cases. Following the stroke, a hypertransfusion regimen protocol was established and only one patient presented a new stroke. This same patient went on to develop moya-moya disease and was submitted to an indirect revascularisation; the patient progressed well, without presenting any new ischaemic events. Drepanocytosis is a disease that is emerging in our setting as a result of immigration. It should be suspected in cases of paediatric strokes associated to anaemia, above all in black children under the age of five who were not submitted to neonatal screening.

  12. Association between pneumonia in acute stroke stage and 3-year mortality in patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Jing; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Su, Feng-Chieh; Peng, Tsung-I; Chien, Yu-Yi; Wu, Chia-Lun; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Wei, Yi-Chia; Lin, Shun-Wen; Zhu, Jun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-01

    The influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the clinical presentation and long-term outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke is still controversial. We investigate the influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the 3-year outcomes of patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. Nine-hundred and thirty-four patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke were enrolled and had been followed for 3years. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether pneumonia occurred during acute stroke stage or not. Clinical presentations, risk factors for stroke, laboratory data, co-morbidities, and outcomes were recorded. The result showed that a total of 100 patients (10.7%) had pneumonia in acute stroke stage. The prevalence of older age, atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage. Total anterior circulation syndrome and posterior circulation syndrome occurred more frequently among patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage (P<0.001 and P=0.009, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression revealed that pneumonia in acute stroke stage is a significant predictor of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio=6.39, 95% confidence interval=4.03-10.11, P<0.001). In conclusion, pneumonia during the acute stroke stage is associated with increased risk of 3-year mortality. Interventions to prevent pneumonia in acute stroke stage might improve ischemic stroke outcome.

  13. Endovascular Management of Stroke Patients with Large Vessel Occlusion and Minor Stroke Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Stemer, Andrew B; McCullough, Michael F; Bell, Randy S; Mai, Jeffrey; Liu, Ai-Hsi; Armonda, Rocco A

    2017-01-01

    Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy for stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the anterior circulation has become the standard of care based on several major randomized clinical trials. The successful result reported by these trials constitutes what may be the largest achievement in the history of neurological sciences. However, most of these mechanical thrombectomy trials (except for the multicenter randomized clinical trial of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands, i.e., MR CLEAN and Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits–Intra-Arterial, i.e., EXTEND-IA) excluded stroke patients with minor to mild stroke symptoms with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of six to eight or lower. The median NIHSS score for patients who underwent acute endovascular thrombectomy was approximately 15 to 17 in all trials. To date, the evidence is lacking to support the mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute stroke and LVO with minor to mild severity on NIHSS score. The purpose of this review was to assess the current data, safety and clinical outcomes in stroke patients with minor to mild symptoms who were treated with endovascular thrombectomy. PMID:28721323

  14. Endovascular Management of Stroke Patients with Large Vessel Occlusion and Minor Stroke Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed A; Stemer, Andrew B; McCullough, Michael F; Bell, Randy S; Mai, Jeffrey; Liu, Ai-Hsi; Armonda, Rocco A

    2017-06-15

    Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy for stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the anterior circulation has become the standard of care based on several major randomized clinical trials. The successful result reported by these trials constitutes what may be the largest achievement in the history of neurological sciences. However, most of these mechanical thrombectomy trials (except for the multicenter randomized clinical trial of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands, i.e., MR CLEAN and Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial, i.e., EXTEND-IA) excluded stroke patients with minor to mild stroke symptoms with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of six to eight or lower. The median NIHSS score for patients who underwent acute endovascular thrombectomy was approximately 15 to 17 in all trials. To date, the evidence is lacking to support the mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute stroke and LVO with minor to mild severity on NIHSS score. The purpose of this review was to assess the current data, safety and clinical outcomes in stroke patients with minor to mild symptoms who were treated with endovascular thrombectomy.

  15. Differences Between US and UK Adults in Stroke Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Gary A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Mackintosh, Joan E.; Gellert, Paul; Skolarus, Lesli E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Although time-dependent treatment is available, most people delay contacting emergency medical services for stroke. Given differences in the healthcare system and public health campaigns, exploring between-country differences in stroke preparedness may identify novel ways to increase acute stroke treatment. Methods— A survey was mailed to population-based samples in Ingham County, Michigan, US (n=2500), and Newcastle upon Tyne, UK (n=2500). Surveys included stroke perceptions and stroke/nonstroke scenarios to assess recognition and response to stroke. Between-country differences and associations with stroke preparedness were examined using t tests and linear mixed models. Results— Overall response rate was 27.4%. The mean age of participants was 55 years, and 58% were female. US participants were better in recognizing stroke (70% versus 63%, d=0.27) and were more likely to call emergency medical services (55% versus 52%, d=0.11). After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, US participants remained more likely to recognize stroke but were not more likely to respond appropriately. A greater belief that medical treatment can help with stroke and understanding of stroke was associated with improved stroke recognition and response. Conclusions— Overall, stroke recognition and response were moderate. US participants were modestly better at recognizing stroke, although there was little difference in response to stroke. Future stroke awareness interventions could focus more on stroke outcome expectations and developing a greater understanding of stroke among the public. PMID:26419968

  16. Why are patients with acute stroke admitted to hospital?

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Warlow, C; Gray, M

    1986-01-01

    Data on 515 consecutive patients registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project were used to compare the characteristics of those patients who were admitted to hospital within one month after their first stroke with those who remained in the community during that time. Twenty eight patients had their stroke while in hospital for other conditions, and of the remaining 487, 266 were admitted. Though patients with a severe neurological deficit were significantly more likely to be admitted, 47 out of 202 such patients were managed in the community. In a substudy of 162 consecutive patients the general practitioners' reasons for either arranging admission to hospital or continuing with community care in the first week after the stroke were ascertained. Sixty patients were admitted. The only reason for admission was diagnostic uncertainty in five cases (though this was a contributing factor in 25) and to provide nursing or general, non-medical care in 25. Patients who lived alone were more likely to be admitted. All 12 patients who presented directly to the casualty department were admitted, though only five had had a severe stroke. A stroke service that provides a facility for rapid outpatient and domiciliary diagnosis as well as a rapidly acting domiciliary nursing team might reduce the number of patients with stroke admitted to hospital without adversely affecting the quality of patient care: this should be properly evaluated. PMID:3085852

  17. The inclination for conscious motor control after stroke: validating the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale for use in inpatient stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kal, E; Houdijk, H; Van Der Wurff, P; Groet, E; Van Bennekom, C; Scherder, E; Van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors are inclined to consciously control their movements, a phenomenon termed "reinvestment". Preliminary evidence suggests reinvestment to impair patients' motor recovery. To investigate this hypothesis, an instrument is needed that can reliably assess reinvestment post-stroke. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS) within inpatient stroke patients. One-hundred inpatient stroke patients (<1 year post-stroke) and 100 healthy peers completed the MSRS, which was translated to Dutch for the study purpose. To assess structural validity, confirmatory factor analysis determined whether the scale measures two latent constructs, as previously reported in healthy adults. Construct validity was determined by testing whether patients had higher reinvestment than controls. Reliability analyses entailed assessment of retest reliability (ICC), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and minimal detectable change. Both structural and construct validity of the MSRS were supported. Retest reliability and internal consistency indices were acceptable to good. The minimal detectable change was adequate on group level, but considerable on individual level. The MSRS is a valid and reliable tool and suitable to assess the relationship between reinvestment and motor recovery in the first months post-stroke. Eventually, this may help therapists to individualize motor learning interventions based on patients' reinvestment preferences. This study showed that the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS) is a valid and reliable tool to objectify stroke patients' inclination for conscious motor control. The MSRS may be used to identify stroke patients who are strongly inclined to consciously control their movements, as this disposition may hinder their motor recovery. Eventually, the MSRS may enable clinicians to tailor motor learning interventions to stroke patients' motor control preferences.

  18. Quantifying real-world upper limb activity in nondisabled adults and adults with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor capability is commonly assessed inside the clinic, but motor performance in real-world settings (i.e. outside of the clinic) is seldom assessed because measurement tools are lacking. Objective To quantify real-world bilateral upper limb (UL) activity in nondisabled adults and adults with stroke using a recently-developed accelerometry-based methodology. Methods Nondisabled adults (n=74) and adults with chronic stroke (n=48) wore accelerometers on both wrists for 25-26 hours. Motor capability was assessed using the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Accelerometry-derived variables were calculated to quantify intensity of bilateral UL activity (i.e. Bilateral Magnitude) and the contribution of both ULs to activity (Magnitude Ratio) for each second of activity. Density plots were used to examine each second of bilateral UL activity throughout the day. Results Nondisabled adults demonstrated equivalent use of dominant and nondominant ULs, indicated by symmetrical density plots and a median Magnitude Ratio of -0.1 (Interquartile Range: 0.3) where a value of 0 indicates equal activity between ULs. Bilateral UL activity intensity was lower (p<0.001) and more lateralized in adults with stroke as indicated by asymmetrical density plots and a lower median Magnitude Ratio (-2.2, Interquartile Range: 6.2, p<0.001). Density plots were similar between many stroke participants who had different ARAT scores, indicating that real-world bilateral UL activity was similar despite different motor capabilities. Conclusions Quantification and visualization of real-world bilateral UL activity can be accomplished using this novel accelerometry-based methodology, and complements results obtained from clinical tests of function when assessing recovery of UL activity following neurologic injury. PMID:25896988

  19. Health, function and disability in stroke patients in the community

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Pinto, Bárbara P. B.; Faria, Christina D. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stroke patients commonly have impairments associated with reduction in functionality. Among these impairments, the motor impairments are the most prevalent. The functional profile of these patients living in the community who are users of the primary health-care services in Brazil has not yet been established Objective To describe the functional profile of stroke patients who are users of the primary health-care services in Brazil, looking at one health-care unit in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Method From medical records and home visits, data were collected regarding health status, assistance received following the stroke, personal and environmental contextual factors, function and disability, organized according to the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Test and instruments commonly applied in the assessment of stroke patients were used. Results Demographic data from all stroke patients who were users of the health-care unit (n=44, age: 69.23±13.12 years and 67±66.52 months since the stroke) participated of this study. Most subjects presented with disabilities, as changes in emotional function, muscle strength, and mobility, risks of falling during functional activities, negative self-perception of quality of life, and perception of the environment factors were perceived as obstacles. The majority of the patients used the health-care unit to renew drug prescriptions, and did not receive any information on stroke from health professionals, even though patients believed it was important for patients to receive information and to provide clarifications. Conclusion Stroke patients who used primary health-care services in Brazil have chronic disabilities and health needs that require continuous health attention from rehabilitation professionals. All of these health needs should be considered by health professionals to provide better management as part of the integral care

  20. Health, function and disability in stroke patients in the community.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Pinto, Bárbara P B; Faria, Christina D C M

    2016-01-01

    Stroke patients commonly have impairments associated with reduction in functionality. Among these impairments, the motor impairments are the most prevalent. The functional profile of these patients living in the community who are users of the primary health-care services in Brazil has not yet been established. To describe the functional profile of stroke patients who are users of the primary health-care services in Brazil, looking at one health-care unit in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. From medical records and home visits, data were collected regarding health status, assistance received following the stroke, personal and environmental contextual factors, function and disability, organized according to the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Test and instruments commonly applied in the assessment of stroke patients were used. Demographic data from all stroke patients who were users of the health-care unit (n=44, age: 69.23±13.12 years and 67±66.52 months since the stroke) participated of this study. Most subjects presented with disabilities, as changes in emotional function, muscle strength, and mobility, risks of falling during functional activities, negative self-perception of quality of life, and perception of the environment factors were perceived as obstacles. The majority of the patients used the health-care unit to renew drug prescriptions, and did not receive any information on stroke from health professionals, even though patients believed it was important for patients to receive information and to provide clarifications. Stroke patients who used primary health-care services in Brazil have chronic disabilities and health needs that require continuous health attention from rehabilitation professionals. All of these health needs should be considered by health professionals to provide better management as part of the integral care of stroke patients, as recommended by the clinical

  1. Health, function and disability in stroke patients in the community.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Pinto, Bárbara P B; Faria, Christina D C M

    2016-06-20

    Stroke patients commonly have impairments associated with reduction in functionality. Among these impairments, the motor impairments are the most prevalent. The functional profile of these patients living in the community who are users of the primary health-care services in Brazil has not yet been established. To describe the functional profile of stroke patients who are users of the primary health-care services in Brazil, looking at one health-care unit in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. From medical records and home visits, data were collected regarding health status, assistance received following the stroke, personal and environmental contextual factors, function and disability, organized according to the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Test and instruments commonly applied in the assessment of stroke patients were used. Demographic data from all stroke patients who were users of the health-care unit (n=44, age: 69.23±13.12 years and 67±66.52 months since the stroke) participated of this study. Most subjects presented with disabilities, as changes in emotional function, muscle strength, and mobility, risks of falling during functional activities, negative self-perception of quality of life, and perception of the environment factors were perceived as obstacles. The majority of the patients used the health-care unit to renew drug prescriptions, and did not receive any information on stroke from health professionals, even though patients believed it was important for patients to receive information and to provide clarifications. Stroke patients who used primary health-care services in Brazil have chronic disabilities and health needs that require continuous health attention from rehabilitation professionals. All of these health needs should be considered by health professionals to provide better management as part of the integral care of stroke patients, as recommended by the clinical

  2. Agreement Between Stroke Patients and Family Members For Ascertaining Pre-Stroke Risk of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Chervin, Ronald D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2014-01-01

    Background Ascertaining self-reported information about pre-stroke obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk in the acute stroke period is challenging as many stroke patients have deficits that hinder communication. We examined agreement between stroke patients without communication limitations and family members (proxy) with respect to pre-stroke risk of OSA. Methods Patient-proxy pairs (n = 42) were interviewed independently as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project from May 2010 - April 2011. The Berlin questionnaire was used to measure a high risk of OSA defined as the presence of at least two of the following conditions: 1) snoring behaviors/witnessed apneas, 2) daytime sleepiness, and 3) hypertension or obesity. Patient-proxy agreement was assessed using a kappa coefficient. Results Forty-three percent of patients self-identified as high risk for sleep apnea, and 45% of proxies identified patients as high risk. Patient-proxy agreement for high risk of pre-stroke OSA was fair (kappa = 0.28) with better agreement for spouses and children proxies (kappa = 0.38) than for other family members. Agreement was also fair for most individual questions. Conclusions Spouse and child proxy use of the Berlin questionnaire may be an option to assess a patient's pre-stroke likelihood of sleep apnea. Whereas prospective studies of incident stroke in patients with and without objectively confirmed sleep apnea would require formidable resources, the present results suggest that an alternative strategy may involve proxy use of the Berlin in a retrospective study design. PMID:24238964

  3. Early rehabilitation outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Birol; Tok, Fatih; Yavuz, Ferdi; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rıdvan

    2011-07-12

    Although important data on the prognosis and rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients have been reported, data on functional recovery according to stroke subtypes are limited. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke-the most common subtype of ischemic stroke. The records of stroke patients that underwent the rehabilitation program at our brain injury rehabilitation service between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed, and those with MCA stroke were included in the study. Patient demographic and clinical data, and Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores at admission and discharge were collected. The study included 80 MCA stroke patients with a mean age of 63.54 years. FIM and BI scores improved significantly post rehabilitation (P<0.05). Age was negatively correlated with both BI and FIM scores at admission and discharge. Length of stay was not correlated with improvement in BI or FIM scores during hospitalization. The patients that had ≤1 month of inpatient rehabilitation had similar outcomes as those that had >1 month of inpatient rehabilitation (P>0.05). Length of time after stroke onset was not correlated with BI or FIM scores at admission. Regardless of initial functional status, prediction of discharge functional status was misleading. Physiatrists should keep in mind that functional improvement does not always increase with duration of inpatient therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Zeng, Fang; Li, Yong-xin; Yu, Bai-li; Qiu, Li-hua; Qin, Wei; Li, Ji; Zhou, Yu-mei; Liang, Fan-rong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks) and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients. PMID:26109950

  5. Exercise after Stroke: Patient Adherence and Beliefs after Discharge from Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristine K; Porter, Rebecca E; DeBaun-Sprague, Erin; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene A

    2017-03-01

    Most people complete post-stroke rehabilitation within the first 6 months after stroke even though benefits from exercise are believed to persist well beyond 6 months. Physical and Occupational therapists provide home exercise programs (HEP) to instruct patients on exercises to continue after discharge from rehabilitation. Unfortunately, there is little known about HEP adherence rates in adults with stroke. The objectives of this project were to (1) determine the adherence rate with post-rehabilitation HEP and reasons for non-adherence, (2) assess for interactions between HEP adherence and self-report of depression and fatigue, and (3) determine patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise during stroke recovery. This was a cross-sectional, survey study. A survey was developed and distributed during stroke support group meetings to determine adherence rates with post rehabilitation HEP, reasons for non-adherence, and patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported receiving a HEP and 65.3% of those reported being adherent with at least part of the HEP. Several reasons for non-adherence were identified, including 'doing different exercises than the ones given by the physical therapist', as the most frequently given reason. Study participants identified positive roles of exercise in their recovery from stroke. Patient adherence with HEP after discharge from rehabilitation is less than ideal. Reasons for non-adherence are varied. Rehabilitation therapists need to be able to identify and help patients manage barriers to HEP adherence to promote management of residual deficits.

  6. Utility of Ward-Based Retinal Photography in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Frost, Shaun; Brown, Michael; Stirling, Verity; Vignarajan, Janardhan; Prentice, David; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2017-03-01

    Improvements in acute care of stroke patients have decreased mortality, but survivors are still at increased risk of future vascular events and mitigation of this risk requires thorough assessment of the underlying factors leading to the stroke. The brain and eye share a common embryological origin and numerous similarities exist between the small vessels of the retina and brain. Recent population-based studies have demonstrated a close link between retinal vascular changes and stroke, suggesting that retinal photography could have utility in assessing underlying stroke risk factors and prognosis after stroke. Modern imaging equipment can facilitate precise measurement and monitoring of vascular features. However, use of this equipment is a challenge in the stroke ward setting as patients are frequently unable to maintain the required seated position, and pupil dilatation is often not feasible as it could potentially obscure important neurological signs of stroke progression. This small study investigated the utility of a novel handheld, nonmydriatic retinal camera in the stroke ward and explored associations between retinal vascular features and stroke risk factors. This camera circumvented the practical limitations of conducting retinal photography in the stroke ward setting. A positive correlation was found between carotid disease and both mean width of arterioles (r = .40, P = .00571) and venules (r = .30, P = .0381). The results provide further evidence that retinal vascular features are clinically informative about underlying stroke risk factors and demonstrate the utility of handheld retinal photography in the stroke ward. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cilostazol may prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Kaminogo, Makio; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    Randomised trials have shown the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol to prevent secondary ischaemic stroke. Recently, cilostazol has been reported to prevent the development and/or recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), which can potentially prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. Herein, we examined the impact of prior antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol on the incidence of cardioembolic stroke, which had not been fully investigated. Using the multicenter retrospective study of stroke risk in antithrombotic therapy (RESTATE) database, we analysed consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke under single antiplatelet therapy. We evaluated the characteristics of ischaemic stroke based on the type of antiplatelet agent used: aspirin, ticlopidine/clopidogrel or cilostazol. Of 1069 consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke during antithrombotic therapy from January to December 2012, 615 patients received single antiplatelet therapy (293 and 322 cases of primary and secondary strokes, respectively). Interestingly, the percentage of cardioembolic infarction was significantly lower in patients taking cilostazol compared with other agents. Multivariate regression analysis found that age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, P = 0.0029), serum creatinine (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0198), aspirin (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00-3.22, P = 0.0486), cilostazol (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.03-0.73, P = 0.0125), and smoking (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.16-2.94, P = 0.0102) were independently associated with cardioembolic stroke. Cilostazol may prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. This could be a novel strategy for cardioembolic stroke prevention potentially by affecting cardiac remodelling, in contrast to secondary anticoagulant therapy.

  8. GPs have pivotal role in care of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Best, Catherine; Mead, Gillian

    2010-02-01

    Stroke is a major cause of mortality in the community and the most common cause of disability. At one year, a third of patients who have had a stroke have died, and 37% of survivors are dependent. In the acute phase of ischaemic stroke, patients should receive thrombolysis (within 4.5 hours of stroke onset), aspirin (within 48 hours of onset), and early access to a stroke unit. Care in a stroke unit significantly reduces the risk of death or dependency irrespective of stroke severity. A multidisciplinary team to manage the range of problems after stroke (e.g. swallowing difficulties, communication problems, mobility) is central to rehabilitation. Much rehabilitation is orientated toward physical function whereas returning to their social roles is more important to patients. While the emphasis of rehabilitation is on targeted therapy interventions to improve function and finding compensatory strategies to increase independence--the goal of community exercise is to improve general physical fitness and activity levels. The marked loss of physical fitness evident in stroke survivors can be at least partly reversed by physical fitness training, and leads to improvements in physical function. Group exercise also improves self-confidence and social integration. Pharmacological therapies play a key role in secondary prevention, and must be started as soon as possible to reduce the risk of early recurrence.

  9. Pharmacists as Care Providers for Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Basaraba, Jade E; Picard, Michelle; George-Phillips, Kirsten; Mysak, Tania

    2017-09-20

    Pharmacists have become an integral member of the multidisciplinary team providing clinical patient care in various healthcare settings. Although evidence supporting their role in the care of patients with other disease states is well-established, minimal literature has been published evaluating pharmacist interventions in stroke patients. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence evaluating the impact of pharmacist interventions on stroke patient outcomes. Study abstracts and full-text articles evaluating the impact of a pharmacist intervention on outcomes in patients with an acute stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) or a history of an acute stroke/TIA were identified and a qualitative analysis performed. A total of 20 abstracts and full-text studies were included. The included studies provided evidence supporting pharmacist interventions in multiple settings, including emergency departments, inpatient, outpatient, and community pharmacy settings. In a significant proportion of the studies, pharmacist care was collaborative with other healthcare professionals. Some of the pharmacist interventions included participation in a stroke response team, assessment for thrombolytic use, medication reconciliation, participation in patient rounds, identification and resolution of drug therapy problems, risk-factor reduction, and patient education. Pharmacist involvement was associated with increased use of evidence-based therapies, medication adherence, risk-factor target achievement, and maintenance of health-related quality of life. Available evidence suggests that a variety of pharmacist interventions can have a positive impact on stroke patient outcomes. Pharmacists should be considered an integral member of the stroke patient care team.

  10. Projecting the number of patients with first ever strokes and patients newly handicapped by stroke in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Malmgren, R.; Bamford, J.; Warlow, C.; Sandercock, P.; Slattery, J.

    1989-01-01

    The common assumption that future increases in the number of elderly people will result in a parallel increase in the burden of care of long term disabled survivors of stroke was examined. The number of patients with first ever strokes and the net number of people handicapped after these strokes in England and Wales every five years until 2023 have been projected. Between the base year 1983 and the year 2023 an increase in population of about 5% will occur; first ever strokes are projected to increase by about 30% and deaths within six months of first ever strokes by about 40%. The net number of severely handicapped people six months after a first ever stroke is projected to increase by only about 8%, however, and the net number of people who are moderately or severely handicapped by only 4%. This paradox occurs because first ever stroke often kills people who have been handicapped by other causes, particularly if they are elderly. It is concluded that despite the limitations of these data they strongly suggest that the increased burden of health care of patients with first ever strokes in the next 40 years will be primarily that of caring for those in the acute stages of stroke and not with the management of chronic handicap after a stroke. PMID:2523745

  11. Dipyrone comedication in aspirin treated stroke patients impairs outcome.

    PubMed

    Dannenberg, Lisa; Erschoff, Vladimir; Bönner, Florian; Gliem, Michael; Jander, Sebastian; Levkau, Bodo; Kelm, Malte; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Zeus, Tobias; Polzin, Amin

    2016-12-01

    >50% of stroke patients rely on analgesic medication to control pain. Aspirin is the mainstay of medical treatment of stroke patients; however analgesic medication with dipyrone impairs aspirin antiplatelet effects ex-vivo. The clinical impact of this impairment is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine aspirin antiplatelet effects and neurological outcome in stroke patients with aspirin and dipyrone comedication. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 41 patients with stroke. Primary outcome was pharmacodynamic response to aspirin in dipyrone treated stroke patients. Secondary outcome was neurological recovery after stroke. Pharmacodynamic response to aspirin was measured using arachidonic acid induced aggregation in light-transmission aggregometry. Neurological outcome was determined three months after stroke onset by telephone interview. Patient's characteristics were similar in the aspirin-alone group and the aspirin+dipyrone group. Impaired pharmacodynamic response to aspirin occurred in 62% (14/21) of patients with aspirin and dipyrone co-medication. Only 10% (2/20) of aspirin treated patients without analgesic comedication displayed residual platelet reactivity (P=0.001; odds ratio [OR], 18 [95% CI, 3.2-100]). Excellent neurological recovery (measured by three months follow-up modified Rankin Scale<2) was observed in 80% (16/20) of patients in the aspirin-alone group and 48% (10/21) of patients in the aspirin+dipyrone group (P=0.037; OR, 4.4 [95% CI, 1.1-17.7]). Dipyrone comedication in patients with stroke impairs pharmacodynamic response to aspirin. This is associated with worse clinical outcome. Therefore dipyrone should be used with caution in aspirin treated stroke patients. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02148939; Identifier: NCT02148939. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Variables That Best Differentiate In-Patient Acute Stroke from Stroke-Mimics with Acute Neurological Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Natteru, P.; Mohebbi, M. R.; George, P.; Wisco, D.; Gebel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Strokes and stroke-mimics have been extensively studied in the emergency department setting. Although in-hospital strokes are less studied in comparison to strokes in the emergency department, they are a source of significant direct and indirect costs. Differentiating in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics is important. Thus, our study aimed to identify variables that can differentiate in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics. Methods. We present here a retrospective analysis of 93 patients over a one-year period (2009 to 2010), who were evaluated for a concern of in-hospital strokes. Results. About two-thirds (57) of these patients were determined to have a stroke, and the remaining (36) were stroke-mimics. Patients with in-hospital strokes were more likely to be obese (p = 0.03), have been admitted to the cardiology service (p = 0.01), have atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03), have a weak hand or hemiparesis (p = 0.03), and have a prior history of stroke (p = 0.05), whereas, when the consults were called for “altered mental status” but no other deficits (p < 0.0001), it is likely a stroke-mimic. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that in-hospital strokes are a common occurrence, and knowing the variables can aid in their timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28050311

  13. Patients living in impoverished areas have more severe ischemic strokes.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Dawn; Lindsell, Christopher; Alwell, Kathleen A; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Flaherty, Matthew L; Khatri, Pooja; Adeoye, Opeolu; Ferioli, Simona; Kissela, Brett M

    2012-08-01

    Initial stroke severity is one of the strongest predictors of eventual stroke outcome. However, predictors of initial stroke severity have not been well-described within a population. We hypothesized that poorer patients would have a higher initial stroke severity on presentation to medical attention. We identified all cases of hospital-ascertained ischemic stroke occurring in 2005 within a biracial population of 1.3 million. "Community" socioecomic status was determined for each patient based on the percentage below poverty in the census tract in which the patient resided. Linear regression was used to model the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke severity. Models were adjusted for race, gender, age, prestroke disability, and history of medical comorbidities. There were 1895 ischemic stroke events detected in 2005 included in this analysis; 22% were black, 52% were female, and the mean age was 71 years (range, 19-104). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 3 (range, 0-40). The poorest community socioeconomic status was associated with a significantly increased initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale by 1.5 points (95% confidence interval, 0.5-2.6; P<0.001) compared with the richest category in the univariate analysis, which increased to 2.2 points after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities. We found that increasing community poverty was associated with worse stroke severity at presentation, independent of other known factors associated with stroke outcomes. Socioeconomic status may impact stroke severity via medication compliance, access to care, and cultural factors, or may be a proxy measure for undiagnosed disease states.

  14. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke.

    PubMed

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, E M S; Husted, S E

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months and 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. We found a significant increase in albumin from 1 week to 6 months (P < 0.0001), and a significant increase in transferrin form 5 weeks to 6 months (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in weight or BMI from 1 week to 6 months. The number of patients with 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables showed improvement for serum proteins, and 22 % of the patients were malnourished 6 months after stroke.

  15. Explicit memory and implicit memory in occipital lobe stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Wang, JiHua; Feng, Lei; Wang, MeiHong; Li, Xiu; Hu, JiaYun; Wang, Kai

    2015-03-01

    Occipital stroke patients mainly showed cortical blindness and unilateral vision loss; memory is generally reserved. Recent reports from neuroimaging show the occipital lobe may be involved in the processing of implicit memory (IM), especially the perception type of IM processing. In this study, we explored the explicit memory (EM) and IM damage in occipital lobe stroke patients. A total of 25 occipital strokes and 29 years of age, educational level equivalent healthy controls (HCs), evaluated by using immediate recall, delayed recall, recognition for EM tasks, picture identification, and category exemplar generation for IM tasks. There was no significant difference between occipital stroke patients and HCs in EM tasks and category exemplar generation task. In the picture identification task, occipital lobe stroke group score was poorer than HC group, the results were statistically significant, but in the pictures identify rate, occipital stroke patients and normal control group had no significant difference. The occipital stroke patients may have IM damage, primarily damage the perception type of IM priming effects, which was unrelated with their cortical blindness. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Major Depression as a Predictor of Poor Long-Term Survival in a Brazilian Stroke Cohort (Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity in Adults) EMMA study.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Roberta Ferreira; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    The influence of poststroke depression on long-term survival is poorly investigated. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the influence of major depression disorder (MDD) on long-term survival in the participants from The Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity in Adults (EMMA Study) in São Paulo, Brazil. We prospectively evaluated ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) cases from the EMMA Study. Baseline and stroke characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated according to MDD assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, which was applied 30 days after index event and periodically during 1-year follow-up. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, as well as crude and multiple Cox proportional hazards models. In this subset of the EMMA Study, we evaluated 164 (85.9%) patients with ischemic stroke and 27 (14.1%) with HS. Among these, overall incidence of MDD was 25.1% during 1 year of follow-up, regardless stroke subtype. The peak rate of major depression postacute event was beyond 1 month. We observed a lower survival rate among individuals who developed poststroke MDD than among those who did not develop this condition after 1 year of follow-up (85.4% versus 96.5%, log rank P = .006). After multiple analysis, we kept a higher risk of all-cause mortality among those who developed MDD compared to participants without MDD (hazard ratio = 4.60, 95% confidence interval = 1.36-15.55, P = .01). Our findings suggest that incident MDD is a potential marker of poor prognosis 1 year after stroke. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neuroprotective treatment with citicoline (ceraxon) in patients with ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Martynov, M Iu; Boĭko, A N; Kamchatnov, P R; Kabanov, A A; Iasamanova, A N; Shchukin, I A; Kolesnikova, T I; Chubykin, V I; Glukhareva, A P; Gusev, E I

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of neurological symptoms assessed with the Scandinavian stroke scale, the Barthel index and the modified Rankin scale was studied in 89 patients with moderate ischemic stroke who received citicoline (ceraxone) intravenously and orally. The results were compared to a group of 52 age-, sex- and stroke-matched patients who did not receive citicoline. To the date of discharge from the hospital (days 21-24), the full restoration (p<0.05) was noted in patients of the main group. Efficacy of citicoline was significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients younger than 70 years and when the drug was used in the first hours of disease.

  18. ACTIVLIM-Stroke: a crosscultural Rasch-built scale of activity limitations in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Tennant, Alan; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the development of a Rasch-built scale measuring activity limitations in stroke patients, named ACTIVLIM-Stroke. This new Rasch-built measure was constructed based on stroke patients' perceptions of difficulty in performing daily activities. Patients were recruited from inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation departments in Belgium and Benin. A 73-item questionnaire was completed by 204 participants. A random subsample of 83 subjects was given the questionnaire a second time. Data were analyzed using RUMM2030 software. After successive Rasch analyses, the ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire, a unidimensional and linear 20-item measure of activity limitations, was constructed. All 20 items fulfilled Rasch requirements (overall and individual item fit, category discrimination, invariance, local response independence, and nonredundancy in item difficulty). This simple patient-based scale encompasses a large range of activities related to self-care, transfer, mobility, manual ability, and balance. The ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire exhibited high internal validity, excellent internal consistency, and good crosscultural validity. The test-retest reliability of item difficulty hierarchy (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.99) and patient location (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.92) were both excellent. Furthermore, it showed good external construct validity using correlations with the Functional Independence Measure motor and the Barthel Index and a higher discriminating capacity than either of these widely used indices. The ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire has good psychometric qualities and provides accurate measures of activity limitations in patients with stroke. It is recommended for evaluating clinical and research interventions in patients with stroke, because it provides a higher discrimination and might be more sensitive to change.

  19. Does primary stroke center certification change ED diagnosis, utilization, and disposition of patients with acute stroke?

    PubMed

    Ballard, Dustin W; Reed, Mary E; Huang, Jie; Kramer, Barbara J; Hsu, John; Chettipally, Uli

    2012-09-01

    We examined the impact of primary stroke center (PSC) certification on emergency department (ED) use and outcomes within an integrated delivery system in which EDs underwent staggered certification. A retrospective cohort study of 30,461 patients seen in 17 integrated delivery system EDs with a primary diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA), intracranial hemorrhage, or ischemic stroke between 2005 and 2008 was conducted. We compared ED stroke patient visits across hospitals for (1) temporal trends and (2) pre- and post-PSC certification-using logistic and linear regression models to adjust for comorbidities, patient characteristics, and calendar time, to examine major outcomes (ED throughput time, hospital admission, radiographic imaging utilization and throughput, and mortality) across certification stages. There were 15,687 precertification ED visits and 11,040 postcertification visits. Primary stroke center certification was associated with significant changes in care processes associated with PSC certification process, including (1) ED throughput for patients with intracranial hemorrhage (55 minutes faster), (2) increased utilization of cranial magnetic resonance imaging for patients with ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-2.60), and (3) decrease in time to radiographic imaging for most modalities, including cranial computed tomography done within 6 hours of ED arrival (TIA: 12 minutes faster, ischemic stroke: 11 minutes faster), magnetic resonance imaging for patients with ischemic stroke (197 minutes faster), and carotid Doppler sonography for TIA patients (138 minutes faster). There were no significant changes in survival. Stroke center certification was associated with significant changes in ED admission and radiographic utilization patterns, without measurable improvements in survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vertebrobasilar ectasia in patients with lacunar stroke: the secondary prevention of small subcortical strokes trial.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Makoto; Pearce, Lesly A; Ohara, Nobuyuki; Field, Thalia S; Bazan, Carlos; Anderson, David C; Hart, Robert G; Benavente, Oscar R

    2015-05-01

    The clinical implications of vertebrobasilar ectasia (VBE) in patients with cerebral small-artery disease are not well defined. We investigated whether VBE is associated with recurrent stroke, major hemorrhage, and death in a large cohort of patients with recent lacunar stroke. Maximum diameters of the vertebral and basilar arteries were measured by magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomographic angiography in 2621 participants in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes trial. VBE was defined a priori as basilar artery greater than 4.5 mm and/or vertebral artery greater than 4.0 mm. Patient characteristics and risks of stroke recurrence and mortality during follow-up (median, 3.5 years) were compared between patients with and without VBE. VBE affecting 1 or more arteries was present in 200 (7.6%) patients. Patient features independently associated with VBE were increasing age, male sex, white race ethnicity, hypertension, and higher baseline diastolic blood pressure. Baseline systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with VBE. After adjustment for other risk factors, VBE was not predictive of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], .85-1.9) or major hemorrhage (HR, 1.5; CI, .94-2.6), but was of death (HR, 1.7; CI, 1.1-2.7). In this large well-characterized cohort of patients with recent lacunar stroke, VBE was predictive of death but not of recurrent stroke or major hemorrhage. In these exploratory analyses, the frequency of VBE was directly related to diastolic blood pressure but inversely related to systolic blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hereditary Connective Tissue Diseases in Young Adult Stroke: A Comprehensive Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vanakker, Olivier M.; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; De Paepe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Though the genetic background of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke is often polygenetic or multifactorial, it can in some cases result from a monogenic disease, particularly in young adults. Besides arteriopathies and metabolic disorders, several connective tissue diseases can present with stroke. While some of these diseases have been recognized for decades as causes of stroke, such as the vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, others only recently came to attention as being involved in stroke pathogenesis, such as those related to Type IV collagen. This paper discusses each of these connective tissue disorders and their relation with stroke briefly, emphasizing the main clinical features which can lead to their diagnosis. PMID:21331163

  2. Money is Brain: Financial Barriers and Consequences for Canadian Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Aravind; King-Shier, Kathryn; Manns, Braden J; Hill, Michael D; Campbell, David J T

    2017-03-01

    Stroke patients of lower socioeconomic status have worse outcomes. It remains poorly understood whether this is due to illness severity or personal or health system barriers. We explored the experiences of stroke patients with financial barriers in a qualitative descriptive pilot study, seeking to capture perceived challenges that interfere with their poststroke health and recovery. We interviewed six adults with a history of stroke and financial barriers in Alberta, Canada, inquiring about their: (1) experiences after stroke; (2) experience of financial barriers; (3) perceived reasons for financial barriers; (4) health consequences of financial barriers; and (5) mechanisms for coping with financial barriers. Two reviewers analyzed data using inductive thematic analysis. The participants developed new or worsened financial circumstances as a consequence of stroke-related disability. Poststroke impairments and financial barriers took a toll on their mental health. They struggled to access several aspects of long-term poststroke care, including allied health professional services, medications, and proper nutrition. They described opportunity costs and tradeoffs when accessing health services. In several cases, they were unaware of health resources available to them and were hesitant to disclose their struggles to their physicians and even their families. Some patients with financial barriers perceive challenges to accessing various aspects of poststroke care. They may have inadequate knowledge of resources available to them and may not disclose their concerns to their health care team. This suggests that providers themselves might consider asking stroke patients about financial barriers to optimize their long-term poststroke care.

