The outcomes attained by Australian adults enrolled in competency-based Certificate in Adult Foundation Education (CAFE) courses were examined. Special attention was paid to the outcomes achieved by students in the two lowest of the CAFE program's four levels. The main data sources were as follows: literature review; enrollment data from the…
A project was undertaken by Capilano College, Okanagan University College, and Selkirk College, in British Columbia, to provide descriptive information on adult basic education (ABE) students, their motives for enrolling, and assess the effects of ABE programs on their lives. Four survey instruments were developed: a point of entry survey,…
Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan
Objective: To discover differences between student and nonstudent substance abuse treatment demographics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes. Participants: Conducted February 2014, clients without prior treatment admissions, aged 18-24, not in methadone maintenance therapy, and in nonintensive and ambulatory intensive outpatient treatment…
Braddix, D'Andre Cortez
As adult students constitute nearly half of all undergraduates in the United States, college practitioners need to identify effective disciplinary strategies for this population when violations of institutional rules and regulations occur. The purpose of this quasi-experimental, action research study was to modify the student conduct process for…
Harms, Craig A; Stoskopf, Michael K
We surveyed 27 people who had adopted a total of 43 adult domestic ferrets after their use in a series of veterinary student surgery teaching laboratories to assess the success of those adoptions and to determine the rate of occurrence of common maladies of domestic ferrets after adult gonadectomy as compared with the usual practice of early-age gonadectomy. The adoptions took place 1-7 y prior to the survey. The response rate was 48% of adopters, covering 53% of the ferrets. Overall the success of former breeding and instructional ferrets as pets were rated as 91% good or excellent and 4.5% poor. Behavioral issues (for example, nipping, failure to litter train) were noted as the most common problems (36% of ferrets). Adrenal gland disease, insulinoma, or lymphosarcoma occurred in 23% of all ferrets and accounted for 57% of those ferrets that had died prior to the time of the survey. PMID:17645296
Although the core features of autism do not change qualitatively, a gradual overall symptomatic improvement including an increase in adaptive skills is observed in most cases with age. Follow-up studies show that the diagnostic features, the differential diagnosis, and clinical problems of adult autistics differ substantially from that of autistic children. The differential diagnosis of older autistics include personality disorders, learning disabilities, and mood disorder. Depression, epilepsy, and behavioral problems such as aggression and agitation may be major clinical problems during adolescence. The early indicators of a better outcome include a higher level of IQ and language. Among the neuropsychological variables, measures of flexibility and cognitive shift are important as prognostic factors. Early behavioral and educational intervention may especially increase the adaptive skills of the patients and promote the in-family communication. The outcome studies of autism are particularly helpful in addressing the appropriate and most effective programs of remediation for adult autistics.
Socialization Outcomes of Part Time Graduate Professional Social Work Education: A Comparison of Adult Students in Career Transition to Social Work with Returning Adult Students Who Have Undergraduate Training and Practical Experience in Social Work.
Manzo, David A.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita
This study compared professional socialization outcomes in two groups of adult students in part time Masters of Social Work programs, 44 with an undergraduate degree in social work and at least 1 year of relevant work experience, and 26 with undergraduate degrees and work experience in other fields. Subjects were given three measures of attitudes…
The survivors of the initial years of neonatal intensive care of preterm infants reached adulthood during the last decade. Reports of their adult outcomes examined have included neurodevelopmental, behavioral and health outcomes as well as social functioning and reproduction. Despite statistically significant differences between preterm young adults and controls in most outcomes studied, the majority of preterm survivors do well and live fairly normal lives. The two major predictors of adult outcomes are lower gestational age that reflect perinatal injury and family sociodemographic status which reflects both genetic and environmental effects.
Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan
The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…
Clagett, Craig A.
Prince George's Community College (PGCC) created a Student Outcomes Report in December 1996 that measures course completion, retention, student achievement, program completion, transfer, and certification. Findings indicated that though the course pass rate was 75%, individual course completion ranged from 44% to 100%. Divisional pass rates ranged…
A project invesitgated the current whereabouts of students whose names appeared on adult basic education class registers during October 1986 in Hackney, England. The city was identified by 1981 census data as the most deprived local authority area in England and Wales. Returns were received from 375 students (out of 506 to whom questionnaires were…
Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…
Samuels, Wendy; Beach, Andrea L.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein
The purpose of this study was to explore the social and academic experiences of non-traditional students pursuing a bachelor's degree at a traditionally-oriented residential university and how these experiences promote or impede their persistence to graduation. The study explored components of Donaldson and Graham's Model of College Outcomes for…
Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
Applying a person-centered approach, the primary aim of this study was to examine what profiles of schoolwork engagement and burnout (i.e., exhaustion, cynicism, inadequacy) can be identified in high school (N = 979) and among the same participants in young adulthood (ages ranging from 17 to 25). We also examined gender differences, group differences in academic and socioemotional functioning and long-term educational outcomes, and temporal stability in the group memberships. Latent profile analysis identified 4 groups of students in high school. Both engaged (44%) and engaged-exhausted (28%) students were engaged and doing well in school, although engaged-exhausted students were more stressed and preoccupied with possible failures. Cynical (14%) and burned-out (14%) students were less engaged, valued school less, and had lower academic achievement. Cynical students, however, were less stressed, exhausted, and depressed than burned-out students. Six years later, engaged students were more likely than predicted by chance to attend university. In young adulthood, 4 similar groups were identified. Configural frequency analysis indicated that it was typical for engaged students to stay in the engaged group and for engaged-exhausted students to move into a more disengaged group. The results on broadband stability from adolescence to young adulthood showed that 60% of the youth manifested stable engaged and 7% stable disengaged patterns, whereas 16% displayed emergent engagement and 17% emergent disengagement patterns. Overall, the findings demonstrate that adolescence is not a uniform time for either school engagement and well-being or disengagement and distress. PMID:23895174
Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
Applying a person-centered approach, the primary aim of this study was to examine what profiles of schoolwork engagement and burnout (i.e., exhaustion, cynicism, inadequacy) can be identified in high school (N = 979) and among the same participants in young adulthood (ages ranging from 17 to 25). We also examined gender differences, group differences in academic and socioemotional functioning and long-term educational outcomes, and temporal stability in the group memberships. Latent profile analysis identified 4 groups of students in high school. Both engaged (44%) and engaged-exhausted (28%) students were engaged and doing well in school, although engaged-exhausted students were more stressed and preoccupied with possible failures. Cynical (14%) and burned-out (14%) students were less engaged, valued school less, and had lower academic achievement. Cynical students, however, were less stressed, exhausted, and depressed than burned-out students. Six years later, engaged students were more likely than predicted by chance to attend university. In young adulthood, 4 similar groups were identified. Configural frequency analysis indicated that it was typical for engaged students to stay in the engaged group and for engaged-exhausted students to move into a more disengaged group. The results on broadband stability from adolescence to young adulthood showed that 60% of the youth manifested stable engaged and 7% stable disengaged patterns, whereas 16% displayed emergent engagement and 17% emergent disengagement patterns. Overall, the findings demonstrate that adolescence is not a uniform time for either school engagement and well-being or disengagement and distress.
Learning Resources Network, Manhattan, KS.
This document is the first nationwide compilation of successful recruiting techniques for students in adult basic education, literacy, General Educational Development classes, and adult high school degree programs. Information for the publication was gathered from a literature search and other sources, especially "Reaching the Least Educated," a…
Trefz, F; Maillot, F; Motzfeldt, K; Schwarz, M
The problem to evaluate treatment outcome in adult PKU (phenylketonuric) patients lies in the heterogeneity of the adult PKU population. This heterogeneity is not only based on the different treatment history of every individual patient but also on the different severity of the underlying defect of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Recent, partly double blind studies in adult PKU patients further support recommendation for lifelong treatment. However, it has become evident that dietary treatment is suboptimal and continuation to adulthood often not accepted. Late detected PKU patients (up to 4-6 years of age) benefit from strict dietary treatment and are able to catch up in intellectual performance. Untreated, severely retarded patients with behavioral changes may benefit from introduction of dietary treatment. However, individual decision is necessary and based on the personal situation of the patient. In early and well treated patients a number of studies have demonstrated that cognitive and neurosychologic tests are different from controls. In addition there is evidence that patients with higher blood phenylalanine (phe) levels demonstrate more often psychiatric symptoms like depression and anxiety. Medical problems are more often observed: there are certain risks as impaired growth, decreased bone mineral density and nutrional deficits probably caused by dietary treatment with an artificial protein substitute and/or missing compliance with an unpleasant diet. The long term risk of a strict dietary treatment must be balanced with the risk of higher blood phe (mean blood phenylalanine >600-900 μmol/L) on cognitive and neuropsychological functions and psychiatric symptoms. Further studies should consider the role of blood phe exposure for brain development in childhood and for brain function in all ages. Besides mean blood phe, fluctuation of blood phe over time is important. Fluctuation of blood phe is decreased by sapropterin treatment in responsive
Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.
This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…
Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research.
Each year a study is conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to update student outcomes data using quantifiable measures of student achievement. Data for the 1989 study were obtained from the college's student information system, the University of Maryland (UM) system, and surveys of all 825 fiscal year 1988 graduates and 118 of…
There is considerable debate about the relative importance of family versus school factors in producing academic and nonacademic student outcomes, and whether and how their impacts vary across different student groups. In addition to critically reviewing and synthesizing earlier work, this study extends the literature by (a) using the ECLS-K, a…
Adult students are an important component of the current U.S education landscape. They account for over 40% of the degree-seeking fresh enrollees in the U.S. colleges and according to the U.S. Department of Education, their growth will soon outpace that of traditional students. Adult students have also received considerable attention in higher…
Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2010
Prior Learning Assessment, or PLA, is an important and often overlooked strategy for helping adults progress towards a degree. PLA is the process by which many colleges evaluate for academic credit the college-level knowledge and skills an individual has gained outside of the classroom, including employment, military training/service, travel,…
Prior Learning Assessment, or PLA, is an important and often overlooked strategy for helping adults progress towards a degree. PLA is the process by which many colleges evaluate for academic credit the college-level knowledge and skills an individual has gained outside of the classroom (or from non-college instructional programs), including…
Augustin, James W.
This study sought to determine the interests of adult students at the University of Wisconsin in using various types of career-related information and services, to assess the extent to which adult students use campus resources that provide career-related information and services and find them helpful, and to examine the process of selecting a…
Puma, Michael J.; Karweit, Nancy; Price, Cristofer; Ricciuti, Anne; Thompson, William; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael
This report is one of a series presenting findings from "Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity." This study, conducted in response to the 1988 Hawkins-Stafford Amendments, was a major effort to examine the effects of Chapter 1 on student achievement and other school-related educational outcomes. Data…
Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda
This paper questions current policy discourses that equate student success with hard outcomes like retention, completion and employment. It offers another view, one that uses "soft" outcomes and student engagement literature to widen our understanding of student success. In the paper, we first draw on literature to explore student engagement,…
Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof
Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial.
Gooderham, Paul N.
The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)
Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian
This study investigated whether adult literacy and numeracy courses produced social capital outcomes, which are changes in students' connections with networks of people. Interviews seeking information about participation in adult literacy and numeracy courses were conducted with 57 students and 18 teachers in four courses, one each in the Northern…
Davidson, J. Cody; Holbrook, Wesley T.
In 2011, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported that, in the 24 to 54 age range, the United States ranked thirty-fourth among all for individuals with a postsecondary credential. For the United States to increase in rank, adult students, who are projected to increase by 1.9 million in postsecondary enrollment by…
Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)
Barnhill, Gena P.
This article explores the current research literature on adult outcomes of individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS). Specific areas addressed are the characteristics associated with adulthood AS, including employment issues, comorbid mental and physical health conditions, neurological issues, possible problems with the legal system, mortality…
Long, Mark C.
This paper estimates the effects of various college qualities on several early adult outcomes, using panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study. I compare the results using ordinary least squares with three alternative methods of estimation, including instrumental variables, and the methods used by Dale and Krueger [(2002).…
Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.
To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…
Forman, Daniel E.; Alexander, Karen; Brindis, Ralph G.; Curtis, Anne B.; Maurer, Mathew; Rich, Michael W.; Sperling, Laurence; Wenger, Nanette K.
Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age. Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization) and uncertainty of outcomes. In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed. Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients. PMID:26918183
Hardy, Bradley L
Using data linked across generations in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the relationship between exposure to volatile income during childhood and a set of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The empirical framework is an augmented intergenerational income mobility model that includes controls for income volatility. I measure income volatility at the family level in two ways: (1) instability as measured by squared deviations around a family-specific mean; and (2) instability as percentage changes of 25 % or more. Volatility enters the model both separately and interacted with income level. I find that family income volatility during childhood has a modest negative association with educational attainment. Volatility has a smaller descriptive role in explaining intergenerational outcomes relative to permanent income. Across the income distribution, the negative association between volatility exposure and educational attainment is largest for young adults from moderate-income families.
Chen, Joseph C.
As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Although some symptoms of ADHD may diminish this does not mean that functioning is unimpaired in adults. Follow-up studies of children with ADHD show that it persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. Due to genetic factors high rates of ADHD exist among the parents of children with ADHD. More females are identified and become diagnosed in adulthood. There is a greater persistence of inattentive than of hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Some experts conceptualise ADHD as primarily a deficit of executive functions impairing planification, time perception and emotional regulation. ADHD often presents as a lifelong condition in adults associated with a range of clinical and psychosocial impairments. Young adults with comorbid antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence are at significantly increased risk for criminal behaviors. Some predictors of the outcome have been identified such as childhood symptom profile and severity, comorbidity and childhood family adversities.
Henninger, Natalie A; Taylor, Julie Lounds
In this review, we examine the ways in which researchers have defined successful adult outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) from the first systematic follow-up reports to the present day. The earliest outcome studies used vague and unreliable outcome criteria, and institutionalization was a common marker of poor outcomes. In the past decade, researchers have begun to standardize the measurement of adult outcomes with specific criteria based on friendships, employment, and living arrangements. Although nearly all of these studies have agreed that the majority of adults with ASD have poor outcomes, evolving concepts of what it means to be an adult could have an impact on outcomes measured. For example, some researchers have suggested that taking into account the person-environment fit could reveal a more optimistic picture of outcomes for these adults. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
Wilson, Janie H.; Ryan, Rebecca G.
Rapport between students and teachers leads to numerous positive student outcomes, including attitudes toward the teacher and course, student motivation, and perceived learning. The recent development of a Professor-Student Rapport scale offers assessment of this construct. However, a Cronbach's [alpha] of 0.96 indicated item redundancy, and the…
Angiama, R. O.
Teaching Adult Students Mathematical Investigation is based on the continuing research work carried out for the last ten years of teaching on the Foundation Course in Mathematics at Goldsmiths, University of London. Teaching Mathematical Investigation to adult students is a very challenging and often rewarding experience for adult educators as…
Henninger, Natalie A.; Taylor, Julie Lounds
In this review, we examine the ways in which researchers have defined successful adult outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) from the first systematic follow-up reports to the present day. The earliest outcome studies used vague and unreliable outcome criteria, and institutionalization was a common marker of poor outcomes.…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009
This document was produced as an added resource for the report "Outcomes from the Productivity Places Program, 2009." The study reported the outcomes for students who completed their vocational education and training (VET) under the Productivity Places Program (PPP) during 2008. This document presents an alphabetical arrangement of the data used…
This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…
National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2006
This study circle was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL). The study circle is part of NCSALL's efforts to help connect research and practice in the field of adult basic education and adult literacy. The Adult Student Persistence Study Circle is one of a series of study circles that NCSALL has…
Many adult poor readers do not organize what they read in a way that best facilitates good comprehension. To help students overcome this problem, the Adult Day and Evening School in Oakland, California, organized a reading laboratory for their mostly low-income, educationally disadvantaged students with a diverse range of needs. Instruction in the…
Because of the current emphasis on accountability at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary levels across all content areas, accreditation agencies, administrators, program designers, course developers, faculty, and students have increasingly focused on stating and measuring student learning outcomes and documenting the relationship between…
Tanner, C. Kenneth
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare student achievement with three school design classifications: movement and circulation, day lighting, and views. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 71 schools, measures of these three school designs, taken with a ten-point Likert scale, are compared to students' outcomes defined by six…
This manuscript addresses how post-secondary educators can enhance their teaching effectiveness and student learning outcomes through student assessment. Highlights will include evidence-based practices, teaching style, methodology, and the use of assessment data for university instructors. Primary focus will be data obtained from key stakeholders…
Castrechini, Sebastian; London, Rebecca A.
In a nation where 42 percent of children live in low-income families, too many schools face the challenge of teaching students burdened with unmet needs that pose obstacles to learning. Community schools that align schools and community resources are a promising strategy for improving student outcomes by providing wraparound services that meet the…
There is considerable debate about the relative importance of family versus school factors in producing academic and nonacademic student outcomes, and whether and how their impacts vary across different student groups. In addition to critically reviewing and synthesizing earlier work, this study extends the literature by (a) using the ECLS-K, a…
Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten
Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…
Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor
Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…
Kelly, William E.
This study investigated the structure of adult students' worries. Students (N = 309) enrolled in advanced undergraduate and graduate university courses were administered the Student Worry Scale. A factor analysis revealed three factors of student worries: worries about living conditions, esteem-related worries, and world-related worries. Worries…
Backus, Julie M.
The growing number of adult learners in college classrooms makes an evaluation of instructional strategies important. Teaching strategies and student perceptions towards faculty and the institution are relevant considerations for the educator of adult students. Recommendations for improving university instruction are given. (DF)
Cleary, Michelle Navarre
Based on interviews with students who had recently returned to school, this essay demonstrates the need for, challenges of, and ways to respond to the writing anxiety many adults bring with them back to school. Jessica and Sam were two of twenty-five newly returned adult students whom the author spent over sixty hours interviewing in the fall of…
Biddle, Virginia Sue; Kern, John, III; Brent, David A.; Thurkettle, Mary Ann; Puskar, Kathryn R.; Sekula, L. Kathleen
Pennsylvania's response to adolescent suicide is its Student Assistance Program (SAP). SAP has been funded for 27 years although no statewide outcome studies using case-level data have been conducted. This study used logistic regression to examine drug-/alcohol-related behaviors and suspensions of suicidal students who participated in SAP. Of…
The Student Outcomes Survey is an annual national survey of vocational education and training (VET) students. Since 1995, participants have been asked to rate their satisfaction with different aspects of their training, grouped under three main themes: teaching, assessment, and generic skills and learning experiences. While the composition of the…
Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat
Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…
The present study examined the possible correlation between six life circumstances of international students (N = 124) admitted entry into the United States for the purpose of academic study and their geographic choice of location upon graduation. This paper improves upon the current literature by offering actual migration outcomes (rather than…
Due to increasing demands regarding student learning outcomes and accreditation, a capstone portfolio was added to assess critical thinking and communication skills of geography majors at a large public university in the USA. The portfolio guidelines were designed to be adaptable to a flexible curriculum where about half of the requirements within…
This report includes a Maryland statewide analysis, by competency, of student learning outcomes, assessment activities at community colleges, as well as public four-year colleges and universities. The workgroup decide that these reports would focus on each of the five competencies related to general education and essential skills that are…
The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…
USA Group Noel-Levitz, Iowa City, IA.
This report presents the results of the fourth annual National Adult Student Priorities Study (ASPS) conducted to determine the areas of highest importance to students 25 years and older, the areas of greatest and least satisfaction to these college students, and the greatest performance gaps between levels of importance and levels of…
Currie, Janet; Stabile, Mark; Manivong, Phongsack; Roos, Leslie L.
Research has shown a strong connection between birth weight and future outcomes. We ask how health problems after birth affect outcomes using data from public health insurance records for 50,000 children born between 1979 and 1987 in the Canadian province of Manitoba. We compare children to siblings born an average of three years apart. We find…
Chotai, Silky; Ahn, Sung-Yong; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Heung-Seob; Chung, Yong-Gu; Kwon, Taek-Hyun
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is rare in young adults and little is known about aneurysms in this subgroup. The effect of clinical and prognostic factors on the outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores and the predictors of unfavorable outcomes were analyzed in young adults with aneurysmal SAH. A retrospective review of the clinical parameters, including age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, hyperlipidemia, location of the cerebral aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, multiplicity, perioperative complication such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm, and hematoma, and Hunt and Hess and Fisher grading on presentation, was conducted in 108 young adults (mean age 34.8 years) managed at our institute. The outcome was classified based on GOS grading into unfavorable (GOS scores 1-3) or favorable (GOS scores 4 or 5). The overall mortality rate was 3.7% (4/108 patients). Univariate regression analysis for the outcomes at discharge found that age at the time of presentation, male sex, size of aneurysm, multiple aneurysms, hyperlipidemia, and poor Hunt and Hess and Fischer grades were associated with unfavorable outcome. Multivariate regression analysis found independent effects of sex, multiple aneurysms, size of aneurysm, and Hunt and Hess grade on the outcome at discharge. Size of aneurysm, presence of multiple aneurysms, Hunt and Hess grade, and hypertension were the predictors of outcome at mean 2-year follow up based on multivariate exact regression analysis. The multimodal approach with aggressive medical management, early intervention, and surgical treatment might contribute to favorable long-term outcomes in patients with poor expected outcomes.
An existing data set for a sample of 3rd grade students was used to determine the relationship between performance during a reading intervention and short-term achievement test outcomes, and long-term risk status. Students participated in a reading intervention, one-on-one practice with a trained adult, during which weekly curriculum based…
Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael
Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…
Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph
Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…
Mehling, Margaret H.; Tassé, Marc J.
This study explores social outcomes for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to adults with developmental disabilities other than ASD by investigating the relationships between the constructs Social Participation and Relationships, Social Determination, and Personal Control. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test a…
Graham, Steven W.; Donaldson, Joe F.; Kasworm, Carol; Dirkx, John
The Model of College Outcomes for Adults explains why adults might do as well as traditional students, despite limited participation and involvement in traditional residential learning experiences. The model's six components are prior experience and personal biographies; psychosocial and value orientation; adult cognition; life-world environment;…
Gray, Kylie M.; Keating, Caroline M.; Taffe, John R.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Reardon, Tessa C.; Tonge, Bruce J.
Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and…
Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).
A project examined the outcomes and pathways of 1992 participants in adult and community education (ACE) courses in Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia. It explored participant characteristics, vocational skills gained from completing ACE courses, educational and employment outcomes, and personal benefits and benefits to families and…
Hundt, Natalie E; Amspoker, Amber B; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Cully, Jeffrey A; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A
The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life GAD (Stanley et al., 2014) which provided an opportunity to examine predictors of outcome among those who received CBT. Participants were 150 older adults who were randomized to receive 10 sessions of CBT. Completer analyses found that homework completion, number of sessions attended, lower worry severity, lower depression severity, and recruitment site predicted 6-month worry outcome on the PSWQ-A, whereas homework completion, credibility of the therapy, lower anxiety severity, and site predicted 6-month anxiety outcome on the STAI-T. In intent-to-treat multivariate analyses, however, only initial worry and anxiety severity, site, and number of sessions completed predicted treatment outcome. These results are largely consistent with predictors of outcome in younger adults and suggest that lower initial symptom severity and variables consistent with greater engagement in treatment predict outcome. PMID:25445074
Ryndak, Diane Lea; Alper, Sandra; Hughes, Carolyn; McDonnell, John
Follow-up studies of students with significant disabilities consistently indicate poor post-school outcomes. Although existing research indicates that services in inclusive general education contexts can result in positive short-term outcomes for these individuals during their school years, there are few investigations of the lives of adults with…
In the field of adult basic education, there are two strategies that have been found to be of particular value to student learning: multiple intelligences and purpose-based learning. However, putting these learning theories into practice is not always as easy as an educator might at first believe. Adult basic education teacher Dylan Emerick-Brown…
Adult students are not well documented, are frequently left out of discussions of higher-education policy, and are not fully understood by the colleges they attend, says a report ("Returning to Learning: Adults' Success in College is Key to America's Future") released this week by the Lumina Foundation for Education. As a result, those students…
Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.
Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…
Lee, Shawna J.; Tolman, Richard M.