  3. Determinants of Length of Stay in Stroke Patients: A Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…

  4. Determinants of Length of Stay in Stroke Patients: A Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…

  5. Assessing the Cognitive Regulation of Emotion in Depressed Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a simple scale for measuring positive interpersonal attitudes of depressed stroke patients, with regard to their cognitive limitations. Two versions of the Attitudes Towards Relationships Scale were developed and administered to depressed stroke (n = 48) and control rheumatic/orthopaedic (n = 45)…

  6. Assessing the Cognitive Regulation of Emotion in Depressed Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a simple scale for measuring positive interpersonal attitudes of depressed stroke patients, with regard to their cognitive limitations. Two versions of the Attitudes Towards Relationships Scale were developed and administered to depressed stroke (n = 48) and control rheumatic/orthopaedic (n = 45)…

  7. Predictors of Outcome in Patients Presenting with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Mild Stroke Scale Scores.

    PubMed

    Kenmuir, Cynthia L; Hammer, Maxim; Jovin, Tudor; Reddy, Vivek; Wechsler, Lawrence; Jadhav, Ashutosh

    2015-07-01

    Although National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a known predictor of outcome in acute ischemic stroke, there are other factors like age, ambulatory status, and ability to swallow that may be predictors of outcome but are not assessed by the traditional NIHSS. The aim of this retrospective review was to identify predictors of outcome in mild ischemic stroke. Discharge outcomes from patients who presented to our large academic stroke center with acute ischemic stroke from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Of 7189 patients reviewed, 2597 had initial NIHSS less than 5. Outcome measures were modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score 0-1 and discharge to home. In all, 65% of patients with NIHSS 0-4 were discharged directly home independent of treatment. Of those patients discharged to home, 74% were able to ambulate independently and 98% passed their dysphagia screen. Of patients not discharged directly home, 66% were unable to ambulate independently and 21% did not pass their dysphagia screen. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect of dysphagia screen (P = .001), ability to ambulate independently (P = .002), age (P = .016), and NIHSS (P = .005) on discharge to home but not MRS of 0-1 (P = .564). In patients with mild stroke scale scores defined as NIHSS 0-4, several factors including age, NIHSS, ambulatory status, and ability to swallow may be independent predictors of functional outcome and discharge home. These data support the development of a modified grading system for assessing functional outcome in mild stroke that considers these factors. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical complications experienced by first-time ischemic stroke patients during inpatient, tertiary level stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Civelek, Gul Mete; Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the medical complications in first-time ischemic stroke patients, to identify the factors related to occurrence of complications. [Subjects and Methods] First-time ischemic stroke patients (n=81) admitted to a tertiary level inpatient rehabilitation center during a 5 year period were included in the study. The attending physiatrist noted the presence of specific medical complications and complications that required transfer to the acute care facility from patient records. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification was used to define the clinical subtypes of the ischemic stroke patients. The Charlson comorbidity index was used to evaluate co-morbid conditions. Functional disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure at admission and discharge. [Results] We found that 88.9% of the patients had at least one complication. The five most common complications were urinary tract infection (48.1%), shoulder pain (37.0%), insomnia (37.0%), depression (32.1%), and musculoskeletal pain other than shoulder pain (32.1%) and 11.1% of patients were transferred to acute care facility during rehabilitation period. Functional Independence Measure scores both at admission and discharge were significantly lower in patients with at least one complication than in patients with no complications. [Conclusion] Medical complications are common among patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between physiatrists and other medical specialities is necessary for optimal management. PMID:27065523

  9. Prevalence of Genu Recurvatum during Walking and Associated Knee Pain in Chronic Hemiplegic Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Survey.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yasuhiro; Otaka, Yohei; Kudo, Munekatsu; Kurayama, Taichi; Kondo, Kunitsugu

    2016-05-01

    Although genu recurvatum during walking is a well-known issue in stroke rehabilitation, there are no reliable epidemiological data on its prevalence. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of genu recurvatum during walking and associated knee pain among ambulatory community-dwelling patients with chronic hemiplegic stroke. Questionnaires were sent to physical therapists working at 223 adult day care facilities in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The number of all chronic stroke patients attending the day care who could walk without human assistance, including those who used a walking aid and/or an orthosis; the number of patients with genu recurvatum in the paretic limb during walking; and the number of patients with genu recurvatum who had experienced any knee pain in the last month were investigated. Physical therapists were also asked whether they considered genu recurvatum in stroke patients to be problematic. Sixty-four facilities (28.7%) responded, providing data on 1110 ambulatory stroke patients, of whom 217 (19.5%) showed genu recurvatum. Of the patients with genu recurvatum, 25 (11.5%) experienced knee pain in the paretic limb. Of 45 physical therapists who gave an opinion on whether genu recurvatum was problematic, 26 (57.8%) thought it was problematic whereas 19 thought it was not problematic. Rates of genu recurvatum and associated knee pain were relatively low among ambulatory community-dwelling stroke survivors attending adult day care. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Racial Difference in Cerebral Microbleed Burden among Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahjouei, Shima; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Singh, Mantinderpreet; McCormack, Michael; Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Nariman; Goyal, Nitin; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Zand, Ramin

    2017-08-21

    Data on the epidemiology of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) among patients with ischemic stroke are limited. This study compared the number, associated factors, and topography of CMBs between African American and Caucasian ischemic stroke patients in the Mid-South United States. We evaluated consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to our tertiary stroke center, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, in a two-year period. We analyzed T2*-weighted magnetic resonance images for the number, location, and topography of CMBs, as well as patients' demographic and clinical information. Among 760 ischemic stroke patients who were included (mean age was 62.1 ± 13.9 years, 51.4% men), 450 (59.2%) were African American. In comparison with Caucasians, African Americans were about five years younger (P = .000) and had a higher rate of hypertension (80.9% vs. 74.5%, P = .036). Similarly, African Americans had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = .001). There was no significant difference between African-Americans and Caucasians in terms of CMBs presence and location. African Americans had a higher number of CMBs in comparison with Caucasians, but the difference was not significant. African Americans were more likely to have CMBs ≥5 (P = .047). Although African American stroke patients had a higher rate of large confluent white matter lesions, there was no significant racial difference regarding the rate and severity of deep white matter lesions. We did not observe any differences between African American and Caucasian patients with ischemic stroke patients regarding the presence, number, and location of CMBs. However, our results suggested that the prevalence of multiple CMBs (CMBs ≥5) might be higher among African American stroke patients. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of paracetamol in ischaemic stroke patients: evidence from VISTA.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Fulton, R L; Weimar, C; Lees, K R; Sanders, R D

    2013-09-01

    Paracetamol is frequently prescribed for pain and fever control in acute stroke patients, but its effect on stroke outcome is unclear. The aim was to investigate the safety and benefit of paracetamol administration in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. We analysed the impact of paracetamol exposure on functional outcome at 90 days among ischaemic stroke patients registered in a clinical trials archive. We used an adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to test for significance (P) followed by proportional odds logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for more favourable modified Rankin Scale score. Data were available for 6015 patients, of whom 2435 had received paracetamol. No association of paracetamol-use with overall stroke outcome could be detected among those patients who experienced pain and/or fever (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.20, P = 0.931). In patients without recorded pain and/or fever events and a baseline temperature below 37°C, in whom paracetamol was started within 3 days of stroke, paracetamol was associated with worse outcome (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.72, P = <0.001). This retrospective analysis is discouraging for prophylactic use of paracetamol in acute stroke patients, but underlines the need for a sufficiently powered randomized controlled trial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Improving pain assessment and managment in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; ramadurai, gopinath; Williams, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief. PMID:26732690

  13. Inpatient rehabilitation outcomes of patients with apraxia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Andy J; Burgard, Emily; Radel, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Stroke-induced paresis commands much attention during rehabilitation; other stroke-related consequences receive less consideration. Apraxia is a stroke disorder that may have important implications for rehabilitation and recovery. To investigate association of apraxia with stroke rehabilitation outcomes during inpatient rehabilitation. This cohort study compared patients with and without apraxia after a first left hemispheric stroke. All study patients received standard of care. Clinical measures were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) administered upon admission and at discharge. Length of stay was also documented. Florida Apraxia Battery subtests were used to classify patients with apraxia. Fifteen patients were included in this study, 10 of whom had apraxia. Data analysis revealed that patients with apraxia exhibited improvement from admission to discharge in clinical measures; however, admission FIM score was significantly lower compared to patients without apraxia. There was no statistically significant difference between groups on FMA score, length of stay, or amount of change on clinical measures. This study of acute patients found those with apraxia to be significantly less independent upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation compared to patients without apraxia. Although both groups improved a similar amount during rehabilitation, patients with apraxia discharged at a level of independence comparable to patients without apraxia upon admission. Such disparity in independence is of concern, and apraxia as a factor in stroke rehabilitation and recovery deserves further attention.

  14. Improving pain assessment and managment in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Julian; Moxham, Sian; Ramadurai, Gopinath; Williams, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Stroke patients can experience a variety of pain. Many stroke patients have co-morbidities such as osteoporosis, arthritis or diabetes causing diabetic neuropathy. As well as pain from other long term conditions, stroke patients can experience central post-stroke pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal issues such as hypertonia, contractures, spasticity, and subluxations. These stroke patients can also have communication difficulties in the form of expressive dysphasia and/or global aphasia. Communication difficulties can result in these patients not expressing their pain and therefore not having it assessed, leading to inadequate pain relief that could impact their rehabilitation and recovery. By implementing an observational measurement of pain such as the Abbey pain scale, patients with communication difficulties can have their pain assessed and recorded. Initially 30% of patients on the acute stroke ward did not have their pain assessed and adequately recorded and 15% of patients had inadequate pain relief. The patient was assessed if they were in pain and therefore not receiving adequate pain relief by measuring their pain on the Abbey pain scale. After introducing the Abbey pain scale and creating a nurse advocate, an improvement was shown such that only 5% of patients did not have their pain recorded and all had adequate pain relief.

  15. Rehabilitation assessments for patients with stroke in Australian hospitals do not always reflect the patients' rehabilitation requirements.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth A; Luker, Julie A; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Hillier, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    To examine the frequency and factors associated with patients with stroke in Australian hospitals receiving documented rehabilitation assessments; to examine the criteria used when rehabilitation was not recommended; and to examine whether being assessed for rehabilitation affected access to rehabilitation. Retrospective medical record audit of patients with a diagnosis of stroke who were discharged consecutively between 2013 and 2014. Acute care public hospitals. Adults with stroke (N=333) receiving care in participating hospitals. Not applicable. Documented assessment regarding patient suitability for rehabilitation during acute hospitalization. Data from 292 patients were included for analysis (60% men; mean age, 72y). Of the patients, 42% were assessed for rehabilitation by a health professional providing care in the hospital, 43% were assessed for rehabilitation by a representative from a rehabilitation service, and 37% did not receive any documented rehabilitation assessment. In multivariable analysis, patients were significantly more likely to be assessed for rehabilitation if they lived in the community before their stroke, had moderate severity strokes, or received occupational therapy during hospital admission. Rehabilitation was not recommended in 9% of assessments despite the presence of stroke-related symptoms. Patients not assessed for rehabilitation were significantly less likely to access rehabilitation than patients who were assessed. More than one third of patients were not assessed for rehabilitation. When assessed, rehabilitation was not consistently recommended for patients with stroke-related symptoms. This study highlights factors that increase the likelihood of being assessed for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Potential Stroke Patients on Warfarin, the International Normalized Ratio Predicts Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cathy; Martinelli, Ashley; Spoelhof, Brian; Llinas, Rafael H; Marsh, Elisabeth B

    2017-01-01

    Stroke can occur in patients on warfarin despite anticoagulation. Patients with a low international normalized ratio (INR) should theoretically be at greater risk for ischemia than those who are therapeutic. Therefore, INR may be able to indicate whether new neurological deficits are more likely strokes or stroke mimics in patients on warfarin. This study evaluates the association and predictive value of INR in determining the likelihood of ischemia. Patients were identified using the acute stroke registry at a Primary Stroke Center from January 2013 through December 2014. All adult patients undergoing evaluation for acute stroke with prior documented use of warfarin and an INR level at presentation were included. Data were collected regarding patient demographics, medical comorbidities, stroke severity, reason for anticoagulation, and laboratory studies including INR. Student t tests and χ2 analysis were used to evaluate factors associated with increased likelihood of ischemia (stroke or transient ischemic attack) versus mimic. Significant results were entered into a multivariable regression analysis. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted to determine the predictive value of INR for ischemic risk. 116 patients were included; 46 were diagnosed with ischemia, 70 were diagnosed as mimics. 75% of patients were on warfarin for atrial fibrillation versus 25% for venous thrombosis. A statistically significant difference in mean INR for patients with ischemia (n = 46) versus mimics (n = 70) was observed (1.7 vs. 2.8; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, both sub-therapeutic INR (p < 0.001) and atrial fibrillation (p = 0.014) were predictors of ischemia. In patients with an INR ≥2, the predictive value of having a non-ischemic etiology was 79%. No patient with an INR of ≥3.6 was found to have ischemia. Sub-therapeutic INR and atrial fibrillation are strongly associated with ischemia in patients on warfarin presenting with acute neurologic symptoms

  17. In Potential Stroke Patients on Warfarin, the International Normalized Ratio Predicts Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cathy; Martinelli, Ashley; Spoelhof, Brian; Llinas, Rafael H.; Marsh, Elisabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke can occur in patients on warfarin despite anticoagulation. Patients with a low international normalized ratio (INR) should theoretically be at greater risk for ischemia than those who are therapeutic. Therefore, INR may be able to indicate whether new neurological deficits are more likely strokes or stroke mimics in patients on warfarin. This study evaluates the association and predictive value of INR in determining the likelihood of ischemia. Methods Patients were identified using the acute stroke registry at a Primary Stroke Center from January 2013 through December 2014. All adult patients undergoing evaluation for acute stroke with prior documented use of warfarin and an INR level at presentation were included. Data were collected regarding patient demographics, medical comorbidities, stroke severity, reason for anticoagulation, and laboratory studies including INR. Student t tests and χ2 analysis were used to evaluate factors associated with increased likelihood of ischemia (stroke or transient ischemic attack) versus mimic. Significant results were entered into a multivariable regression analysis. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted to determine the predictive value of INR for ischemic risk. Results 116 patients were included; 46 were diagnosed with ischemia, 70 were diagnosed as mimics. 75% of patients were on warfarin for atrial fibrillation versus 25% for venous thrombosis. A statistically significant difference in mean INR for patients with ischemia (n = 46) versus mimics (n = 70) was observed (1.7 vs. 2.8; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, both sub-therapeutic INR (p < 0.001) and atrial fibrillation (p = 0.014) were predictors of ischemia. In patients with an INR ≥2, the predictive value of having a non-ischemic etiology was 79%. No patient with an INR of ≥3.6 was found to have ischemia. Conclusions Sub-therapeutic INR and atrial fibrillation are strongly associated with ischemia in patients on warfarin

  18. Obesity and stroke: Can we translate from rodents to patients?

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for stroke and is consequently one of the most common co-morbidities found in patients. There is therefore an identified need to model co-morbidities preclinically to allow better translation from bench to bedside. In preclinical studies, both diet-induced and genetically obese rodents have worse stroke outcome, characterised by increased ischaemic damage and an altered inflammatory response. However, clinical studies have reported an ‘obesity paradox’ in stroke, characterised by reduced mortality and morbidity in obese patients. We discuss the potential reasons why the preclinical and clinical studies may not agree, and review the mechanisms identified in preclinical studies through which obesity may affects stroke outcome. We suggest inflammation plays a central role in this relationship, as obesity features increases in inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, and chronic inflammation has been linked to worse stroke risk and outcome. PMID:27655337

  19. Obesity and stroke: Can we translate from rodents to patients?

    PubMed

    Haley, Michael J; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for stroke and is consequently one of the most common co-morbidities found in patients. There is therefore an identified need to model co-morbidities preclinically to allow better translation from bench to bedside. In preclinical studies, both diet-induced and genetically obese rodents have worse stroke outcome, characterised by increased ischaemic damage and an altered inflammatory response. However, clinical studies have reported an 'obesity paradox' in stroke, characterised by reduced mortality and morbidity in obese patients. We discuss the potential reasons why the preclinical and clinical studies may not agree, and review the mechanisms identified in preclinical studies through which obesity may affects stroke outcome. We suggest inflammation plays a central role in this relationship, as obesity features increases in inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, and chronic inflammation has been linked to worse stroke risk and outcome.

  20. Predictors of long-term recurrent vascular events after ischemic stroke at young age: the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Zini, Andrea; Delodovici, Maria Luisa; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Sessa, Maria; Cavallini, Anna; Marcheselli, Simona; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Tancredi, Lucia; Chiti, Alberto; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Spalloni, Alessandra; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Giacalone, Giacomo; Ferrazzi, Paola; Poli, Loris; Morotti, Andrea; Rasura, Maurizia; Simone, Anna Maria; Gamba, Massimo; Cerrato, Paolo; Micieli, Giuseppe; Melis, Maurizio; Massucco, Davide; De Giuli, Valeria; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2014-04-22

    Data on long-term risk and predictors of recurrent thrombotic events after ischemic stroke at a young age are limited. We followed 1867 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke who were 18 to 45 years of age (mean age, 36.8±7.1 years; women, 49.0%), as part of the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults (IPSYS). Median follow-up was 40 months (25th to 75th percentile, 53). The primary end point was a composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, or other arterial events. One hundred sixty-three patients had recurrent thrombotic events (average rate, 2.26 per 100 person-years at risk). At 10 years, cumulative risk was 14.7% (95% confidence interval, 12.2%-17.9%) for primary end point, 14.0% (95% confidence interval, 11.4%-17.1%) for brain ischemia, and 0.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-1.3%) for myocardial infarction or other arterial events. Familial history of stroke, migraine with aura, circulating antiphospholipid antibodies, discontinuation of antiplatelet and antihypertensive medications, and any increase of 1 traditional vascular risk factor were independent predictors of the composite end point in multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. A point-scoring system for each variable was generated by their β-coefficients, and a predictive score (IPSYS score) was calculated as the sum of the weighted scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the 0- to 5-year score was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.71; mean, 10-fold internally cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.65). Among patients with ischemic stroke aged 18 to 45 years, the long-term risk of recurrent thrombotic events is associated with modifiable, age-specific risk factors. The IPSYS score may serve as a simple tool for risk estimation.

  1. Post-stroke movement disorders: report of 56 patients

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, F; Zijlmans, J; Duenas, G; Cevallos, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although movement disorders that occur following a stroke have long been recognised in short series of patients, their frequency and clinical and imaging features have not been reported in large series of patients with stroke. Methods: We reviewed consecutive patients with involuntary abnormal movements (IAMs) following a stroke who were included in the Eugenio Espejo Hospital Stroke Registry and they were followed up for at least one year after the onset of the IAM. We determined the clinical features, topographical correlations, and pathophysiological implications of the IAMs. Results: Of 1500 patients with stroke 56 developed movement disorders up to one year after the stroke. Patients with chorea were older and the patients with dystonia were younger than the patients with other IAMs. In patients with isolated vascular lesions without IAMs, surface lesions prevailed but patients with deep vascular lesions showed a higher probability of developing abnormal movements. One year after onset of the IAMs, 12 patients (21.4%) completely improved their abnormal movements, 38 patients (67.8%) partially improved, four did not improve (7.1%), and two patients with chorea died. In the nested case–control analysis, the patients with IAMs displayed a higher frequency of deep lesions (63% v 33%; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.99, p<0.001). Patients with deep haemorrhagic lesions showed a higher probability of developing IAMs (OR 4.8, 95% CI 0.8 to 36.6). Conclusions: Chorea is the commonest movement disorder following stroke and appears in older patients. Involuntary movements tend to persist despite the functional recovery of motor deficit. Deep vascular lesions are more frequent in patients with movement disorders. PMID:15489389

  2. A study of structural foot deformity in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Gwon Uk; Kweon, Mi Gyoug; Park, Seol; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural deformity of the foot joint on the affected side in hemiplegic patients to examine factors that affect this kind of structural deformity. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients and 32 normal adults participated. The foot posture index (FPI) was used to examine the shape of the foot, the modified Ashworth scale test was used to examine the degree of ankle joint rigidity, the navicular drop test was used to investigate the degree of navicular change, and the resting calcaneal stance position test was used to identify location change of the heel bone. [Results] The FPIs of the paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, the non-paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, and normal participants were −0.25 ± 2.1, 1.74 ± 2.3, and 2.12 ± 3.4 respectively. [Conclusion] Our findings indicated that in stroke-related hemiplegic patients, the more severe the spasticity, the more supinated the foot. Further, the smaller the degree of change in the navicular height of hemiplegic patients is, the more supinated the paretic side foot is. Additionally, a greater change in the location of the calcaneus was associated with greater supination of the overall foot. PMID:25642071

  3. Use of the Faces Pain Scale by left and right hemispheric stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Benaim, Charles; Froger, Jerome; Cazottes, Claire; Gueben, Delphine; Porte, Melanie; Desnuelle, Claude; Pelissier, Jacques Yvon

    2007-03-01

    No pain scale is available for stroke patients due to the presence of language or cognitive disorders. However, the Faces Pain Scale (FPS), which was initially developed for children, has been used with success in adults with cognitive impairments. The aim of this study is to test whether the FPS could be used in left or right hemispheric stroke patients (LHSP, RHSP). One hundred twenty-seven stoke patients and 21 controls were recruited in 2 rehabilitation units. Construct validity of FPS was assessed by rating and ranking facial expressions. FPS was correlated to a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and to a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) for the assessment of shoulder pain. Reliability was determined by test-retest procedures. Performances of RHSP in the ranking and rating procedures were very poor compared to LHSP and to controls. However, in the assessment of patients' shoulder pain, FPS scores were highly correlated with VAS and VRS in both stroke groups (r=0.65-0.82, p<10(-3)). FPS was more reliable in LHSP than in RHSP. It was preferred to VAS and VRS in LHSP, while in RHSP VAS was the preferred scale. The present study provides preliminary support for the validity and the reliability of FPS in LHSP. However, we do not recommend its sole use in stroke patients. Further studies are needed to determine whether FPS can be used in stroke patients for assessing changes in severity of pain over time.

  4. The aesthetic and cultural pursuits of patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Clare; Cassidy, Aoife; O'Neill, Desmond; Moss, Hilary

    2013-11-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the arts in health care, with a suggestion that the arts and aesthetics can augment patient outcomes in stroke and other illnesses. Designing such programmes requires better knowledge of the artistic, aesthetic, and cultural pursuits of people affected by stroke. The aim of this study was to obtain the insights of this group about the profile of art and aesthetic activities in their lives and the influence of stroke on these aspects. Patients attending a stroke service were administered questions adapted from the Irish Arts Council's 2006 questionnaire on participation in aesthetics and cultural pursuits. Information was also collected on stroke type and present functional and cognitive status. Thirty-eight patients were interviewed. Of these, 20 were inpatients in hospital at the time of the interview and 18 were interviewed in an outpatient setting. Popular activities included mainstream cinema, listening to music, dancing, attending plays or musicals, and being outdoors. Many patients ceased these activities after their stroke, mostly because of health issues and inaccessibility. Most of the patients valued the importance of the arts in the health-care setting. This study gives a perspective for the first time on the aesthetic and cultural pursuits of stroke patients before their stroke. It portrays a wide variety of cultural and leisure activities and the cessation of these poststroke. It revealed the restrictions patients felt on gaining access to leisure pursuits both while in hospital and following discharge. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic value of prehospital ECG in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Bobinger, Tobias; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Kopp, Markus; Kurka, Natalia; Arnold, Martin; Heider, Stefan; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2017-05-16

    To investigate the diagnostic yield of prehospital ECG monitoring provided by emergency medical services in the case of suspected stroke. Consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to our tertiary stroke center via emergency medical services and with available prehospital ECG were prospectively included during a 12-month study period. We assessed prehospital ECG recordings and compared the results to regular 12-lead ECG on admission and after continuous ECG monitoring at the stroke unit. Overall, 259 patients with prehospital ECG recording were included in the study (90.3% ischemic stroke, 9.7% intracerebral hemorrhage). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was detected in 25.1% of patients, second-degree or greater atrioventricular block in 5.4%, significant ST-segment elevation in 5.0%, and ventricular ectopy in 9.7%. In 18 patients, a diagnosis of new-onset AF with direct clinical consequences for the evaluation and secondary prevention of stroke was established by the prehospital recordings. In 2 patients, the AF episodes were limited to the prehospital period and were not detected by ECG on admission or during subsequent monitoring at the stroke unit. Of 126 patients (48.6%) with relevant abnormalities in the prehospital ECG, 16.7% received medical antiarrhythmic therapy during transport to the hospital, and 6.4% were transferred to a cardiology unit within the first 24 hours in the hospital. In a selected cohort of patients with stroke, the in-field recordings of the ECG detected a relevant rate of cardiac arrhythmia. The results can add to the in-hospital evaluation and should be considered in prehospital care of acute stroke. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. [Incidence of aphasia in patients experiencing an ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    González Mc, Francisca; Lavados G, Pablo; Olavarría I, Verónica

    2017-02-01

    Sequelae after a stroke are common and may lead to disability. Aphasia - defined as an acquired language disturbance - can cause important limitations in quality of life. To describe the epidemiological features of patients who had an aphasia after a first episode of ischemic stroke and their functional outcome at six months. Review of a database of a population study on the incidence, 30-day case fatality rate, and prognosis of stroke performed in a northern Chilean city between 2000 and 2002. Aphasia was diagnosed in 28 of 142 patients in whom the disorder was sought (20%). The projected incidence rate in the city where the study was carried out is 7.06 per 100,000 inhabitants. The mean age of these 28 patients was 66 ± 20 years and 53% were women. The main risk factor for stroke was hypertension in 62%. The etiology of stroke was undetermined in 64% of these patients. Partial anterior circulation infarction was the most common stroke location in 61%. Twenty percent of patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke have aphasia.

  7. Ischemic stroke patients are biologically older than their chronological age

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Mola-Caminal, Marina; Vivanco-Hidalgo, Rosa M.; Ois, Angel; Rodríguez-Campello, Ana; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Elosua, Roberto; Roquer, Jaume; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with aging. It is possible to predict chronological age by measuring age-related changes in DNA methylation from multiple CpG sites across the genome, known as biological age. The difference between biological age and actual chronological age would indicate an individual's level of aging. Our aim was to determine the biological age of ischemic stroke patients and compare their aging with controls of the same chronological age. A total of 123 individuals, 41 controls and 82 patients with ischemic stroke were paired by chronological age, ranging from 39 to 82 years. Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array was used to measure DNA methylation in CpG sites in both groups, and biological age was estimated using methylation values of specific CpGs. Ischemic stroke patients were biologically an average 2.5 years older than healthy controls (p-value=0.010). Stratified by age tertiles, younger stroke patients (≤57 years old) were biologically older than controls (OR=1.19; 95%CI 1.00-1.41, p-value=0.046). The older groups showed no biological age differences between cases and controls, but were close to reaching the significance level. Ischemic stroke patients are biologically older than controls. Biological age should be considered as a potential new biomarker of stroke risk. PMID:27922817

  8. Management of Acute Hypertensive Response in Patients With Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mm Hg is seen in 75% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and in 80% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhages and is independently associated with poor functional outcome. While BP reduction in patients with chronic hypertension remains one of the most important factors in primary and secondary stroke prevention, the proper management strategy for acute hypertensive response within the first 72 hours of acute ischemic stroke has been a matter of debate. Recent guidelines recommend clinical trials to ascertain whether antihypertensive therapy in the acute phase of stroke is beneficial. This review summarizes the current data on acute hypertensive response or elevated BP management during the first 72 hours after an acute ischemic stroke. Based on the potential deleterious effect of lowering BP observed in some clinical trials in patients with acute ischemic stroke and because of the lack of convincing evidence to support acute BP lowering in those situations, aggressive BP reduction in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is currently not recommended. While the early use of angiotensin receptor antagonists may help reduce cardiovascular events, this benefit is not necessarily related to BP reduction. PMID:27366297

  9. Management of Acute Hypertensive Response in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    AlSibai, Ahmad; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2016-07-01

    High blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mm Hg is seen in 75% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and in 80% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhages and is independently associated with poor functional outcome. While BP reduction in patients with chronic hypertension remains one of the most important factors in primary and secondary stroke prevention, the proper management strategy for acute hypertensive response within the first 72 hours of acute ischemic stroke has been a matter of debate. Recent guidelines recommend clinical trials to ascertain whether antihypertensive therapy in the acute phase of stroke is beneficial. This review summarizes the current data on acute hypertensive response or elevated BP management during the first 72 hours after an acute ischemic stroke. Based on the potential deleterious effect of lowering BP observed in some clinical trials in patients with acute ischemic stroke and because of the lack of convincing evidence to support acute BP lowering in those situations, aggressive BP reduction in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is currently not recommended. While the early use of angiotensin receptor antagonists may help reduce cardiovascular events, this benefit is not necessarily related to BP reduction.

  10. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Budiyasa, Dewa Gde Agung; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman

    2008-10-01

    Mesothel is the cell lining of serosal surface of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and testis. Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor from mesothel that has a tendency to grow rapidly and invade locally. Although the incidence of malignant mesenterial mesothelioma is not so high, the case fatality rate is very high. The aim of this case report is to report the rare and difficult case with several complications. A Balinese man, 64 years old, came with chief complaint of weakness, abdominal enlargement, and nausea, with history of previous liver disease. On physical examination were found a decrease of conciousness, subfebrile, abdominal distension, ascites, negative traube space, and paralysis of the left side of the body. Laboratory examination results showed leukocytosis, hypochromic-micrositic anemia, trombocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, increase of alkaline phosphatase, and mild hyponatremia. Abdominal USG showed intraperitoneal mass which some of them attach to abdominal wall, possibly from mesenterium and ascites, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, skull CT scan showed small infarction at left parietal medulla and right basal ganglia, cytology showed spreaded and grouped mesothel with reactive lymphocyte and amorph back ground. FNAB result showed malignant mesothelioma, and normal colonoscopy. Based on the above data, the diagnoses were malignant mesenterial mesothelioma, reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, and non hemorrhagic stroke. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma should be considered in patient with the combination of unexplained ascites and abdominal pain. Although the result of treatment is very disappointing, the patient had to be treated optimally to increase quality of life.

  11. Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Kai; Luan, Xiaoqian; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Yan; Wang, Qiongzhang; Zhu, Beilei; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD. Serum magnesium levels were evaluated using the dimethyl aniline blue colorimetric method at admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Further, 120 normal subjects were recruited, and their serum magnesium levels were also measured as control. At 3 months, fifty-nine patients (28.2%) were diagnosed as PSD. The serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in both PSD patients and non-PSD patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Indeed, patients with PSD showed lower serum magnesium levels (p < 0.001) than did non-PSD patients at admission. In the multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential variables, we found that an increased risk of PSD was associated with serum magnesium levels ≤ 0.84mmol/L (OR 2.614, 95% CI 1.178-5.798, p=0.018). Low serum magnesium levels at admission were found to be associated with the presence of PSD at 3 months after stroke. PMID:28053818

  12. Screening for apraxia: a short assessment for stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Quincy J; Black, Sandra E; Roy, Eric A

    2002-01-01

    Apraxia is a disorder that involves impaired ability to execute previously learned movements that cannot be attributed to basic sensory or motor disturbances. A thorough assessment of apraxia typically entails both pantomiming and imitation of transitive (tool-related), intransitive (communication-related), and meaningless gestures, presented in an array of different, process-dependent sensory conditions. Precise and detailed assessment tools are often time-consuming and a shorter screening tool may be desirable for efficient surveillance of this disorder in stroke patients. In the present study, stroke patients (N = 37) were compared to healthy controls (N = 30) in their production of commonly used transitive and intransitive gestures. Five gestures (knife, flipper, tweezers, okay sign, cab hailing) were consistently performed with poorer accuracy in stroke patients when compared to healthy controls. The combination of gestures that best captured apraxic performance was statistically determined based on Z-score data. Results provide a shortened and sensitive method of detecting apraxia in stroke patients.

  13. [Perception of emotions in patients with ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Nikishina, V B; Petrash, E A; Zapesotskaya, I V

    2015-01-01

    To study neuropsychological characteristics of perception processes, recognition and differentiation of emotional distress in post stroke patients with regard to localization of ischemic lesion. Authors examined 47 post stroke patients with right-hemisphere and left hemisphere localization of ischemic stroke in the early stage of hospitalization. The Subjective Feelings Scale and a battery of neuropsychological tests were used. In patients with right-hemisphere localization of the lesion, positive emotional reactions were more frequent, neuropsychological implementation level was realized through details and differentiation of the image. In patients with left-hemispheric localization of ischemic stroke, negative emotional reactions were dominated and neuropsychological implementation level was realized through a vague and undifferentiated way.

  14. Dabigatran Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Without Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kate, Mahesh; Gioia, Laura; Buck, Brian; Sivakumar, Leka; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Butcher, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    Acute ischemic stroke patients are at risk of early recurrence. We tested the feasibility and safety of initiating dabigatran in patients, within 24 hours of minor stroke in patients without atrial fibrillation. Minor stroke patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3) without atrial fibrillation and evidence of acute infarction on magnetic resonance imaging were treated with dabigatran. Treatment began within 24 hours of onset and was continued for 30 days. The primary end point was symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. A total of 53 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 68 (57-77) years and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 1 (0-2) were enrolled. Baseline diffusion-weighted imaging volume was 0.8 (0.3-2.4) mL. No patients experienced symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. Three patients had evidence of asymptomatic petechial hemorrhagic transformation on day 7, which remained stable at day 30, while continuing dabigatran. Dabigatran treatment within 24 hours of minor stroke is feasible. A larger randomized trial is required to confirm the safety and efficacy of this treatment approach. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT 01769703. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Stroke patients' and informal carers' experiences with life after stroke: an overview of qualitative systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Lou, Stina; Carstensen, Kathrine; Jørgensen, Carina Rumpelthiin; Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To provide a systematic overview of current qualitative systematic reviews and metasyntheses of patients' and informal carers' experiences with rehabilitation and life after stroke following discharge. Method A systematic literature search was performed based on PRISMA guidelines. Nine databases were systematically searched by a university librarian. The search yielded 1093 unique entries and screening by title/abstract identified 60 reviews for potential inclusion. After full-text assessment by two independent observers, 11 reviews satisfied the inclusion criteria. Following quality appraisal, four studies were excluded. Results Seven qualitative reviews (containing 108 primary studies) were included: five reviews of patients' experiences and two reviews of carers' experiences. Stroke causes profound disruption of life as known, and both patients and carers must engage in a process of adapting and rebuilding a post-stroke life and identity. This process of rehabilitation is described as temperamental and unstable rather than progressive. From the reviews, five key experiences in this process are identified: autonomy, uncertainty, engagement, hope and social relations. Conclusions The need for broad, qualitative syntheses of stroke patients' experiences is currently fulfilled. Future qualitative reviews could focus more on implications for practice, e.g., by grading the quality of the metafindings. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke is a profound disruption of life as known, and patients and carers value information that helps them prepare for and adjust to this new situation. Optimal rehabilitation is a main concern and goal for patients and carers, and thus carers may be a valuable asset to professionals in the rehabilitation process. Practical and emotional support is important for patients and carers, and rehabilitation professionals should be aware of the increased risk of social isolation post-stroke. Hope is a strong motivational factor and

  16. Hearing Characteristics of Stroke Patients: Prevalence and Characteristics of Hearing Impairment and Auditory Processing Disorders in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Koohi, Nehzat; Vickers, Deborah A; Lakshmanan, Rahul; Chandrashekar, Hoskote; Werring, David J; Warren, Jason D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2017-06-01

    Stroke survivors may suffer from a range of hearing impairments that may restrict their participation in postacute rehabilitation programs. Hearing impairment may have a significant impact on listening, linguistic skills, and overall communication of the affected stroke patient. However, no studies sought to systematically characterize auditory function of stroke patients in detail, to establish the different types of hearing impairments in this cohort of patients. Such information would be clinically useful in understanding and addressing the hearing needs of stroke survivors. The present study aimed to characterize and classify the hearing impairments, using a detailed audiological assessment test battery, in order to determine the level of clinical need and inform appropriate rehabilitation for this patient population. A case-control study. Forty-two recruited stroke patients who were discharged from a stroke unit and 40 control participants matched for age. All participants underwent pure-tone audiometry and immittance measurements including acoustic reflex threshold, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, auditory-evoked brainstem response, and a central auditory processing assessment battery, performed in a single session. Hearing impairments were classified as peripheral hearing loss (cochlear and neural type), central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and as a combination of CAPD and peripheral hearing loss. Overall mean hearing thresholds were not significantly different between the control and stroke groups. The most common type of hearing impairment in stroke patients was the combination type, "peripheral and CAPD," in the 61- to 80-yr-old subgroup (in 55%), and auditory processing deficits in 18- to 60-yr-olds (in 40%), which were both significantly higher than in controls. This is the first study to examine hearing function in detail in stroke patients. Given the importance of hearing for the efficiency of communication, it is essential to identify

  17. Sexual function in post-stroke patients: considerations for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Talli; Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    While the rehabilitation goals of post-stroke patients include improving quality of life and returning to functional activities, the extent to which sexual activity is addressed as part of the standard rehabilitation process is unknown. Moreover, the specific sexual concerns of stroke patients, including the effect of stroke on intimate relationships and sexuality of the partner, the ability to physically engage in sex, and the effect of psychological components such as role identity, depression, and anxiety on sexuality, all warrant examination by rehabilitation professionals. The aim of this study is to examine the existing literature on sexuality and stroke patients in order to better understand how the sexual lives of stroke patients and their partners are affected and to provide recommendations to rehabilitation professionals for addressing sexuality as part of treatment. Narrative review, PubMed, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2012) were searched for the key words "stroke," "sexual dysfunction," "sexuality," "quality of life," and their combination. All relevant articles in English and secondary references were reviewed. We report the results of the literature review. Sexual dysfunction and decreased sexual satisfaction are common in the post-stroke population and are related to physical, psychosocial, and relational factors. However, they are not adequately addressed in post-stroke rehabilitation. As sexual function is an important component to quality of life and activities of daily living, physicians and rehabilitation specialists, including physical, occupational, and speech therapists, should receive training in addressing sexuality in the treatment of post-stroke patients. Sexologists and sex therapists should be an integral part of the rehabilitation team. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Brain plasticity and rehabilitation in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, our understanding of motor learning, neuroplasticity and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesion has grown significantly. Novel findings in basic neuroscience have provided an impetus for research in motor rehabilitation. The brain reveals a spectrum of intrinsic capacities to react as a highly dynamic system which can change the properties of its neural circuits. This brain plasticity can lead to an extreme degree of spontaneous recovery and rehabilitative training may modify and boost the neuronal plasticity processes. Animal studies have extended these findings, providing insight into a broad range of underlying molecular and physiological events. Neuroimaging studies in human patients have provided observations at the systems level that often parallel findings in animals. In general, the best recoveries are associated with the greatest return toward the normal state of brain functional organization. Reorganization of surviving central nervous system elements supports behavioral recovery, for example, through changes in interhemispheric lateralization, activity of association cortices linked to injured zones, and organization of cortical representational maps. Evidence from animal models suggests that both motor learning and cortical stimulation alter intracortical inhibitory circuits and can facilitate long-term potentiation and cortical remodeling. Current researches on the physiology and use of cortical stimulation animal models and in humans with stroke related hemiplegia are reviewed in this article. In particular, electromyography (EMG) -controlled electrical muscle stimulation improves the motor function of the hemiparetic arm and hand. A multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies in which the hemoglobin levels in the brain were non-invasively and dynamically measured during functional activity found that the cerebral blood flow in the injured sensory-motor cortex area is greatest during an EMG-controlled FES

  19. Systematic Review of Hospital Readmissions in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Emily; Vuik, Sabine; Darzi, Ara; Aylin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous evidence on factors and causes of readmissions associated with high-impact users of stroke is scanty. The aim of the study was to investigate common causes and pattern of short- and long-term readmissions stroke patients by conducting a systematic review of studies using hospital administrative data. Common risk factors associated with the change of readmission rate were also examined. Methods. The literature search was conducted from 15 February to 15 March 2016 using various databases, such as Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. Results. There were a total of 24 studies (n = 2,126,617) included in the review. Only 4 studies assessed causes of readmissions in stroke patients with the follow-up duration from 30 days to 5 years. Common causes of readmissions in majority of the studies were recurrent stroke, infections, and cardiac conditions. Common patient-related risk factors associated with increased readmission rate were age and history of coronary heart disease, heart failure, renal disease, respiratory disease, peripheral arterial disease, and diabetes. Among stroke-related factors, length of stay of index stroke admission was associated with increased readmission rate, followed by bowel incontinence, feeding tube, and urinary catheter. Conclusion. Although risk factors and common causes of readmission were identified, none of the previous studies investigated causes and their sequence of readmissions among high-impact stroke users. PMID:27668120

  20. Effects of a Web-Based Stroke Education Program on Recurrence Prevention Behaviors among Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae-Il; Lee, Sook; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of methods to prevent stroke recurrence and of education focusing on learners' needs has not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of such interventions among stroke patients and their primary caregivers and to evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stroke education program. The participants were…

  1. Effects of a Web-Based Stroke Education Program on Recurrence Prevention Behaviors among Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae-Il; Lee, Sook; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of methods to prevent stroke recurrence and of education focusing on learners' needs has not been fully explored. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of such interventions among stroke patients and their primary caregivers and to evaluate the feasibility of a web-based stroke education program. The participants were…

  2. Hospital Discharge Disposition of Stroke Patients in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin S; Hu, Zhen; Fell, Nancy; Heath, Gregory W; Qayyum, Rehan; Sartipi, Mina

    2017-09-01

    Early determination of hospital discharge disposition status at an acute admission is extremely important for stroke management and the eventual outcomes of patients with stroke. We investigated the hospital discharge disposition of patients with stroke residing in Tennessee and developed a predictive tool for clinical adoption. Our investigational aims were to evaluate the association of selected patient characteristics with hospital discharge disposition status and predict such status at the time of an acute stroke admission. We analyzed 127,581 records of patients with stroke hospitalized between 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to examine the factor outcome association. An easy-to-use clinical predictive tool was built by using integer-based risk scores derived from coefficients of multivariable logistic regression. Among the 127,581 records of patients with stroke, 86,114 (67.5%) indicated home discharge and 41,467 (32.5%) corresponded to facility discharge. All considered patient characteristics had significant correlations with hospital discharge disposition status. Patients were at greater odds of being discharged to another facility if they were women; older; black; patients with a subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage; those with the comorbidities of diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, arrhythmia, or depression; those transferred from another hospital; or patients with Medicare as the primary payer. A predictive tool had a discriminatory capability with area under the curve estimates of 0.737 and 0.724 for derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Our investigation revealed that the hospital discharge disposition pattern of patients with stroke in Tennessee was associated with the key patient characteristics of selected demographics, clinical indicators, and insurance status. These analyses resulted in the development of an easy-to-use predictive

  3. The Importance of Patient Involvement in Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the perceived needs for health services by persons with stroke within the first year after rehabilitation, and associations between perceived impact of stroke, involvement in decisions regarding care/treatment, and having health services needs met. Method Data was collected, through a mail survey, from patients with stroke who were admitted to a university hospital in 2012 and had received rehabilitation after discharge from the stroke unit. The rehabilitation lasted an average of 2 to 4.6 months. The Stroke Survivor Needs Survey Questionnaire was used to assess the participants' perceptions of involvement in decisions on care or treatment and needs for health services in 11 problem areas: mobility, falls, incontinence, pain, fatigue, emotion, concentration, memory, speaking, reading, and sight. The perceived impact of stroke in eight areas was assessed using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) 3.0. Eleven logistic regression models were created to explore associations between having health services needs met in each problem area respectively (dependent variable) and the independent variables. In all models the independent variables were: age, sex, SIS domain corresponding to the dependent variable, or stroke severity in cases when no corresponding SIS domain was identified, and involvement in decisions on care and treatment. Results The 63 participants who returned the questionnaires had a mean age of 72 years, 33 were male and 30 were female. Eighty percent had suffered a mild stroke. The number of participants who reported problems varied between 51 (80%, mobility) and 24 (38%, sight). Involvement in decisions on care and treatment was found to be associated with having health services needs met in six problem areas: falls, fatigue, emotion, memory, speaking, and reading. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of involving patients in making decisions on stroke rehabilitation, as it appears to be associated with meeting their health

  4. Locomotor Trajectories of Stroke Patients during Oriented Gait and Turning

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Angele; Bensmail, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Background The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is widely used to assess locomotion in patients with stroke and is considered to predict the risk of falls. The analysis of locomotor trajectories during the TUG appears pertinent in stroke patients. The aims of this study were i) to analyze locomotor trajectories in patients with stroke during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG, and to compare them with healthy subjects, ii) to determine whether trajectory parameters provide additional information to that provided by the conventional measure (performance time), iii) to compare the trajectory parameters of fallers and non-fallers with stroke and of patients with right and left hemisphere stroke, and iv) to evaluate correlations between trajectory parameters and Berg Balance Scale scores. Methods 29 patients with stroke (mean age 54.2±12.2 years, 18 men, 8 fallers) and 25 healthy subjects (mean age 51.6±8.7 years, 11 men) underwent three-dimensional analysis of the TUG. The trajectory of the center of mass was analyzed by calculation of the global trajectory length, Hausdorff distance and Dynamic Time Warping. The parameters were compared with a reference trajectory during the total task and each sub-task (Go, Turn, Return) of the TUG. Results Values of trajectory parameters were significantly higher for the stroke group during the total TUG and the Go and Turn sub-tasks (p<0.05). Moreover, logistic regression indicated that these parameters better discriminated stroke patients and healthy subjects than the conventional timed performance during the Go sub-task. In addition, fallers were distinguished by higher Dynamic Time Warping during the Go (p<0.05). There were no differences between patients with right and left hemisphere stroke. Discussion and Conclusion The trajectories of the stroke patients were longer and more deviated during the turn and the preceding phase. Trajectory parameters provided additional information to timed performance of this locomotor

  5. Evaluation methods on the nutritional status of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Luo, B; Xie, Y; Hu, H-Y; Feng, L; Li, Z-N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of particular tools on the nutritional status of patients with stroke risk factors; to analyze these risk factors; to construct an assessment table; and to enable nurses to conduct fast and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of patients with stroke. Various nutritional assessment tools were employed to assess the nutritional status of stroke patients [(Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, NRS2002); (mini nutritional assessment, MNA), (subjective global assessment SGA), (malnutrition universal screening, MUST); (body composition, BCA)]. The leading disease-related factors of cerebral apoplexy were observed in patients with malnutrition. And a statistical analysis was conducted. The significant risk factors of cerebral apoplexy in malnourished patients older than 70 years were swallowing dysfunctions, disturbance of consciousness and reliance or half-reliance on feeding practices. The significant risk factors of malnutrition in patients with cerebral apoplexy were the decline in upper limb muscle strength, decline in the performance of various activities, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Disorders that affect the nutritional status of stroke patients can be used as evaluation tools, as described in the evaluation table. The clinical relevance of this study includes the following: to enable the clinical nursing staff to easily assess the patient's nutritional status in a timely manner; to improve compliance with nutritional evaluation; to provide clinical nutrition support to patients with stroke; and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebral apoplexy.

  6. Frequency of Hyperthermia in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Amrat Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Alam, Muhammad Tanveer; Aurangzeb, Muhammad; Parkash, Jai; Imran, Khalid; Masroor, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    To determine the frequency of hyperthermia in acute ischemic stroke patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in a developing country. Cross-sectional, observational study. Medical Wards of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to June 2013. Patients aged ≥18 years of either gender with acute ischemic stroke presenting within 24 hours of onset of symptoms were included. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants as well as approval of ethical review committee of the institute. Axillary temperature by mercury thermometer was monitored at the time of admission and after every 6 hours for 3 days. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). Atotal of 106 patients of ischemic stroke were included. The mean age of enrolled participants was 60.1 ±9.5 years. Among these, 61 (57.5%) were males and 45 (42.5%) females. Among all patients, 51.9% presented with loss of consciousness, 30.2% with slurred speech, 77.4% with limb weakness, and 9.4% with decrease vision. Atotal of 17 (16%) patients with ischemic stroke developed hyperthermia. When the prevalence of hyperthermia was stratified according to age, among patients of < 60 years of age, 26% developed hyperthermia compared to 7.1% in patients of ≥60 years of age (p=0.008). On gender stratification, among male patients, 14.8% developed hyperthermia compared to 17.8% in female patients (p=0.43). It is concluded from this study that the frequency of hyperthermia in ischemic stroke was 16% and it should be looked for as it has significant impact on the outcome. The hyperthermia was significantly more common in younger adults as compared to older adults. However, gender had no influence on the prevalence rate of hyperthermia.

  7. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-01-01

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into “a training package”, based on the patient’s functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients. PMID:25133141

  8. The balance effect of acupuncture therapy among stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Guan-Yu; Lin, Li-Fong

    2014-08-01

    To analyze how acupuncture therapy affects balance in patients experiencing their first stroke and to identify the stroke group with greatest improvement in balance after acupuncture intervention. Retrospective case-control study. Ward of a medical university hospital. A total of 629 stroke patients were enrolled initially; 345 patients met the study criteria and 132 were analyzed (66 each in the study and control groups). The study group received physiotherapy combined with acupuncture and the control group received only physiotherapy. The Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke patients (PASS) was used to evaluate balance. This balance scale system can be subdivided into static balance (PASS-MP, maintain posture) and dynamic balance (PASS-CP, change posture). This study revealed no statistically significant improvement of balance in the study group (t test). When patients with high Brunnstrom stage (Br stage) and low Br stage were analyzed separately, once again no statistical difference was detected between the study and control groups of those with high Br stage. However, among low-Br stage patients, the study group showed significant improvement in static balance (mean PASS-MP score±standard deviation: 4.7±3.7) compared with the control group (PASS-MP score: 2.8±2.7) (p<0.05). In first-ever stroke patients with a low Br stage, acupuncture therapy can improve static balance during rehabilitation. However, the effect on balance was limited among high-Br stage patients. This study provides information valuable to patients with hemiplegic stroke because it suggests that acupuncture can be used to improve balance. A prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled study design is recommended for future studies in patients with hemiplegic stroke.

  9. [Relation between clinical evaluation of deglutition and the computed tomography in acute ischemic stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Barros, Anna Flávia Ferraz; Fábio, Soraia Ramos Cabette; Furkim, Ana Maria

    2006-12-01

    Stroke is one of the main causes of permanent lesions in adults and can provoke global motor sequels, speech and language alterations, and swallowing. During the acute phase, the detection of aspiration risks is essential to prevent lung complications and to allow appropriate therapeutic interventions, making possible precocious oral feeding. In the literature, the correlations between the disturbance of the deglutition and the location of the lesion in patients with stroke are not specific. This way, the objective of the present study was to determine if correlation exists between the location of the vascular lesion and dysphagia in acute ischemic stroke patients. Bedside clinical evaluation of deglutition was made in 27 patients with acute ischemic stroke and the results were compared with the computed tomography findings. In the clinical evaluation, 48% patients were dysphagic and 52% had functional deglutition. In dysphagic patients, 84% had lesion in carotid territory, with 76% in the middle cerebral artery. In patients with functional deglutition, 57% had lesion in the middle cerebral artery and 22% in the posterior cerebral artery. In 50% of the patients with functional deglutition and in 46% of the dysphagics the lesion was in the left hemisphere. In conclusion, the hemispherical location is not associated with the presence or not of dysphagia, however most of the dysphagic patients presented alterations in the carotid territory, especially in the middle cerebral artery.

  10. [Compliance with Chilean diagnostic guidelines among patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a public hospital].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Salinas, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Gloria; Catalán, Mónica; Díaz, Cristian

    2011-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke in adults was given an Explicit Guarantee of diagnosis and treatment (GES) with Clinical Guidelines in 2007 as part of the on-going Chilean National Health Reform. To evaluate the adherence to official guidelines with regard to the use of diagnostic methods for patients with acute ischemic stroke during their stay in a public hospital. The study included a review of the medical records of 101 patients aged 70 ± 13 years (49 males and 52 females) diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke and discharged within August and September of 2008 and 2009 from a public hospital. Three trained observers independently determined the degree of dependency of patients at discharge using the Modified Rankin score. The completion of recommended diagnostic tests (electrocardiogram, carotid Doppler ultrasound and echocardiogram) as well as their overuse was evaluated. Ten patients died before discharge, 38% were discharged with and 52% were discharged without disabilities. Nineteen percent of patients with a Modified Rankin score of two or less (corresponding to a slight disability) had a complete diagnostic workup, compared with 87% of patients with a score of 3 to 5 (moderate to severe disability). In 27% of the patients, there was an overuse of diagnostic tests. No association between the diagnostic test use adequacy and year of discharge was observed. There exists a disparity between the recommended diagnostic testing and the actual tests completed among patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  11. Time use of stroke patients with stroke admitted for rehabilitation in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Chantal J A H R; Buijck, Bianca I; van der Stegen, John C G H; van Eijk, Monica Spruit-; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B

    2013-01-01

    To describe the time use of patients with stroke in five Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) in the Netherlands, focusing on the time spent on therapeutic activities, nontherapeutic activities, interaction with others, and the location where the activities took place. Evidence suggest that task-oriented interventions are the most effective for patients with stroke and that some of these interventions are relevant and feasible for use by nurses. The question arises to what extent elderly patients who had a stroke and rehabilitate in a SNF receive therapeutic training and engage in therapeutic activities. Descriptive, observational design. Therapeutic and nontherapeutic activities of patients were observed at 10-minute intervals during one weekday (8 a.m.-4:30 p.m.) using behavioral mapping. Forty-two patients with stroke with a mean age of 76 years participated in the study. The patients spent 56% of the day on therapeutic activities, whereas 44% of the day was spent on nontherapeutic activities. Most therapeutic time was spent on nursing care (9%) and physical therapy (4%). Patients stayed an average 41% of the day in their own room and were alone 49% of the day. Therapeutic time use was significantly related to improved functional status, patients with higher functional status spent more time on therapeutic activities. Patients spent more than half of the day on therapeutic activities. Nurses are faced with the challenge of activating patients with stroke and to assist them to engage in purposeful task-oriented exercises including daily activities. Thereby better rehabilitation results and recovery of patients may be reached. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  12. Recovery and brain reorganization after stroke in adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Markus, Tiffanie M; Tsai, Shih-Yen; Bollnow, Melanie R; Farrer, Robert G; O'Brien, Timothy E; Kindler-Baumann, Diana R; Rausch, Martin; Rudin, Markus; Wiessner, Christoph; Mir, Anis K; Schwab, Martin E; Kartje, Gwendolyn L

    2005-12-01

    Stroke is a prevalent and devastating disorder, and no treatment is currently available to restore lost neuronal function after stroke. One unique therapy that improves recovery after stroke is neutralization of the neurite inhibitory protein Nogo-A. Here, we show, in a clinically relevant model, improved functional recovery and brain reorganization in the aged and adult rat when delayed anti-Nogo-A therapy is given after ischemic injury. These results support the efficacy of Nogo-A neutralization as treatment for ischemic stroke, even in the aged animal and after a 1-week delay, and implicate neuronal plasticity from unlesioned areas of the central nervous system as a mechanism for recovery.

  13. Post-stroke bacteriuria among stroke patients attending a physiotherapy clinic in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Donkor, Eric S; Akumwena, Amos; Amoo, Philip K; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Aspelund, Thor; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections are known to be a major complication of stroke patients. In this study, we evaluated the risk of community-acquired bacteriuria among stroke patients, the associated factors, and the causative organisms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 70 stroke patients and 83 age- and sex-matched, apparently healthy controls. Urine specimens were collected from all the study subjects and were analyzed by standard microbiological methods. Demographic and clinical information was also collected from the study subjects. For stroke patients, the information collected also included stroke parameters, such as stroke duration, frequency, and subtype. Results Bacteriuria was significantly higher among stroke patients (24.3%, n=17) than among the control group (7.2%, n=6), with a relative risk of 3.36 (confidence interval [CI], 1.40–8.01, P=0.006). Among the control group, all six bacteriuria cases were asymptomatic, whereas the 17 stroke bacteriuria cases comprised 15 cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria and two cases of symptomatic bacteriuria. Female sex (OR, 3.40; CI, 1.12–10.30; P=0.03) and presence of stroke (OR, 0.24; CI, 0.08–0.70; P=0.009) were significantly associated with bacteriuria. The etiology of bacteriuria was similar in both study groups, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. were the most predominant organisms isolated from both stroke patients (12.9%) and the control group (2.4%). Conclusion Stroke patients in the study region have a significantly higher risk of community-acquired bacteriuria, which in most cases is asymptomatic. Community-acquired bacteriuria in stroke patients appears to have little or no relationship with clinical parameters of stroke such as stroke subtype, duration and frequency. PMID:27051289

  14. Comparing language outcomes in monolingual and bilingual stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Parker Jones, ‘Ōiwi; Grogan, Alice; Crinion, Jenny; Rae, Johanna; Ruffle, Louise; Leff, Alex P.; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.; Green, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Post-stroke prognoses are usually inductive, generalizing trends learned from one group of patients, whose outcomes are known, to make predictions for new patients. Research into the recovery of language function is almost exclusively focused on monolingual stroke patients, but bilingualism is the norm in many parts of the world. If bilingual language recruits qualitatively different networks in the brain, prognostic models developed for monolinguals might not generalize well to bilingual stroke patients. Here, we sought to establish how applicable post-stroke prognostic models, trained with monolingual patient data, are to bilingual stroke patients who had been ordinarily resident in the UK for many years. We used an algorithm to extract binary lesion images for each stroke patient, and assessed their language with a standard tool. We used feature selection and cross-validation to find ‘good’ prognostic models for each of 22 different language skills, using monolingual data only (174 patients; 112 males and 62 females; age at stroke: mean = 53.0 years, standard deviation = 12.2 years, range = 17.2–80.1 years; time post-stroke: mean = 55.6 months, standard deviation = 62.6 months, range = 3.1–431.9 months), then made predictions for both monolinguals and bilinguals (33 patients; 18 males and 15 females; age at stroke: mean = 49.0 years, standard deviation = 13.2 years, range = 23.1–77.0 years; time post-stroke: mean = 49.2 months, standard deviation = 55.8 months, range = 3.9–219.9 months) separately, after training with monolingual data only. We measured group differences by comparing prediction error distributions, and used a Bayesian test to search for group differences in terms of lesion-deficit associations in the brain. Our models distinguish better outcomes from worse outcomes equally well within each group, but tended to be over-optimistic when predicting bilingual language outcomes: our bilingual patients tended to have poorer language skills

  15. Comparing language outcomes in monolingual and bilingual stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hope, Thomas M H; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Grogan, Alice; Crinion, Jenny; Rae, Johanna; Ruffle, Louise; Leff, Alex P; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J; Green, David W

    2015-04-01

    Post-stroke prognoses are usually inductive, generalizing trends learned from one group of patients, whose outcomes are known, to make predictions for new patients. Research into the recovery of language function is almost exclusively focused on monolingual stroke patients, but bilingualism is the norm in many parts of the world. If bilingual language recruits qualitatively different networks in the brain, prognostic models developed for monolinguals might not generalize well to bilingual stroke patients. Here, we sought to establish how applicable post-stroke prognostic models, trained with monolingual patient data, are to bilingual stroke patients who had been ordinarily resident in the UK for many years. We used an algorithm to extract binary lesion images for each stroke patient, and assessed their language with a standard tool. We used feature selection and cross-validation to find 'good' prognostic models for each of 22 different language skills, using monolingual data only (174 patients; 112 males and 62 females; age at stroke: mean = 53.0 years, standard deviation = 12.2 years, range = 17.2-80.1 years; time post-stroke: mean = 55.6 months, standard deviation = 62.6 months, range = 3.1-431.9 months), then made predictions for both monolinguals and bilinguals (33 patients; 18 males and 15 females; age at stroke: mean = 49.0 years, standard deviation = 13.2 years, range = 23.1-77.0 years; time post-stroke: mean = 49.2 months, standard deviation = 55.8 months, range = 3.9-219.9 months) separately, after training with monolingual data only. We measured group differences by comparing prediction error distributions, and used a Bayesian test to search for group differences in terms of lesion-deficit associations in the brain. Our models distinguish better outcomes from worse outcomes equally well within each group, but tended to be over-optimistic when predicting bilingual language outcomes: our bilingual patients tended to have poorer language skills than expected

  16. Ischaemic stroke in patients treated with oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Cano, L M; Cardona, P; Quesada, H; Lara, B; Rubio, F

    2016-01-01

    Cardioembolic stroke is associated with poorer outcomes. Prevention is based on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. Haemorrhage is the main complication of OACs, which are sometimes ineffective. We retrospectively reviewed 1014 consecutive patients who suffered an ischaemic stroke between 2011 and 2013, analysing those who were receiving OAC treatment at stroke onset (107 patients in total) with special attention to aetiology, outcomes, and INR value in the acute phase. The mean age (SD) was 71.9 (10) years. Patients had been treated with OACs for 5.9 (5.5) years; 98.1% of them were being treated for heart disease. INR was <2 in 77 patients (72%), and 30 patients (28%) had an INR≥2. Nine patients (8.4%) had INR values within the therapeutic range. According to TOAST classification criteria, 88.8% of strokes were cardioembolic and 1.9% were atherothrombotic. Anticoagulation therapy was discontinued in 48 patients (44.9%) due to haemorrhagic transformation (24 patients), extensive infarction (23), or endarterectomy (1). Therapy was resumed in 24 patients (50%) after a mean lapse of 36 days. This was not possible in the remaining patients because of death or severe sequelae. New OACs (NOACs) were prescribed to 9 patients (18.7% of all potential candidates). At 3 months, patients with INR>1.7 in the acute phase exhibited better outcomes than patients with INR≤1.7 (mRS 0-2 in 62% vs 30.8%; death in 10% vs 38.4%; P=.0004). Some patients taking OACs suffer ischaemic strokes that are usually cardioembolic, especially if INR is below the therapeutic range. OACs can be resumed without complications, and NOACs are still underused. Despite cases in which treatment is ineffective, outcomes are better when INR is above 1.7 at stroke onset. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in Chinese patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-jun; Zhu, Ding-liang; Yang, Guo-yuan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hai-ya; Ji, Kai-da; Lu, Yi-ming; Gao, Ping-jin

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that a mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) occurs after acute cerebrovascular diseases, we evaluated the number of EPCs in the process of acute stroke. A total of 203 individuals were examined, including 100 patients with ischemic strokes, 36 patients with hemorrhagic strokes and 67 healthy controls. Ninety-eight patients were observed at days 1, 7, 14 and 28 after acute stroke. Circulating EPCs were defined by the surface markers CD133/KDR and analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were determined by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry using the N high sensitivity CRP Reagent. Patients with acute stroke had lower numbers of EPCs (0.037+/-0.001/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) vs. 0.06+/-0.002/100 PMNCs, P<0.05) and higher levels of serum hs-CRP (1.99 vs. 0.03 mg per 100 ml, P<0.05) than control subjects after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. There were no differences in EPCs counts or serum hs-CRP levels between patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. In univariate analyses, BMI, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (T-cho), blood glucose and hs-CRP (P<0.001) were inversely correlated with EPCs counts. Multivariate analyses showed SBP and total cholesterol as independent predictors of EPCs levels. The number of EPCs gradually increased at day 7 after acute onset, remained elevated at day 14; and returned to baseline by day 28. Our results suggest a possible contribution of circulating EPCs in acute stroke. SBP and total cholesterol are independent factors of reduced EPCs numbers. A transient early increment of EPCs may result from the mobilization of EPCs in response to stroke stress.

  18. Dabigatran in Secondary Stroke Prevention: Clinical Experience with 106 Patients

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe-Mimbrera, Alicia; Cánovas, Araceli Alonso; Guillán, Marta; Matute, Consuelo; Cruz, Antonio; Vera, Rocío; Masjuan, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Our aim was to analyze our clinical experience with dabigatran etexilate in secondary stroke prevention. Methods. We retrospectively included patients starting dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention from March 2010 to December 2012. Efficacy and safety variables were registered. Results. 106 patients were included, median follow-up of 12 months (range 1–31). Fifty-six females (52.8%), mean age 76.4 (range 50–95, SD 9.8), median CHADS2 4 (range 2–6), CHA2DS2-VASc 5 (range 2–9), and HAS-BLED 2 (range 1–5). Indication for dabigatran etexilate was ischemic stroke in 101 patients and acute cerebral hemorrhage (CH) due to warfarin in 5 (4.7%). Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg bid was prescribed in 71 cases (67%) and 150 mg bid was prescribed in the remaining. Seventeen patients (16%) suffered 20 complications during follow-up. Ischemic complications (10) were 6 transient ischemic attacks (TIA), 3 ischemic strokes, and 1 acute coronary syndrome. Hemorrhagic complications (10) were CH (1), gastrointestinal bleeding (6), mild hematuria (2), and mild metrorrhagia (1), leading to dabigatran etexilate discontinuation in 3 patients. Patients with previous CH remained uneventful. Three patients died (pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and acute cholecystitis) and 9 were lost during follow-up. Conclusions. Dabigatran etexilate was safe and effective in secondary stroke prevention in clinical practice, including a small number of patients with previous history of CH. PMID:25133166

  19. Validation of a dysphagia screening tool in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Edmiaston, Jeff; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Loehr, Lynda; Nassief, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    Although many dysphagia screening tools exist, none has high sensitivity and reliability or can be administered quickly with minimal training. To design and validate a swallowing screening tool to be used by health care professionals who are not speech language pathologists to identify dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients. In a prospective study of 300 patients admitted to the stroke service at an urban tertiary care hospital, interrater and test-retest reliabilities of a new tool (the Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen) were established. The tool was administered by nursing staff when patients were admitted to the stroke unit. A speech language pathologist blinded to the results with the new tool administered the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability, a clinical bedside evaluation, with dysphagia operationally defined by a score less than 178. The mean time from admission to screening with the new tool was 8 hours. The mean time between administration of the new tool and the clinical bedside evaluation was 32 hours. For the new tool, interrater reliability was 93.6% and test-retest reliability was 92.5%. The new tool had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 74% for detecting dysphagia and a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 68% for detecting aspiration risk. The Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen is an easily administered and reliable tool that has sufficient sensitivity to detect both dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients.