The authors explored the relationship among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical and mental health work barriers, and employment outcomes using a large panel study of current and former welfare recipients. Controlling for human capital and demographic characteristics, they found CSA was associated with significantly fewer months worked over the…
Howlin, Patricia; Goode, Susan; Hutton, Jane; Rutter, Michael
Background: Information on long-term prognosis in autism is limited. Outcome is known to be poor for those with an IQ below 50, but there have been few systematic studies of individuals with an IQ above this. Method: Sixty-eight individuals meeting criteria for autism and with a performance IQ of 50 or above in childhood were followed up as…
Lightner, Robin; Benander, Ruth
Student learning outcomes clarify the focus of a course. In creating student centered, concrete, measurable outcomes, the instructor creates a framework for coherent, integrated course design. Faculty may be resistant to writing student learning outcomes because of lack of time, teaching philosophy, job descriptions, assessment pressure and…
USA Group Noel-Levitz, Iowa City, IA.
This report describes the third annual National Adult Student Priorities Study (ASPS), an attempt to determine the areas of highest importance to students aged 25 and older. The 2002 ASPS represents data from 78 colleges and universities representing four-year public, four-year private, and two-year community, junior, and technical institutions.…
Clennell, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others
British students 60 years and older in 1985-86 were studied in order to learn about their age, sex, marital status, employment background, the subjects they study, their reasons for studying, how they study, and what they think about their studies. Considered by the researchers to be the largest survey of older students, the study involved 2,254…
Clegg, Judy; Ansorge, Lydia; Stackhouse, Joy; Donlan, Chris
Purpose: This study identifies the outcomes and documents the longitudinal life experiences of adults who attended a specialist residential school for children with pervasive and complex developmental communication impairments. Method: Semistructured interviews were carried out with 26 adult ex-pupils who had attended the school and the parents of…
Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.
The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications. "Learning…
Norris, Deborah; Schumacker, Randall E.
The Texas Effectiveness Study is an evaluation of the effectiveness of special education programs and services in developing life skills related to the transition planning process for Texas special education. One of the three components of the Texas Effectiveness Study is a study of adult outcomes. This component was implemented in the summer of…
Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol
This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full…
Harrington, Richard; Pickles, Andrew; Aglan, Azza; Harrington, Val; Burroughs, Heather; Kerfoot, Michael
Objective: To describe the early adult psychopathological and social outcomes of adolescents who deliberately poisoned themselves. Method: Prospective cohort study with a 6-year follow-up of 132 of 158 (84%) adolescents who, between ages 11 and 16 years, had taken part in a randomized trial of a brief family intervention after deliberate…
Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D Leann
Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students' attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students' anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience.
Adolescence has long been regarded as a transition from childhood to adulthood. More recently it is become a concern of those wishing to avoid adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Most of this effort has been focused on behavioural risk factors such as tobacco and excessive alcohol use, physical exercise habits, dietary habits, as well as sexual and injury-related behaviours. The concern is that these habits are established during adolescence, continue into adulthood, and come to constitute ongoing risk factors for adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. There is good reason to criticize this approach. These behaviours are themselves shaped by adolescents' living and working conditions and even then constitute a small proportion of the variance predicting adverse health outcomes during adulthood. More complex models of how adolescence serves as a gateway to adult health outcomes are presented. These are the socio-environmental, public policy, and political economy approaches. The argument is made that adolescence is a period during which public policy plays an especially important role in predicting future health outcomes. Yet, these public policies influence health all across the life span with adolescence providing only one of many important periods during which public policy shapes health prospects during middle and later adulthood. Ultimately one should consider a range of approaches ranging from the behavioural to the political to examine how adolescence serves as a gateway towards future adult prospects. An Adolescent Gateway Towards Adult Health Model is provided to assist in this process.
Baig, Arshiya A.; Benitez, Amanda; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.
Diabetes self-care is a critical aspect of disease management for adults with diabetes. Since family members can play a vital role in a patient’s disease management, involving them in self-care interventions may positively influence patients’ diabetes outcomes. We systematically reviewed family-based interventions for adults with diabetes published from 1994 to 2014 and assessed their impact on patients’ diabetes outcomes and the extent of family involvement. We found 26 studies describing family-based diabetes interventions for adults. Interventions were conducted across a range of patient populations and settings. The degree of family involvement varied across studies. We found evidence for improvement in patients’ self-efficacy, perceived social support, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes self-care across the studies. Owing to the heterogeneity of the study designs, types of interventions, reporting of outcomes, and family involvement, it is difficult to determine how family participation in diabetes interventions may affect patients’ clinical outcomes. Future studies should clearly describe the role of family in the intervention, assess quality and extent of family participation, and compare patient outcomes with and without family involvement. PMID:26250784
McNeil, H Patrick; Hughes, Chris S; Toohey, Susan M; Dowton, S Bruce
An innovative medical curriculum at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) has been developed through a highly collaborative process aimed at building faculty ownership and ongoing sustainability. The result is a novel capability-based program that features early clinical experience and small-group teaching, which offers students considerable flexibility and achieves a high degree of alignment between graduate outcomes, learning activities and assessments. Graduate capabilities that focus student learning on generic outcomes are described (critical evaluation, reflection, communication and teamwork) along with traditional outcomes in biomedical science, social aspects, clinical performance and ethics. Each two-year phase promotes a distinctive learning process to support and develop autonomous learning across six years. The approaches emphasize important adult education themes: student autonomy; learning from experience; collaborative learning; and adult teacher-learner relationships. Teaching in each phase draws on stages of the human life cycle to provide an explicit organization for the vertical integration of knowledge and skills. A learning environment that values the social nature of learning is fostered through the program's design and assessment system, which supports interdisciplinary integration and rewards students who exhibit self-direction. Assessment incorporates criterion referencing, interdisciplinary examinations, a balance between continuous and barrier assessments, peer feedback and performance assessments of clinical competence. A portfolio examination in each phase, in which students submit evidence of reflection and achievement for each capability, ensures overall alignment.
Nwakeze, Peter C.; Seiler, Lauren H.
A longitudinal study of 162 New York Adult Literacy Initiative students found that 97% were satisfied, felt the learning environment was supportive, and felt the teacher's attitude was critical. Retention suggestions were to use daily living experiences and challenging curricula, broaden the curriculum for men's interests, and attend to safety and…
Gray, Kylie M; Keating, Caroline M; Taffe, John R; Brereton, Avril V; Einfeld, Stewart L; Reardon, Tessa C; Tonge, Bruce J
Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood. Social outcomes in relation to community inclusion and living skills were examined, including the predictive role of a range of individual factors and the environment (socio-economic disadvantage). Overall, the degree of community inclusion and living skills was restricted for the majority, and while childhood IQ was an important determinant of these outcomes, it was not the sole predictor. The implications of these findings in relation to interventions are discussed.
Kohler Giancola, Jennifer; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Borchert, Dana
With an increase in nontraditional students attending college, there is a need to understand how work/school/life stress affects adult students. The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive stress model that posits appraisal (cognitive evaluation) and coping as mediators between stressors/interrole conflict and psychosocial outcomes. The…
Wójcicki, Thomas R; White, Siobhan M; McAuley, Edward
Outcome expectations, an important element of social cognitive theory, have been associated with physical activity in older adults. Yet, the measurement of this construct has often adopted a unidimensional approach. We examined the validity of a theoretically consistent three-factor (physical, social, and self-evaluative) outcome expectations exercise scale in middle-aged and older adults (N = 320; M age = 63.8). Participants completed questionnaires assessing outcome expectations, physical activity, self-efficacy, and health status. Comparisons of the hypothesized factor structure with competing models indicated that a three-factor model provided the best fit for the data. Construct validity was further demonstrated by significant association with physical activity and self-efficacy and differential associations with age and health status. Further evidence of validity and application to social cognitive models of physical activity is warranted.
Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael
Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As adults, all scored within the average range on tests of intelligence, numeracy and literacy. "Unaffected" siblings were functioning well in terms of jobs, independence and social relationships. Levels of social relationships and employment were significantly lower in the BAP group; autism traits and mental health problems were significantly higher. The data suggest that the "broader autism phenotype" is a meaningful concept but more sensitive diagnostic measures are required.
Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.
Al-Thani, Shaikha Jabor; Abdelmoneim, Ali; Daoud, Khaled; Cherif, Adel; Moukarzel, Dalal
This paper provides a unique perspective on the student learning outcome assessment process as adopted and implemented at Qatar University from 2006 to 2012. The progress of the student learning outcome assessment and continuous improvement efforts at the university and the initiatives taken to establish a culture of assessment and evidence-based…
Paul, Sheilah M.
In most developed countries, research studies that investigate the effects of special education on student outcomes have become conventional practice. However, in developing countries such as the twin-island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, there are no studies about the progress and outcomes of students and youths with disabilities. This…
Bremer, Christine D.; Center, Bruce A.; Opsal, Christen L.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Jang, Yoo Jeong; Geise, Aaron C.
This analysis explores student outcomes related to taking developmental English (i.e., reading and/or writing) and math classes in three community colleges in three different states, using institutional data from 7,898 students who began college in the fall of 2009 (Cohort 1) or fall 2010 (Cohort 2). We examine the outcome trajectories of students…
Ready, Kathryn J.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Elfessi, Abdulaziz; Kuffel, Thomas
The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework to assess students' general business competencies, acquired in core and capstone courses, as learning outcomes. First, the rationale for the use of students' general business competencies as outcomes assessment is provided. Second, the methodology for measuring these competencies is…
Keshavarz, Mohsen; Baghdarnia, Mostafa
This article describes a method for the assessment of professional student outcomes (performance-type outcomes or soft skills). The method is based upon group activities, research on modern electrical engineering topics by individual students, classroom presentations on chosen research topics, final presentations, and technical report writing.…
Endo, Jean J.; Harpel, Richard L.
The effect of student-faculty interaction on student outcomes after four years was examined within the context of a causal model adapted from a general college impact model. This model includes three sets of variables: students' background characteristics, four aspects of student-faculty interaction, and four categopies of outcomes. The four…
Adult students are a growing population on college campuses. Adult students have lower graduation rates and longer times to graduation than traditional-age students. The ability to pass a college level mathematics course is a key factor in the graduation rates of all students. Past research has identified developmental mathematics, college…
Patterson, Margaret Becker
Two core adult education outcomes for advanced adult learners in U.S. states under the National Reporting System are learning gains in adult secondary education and entry into postsecondary education (PSE). Advanced learner outcomes are associated with key functions in an adult education programming framework, as well as with adequate…
Stemmer, John K.; Mahan, David M.
This study connects library user surveys, a common library assessment technique, to institutional data to demonstrate the value an academic library brings to student learning and student outcomes. Using regression techniques, the study identifies multiple significant correlations, both positive and negative, between student use of the library and…
This study investigated the extent to which doctoral advisors provided mentoring to their students and if mentor support influenced doctoral student outcomes. Survey results from 477 respondents, across disciplines at two universities, indicated that most students believed mentoring was important and over half of them received mentoring support…
Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brosof, Amy M.; Shapiro, Valerie B.
This longitudinal study assessed changes in skills for students with emotional disturbance (ED) over a one-year time period in a private special education school and examined variables that predicted positive outcomes for these students. At Time 1, teachers rated 84 students with ED using standardized behavior rating scales to assess problem…
Nekvasil, Erin K.; Cornell, Dewey G.
Authorities in education and law enforcement have recommended that schools use a threat-assessment approach to prevent violence, but there is relatively little research on characteristics and outcomes of threats among students. The current study examined student reports of threat experiences in a sample of 3,756 high school students. Approximately…
Wilkerson, Kimber L.; Afacan, Kemal; Yan, Min-Chi; Justin, Whitney; Datar, Sujata D.
School districts offer specialized programming for secondary students who experience high rates of course failure or low credit accumulation. While these alternative programs are meant to increase student success, little research evaluates outcomes for students attending them. In this study, we used propensity score matching (PSM) to investigate…
Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.