  20. Validation of a Dysphagia Screening Tool in Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Edmiaston, Jeff; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Loehr, Lynda; Nassief, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Background Although many dysphagia screening tools exist, none has high sensitivity and reliability or can be administered quickly with minimal training. Objective To design and validate a swallowing screening tool to be used by health care professionals who are not speech language pathologists to identify dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients. Methods In a prospective study of 300 patients admitted to the stroke service at an urban tertiary care hospital, interrater and test-retest reliabilities of a new tool (the Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen) were established. The tool was administered by nursing staff when patients were admitted to the stroke unit. A speech language pathologist blinded to the results with the new tool administered the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability, a clinical bedside evaluation, with dysphagia operationally defined by a score less than 178. Results The mean time from admission to screening with the new tool was 8 hours. The mean time between administration of the new tool and the clinical bedside evaluation was 32 hours. For the new tool, interrater reliability was 93.6% and test-retest reliability was 92.5%. The new tool had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 74% for detecting dysphagia and a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 68% for detecting aspiration risk. Conclusions The Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen is an easily administered and reliable tool that has sufficient sensitivity to detect both dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients. PMID:19875722

  1. Efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin in patients with hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tiu, C; Moessler, H; Antochi, F; Muresanu, D; Popescu, BO; Novak, P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. The primary objective of this trial was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of a 10–days course of therapy with a daily administration of Cerebrolysin (50 mL Ⅳ per day). The trial had to demonstrate that Cerebrolysin treatment is safe in hemorrhagic stroke. Methods: The study was performed as a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo–controlled, parallel group study with 2 treatment groups. Efficacy measures were the Unified Neurological Stroke Scale, Barthel Index, and Syndrome Short Test. The duration of the trial was of 21 days for each patient. Out of 100 randomized patients, a total of 96 (96%) completed the study. Results: Overall, no statistically significant group effects were observed based on single average comparisons at the individual visits. It could be shown that the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke with Cerebrolysin is safe and well tolerated. Conclusion: In the changes of UNSS, BI and SST from baseline to day 21, the group differences are not statistically significant; however, the use of Cerebrolysin in hemorrhagic stroke is safe and well tolerated and studies with a larger sample size may provide statistical evidence of Cerebrolysin's efficacy in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:20968198

  2. Management of acute stroke in patients taking novel oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, Graeme J; Norrving, Bo; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Each year, 1·0–2·0% of individuals with atrial fibrillation and 0·1–0·2% of those with venous thromboembolism who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) can be expected to experience an acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, 0·2–0·5% of individuals with atrial fibrillation who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants can be expected to experience an intracranial hemorrhage. This opinion piece addresses the current literature and offers practical approaches to the management of patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants who present with an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Specifically, we discuss the role of thrombolysis in anticoagulated patients with acute ischemic stroke and factors to consider concerning restarting anticoagulation after acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:24891030

  3. Diagnostic yield of pelvic magnetic resonance venography in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Ava L; Daruwalla, Vistasp J; Collins, Jeremy D; Maas, Matthew B; Botelho, Marcos Paulo Ferreira; Ayache, Jad Bou; Carr, James; Ruff, Ilana; Bernstein, Richard A; Alberts, Marc J; Prabhakaran, Shyam

    2014-08-01

    Paradoxical embolization is frequently posited as a mechanism of ischemic stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale. Several studies have suggested that the deep lower extremity and pelvic veins might be an embolic source in cryptogenic stroke (CS) patients with patent foramen ovale. Consecutive adult patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and a patent foramen ovale who underwent pelvic magnetic resonance venography as part of an inpatient diagnostic evaluation were included in this single-center retrospective observational study to determine pelvic and lower extremity (LE) deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prevalence in CS versus non-CS stroke subtypes. Of 131 patients who met inclusion criteria, 126 (96.2%) also had LE duplex ultrasound data. DVT prevalence overall was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.1-13.6), pelvic DVT 1.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.1-5.8), and LE DVT 7.1% (95% confidence interval, 3.6-13.2). One patient with a pelvic DVT also had a LE DVT. Comparing patients with CS (n=98) with non-CS subtypes (n=33), there was no significant difference in the prevalence of pelvic DVT (2.1% versus 0%, P=1), LE DVT (6.2% versus 10.3%, P=0.43), or any DVT (7.2% versus 9.1%, P=0.71). Among patients with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack and patent foramen ovale, the majority of detected DVTs were in LE veins rather than the pelvic veins and did not differ by stroke subtype. The routine inclusion of pelvic magnetic resonance venography in the diagnostic evaluation of CS warrants further prospective investigation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Clinimetric properties of the Timed Up and Go Test for patients with stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Rensink, Marijke; Schuurmans, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and summarize the clinimetric properties, including reliability, validity, and responsiveness, the procedures used, and the meanings of the scores in the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG). The TUG is a performance test that identifies problems with functional mobility in patients with stroke. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from 1991 to January 2013. Studies were included if (1) the participants were adults with stroke; (2) the research design was cross-sectional, descriptive, or longitudinal and examined the clinimetric properties, including reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change, and procedural differences in the TUG; and (3) the study was published in English from 1991 to January 2013. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 4 showed the TUG to have good convergent validity, as it had significant correlations with various instruments. Three studies that investigated the test-retest reliability showed the TUG to have excellent intrarater and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] ≯ 0.95). The 3 studies that investigated whether the TUG could predict falls after stroke showed inconclusive results. Three studies showed the TUG to be sensitive to change, and 1 study showed the TUG to be responsive in moderate- and fast-walking patients with stroke. However, there were wide variations in the procedures and instructions used. The TUG can be recommended for measuring basic mobility skills after stroke in patients who are able to walk. However, the procedures and instructions should be described more clearly.

  5. Prevalence of Cerebral Microbleeds in Thai Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Potigumjon, Artit; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Dharmasaroja, Pornpatr A

    2017-01-01

    With the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are commonly detected. Ethnicity seems to play a role in the prevalence of CMB, with higher prevalence in participants from Asian origin. The purpose of the study is to look for the prevalence of CMBs and associated factors in Thai patients with ischemic stroke. Patients with acute ischemic stroke who had MRI and magnetic resonance angiography during January-August 2014 were included in the study. T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo was used to define CMBs. Baseline characteristics, stroke subtypes, and severity of white matter lesions were compared between patients with and without CMBs. Two hundred patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 61-year-old. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 8. The prevalence of CMBs was 20% (39/200 patients). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-8.68, P = 0.037), and moderate-to-severe white matter lesions (Fazekas 2-3, OR 7.61, 95% CI 3.06-18.95, P < 0.001) were related to the presence of CMBs. CMBs were found in 20% of patients with ischemic stroke, which was lower than those reported from Japanese studies but comparable to a Chinese study. CMBs were associated with hypertension and severity of the white matter lesions.

  6. Prevalence of Cerebral Microbleeds in Thai Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Potigumjon, Artit; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Dharmasaroja, Pornpatr A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are commonly detected. Ethnicity seems to play a role in the prevalence of CMB, with higher prevalence in participants from Asian origin. The purpose of the study is to look for the prevalence of CMBs and associated factors in Thai patients with ischemic stroke. Methods: Patients with acute ischemic stroke who had MRI and magnetic resonance angiography during January–August 2014 were included in the study. T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo was used to define CMBs. Baseline characteristics, stroke subtypes, and severity of white matter lesions were compared between patients with and without CMBs. Results: Two hundred patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 61-year-old. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 8. The prevalence of CMBs was 20% (39/200 patients). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–8.68, P = 0.037), and moderate-to-severe white matter lesions (Fazekas 2–3, OR 7.61, 95% CI 3.06–18.95, P < 0.001) were related to the presence of CMBs. Conclusions: CMBs were found in 20% of patients with ischemic stroke, which was lower than those reported from Japanese studies but comparable to a Chinese study. CMBs were associated with hypertension and severity of the white matter lesions. PMID:28479795

  7. Gender differences in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Caso, Valeria; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Alberti, Andrea; Lanari, Alessia; Micheli, Sara; Bertolani, Luca; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Billeci, Antonia M R; Comi, Giancarlo; Previdi, Paolo; Silvestrelli, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on women than men owing to the fact that women have more stroke events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men; however, because of women's longer life expectancy and the much higher incidence of stroke at older ages, women have more stroke events than men overall. The aims of this prospective study in consecutive patients were to assess whether there are gender differences in stroke risk factors, treatment or outcome. Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were included in this prospective study at four study centers. Disability was assessed using a modified Rankin Scale score (>or=3 indicating disabling stroke) in both genders at 90 days. Outcomes and risk factors in both genders were compared using the chi(2) test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify any independent predictors of outcome. A total of 1136 patients were included in this study; of these, 494 (46%) were female. Women were statistically older compared with men: 76.02 (+/- 12.93) and 72.68 (+/- 13.27) median years of age, respectively. At admission, females had higher NIH Stroke Scale scores compared with males (9.4 [+/- 6.94] vs 7.6 [+/- 6.28] for men; p = 0.0018). Furthermore, females tended to have more cardioembolic strokes (153 [30%] vs 147 [23%] for men; p = 0.004). Males had lacunar and atherosclerotic strokes more often (146 [29%] vs 249 [39%] for men; p = 0.002, and 68 [13%] vs 123 [19%] for men; p = 0.01, respectively). The mean modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months was also significantly different between genders, at 2.5 (+/- 2.05) for women and 2.1 (+/- 2.02) for men (p = 0.003). However, at multivariate analysis, female gender was not an indicator for negative outcome. It was concluded that female gender was not an independent factor for negative outcome. In addition, both genders demonstrated different stroke pathophysiologies. These findings should be taken into account when diagnostic workup and

  8. Assessment of quality of life in stroke patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Laurent, K; De Sèze, M-P; Delleci, C; Koleck, M; Dehail, P; Orgogozo, J-M; Mazaux, J-M

    2011-09-01

    Stroke is a major public health issue. Even though most hemiplegic stroke patients may obtain a good functional outcome, many remain dissatisfied with their lives. Indeed, quality of life and subjective well-being should be taken into account in any assessment of stroke survival. To assess long-term quality of life in stroke patients (compared with healthy controls) and the corresponding determinants and predictive factors. The patient population consisted of 80 of the 217 first-stroke survivors treated between January and June 2005 in the Clinical Neurosciences Department at Bordeaux University Hospital. After a mean follow-up period of 2 years, 24 patients were interviewed in their homes and data from the 56 others were obtained in a telephone interview. Demographic information, clinical status on admission and functional status (as assessed by Barthel Index) and depression (on the ADRS) at the time of the study visit were recorded. Quality of life was assessed by using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-65) and Bränholm and Fugl-Meyer's Satisfaction with Life Scale (LiSat 11). The patients' data were compared with those from 149 healthy controls. Life satisfaction and quality of life were significantly impaired in stroke patients, compared with controls. All life domains were impaired. The worst scores were observed for independence and health-related items in the LiSat 11 and the physical and communication items in the SIP-65. Quality of life was strongly correlated with functional independence, the persistence of hemiplegia and depressive mood, which is in agreement with literature findings. Neither gender nor the initial Rankin score had a significant impact on these parameters. Quality of life at 2 years is significantly impaired in stroke survivors and seems more difficult to predict than functional independence. However, in addition to these objective results, our interviews suggest that receiving adequate social support might be as important to patients as

  9. Insular and caudate lesions release abnormal yawning in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Krestel, Heinz; Weisstanner, Christian; Hess, Christian W; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nirkko, Arto; Wiest, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal yawning is an underappreciated phenomenon in patients with ischemic stroke. We aimed at identifying frequently affected core regions in the supratentorial brain of stroke patients with abnormal yawning and contributing to the anatomical network concept of yawning control. Ten patients with acute anterior circulation stroke and ≥3 yawns/15 min without obvious cause were analyzed. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), symptom onset, period with abnormal yawning, blood oxygen saturation, glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) were assessed for all patients. MRI lesion maps were segmented on diffusion-weighted images, spatially normalized, and the extent of overlap between the different stroke patterns was determined. Correlations between the period with abnormal yawning and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the overlapping regions, total stroke volume, NIHSS and mRS were performed. Periods in which patients presented with episodes of abnormal yawning lasted on average for 58 h. Average GCS, NIHSS, and mRS scores were 12.6, 11.6, and 3.5, respectively. Clinical parameters were within normal limits. Ischemic brain lesions overlapped in nine out of ten patients: in seven patients in the insula and in seven in the caudate nucleus. The decrease of the ADC within the lesions correlated with the period with abnormal yawing (r = -0.76, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.02). The stroke lesion intensity of the common overlapping regions in the insula and the caudate nucleus correlates with the period with abnormal yawning. The insula might be the long sought-after brain region for serotonin-mediated yawning.

  10. [Stroke in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Lino, Ireneia; Sousa, António; Correia, José

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is changing. New drug treatments have reduced morbidity and mortality of this disease, therefore it is necessary to start treating the HIV infection as a chronical disease. The association of the stroke with the HIV infection was inicially thought to be a result of other opportunistic infeccions and tumors. However, the vascular disease associated with HIV infection has been a subject of research and debate. New evidence shows that the vascular diseases could be a threat for the pacients doing highly active antirretroviral therapy (HAART). In this paper, we review the association between the HIV infection and stroke. Furthermore, we have done an analysis of the risk for the stroke on pacients with HIV infection considering the changes of the infection spectrum by the introduction of HAART.

  11. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds ... blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused ...

  12. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35-54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16-2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55-64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  13. Analysis of stroke patients' and carers' reading ability and the content and design of written materials: recommendations for improving written stroke information.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy; McKenna, Kryss

    2006-03-01

    This study (a) evaluated the reading ability of patients following stroke and their carers and the reading level and content and design characteristics of the written information provided to them, (b) explored the influence of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on patients' reading ability, and (c) described an education package that provides well-designed information tailored to patients' and carers' informational needs. Fifty-seven patients and 12 carers were interviewed about their informational needs in an acute stroke unit. Their reading ability was assessed using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). The written information provided to them in the acute stroke unit was analysed using the SMOG readability formula and the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM). Thirteen (22.8%) patients and 5 (41.7%) carers had received written stroke information. The mean reading level of materials analysed was 11th grade while patients read at a mean of 7-8th grade. Most materials (89%) scored as only adequate in content and design. Patients with combined aphasia read significantly lower (4-6th grade) than other patients (p=0.001). Only a small proportion of patients and carers received written materials about stroke and the readability level and content and design characteristics of most materials required improvement. When developing and distributing written materials about stroke, health professionals should consider the reading ability and informational needs of the recipients, and the reading level and content and design characteristics of the written materials. A computer system can be used to generate written materials tailored to the informational needs and literacy skills of patients and carers.

  14. Pediatric Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2017 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  15. Thrombolysis in Chinese Ischemic Stroke Patients with Renal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wai Ting; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Li, Chung Ki; Chau, Ka Foon; Fong, Wing Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background Current data concerning the relationship between renal function and clinical outcome among stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy are conflicting. Our aim is to analyze whether the clinical outcome of Chinese ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolytic therapy is affected by the presence of renal dysfunction. Methods Chinese patients who received intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke were recruited. Renal dysfunction was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <90 ml/min/1.73 m2. The primary outcome was independent function (modified Rankin Scale, mRS, 0-2) at 3 months, while secondary outcomes included early improvement of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of ≥4 points at 24 h, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) within 36 h of treatment and 30-day mortality. Results A total of 199 patients were recruited, of whom 51.3% had renal dysfunction. There were no significant differences in functional independence at 3 months, NIHSS improvement at 24 h post-thrombolysis and 30-day mortality between patients with or without renal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis showed that eGFR as a continuous variable was not an independent risk factor for symptomatic ICH. Conclusion Chinese ischemic stroke patients with renal dysfunction who received thrombolytic therapy had clinical outcomes similar to those without renal dysfunction. PMID:26019713

  16. Availability of informal caregivers in surviving stroke patients in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Francois, Silke; Borgermans, Liesbeth; Van Casteren, Viviane; Vanthomme, Katrien; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    To quantify the availability of informal caregivers in surviving stroke patients residing at home in Belgium. National estimates on the availability of informal caregivers were made using data from a nationwide observational registration of family physicians working in sentinel practices and a nationwide administrative database for reimbursement of hospitals in Belgium. A total of 189 Belgian family physicians (FPs) from 141 practices participated in the study and recorded 326 patients (144 men and 182 women) with stroke. These FPs reach 1.5% of the Belgian population. After 1 month, 71% of the male and 75% of the female stroke survivors received support from family caregivers (p = 0.547). After 6 months, the percentage of male patients who received support from family caregivers decreased to 60% compared with 75% in female (p = 0.038). Of all patients with stroke admitted to Belgian hospitals during the reference year 2009 (n = 16.437), 8.997 returned home. Based on the findings from the sentinel practices, it is estimated that a mean of 73% (n = 6.568) and 67.5% (n = 6.073) of surviving patients with stroke can rely on informal caregivers in their home setting after one and 6 months, respectively. A vast majority of surviving stroke patients in Belgium can rely on informal caregivers in their home setting, but their availability rapidly decreases 6 months after the event. These findings underline the importance of proactive health policy making in stroke care taking into account the potentially decreasing number of available informal caregivers in the decades to come. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Patient refusal of thrombolytic therapy for suspected acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Vahidy, F S; Rahbar, M H; Lal, A P; Grotta, J C; Savitz, S I

    2015-08-01

    To determine factors associated with patients refusing IV t-PA for suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and to compare the outcomes of patients who refused t-PA (RT) with those treated with t-PA. Patients who were treated with and refused t-PA at our stroke center were identified retrospectively. Demographics, clinical presentation, and outcome measures were collected and compared. Clinical outcome was defined as excellent (mRS: 0-1), good (mRS: 0-2), and poor (mRS: 3-6). Over 7·5 years, 30 (4·2%) patients refused t-PA. There were no demographic differences between the treated and RT groups. The rate of RT decreased over time (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·50-0·79). Factors associated with refusal included a later symptom onset to emergency department presentation time (OR 1·02, 95% CI 1·01-1·03), lower NIHSS (OR 1·11, 95% CI 1·03-1·18), a higher proportion of stroke mimics (OR 17·61, 95% CI 6·20-50·02) and shorter hospital stay (OR 1·32, 95% CI 1·09-1·61). Among patients who were subsequently diagnosed with ischemic stroke, only length of stay was significantly shorter for refusal patients (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·06-1·78). After controlling for mild strokes and stroke mimics, clinical outcome was not different between the groups (OR 1·61, 95% CI 0·69-3·73). The incidence of patients refusing t-PA has decreased over time, yet it may be a cause for t-PA under-utilization. Patients with milder symptoms were more likely to refuse t-PA. Refusal patients presented later to the hospital and had shorter hospital stays. One out of six refusal patients (16·6%) had a stroke mimic. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  18. One-year outcomes and secondary prevention in patients after acute minor stroke: results from the China National Stroke Registry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ying; Pan, Yuesong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yilong; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    Limited data are available on secondary preventive therapy use and patient outcomes after acute minor ischemic stroke in China. This study investigated secondary prevention strategies and outcomes up to 1 year after minor ischemic stroke. Patients from the China National Stroke Registry experienced a minor ischemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≤5) and admitted to hospital within 24 hours of symptom onset were included. One-year rates of recurrent stroke, stroke-related disability, and all-cause death were evaluated. Risk factors associated with 1-year stroke recurrence were examined in a multivariate model. The secondary prevention strategies in the acute phase were evaluated as combination of secondary prevention medication classes and the medications used in 1 year follow-up were examined. The study included 1913 patients who had experienced acute minor ischemic stroke (mean age: 65.1 years; 67.3% men; mean NIHSS score: 2.5). Rates of recurrent stroke, disability, and death were 13.2, 17.0, and 6.3% at 1 year, respectively. History of hypertension, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and atrial fibrillation were independent predictors of one-year stroke recurrence. Rate of 1 year all-cause death in patients with triple combined therapy in acute phase was 4.1%, whereas in patients with none was 14.5%. At 1 year, only half patients continued the secondary prevention medications. Outcomes in individuals in China who had experienced acute minor stroke were unfavorable, underscoring the importance of early, sustained preventive therapy in this patient population. Combination of secondary prevention medication classes was associated with a lower risk of death.

  19. Investigating muscle selection for botulinum toxin-A injections in adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Ian J; Nott, Melissa T; Turner-Stokes, Lynne; De Graaff, Stephen; Katrak, Pesi; McCrory, Paul; de Abadal, Monica; Hughes, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    Limited empirical information exists regarding botulinum toxin-A injector decision-making practices for adult upper limb post-stroke spasticity. The design of most studies prevents such an assessment, as injection sites and dosage are mandated by researcher protocols. This contrasts to usual injector practices, where individualized decision-making is the standard of care. Secondary data analysis from an Australian randomized controlled trial of 90 adults with upper limb post-stroke spasticity where experienced clinicians followed their standard clinical injecting practice rather than a mandated injection regimen. Clinicians were hypothesized to tailor their injection practices according to the subject's degree of spasticity and/or the type of functional gain desired. Hypothesis testing was conducted using non-parametric analysis. Muscle selection and botulinum toxin-A dosage were not significantly associated with spasticity severity or with patient-identified goals. Between-site differences in injection practices suggested that injector beliefs, rather than patient characteristics, were the dominant feature driving botulinum toxin-A injection strategy for post-stroke upper limb spasticity. This result looks into the "black box" of rehabilitation, revealing significant variation in injector beliefs. Findings suggest that further scientific work is required to maximize the efficacy of botulinum toxin-A injections in post-stroke upper limb spasticity management.

  20. Evaluating an extended rehabilitation service for stroke patients (EXTRAS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Helen; Shaw, Lisa; Cant, Robin; Drummond, Avril; Ford, Gary A; Forster, Anne; Hills, Katie; Howel, Denise; Laverty, Anne-Marie; McKevitt, Christopher; McMeekin, Peter; Price, Christopher

    2015-05-05

    Development of longer term stroke rehabilitation services is limited by lack of evidence of effectiveness for specific interventions and service models. We describe the protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial which is evaluating an extended stroke rehabilitation service. The extended service commences when routine 'organised stroke care' (stroke unit and early supported discharge (ESD)) ends. This study is a multicentre randomised controlled trial with health economic and process evaluations. It is set within NHS stroke services which provide ESD. Participants are adults who have experienced a new stroke (and carer if appropriate), discharged from hospital under the care of an ESD team. The intervention group receives an extended stroke rehabilitation service provided for 18 months following completion of ESD. The extended rehabilitation service involves regular contact with a senior ESD team member who leads and coordinates further rehabilitation. Contact is usually by telephone. The control group receives usual stroke care post-ESD. Usual care may involve referral of patients to a range of rehabilitation services upon completion of ESD in accordance with local clinical practice. Randomisation is via a central independent web-based service. The primary outcome is extended activities of daily living (Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale) at 24 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes (at 12 and 24 months post-randomisation) are health status, quality of life, mood and experience of services for patients, and quality of life, experience of services and carer stress for carers. Resource use and adverse events are also collected. Outcomes are undertaken by a blinded assessor. Implementation and delivery of the extended stroke rehabilitation service will also be described. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with a subsample of participants and staff to gain insight into perceptions and experiences of rehabilitation services

  1. Outcomes of ambulatory rehabilitation programmes following botulinum toxin for spasticity in adults with stroke.

    PubMed

    Demetrios, Marina; Gorelik, Alexandra; Louie, Julie; Brand, Caroline; Baguley, Ian J; Khan, Fary

    2014-09-01

    To examine the benefits of high intensity ambulatory rehabilitation programmes over usual care following botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) for post-stroke spasticity in Australian adults. Prospective single centre, controlled clinical trial. Fifty-nine adults, median 61 years old and 2.5 years following stroke. PARTICIPANTS were dichotomised into high intensity ambulatory rehabilitation programmes (≥ 3 × 1-h weekly sessions for approximately 10 weeks) or usual care programmes (≤ 2 × 1-h weekly sessions) following BoNT-A injections for spasticity. A blinded assessor completed outcomes at 0 (baseline), 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Primary endpoints: proportion of participants achieving ≥ 50% of their goals (using Goal Attainment Scaling: GAS) and GAS T-score change at 12 weeks. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), participant satisfaction, activity/participation measures and caregiver burden. Both groups showed significant improvement in goal attainment and participant satisfaction up to 24 weeks, with no overall between-group significant differences. There was, however, a statistical trend (p = 0.052) for participants to achieve more upper limb goals in the high intensity therapy group. GAS and satisfaction benefits persisted beyond the duration of spasticity reduction as measured by MAS. While patient-centred outcomes following BoNT-A injections for post-stroke spasticity were not influenced by intensity of ambulatory rehabilitation programmes, there was a trend for high intensity therapy to be associated with greater upper limb goal attainment. This suggests that the effects of more intensive therapy may be a modifier of the 'black box' of rehabilitation; however, further research is required to evaluate this effect and determine which elements of therapy programmes optimise post-BoNT-A outcomes.

  2. Guidelines for Adult Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    PubMed

    Winstein, Carolee J; Stein, Joel; Arena, Ross; Bates, Barbara; Cherney, Leora R; Cramer, Steven C; Deruyter, Frank; Eng, Janice J; Fisher, Beth; Harvey, Richard L; Lang, Catherine E; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Pugh, Sue; Reeves, Mathew J; Richards, Lorie G; Stiers, William; Zorowitz, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a synopsis of best clinical practices in the rehabilitative care of adults recovering from stroke. Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the AHA's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The panel reviewed relevant articles on adults using computerized searches of the medical literature through 2014. The evidence is organized within the context of the AHA framework and is classified according to the joint AHA/American College of Cardiology and supplementary AHA methods of classifying the level of certainty and the class and level of evidence. The document underwent extensive AHA internal and external peer review, Stroke Council Leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Stroke rehabilitation requires a sustained and coordinated effort from a large team, including the patient and his or her goals, family and friends, other caregivers (eg, personal care attendants), physicians, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, recreation therapists, psychologists, nutritionists, social workers, and others. Communication and coordination among these team members are paramount in maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency of rehabilitation and underlie this entire guideline. Without communication and coordination, isolated efforts to rehabilitate the stroke survivor are unlikely to achieve their full potential. As systems of care evolve in response to healthcare reform efforts, postacute care and rehabilitation are often considered a costly area of care to be trimmed but without recognition of their clinical impact and ability to reduce the risk of downstream medical morbidity resulting from

  3. Sex Differences in Stroke Subtypes, Severity, Risk Factors, and Outcomes among Elderly Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changshen; An, Zhongping; Zhao, Wenjuan; Wang, Wanjun; Gao, Chunlin; Liu, Shoufeng; Wang, Jinghua; Wu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    Although the age-specific incidence and mortality of stroke is higher among men, stroke has a greater clinical effect on women. However, the sex differences in stroke among elderly patients are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the sex differences in stroke among elderly stroke patients. Between 2005 and 2013, we recruited 1484 consecutive acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients (≥75 years old) from a specialized neurology hospital in Tianjin, China. Information regarding their stroke subtypes, severity, risk factors, and outcomes at 3 and 12 months after stroke were recorded. Comparing with men, women had a significantly higher prevalence of severe stroke (17.20 vs. 12.54%), hypertension (76.42 vs. 66.39%), dyslipidemias (30.35 vs. 22.76%), and obesity (18.40 vs. 9.32%), P < 0.05. Comparing with women, men had a significantly higher prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis (23.11 vs. 17.45%), current smoking (29.60 vs. 13.05%), and alcohol consumption (12.15 vs. 0.47%), P < 0.05. Moreover, dependency was more common among women at 3 and 12 months after stroke, although the sex difference disappeared after adjusting for stroke subtypes, severity, and risk factors. Elderly women with AIS had more severe stroke status and worse outcomes at 3 and 12 months after stroke. Thus, elderly female post-AIS patients are a crucial population that should be assisted with controlling their risk factors for stroke and changing their lifestyle.

  4. The impact of stroke: insights from patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Chen; Chen, Yi-Miau; Hsueh, I-Ping; Wang, Yen-Ho; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2010-09-01

    Clinical stroke trials have been increasing interest in patient-centred assessments such as functional status and health-related quality of life. There is a consensus that these measurement factors must be relevant to, and obtained from, the patients of interest. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the patients' reactions and concerns that individuals experience after having had a stroke. A focus group and individual interviews were conducted to identify and describe the patients' reactions to living with the results of a stroke. One hundred twelve patients participated in the study. Fifteen factors were identified as problems for the 112 participants. For the level of impact and importance, the highest percentages of responses rated by the participants in each factor were all towards the physical aspects of functioning such as hand/arm function and mobility. These findings provide important information on the impact of stroke that could be useful for occupational therapists in treatment planning and outcome measurement. Further research is recommended to understand the impact of a stroke on an individual's adjustment at home and in the community.

  5. Factors Related to Gait Function in Post-stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Kun Jae; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] Gait function after a stroke is an important factor for determining a patient's ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with gait function in post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-nine stroke patients (16 females and 23 males; average age 67.82 ± 10.96 years; post-onset duration: 200.18 ± 27.14 days) participated in this study. [Methods] Their gait function, motor function (Manual Muscle Test [MMT] and Brünnstrom stage), level of cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination score [MMSE], and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for the Geriatric Population [LOTCA-G]), and ADL (Korean modified Barthel index [K-MBI]) were assessed. [Results] The degree of gait function showed significant positive correlations with the following variables: MMT of the elbow, knee, ankle and wrist; Brünnstrom stage; MMSE; LOTCA-G subscores except motor praxis; K-MBI. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the Brünnstrom stage was the only explanatory variable closely associated with gait level. [Conclusion] Gait function of post-stroke patients was related to motor function, cognition, and ADL. In particular, there is a significant association between gait level and the Brünnstrom stages, reflecting the importance of monitoring the motor recovery of gait function in post-stroke patients.

  6. Stroke increases neural stem cells and angiogenesis in the neurogenic niche of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui Lan; Chopp, Michael; Roberts, Cynthia; Liu, Xianshuang; Wei, Min; Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P; Wang, Xinli; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2014-01-01

    The unique cellular and vascular architecture of the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ) neurogenic niche plays an important role in regulating neural stem cell function. However, the in vivo identification of neural stem cells and their relationship to blood vessels within this niche in response to stroke remain largely unknown. Using whole-mount preparation of the lateral ventricle wall, we examined the architecture of neural stem cells and blood vessels in the V/SVZ of adult mouse over the course of 3 months after onset of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke substantially increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive neural stem cells that are in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via their apical processes at the center of pinwheel structures formed by ependymal cells residing in the lateral ventricle. Long basal processes of these cells extended to blood vessels beneath the ependymal layer. Moreover, stroke increased V/SVZ endothelial cell proliferation from 2% in non-ischemic mice to 12 and 15% at 7 and 14 days after stroke, respectively. Vascular volume in the V/SVZ was augmented from 3% of the total volume prior to stroke to 6% at 90 days after stroke. Stroke-increased angiogenesis was closely associated with neuroblasts that expanded to nearly encompass the entire lateral ventricular wall in the V/SVZ. These data indicate that stroke induces long-term alterations of the neural stem cell and vascular architecture of the adult V/SVZ neurogenic niche. These post-stroke structural changes may provide insight into neural stem cell mediation of stroke-induced neurogenesis through the interaction of neural stem cells with proteins in the CSF and their sub-ependymal neurovascular interaction.

  7. Stroke Increases Neural Stem Cells and Angiogenesis in the Neurogenic Niche of the Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui Lan; Chopp, Michael; Roberts, Cynthia; Liu, Xianshuang; Wei, Min; Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P.; Wang, Xinli; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2014-01-01

    The unique cellular and vascular architecture of the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ) neurogenic niche plays an important role in regulating neural stem cell function. However, the in vivo identification of neural stem cells and their relationship to blood vessels within this niche in response to stroke remain largely unknown. Using whole-mount preparation of the lateral ventricle wall, we examined the architecture of neural stem cells and blood vessels in the V/SVZ of adult mouse over the course of 3 months after onset of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke substantially increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive neural stem cells that are in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via their apical processes at the center of pinwheel structures formed by ependymal cells residing in the lateral ventricle. Long basal processes of these cells extended to blood vessels beneath the ependymal layer. Moreover, stroke increased V/SVZ endothelial cell proliferation from 2% in non-ischemic mice to 12 and 15% at 7 and 14 days after stroke, respectively. Vascular volume in the V/SVZ was augmented from 3% of the total volume prior to stroke to 6% at 90 days after stroke. Stroke-increased angiogenesis was closely associated with neuroblasts that expanded to nearly encompass the entire lateral ventricular wall in the V/SVZ. These data indicate that stroke induces long-term alterations of the neural stem cell and vascular architecture of the adult V/SVZ neurogenic niche. These post-stroke structural changes may provide insight into neural stem cell mediation of stroke-induced neurogenesis through the interaction of neural stem cells with proteins in the CSF and their sub-ependymal neurovascular interaction. PMID:25437857

  8. Predictors of functional outcome among stroke patients in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Abanto, Carlos; Ton, Thanh G N; Tirschwell, David L; Montano, Silvia; Quispe, Yrma; Gonzales, Isidro; Valencia, Ana; Calle, Pilar; Garate, Arturo; Zunt, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Because of the aging population in low- and middle-income countries, cerebrovascular disease is expected to remain a leading cause of death. Little has been published about stroke in Peru. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized stroke patients at a referral center hospital in Lima, Peru to explore factors associated with functional outcome among stroke patients. We identified 579 patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage stroke at the National Institute of Neurologic Sciences in Lima, Peru in 2008 and 2009. A favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale score of ≤ 2 at discharge. The mean age was 63.3 years; 75.6% had ischemic stroke; the average duration of stay was 17.3 days. At hospital discharge, 231 (39.9%) had a favorable outcome. The overall mortality rate was 5.2%. In multivariate models, the likelihood of having a favorable outcome decreased linearly with increasing age (P = .02) and increasing National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (P = .02). Favorable outcome was also associated with male gender (relative risk [RR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.5) and divorced status (RR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Patients on Salud Integral de Salud (SIS; public assistance-type insurance; RR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-1.0) were also less likely to have a favorable outcome. Favorable outcome after stroke was independently associated with younger age, a lower NIHSS score, male gender, being divorced, and not being on SIS insurance. These findings suggest that additional study of worse functional outcomes in patients with SIS insurance be conducted and confirm the importance of risk adjustment for age, stroke severity (according to the NIHSS scale), and other socioeconomic factors in outcomes studies. Future studies should preferentially assess outcome at 30 days and 6 months to provide more reliable comparisons and allow additional study of Peruvian end-of-life decision-making and care. Copyright

  9. Effects of Physical Exercise on Working Memory and Prefrontal Cortex Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Moriya, M; Aoki, C; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in healthy older adults, but it is not clear whether this remains the case in post-stroke patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in post-stroke patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke patients. The patients performed Sternberg-type working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 % of maximal oxygen uptake) with a cycling ergometer for 15 min. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We evaluated behavioral performance (response time and accuracy) of the working memory task. It was found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition (p < 0.01). In addition, NIRS analysis indicated that physical exercise enhanced prefrontal cortex activation, particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05), during the working memory task compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in post-stroke patients.

  10. Recovery of slow-5 oscillations in a longitudinal study of ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    La, C.; Nair, V.A.; Mossahebi, P.; Stamm, J.; Birn, R.; Meyerand, M.E.; Prabhakaran, V.

    2016-01-01

    Functional networks in resting-state fMRI are identified by characteristics of their intrinsic low-frequency oscillations, more specifically in terms of their synchronicity. With advanced aging and in clinical populations, this synchronicity among functionally linked regions is known to decrease and become disrupted, which may be associated with observed cognitive and behavioral changes. Previous work from our group has revealed that oscillations within the slow-5 frequency range (0.01–0.027 Hz) are particularly susceptible to disruptions in aging and following a stroke. In this study, we characterized longitudinally the changes in the slow-5 oscillations in stroke patients across two different time-points. We followed a group of ischemic stroke patients (n = 20) and another group of healthy older adults (n = 14) over two visits separated by a minimum of three months (average of 9 months). For the stroke patients, one visit occurred in their subacute window (10 days to 6 months after stroke onset), the other took place in their chronic window (> 6 months after stroke). Using a mid-order group ICA method on 10-minutes eyes-closed resting-state fMRI data, we assessed the frequency distributions of a component's representative time-courses for differences in regards to slow-5 spectral power. First, our stroke patients, in their subacute stage, exhibited lower amplitude slow-5 oscillations in comparison to their healthy counterparts. Second, over time in their chronic stage, those same patients showed a recovery of those oscillations, reaching near equivalence to the healthy older adult group. Our results indicate the possibility of an eventual recovery of those initially disrupted network oscillations to a near-normal level, providing potentially a biomarker for stroke recovery of the cortical system. This finding opens new avenues in infra-slow oscillation research and could serve as a useful biomarker in future treatments aimed at recovery. PMID:27077023

  11. Four-year prognosis of stroke patients with visuospatial inattention.

    PubMed

    Kotila, M; Niemi, M L; Laaksonen, R

    1986-01-01

    The four-year prognosis of patients with visuospatial inattention in a stroke register (altogether 255 patients) was studied. Sixty-six surviving patients under the age of 65 were examined neurologically and neuropsychologically after 3 months and 1 year from stroke. Fifty-two of these 66 patients were still reexamined after 4 years from onset. Twelve patients with ischaemic brain infarction had visuospatial inattention: 7 had a clear-cut and contralateral neglect and 5 had milder and less lateralized inattention. The recovery of these 12 patients was poorer in ADL than the other 54 patients. Even when hemiparesis was taken into account, the difference still existed in ADL. The recovery of the 7 neglect patients was poorer than that of the 5 inattention patients. During the follow-up the visuospatial neglect persisted in all 7 cases and the visuospatial inattention disappeared in only one case.

  12. Mortality in patients with dementia after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Desmond, David W; Moroney, Joan T; Sano, Mary; Stern, Yaakov

    2002-08-27

    Although dementia is typically considered to be a consequence of a variety of neurologic diseases, it can also serve as a risk factor for other adverse outcomes. The authors investigated dementia as a predictor of long-term survival among patients with ischemic stroke. Neurologic, neuropsychological, and functional assessments were administered to 453 patients (mean age +/- SD, 72.0 +/- 8.3 years) 3 months after ischemic stroke. The authors diagnosed dementia in 119 (26.3%) of the patients using modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised 3rd Edition, criteria requiring deficits in memory and two or more additional cognitive domains as well as functional impairment. Dementia as a predictor of long-term survival during up to 10 years of follow-up was then investigated. The mortality rate was 15.90 deaths per 100 person-years among patients with dementia and 5.37 deaths per 100 person-years among nondemented patients. A Cox proportional hazards analysis found that the relative risk (RR) of death was increased in association with dementia (RR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.6 to 3.4), adjusting for the following: a major hemispheral stroke syndrome (RR = 1.4); a middle cerebral artery territory index stroke (RR = 1.7); a Stroke Severity Scale score of > or = 4, representing more severe stroke (RR = 1.8); atrial fibrillation (RR = 1.8); congestive heart failure (RR = 2.2); recurrent stroke occurring during follow-up (RR = 3.9); and demographic variables. The risk of death increased in association with the severity of dementia, but it did not differ by dementia subtype. Dementia is a significant independent risk factor for reduced survival after ischemic stroke, adjusting for other recognized predictors of mortality. The authors hypothesize that patients with dementia are at an elevated risk of mortality because of their increased burden of cerebrovascular disease, a tendency toward undertreatment for stroke prophylaxis among clinicians, or patient

  13. Neurophysiological Characterization of Subacute Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888

  14. Factors Related to Gait Function in Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Kun Jae; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait function after a stroke is an important factor for determining a patient’s ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with gait function in post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-nine stroke patients (16 females and 23 males; average age 67.82 ± 10.96 years; post-onset duration: 200.18 ± 27.14 days) participated in this study. [Methods] Their gait function, motor function (Manual Muscle Test [MMT] and Brünnstrom stage), level of cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination score [MMSE], and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for the Geriatric Population [LOTCA-G]), and ADL (Korean modified Barthel index [K-MBI]) were assessed. [Results] The degree of gait function showed significant positive correlations with the following variables: MMT of the elbow, knee, ankle and wrist; Brünnstrom stage; MMSE; LOTCA-G subscores except motor praxis; K-MBI. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the Brünnstrom stage was the only explanatory variable closely associated with gait level. [Conclusion] Gait function of post-stroke patients was related to motor function, cognition, and ADL. In particular, there is a significant association between gait level and the Brünnstrom stages, reflecting the importance of monitoring the motor recovery of gait function in post-stroke patients. PMID:25540503

  15. Atherosclerosis in Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment Subtypes among Young and Middle-Aged Stroke Patients: The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Annette; Haaland, Øystein Ariansen; Naess, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    Ischemic stroke patients subtyped as of undetermined cause (SUC) usually outnumber those with determined cause subtypes. Etiological stroke classifications may lead to neglect of parallel, noncausative findings. Atherosclerosis progresses over decades and is associated with high morbidity and mortality in young stroke patients in long-term follow-up studies. We compared the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in all TOAST subtypes among young patients with acute ischemic stroke. We investigated 150 patients aged 15-60 years with documented acute ischemic stroke, and 84 controls free of cardiovascular disease. Stroke etiology was classified according to TOAST criteria. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measurements were obtained from 12 standardized multiangle measurements in the common carotid artery, carotid bifurcation, and internal carotid artery. The causes of stroke were 5.3% large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), 26.7% cardioembolism, 21.3% small-artery occlusion (SAO), 10% stroke of other determined cause, and 36.7% stroke of undetermined cause (SUC). cIMT was increased in patients with LAA (1.56 mm, P = .002), SAO (1.11 mm, P = .006), and SUC (1.10 mm, P = .004) compared to controls (cIMT 0.86 mm). Segmental cIMT distribution differed across stroke subtypes, age groups, and sexes. Atherosclerotic disease is prevalent in the majority of young and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients, requiring determined investigation and aggressive treatment of modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of virtual reality proprioceptive rehabilitation system for stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sangwoo; Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Kang, Youn Joo; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the virtual reality (VR) proprioception rehabilitation system was developed for stroke patients to use proprioception feedback in upper limb rehabilitation by blocking visual feedback. To evaluate its therapeutic effect, 10 stroke patients (onset>3 month) trained proprioception feedback rehabilitation for one week and visual feedback rehabilitation for another week in random order. Proprioception functions were checked before, a week after, and at the end of training. The results show the click count, error distance and total error distance among proprioception evaluation factors were significantly reduced after proprioception feedback training compared to visual feedback training (respectively, p=0.005, p=0.001, and p=0.007). In addition, subjects were significantly improved in conventional behavioral tests after training. In conclusion, we showed the effectiveness and possible use of the VR to recover the proprioception of stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NDT competence of nurses caring for patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Grypdonck, Maria H F

    2004-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) is the most used rehabilitation approach in the treatment of patients with stroke in the Western world today, despite the lack of evidence for its efficacy. The aim of this study was to conduct an intervention check and measure the nurses' competence, in positioning stroke patients according to the NDT approach. The sample consisted of 144 nurses in six neurological wards who were observed while positioning stroke patients according to the NDT approach. The nurses' combined mean competence scores within the wards was 195 (70%) of 280 (100%) possible, and for each ward the mean score varied between 181 (65%) and 206 (74%). This study indicates that nurses working in hospitals where the NDT approach has been implemented have the knowledge and skills to provide NDT nursing.

  18. Rehabilitation Profiles of Older Adult Stroke Survivors Admitted to Intermediate Care Units: A Multi-Centre Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Laura M; Inzitari, Marco; Quinn, Terence J; Montaner, Joan; Gavaldà, Ricard; Duarte, Esther; Coll-Planas, Laura; Cerdà, Mercè; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Closa, Conxita; Gallofré, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability in older adults, but the evidence around post-acute treatment is limited and heterogeneous. We aimed to identify profiles of older adult stroke survivors admitted to intermediate care geriatric rehabilitation units. We performed a cohort study, enrolling stroke survivors aged 65 years or older, admitted to 9 intermediate care units in Catalonia-Spain. To identify potential profiles, we included age, caregiver presence, comorbidity, pre-stroke and post-stroke disability, cognitive impairment and stroke severity in a cluster analysis. We also proposed a practical decision tree for patient's classification in clinical practice. We analyzed differences between profiles in functional improvement (Barthel index), relative functional gain (Montebello index), length of hospital stay (LOS), rehabilitation efficiency (functional improvement by LOS), and new institutionalization using multivariable regression models (for continuous and dichotomous outcomes). Among 384 patients (79.1±7.9 years, 50.8% women), we identified 3 complexity profiles: a) Lower Complexity with Caregiver (LCC), b) Moderate Complexity without Caregiver (MCN), and c) Higher Complexity with Caregiver (HCC). The decision tree showed high agreement with cluster analysis (96.6%). Using either linear (continuous outcomes) or logistic regression, both LCC and MCN, compared to HCC, showed statistically significant higher chances of functional improvement (OR = 4.68, 95%CI = 2.54-8.63 and OR = 3.0, 95%CI = 1.52-5.87, respectively, for Barthel index improvement ≥20), relative functional gain (OR = 4.41, 95%CI = 1.81-10.75 and OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 1.31-9.04, respectively, for top Vs lower tertiles), and rehabilitation efficiency (OR = 7.88, 95%CI = 3.65-17.03 and OR = 3.87, 95%CI = 1.69-8.89, respectively, for top Vs lower tertiles). In relation to LOS, MCN cluster had lower chance of shorter LOS than LCC (OR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.23-0.75) and HCC (OR = 0.37, 95%CI = 0

  19. A Telescreening Tool to Detect Aphasia in Patients with Stroke.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Park, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Ki-hwan; Son, Yeon-joo; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2015-09-01

    Early identification of patients with stroke-induced aphasia is essential because it is a significant disability affecting daily life and is linked to poor functional outcome after stroke. However, most patients with stroke are unable to undergo aphasia evaluation and detection and therefore remain undiagnosed. The purpose of this study is to develop a valid, reliable mobile aphasia screening test (MAST) for patients in remote locations. To accomplish this, we enrolled patients with (n=30) and without (n=30) stroke-induced aphasia. A MAST, which adopted the Korean version of the shortened version of the Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test (K-FAST), was designed as an iPad(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) application. To validate the MAST, we compared its performance with that of the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) and conventional shortened FAST paper version (K-FAST). We analyzed interrater and internal reliability, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and assessed the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and power. There was significant correlation between K-FAST and MAST (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.995, p<0.001). MAST also had a high correlation with K-WAB (ICC=0.752, p<0.001). Interrater reliability was very high (ICC=0.999, p<0.001). The test had high sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (73.3%) with an accuracy of 0.930 (95% confidence interval=0.853-1.000). The MAST is a valid and reliable tool for detecting aphasia in patients with stroke. This telescreening test may overcome the limitations of test administration and may be a convenient and cost-effective alternative to the existing aphasia screening tests for patients with stroke.

  20. Diaphragm Thickness and Inspiratory Muscle Functions in Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Kyeongbong; Cho, Jieun; Lee, Wanhee

    2017-01-01

    Background The aims of this study are to investigate the difference between the diaphragm thickness at end expiration and the thickness at total lung capacity (TLC), and to examine differences in inspiratory muscle function between stroke patients and healthy individuals. Material/Methods Forty-five stroke patients and 49 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Diaphragm thickness was measured at end expiration and at TLC by ultrasonography. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), peak inspiratory flow (PIF), vital capacity (VC), and inspiratory muscle endurance (IME) were assess to evaluate inspiratory muscle function. Results In stroke patients, the diaphragm was significantly thinner on the affected side than the less affected side at end expiration and at TLC. The change between the thickness at end expiration and at TLC were also significant on both sides. Between groups, the difference in diaphragm thickness at end expiration was not significant, but at TLC, the diaphragms were significantly thicker in healthy individuals than on either side in stroke patients, and the change in diaphragm thickness was significantly greater for healthy individuals. Inspiratory muscle functions were also significantly greater in healthy individuals. MIP, PIF, and VC were positively correlated with the change in thickness in healthy individuals, and MIP was positively correlated with the change in thickness and IME in stroke patients. Conclusions Stroke patients showed decreases in the thickening ability of the diaphragm at TLC and in inspiratory muscle function. The change between the diaphragm thickness at end expiration and at TLC was positively correlated with MIP, PIF, and VC. PMID:28284044

  1. Migraine and Cerebrovascular Atherosclerosis in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    van Os, Hendrikus J A; Mulder, Inge A; Broersen, Alexander; Algra, Ale; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Terwindt, Gisela M; Schonewille, Wouter J; Visser, Marieke C; Ferrari, Michel D; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Wermer, Marieke J H

    2017-07-01

    Migraine is a well-established risk factor for ischemic stroke, but migraine is also related to other vascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the association between migraine and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We retrieved data on patients with ischemic stroke from the DUST (Dutch Acute Stroke Study). Migraine history was assessed with a migraine screener and confirmed by telephone interview based on the ICHD criteria (International Classification of Headache Disorders). We assessed intra- and extracranial atherosclerotic changes and quantified intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications as measure of atherosclerotic burden on noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography. We calculated risk ratios with adjustments for possible confounders with multivariable Poisson regression analyses. We included 656 patients, aged 18 to 99 years, of whom 53 had a history of migraine (29 with aura). Patients with migraine did not have more frequent atherosclerotic changes in intracranial (51% versus 74%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.05) or extracranial vessels (62% versus 79%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.12) than patients without migraine and had comparable internal carotid artery calcification volumes (largest versus medium and smallest volume tertile, 23% versus 35%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.52). Migraine is not associated with excess atherosclerosis in large vessels in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our findings suggest that the biological mechanisms by which migraine results in ischemic stroke are not related to macrovascular cerebral atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Pregait balance rehabilitation in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rao, Noel; Zielke, Donna; Keller, Sarah; Burns, Melissa; Sharma, Asha; Krieger, Richard; Aruin, Alexander S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation interventions designed to enhance balance control in individuals with acute stroke are quite limited. The goal was to develop and assess a technique of early pregait balance training involving the use of a combination of force platform visual feedback and the unweighting system in individuals with recent stroke. A total of 28 individuals with acute stroke were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups: individuals included in the experimental group received 1 week of treatment on the basis of retraining balance utilizing visual biofeedback (Balance Master) while provided with a body weight support harness system, whereas the individuals in the control group received conventional treatment. Both the groups undertook identical tests (Fugl-Meyer Balance test, Functional Independence Measure test for gait, and Fugl-Meyer lower extremity assessment) before the start of treatment and after its completion. Individuals in the experimental group showed larger gains as seen in the increased scores of the Fugl-Meyer Balance test and the Functional Independence Measure test for gait as compared with the control group. The outcome of the study provides a basis for future investigations of the applicability of the intervention in early balance rehabilitation of individuals with neurological disorders.

  3. Glyburide is associated with attenuated vasogenic edema in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, W Taylor; Battey, Thomas W K; Pham, Ly; Wu, Ona; Yoo, Albert J; Furie, Karen L; Singhal, Aneesh B; Elm, Jordan J; Stern, Barney J; Sheth, Kevin N

    2014-04-01

    Brain edema is a serious complication of ischemic stroke that can lead to secondary neurological deterioration and death. Glyburide is reported to prevent brain swelling in preclinical rodent models of ischemic stroke through inhibition of a non-selective channel composed of sulfonylurea receptor 1 and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4. However, the relevance of this pathway to the development of cerebral edema in stroke patients is not known. Using a case-control design, we retrospectively assessed neuroimaging and blood markers of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema in subjects who were enrolled in the glyburide advantage in malignant edema and stroke-pilot (GAMES-Pilot) trial. We compared serial brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) to a cohort with similar large volume infarctions. We also compared matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plasma level in large hemispheric stroke. We report that IV glyburide was associated with T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensity ratio on brain MRI, diminished the lesional water diffusivity between days 1 and 2 (pseudo-normalization), and reduced blood MMP-9 level. Several surrogate markers of vasogenic edema appear to be reduced in the setting of IV glyburide treatment in human stroke. Verification of these potential imaging and blood biomarkers is warranted in the context of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

  4. Stroke care: initial data from a county-based bypass protocol for patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed F; Shawver, Julie; Espinosa Morales, Aixa; Salahuddin, Hisham; Tietjen, Gretchen; Lindstrom, David; Parquette, Brent; Adams, Andrea; Korsnack, Andrea; Jumaa, Mouhammad A

    2017-07-01

    Early identification and transfer of patients with acute stroke to a primary or comprehensive stroke center results in favorable outcomes. To describe implementation and results of an emergency medical service (EMS)-driven stroke protocol in Lucas County, Ohio. All county EMS personnel (N=464) underwent training in the Rapid Arterial oCclusion Evaluation (RACE) score. The RACE Alert (RA) protocol, whereby patients with stroke and a RACE score ≥5 were taken to a facility that offered advanced therapy, was implemented in July 2015. During the 6-month study period, 109 RAs were activated. Time efficiencies, diagnostic accuracy, and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) outcomes were compared with standard 'stroke-alert' (N=142) patients from the preceding 6 months. An increased treatment rate (25.6% vs 12.6%, p<0.05) and improved time efficiency (median door-to-CT 10 vs 28 min, p<0.05; door-to-needle 46 vs 75 min, p<0.05) of IV tissue plasminogen activator within the RA cohort was achieved. The rate of MT (20.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.06) increased and treatment times improved, including median arrival-to-puncture (68 vs 128 min, p=0.04) and arrival-to-recanalization times (101 vs 205 min, p=0.001) in favor of the RA cohort. A non-significant trend towards improved outcome (50% vs 36.4%, p=0.3) in the RA cohort was noted. The RA protocol also showed improved diagnostic specificity for ischemic stroke (52.3% vs 30.1%, p<0.05). Our results indicate that EMS adaptation of the RA protocol within Lucas County is feasible and effective for early triage and treatment of patients with stroke. Using this protocol, we can significantly improve treatment times for both systemic thrombolysis and MT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. Methods The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. Results During 926,752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1,059 from ischemic or non-specified strokes). Compared to individuals with 7 hours/day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours/day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours/day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours/day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours/day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long duration of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or non-specified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. PMID:24743442

  6. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  7. Investigation of vaspin level in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Cura, Hasan S; Özdemir, Hasan H; Demir, Caner F; Bulut, Serpil; İlhan, Nevin; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-03-01

    Cerebrovascular event is a clinical condition characterized by symptoms and findings pertaining to loss of focal cerebral function because of the vascular causes. Atherosclerosis has a forefront role in the pathogenesis of stroke. Inflammation has an important place in the formation of atherogenesis and atherosclerosis. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is a new adipokine, which is identified recently, associated with obesity and diabetes and also has a proinflammatory characteristic. This study was intended to investigate the relation between vaspin and stroke and stroke and other risk factors. A total of 50 patients with stroke, as 28 men (56%) and 22 women (44%), and a total of 50 healthy individuals, as 25 men (50%) and 25 women (50%), were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were taken in the acute period (first 48 hours) in the patient group, and serum vaspin levels were measured. Vaspin level was also measured in the control group. The association of vaspin with the lipid parameters, gender, and the severity of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis in the patient group was evaluated. Stenotic plaques in ICA were classified as normal, mild (stenosis under 50%), moderate (stenosis 50%-69%), severe (stenosis 70%-99% to preocclusion), and occlusion. No statistically significant difference was found between 2 groups in terms of age and gender (P > .05). Vaspin levels were found to be significantly higher in the patient group (164.73 ± 153.76 ng/mL) compared with the control group (116.21 ± 34.60 ng/mL) (P < .05). However, no relation was established between vaspin level and the severity of ICA stenosis. Vaspin levels have been shown to increase in acute ischemic stroke patients. The increased vaspin levels may vary depending on several factors in acute period of ischemic stroke. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Hesna; Vural, Gonul; Gumusyayla, Sadiye; Deniz, Orhan; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis plays a critical role in the cellular protection provided by antioxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a change in thiol-disulfide homeostasis in acute ischemic stroke patients. Patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke that had undergone magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging within the first 24 h were prospectively included in this study. The thiol, disulfide, and total thiol levels were measured during the first 24 and 72 h, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Barthel Index (BI) of the patients were recorded. Overall, the relationships between the thiol-disulfide levels of the patients and the infarct volumes, NIHSS, mRS, and BI scores were investigated. In this study, 54 patients and 53 healthy controls were included. The mean of the native thiol levels in the stroke group was 356.572 ± 61.659 μmol/L (min/max 228.00/546.40), while it was 415.453 ± 39.436 μmol/L (min/max 323.50/488.70) in the control group (p < 0.001). A negative, significant correlation was observed between the infarct volumes and native thiol levels (ρ = -0.378; p = 0.005), and the disulfide levels were similar between the groups (Z = 0.774; p = 0.439). Significant difference was found between the thiol levels of the mild and moderate-severe NIHSS groups (p = 0.026). The changes in the thiol levels under oxidative stress may be associated with the severity of the stroke. Substitution of thiol deficiency and correction of thiol-disulfide imbalance may be beneficial in ischemic stroke.

  9. Five-Year Outcome in Stroke Patients Submitted to Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Célia; Pinho, João; Alves, José Nuno; Santos, Ana Filipa; Ferreira, Maria do Céu; Abreu, Maria João; Oliveira, Liliana; Mota, João; Fontes, João Ramalho; Ferreira, Carla

    2015-08-01

    Little is known on long-term follow-up after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients because the majority of studies evaluated outcome at 3 to 12 months. We aimed to assess 5-year outcome after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Cohort study based on the prospective registry of all consecutive ischemic stroke patients submitted to IVT in our Stroke Unit. Five-year outcome, including living settings, functional outcome, stroke recurrence, and mortality, was ascertained by telephonic interviews and additional review of clinical records. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of outcome and mortality. Excellent outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale 0 to 1. Five-year outcome was available for 155/164 patients submitted to IVT. At 5 years, 32.9% of patients had an excellent outcome (95% confidence interval (CI) =25.5-43.3) and mortality was 43.9% (95%CI=36.1-51.7). Increasing age (odds ratio =0.93, 95% CI =0.90-0.97) and increasing National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 24 h after thrombolysis (odds ratio =0.81, 95% CI =0.74-0.90) were independently associated with a lower likelihood of an excellent 5-year outcome. Age (hazards ratio =1.07, 95% CI =1.03-1.11) and excellent functional outcome 3 months after thrombolysis (hazards ratio =0.28, 95%CI=0.12-0.66) were independently associated with mortality during follow-up. One third of ischemic stroke patients have excellent 5-year outcome after IVT. Younger age, lower NIHSS 24 h after IVT, and excellent 3-month functional outcome are independent predictors of excellent 5-year outcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Therapeutic hypothermia after recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Jin Soo; Song, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Hye Seon; Jung, Hae-Sun; Choi, Huimahn Alex; Lee, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia improves outcomes in experimental stroke models, especially after ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the clinical and radiological effects of therapeutic hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke patients after recanalization. A prospective cohort study at 2 stroke centers was performed. We enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation with an initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≥10 who had successful recanalization (≥thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia, 2b). Patients at center A underwent a mild hypothermia (34.5°C) protocol, which included mechanical ventilation, and 48-hour hypothermia and 48-hour rewarming. Patients at center B were treated according to the guidelines without hypothermia. Cerebral edema, hemorrhagic transformation, good outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale, ≤2), mortality, and safety profiles were compared. Potential variables at baseline and during the therapy were analyzed to evaluate for independent predictors of good outcome. The hypothermia group (n=39) had less cerebral edema (P=0.001), hemorrhagic transformation (P=0.016), and better outcome (P=0.017) compared with the normothermia group (n=36). Mortality, hemicraniectomy rate, and medical complications were not statistically different. After adjustment for potential confounders, therapeutic hypothermia (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-8.9; P=0.047) and distal occlusion (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% confidence interval; 1.3-40.3; P=0.022) were the independent predictors for good outcome. Absence of cerebral edema (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.2; P=0.006) and no medical complications (odds ratio, 9.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-39.9; P=0.003) were also independent predictors for good outcome during the therapy. In patients with ischemic stroke, after successful recanalization, therapeutic hypothermia may reduce risk of cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation, and lead to improved

  11. [Value of the MSH classification in the hemiplegic stroke patient].

    PubMed

    Pinedo-Otaola, S; de la Villa, F M

    The functional prognosis of patients should be known when planning their rehabilitation treatment. To find the prognostic value of the MSH classification for hemiplegic patients, which is based on the clinical deficits seen after the stroke, and to distinguish between the M group (motor deficit), MS group (motor and sensory deficits) and the MSH group (motor, sensory and homonymous deficits). A prospective analytical study was made of the hemiplegic patients admitted consecutively to the Rehabilitation Department after strokes. The initial examination was made 17 days (CI: 15-19) after the stroke. Satisfactory functional results were considered to be obtaining a Barthel index of > 90 together with the ability to walk unaided on level ground six months after the stroke. Of the 55 patients finally included in the study, 23 were in group M (41.8%) 21 in group MS (38.1%) and 11 patients in group MSH (20.1%). Walking ability and function in the different cohorts showed a statistically significant difference. Whilst 96% of the patients with pure hemiparesia (group M) attained a satisfactory degree of independence in walking, only 54% of the patients with three associated deficits (MSH) achieved this. Even more difference was found with acquired functional independence, since whilst 82% of group M attained a good degree of autonomy in carrying out everyday activities, only 18% of the MSH group achieved this. The remaining patients (MS group) had intermediate results. The MSH classification is, soon after having a stroke, a useful means of determining the functional prognosis of hemiplegic patients.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE STROKE.

    PubMed

    Maida, Carlo; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Raimondo, Domenico Di; Pinto, Antonio

    2017-07-14

    Stroke represent one of the most devastating of all neurological diseases, affecting about 15 million people per year and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and currently the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Blood pressure and heart rate may undergo several modifications in patients with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in fact raised blood pressure levels may lead to cerebral edema, hematoma expansion or hemorrhagic transformation and in contrast low blood pressure can lead to increased cerebral infarction or perihematomal ischemia. In addition, ECG abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation, are relatively frequent after stroke, and other well known complications such as heart failure, miocardial infarction and sudden death have been reported. The acute phase of brain infarction requires a careful management of both blood pressure levels and heart rate but despite the large amount of information, blood pressure and heart rate management are still under debate. Provide clear indications about the optimal blood pressure and heart rate management of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, in view of the main available evidence. In this review, we discuss the evidence for blood pressure and heart rate management in acute stroke, the challenges and issues raised, and look to on-going and future trials that may provide some clarity in this controversial area. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Effects of Music Therapy on Mood in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after music therapy. Satisfaction with music therapy was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after music therapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Music therapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Conclusion Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood improvement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are needed in this field. PMID:22028163

  14. Agreement between ambulance nurses and physicians in assessing stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, H; Lundström, E; Toss, H; Gedeborg, R; Johansson, J

    2014-01-01

    If an ambulance nurse could bypass the emergency department (ED) and bring suspected stroke patients directly to a CT scanner, time to thrombolysis could be shortened. This study evaluates the level of agreement between ambulance nurses and emergency physicians in assessing the need for a CT scan, and interventions and monitoring beforehand, in patients with suspected stroke and/or a lowered level of consciousness. From October 2008 to June 2009, we compared the ambulance nurses' and ED physicians' judgement of 200 patients with stroke symptoms. Both groups answered identical questions on patients' need for a CT scan, and interventions and monitoring beforehand. There was poor agreement between ambulance nurses and ED physicians in judging the need for a CT scan: κ = 0.22 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.06-0.37). The nurses' ability to select the same patients as the physician for a CT scan had a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI, 77-89) and a specificity of 37% (95% CI, 23-53). Agreement concerning the need for interventions and monitoring was also low: κ = 0.32 (95% CI, 0.18-0.47). In 18% of cases, the nurses considered interventions before a CT scan unnecessary when the physicians' deemed them necessary. Additional tools to support ambulance nurses decisions appear to be required before suspected stroke patients can be taken directly to a CT scanner. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Energy expenditure of stroke patients during postural control tasks.

    PubMed

    Houdijk, Han; ter Hoeve, Nienke; Nooijen, Carla; Rijntjes, Danielle; Tolsma, Maarten; Lamoth, Claudine

    2010-07-01

    Two common impairments in patients after stroke are loss of balance control and fatigue. We propose that both could be inter-related. The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic energy demand for balance control in patients after stroke during upright standing. Ten stroke patients and 12 able-bodied controls performed four 5-min upright standing tasks on a force plate; unperturbed (SU), blindfolded (SUB), on foam surface (SUF) and with feet parallel against each other (SUP). Metabolic energy expenditure, posturography measures and muscle activity (EMG) of lower leg muscles were measured. Patients required on average 125% (33Jkg(-1)s(-1)) more metabolic energy for upright standing under the various conditions than controls. In addition, balance manipulation significantly (p<0.05) affected energy expenditure (21% higher in SUB, 52% in SUF, 40% in SUP compared to SU). Although the increase in energy expenditure was on average twice as high in patients than controls no significant group by condition interaction effect was found. Overall correlations between posturography measures, EMG and energy expenditure (r=0.33-0.60) were significant (p<0.001). We conclude that impaired balance control puts an extra demand on the energy expenditure during motor activities in stroke patients. This should be considered when prescribing interventions aimed at reducing physiological strain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chinese Medicine Patterns in Patients with Post-Stroke Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liu, Jui-Chen; Chen, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-01-01

    A stroke often results in post-stroke dementia, a rapid decline in memory and intelligence causing dysfunctions in daily life. The Chinese medicine doctor uses 4 examinations of inspection, listening, smelling, and feeling to determine the Chinese medicine pattern (CMP). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the CMP in patients with post-stroke dementia. A total of 101 stroke patients were examined, consistent with the DSM IV diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, as well as the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association International pour Ia Recherche et I’Enseignement en Neurosciences vascular dementia diagnostic criteria of post-stroke dementia. Results: 100 patients (99.0%) were KEDP (kidney essence deficiency pattern, shèn jīng kuī xū zhèng, 腎精虧虛證), 83 patients were AHLYP (ascendant hyperactivity of liver yang pattern, gān yáng shàng kàng zhèng, 肝陽上亢證), 83 patients were QBDP (qi-blood deficiency pattern, qì xuè kuī xū zhèng, 氣血虧虛證), 81 patients were SBOCP (static blood obstructing the collaterals pattern, yū xuè zǔ luò zhèng, 瘀血阻絡證), 72 patients were BSTRP (bowels stagnation turbidity retention pattern, fǔ zhì zhuó liú zhèng, 腑滯濁留證), 50 patients were FHIEP (fire heat interior excess pattern, huǒ rè nèi sheng zhèng, 火熱內盛證), and 39 participants (38.6%) were PTOOP (phlegm turbidity obstructing the orifices pattern, tán zhuó zǔ qiào zhèng, 痰濁阻竅證); one to 31 patients have at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. In conclusion, the most CMP is KEDP CMP in the post-stroke dementia patients, and one patient may have one or at least 2 CMPs simultaneously. PMID:24716124

  17. Robotics in the rehabilitation treatment of patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Bruce T; Ferraro, Mark; Krebs, Hermano I; Hogan, Neville

    2002-07-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability despite continued advances in prevention and novel interventional treatments. Post-stroke neuro-rehabilitation programs teach compensatory strategies that alter the degree of permanent disability. Robotic devices are new tools for therapists to deliver enhanced sensorimotor training and concentrate on impairment reduction. Results from several groups have registered success in reducing impairment and increasing motor power with task-specific exercise delivered by the robotic devices. Enhancing the rehabilitation experience with task-specific repetitive exercise marks a different approach to the patient with stroke. The clinical challenge will be to streamline, adapt, and expand the robot protocols to accommodate healthcare economies, to determine which patients sustain the greatest benefit, and to explore the relationship between impairment reduction and disability level. With these new tools, therapists will measure aspects of outcome objectively and contribute to the emerging scientific basis of neuro-rehabilitation.

  18. Rehabilitation Profiles of Older Adult Stroke Survivors Admitted to Intermediate Care Units: A Multi-Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Inzitari, Marco; Quinn, Terence J.; Montaner, Joan; Gavaldà, Ricard; Duarte, Esther; Coll-Planas, Laura; Cerdà, Mercè; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Closa, Conxita; Gallofré, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke is a major cause of disability in older adults, but the evidence around post-acute treatment is limited and heterogeneous. We aimed to identify profiles of older adult stroke survivors admitted to intermediate care geriatric rehabilitation units. Methods We performed a cohort study, enrolling stroke survivors aged 65 years or older, admitted to 9 intermediate care units in Catalonia-Spain. To identify potential profiles, we included age, caregiver presence, comorbidity, pre-stroke and post-stroke disability, cognitive impairment and stroke severity in a cluster analysis. We also proposed a practical decision tree for patient’s classification in clinical practice. We analyzed differences between profiles in functional improvement (Barthel index), relative functional gain (Montebello index), length of hospital stay (LOS), rehabilitation efficiency (functional improvement by LOS), and new institutionalization using multivariable regression models (for continuous and dichotomous outcomes). Results Among 384 patients (79.1±7.9 years, 50.8% women), we identified 3 complexity profiles: a) Lower Complexity with Caregiver (LCC), b) Moderate Complexity without Caregiver (MCN), and c) Higher Complexity with Caregiver (HCC). The decision tree showed high agreement with cluster analysis (96.6%). Using either linear (continuous outcomes) or logistic regression, both LCC and MCN, compared to HCC, showed statistically significant higher chances of functional improvement (OR = 4.68, 95%CI = 2.54–8.63 and OR = 3.0, 95%CI = 1.52–5.87, respectively, for Barthel index improvement ≥20), relative functional gain (OR = 4.41, 95%CI = 1.81–10.75 and OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 1.31–9.04, respectively, for top Vs lower tertiles), and rehabilitation efficiency (OR = 7.88, 95%CI = 3.65–17.03 and OR = 3.87, 95%CI = 1.69–8.89, respectively, for top Vs lower tertiles). In relation to LOS, MCN cluster had lower chance of shorter LOS than LCC (OR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.23–0

  19. [Clinical effects of intensive physiotherapy in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Maciej; Sidaway, Marta

    2002-01-01

    The present therapies used for post stroke patients are often not effective. Many patients finish the therapy and are not able to function independently. This situation is not in line with the present level of neurobiology: which states that function after focal lesion of C.N.S. can be recovered. Recently many studies have been undertaken which indicate the possibility of cortical plasticity by intensive physiotherapy. The main aims of the study were to review the efficacy and application of Constraint Induced Therapy for post stroke patients in a neurological rehabilitation ward and outpatient clinic. The group was selected from the patients who were admitted into the clinic. The patients signed the agreement that they could walk unaided and their affected arm could use a primitive grip. The patient's unaffected arm was restrained using a sling for 5 hours per day for 15 consecutive days. Also each patient had one hour per day of physiotherapy based on PNF and NDT Bobath concepts. Patients were tested before and after the experiment using functional tests (modified Wolf Test) and testing of motor deficit using Tests for the Quality of Movement Patterns (by Bobath). Seven patients were selected with an average time from stroke of 11 months. The average age was 46 years. All patients completed the study without any adverse affects. All patients increased their functional ability and decreased the motor deficit of the affected arm. The average increase in task function was 27%. The greatest average improvement (40%) was noted in chronic patients who suffered from stroke more than 6 months previous. The experiment was completed without any major reorganisation of the neurological ward and without additional expenditure. The small group of patients that participated in this study indicates that this CI therapy should be utilised for a larger amount of patients with greater neurological deficits.

  20. Stroke in young adults: Incidence rate, risk factors, treatment and prognosis.

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, F J; Pérez-Torre, P; DeFelipe, A; Vera, R; Matute, C; Cruz-Culebras, A; Álvarez-Velasco, R; Masjuan, J

    2016-10-01

    To analyse the incidence, risk factors, aetiology, treatment and clinical evolution of young patients with stroke. Retrospective registry of patients aged 55 years or younger hospitalised in a stroke unit during 2014. We recorded the incidence rate for all strokes and analysed demographic data, risk factors, degree of stress, stroke type and aetiology, reperfusion treatments and clinical evolution. The study included 110 patients, the majority of whom were men (60.9%, 1.6:1 ratio). The incidence rate was 13.3% (110 of 830 strokes). Most of the patients had cardiovascular risk factors. Smoking was the most common risk factor (56.4%), followed by arterial hypertension (50%), dyslipidaemia (42.7%), obesity (33%), diabetes (18.2%) and emboligenic heart disease (12.7%). Some 64.3% of the heart disease cases and 51.1% of the dyslipidaemia cases were discovered during hospitalisation. Some 57.2% of the patients experienced psychosocial stress in the stage prior to the stroke. Some 83.6% of the stroke cases were ischaemic, 12.7% were haemorrhagic and 3.6% were venous sinus thrombosis. Of the ischaemic stroke cases, 30.4% were cryptogenic, 23.9% were lacunar, 16.3% were from uncommon causes, 15.2% were atherothrombotic and 14.1% were cardioembolic. Some 78.6% of the cerebral haemorrhage cases were hypertensive. Some 23.3% of the ischaemic stroke cases underwent reperfusion treatments in the acute phase, achieving levels of functional independence at 3 months of 62.5%. The majority of stroke events in patients 55 years of age or younger appear to be related to a high prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors and possibly to psychosocial stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. Hospitals Vary in Moving Stroke Patients to Comfort or Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_165954.html Hospitals Vary in Moving Stroke Patients to Comfort or Hospice Care Study found ... differ greatly in how often they move new stroke patients from treatment to comfort or hospice care, ...