We conducted 2 studies that investigated student outcomes when using discussion Web pages in psychology classes. In Study 1, we assigned 213 students enrolled in Introduction to Psychology courses to either a mandatory or an optional Web page discussion condition. Students used the discussion Web page significantly more often and performed…
Sottie, Cynthia Akorfa; Dubus, Nicole; Sossou, Marie-Antoinette
The government of Ghana has designed various initiatives to achieve the Millennium Development Goals on education and the Education for All goals. Despite these initiatives, student outcomes continue to be poorer than desired. Although access to education has improved, student dropout remains a problem and student scores on achievement tests…
MacIsaac, Rachael L; Salatzki, Janek; Higgins, Peter; Walters, Matthew R; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Dominiczak, Anna F; Touyz, Rhian M; Dawson, Jesse
Allopurinol lowers blood pressure in adolescents and has other vasoprotective effects. Whether similar benefits occur in older individuals remains unclear. We hypothesized that allopurinol is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with hypertension. Data from the United Kingdom Clinical Research Practice Datalink were used. Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard models were applied to estimate hazard ratios for stroke and cardiac events (defined as myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome) associated with allopurinol use over a 10-year period in adults aged >65 years with hypertension. A propensity-matched design was used to reduce potential for confounding. Allopurinol exposure was a time-dependent variable and was defined as any exposure and then as high (≥300 mg daily) or low-dose exposure. A total of 2032 allopurinol-exposed patients and 2032 matched nonexposed patients were studied. Allopurinol use was associated with a significantly lower risk of both stroke (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.80) and cardiac events (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.87) than nonexposed control patients. In exposed patients, high-dose treatment with allopurinol (n=1052) was associated with a significantly lower risk of both stroke (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.94) and cardiac events (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.93) than low-dose treatment (n=980). Allopurinol use is associated with lower rates of stroke and cardiac events in older adults with hypertension, particularly at higher doses. Prospective clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether allopurinol improves cardiovascular outcomes in adults with hypertension.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A.; Fagan, Pebbles; Muranaka, Nicholas; Herzog, Thaddeus A.
Background E-cigarette use outcome expectancies and their relationships with demographic and e-cigarette use variables are not well understood. Based on past cigarette as well as e-cigarette use research, we generated self-report items to assess e-cigarette outcome expectancies among college students. The objective was to determine different dimensions of e-cigarette use expectancies and their associations with e-cigarette use and use susceptibility. Methods Self-report data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students [M age=23.5 (SD= 5.5); 65% Female; 35% current cigarette smokers] in Hawaii. Data analyses were conducted by using factor and regression analyses. Results Exploratory factor analysis among e-cigarette ever-users indicated 7 factors: 3 positive expectancy factors (social enhancement, affect regulation, positive sensory experience) and 4 negative expectancy factors (negative health consequences, addiction concern, negative appearance, negative sensory experience). Confirmatory factor analysis among e-cigarette never-users indicated that the 7-factor model fitted reasonably well to the data. Being a current cigarette smoker was positively associated with positive expectancies and inversely with negative expectancies. Higher positive expectancies were significantly associated with greater likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Except addiction concern, higher negative expectancies were significantly associated with lower likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Among e-cigarette never-users, positive expectancy variables were significantly associated with higher intentions to use e-cigarettes in the future, adjusting for current smoker status and demographic variables. Conclusions E-cigarette use expectancies determined in this study appear to predict e-cigarette use and use susceptibility among young adults and thus have important implications for future research. PMID:24630824
Neuroscientific and developmental psychological research in imitation has yielded important insights into building teacher-student relationships and enhancing students' learning. This study investigated the effects of reciprocal imitation on teacher-student relationships and students' learning outcomes in one-on-one teacher-student interactions.…
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011
Serving the needs of adult learners in today's economic environment is becoming a greater priority for colleges and universities. Student satisfaction is considered a core element for higher education institutions serving traditional-age students. More colleges and universities are expanding this assessment activity to adult students as well. As…
Ke, Fengfeng; Xie, Kui
Adult students have become the new majority in online distance education. Research in online distance education, however, is still predominantly based on the historical perspective of the traditional student profile. This study examines adult students' learning engagement in online courses and explores the impact of online course design models and…
Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc., Berea, KY.
The purpose of the Student Taught Adult Basic Literacy Efforts (STABLE) project was the involvement of adult illiterates, functional illiterates, and educational dropouts who do not take advantage of other educational and vocational training opportunities in basic education, using mature college students as teachers. Thirty students were trained…
Yuh, Woon Tak; Kim, Chi Heon; Kim, Hyun-Jib; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae
Objective The pathophysiology of idiopathic Chiari malformation (CM) type 1 is disturbance of free cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and restoration of normal CSF flow is the mainstay of treatment. Additional migration of the medulla oblongata in pediatric patients is referred to as CM type 1.5, but its significance in adult patients is unknown. This study is to compare surgical outcomes of adult idiopathic CM type 1.5 with that of type 1. Methods Thirty-eight consecutive adult patients (M : F=11 : 27; median, 33.5; range, 18–63) with syringomyelia due to idiopathic CM type 1 were reviewed. Migration of the medulla oblongata was noted in 13 patients. The modified McCormick scale (MMS) was used to evaluate functional status before and one year after surgery. All patients underwent foramen magnum decompression and duroplasty. Factors related to radiological success (≥50% decrease in the diameter of the syrinx) were investigated. The follow-up period was 72.7±55.6 months. Results Preoperative functional status were MMS I in 11 patients and MMS II in 14 of CM type 1 and MMS I in 8 and II in 5 of CM type 1.5. Of patients with MMS II, 5/14 patients in group A and 3/5 patients in group B showed improvement and there was no case of deterioration. Radiological success was achieved in 32 (84%) patients and restoration of the cisterna magna (p=0.01; OR, 46.5) was the only significant factor. Conclusion Migration of the medulla oblongata did not make a difference in the surgical outcome when the cisterna magna was restored. PMID:27651871
Yuh, Woon Tak; Kim, Chi Heon; Kim, Hyun-Jib; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae
Objective The pathophysiology of idiopathic Chiari malformation (CM) type 1 is disturbance of free cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and restoration of normal CSF flow is the mainstay of treatment. Additional migration of the medulla oblongata in pediatric patients is referred to as CM type 1.5, but its significance in adult patients is unknown. This study is to compare surgical outcomes of adult idiopathic CM type 1.5 with that of type 1. Methods Thirty-eight consecutive adult patients (M : F=11 : 27; median, 33.5; range, 18–63) with syringomyelia due to idiopathic CM type 1 were reviewed. Migration of the medulla oblongata was noted in 13 patients. The modified McCormick scale (MMS) was used to evaluate functional status before and one year after surgery. All patients underwent foramen magnum decompression and duroplasty. Factors related to radiological success (≥50% decrease in the diameter of the syrinx) were investigated. The follow-up period was 72.7±55.6 months. Results Preoperative functional status were MMS I in 11 patients and MMS II in 14 of CM type 1 and MMS I in 8 and II in 5 of CM type 1.5. Of patients with MMS II, 5/14 patients in group A and 3/5 patients in group B showed improvement and there was no case of deterioration. Radiological success was achieved in 32 (84%) patients and restoration of the cisterna magna (p=0.01; OR, 46.5) was the only significant factor. Conclusion Migration of the medulla oblongata did not make a difference in the surgical outcome when the cisterna magna was restored.
McCreary, Jason; Hausman, Charles
Despite the popularity of schedule modifications as a cost-effective reform to improve student outcomes, little empirical research on the consequences of alternative schedules has been conducted. The literature has been dominated by anecdotal reports. Even when empirical evidence is examined, causal comparisons of school outcomes between schedules…
Clagett, Craig A.; McConochie, Daniel D.
Although only Ohio has issued statewide standards for noncredit continuing education and a few other states have looked at such a process, most of the literature on student outcomes focuses exclusively on degree-credit programs. A college, university, or state system might want to assess continuing education outcomes for the following reasons: to…
Arens, A. Katrin; Morin, Alexandre J. S.
Studies investigating the effects of emotional exhaustion among teachers have primarily focused on its relations with teacher-related outcome variables but little research has been done for examining its relations with student outcomes. Therefore, this study examines the relations between teachers' emotional exhaustion and educational outcomes…
Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne
This article is a part of a research project aimed to find out how different background variables are related to learning outcomes in technology education related to the school subject Sloyd (craft). The research question of this article is: "How are ninth grade students' attitudes towards the subject related to their learning outcomes?"…
ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011
The American College Personnel Association's (ACPA's) Sustainability Task Force partnered with the Commission on Assessment and Evaluation with the goal of creating assessment tools to help ACPA members effectively measure student learning around sustainability. Towards these ends, Kimberly Yousey-Elsener (StudentVoice), Diana Richter Keith…
Langan, A. Bud; Keeler, Laura
A follow-up study was conducted of students who had attended Olympic College (OC), in Washington, in fall 1990. A questionnaire was sent to a stratified random sample of 647 students, 3 years after their 1990 enrollment. A total of 390 responses were received for a 60.3% response rate. Respondents were divided into the following four groups, based…
Brattesani, Karen; And Others
The ways in which students' perceptions of teacher behavior in the elementary school classroom clarifies the relationships among teacher expectations, student expectations, and student achievement are examined. Subjects in two data sets consisted of 234 grade 4-6 students from 16 classrooms in an urban, ethnically mixed school district, and 101…
Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Jonkman, Jeffrey N.; Smith, G. Rush
The first purpose of this study was to report how many college students, 18 to 25 years of age, are classified as "emerging adults," "undecideds" or "adults." The second purpose was to determine the relationships between emerging adults versus adults and (a) background characteristics, (b) risk-taking behaviors; (c) sensation-seeking scores, and…
Bruley, Marie N.
This study utilizes a mixed methods exploratory design to examine the nature of math faculty engagement in the student learning outcomes assessment cycle. The focus of the study is on the types of changes that math faculty are implementing as a result of assessment outcomes and the institutional environmental factors that impact faculty engagement…
Cocomazzo, Nadia; Block, Susan; Carey, Brenda; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Iverach, Lisa
Objectives: During speech pathology professional preparation there is a need for adequate student instruction with speech-restructuring treatments for adults. An important part of that clinical educational experience is to participate in a clinical setting that produces outcomes equivalent to those attained during clinical trials. A previous…
Grissett, Judy Orton; Kaufmann, Jodi; Greenberg, Daphne; Hilton, Krista
Although prior research has indicated a relationship between educational climate and educational outcomes, there is a lack of research in this area in adult literacy programs. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess the actual and perceived educational climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual (LGBT) students at an adult…
Rodriguez, Louie F.
In today's reform context, much attention is placed on policies and outcomes and far less emphasis on understanding the social and cultural processes in schools. Using case-study methodology, I examine relationships between low-income, urban high school students of color, and the school adults with whom they interact. Using grounded theory,…
Richter, Sharon; Test, David
Students with significant cognitive disabilities typically experience poor post-school outcomes as adults. Federal legislation and recent research reflect the importance of teaching self-determination skills as a strategy to improve post-school outcomes. However, the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2) reported that individuals with…
This study examined the effects of corporal punishment on student outcomes in rural schools by analyzing 1,067 samples from the School Survey on Crime and Safety 2007-2008. Results of descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses indicated that schools with corporal punishment may decrease students' violent behaviors and…
King, Patricia M.; Brown, Marie Kendall; Lindsay, Nathan K.; VanHecke, JoNes R.
The overarching goal of a liberal arts education is to provide students with the necessary skills to construct lives of substance and achievement, helping them to become wise citizens. By offering programs and implementing practices that adopt an integrated and holistic approach to student learning outcomes, institutions of higher education may be…
Willms, J. Douglas
Background: Findings from several international studies have shown that there is a significant relationship between literacy skills and socioeconomic status (SES). Research has also shown that schools differ considerably in their student outcomes, even after taking account of students' ability and family background. The context or learning…
Describes employment outcomes based on Unemployment Insurance wage file linking for 38,500 students with substantial liberal arts education who left their community colleges but did not transfer to another institution. Finds that these students benefited economically from their two-year college enrollment and earned wages comparable to vocational…
Baer, Robert M.; Daviso, Alfred W., III; Flexer, Robert W.; Queen, Rachel McMahan; Meindl, Richard S.
This study examined the outcomes of 409 students with mental retardation or multiple disabilities from 177 school districts in a Great Lakes state. These students with intellectual disabilities were interviewed at exit and 1 year following graduation. The authors developed and tested three regression models--two to predict full-time employment and…
Wilkerson, Kimber; Afacan, Kemal; Perzigian, Aaron; Justin, Whitney; Lequia, Jenna
Behavior-focused alternative schools serve students who have been unsuccessful in other school settings due to low academic achievement coupled with significant behavior challenges. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of secondary behavior-focused alternative schools on four different student outcome variables: (a) school attendance,…
Scholl, Kathleen; Olsen, Heather M.