  2. Fantasies about stem cell therapy in chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Seo; Chung, Dan-Il; Choi, Hojin; Baek, Wonki; Kim, Hyun Young; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Seung Hyun; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been proposed for the treatment of neurological disorders. Although there is insufficient clinical evidence to support its efficacy, unproven SCTs are being performed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the perspectives and expectations of chronic ischemic stroke patients and physicians about SCTs. A total of 250 chronic ischemic stroke patients were interviewed at 4 hospitals. Structured open and closed questions about SCT for chronic stroke were asked by trained interviewers using the conventional in-person method. In addition, 250 stroke-related physicians were randomly interviewed via an e-mail questionnaire. Of the 250 patients (mean 63 years, 70% male), 121 (46%) responded that they wanted to receive SCT in spite of its unknown side effects. Around 60% of the patients anticipated physical, emotional, and psychological improvement after SCT, and 158 (63%) believed that SCT might prevent strokes. However, physicians had much lower expectations about the effectiveness of SCTs, which was not in line with patient expectations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-3.64], longer disease duration (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02), higher modified Rankin Scale score (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.60), and familiarity with stem cells (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.10-3.15) were independently associated with wanting SCT. The major source of information about SCT was television (68%), and the most reliable source was physicians (49%). Patients have unfounded expectations that SCT will improve their functioning. Considering our finding that the major source of information on stem cells is media channels, but not the physician, to decrease patients' inappropriate exposure, doctors should make more effort to educate patients using mass media with accurate information.

  3. Language-specific dysgraphia in Korean stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, HyangHee

    2010-12-01

    We investigated how changes in the writing of 14 Korean stroke patients reflect the unique features of the Korean writing system. The Korean writing system, Han-geul, has both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive characteristics. In the visuospatial construction of a syllable, the component consonant(s) and vowel(s) must be arranged from top-to-bottom and/or left-to-right within the form of a square. This syllabic organization, unique to Korean writing, may distinguish dysgraphia in Korean patients from the disorder in other languages, and reveal the effects of stroke on visuospatial/constructive abilities. We compared 2 groups of patients affected by stroke, 1 group with left hemisphere (LH) lesions and the other with right hemisphere (RH) lesions. We instructed them to write from a dictation of 90 monosyllabic stimuli, each presented with a real word cue. Patients had to repeat a target syllable and a word cue, and then to write the target syllable only. Patients with LH and RH lesions produced qualitatively different error patterns. While the LH lesion group produced primarily linguistic errors, visuospatial/constructive errors predominated in the group with RH lesions. With regard to language-specific features, these Korean patients with RH lesions produced diverse visuospatial/constructive errors not commonly observed in dysgraphia of the English language. Language-specific writing errors by Korean stroke patients reflect the unique characteristics of Korean writing, which include the arrangement of strokes and graphemes within a square syllabic form by dimensional and spatial rules. These findings support the notion that the Korean writing system possesses a language-specific nature with both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive processes. Distinctive patterns of dysgraphia in the Korean language also suggest interactivity between linguistic and visuospatial/constructive levels of processing. This study is noteworthy for its systematic description of

  4. Fantasies About Stem Cell Therapy in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Seo; Chung, Dan-il; Choi, Hojin; Baek, Wonki; Kim, Hyun Young; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been proposed for the treatment of neurological disorders. Although there is insufficient clinical evidence to support its efficacy, unproven SCTs are being performed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the perspectives and expectations of chronic ischemic stroke patients and physicians about SCTs. A total of 250 chronic ischemic stroke patients were interviewed at 4 hospitals. Structured open and closed questions about SCT for chronic stroke were asked by trained interviewers using the conventional in-person method. In addition, 250 stroke-related physicians were randomly interviewed via an e-mail questionnaire. Of the 250 patients (mean 63 years, 70% male), 121 (46%) responded that they wanted to receive SCT in spite of its unknown side effects. Around 60% of the patients anticipated physical, emotional, and psychological improvement after SCT, and 158 (63%) believed that SCT might prevent strokes. However, physicians had much lower expectations about the effectiveness of SCTs, which was not in line with patient expectations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–3.64], longer disease duration (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02), higher modified Rankin Scale score (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06–1.60), and familiarity with stem cells (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.10–3.15) were independently associated with wanting SCT. The major source of information about SCT was television (68%), and the most reliable source was physicians (49%). Patients have unfounded expectations that SCT will improve their functioning. Considering our finding that the major source of information on stem cells is media channels, but not the physician, to decrease patients' inappropriate exposure, doctors should make more effort to educate patients using mass media with accurate information. PMID:22784218

  5. Estimated Impact of Emergency Medical Service Triage of Stroke Patients on Comprehensive Stroke Centers: An Urban Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Brian S; Adeoye, Opeolu; Sucharew, Heidi; Broderick, Joseph P; McMullan, Jason; Khatri, Pooja; Widener, Michael; Alwell, Kathleen S; Moomaw, Charles J; Kissela, Brett M; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Ferioli, Simona; Mackey, Jason; Martini, Sharyl; De Los Rios la Rosa, Felipe; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-08-01

    The American Stroke Association recommends that Emergency Medical Service bypass acute stroke-ready hospital (ASRH)/primary stroke center (PSC) for comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) when transporting appropriate stroke patients, if the additional travel time is ≤15 minutes. However, data on additional transport time and the effect on hospital census remain unknown. Stroke patients ≥20 years old who were transported from home to an ASRH/PSC or CSC via Emergency Medical Service in 2010 were identified in the Greater Cincinnati area population of 1.3 million. Addresses of all patients' residences and hospitals were geocoded, and estimated travel times were calculated. We estimated the mean differences between the travel time for patients taken to an ASRH/PSC and the theoretical time had they been transported directly to the region's CSC. Of 929 patients with geocoded addresses, 806 were transported via Emergency Medical Service directly to an ASRH/PSC. Mean additional travel time of direct transport to the CSC, compared with transport to an ASRH/PSC, was 7.9±6.8 minutes; 85% would have ≤15 minutes added transport time. Triage of all stroke patients to the CSC would have added 727 patients to the CSC's census in 2010. Limiting triage to the CSC to patients with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥10 within 6 hours of onset would have added 116 patients (2.2 per week) to the CSC's annual census. Emergency Medical Service triage to CSCs based on stroke severity and symptom duration may be feasible. The impact on stroke systems of care and patient outcomes remains to be determined and requires prospective evaluation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Walking on uneven terrain in healthy adults and the implications for people after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kelly A; Clark, David J; Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K; Fox, Emily J

    2017-09-16

    One third of individuals after stroke report an inability to walk in the community. Community mobility requires walking adaptability - the ability to adjust one's stepping pattern to meet environmental demands and task goals. Walking on uneven terrain (e.g. grass, gravel) has unique requirements and is a critical component of walking adaptability that has not been investigated in the post-stroke population. To summarize current knowledge of biomechanical and neuromuscular modifications during uneven terrain negotiation in healthy individuals and discuss implications of post-stroke impairments. Review of eleven studies, identified through a search of relevant literature on PubMed and CINAHL. On uneven terrain, healthy adults demonstrate numerous gait modifications including a lowered center of mass, increased muscle co-contraction during stance and exaggerated or increased toe clearance during swing. After stroke, changes in muscle activity and limb coordination will likely result in difficulty or inability performing these modifications that healthy adults use to maintain stability and safety when walking on uneven terrain. Studies of biomechanical and neuromuscular control of walking on uneven terrain are needed to quantify mobility limitations in adults post-stroke. Such investigations will contribute to the understanding of mobility impairments after stroke and the design of critically important intervention strategies.

  7. Anti-Nogo-A Immunotherapy Does Not Alter Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Stroke in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel J.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; O'Brien, Timothy E.; Farrer, Robert G.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of adult disability, including cognitive impairment. Our laboratory has previously shown that treatment with function-blocking antibodies against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A promotes functional recovery after stroke in adult and aged rats, including enhancing spatial memory performance, for which the hippocampus is critically important. Since spatial memory has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether anti-Nogo-A treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke. Adult rats were subject to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion followed 1 week later by 2 weeks of antibody treatment. Cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus was quantified at the end of treatment, and the number of newborn neurons was determined at 8 weeks post-stroke. Treatment with both anti-Nogo-A and control antibodies stimulated the accumulation of new microglia/macrophages in the dentate granule cell layer, but neither treatment increased cellular proliferation or the number of newborn neurons above stroke-only levels. These results suggest that anti-Nogo-A immunotherapy does not increase post-stroke hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27803646

  8. Does botulinum toxin improve the function of the patient with spasticity after stroke?

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eduardo; Pedreira, Glícia; Prazeres, Antônio; Ribeiro, Nildo; Melo, Ailton

    2007-09-01

    Post-stroke spasticity is an important cause of disability in adults, due to muscle hyperactivity, which results in limb stiffness and muscle spasm. The prognosis for these patients depends on several features such as early management and adequate physical therapy to avoid muscle shortening, pain, and their consequences. Although several papers have shown that intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) decreases spasticity in post-stroke patients, few authors have demonstrated functional improvement after this therapy. In order to assess if individualized BT-A injections improves upper limb function in post-stroke spastic patients, we prospectively followed 20 consecutive patients of 18 years of age or more with spastic hemiparesis secondary to stroke. Fulg-Meyer scale modified for upper limbs, measure of functional independence (MFI), Ashworth modified scale, and goniometry were applied in the beginning of the investigation and in the 16th and 32nd weeks. BT-A was applied at baseline and in the 16th week. All subjects were submitted to rehabilitation therapy. All patients showed improvement according to Ashworth modified scale and increase in the range of motion, which were sustained until the 32nd week (p<0.05). The assessment of the first three parameters of the Fulg-Meyer scale and the evaluations of the motor part of the Functional Independence Measure showed statistically improvement until the end of the study. We conclude that proper choice of muscles and individualized doses of BT-A can improve function in selected post-stroke patients.

  9. Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Test response is reliable in adults with and without stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seier, Nicole M.; Todd, Jonathan D.; Price, Brian G.; Kwapiszeski, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine the reliability of the exercise response (predicted peak VO2) using the total body recumbent stepper (TBRS) submaximal exercise test in: 1) healthy adults 20–70 years of age and 2) adults participating in inpatient stroke rehabilitation. We hypothesized that the predicted peak VO2 (Visit 1) would have an excellent relationship (r > 0.80) to predicted peak VO2 (Visit 2). We also wanted to test whether the exercise response at Visit 1 and Visit 2 would be significantly different. Methods Healthy adults were recruited from the Kansas City metro area. Stroke participants were recruited during their inpatient rehabilitation stay. Eligible participants completed 2 TBRS submaximal exercise tests between 24 hours and 5 days at similar times of day. Results A total of 70 participants completed the study. Healthy adults (n = 50) were 36 M, 38.1 ± 10.1 years and stroke participants (n = 20) were 15 M, 62.5 ± 11.8 years of age. The exercise response was reliable for healthy adults (r = 0.980, p<0.01) and stroke participants (r = 0.987, p<0.01) between Visit 1 and Visit 2. Repeated Measures ANOVA showed a significant difference in predicted values between the two visits for healthy adults (47.2 ± 8.4 vs 47.7 ± 8.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; p = 0.04) but not for stroke participants (25.0 ± 9.9 vs 25.3 ± 11.4 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; p = 0.65). Conclusion These results suggest that the exercise response is reliable using the TBRS submaximal exercise test in this cohort of healthy adults and stroke participants. PMID:28207854

  10. Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is a Stroke? A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain ... pressure from the leaked blood damages brain cells. High blood pressure and ... A TIA occurs if blood flow to a portion of the brain is blocked ...

  11. Predictors of Functional Outcome Among Stroke Patients in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Abanto, Carlos; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Tirschwell, David L.; Montano, Silvia; Quispe, Yrma; Gonzales, Isidro; Valencia, Ana; Calle, Pilar; Garate, Arturo; Zunt, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aging population in low- and middle-income countries, cerebrovascular disease is expected to remain a leading cause of death. Little has been published about stroke in Peru. Aims We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized stroke patients at a referral center hospital in Lima, Peru to explore factors associated with functional outcome among stroke patients. Methods We identified 579 patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage stroke at the National Institute of Neurologic Sciences in Lima, Peru in 2008 and 2009. A favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin score of ≤2 at discharge. Results The mean age was 63.3 years; 75.6% had ischemic stroke; the average length of stay was 17.3 days. At hospital discharge, 231 (39.9%) had a favorable outcome. The overall mortality rate was 5.2%. In multivariate models, the likelihood of having a favorable outcome decreased linearly with increasing age (p=0.02) and increasing NIHSS (p=0.02). Favorable outcome was also associated with male gender (relative risk [RR]=1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.5) and divorced status (RR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7). Patients on Salud Integral de Salud (public assistance-type insurance, SIS) (RR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,1.0) were also less likely to have a favorable outcome. Conclusions Favorable outcome after stroke was independently associated with younger age, lower NIHSS score, male gender, being divorced, and not being on SIS insurance. These findings suggest further study of worse functional outcomes in patients with SIS insurance and confirm the importance of risk adjustment for age, stroke severity (NIHSS) and other socioeconomic factors in outcomes studies. Future studies should preferentially assess outcome at 30-days and 6-months to provide more reliable comparisons and allow additional study of Peruvian end-of-life decision-making and care. PMID:23352681

  12. Positive impact of stroke unit establishment on patient recovery in Firoozgar hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Taghipour, Salameh; Abdollahi, Sahar; Oliaee, Fatemeh; Goran, Azin; Motamed, Mohamadreza; Ashayeri, Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Firoozgar Comprehensive Stroke Center started up as the first organized care unit in the country in 2014; this study was performed to investigate quality indicators such as reduction in mortality, morbidity and hospital stay. Methods: Two groups of ischemic stroke patients were compared. The first group had been admitted in general neurology ward (non-stroke unit patients) and the second one received specialized stroke care in the stroke unit within a period of two years (stroke unit patients). Non-stroke unit patients were selected from a pool of patients admitted two years before establishment of stroke unit. Variables compared were factors such as modified Rankin Scale (mRS), confinement days in stroke unit or Intensive Care Unit, total days of hospitalization, history of prior stroke, receiving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and the stroke category indicating anterior or posterior circulation infarct. Quantitative testing was conducted using independent t-test as well as "Mann-Whitney U Test"; Chi-squared test was used for qualitative testing. Results: A total number of 129 patients enrolled in the study (66 cases of non-stroke unit patients and 63 cases of stroke unit patients). The average total days of hospitalization were 17.32 (95% CI: 0.15-36.1) in non-stroke unit patients and 21.19 (95% CI: 4.99 - 38.1) in stroke unit patients (p=0.2). Results for stroke unit patients showed a lower mRS score (OR=1.48, p=0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that stroke unit patients tend to have a better outcome and a lower mRS score at discharge. No significant difference in hospitalization period was noted between the two groups. PMID:28210611

  13. Half of the adults who present to hospital with stroke develop at least one contracture within six months: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kwah, Li Khim; Harvey, Lisa A; Diong, Joanna H L; Herbert, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    What is the incidence of contractures six months after stroke? Can factors measured within four weeks of stroke predict the development of elbow, wrist, and ankle contractures six months later? Prospective cohort study. Consecutive sample of 200 adults with stroke admitted to a Sydney hospital. Loss of range of motion in major joints of the body was measured using a 4-point ordinal contracture scale. In addition, elbow extension, wrist extension, and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion were measured using torque-controlled procedures. Potential predictors of contracture were age, pre-morbid function, severity of stroke, muscle strength, spasticity, motor function, and pain. Measurements were obtained within four weeks of stroke and at six months after stroke. 52% of participants developed at least one contracture. Incidence of contracture varied across joints from 12% to 28%; shoulders and hips were most commonly affected. Muscle strength was a significant predictor of elbow, wrist, and ankle joint range. Prediction models explained only 6% to 20% of variance in elbow, wrist, and ankle joint range. About half of all patients with stroke develop at least one contracture within six months of stroke. Incidence of contractures across all joints ranged from 12% to 28%. Muscle strength is a significant predictor of elbow, wrist, and ankle contractures but cannot be used to accurately predict contractures in these joints. Copyright © 2012 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  14. Discharge Disposition After Stroke in Patients With Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Neal S; Merkler, Alexander E; Schneider, Yecheskel; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman

    2017-02-01

    Liver disease is associated with both hemorrhagic and thrombotic processes, including an elevated risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to assess the relationship between liver disease and outcomes after stroke, as measured by discharge disposition. Using administrative claims data, we identified a cohort of patients hospitalized with stroke in California, Florida, and New York from 2005 to 2013. The predictor variable was liver disease. All diagnoses were defined using validated diagnosis codes. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the association between liver disease and worsening discharge disposition: home, nursing/rehabilitation facility, or death. Secondarily, multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between liver disease and in-hospital mortality. Models were adjusted for demographics, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities. We identified 121 428 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and 703 918 with ischemic stroke. Liver disease was documented in 13 584 patients (1.7%). Liver disease was associated with worse discharge disposition after both intracerebral hemorrhage (global odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.38) and ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.29). Similarly, liver disease was associated with in-hospital death after both intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.44) and ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.71). Liver disease was associated with worse hospital discharge disposition and in-hospital mortality after stroke, suggesting worse functional outcomes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Utilization of Emergent Neuroimaging for Thrombolysis-Eligible Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Sanossian, Nerses; Fu, Katherine A; Liebeskind, David S; Starkman, Sidney; Hamilton, Scott; Villablanca, J Pablo; Burgos, Adrian M; Conwit, Robin; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Advances in diagnostic imaging of stroke include multimodal techniques such as noninvasive angiography and perfusion imaging. We aimed to characterize trends in neuroimaging utilization among acute stroke patients. Utilization of multimodal imaging for acute stroke in the community has remained largely uncharacterized despite its increased adoption at academic medical centers. We quantified neuroimaging utilization in the emergency department (ED) for 1,700 hyperacute stroke patients presenting <2 hours after symptom onset who participated in the National Institutes of Health Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium (FAST-MAG) study throughout Los Angeles and Orange Counties. FAST-MAG provided no recommendation as to imaging utilization. A total of 1,700 cases were imaged a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 92 (74-120) minutes after last known well time and 28 (19-41) minutes after ED arrival. The initial scanner used in the ED was computed tomography (CT) in a preponderance of cases (N = 1,612, 95%), with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 88 cases (5%). CT angiography (CTA) was obtained in 192 (11%) and perfusion CT (CTP) in 91 (5.4%) cases. MRI imaging was universally obtained using diffusion-weighted images, 60% with MR angiography and 33% included perfusion imaging. Rates of concomitant CTA or CTP use increased in the later years of the study from 4% in 2005-2006, 2% in 2007-2008, 8% in 2009-2010, and 26% in 2011-2012 (P for trend < .001). Among acute stroke patients, noncontrast CT was the most common initial imaging strategy in clinical practice in the 2005-2012 time period, though use of concomitant CTA grew to one-quarter of cases, suggestive of an upward trend. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Trends in admission blood pressure and stroke outcome in patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack in a National Acute Stroke registry.

    PubMed

    Koton, Silvia; Eizenberg, Yoav; Tanne, David; Grossman, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is common during an acute stroke and is associated with unfavorable outcome. Management of hypertension has improved in recent years. We aimed to evaluate trends in admission BP levels in patients admitted with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) over the past decade. Data were based on the National Acute Stroke Israeli Registry. The study population comprised 6177 patients, aged at least 18 years admitted for acute stroke (4382 ischemic stroke and 476 intracerebral hemorrhage) or TIA (1227) and had data on BP levels on admission. We studied temporal trends in admission BP and preadmission antihypertensive therapy from 2004 to 2010. Admission SBP (mean ± SD) in patients with acute stroke decreased from 161 ± 29 mmHg in 2004 to 153 ± 28 mmHg in 2010 (P < 0.001). Similar trends were observed for patients with TIA. The use of three or more antihypertensive agents before stroke onset increased from 16.9% in 2004 to 20.0% in 2010 (P = 0.02). In patients with acute stroke, higher admission SBP was associated with increased stroke severity (P < 0.001). Rate of disability at discharge or in-hospital death decreased from 71.3% in 2004 to 64.8% in 2010 (P < 0.0001). Admission SBP was associated with disability at discharge or in-hospital death with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08) per 10 mmHg change in SBP. Admission SBP in patients with acute stroke and TIA decreased from 2004 to 2010 and may have contributed to the improved outcome in these patients.

  17. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Claude; Deaudelin, Isabelle; Robichaud, Line; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Viscogliosi, Chantal; Talbot, Lise R; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2007-01-01

    Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada): older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities), nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation) and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships). The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better knowledge of partially met or

  18. Awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs in Nigerian adolescents compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Obembe, Adebimpe O; Olaogun, Matthew O; Adebiyi, Ayoade M; Ugalahi, Theresa; Dada, Olumuyiwa; Kanu, Alfred; Adebiyi, Olubunmi C; Akilo, Folarin; Ogunkoya, Bukola; Fawale, Bimbo

    2015-03-01

    Stroke, a significant health problem affecting adults, is increasing among younger age groups, particularly because of changing lifestyles. The aim of the study was to compare the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs among students and teachers in selected secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 703 (589 students and 114 teachers) respondents in selected secondary schools in Osun, Nigeria. Information on the awareness of stroke risk factors and warning signs was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Hypertension (69.4%) was the most commonly identified stroke risk factor, with more teachers (79.8%) identifying correctly than the students (67.4%). Weakness (51.9%) was the most commonly identified warning sign of stroke with more students (53.8%) identifying correctly than the teachers (42.1%). There were significant differences in the awareness of some risk factors (age, obesity, family history, alcohol use, diet, transient ischemic attack, and hyperlipidemia) and warning signs (dizziness, weakness, and vision problems) between students and teachers. Predictors for adequate awareness of risk factors were being a teacher, not being obese and being hypertensive, whereas predictors for adequate awareness of warning signs were stroke in the family and being hypertensive. There was inadequate awareness of risk factors and warning signs among the respondents with students having better awareness of warning signs and teachers having better awareness of risk factors. Stroke campaigns should emphasize stroke risk factors particularly among adolescents and warning signs in adults. The use of media, particularly television, is recommended. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Associated With Ischemic Stroke Survival and Recovery in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Winovich, Divya Thekkethala; Longstreth, William T; Arnold, Alice M; Varadhan, Ravi; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Cushman, Mary; Newman, Anne B; Odden, Michelle C

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about factors that predispose older adults to poor recovery after a stroke. In this study, we sought to evaluate prestroke measures of frailty and related factors as markers of vulnerability to poor outcomes after ischemic stroke. In participants aged 65 to 99 years with incident ischemic strokes from the Cardiovascular Health Study, we evaluated the association of several risk factors (frailty, frailty components, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and cystatin C) assessed before stroke with stroke outcomes of survival, cognitive decline (≥5 points on Modified Mini-Mental State Examination), and activities of daily living decline (increase in limitations). Among 717 participants with incident ischemic stroke with survival data, slow walking speed, low grip strength, and cystatin C were independently associated with shorter survival. Among participants <80 years of age, frailty and interleukin-6 were also associated with shorter survival. Among 509 participants with recovery data, slow walking speed, and low grip strength were associated with both cognitive and activities of daily living decline poststroke. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were associated with poststroke cognitive decline among men only. Frailty status was associated with activities of daily living decline among women only. Markers of physical function-walking speed and grip strength-were consistently associated with survival and recovery after ischemic stroke. Inflammation, kidney function, and frailty also seemed to be determinants of survival and recovery after an ischemic stroke. These markers of vulnerability may identify targets for differing pre and poststroke medical management and rehabilitation among older adults at risk of poor stroke outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Improving Balance in Subacute Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goljar, Nika; Burger, Helena; Rudolf, Marko; Stanonik, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of balance training in a balance trainer, a newly developed mechanical device for training balance, with conventional balance training in subacute stroke patients. This was a randomized controlled study. Fifty participants met the inclusion criteria and 39 finished the study. The participants were…

  1. Cardioembolic Sources in Stroke Patients in South of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porcello Marrone, Luiz Carlos; Farina Brunelli, João Pedro; Lutzky Saute, Ricardo; Henrique Tomasi, Gustavo; Cecchele Madeira, Bianca; Alves Martins, William; Dupont Rohr, Robson; Heck, Ana Paula; Botton, Luiz Ricardo; Martins de Castro, Marilia; Bodanese, Rodrigo; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Huf Marrone, Antônio Carlos; Costa da Costa, Jaderson

    2014-01-01

    Background. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in Brazil and around the world. Cardioembolism is responsible for nearly 30% of the origins of ischemic stroke. Methods. We analyzed data of 256 patients with cardioembolic ischemic stroke (according to TOAST classification) who were admitted into the Hospital São Lucas-PUCRS from October 2011 to January 2014. The cardioembolic subtype was divided into six subgroups: arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, septal abnormalities, and intracardiac injuries. The prevalence of the most important cardiovascular risk factors and medications in use for prevention of systemic embolism by the time of hospital admission was analyzed in each patient. Results. Among 256 patients aged 60.2 +/− 6.9 years, 132 males, arrhythmias were the most common cause of cardioembolism corresponding to 50.7%, followed by valvular heart disease (17.5%) and coronary artery disease (16%). Hypertension (61.7%) and dyslipidemia (43.7%) were the most common risk factors. Less than 50% of patients with arrhythmias were using oral anticoagulants. Conclusions. Identifying the prevalence of cardioembolic stroke sources subgroups has become an increasingly important role since the introduction of new oral anticoagulants. In this study, arrhythmias (especially atrial fibrillation) were the main cause of cardioembolism. PMID:25349734

  2. Cardioembolic sources in stroke patients in South of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Porcello Marrone, Luiz Carlos; Farina Brunelli, João Pedro; Lutzky Saute, Ricardo; Henrique Tomasi, Gustavo; Cecchele Madeira, Bianca; Alves Martins, William; Dupont Rohr, Robson; Heck, Ana Paula; Botton, Luiz Ricardo; Martins de Castro, Marilia; Bodanese, Rodrigo; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Huf Marrone, Antônio Carlos; Costa da Costa, Jaderson

    2014-01-01

    Background. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in Brazil and around the world. Cardioembolism is responsible for nearly 30% of the origins of ischemic stroke. Methods. We analyzed data of 256 patients with cardioembolic ischemic stroke (according to TOAST classification) who were admitted into the Hospital São Lucas-PUCRS from October 2011 to January 2014. The cardioembolic subtype was divided into six subgroups: arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, septal abnormalities, and intracardiac injuries. The prevalence of the most important cardiovascular risk factors and medications in use for prevention of systemic embolism by the time of hospital admission was analyzed in each patient. Results. Among 256 patients aged 60.2 +/- 6.9 years, 132 males, arrhythmias were the most common cause of cardioembolism corresponding to 50.7%, followed by valvular heart disease (17.5%) and coronary artery disease (16%). Hypertension (61.7%) and dyslipidemia (43.7%) were the most common risk factors. Less than 50% of patients with arrhythmias were using oral anticoagulants. Conclusions. Identifying the prevalence of cardioembolic stroke sources subgroups has become an increasingly important role since the introduction of new oral anticoagulants. In this study, arrhythmias (especially atrial fibrillation) were the main cause of cardioembolism.

  3. Somatosensory findings of pusher syndrome in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Kyeong Woo; Lee, Ji Yeong

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the somatosensory findings of pusher syndrome in stroke patients. Twelve pusher patients and twelve non-pusher patients were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were unilateral stroke, sufficient cognitive abilities to understand and follow instructions, and no visual problem. Patients were evaluated for pusher syndrome using a standardized scale for contraversive pushing. Somatosensory finding was assessed by the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index (CSII) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) at 1 and 14 weeks after the stroke onset. Data of SEPs with median and tibial nerve stimulation were classified into the normal, abnormal, and no response group. In the baseline characteristics (sex, lesion character, and side) of both groups, significant differences were not found. The score of CSII decreased in both groups at 14 weeks (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in the CSII scores between the two groups at 1 and 14 weeks. There were no significant differences in SEPs between the two groups at 1 and 14 weeks after the stroke onset. It appears that somatosensory input plays a relatively minor role in pusher syndrome. Further study will be required to reveal the mechanism of pusher syndrome.

  4. Somatosensory Findings of Pusher Syndrome in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Kyeong Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the somatosensory findings of pusher syndrome in stroke patients. Methods Twelve pusher patients and twelve non-pusher patients were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were unilateral stroke, sufficient cognitive abilities to understand and follow instructions, and no visual problem. Patients were evaluated for pusher syndrome using a standardized scale for contraversive pushing. Somatosensory finding was assessed by the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index (CSII) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) at 1 and 14 weeks after the stroke onset. Data of SEPs with median and tibial nerve stimulation were classified into the normal, abnormal, and no response group. Results In the baseline characteristics (sex, lesion character, and side) of both groups, significant differences were not found. The score of CSII decreased in both groups at 14 weeks (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in the CSII scores between the two groups at 1 and 14 weeks. There were no significant differences in SEPs between the two groups at 1 and 14 weeks after the stroke onset. Conclusion It appears that somatosensory input plays a relatively minor role in pusher syndrome. Further study will be required to reveal the mechanism of pusher syndrome. PMID:23525623

  5. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Zlatan; Stojanović, Sanja Vukadinović

    2015-09-01

    Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD) were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024). A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman's r = -0.297; p = 0.001). Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017). Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001). The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  6. [Intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: Experience in 54 patients].

    PubMed

    Guevara O, Carlos; Bulatova, Kateryna; Aravena, Felipe; Caba, Sheila; Monsalve, Juan; Lara, Hugo; Nieto, Elena; Navarrete, Isabel; Morales, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) reduces disability in patients with ischemic stroke. However, its implementation in Chilean public general hospitals has been slow and faces some difficulties. To analyze the results of an intravenous thrombolysis protocol implementation in a public general hospital. During a lapse of 28 months a standardized protocol for intravenous thrombolysis implemented in the emergency room of a public hospital, was prospectively evaluated. Fifty four patients with ischemic stroke were treated and assessed three months later as outpatients. At three months of follow-up, 66.4% of patients subjected to thrombolysis had a favorable evolution, defined as having 0 to 1 points in the modified Rankin scale. Intracerebral hemorrhage rate was 11.1%, including 5.5% of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Four percent of patients had systemic bleeding complications after thrombolysis. The mortality rate was 14.8%. The success rates, mortality, and complications rate were comparable to the results obtained in international studies, despite of the absence of a stroke unit to manage stroke and its complications.

  7. The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

  8. The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

  9. Improving Balance in Subacute Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goljar, Nika; Burger, Helena; Rudolf, Marko; Stanonik, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of balance training in a balance trainer, a newly developed mechanical device for training balance, with conventional balance training in subacute stroke patients. This was a randomized controlled study. Fifty participants met the inclusion criteria and 39 finished the study. The participants were…

  10. Single-Item and Associative Working Memory in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Hendriks, Marc P. H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined working memory performance of stroke patients. A previous study assessing amnesia patients found deficits on an associative working memory task, although standard neuropsychological working memory tests did not detect any deficits. We now examine whether this may be the case for stoke patients as well. The current task contained three conditions: one spatial condition, one object condition and one binding condition in which both object and location had to be remembered. In addition, subsequent long-term memory was assessed. The results indicate that our sample of stroke patients shows a working memory deficit, but only on the single-feature conditions. The binding condition was more difficult than both single-feature conditions, but patients performed equally well as compared to matched healthy controls. No deficits were found on the subsequent long-term memory task. These results suggest that associative working memory may be mediated by structures of the medial temporal lobe. PMID:22713422

  11. Perfusion computed tomography in patients with stroke thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Hiroyuki; Bivard, Andrew; Lin, Longting; Ma, Henry; Cheng, Xin; Aviv, Richard; O’Brien, Billy; Butcher, Kenneth; Lou, Min; Zhang, Jingfen; Jannes, Jim; Dong, Qiang; Levi, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract See Saver (doi:10.1093/awx020) for a scientific commentary on this article. Stroke shortens an individual’s disability-free life. We aimed to assess the relative prognostic influence of pre- and post-treatment perfusion computed tomography imaging variables (e.g. ischaemic core and penumbral volumes) compared to standard clinical predictors (such as onset-to-treatment time) on long-term stroke disability in patients undergoing thrombolysis. We used data from a prospectively collected international, multicentre, observational registry of acute ischaemic stroke patients who had perfusion computed tomography and computed tomography angiography before treatment with intravenous alteplase. Baseline perfusion computed tomography and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging were analysed to derive the baseline penumbra volume, baseline ischaemic core volume, and penumbra salvaged from infarction. The primary outcome measure was the effect of imaging and clinical variables on Disability-Adjusted Life Year. Clinical variables were age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and onset-to-treatment time. Age, sex, country, and 3-month modified Rankin Scale were extracted from the registry to calculate disability-adjusted life-year due to stroke, such that 1 year of disability-adjusted life-year equates to 1 year of healthy life lost due to stroke. There were 772 patients receiving alteplase therapy. The number of disability-adjusted life-year days lost per 1 ml of baseline ischaemic core volume was 17.5 (95% confidence interval, 13.2–21.9 days, P < 0.001). For every millilitre of penumbra salvaged, 7.2 days of disability-adjusted life-year days were saved (β = −7.2, 95% confidence interval, −10.4 to −4.1 days, P < 0.001). Each minute of earlier onset-to-treatment time resulted in a saving of 4.4 disability-free days after stroke (1.3–7.5 days, P = 0.006). However, after adjustment for imaging variables, onset-to-treatment time was not

  12. Long-term risk of recurrent stroke in young cryptogenic stroke patients with and without patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Arauz, Antonio; Murillo, Luis; Márquez, Juan Manuel; Tamayo, Arturo; Cantú, Carlos; Roldan, Francisco-Javier; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Among patients with a patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic ischemic stroke, the long-term prognosis is unclear. This study aims to estimate the recurrence rate in young cryptogenic stroke patients with and without patent foramen ovale. One hundred eighty-six cryptogenic stroke patients (aged 18-45 years) were prospectively followed for up to five-years. They were divided into two groups according to the echocardiographic presence of patent foramen ovale. All patients received aspirin (100 mg/day) for secondary prevention. Mean age was 32·3 (standard deviation 7·9) years. During the mean follow-up of 66 months five patients with patent foramen ovale had recurrent strokes compared with 11 patients without patent foramen ovale. The average annual rate of recurrent cerebral ischemia was 1·1% and 1·6% for patients with and without patent foramen ovale, respectively. The recurrence rate did not increase with the presence of patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm or other variables. More than 60% of the reported cases achieved a good functional outcome. Young patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke with and without patent foramen ovale have a low recurrence rate in a long-term follow-up and most present a favorable outcome. Patent foramen ovale with or without atrial septal aneurysm did not increase the risk of recurrence. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  13. Impaired glucose regulation predicted 1-year mortality of Chinese patients with ischemic stroke: data from abnormal glucose regulation in patients with acute stroke across China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qian; Liu, Gaifen; Zheng, Huaguang; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-05-01

    It remains uncertain if impaired glucose regulation (IGR) as a predictor for stroke outcomes. This study aimed at observing the effect of IGR on the 1-year outcomes in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. Patients with acute ischemic stroke were recruited consecutively in multihospitals across China. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed to identify IGR. Cox proportion hazard model was performed to investigate the effect of IGR on 1-year mortality or stroke recurrence in patients with ischemic stroke. The study recruited 2639 patients with ischemic stroke. IGR was shown as an independent risk factor for the mortality of patients with ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.088 [1.386-6.884]; P=0.006). However, IGR showed no significant effects on the dependency or stroke recurrence of patients (P=0.540 and 0.618, respectively). IGR was an independent predictor for the mortality of patients with ischemic stroke. IGR should be highlighted and intervened actively in the patients with ischemic stroke.

  14. The rural Prehospital Acute Stroke Triage (PAST) trial protocol: a controlled trial for rapid facilitated transport of rural acute stroke patients to a regional stroke centre.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Ashley R; Marsden, Dianne L; Parsons, Mark W; Quain, Debbie A; Spratt, Neil J; Loudfoot, Allan R; Middleton, Paul M; Levi, Christopher R

    2010-12-01

    Access to intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke is limited worldwide, particularly in regional and rural areas including in Australia. We are testing the effectiveness of a new rural Prehospital Acute Stroke Triage protocol that includes prehospital assessment and rapid transport of patients from a rural catchment to the major stroke centre in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. The local district hospitals within the rural catchment do not have the capability or infrastructure to deliver acute stroke thrombolysis. The trial has relevance to stroke clinicians, health service managers and planners responsible for rural populations. To implement a system of rapid prehospital assessment and facilitated transport that will significantly increase stroke thrombolysis rates to 10% of ischaemic stroke cases in the rural catchment. Validate an eight-point modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for use by paramedics in the prehospital setting to assess patients' potential eligibility for stroke thrombolysis. The joint project between the John Hunter Hospital Acute Stroke Team and the Ambulance Service of NSW will use a prospective cohort with an historical control group. Tools and protocols have been developed and education undertaken for ambulance field and operations centre personnel. These include a cut-down eight-item National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (Hunter NIHSS-8) score to be used in the field by paramedics and a transport decision matrix to expedite transport for a suspected stroke patient (road or road plus air transport). The primary outcome measure will be the rate of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator delivery for those who suffer an ischaemic stroke following protocol implementation, in comparison with historical rates over a corresponding period prior to implementation, for residents within the catchment. Sixty cases are required in the postimplementation time epoch to demonstrate a statistically significant absolute increase

  15. [Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Costa, Alice Gabrielle de Sousa; Morais, Huana Carolina Cândido; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%), elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8%) and instrumental (80.3 %) activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%). Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  16. Hemoglobin Concentration and Risk of Incident Stroke in Community-Living Adults.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Judd, Suzanne E; Warnock, David G; McClellan, William M; Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-08-01

    In previous observational studies, hemoglobin concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, these studies were limited by a relatively low number of stroke events, making it difficult to determine whether the association of hemoglobin and stroke differed by demographic or clinical factors. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots, we examined the association of baseline hemoglobin concentrations with incident stroke in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. A total of 518 participants developed stroke over a mean 7±2 years of follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between hemoglobin and sex (P=0.05) on the risk of incident stroke. In Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, there was no association of baseline hemoglobin concentration with incident stroke in men, whereas in women, the lowest (<12.4 g/dL) and highest (>14.0 g/dL) quartiles of hemoglobin were associated with higher risk of stroke when compared with the second quartile (12.4-13.2 g/dL; quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.31; quartile 2: referent; quartile 3: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.38; quartile 4: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35). Similar results were observed in models stratified by hemoglobin and sex and when hemoglobin was modeled as a continuous variable using restricted quadratic spline regression. Lower and higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of incident stroke in women. No such associations were found in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. CT and clinical correlation of stroke diagnosis, pattern and clinical outcome among stroke patients visting Tikur Anbessa Hospital.

    PubMed

    Asefa, Getachew; Meseret, Sifrash

    2010-04-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality and the most common neurological reason for hospitalizations world wide. Though stroke diagnosis is clinical, it is inaccurate in 10-15% of the cases and hence cross-sectional imaging, like CT and MRI, are necessary for accurate etiological diagnosis and advertent clinical management, and to rule out stroke mimics. To assess the CT and clinical pattern of stroke, their correlation, presentation, outcome, and risk factors of strokes in a teaching hospital setup. Retrospective chart review of clinically and CT diagnosed stroke patients diagnosed between January 2000 and March 2005 in Tikur Anbessa tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Stroke accounted for 5% of all head CT indications done. Out of the eligible study population 55.7% were male with female to male ratio of 1.3:1. The mean age of the patients was 50.6 year (range 13-82). The main clinical presentation was hemi paresis (77.1%) and 20.8% were comatose with mean Glasgow coma scale of 5.7 +/- 2.8, stroke mortality was 21% and 31% had persistent neurological deficit. Clinical diagnosis was inaccurate in 30% of the patients, with low etiogical agreement between CT and clinical stroke subtypes diagnosis (Kappa = .334, 95CI .194-.474). On CT 54.8% patients had ischemic and 34.6% had hemorrhagic stroke diagnosis. The main risk factors were hypertension (52%) and Diabetes mellitus (26%). The mean duration of illness before CT diagnosis was 22 days (range 1 hr-360 days). Stroke is not uncommon in our setting and associated with significant morbidity and mortality compounded by delayed diagnosis and possibly by less accurate etiological and clinical diagnosis. Therefore introduction and dissemination of CT service in public and private health institution should be encouraged.

  18. Observational practice of incentive spirometry in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lima, Íllia N D F; Fregonezi, Guilherme A F; Florêncio, Rêncio B; Campos, Tânia F; Ferreira, Gardênia H

    Stroke may lead to several health problems, but positive effects can be promoted by learning to perform physical therapy techniques correctly. To compare two different types of observational practice (video instructions and demonstration by a physical therapist) during the use of incentive spirometry (IS). A total of 20 patients with diagnosis of stroke and 20 healthy individuals (56±9.7 years) were allocated into two groups: one with observational practice with video instructions for the use of IS and the other with observational practice with demonstration by a physical therapist. Ten attempts for the correct use of IS were carried out and the number of errors and the magnitude of response were evaluated. The statistic used to compare the results was the three-way ANOVA test. The stroke subjects showed less precision when compared to the healthy individuals (mean difference 1.80±0.38) 95%CI [1.02-2.52], p<0.0001. When the type of practice was analyzed, the stroke subjects showed more errors with the video instructions (mean difference 1.5±0.5, 95%CI [0.43-2.56] (p=0.08)) and therapist demonstration (mean difference 2.40±0.52, 95%CI [1.29-3.50] (p=0.00)) when compared to the healthy individuals. The stroke subjects had a worse performance in learning the use of volume-oriented incentive spirometry when compared to healthy individuals; however, there was no difference between the types of observational practice, suggesting that both may be used to encourage the use of learning IS in patients with stroke. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462

  20. Treating the acute stroke patient as an emergency: current practices and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Davis, S; Lees, K; Donnan, G

    2006-01-01

    Summary Developments in acute stroke therapy have followed advances in the understanding of the evolving pathophysiology in both ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). In ischaemic stroke, rapid reperfusion of the ischaemic penumbra with thrombolysis within 3 h of symptom onset is of proven benefit, but few patients currently receive therapy, mainly due to the short-time window and lack of stroke expertise. In ICH, a recent study indicated that a haemostatic agent can limit ongoing bleeding and improve outcomes when administered within 4 h of stroke onset. These advances in acute stroke therapy underlie the concept that ‘time is brain’ and that urgent intervention can limit cerebral damage. Neuroprotective therapy could offer the prospect of a greater proportion of stroke patients receiving treatment, potentially before imaging and even in the ambulance setting. Virtually all stroke patients would benefit from receiving multidisciplinary care in acute stroke units. PMID:16620351

  1. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Depressive signs and cognitive performance in patients with a right hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Rosa de; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Calvette, Luara de Freitas; Gindri, Gigiane; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of suggestive signs of depression (SSD) in right-hemisphere brain-damaged (RHD) patients following a stroke on their cognitive performance measured by a brief neuropsychological assessment battery. Forty-two adults with RHD after a single episode of stroke and 84 matched controls participated in this study. They were assessed by means of the Geriatric Depression Scale and by Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery NEUPSILIN. Almost half of the patients showed SSD. The RHD group with SSD (RHD+) showed poorer performance in at least one task among all evaluated cognitive domains (concentrated attention, visual perception, working memory, episodic verbal memory and semantic memory, auditory and written language, constructional praxia and verbal fluency). The association of depression and RHD seems to enhance the occurrence and the severity of cognitive déficits. A brief neuropsychological assessment can be useful to identify cognitive impairment caused by this neuropsychiatric disorder.

  3. Cardiovascular response during submaximal underwater treadmill exercise in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeehyun; Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Kwon, Yong-Geol

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response during head-out water immersion, underwater treadmill gait, and land treadmill gait in stroke patients. Ten stroke patients were recruited for underwater and land treadmill gait sessions. Each session was 40 minutes long; 5 minutes for standing rest on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, 20 minutes for treadmill walking in water or on land, 5 minutes for standing rest in water or on treadmill, and 5 minutes for standing rest on land. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured during each session. In order to estimate the cardiovascular workload and myocardial oxygen demand, the rate pressure product (RPP) value was calculated by multiplying systolic BP (SBP) by HR. SBP, DBP, mean BP (mBP), and RPP decreased significantly after water immersion, but HR was unchanged. During underwater and land treadmill gait, SBP, mBP, DBP, RPP, and HR increased. However, the mean maximum increases in BP, HR and RPP of underwater treadmill walking were significantly lower than that of land treadmill walking. Stroke patients showed different cardiovascular responses during water immersion and underwater gait as opposed to standing and treadmill-walking on land. Water immersion and aquatic treadmill gait may reduce the workload of the cardiovascular system. This study suggested that underwater treadmill may be a safe and useful option for cardiovascular fitness and early ambulation in stroke rehabilitation.

  4. Methods to improve patient recruitment and retention in stroke trials.

    PubMed

    Berge, Eivind; Stapf, Christian; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Ford, Gary A; Sandercock, Peter; van der Worp, H Bart; Petersson, Jesper; Dippel, Diederik Wj; Krieger, Derk W; Lees, Kennedy R

    2016-08-01

    The success of randomized-controlled stroke trials is dependent on the recruitment and retention of a sufficient number of patients, but fewer than half of all trials meet their target number of patients. We performed a search and review of the literature, and conducted a survey and workshop among 56 European stroke trialists, to identify barriers, suggest methods to improve recruitment and retention, and make a priority list of interventions that merit further evaluation. The survey and workshop identified a number of barriers to patient recruitment and retention, from patients' incapacity to consent, to handicaps that prevent patients from participation in trial-specific follow-up. Methods to improve recruitment and retention may include simple interventions with individual participants, funding of research networks, and reimbursement of new treatments by health services only when delivered within clinical trials. The literature review revealed that few methods have been formally evaluated. The top five priorities for evaluation identified in the workshop were as follows: short and illustrated patient information leaflets, nonwritten consent, reimbursement for new interventions only within a study, and monetary incentives to institutions taking part in research (for recruitment); and involvement of patient groups, remote and central follow-up, use of mobile devices, and reminders to patients about their consent to participate (for retention). Many interventions have been used with the aim of improving recruitment and retention of patients in stroke studies, but only a minority has been evaluated. We have identified methods that could be tested, and propose that such evaluations may be nested within on-going clinical trials. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  5. High rate of magnetic resonance imaging stroke recurrence in cryptogenic transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Bal, Simerpreet; Patel, Shiel K; Almekhlafi, Mohammed; Modi, Jayesh; Demchuk, Andrew M; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2012-12-01

    Cryptogenic stroke is common in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke. It is likely that the imaging recurrence risk is higher than the clinical recurrence rate. We sought to determine the rate of clinical and radiographic stroke recurrence in a population of cryptogenic TIA and minor stroke. Patients with TIA/minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score≤3) were prospectively enrolled and imaged within 24 hours of symptom onset as part of 2 cohorts. Patients were assessed at 3 months to document any clinical recurrence and underwent repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at either 30 or 90 days. Stroke mechanism was categorized as cryptogenic after standard etiologic work-up was completed and was negative. Follow-up MRI was assessed for any new lesions in comparison with baseline imaging. Three hundred thirty-three of 693 (48%) patients had cryptogenic stroke. Of these cryptogenic patients, 207 (62%) had follow-up imaging. At 30-day MRI follow-up, 6.6% (5/76) had new lesions (3 in a remote arterial territory). At 90-day MRI follow-up, 14.5% (19/131) had new lesions (9 in a remote arterial territory). Clinical recurrent stroke was seen in 1.2% (4/333) of patients within 90 days. Cryptogenic etiology is common in a TIA/minor stroke population. This population shows a high rate of silent radiographic recurrence, suggesting active disease. Use of MRI as a surrogate marker of disease activity is 1 potential way of assessing efficacy of new treatments in this population with reduced sample size.

  6. Relationship between tongue pressure and dysphagia in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Konaka, Kuni; Kondo, Jugo; Hirota, Nobuko; Tamine, Kenichi; Hori, Kazuhiro; Ono, Takahiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Sakoda, Saburo; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Although poststroke dysphagia is an important issue for determining prognosis, the pathophysiology of oral-phase dysphagia has yet to be clarified due to a lack of adequate devices and protocols. The present study investigated the relationships between swallowing pressure production by the tongue and dysphagia in stroke patients using a newly developed method of tongue pressure measurement with a sensor sheet system. Subjects were 64 stroke patients, including 30 patients with dysphagia. A T-shaped sensor sheet with 5 measuring points was attached to the hard palate to record tongue pressure while swallowing 5 ml of water. The average maximal magnitude and incidence of abnormalities such as asynchronous and/or polyphasic patterns in tongue pressure waves in 5 locations were compared between patients with and without dysphagia. The average maximal tongue pressure was significantly smaller in patients with dysphagia than in those without dysphagia. Asynchronous and polyphasic patterns showed a sensitivity of 63 and 87%, and a specificity of 91 and 71%, respectively, for identifying patients with dysphagia. Tongue pressure production during swallowing appears closely related to poststroke dysphagia. Tongue pressure measurement appears useful for evaluating the pathophysiology of oral-phase dysphagia in stroke patients. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yetisgin, Alparslan

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the clinical characteristics affecting motor recovery and ambulation in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Demographic and clinical characteristics of 53 stroke patients (31 M, 22 F), such as age, gender, etiology, hemiplegic side, Brunnstrom stage, functional ambulation scale scores, history of rehabilitation, and presence of shoulder pain and complex regional pain syndrome were evaluated. [Results] The etiology was ischemic in 79.2% of patients and hemorrhagic in 20.8%. Brunnstrom hand and upper extremity values in females were lower than in males. Complex regional pain syndrome was observed at a level of 18.9% in all patients (more common in females). Brunnstrom hand stage was lower in complex regional pain syndrome patients than in those without the syndrome. Shoulder pain was present in 44.4% of patients. Brunnstrom lower extremity values and functional ambulation scale scores were higher in rehabilitated than in non-rehabilitated cases. [Conclusion] Brunnstrom stages of hand and upper extremity were lower and complex regional pain syndrome was more common in female stroke patients. Shoulder pain and lower Brunnstrom hand stages were related to the presence of complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:28265142

  8. Aortic atheromas in acute ischemic stroke patients in northern Israel.

    PubMed

    Telman, Gregory; Kouperberg, Efim; Sprecher, Elliot; Agmon, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    There are currently no data on ethnic differences in aortic atherosclerosis in Arab and Jewish patients from northern Israel with acute ischemic stroke. Data on demographic and risk factors alongside transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) data and treatment details for 509 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in the study. The patients with aortic atheromas were older and had significantly more frequent vascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking), as well as vascular disease (ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and carotid plaques). They were also treated with statins more often than those without aortic atheroma. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, smoking, ethnicity, and the presence of carotid plaques were independent predictors for aortic atheromas. Aortic plaques were found more frequently in Jewish patients than Arab patients (160 (41.9%) vs. 35 (27.3%); p= 0.003). This finding did not change after adjustment for age, sex, all vascular risk factors, and type of antithrombotic treatment. We did not find any difference between Arab and Jewish patients in the distribution of plaques by location or complexity before and after adjustment for age, sex, all vascular risk factors, or type of antithrombotic or lipid-lowering treatment. Our findings emphasize the influence of ethnicity on the prevalence of aortic atheromas in acute ischemic stroke patients in northern Israel. The search for genetic, cultural, socioeconomic, and other factors explaining these ethnic differences should be the topic of future studies.

  9. Rehabilitation of the older stroke patient: functional outcome and comparison with younger patients.

    PubMed

    Ergeletzis, Dimitrios; Kevorkian, C George; Rintala, Diana

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the inpatient rehabilitation progress and functional outcome of stroke patients aged 80 yr and over and make comparisons with a younger (<80 yr) stroke population receiving similar comprehensive rehabilitation therapies. A case series of 223 stroke patients consecutively admitted to the inpatient rehabilitation unit of a tertiary acute general hospital. A total of 44 patients with a first-time stroke were at least 80 yr old and over and 179 initial stroke patients were <80 yr old. The main outcome measures included admission and discharge scores of the FIM trade mark instrument, FIM gain and efficiency, and discharge disposition. The majority (72.7%) of the older stroke group (mean age, 84 yr; standard deviation, 3.7 yr; range, 80-94 yr) was able to return home, although to a lesser extent than the younger segment (90.5%). No continuous or categorical variable studied was related to discharge disposition in the older stroke patients. Admission FIM total was the most significant predictor of discharge FIM total and discharge FIM motor. The older group did have a lower FIM efficiency and made smaller FIM total and motor gains. In comparison with the younger stroke patients, the older stroke group was statistically more likely to be women (P < 0.001), unmarried (P < 0.001), living alone prestroke (P < 0.05), and unemployed ( P< 0.001). Most older stroke patients can successfully complete a rehabilitation program and return to the community. Demographic, functional, and outcome differences were found when comparing this population with younger counterparts.

  10. Hypothermia bed system for stroke patients. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, S; Suzuki, E; Suzuki, A; Yasui, N

    1999-06-01

    A new hypothermia bed system was used to induce mild hypothermia (33-35 degrees C) in six patients with stroke due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, or embolic internal carotid artery occlusion. The system bed contained all necessary equipment including a respirator, a cooling unit, physiological monitors, and a storage battery. Surface cooling of the patients was performed using water-circulating blankets, and core temperature was maintained based on bladder temperature and a feedback computer program. During hypothermic therapy, patient transfer and radiological examination including computed tomography and positron emission tomography could be easily and safely performed. Differences between the measured bladder temperature and the target temperature were approximately +/- 0.1 degree C. The proposed hypothermia system bed may be useful for serial radiological examination of patients with stroke.

  11. Stroke warning campaigns: delivering better patient outcomes? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Lisa; Doyle, Frank; Rohde, Daniela; Williams, David; Hickey, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient delay in presenting to hospital with stroke symptoms remains one of the major barriers to thrombolysis treatment, leading to its suboptimal use internationally. Educational interventions such as mass media campaigns and community initiatives aim to reduce patient delays by promoting the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but no consistent evidence exists to show that such interventions result in appropriate behavioral responses to stroke symptoms. Methods A systematic literature search and narrative synthesis were conducted to examine whether public educational interventions were successful in the reduction of patient delay to hospital presentation with stroke symptoms. Three databases, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, were searched to identify quantitative studies with measurable behavioral end points, including time to hospital presentation, thrombolysis rates, ambulance use, and emergency department (ED) presentations with stroke. Results Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria: one randomized controlled trial, two time series analyses, three controlled before and after studies, five uncontrolled before and after studies, two retrospective observational studies, and two prospective observational studies. Studies were heterogeneous in quality; thus, meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirteen studies examined prehospital delay, with ten studies reporting a significant reduction in delay times, with a varied magnitude of effect. Eight studies examined thrombolysis rates, with only three studies reporting a statistically significant increase in thrombolysis administration. Five studies examined ambulance usage, and four reported a statistically significant increase in ambulance transports following the intervention. Three studies examining ED presentations reported significantly increased ED presentations following intervention. Public educational interventions varied widely on type, duration, and content, with description of intervention development

  12. BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult stroke.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Claes; Bygdell, Maria; Sondén, Arvid; Jern, Christina; Rosengren, Annika; Kindblom, Jenny M

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the contribution of prepubertal childhood body mass index (BMI) and BMI change through puberty and adolescence, 2 distinct developmental BMI parameters, for risk of adult stroke in men. In this population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, men born in 1945-1961 with information on both childhood BMI at age 8 and BMI change through puberty and adolescence (BMI at age 20-BMI at age 8) were followed until December 2013 (n = 37,669). Information on stroke events was retrieved from high-quality national registers (918 first stroke events, 672 ischemic stroke events [IS], 207 intracerebral hemorrhage events [ICH]). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.21 per SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28), but not childhood BMI, was independently associated with risk of adult stroke. Subanalyses revealed that BMI increase through puberty and adolescence was associated with both IS (HR per SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and ICH (HR per SD increase 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.46). High BMI increase during puberty was strongly associated with increased risk of adult hypertension (odds ratio per SD increase 1.35; 95% CI 1.32-1.39). BMI increase through puberty and adolescence is associated with risk of adult IS and ICH in men. We propose that greater BMI increases during puberty contribute to increased risk of adult stroke at least partly via increased blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Information provision for stroke patients and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Forster, Anne; Brown, Lesley; Smith, Jane; House, Allan; Knapp, Peter; Wright, John J; Young, John

    2012-11-14

    Research shows that stroke patients and their families are dissatisfied with the information provided and have a poor understanding of stroke and associated issues. To assess the effectiveness of information provision strategies in improving the outcome for stroke patients or their identified caregivers, or both. For this update we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (June 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED), and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database (The Cochrane Library June, 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2012), EMBASE (1980 to June 2012), CINAHL (1982 to June 2012) and PsycINFO (1974 to June 2012). We also searched ongoing trials registers, scanned bibliographies of relevant articles and books and contacted researchers. Randomised trials involving patients or carers of patients with a clinical diagnosis of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) where an information intervention was compared with standard care, or where information and another therapy were compared with the other therapy alone. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data. Primary outcomes were knowledge about stroke and stroke services, and impact on mood. We have added four new trials to this update. This review now includes 21 trials involving 2289 patient and 1290 carer participants. Nine trials evaluated a passive and 12 trials an active information intervention. Meta-analyses showed a significant effect in favour of the intervention on patient knowledge (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.46, P < 0.001), carer knowledge (SMD 0.74, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.43, P = 0.03), one aspect of patient satisfaction (odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.23, P = 0.001), and patient depression

  14. Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Review of 97 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan; Buddaraju, Kiran; Majeed, Anas; Sharma, Suryanarayana; Javali, Mahendra; Acharya, Purushottam; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) has now become a standard treatment in eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who present within 4.5 h of symptom onset. Objective: To determine the usefulness of IVT and the subset of patients who will benefit from IVT in AIS within 4.5 h. Materials and Methods: Patients with AIS within 4.5 h of symptom onset who underwent IVT were studied prospectively. The study period was from October 2011 to October 2015. Results: A total of 97 patients were thrombolysed intravenously. The mean onset to needle time in all patients was 177.2 ± 62 min (range: 60–360). At 3 months follow-up, favorable outcome was seen in 65 patients (67.1%) and poor outcome including death in the remaining 32 patients (32.9%). Factors predicting favorable outcome was age <65 years (P = 0.02), the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) <15 (P < 0.001), small vessel occlusion (P = 0.006), cardioembolism (P = 0.006), and random blood sugar (RBS) <250 mg/dl (P < 0.001). Factors predicting poor outcome was diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01), dyslipidemia (P = 0.01), NIHSS at admission >15 (P = 0.03), RBS >250 mg/dl (P = 0.01), Dense cerebral artery sign, age, glucose level on admission, onset-to-treatment time, NIHSS on admission score >5 (P = 0.03), and occlusion of large artery (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Milder baseline stroke severity, blood glucose <250 mg/dL, younger patients (<65 years), cardioembolic stroke, and small vessel occlusion benefit from recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:28149079

  15. Arm path fragmentation and spatiotemporal features of hand reaching in healthy subjects and stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Dario G; Levin, Mindy F; McIntyre, Joseph; Weiss, Patrice L; Berman, Sigal

    2010-01-01

    Arm motion in healthy humans is characterized by smooth and relatively short paths. The current study focused on 3D reaching in stroke patients. Sixteen right-hemiparetic stroke patients and 8 healthy adults performed 42 reaching movements towards 3 visual targets located at an extended arm distance. Performance was assessed in terms of spatial and temporal features of the movement; i.e., hand path, arm posture and smoothness. Differences between groups and within subjects were hypothesized for spatial and temporal aspects of reaching under the assumption that both are independent. As expected, upper limb motion of patients was characterized by longer and jerkier hand paths and slower speeds. Assessment of the number of sub-movements within each movement did not clearly discriminate between groups. Principal component analyses revealed specific clusters of either spatial or temporal measures, which accounted for a large proportion of the variance in patients but not in healthy controls. These findings support the notion of a separation between spatial and temporal features of movement. Stroke patients may fail to integrate the two aspects when executing reaching movements towards visual targets.

  16. The reasons why stroke patients expend so much energy to walk slowly.

    PubMed

    Stoquart, G; Detrembleur, C; Lejeune, T M

    2012-07-01

    The energy consumed per covered distance (C) is increased in hemiparetic stroke adults during walking. To ascertain if increased C in stroke patients is a result of increased mechanical work, of decreased efficiency of work production by muscles or of slow walking speed. C and mechanical work were computed in 20 patients walking on a force measuring treadmill at speeds ranging from 1 km h(-1) to their own maximum speed (WS(MAX)). Works done by healthy and pathological limbs were computed separately. For hemiparetic patients, C was around 1.7 times greater than normal. When these patients had a slower WS(MAX), they had greater C and mechanical work (r=-0.44 and -0.57, respectively). The increased C was related to the external work performed to lift the center of body mass when the healthy limb was supporting the body weight (r=0.77). The increase of C in stroke patients is more pronounced when WS(MAX) is slow. Moreover, this increase is related to increased mechanical work done by muscles and is not related to slow walking speed or decreased efficiency. As in healthy subjects, C and external work presented optimum speeds, indicating a preserved pendular mechanism of walking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of IQoro® training on impaired postural control and oropharyngeal motor function in patients with dysphagia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion All patients with dysphagia after stroke have impaired postural control. IQoro® screen (IQS) training gives a significant and lasting improvement of postural control running parallel with significant improvement of oropharyngeal motor dysfunction (OPMD). Objectives The present investigation aimed at studying the frequency of impaired postural control in patients with stroke-related dysphagia and if IQS training has any effect on impaired postural control in parallel with effect on OPMD. Method A prospective clinical study was carried out with 26 adult patients with stroke-related dysphagia. The training effect was compared between patients consecutively investigated at two different time periods, the first period with 15 patients included in the study more than half a year after stroke, the second period with 11 patients included within 1 month after stroke. Postural control tests and different oropharyngeal motor tests were performed before and after 3 months of oropharyngeal sensorimotor training with an IQS, and at a late follow-up (median 59 weeks after end of training). Result All patients had impaired postural control at baseline. Significant improvement in postural control and OPMD was observed after the completion of IQS training in both intervention groups. The improvements were still present at the late follow-up.

  18. Variations in kinematics during clinical gait analysis in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, Céline; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1-3, 4-6 and 7-9). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i) spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii) gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a "cautious gait" but no fatigue was observed.

  19. GERSTMANN’S SYNDROME IN ACUTE STROKE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Zukic, Sanela; Mrkonjic, Zamir; Sinanovic, Osman; Vidovic, Mirjana; Kojic, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gerstmann in 1924. observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe. Since than, Gerstmann`s syndrome (GS) was enigma for neuropsychologists. The aim of this study was to analyze frequency and clinical features of GS among acute stroke patients. Patients and methods: We prospectively analyzed 194 acute stroke patients (average age 65±11.06 years, male 113 (58.2%), female 81 (41.8%) hospitalized at department of Neurology, University Clinical Center tuzla, during the six mounths in 2010. For clinical assessment of agraphia, alexia and acalculia we used Minessota test for differential diagnosis of aphasia’s. Results: Among these acute stroke patients, 59 (30.40%) had alexia, agraphia and acalculia or different combinations of these disorders. two patients (3.4%) had agraphia and acalculia associated with other part of tetrad of GS: fi nger agnosia and left-right disorientation. they both where men, right handed, and cranial computed tomography scan showed ischemic lesion in the left parietal and left temporoparietal lobe. Conclusion: Gerstmann`s syndrome is rare clinical entity, and has the high value in localization and the lesion is mainly localized to angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. PMID:23378691

  20. Clinical evidence that very small embryonic-like stem cells are mobilized into peripheral blood in patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Edyta; Kucia, Magda; Koziarska, Dorota; Halasa, Maciej; Safranow, Krzysztof; Masiuk, Marek; Karbicka, Anna; Nowik, Marta; Nowacki, Przemyslaw; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Machalinski, Boguslaw

    2009-04-01

    In a murine model of stroke, we identified a population of very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells (SCs) in adult murine bone marrow that could be mobilized into peripheral blood (PB). This raised the question of whether a similar population of cells is mobilized in human stroke patients. We evaluated a number of cells that corresponded to VSEL SCs in the PB of 44 stroke patients and 22 age-matched controls. After each patient's stroke, PB samples were harvested during the first 24 hours, on day +3, and on day +7 and then compared with normal controls. The circulating human cells with the phenotype of VSEL SCs were evaluated in PB by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and direct immunofluorescence staining. In parallel, we also measured the serum concentration of stromal derived factor-1 by ELISA. In stroke patients, we found an increase in the number of circulating cells expressing SC-associated antigens, such as CD133, CD34, and CXCR4. More important, we found an increase in the number of circulating primitive cells expressing the VSEL phenotype (CXCR4(+)lin(-)CD45(-) small cells), mRNA for Octamer-4 and Nanog, and Octamer-4 protein. All changes were accompanied by an increased serum concentration of stromal derived factor-1. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between stroke extensiveness, stromal derived factor-1 concentration in serum, and the number of CXCR4(+) VSEL SCs circulating in the PB. We conclude that stroke triggers the mobilization of CXCR4(+) VSEL SCs that have potential prognostic value in stroke patients. However, the potential role of these mobilized cells in brain regeneration requires further study.

  1. Relationship between Postural Sway and Dynamic Balance in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kihun; Lee, Kyoungsuk; Lee, Byungjoon; Lee, Hwangjae; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between postural sway and dynamic balance in post stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-one stroke patients (20 men and 11 women; age 64.25 years; stroke duration 12.70 months; MMSE-K score 26.35) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. A Good Balance system was used for measurement of the postural sway velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral) and velocity moment of subjects under the eyes open and eyes closed conditions in a standing posture. The postural sway of subjects was measured under two surface conditions (stable and unstable surfaces). [Results] On the unstable surface (foam), no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance except for the berg balance scale (BBS) score and anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes open condition, anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes closed condition, and postural sway velocity moment. In addition, in the stable condition, no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that a decrease in postural sway does not necessarily reflect improvement of dynamic balance ability. We believe that this finding may be useful in balance rehabilitation for prevention of falls after a stroke.

  2. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, T

    2016-04-01

    Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the aggregate weighted track and trigger system early warning score (EWS) can be used as a simple observational tool to identify patients at risk and predict mortality in a population of patients with acute stroke. Patients admitted with acute stroke at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjaellands Hospital, Denmark, from May to September 2012 were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study (n = 274). Vital signs were measured immediately after admission and consistently during the hospitalization period. Based on the vital signs, a single composite EWS was calculated. Death within 30 days was used as outcome. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) and a Kaplan-Meier curve were computed to examine the prognostic validity of EWS. A total of 24 patients (8.8%) died within 30 days. The prognostic performance was high for both the EWS at admission (AUROC 0.856; 95% CI 0.760-0.951; P-value < 0.001) and the maximal EWS measured (AUROC 0.949; 95% CI 0.919-0.980; P-value < 0.001). Mortality rates were lowest for admission EWS 0-1 (2%) and highest for admission EWS ≥ 5 (63%). Early warning score is a simple and valid tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Stroke subtypes and comorbidity among ischemic stroke patients in Brasilia and Cuenca: a Brazilian-Spanish cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; Casanova Lanchipa, Jardiel Omar; Cruz Ramírez, Luis Miguel; Pérez, Noelia Sánchez; Siacara Aguayo, Fátima M; Moreno, Isabel Gómez; Romero, Lourdes Gómez; Coral, Luciene Ferreira; Trizotto, Daniele Stieven; Moreira, Clarissa Menezes

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in life expectancy worldwide, changes in stroke subtypes and burden of stroke population are expected in both developing and developed countries. Prevalence of stroke subtypes and comorbidity in ischemic stroke patients was assessed in Brasilia, Brazil, and Cuenca, Spain. This was an international (Brazilian-Spanish) cross-sectional study. Stroke subtypes were assessed by means of Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Modified Rankin scale was used to measure functional recovery and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) was used to assess comorbidity. A total of 500 patients (mean age 66.2 ± 16.4 years; 48% female; 48.2% Spanish) were included in the study. Spanish patients were significantly older than Brazilian ones (76.4 ± 11.2 versus 56.7 ± 14.6 years; P < .0001). Prevalence of ischemic cardiopathy (20.3% versus 6.2%) and atrial fibrillation (25.7% versus 6.6%) was significantly higher in Spanish stroke patients, whereas they less frequently used tobacco (28.3% versus 52.9%); P less than .0001. Prevalence of stroke subtypes in Spanish and Brazilian stroke patients was: stroke of undetermined etiology (58.1% versus 32.4%), cardioembolism (24.5% versus 11.6%), lacunar infarct (11.6% versus 25.5%), atherothrombotic (3.7% versus 19.7%), and other causes (2.1% versus 10.8%); P less than .0001. The Spanish sample had a significantly higher frequency of comorbidities. The CIRS-G total score and CIRS-G mean number of affected organs significantly increased with age, and correlated with the level of functional dependence as measured by Rankin scale (rS = 0.50; P = .0005). Spanish stroke people had a higher frequency of comorbid conditions, atrial fibrillation, and cardioembolism and these facts were associated with age. Atherothrombotic and lacunar strokes were more common in the younger Brazilian stroke population. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier

  4. Occupational therapy for cognitive impairment in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy; Bennett, Sally; Koh, Chia-Lin; McKenna, Kryss T

    2010-09-08

    Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke and can impact on a person's ability to perform everyday activities. There are a number of different intervention strategies that occupational therapists may use when working with people who have cognitive impairment post-stroke. To determine whether occupational therapy improves functional performance of basic activities of daily living (ADL) and specific cognitive abilities in people who have cognitive impairment following a stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched May 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2009), EMBASE (1980 to April 2009), CINAHL (1982 to April 2009), PsycINFO (1840 to April 2009), PsycBITE, OTseeker and Dissertation Abstracts (the latest three were searched up to April 2009). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we also tracked relevant references through the cited reference search in Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), reviewed the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews, handsearched relevant occupational therapy journals, and contacted key researchers in the area. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that evaluated an intervention focused on providing cognitive retraining to adults with clinically defined stroke and confirmed cognitive impairment. The intervention needed either to be provided by an occupational therapist or given under the supervision of an occupational therapist. Two review authors independently examined the abstracts that might meet the inclusion criteria, assessed the quality and extracted data. We have presented results using mean differences. We included one trial with 33 participants in this review. We found no difference between groups for the two relevant outcomes that were measured: improvement in time judgement skills and improvement in

  5. Reflex-mediated dynamic neuromuscular stabilization in stroke patients: EMG processing and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun S; You, Joshua Sung H

    2017-07-20

    Postural core instability is associated with poor dynamic balance and a high risk of serious falls. Both neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS) core stabilization exercises have been used to improve core stability, but the outcomes of these treatments remain unclear. This study was undertaken to examine the therapeutic effects of NDT and DNS core stabilization exercises on muscular activity, core stability, and core muscle thickness. Ten participants (5 healthy adults; 5 hemiparetic stroke patients) were recruited. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to determine core muscle activity of the transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), external oblique (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure transversus abdominals/internal oblique (TrA/IO) thickness, and a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) was used to measure core stability during the DNS and NDT core exercise conditions. Data are reported as median and range and were compared using nonparametric Mann - Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at p< 0.05. Both healthy and hemiparetic stroke groups showed greater median EMG amplitude in the TrA/IO muscles, core stability, and muscle thickness values during the DNS exercise condition than during the NDT core exercise condition, respectively (p< 0.05). However, the relative changes in the EMG amplitude, core stability, and muscle thickness values were greater during the DNS exercise condition than during the NDT core exercise condition in the hemiparetic stroke patient group (p< 0.05). Our novel results provide the first clinical evidence that DNS is more effective than NDT in both healthy and hemiparetic stroke subjects to provide superior deep core muscle activation, core stabilization, and muscle thickness. Moreover, such advantageous therapeutic benefits of the DNS core stabilization exercise over the NDT exercise were more apparent in the hemiparetis stroke patients than

  6. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-12-01

    Prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to stroke risk have reported inconsistent results. This study assessed the association between intake of total fiber and fiber sources and stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults. The analysis was based on 69,677 participants (aged 45-83 y) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline (1 January 1998). Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of stroke were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate RRs, adjusted for potential confounders. During 10.3 y of follow-up, 3680 incident stroke cases, including 2722 cerebral infarctions, 363 intracerebral hemorrhages, 160 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 435 unspecified strokes, were ascertained. High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber. These findings indicate that intake of dietary fiber, especially fruit and vegetable fibers, is inversely associated with risk of stroke. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Early Care by Cardiologist May Lower Stroke Risk for A-Fib Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... 166876.html Early Care by Cardiologist May Lower Stroke Risk for A-Fib Patients They're likelier ... after diagnosis are less likely to suffer a stroke, a new study finds. Atrial fibrillation, or A- ...