U.S. higher education institutions are being called to question their central nature, priorities, and functions, with prominent and unprecedented attention being given to accountability and the measurement of student learning outcomes. As higher education evolves in how it assesses student learning and leisure studies and recreation departments…
Lamb, Gordon D.; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; De Alba, Roman Garcia
This article provides an overview of the major factors and interventions affecting migrant students' academic performance/outcomes. Factors outside the school, such as poverty, family, and English language proficiency, are discussed. Next, factors inside the school, such as student records, credit accrual, and school curriculum, will be reviewed.…
Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…
Wiseman, Donna L., Ed.; Knight, Stephanie L., Ed.
This book provides a platform for an array of educators to discuss the impact of professional development schools and other school-university partnerships on student learning. The 11 papers include: (1) "Using Research to Connect School-University Partnerships to Student Outcomes" (Lee Teitel); (2) "Making a Difference: A Professional Development…
Adamski, Aurora; Fraser, Barry J.; Peiro, Maria M.
We investigated relationships between students' perceptions of parental involvement in schooling, their Spanish classroom environment and student outcomes (attitudes and achievement). Modified Spanish versions of the What Is Happening In this Class?, Test of Spanish-Related Attitudes-L[subscript 1], a parental involvement questionnaire and a…
The study examined estimated effects of school mobility on students' academic and behaviouiral outcomes. Based on data for 2,560 public schools from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2007-2008, the findings indicate that high schools, urban schools, and schools serving a total student population of more than 50 percent minority…
Lakin, Joni M.; Elliott, Diane Cardenas; Liu, Ou Lydia
Outcomes assessments are gaining great attention in higher education because of increased demand for accountability. These assessments are widely used by U.S. higher education institutions to measure students' college-level knowledge and skills, including students who speak English as a second language (ESL). For the past decade, the increasing…
Bowman, Nicholas A.
Given the increasing racial diversity among American college students and society, it is critical to promote meaningful interracial interactions during college. Although a burgeoning literature demonstrates the link between interracial interactions and an array of student outcomes, some important issues have been largely overlooked. Most research…
Freeman, G.; Gum, M.; Blackbourn, J. M.
This paper outlines two approaches for improving outcomes for students at risk for academic failure. Both take a systemic approach to the problem by focusing on how specific circumstances create a reality of failure for many students. One school analyzed factors related to retention/promotion decisions and determined that four factors directly…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Frey, Bruce B.; Woods, Kari L.
Although response to intervention (RTI) has been widely discussed in education literature and is increasingly being implemented in schools throughout the U.S., few studies provide empirical evidence of improved school-wide student outcomes. Presented here are data and an effect size analysis of school-wide student reading gains in five elementary…
Roggow, Michael J.
This chapter explores a grant-sponsored program and examines the role of departmental and institutional collaborations in advancing student performance outcomes. It provides a theoretical framework and a description of best practices for ensuring the success of first-generation urban community college students.
Stark, D; Lewis, I
The management of TYA with cancer is characterized by biological features in comparison to children. Therefore specialized treatment units have been established within professional structures of care for this group, and a European multidisciplinary framework for the treatment of TYA with cancer was founded.Objectives are to promote interdisciplinary collaboration and provide strategic concepts to improve patient care centered to the special needs of this age group. Access to clinical trials for all TYA in the EU will be improved and research initiated, examining biology, epidemiology and health services.Special goals of the interprofessional cooperation are:Different measurements are discussed improving outcomes for TYA is proceeding at different speeds in different parts of the world. In some there are established teams, bringing together paediatric and adult specialists from many healthcare professions, reviewing and contributing to the optimal care of all TYA with cancer as part of national health policy.
Open University (OU) students are typically mature students who combine studying part-time with work or caring responsibilities; the average age of OU language students has been dropping, and about 30% of our new students are now under 25. The traditional view of adult learners who study languages is that they often study for pleasure or personal…
Montgomery, W. W.
Longitudinal data collection initiated a decade ago as part of a successful NSF-CCLI grant proposal has resulted in a large - and growing - sample (200+) of students who report on their perceptions of self-improvement in Technology, Critical Thinking, and Quantitative Reasoning proficiencies upon completion of an introductory (200-level) GIS course at New Jersey City University, a Hispanic-Serving and Minority Institution in Jersey City, NJ. Results from student satisfaction surveys indicate that, not surprisingly, 80% of respondents report improved confidence in Technology Literacy. Critical Thinking proficiency is judged to be significantly improved by 60% of respondents. On the other hand, Quantitative Reasoning proficiency confidence is improved in only 30% of students. This latter finding has prompted the instructor to search for more easily recognizable (to the student) ways of embedding quantitative reasoning into the course, as it is obvious to any GIS professional that there is an enormous amount of quantitative reasoning associated with this technology. A second post-course questionnaire asks students to rate themselves in these STEM proficiency areas using rubrics. Results mirror those from the self-satisfaction surveys. On a 5-point Likkert scale, students tend to see themselves improving about one letter grade on average in each proficiency area. The self-evaluation rubrics are reviewed by the instructor and are judged to be accurate for about 75% of the respondents.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in community dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized trial of physical activity vs health education, with respiratory variables prespecified as tertiary outcomes over...
Alcide, Amary; Potocky, Miriam
A descriptive and critical analysis of the available empirical literature on social work psychosocial intervention outcomes for adult hospice patients and caregivers was conducted. The electronic bibliographic databases CINHAL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, ProQuest, EMBASE, Campbell Collaboration, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library) were searched. Search criteria were (a) social work interventions, (b) intervention was tested, (c) adult hospice patients and/or caregivers, (d) studies within the United States, (e) and studies between 2004 and 2014. Of the 21 studies that met the initial search criteria, 5 publications met all review criteria. Based on assessment of study results, intervention effect, and quality of evidence, the ADAPT Problem-Solving Intervention (PSI) and the Hospice Caregiver Support Project have some indications of practical effect on caregiver quality of life, anxiety, stress, and problem-solving skills. The Caregiver Life Line (CaLL) intervention had little to no effect on caregiver role stress or coping skills. The few available studies provide foundational insight into the need for the expansion of research efforts to evaluate hospice social work interventions and document the contributions of social work to the field.
Wilson, Janie H.; Ryan, Rebecca G.; Pugh, James L.
Rapport traditionally has been measured in therapy or in other one-on-one relationships such as with roommates. As yet, no scale is available to measure professor-student rapport. In this study, 51 undergraduates created items to measure professor-student rapport, and subsequently, 195 different college students rated their agreement with items…
Reynolds, Sharon L.; Johnson, Jerry D.; Salzman, James A.
The extant literature offers little to describe the processes for screening students in adult basic education (ABE) programs for potential learning disabilities, referring adult students for diagnostic assessment, or barriers to obtaining diagnostic assessment for a learning disability. Without current documentation of a learning disability, ABE…
A survey of 181 adult students in a university's division of continuing education or university without walls (UWW) programs received 145 responses indicating greater satisfaction among the UWW students than those in traditional majors. Academic advising was especially satisfactory, because UWW advisors may be more aware of adult development…
Singer, Elizabeth; And Others
Designed as part of a 310 Special Demonstration and Teacher Training Project undertaken at Brevard Community College, this student services guide contains information to assist adult education administrators, counselors, instructors, and office personnel in meeting the needs of students enrolled in adult/community education schools. Primary…
Kasworm, Carol E.
Adult undergraduate student identities at research extensive universities were uniquely coconstructed, shaped by this selective and competitive youth-oriented cultural context. Drawing upon social constructivist theory, this study explored this coconstruction through positional and relational adult student identities. Positional identities were…
What is the nature of an adult student identity? Based in social constructivist theory, this study explored coconstructed understandings of culturally and socially mediated student identities through a select group of adult undergraduates in intergenerational community college classroom contexts. Key findings elaborated the coconstruction of two…
Donaldson, Joe F.; Graham, Steven W.; Martindill, William; Long, Shawna; Bradley, Shane
This study explored how adult students define success in college and their perceptions of factors that either support or hinder achievement of this success. Thirteen returning adult students at two institutions were interviewed using a grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed inductively and iteratively to identify persistent themes. Students…
Beverstock, Caroline; Bhaskaran, Shanti; Brinkley, Jacquie; Jones, Donna; Reinke, Valerie
In many adult literacy programs around the country, instruction emphasizes reading, but equal time is not given to the development of writing skills. Adult students are often reluctant to expose the difficulties they have with writing, difficulties which will be painfully apparent when they do write. With students who are reluctant to write,…
Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy
During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…
Donaldson, Joe F.; Townsend, Barbara K.
In 1999-2000, 7.1 million adults age 24 or older constituted 43% of all undergraduates in U.S. institutions of higher education, compared to 5.73 million adult students enrolled a decade earlier (1989-1990). The growing proportion of adult undergraduates has become a significant source of enrollment and income for numerous institutions for which…
Solomon, Daniel; And Others
This study examined relationships between students' cooperative learning experiences (including both the frequency and quality of their interactions in small groups) and their attitudes toward school; perceptions of the classroom environment; intrinsic motivation; and various social attitudes, skills, and values. Participants (n=756) were teachers…
Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.
We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…
Carr, John David
Geospatial tools and technologies have become core competencies for natural resource professionals due to the monitoring, modeling, and mapping capabilities they provide. To prepare students with needed background, geospatial instructional activities were integrated across Forest Management; Natural Resources; Fisheries, Wildlife, &…
Post-secondary outcomes for students with and without disabilities have been documented in transition research for over three decades. However, despite efforts to improve outcomes by the field of transition, former students with disabilities outcomes have remain lower than their non-disabled peers. Historically, the data, which has been collected…
Cuervo, Guillermo; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Nucci, Marcio; Puchades, Francesc; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Mykietiuk, Analía; Manzur, Adriana; Gudiol, Carlota; Pemán, Javier; Viasus, Diego; Ayats, Josefina; Carratalà, Jordi
Background Statins have immunomodulatory properties and hinder Candida growth. However, it is unknown whether they may improve prognosis in patients with candidemia. We sought to determine the effect of prior statin use on the clinical outcomes of patients suffering candidemia. Methods and Findings Multicenter cohort study of hospitalized adults with candidemia between 2005 and 2011 in six hospitals in Spain, Brazil and Argentina. Of 326 candidemias, 44 (13.5%) occurred in statin users and 282 (86.5%) in statin non-users. The median value of APACHE II at candidemia diagnosis was similar between groups (18 vs. 16; p=.36). Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species, followed by C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. There were no differences regarding appropriate empirical antifungal treatment. Statin users had a lower early (5 d) case-fatality rate than non-users (4.5 vs. 17%; p=.031). This effect was not observed with other cardiovascular drugs (aspirin, beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). Independent factor related to early case-fatality rate was APACHE II score (AOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03–1.14; p=.002). An appropriate empirical antifungal therapy (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04–0.26; p=<.001) and prior statin use were independently associated with lower early case-fatality (AOR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03–0.93; p=.041). Fourteen days (14d) and overall (30d) case-fatality rates were similar between groups (27% vs. 29%; p=0.77 and 40% vs. 44%; p=.66). Conclusions The use of statins might have a beneficial effect on outcomes of patients with candidemia. This hypothesis deserves further evaluation in randomized trials. PMID:24155941
Kempny, Aleksander; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Uebing, Anselm; Rafiq, Isma; Li, Wei; Swan, Lorna; Hooper, James; Donovan, Jackie; Wort, Stephen J; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos
Background In patients with acquired heart failure, hypoalbuminaemia is associated with increased risk of death. The prevalence of hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia and their relation to outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains, however, unknown. Methods Data on patients with ACHD who underwent blood testing in our centre within the last 14 years were collected. The relation between laboratory, clinical or demographic parameters at baseline and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results A total of 2886 patients with ACHD were included. Mean age was 33.3 years (23.6–44.7) and 50.1% patients were men. Median plasma albumin concentration was 41.0 g/L (38.0–44.0), whereas hypoalbuminaemia (<35 g/L) was present in 13.9% of patients. The prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia was significantly higher in patients with great complexity ACHD (18.2%) compared with patients with moderate (11.3%) or simple ACHD lesions (12.1%, p<0.001). During a median follow-up of 5.7 years (3.3–9.6), 327 (11.3%) patients died. On univariable Cox regression analysis, hypoalbuminaemia was a strong predictor of outcome (HR 3.37, 95% CI 2.67 to 4.25, p<0.0001). On multivariable Cox regression, after adjusting for age, sodium and creatinine concentration, liver dysfunction, functional class and disease complexity, hypoalbuminaemia remained a significant predictor of death. Conclusions Hypoalbuminaemia is common in patients with ACHD and is associated with a threefold increased risk of risk of death. Hypoalbuminaemia, therefore, should be included in risk-stratification algorithms as it may assist management decisions and timing of interventions in the growing ACHD population. PMID:25736048
Chamak, Brigitte; Bonniau, Béatrice
The aim of this retrospective study was to retrace the trajectories and long-term outcomes of individuals with autism in France, and to explore the family experiences. Data obtained from parents enables us to follow the trajectories of 76 adults. Two-thirds of adults with severe autism had a very poor outcome. Those with moderate autism had a…
Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian
This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Reframing Adult Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes: A Social Capital Perspective" [ED493887] and is an added resource for further information. The original report investigated whether adult literacy and numeracy courses produced social capital outcomes, which are changes…
The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older…
Decker, Dawn M.; Dona, Daria Paul; Christenson, Sandra L.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the associations between the student-teacher relationship and outcomes for African American students who were behaviorally at-risk for referral to special education. Students were identified by their teachers as having behavior problems. Participants were 44 students and 25 teachers from two…
Adult students 25 and older are a growing population at U.S. colleges and universities. Mathematics courses present a particular challenge for these students who may have less academic preparation than younger students and have experienced a significant time-lapse since their last formal mathematics instruction. This exploratory, qualitative study…
Lewine, R. J.; And Others
School and hospital records were used to examine childhood social competence, adult premorbid competence, and psychiatric outcome in adult schizoaffective, paranoid, and undifferentiated schizophrenics. A significant difference existed in childhood interpersonal competence and adult social competence among the subtypes. Results reflect…
Weaver-Kaulis, Amy; Crutsinger, Christy
Accreditation, budget, and accountability pressures at the institution and program levels lead to the involvement of faculty in assessment-based activities. Increasingly, programs are being expected to document student learning beyond traditional course grades. The use of outcomes as a tool to improve learning relies heavily on the active…
Saunders-Stewart, Katie S.; Gyles, Petra D. T.; Shore, Bruce M.
Curricular reform efforts are underway in many countries, focused on adopting inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning. Therefore, it is increasingly important to understand what outcomes students attain in inquiry environments. Derived from a literature review, a 23-item, criterion-referenced inventory is presented for theoretically…
Ohia, Uche O.
This paper describes a model proven to be effective for assessing and documenting evidence of student learning outcomes. Specifically, it will share a model, F.A.M.O.U.S. Copyright ©2008, which is an acronym exemplifying six effective steps for complying with institutional accountability and eternal assessment requirements proscribed by the…
This research project was commissioned by the UK Higher Education International Unit (IU) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA) in June 2014 to explore academic perspectives on the outcomes of outward mobility at undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels for UK domiciled students, and to consider how best to facilitate the take up as well…
Rabren, Karen; Eaves, Ronald C.; Dunn, Caroline; Darch, Craig
This study investigates the construct of satisfaction as a post-school outcome for students with learning disabilities (LD). More specifically, the effects of postsecondary education or training as well as employment are examined as they contribute to the overall satisfaction of young people with LD, one year after they exit high school. The…
Villeneuve, Michelle; Hutchinson, Nancy L.
Collaborative consultation has been widely adopted in school-based occupational therapy practice; however, limited research has examined how collaboration between educators and occupational therapists contributes to students' outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of collaborative working in two cases of school-based…
Rodgers, Moira Smith
This qualitative research study was an outcome evaluation of an alternative kindergarten curriculum to those currently used in most public schools. Tools of the Mind, a Vygotskian, play-based curriculum was implemented during the 2010-2011 school year in four kindergarten classrooms, involving data from approximately 50 students, within a public…
Examines the scientific concept of evaporation. Attempts to show how students develop their understanding through the levels of the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Shows how designing learning experiences to suit the learners' developmental stages in understanding a concept is paramount to the overall growth of the…
Humpherys, Bryce Ralph
At both a national and state level there is a growing need for skilled workers in the labor force. Educating low skilled adults is one way to address this need. Adult education programs teach low skilled adults basic academic skills to prepare them for work and life in U.S. society. Until recently little attention was paid to transitioning…
Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena
The pervasiveness of media use in our society has raised concerns about its potential impact on important lifestyle behaviours, including sleep. Although a number of studies have modelled poor sleep as a negative outcome of media use, a critical assessment of the literature indicates two important gaps: (i) studies have almost exclusively relied on concurrent data, and thus have not been able to assess the direction of effects; and (ii) studies have largely been conducted with children and adolescents. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study, therefore, was to examine whether both sleep duration and sleep problems would be predictors or outcomes of two forms of media use (i.e. television and online social networking) among a sample of emerging adults. Participants were 942 (71.5% female) university students (M = 19.01 years, SD = 0.90) at Time 1. Survey measures, which were assessed for three consecutive years starting in the first year of university, included demographics, sleep duration, sleep problems, television and online social networking use. Results of a cross-lagged model indicated that the association between sleep problems and media use was statistically significant: sleep problems predicted longer time spent watching television and on social networking websites, but not vice versa. Contrary to our hypotheses, sleep duration was not associated with media use. Our findings indicate no negative effects of media use on sleep among emerging adults, but instead suggest that emerging adults appear to seek out media as a means of coping with their sleep problems. PMID:24552437
Beth Sullivan, Esther; Pagano, Rosanne V.
In ten years, Alaska Pacific University has moved from a totally decentralized administration of its adult online program to a very centralized structure. Drastic changes in funding sources and student needs have compelled the university to take new approaches. As the learning landscape continues to shift for adults, online learners, and Alaska…
Garza, Ana Lisa
The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the learning experiences of adult Latino college students, as described directly in their own voices. The study was guided by two research questions: RQ1: "How do adult Latinos describe their undergraduate college learning experiences?" and RQ2: "How do culture, gender, and ethnic identity affect…
Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae
Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…
Tovar, Lynn A.
In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…
Lightburn, Millard E.; Fraser, Barry J.
The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of anthropometric activities among a sample of 761 high-school biology students in terms of student outcomes (achievement and attitudes) and classroom environment (assessed with the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory, SLEI). Data analyses supported the SLEI's factorial validity,…
Song, Danni; Loyle-Langholz, Anne; Higbee, Jeanne L.; Zhou, Zhou
Most postsecondary faculty in the United States include course goals or objectives as key components of their syllabi. In addition to individual course objectives, many institutions have identified institution-wide student learning outcomes (SLOs). This paper describes one faculty member's attempts to elicit feedback from students regarding their…
Deggs, David; Grover, Kenda; Kacirek, Kit
This study was conducted to examine the expectations of adult graduate students enrolled in an online degree program at a research university in the mid-South United States. Students who were pursuing their master of education degree were invited to participate in an e-Focus group regarding their expectations of the degree program. Focus groups…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.
This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…
Collier, Ezma V.
This curriculum guide is designed for use in adult basic education (ABE) programs serving psychiatrically ill adult students. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: personal hygiene and grooming, nutrition and health, money and money management, transportation and safety, government and law, values clarification, and…
Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steve; Mead, Chris; Horodyskyj, Lev; Perera, Viranga; Bruce, Geoffrey; Schönstein, David
Scientists spend years training in their scientific discipline and are well versed the literature, methods, and innovations in their own field. Many scientists also take on teaching responsibilities with little formal training in how to implement their courses or assess their students. There is a growing body of literature of what students know in space science courses and the types of innovations that can work to increase student learning but scientists rarely have exposure to this body of literature. For scientists who are interested in more effectively understanding what their students know or investigating the impact their courses have on students, there is little guidance. Undertaking a more formal study of students poses more complexities including finding robust instruments and employing appropriate data analysis. Additionally, formal research with students involves issues of privacy and human subjects concerns, both regulated by federal laws.This poster details the important decisions and issues to consider for both course evaluation and more formal research using a course developed, facilitated, evaluated and researched by a hybrid team of scientists and science education researchers. HabWorlds, designed and implemented by a team of scientists and faculty at Arizona State University, has been using student data to continually improve the course as well as conduct formal research on students’ knowledge and attitudes in science. This ongoing project has had external funding sources to allow robust assessment not available to most instructors. This is a case study for discussing issues that are applicable to designing and assessing all science courses. Over the course of several years, instructors have refined course outcomes and learning objectives that are shared with students as a roadmap of instruction. The team has searched for appropriate tools for assessing student learning and attitudes, tested them and decided which have worked, or not, for
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Friel, Sharon; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C
This article reviews inequalities in health risks and outcomes based on a large longitudinal cohort study of distance-learning adult students enrolled at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (n = 87,134). The study began in 2005 and the first follow-up was completed in 2009. Risks analyzed for health inequalities were divided into demographic, socioeconomic, geographical, behavioral, and environmental groups. Unequal risks and outcomes identified that would be amenable to policy interventions in transitional Thailand include the following: heat stress-contributing to many adverse outcomes, including occupational injury, psychological distress, and kidney disease; urbanization-unhealthy eating, sedentary lifestyles, low social capital, and poor mental health; obesity-increasingly common especially with rising income and age among men; and injury-big problem for young males and associated with excessive alcohol and dangerous transport. These substantial inequalities require attention from multisectoral policy makers to reduce the gaps and improve health of the Thai population.
Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.
Compiled in 1994 by participating departments and the Student Outcomes Assessment Committee at Washington's Highline Community College, this booklet lists and explains expected student outcomes and abilities across the curriculum and within departments. The first section describes college-wide student outcomes in the following nine areas: thinking…
Boylston, Mary T; Jackson, Christina
This mixed-method study revealed accelerated RN-to-BSN (bachelor of science in nursing) students' levels of satisfaction with a wide range of college services in a small university. Building on seminal research on the topic [Boylston, M. T., Peters, M. A., & Lacey, M. (2004). Adult student satisfaction in traditional and accelerated RN-to-BSN programs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 20, 23-32.], the Noel-Levitz Adult Student Priorities Survey (ASPS) and qualitative interview data revealed primary factors involved in nontraditional (adult) accelerated RN-to-BSN student satisfaction. The ASPS assesses both satisfaction with and importance of the following factors: academic advising effectiveness, academic services, admissions and financial aid effectiveness, campus climate, instructional effectiveness, registration effectiveness, safety and security, and service excellence. Of these factors, participants considered instructional effectiveness and academic advising effectiveness as most important and concomitantly gave high satisfaction ratings to each. In contrast, convenience of the bookstore, counseling services, vending machines, and computer laboratories were given low importance ratings. The participants cited convenience as a strong marketing factor. Loss of financial aid or family crisis was given as a reason for withdrawal and, for most students, would be the only reason for not completing the BSN program. Outcomes of this investigation may guide faculty, staff, and administrators in proactively creating an educational environment in which a nontraditional student can succeed. PMID:18804082
Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...
Cimera, Robert Evert; Cowan, Richard J.
This article examines the cost of services and employment outcomes obtained by adults with autism within the United States vocational rehabilitation (VR) system. It found that the number of such individuals has increased by more than 121 percent from 2002 to 2006. Moreover, though adults with autism were employed at higher rates than most…
Ferguson, Kristin M.
This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…
Hartmann, Eva Ayers
This study evaluated employment outcomes of adults who were deaf and hard of hearing. The 200 subjects were deaf and hard of hearing adults 18 years and older. They completed a survey consisting of 20 multiple choice questions and three additional questions that required written responses. The results indicated there were significant associations…
Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin
This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…
Parks, Dennis R.
One of the major challenges for community colleges in the 1980s will be to respond to the increasing diversification of the student population and the trend towards a greater proportion of older, part-time, and women students. This trend will have a significant impact on student services and will require the development of strategies and programs…
Matthieu, Monica; Ivanoff, Andre
Attrition or dropout is the failure of a participant to complete, comply, or the prematurely discontinuation or discharge from treatment, resulting in lost data and affecting outcomes. This review of 10 years of adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome literature specific to Criterion A events of human origin examines how…
Anderson, Deborah K.; Liang, Jessie W.; Lord, Catherine
Background: The range of outcomes for young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and the early childhood factors associated with this diversity have implications for clinicians and scientists. Methods: This prospective study provided a unique opportunity to predict outcome 17 years later for a relatively large sample of children diagnosed…
Ahrens, Kym; DuBois, David Lane; Lozano, Paula; Richardson, Laura P.
We evaluated whether having a naturally acquired mentor during adolescence was associated with improved adult outcomes among youth with learning disabilities (YLD). Mentored youth were more likely to have graduated from high school, reported a higher level of self-esteem, and reported a higher overall number of positive outcomes than nonmentored…
Roberts, Sean D.; Stroud, Daniel; Hoag, Matthew J.; Combs, Katie M.
A lack of clarity exists regarding how different clients respond to outdoor behavioral health care (OBH). In this study, specific client and treatment characteristics were assessed for 186 young adults completing an OBH therapeutic wilderness program. Clinical outcomes were measured with the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2. Hierarchical linear modeling…
Adult students are an important subgroup in higher education. They are returning to school in numbers at higher percentage rates than their traditional counterparts. Between 2000 and 2010, the enrollment of students under age 25 increased by 34%; however, enrollment of students 25 and over rose 42% during the same period. From 2010 to 2020, the…
Rettig, Jean; Hu, Shouping
Using data from a random sample of first-year students in the 2009 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), we compared engagement in educationally purposeful activities in college, a set of educational outcomes, and the relationship between student engagement and educational outcomes for nonathletes and student-athletes participating in low-…
Fraser, Jane, Ed.
Participants in an adult education grade 11 English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing class, all immigrants to Canada with varying cultural backgrounds, wrote journal entries in response to the theme "growing up different." The project involved individual writing, word processing, peer editing, computer graphics, audiotape recording of completed…
Schlisk-Renner, Monique; Truscott, Sandra
Discusses the use of suggestopedia and accelerated learning (AL) techniques in a 10-week French-as-a-Second-Language course for 13 adult learners. Course organization, lesson plans, and results, focusing on the effectiveness of AL techniques in short-term courses, are examined. (two references) (MDM)
Schindler, Victoria P
Students in health care professions, including occupational therapy, are required to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes in mental health and research. Persons diagnosed with a mental illness, a learning disability or an autism-spectrum disorder desire to achieve goals in higher education and employment. Faculty in health care programmes strives to meet professional goals and accreditation and institution requirements for teaching, service and scholarship. The Bridge Program, a programme based on principles of community engagement, was developed to meet the needs of these three stakeholders. The objective of this paper is to provide programme description and outcomes of the effectiveness of the Bridge Program for all three stakeholders. This uses mixed methods research design including descriptive and quantitative and qualitative one-group pre-test-post-test designs. Instruments consisted of the Occupational Therapy Student and Mental Health Population Scale and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Quantitative results support that graduate occupational therapy students gained research and clinical skills (n = 100; p = .000); clients increased performance and satisfaction toward goals (n = 113; p = .000) and faculty (n = 1) achieved goals related to teaching, service and scholarship. Programmes based on principles of community engagement can address the needs of the community, can provide outcomes that advance knowledge about community practice and can result in benefits for all stakeholders. This paper is limited to generalization and instrumentation and recommends an ongoing evaluation of other community engagement programmes involving all stakeholders in the future research.
Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic
We present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. We also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group, and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the 4-week intervention. The program was highly feasible and acceptable to participants, and the curriculum was implemented with a high level of fidelity and facilitator quality. Pilot data show promising outcomes for increasing parental knowledge, communication, and monitoring of their adolescent children. PMID:24883051
Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne M; Roy, Linda
Distance learning offers a distinctive environment to educate nursing students. While there is a significant body of evidence in the literature related to course, program, and faculty outcomes of distance education, little attention has been given by researchers to evaluate student outcomes, with the exception of student satisfaction. There is a need to evaluate and translate findings related to student outcomes in distance learning into educational practice. Integrative reviews offer one strategy to contribute to evidence-based teaching practice initiatives. A search of available published qualitative and quantitative research on student outcomes of distance learning from 1999 to 2009 was conducted using a number of databases. Astin's Input-Environment-Output conceptual model provided a framework for this review. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Bothcognitive and affective student outcomes emerged. The cognitive outcomes were student learning, learning process, and technology proficiency. Affective outcomes included personal and professional growth, satisfaction, and connectedness. Implications, recommendations, and future research are discussed.
Hart, Cathy; Boehm, Barbara
To show that training programs for adults with intellectual handicaps can be successfully carried out regardless of the size of the community, information is provided on vocationally oriented programs in place at two Canadian community colleges: the Consumer and Job Preparation Program (CJPP) at Douglas College, in New Westminster, British…
You, Sukkyung; Shin, Kyulee
For many years, body dissatisfaction and mental health were thought of as Western phenomena and were studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and mental health outcomes, with personality traits and neuroticism playing possible predictive roles, using a Korean sample. A total of 545 college students, from five private universities in South Korea, completed assessment measures for depression, self-esteem, neuroticism, and body esteem scales. After controlling for covariates including body mass index and exercise time, body dissatisfaction was seen to play a mediating role between neuroticism and mental health outcomes. Differences between the sexes were also found in this relationship. For men, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and depression. For women, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and both depression and self-esteem. PMID:27173851
Mather, Mara; Schoeke, Andrej
Previous studies suggest that memory encoding is enhanced when people are anticipating a potential reward, consistent with the idea that dopaminergic systems that respond to motivationally relevant information also enhance memory for that information. In the current study, we examined how anticipating and receiving rewards versus losses affect incidental learning of information. In addition, we compared the modulatory effects of reward anticipation and outcome on memory for younger and older adults. Forty-two younger (aged 18–33 years) and 44 older (aged 66–92 years) adults played a game involving pressing a button as soon as they saw a target. Gain trials began with a cue that they would win $0.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, loss trials began with a cue that they would avoid losing $0.25 if they pressed the button fast enough, and no-outcome trials began with a cue indicating no monetary outcome. The target was a different photo-object on each trial (e.g., balloon, dolphin) and performance outcomes were displayed after the photo disappeared. Both younger and older adults recalled and recognized pictures from trials with positive outcomes (either rewarding or loss avoiding) better than from trials with negative outcomes. Positive outcomes were associated with not only enhanced memory for the picture just seen in that trial, but also with enhanced memory for the pictures shown in the next two trials. Although anticipating a reward also enhanced incidental memory, this effect was seen only in recognition memory of positive pictures and was a smaller effect than the outcome effect. The fact that older adults showed similar incidental memory effects of reward anticipation and outcome as younger adults suggests that reward–memory system interactions remain intact in older age. PMID:22125509
Balsa, Ana I.
Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…
de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien
To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…
The overall purpose of the study was to examine adult students' perception of the congruence of hybrid courses with adult learning needs and to examine adult students' level of satisfaction with hybrid courses. The study collected data through pre and post surveys, administered at the beginning and near the end of the hybrid courses, of adult…
Higgs, Chris; Skinner, Margot; Hale, Leigh
INTRODUCTION Diabetes, a long-term condition increasing in prevalence, requires ongoing healthcare management. Exercise alongside lifestyle education and support is effective for diabetes management. AIM To investigate clinical outcomes and acceptability of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes/prediabetes at programme completion and 3-month follow-up. METHODS The 12-week community programme included twice-weekly sessions of self-management education and exercise, supervised by a physiotherapist, physiotherapy students and a nurse. Clinical outcomes assessed were cardiorespiratory fitness, waist circumference, exercise behaviour and self-efficacy. A standardised evaluation form was used to assess programme acceptability. RESULTS Clinically significant improvements were found from baseline (n = 36) to programme completion (n = 25) and 3-months follow-up (n = 20) for the six minute walk test (87 m (95%CI 65-109; p ≤ 0.01), 60 m (95%CI 21-100; p ≤ 0.01)), waist circumference (-3 cm (95%CI -6 to -1), -3 cm (95%CI -6 to 1)), exercise behaviour (aerobic exercise 53 min/week (95%CI 26 to 81; p ≤ 0.01), 71 min/week (95%CI 25 to 118; p ≤ 0.01)) and self-efficacy (0.7 (95%CI -0.2 to 1.6), 0.8 (95%CI 0.04 to 1.5)). Good programme acceptability was demonstrated by themes suggesting a culturally supportive, motivating, friendly, informative atmosphere within the programme. The attrition rate was 30% but there were no adverse medical events related to the programme. DISCUSSION The programme was safe and culturally acceptable and outcomes demonstrated clinical benefit to participants. The attrition rate was largely due to medical reasons unrelated to the programme. This model of a community-based lifestyle programme has the potential to be reproduced in other regions and in adults with similar long-term conditions. KEYWORDS Diabetes Mellitus Type II; Prediabetic state; Co-morbidity; Exercise; Self-management.
Higgs, Chris; Skinner, Margot; Hale, Leigh
INTRODUCTION Diabetes, a long-term condition increasing in prevalence, requires ongoing healthcare management. Exercise alongside lifestyle education and support is effective for diabetes management. AIM To investigate clinical outcomes and acceptability of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes/prediabetes at programme completion and 3-month follow-up. METHODS The 12-week community programme included twice-weekly sessions of self-management education and exercise, supervised by a physiotherapist, physiotherapy students and a nurse. Clinical outcomes assessed were cardiorespiratory fitness, waist circumference, exercise behaviour and self-efficacy. A standardised evaluation form was used to assess programme acceptability. RESULTS Clinically significant improvements were found from baseline (n = 36) to programme completion (n = 25) and 3-months follow-up (n = 20) for the six minute walk test (87 m (95%CI 65-109; p ≤ 0.01), 60 m (95%CI 21-100; p ≤ 0.01)), waist circumference (-3 cm (95%CI -6 to -1), -3 cm (95%CI -6 to 1)), exercise behaviour (aerobic exercise 53 min/week (95%CI 26 to 81; p ≤ 0.01), 71 min/week (95%CI 25 to 118; p ≤ 0.01)) and self-efficacy (0.7 (95%CI -0.2 to 1.6), 0.8 (95%CI 0.04 to 1.5)). Good programme acceptability was demonstrated by themes suggesting a culturally supportive, motivating, friendly, informative atmosphere within the programme. The attrition rate was 30% but there were no adverse medical events related to the programme. DISCUSSION The programme was safe and culturally acceptable and outcomes demonstrated clinical benefit to participants. The attrition rate was largely due to medical reasons unrelated to the programme. This model of a community-based lifestyle programme has the potential to be reproduced in other regions and in adults with similar long-term conditions. KEYWORDS Diabetes Mellitus Type II; Prediabetic state; Co-morbidity; Exercise; Self-management. PMID:27477555
Lerut, Jan P; Orlando, Giuseppe; Sempoux, Christine; Ciccarelli, Olga; Van Beers, Bernard E; Danse, Etienne; Horsmans, Yves; Rahier, Jacques; Roggen, Francine
Hepatic epithelioid haemangioendotheliomas (HEHEs) are rare, low-grade vascular tumours. Five adults with HEHEs and one adult with a vascular tumour showing combined features of haemangioma and haemangioendothelioma underwent liver transplantation. Two HEHE patients had extrahepatic metastases at the time of transplantation. Median survival time following diagnosis was 10.7 years (range 40 months to 195 months). One patient needed resection of a HEHE in the breast 13 years post-transplantation. All six patients are surviving free from disease 22 to 166 months after transplantation (median 77 months). One HEHE-patient who had been treated for 8 years for vertebral and cerebral localisations is free of disease without immunosuppression 56 months after transplantation. We can conclude that liver transplantation is a valuable treatment for hepatic haemangioendothelioma, even in cases of extrahepatic localisation of the disease. PMID:15114438
Ralston, Sarah L
Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students.
Ralston, Sarah L
Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090
Rollins, Dani J.
Limited research is devoted to the transitional process of adult students to the traditional university environment. Considering the incredible numbers of adults projected to return to higher education and/or entering a college or university program for the first time, it behooves institutions of higher learning to invest in the success of adult…
Dodgson, Joan E; Tarrant, Marie
Educational institutions have the responsibility to provide students with knowledge and practical experiences of best practices and international standards of care. Worldwide, international standards for appropriate and effective breastfeeding promotion and services often have not been met. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an infant feeding educational intervention on student nurses' knowledge levels about (1) evidence-based breastfeeding promotion, (2) evidence-based beliefs about outcomes of breastfeeding and formula-feeding, (3) evidence-based attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula-feeding, and (4) intention to perform evidence-based breastfeeding promotion behaviors. A quasi-experimental intervention with a non-equivalent control group was conducted at a major university in Hong Kong. The intervention group (n=111) received 10h of didactic instruction and an 8-week perinatal clinical rotation while the control group (n=162) did not. The intervention group was significantly more likely to associate breastfeeding with positive maternal and child outcomes. Attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula-feeding were not significantly affected by the educational intervention. On the 19-item knowledge survey, the control group (M=6.84; SD=2.95) scored significantly lower than the intervention group (M=10.30; SD=2.51). A public health breastfeeding promotion strategy frequently overlooked is professional-level curricular interventions. Improving evidence-based practices in nursing programs has the potential to impact many breastfeeding families in the hospital and the community.
Carter, Steven J.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.
Reticence frequently prevents adult ESL learners from learning as much as they otherwise might. The nature of second-language learning requires frequent performance that may challenge students' self-concepts, leading to reticence and self-consciousness. To reduce or prevent this problem, teachers must employ appropriate pedagogical and classroom…
Adrignola, Matt Nolan
What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…
As people are living longer and enjoying better quality of life, there has been a corresponding increase in interest in recreational music-making by adults. This study examined the demographics and motivations of students enrolled in the Community Piano Experience hosted by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Music. Twenty-six…
Reising, Deanna L; Allen, Patricia N; Hall, Susan G
Service-learning has a long and distinguished history of providing valuable experiences to students across all academic levels. Professional disciplines are well situated to provide students with opportunities related to service-learning while also providing needed health care services to communities. This article and Part 2 on pages 516-518 of this issue describe a service-learning initiative implemented in a bachelor of science in nursing program. Part 1 details students' perceptions of outcomes realized from the program, and Part 2 describes community outcomes. The purposes of the program were to enhance students' skills in history-taking, blood pressure and heart rate assessment skills, and beginning counseling skills, as well as provide the university community with blood pressure screening and counseling in a convenient and accessible location. Data on students' perceptions were collected for each semester of the program and for 1 year after students' participation in the program. Students perceived gains in blood pressure and heart rate skill performance, beginning counseling skills, their understanding of tailored client action plans, and their professional commitment to the health of the community.
Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda
Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070
Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed.
O’Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A.
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate to what extent young adults with close ties to Mexico were at greater risk for self-reported negative mental health outcomes than comparison groups during drug-related armed conflict from 2008 through 2012, and the effect of type and number of traumatic events on mental health outcomes. Using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, 202 university students living in the El Paso–Ciudad Juárez border region were surveyed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Students with close ties to Mexico reported symptoms of anxiety and posttraumatic stress at significantly higher rates compared with those without connection to Mexico, but there was no significant difference in rates of depression. Although more than a third of participants reported experiencing 5 or more traumatic events connected with the drug war, being confined to home had the most significant effect. Frequency of traumatic events reported by students as well as rates of anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms were higher among students with greater connection to Mexico. Rates of clinically-significant depressive symptoms among all students were higher than expected for U.S. adults but comparable with all U.S. college students. This study presents important new data on the mental health effects of Mexico’s drug war. PMID:26633944
Lee, Wang-Sheng; Polidano, Cain
The aim of this report is to examine the potential use of information from the Student Outcomes Survey, including the use of student course satisfaction information and post-study outcomes, as a means of determining markers of training quality. In an analysis of the student course satisfaction measures, the authors found there are very small…
Morgan, Valda R. Beasley
One of many responsibilities for public schools concerning students with mental retardation is to assist students with the development of their individual transition plans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if post-secondary outcomes identified for students with mental retardation while in public school were the actual outcomes in which…
The last decade has seen an enormous increase in interest in and use of educational indicators. This paper focuses on K-12 student outcome indicators and measures of how well students have learned what is expected of them--the raison d'etre of schooling. It provides a Canadian perspective on student outcome indicators and has three major purposes:…
Westhues, Anne; Barsen, Chia; Freymond, Nancy; Train, Patricia
In this article, we report the findings from a study exploring the effects of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching and learning on learning outcomes for master's of social work (MSW) students. Students who participated in a PBL pilot project were compared with students who did not participate in 5 outcome areas: social work…
Using data on 11,000 graduate students from 100 departments over a 20 year period, I test whether graduate student outcomes (graduation rates, time to degree, publication success, and initial job placement) differ based on a student's gender and marital status. I find that married men have better outcomes across every measure than single men.…
Chamak, Brigitte; Bonniau, Béatrice
The aim of this retrospective study was to retrace the trajectories and long-term outcomes of individuals with autism in France, and to explore the family experiences. Data obtained from parents enables us to follow the trajectories of 76 adults. Two-thirds of adults with severe autism had a very poor outcome. Those with moderate autism had a better outcome. In adulthood, the majority were in residential accommodation. None were living independently. The trajectories of people with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism were more positive since all of them attended school for a long time and some went to university. All of them had a good outcome but they remained dependent on aging parents who had few available supports. PMID:26572660
Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T
Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment.
Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T
Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment. PMID:24997554
Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.
This workbook was developed to help adult literacy students learn about nutrition. It contains information sheets, student worksheets, and answers to the worksheets. The information sheets are coordinated with an available audiotape. Some of the topics covered in the workbook are the following: choosing good foods without spending a lot of money;…
Price, Karen; Baker, Sandra Nicks
As institutions seek to promote student engagement, the National Survey of Student Engagement has become a measure commonly used to document how institutions are meeting educational goals, but there is some question as to its applicability for certain undergraduate populations. 2010 survey results were analyzed for 125 adult and 69 traditional-age…
Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D
Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.
Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo
A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518
Chan, Charles C.; Tsui, M. S.; Chan, Mandy Y. C.; Hong, Joe H.
Using analyses of essay papers and classroom discussion responses, compared different educational taxonomies for measuring students' cognitive learning outcomes: Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO), Bloom's taxonomy, and a reflective thinking measurement model. Found that SOLO is suitable for measuring different kinds of learning…
Cimera, Robert Evert; Cowan, Richard J
This article examines the cost of services and employment outcomes obtained by adults with autism within the United States vocational rehabilitation (VR) system. It found that the number of such individuals has increased by more than 121 percent from 2002 to 2006. Moreover, though adults with autism were employed at higher rates than most disability groups investigated, they tended to work far fewer hours and earn less in wages per week. The study also found that adults with autism were among the most costly individuals to serve.
Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E
Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students. PMID:16996225
In the US fewer than 3 million students attend classes, while 90 million need basic education and English programmes. Adult education teachers and administrators are often inexperienced in community organising and leadership development. They are often even untrained in adult education. The field is regarded so poorly by government and the public,…
Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane
Context Psychiatric problems are among the most common health problems of childhood. Objective To test whether these health problems adversely affect adult functioning even if the problems themselves do not persist. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 participants assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood (ages 9 to 16; 6674 observations) for common psychiatric diagnoses and subthreshold psychiatric problems. Setting and population Community sample. Main outcome measure Participants were then assessed 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24–26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for adverse outcomes related to health, legal, financial, and social functioning. Results Participants with a childhood disorder had 6 times higher odds of at least one adverse adult outcome as compared to those with no history of psychiatric problems and 9 times higher odds of 2 or more such indicators (1 indicator: 59.5% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 34.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). These associations persisted after statistically controlling for childhood psychosocial hardships and adult psychiatric problems. Risk was not limited to those with a diagnosis: participants with subthreshold psychiatric problems had 3 times higher odds of adult adverse outcomes and 5 time higher odds of 2 or more outcomes (1 indicator: 41.9% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 23.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). The best diagnostic predictor of adverse outcomes was cumulative childhood exposure to psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Common, typically moderately-impairing, childhood psychiatric problems are associated with a disrupted transition to adulthood even if the problems do not persist into adulthood and even if the problems are subthreshold. Such problems provide potential target for public health efforts to ameliorate adult suffering and morbidity. PMID:26176785
Chase, Carla A.
Intergenerational interactions have demonstrated some success at improving attitudes of college students toward older adults. This quasiexperimental study involved undergraduate college students paired with older adults for a six-week e-mail exchange. Student attitudes toward older adults were measured pre- and posttest with Polizzi's revised…
Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica
Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. The purpose of this study was to examine academic and non-academic technology use by emerging adult college students. Survey results (N = 235) provided insights into emerging adult college student technology preferences and frequency…
Iyer, Sravisht; Nemani, Venu M; Kim, Han Jo
The correction of rigid spinal deformities in adult patients can require a three-column osteotomy (pedicle subtraction osteotomy [PSO] or vertebral column resection [VCR]) to obtain spinal balance. Unfortunately, the existing adult deformity literature frequently reports the outcomes and complications of these procedures together even though VCR is a more extensive procedure with potentially higher rates of complications. We sought to address this shortcoming and provide clinicians with an overview of the existing literature regarding VCR in adult patients. The goals of this review are: to determine the rate of overall and neurologic complications following VCR, the rate of complications with VCR compared to PSO, and the impact of VCR on clinical and radiographic outcomes. An electronic literature search was used to identify studies reporting outcomes or complications following VCR in adult patients. Raw data on patient demographics, case information, radiographic outcomes, complications and clinical outcomes were extracted. Data were pooled to report a rate of overall complications and neurologic complications. A pooled relative risk of complications following PSO vs. VCR was also calculated. Eleven retrospective studies (Level IV) met our inclusion criteria. The overall rate of complications was 69.2%. The reoperation rate was 9.6%. The rate of neurologic complications was 13.3% (range, 6.3% to 15.8%) with most cases being transient. The rate of permanent neurologic deficits was 2.0%. We found a significantly higher rate of all complications with VCR compared to PSO (relative risk, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.49; p<0.001). All studies reporting clinical outcomes showed significant improvements in functional outcome postoperatively. PMID:27340543
Iyer, Sravisht; Nemani, Venu M.
The correction of rigid spinal deformities in adult patients can require a three-column osteotomy (pedicle subtraction osteotomy [PSO] or vertebral column resection [VCR]) to obtain spinal balance. Unfortunately, the existing adult deformity literature frequently reports the outcomes and complications of these procedures together even though VCR is a more extensive procedure with potentially higher rates of complications. We sought to address this shortcoming and provide clinicians with an overview of the existing literature regarding VCR in adult patients. The goals of this review are: to determine the rate of overall and neurologic complications following VCR, the rate of complications with VCR compared to PSO, and the impact of VCR on clinical and radiographic outcomes. An electronic literature search was used to identify studies reporting outcomes or complications following VCR in adult patients. Raw data on patient demographics, case information, radiographic outcomes, complications and clinical outcomes were extracted. Data were pooled to report a rate of overall complications and neurologic complications. A pooled relative risk of complications following PSO vs. VCR was also calculated. Eleven retrospective studies (Level IV) met our inclusion criteria. The overall rate of complications was 69.2%. The reoperation rate was 9.6%. The rate of neurologic complications was 13.3% (range, 6.3% to 15.8%) with most cases being transient. The rate of permanent neurologic deficits was 2.0%. We found a significantly higher rate of all complications with VCR compared to PSO (relative risk, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.24–1.49; p<0.001). All studies reporting clinical outcomes showed significant improvements in functional outcome postoperatively. PMID:27340543
Votruba, Susanne B; Thearle, Marie S; Piaggi, Paolo; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Krakoff, Jonathan
Objective Defining groups of individuals within a larger population with similar patterns of weight change over time may provide insight into influences of weight stability or gain. Methods Latent class growth modeling was used to define subgroups of weight change in adult members of the Gila River Indian Community participating in at least 4 non-diabetic health exams including OGTTs (N=1157, 762F/395M; 78.4±19.0 kg). In