  9. [Sequential enteral nutrition support for patients with severe cerebral stroke].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiefang; He, Xudong; Zhang, Lisan; Hu, Xingyue

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of sequential enteral nutrition support in patients with severe cerebral stroke. Forty-nine patients with severe cerebral stroke met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into sequential enteral nutrition group (Group A, n=24) and conventional enteral nutrition group (Group B, n=25). Patients in Group A received short-peptide-based enteral nutrition support first, then gradually transferred to intact protein enteral nutrition. Meanwhile, patients in Group B constantly received intact protein enteral nutrition support. The nutritional indexes and the rate of complications were compared between two groups. The nutritional indexes were decreased in both groups within 4 weeks after admission, but the decreasing levels of hemoglobin and albumin in Group A were significantly lower than those in Group B (P<0.05), and the incidence of infections and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in Group A was also lower than that in Group B (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in body weight, BMI, triceps skinfold thickness, biceps circumference, arm muscle circumference between two groups (P>0.05). Sequential enteral nutritional support can improve the nutritional status and decrease the incidence of complications in critical patients with cerebral stroke.

  10. Hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma in diabetic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Asplund, K; Eriksson, S; Hägg, E; Lithner, F; Strand, T; Wester, P O

    1982-01-01

    Hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma in diabetes is a life-threatening condition. We describe three patients, aged 59-67 years, who developed hyperosmolar coma during the first ten days after admission for stroke. Common to all three were normal plasma osmolality and slightly elevated plasma creatinine levels on admission, treatment with diuretics, parenteral dextrose administration before and low urinary glucose output during the coma. In the five days preceding the coma, total fluid deficits were 3.8, 6.5 and 9.4 1, respectively. In one patient the rate of glucose delivery had clearly exceeded utilization during adequate insulinization, in another a marked reduction in urinary glucose output preceded extreme hyperglycaemia and coma. Two of the three patients died, both from extensive thrombus formation in cerebral arteries and multiple emboli to the lungs. We conclude that enhanced endogenous glucose production and reduced renal clearance of glucose may contribute to precipitate hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma. A close monitoring of fluid and dextrose administration seems mandatory in diabetic stroke patients, in particular if renal function is impaired or if diuretics are given. Insulin treatment should be considered in all diabetic patients during the first days after a stroke.

  11. End of Life Care for Patients Dying of Stroke: A Comparative Registry Study of Stroke and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Heléne; Milberg, Anna; Hjelm, Katarina; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although stroke is a significant public health challenge and the need for palliative care has been emphasized for these patients, there is limited data on end-of-life care for patients dying from stroke. To study the end-of-life care during the last week of life for patients who had died of stroke in terms of registered symptom, symptom management, and communication, in comparison with patients who had died of cancer. This study is a retrospective, comparative registry study. A retrospective comparative registry study was performed using data from a Swedish national quality register for end-of-life care based on WHO`s definition of Palliative care. Data from 1626 patients who had died of stroke were compared with data from 1626 patients who had died of cancer. Binary logistic analyses were used to calculate odds ratios, with 95% CI. Compared to patients who was dying of cancer, the patients who was dying of stroke had a significantly higher prevalence of having death rattles registered, but a significantly lower prevalence of, nausea, confusion, dyspnea, anxiety, and pain. In addition, the stroke group had significantly lower odds ratios for health care staff not to know whether all these six symptoms were present or not. Patients who was dying of stroke had significantly lower odds ratio of having informative communication from a physician about the transition to end-of-life care and of their family members being offered bereavement follow-up. The results indicate on differences in end-of-life care between patients dying of stroke and those dying from cancer. To improve the end-of-life care in clinical practice and ensure it has consistent quality, irrespective of diagnosis, education and implementation of palliative care principles are necessary.

  12. Predictors of extubation success in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Hanafy, Khalid A; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-09-15

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients often undergo intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV). Prolonged intubation and MV have disadvantages and complications. Conventional extubation criteria based only on respiratory parameters are insufficient to guide extubation practices in stroke patients where capacity for airway protection is a major concern. To identify clinical and neuroanatomical markers of successful extubation in AIS patients requiring MV. Retrospective review of tertiary care hospital patient database from May 2009-November 2012 to identify consecutive patients with AIS intubated during hospitalization. We assessed the effect of age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, level of consciousness, facial weakness, dysarthria, neglect, infarct location, dysphagia, respiratory parameters and history of pneumonia on successful extubation by hospital discharge using multivariate logistic regression analysis. 112 subjects met study criteria and were included in the analysis. Age and NIHSS scores (mean±standard deviation) were 74.5±16.1years and 19±9.8, respectively; 56% were women. In multivariate analysis, NIHSS score≤15 (Odds Ratio 4.6, 95% Confidence Interval 1.9-11.3, p<0.001) and absence of dysarthria prior to intubation (Odds Ratio 3.0, 95% Confidence interval 1.1-8.3, p=0.04) were independently associated with successful extubation. Conventional respiratory parameters had no effect on extubation success in this cohort. Milder stroke and absence of dysarthria prior to intubation were independently associated with extubation success. Our findings could help inform extubation practices in patients with AIS though prospective validation is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration

  14. Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Wei, Na; Yang, Bo; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Liping; Ouyoung, Melody; Villegas, Brenda; Groher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration secondary to

  15. Independent and Joint Effect of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Blood Pressure Control on Incident Stroke in Hypertensive Adults.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Xu, Benjamin; Xu, Richard; Tung, Renee; Frank, Eric; Tromble, Wayne; Fu, Tong; Zhang, Weiyi; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Chunyan; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jianping; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Chen, Yundai; Yang, Tianlun; Sun, Ningling; Li, Xiaoying; Zhao, Lianyou; Hou, Fan Fan; Ge, Junbo; Dong, Qiang; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to influence the effects of antihypertensive drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Data are limited on whether PWV is an independent predictor of stroke above and beyond hypertension control. This longitudinal analysis examined the independent and joint effect of brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) with hypertension control on the risk of first stroke. This report included 3310 hypertensive adults, a subset of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) with baseline measurements for baPWV. During a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 111 participants developed first stroke. The risk of stroke was higher among participants with baPWV in the highest quartile than among those in the lower quartiles (6.3% versus 2.4%; hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.60). Similarly, the participants with inadequate hypertension control had a higher risk of stroke than those with adequate control (5.1% versus 1.8%; hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.61). When baPWV and hypertension control were examined jointly, participants in the highest baPWV quartile and with inadequate hypertension control had the highest risk of stroke compared with their counterparts (7.5% versus 1.3%; hazard ratio, 3.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-6.77). There was a significant and independent effect of high baPWV on stroke as shown among participants with adequate hypertension control (4.2% versus 1.3%; hazard ratio, 2.29, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-4.81). In summary, among hypertensive patients, baPWV and hypertension control were found to independently and jointly affect the risk of first stroke. Participants with high baPWV and inadequate hypertension control had the highest risk of stroke compared with other groups.

  16. Involvement of calpains in adult neurogenesis: implications for stroke

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Vanessa M.; Morte, Maria I.; Carreira, Bruno P.; Azevedo, Maria M.; Takano, Jiro; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Saido, Takaomi C.; Asmussen, Hannelore; Horwitz, Alan R.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2015-01-01

    Calpains are ubiquitous proteases involved in cell proliferation, adhesion and motility. In the brain, calpains have been associated with neuronal damage in both acute and neurodegenerative disorders, but their physiological function in the nervous system remains elusive. During brain ischemia, there is a large increase in the levels of intracellular calcium, leading to the activation of calpains. Inhibition of these proteases has been shown to reduce neuronal death in a variety of stroke models. On the other hand, after stroke, neural stem cells (NSC) increase their proliferation and newly formed neuroblasts migrate towards the site of injury. However, the process of forming new neurons after injury is not efficient and finding ways to improve it may help with recovery after lesion. Understanding the role of calpains in the process of neurogenesis may therefore open a new window for the treatment of stroke. We investigated the involvement of calpains in NSC proliferation and neuroblast migration in two highly neurogenic regions in the mouse brain, the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ). We used mice that lack calpastatin, the endogenous calpain inhibitor, and calpains were also modulated directly, using calpeptin, a pharmacological calpain inhibitor. Calpastatin deletion impaired both NSC proliferation and neuroblast migration. Calpain inhibition increased NSC proliferation, migration speed and migration distance in cells from the SVZ. Overall, our work suggests that calpains are important for neurogenesis and encourages further research on their neurogenic role. Prospective therapies targeting calpain activity may improve the formation of new neurons following stroke, in addition to affording neuroprotection. PMID:25698931

  17. Population-Based Study of Cerebral Microbleeds in Stroke-Free Older Adults Living in Rural Ecuador: The Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in white and Asian populations range from 4% to 15%. However, there is no information from indigenous Latin American people. We aimed to assess prevalence and cerebrovascular correlates of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in rural Ecuador. Of 311 Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years identified during a door-to-door survey, 258 (83%) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one were further excluded for a diagnosis of overt stroke. Using multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, we evaluated whether CMB were independently associated with silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities, and global cortical atrophy. Twenty-six (11%) of 237 participants had CMB, which were single in 54% of cases. CMB were deep in 11 patients, cortical in 9, and located both deep and cortical in 6. In univariate analyses, CMB were associated with age, systolic blood pressure, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities, silent lacunar infarcts, and cortical atrophy. Mean (±SD) values for systolic blood pressure were 155±27 mm Hg in patients who had CMB versus 142±26 mm Hg in those who did not (P=0.017). In the adjusted models, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities (P=0.009), silent lacunar infarcts (P=0.003), and global cortical atrophy (P=0.04) were independently associated with CMB. Prevalence of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in Atahualpa is comparable with those reported from other ethnic groups. There is a strong relationship between CMB and increased age, high systolic blood pressure, silent markers of cerebral small vessel disease, and cortical atrophy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. A comprehensive exercise program for a young adult male with Down syndrome who experienced a stroke.

    PubMed

    Casey, Amanda Faith; Mackay-Lyons, Marilyn; Connolly, Eilish Marie; Jennings, Craig; Rasmussen, Roy

    2014-01-01

    goal attainment. RESULTS suggest that a more intensive physical therapy regimen may be recommendable during out-patient rehabilitation for individuals with DS post-stroke.

  19. Recovery from stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nannetti, Luca; Paci, Matteo; Baccini, Marco; Rinaldi, Lucio A; Taiti, Piero G

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognized as an important risk factor for stroke and might theoretically influence post-stroke level of disability, increasing the extension of the cerebral injured area. However, results of the few researches aimed at studying this influence are contradictory; moreover, the effect of DM on motor recovery has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DM on both functional and motor recovery. A total of 395 acute patients with first stroke were selected in a rehabilitation department and divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence of DM (DM+ and DM-, respectively). Outcome measures were the Barthel Index, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, and the mobility part of the motor assessment chart according to Lindmark and Hamrin. Participants were assessed at admission to department (T1, 13.9+/-7.9 days from stroke onset), at discharge (T2, 40.1+/-13.4), and at follow-up (T3, 84.2+/-14.3). A 2 x 3 analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to verify the effect of group and of phase of assessment on motor and functional measures and their interaction. DM+ and DM- groups included 93 and 302 patients, respectively. Both groups showed a significant and progressive improvement in all outcome measures (P<.001), but no interaction was found between group and phase of assessment, which means that motor and functional recovery was similar in the two groups. Results suggest that diabetes has no influence on motor and functional outcome within the acute and post-acute phase after stroke. Further research should investigate motor recovery in a longer-term period and with larger samples.

  20. Evaluation of sensory processing abilities following stroke using the adolescent/adult sensory profile: implications for individualized intervention.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang Mi; Song, Bo Kyoung

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to understand characteristics of sensory processing in patients who have experienced a stroke using the previously established, self-diagnostic Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). [Subjects and Methods] Data from 180 total Korean patients who had been diagnosed as having experienced a stroke were collected and analyzed between May and August of 2015. [Results] Average scores for each sensory processing domain were as follows: low registration (32.1), sensation seeking (34.3), sensory sensitivity (36.7), and sensation avoiding (34.0). Study participants exhibited similar scores to healthy controls (data obtained from previous studies) with the following frequencies: low registration (65%), sensation seeking (77.2%), sensory sensitivity (65%), and sensation avoiding (62.2%). Significant differences were observed between control data and scores obtained for study participants in all domains except that of sensory sensitivity. [Conclusion] The results of the present study indicate that therapeutic intervention following the experience of a stroke should account for individual differences in sensory processing abilities to provide the environment most conducive to the patient's overall cognitive and physical improvement.

  1. The effect of aphasia upon personality traits, depression and anxiety among stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; El Mistikawi, Taha; Risha, Al Sayed K; Hassan, Huda S

    2015-02-01

    Post-stroke patients with aphasia have higher levels of psychological distress. We aimed to find the relation between post-stroke aphasia and depression, anxiety and personality traits. One month after stroke, 61 consecutive patients with stroke were included in this study. Thirty post-stroke patients with aphasia and 31 patients without aphasia. We used the following scales a clinical-friendly: Aphasic test, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Hamilton anxiety and Beck Depression Inventory. Depression and anxiety were more prominent among patients with aphasia than stroke without aphasia. Psychosis was more prominent among post-stroke patients with aphasia. Our results may not exclusively exclude pre-morbid personality traits. Our study highlights the growing need to develop community rehabilitation services in the developing world, which address both physical and psychological morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nursing care for stroke patients: A survey of current practice in eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2017-08-17

    To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Optimal organisation of interdisciplinary stroke care is expected to ameliorate outcome after stroke. Consequently, universal access to stroke care based on evidence-based guidelines is a priority. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start mobilization after 24 hours when patients are stable and 89% assess patients' ability to swallow. Change of position for immobile patients is followed by 73%, and post-void residual urine volume is measured by 85%. Some aspects needed improvement, for example staff education (70%), education for patients/families/carers (55%), and individual care plans in secondary prevention (62%). The participating European countries comply well with the ESS guidelines, particularly in the acute stroke care, but not all stroke units have reached optimal development in all aspects of stroke care nursing. Our study may provide clinical administrators and nurses in stroke care with information that may contribute to improved compliance with the European Stroke Strategies and evidence-based guidelines. This article is protected by copyright. All

  3. Temporal trends in stroke incidence in South Asian, Chinese and white patients: A population based analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia A; McAlister, Finlay A; Pilote, Louise; Palepu, Anita; Quan, Hude; Hill, Michael D; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about potential ethnic differences in stroke incidence. We compared incidence and time trends of ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage in South Asian, Chinese and white persons in a population-based study. Population based census and administrative data analysis in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, Canada using validated ICD 9/ICD 10 coding for acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (1997-2010). There were 3290 South Asians, 4444 Chinese and 160944 white patients with acute ischemic stroke and 535 South Asian, 1376 Chinese and 21842 white patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. South Asians were younger than whites at onset of stroke (70 vs. 74 years for ischemic and 67 vs. 71 years for hemorrhagic stroke). Age and sex adjusted ischemic stroke incidence in 2010 was 43% lower in Chinese and 63% lower in South Asian than in White patients. Age and sex adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage incidence was 18% higher in Chinese patients, and 66% lower in South Asian relative to white patients. Stroke incidence declined in all ethnic groups (relative reduction 69% in South Asians, 25% in Chinese, and 34% in white patients for ischemic stroke and for intracerebral hemorrhage, 79% for South Asians, 51% for Chinese and 30% in white patients). Although stroke rates declined across all ethnic groups, these rates differed significantly by ethnicity. Further study is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the higher ischemic stroke incidence in white patients and intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese patients.

  4. Aphasia and activities of daily living in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Gialanella, Bernardo; Prometti, Paola; Vanoglio, Fabio; Comini, Laura; Santoro, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationships between aphasia and activities of daily living (ADLs) in stroke patients. This study was aimed firstly to determine which task within the ADLs has poorer functional recovery in stroke patients with aphasia after rehabilitation, second to identify which specific task is related to aphasia. This is a prospective and observational study. Inpatients of our Rehabilitation Unit. The study was carried out in 219 patients with primary diagnosis of stroke with (104) and without aphasia (115). All patients underwent usual rehabilitation. Aachen Aphasia Test and Functional Independence Measure scale were used to assess severity of aphasia and ADLs, respectively. Gain in ADLs was the main outcome measure. At the end of rehabilitation patients with aphasia had lower gain in bathing, dressing upper body, dressing lower body, toileting, stair climbing, and higher gain in social interaction, problem solving, and memory with respect to patients without aphasia. However, when data were adjusted for side of hemiplegia, Fugl-Meyer score and trunk control test, patients with aphasia showed lower gain in dressing upper body (P=0.027), dressing lower body (P=0.009), lower toileting (P=0.027), and higher gain in social interaction (P<0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, aphasia was an important determinant of gain in bathing (β=0.26), dressing upper body (β=0.24), dressing lower body (β=0.22), lower toileting (β=0.22), and social interaction (β=-0.29). The current study points out that, after usual rehabilitation, the patients with aphasia show a poor gain in personal care activities and higher gain in social interaction. Knowledge of these findings: 1) can guide the rehabilitation team in selecting specific and appropriate therapies aimed to give patient with aphasia the highest possible functional independence in ADLs; 2) is useful to family members and social rehabilitation services for domiciliary management of patients

  5. Prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Benjamin S; Kent, David M

    2015-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is common and only rarely related to stroke. The high PFO prevalence in healthy individuals makes for difficult decision making when a PFO is found in the setting of a cryptogenic stroke, because the PFO may be an incidental finding. Recent clinical trials of device-based PFO closure have had negative overall summary results; these trials have been limited by low recurrence rates. The optimal antithrombotic strategy for these patients is also unknown. Recent work has identified a risk score that estimates PFO-attributable fractions based on individual patient characteristics, although whether this score can help direct therapy is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Objective assessment of functional ambulation in adults with hemiplegia using ankle foot orthotics after stroke.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Karen J; Savalia, Krupa K; Lequerica, Anthony H; Elovic, Elie P

    2009-06-01

    To objectively evaluate the effect of ankle foot orthotics (AFOs) on functional ambulation in individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke using quantifiable outcome measures. With-without repeated measures design. Rehabilitation research center. Eighteen adults with stroke-related hemiplegia 6 months using a prescribed AFO. Not applicable. The distance (m) and velocity (m/s) during the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and total time (s) and velocity (m/s) during the 25-ft walk (25ftW). Secondary analysis evaluated the 6MWT and 25ftW grouped by the time component of the Ambulatory Index (AI). Distance walked during the 6MWT was significantly greater with AFO (228.54 +/- 103.93) than without AFO (197.49 +/- 104.13), P = .002. Time to complete the 25ftW was significantly greater without AFO (21.22 +/- 20.57) than with AFO (15.49 +/- 14.65), P = .010. There was a significant difference in average velocity between the 25ftW and 6MWT during the with AFO condition, P = .010. Secondary analysis grouped by the AI time showed that as level of function decreases, brace effect on functional ambulation increases (Group 3: 25ftW with AFO, P = .040). AFO usage in hemiplegic stroke patients improves functional ambulation, particularly in individuals with a slower gait velocity. The 25ftW, with and without AFO, may be useful to the patient and clinician when determining the importance of brace utilization. Speed modulation was improved when the AFO was added to the paretic limb, and AI grouping indicated that the AFO was more beneficial in people with a slower gait velocity (>20 seconds for the 25ftW). A more definitive study is needed to more completely address this issue. As an exploratory study, the feasibility of different walking assessments was determined so that future studies can validate which objective measures can be used and easily implemented in clinical settings.

  7. Awareness of heart attack and stroke symptoms among Hispanic male adults living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Bardales, Ricardo; Bales, Robert; Aguero, Carlos; Brady, Shelly; Tobar, Adriana; McGrath, Cynthia; Zaiser, Julia; Lipsky, Martin S

    2010-10-01

    There is evidence that Hispanic men are a high risk group for treatment delay for both heart attack and stroke. More targeted research is needed to elucidate this specific population's knowledge of warning signs for these acute events. This study sought to describe within-group disparities in Hispanic men's knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze a multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Heart and Stroke module database. The data were cross-sectional and focused on health risk factors and behaviors. The research participants were U.S. male Hispanic adults aged 18-99. The main outcome measure for the study was heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded that Hispanic men aged >or=18 years who earned low scores on the composite heart attack and stroke knowledge questions (range 0-8 points) were more likely to: have less than a high school education, have deferred medical care because of cost, not have an identified health care provider, and be uninsured. There were significant within-group differences. Targeting educational efforts toward older (>or=55 years) Hispanic men with less than high school education, those who do not have an identified health care provider or health insurance, and who defer health care because of cost could be ways to improve the outcome of acute vascular events among the U.S. Hispanic adult male population.

  8. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke 1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. Method: an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). Results: a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). Conclusion: an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. PMID:27878217

  9. Rapid Short MRI Sequence Useful in Eliminating Stroke Mimics Among Acute Stroke Patients Considered for Intravenous Thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Stephanie; Burdine, Joselyn; Verenes, Michael; Webster, James; Faber, Theodore; Graham, Cole Blease; Sen, Souvik

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute stroke teams are challenged by IV-tPA decision making in patients with acute neurological symptoms when the diagnosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the rapid Brain Attack Team (BAT) MRI in selecting patients for IV-tPA administration who present acutely to the emergency room with stroke-like symptoms and an unclear diagnosis. Methods Consecutive patients were identified who presented within 4.5 hours of onset of stroke-like symptoms and considered for treatment with IV-tPA. When the diagnosis was not clear, a 9-minute BAT MRI was obtained. Stroke risk factors and NIH stroke scale obtained on presentation were compared between patients in whom BAT MRI was obtained and those in whom BAT MRI was not obtained. Similarly, comparisons were made between patients in whom BAT MRI detected abnormalities and those in whom BAT MRI did not detect abnormalities. BAT MRIs were analyzed to determine if radiological findings impacted clinical management and discharge diagnosis. Results In a 30-month period, 432 patients presenting with acute stroke-like symptoms were identified. Of these patients, 82 received BAT MRI. Patients receiving BAT MRI were younger, more likely to be smokers, and less likely to be selected for IV-tPA administration compared to those in whom a more definitive diagnosis of stroke precluded a BAT MRI. Of the 82 BAT MRIs, 25 were read as positive for acute ischemia. The patients with acute ischemia on BAT MRI were older, more likely to be males, have a history of hypercholesterolemia and atrial fibrillation, and more likely to be selected for IV-tPA administration compared to those with a negative BAT MRI. Of the 57 BAT MRIs read as negative for acute ischemia or hemorrhage, discharge diagnoses included TIA, MRI negative stroke, conversion/functional disorder, and multiple other illnesses. Conclusion In patients with acute stroke-like symptoms, BAT MRI may be used to confirm acute ischemic stroke, exclude

  10. Safety and efficacy of multipotent adult progenitor cells in acute ischaemic stroke (MASTERS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Hess, David C; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Clark, Wayne M; Savitz, Sean I; Ford, Gary A; Chiu, David; Yavagal, Dileep R; Uchino, Ken; Liebeskind, David S; Auchus, Alexander P; Sen, Souvik; Sila, Cathy A; Vest, Jeffrey D; Mays, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a bone marrow-derived, allogeneic, cell therapy product that modulates the immune system, and represents a promising therapy for acute stroke. We aimed to identify the highest, well-tolerated, and safest single dose of multipotent adult progenitor cells, and if they were efficacious as a treatment for stroke recovery. We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells in 33 centres in the UK and the USA. We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence and interactive voice and web response system to assign patients aged 18-83 years with moderately severe acute ischaemic stroke and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 8-20 to treatment with intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells (400 million or 1200 million cells) or placebo between 24 h and 48 h after symptom onset. Patients were ineligible if there was a change in NIHSS of four or more points during at least a 6 h period between screening and randomisation, had brainstem or lacunar infarct, a substantial comorbid disease, an inability to undergo an MRI scan, or had a history of splenectomy. In group 1, patients were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 400 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through 7 days. In group 2, patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 1200 million cells or placebo and assessed for safety through the first 7 days. In group 3, patients were enrolled, randomly assigned, and stratified by baseline NIHSS score to receive 1200 million cells or placebo in a 1:1 ratio within 24-48 h. Patients, investigators, and clinicians were masked to treatment assignment. The primary safety outcome was dose-limiting toxicity effects. The primary efficacy endpoint was global stroke recovery, which combines dichotomised results from the modified Rankin scale, change in NIHSS score from baseline, and

  11. A model for predicting delay in discharge of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    San Segundo, R M; Aguilar, J J; Santos, F; Usabiaga, T

    2007-01-01

    To study the factors that predict delay in discharge (DD) for stroke victims when they are admitted to hospital and to build a model for predicting DD in our hospital. A retrospective study of 214 stroke victims admitted to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service (PMRS) of a general hospital between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2001. Seventeen clinical and sociodemographic data were studied to determine which factors were predictors of DD: age, sex, type of stroke, side affected, sphincter control, ability to communicate, level of consciousness, deep sensitivity, antecedents of cardiovascular risk, delay before admission to the PMRS, initial functional state and solitude, whether the patient was employed prior to the cerebrovascular accident, and whether the patient's place of residence had any exterior architectural barriers. A total of 26.6% of patients experienced DD. Factors influencing DD were solitude (odds ratio [OR] 6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-16.1), an initial functional independence measure (FIM) below 50 (OR 4.5; 95% CI 2.3-8.9) and age greater than 75 years (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.2-6.1). The best model for predicting DD comprises seven variables: solitude, initial FIM below 50, older than 75 years, left hemiparesis, exterior architectonic barriers at home, cardiovascular antecedents and sex (male). This model has a specificity of 89% and a sensitivity of 40%. Solitude, low initial FIM and age older than 75 years influence DD for patients with stroke admitted to hospital. A model for predicting DD is described.

  12. Embolic strokes of undetermined source: Prevalence and patient features in the ESUS Global Registry.

    PubMed

    Perera, Kanjana S; Vanassche, Thomas; Bosch, Jackie; Giruparajah, Mohana; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Mattina, Katie R; Berkowitz, Scott D; Arauz, Antonio; O'Donnell, Martin J; Ameriso, Sebastian F; Hankey, Graeme J; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Lavallee, Philippa; Cunha, Luis; Shamalov, Nikolay; Brouns, Raf; Gagliardi, Rubens J; Kasner, Scott E; Pieroni, Alessio; Vermehren, Philipp; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Wang, Yongjun; Muir, Keith; Coutinho, Jonathan; Vastagh, Ildiko; Connolly, Stuart J; Hart, Robert G

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence supports that most non-lacunar cryptogenic strokes are embolic. Accordingly, these strokes have been designated as embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS). We undertook an international survey to characterize the frequency and clinical features of ESUS patients across global regions. Consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke were retrospectively surveyed from 19 stroke research centers in 19 different countries to collect patients meeting criteria for ESUS. Of 2144 patients with recent ischemic stroke, 351 (16%, 95% CI 15% to 18%) met ESUS criteria, similar across global regions (range 16% to 21%), and an additional 308 (14%) patients had incomplete evaluation required for ESUS diagnosis. The mean age of ESUS patients (62 years; SD = 15) was significantly lower than the 1793 non-ESUS ischemic stroke patients (68 years, p ≤ 0.001). Excluding patients with atrial fibrillation (n = 590, mean age = 75 years), the mean age of the remaining 1203 non-ESUS ischemic stroke patients was 64 years (p = 0.02 vs. ESUS patients). Among ESUS patients, hypertension, diabetes, and prior stroke were present in 64%, 25%, and 17%, respectively. Median NIHSS score was 4 (interquartile range 2-8). At discharge, 90% of ESUS patients received antiplatelet therapy and 7% received anticoagulation. This cross-sectional global sample of patients with recent ischemic stroke shows that one-sixth met criteria for ESUS, with additional ESUS patients likely among those with incomplete diagnostic investigation. ESUS patients were relatively young with mild strokes. Antiplatelet therapy was the standard antithrombotic therapy for secondary stroke prevention in all global regions. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  13. Caregiving Immediately After Stroke: A Study of Uncertainty in Caregivers of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eeeseung; Riegel, Barbara; Sommers, Marilyn; Tkacs, Nancy; Evans, Lois

    2016-12-01

    Caregivers of stroke survivors experience high rates of mental and physical morbidity. Stroke has sudden onset, and the outcome is not immediately known. Uncertainties surrounding the new caregiving role may not only necessitate major changes in the lives of family caregivers but also contribute to negative health outcomes for the caregiver. The purposes of this study were to describe caregiver uncertainty across the early weeks after a family member's stroke and to explore characteristics of caregivers and stroke survivors associated with that uncertainty. A prospective, longitudinal exploratory observational study was conducted with a convenience sample of 40 caregivers and older adult (≥65 years) stroke survivors recruited from urban acute care settings in the mid-Atlantic region. Caregivers were enrolled by 2 weeks poststroke (T1) and revisited 4 weeks later (T2). Uncertainty was measured usingthe Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale for Family Members. An unadjusted linear mixed model was computed to examine significant associations between each caregiver or stroke survivor characteristic and repeated measures of uncertainty. Uncertainty at T1 (83.73 ± 23.47) was higher than reported in other caregiver populations and remained high 6 weeks poststroke (T2: 85.23 ± 23.94). Each of the following characteristics was independently associated with greater caregiver uncertainty: caregivers' older age (p = .019), being a spouse (p = .01), higher stress (p < .001), more depressive symptoms (p = .001), more comorbidities (p = .035), and poorer coping capacity (p = .002) and stroke survivors' recurrent stroke (p = .034), poorer functional status (p = .009), and insurance type (p = .008). Caregivers experienced persistently high uncertainty during the first 6 weeks poststroke. Better understanding of uncertainty, its associated characteristics, and its outcomes may help clinicians identify caregivers at highest risk who may benefit from targeted interventions.

  14. Drug abuse and stroke.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José M

    2013-02-01

    Cerebrovascular disorders contribute to the morbidity and disability associated with illicit drug use. Drug abusers have an increased risk of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. In geographic areas with a high prevalence of illicit drug use, drug abuse is a frequent cause of stroke in the young adult. The illicit drugs more commonly associated with stroke are psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine. Less commonly implicated are opioids and psychotomimetic drugs, including cannabis. Toxicology screening for illicit drugs should be done in young patients with stroke with no obvious cause, or if suggested by history or examination. Although in some patients the mechanism of stroke is identified using neuroimaging and other modern diagnostic tools, in a sizeable fraction of cases the mechanism of stroke remains unclear. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of hemodynamic and immunologic mechanisms in these cases.

  15. Motor imagery training improves upper extremity performance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: motor imagery (n = 12) or control (n = 12). Over the course of 4 weeks, the motor imagery group participated in 30 minutes of motor imagery training on each of the 18 tasks (9 hours total) related to their daily living activities. After the 4-week intervention period, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes and Wolf Motor Function Test outcomes were compared. [Results] The post-test score of the motor imagery group on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity outcomes was significantly higher than that of the control group. In particular, the shoulder and wrist sub-items demonstrated improvement in the motor imagery group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training has a positive influence on upper extremity performance by improving functional mobility during stroke rehabilitation. These results suggest that motor imagery training is feasible and beneficial for improving upper extremity function in stroke patients. PMID:26311968

  16. Robotic technologies and rehabilitation: new tools for stroke patients' therapy.

    PubMed

    Poli, Patrizia; Morone, Giovanni; Rosati, Giulio; Masiero, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The role of robotics in poststroke patients' rehabilitation has been investigated intensively. This paper presents the state-of-the-art and the possible future role of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation, for both upper and lower limbs. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane, and PeDRO databases using as keywords "robot AND stroke AND rehabilitation." In upper limb robotic rehabilitation, training seems to improve arm function in activities of daily living. In addition, electromechanical gait training after stroke seems to be effective. It is still unclear whether robot-assisted arm training may improve muscle strength, and which electromechanical gait-training device may be the most effective for walking training implementation. In the field of robotic technologies for stroke patients' rehabilitation we identified currently relevant growing points and areas timely for developing research. Among the growing points there is the development of new easily transportable, wearable devices that could improve rehabilitation also after discharge, in an outpatient or home-based setting. For developing research, efforts are being made to establish the ideal type of treatment, the length and amount of training protocol, and the patient's characteristics to be successfully enrolled to this treatment.

  17. Robotic Technologies and Rehabilitation: New Tools for Stroke Patients' Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Patrizia; Morone, Giovanni; Rosati, Giulio; Masiero, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The role of robotics in poststroke patients' rehabilitation has been investigated intensively. This paper presents the state-of-the-art and the possible future role of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation, for both upper and lower limbs. Materials and Methods. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane, and PeDRO databases using as keywords “robot AND stroke AND rehabilitation.” Results and Discussion. In upper limb robotic rehabilitation, training seems to improve arm function in activities of daily living. In addition, electromechanical gait training after stroke seems to be effective. It is still unclear whether robot-assisted arm training may improve muscle strength, and which electromechanical gait-training device may be the most effective for walking training implementation. Conclusions. In the field of robotic technologies for stroke patients' rehabilitation we identified currently relevant growing points and areas timely for developing research. Among the growing points there is the development of new easily transportable, wearable devices that could improve rehabilitation also after discharge, in an outpatient or home-based setting. For developing research, efforts are being made to establish the ideal type of treatment, the length and amount of training protocol, and the patient's characteristics to be successfully enrolled to this treatment. PMID:24350244

  18. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA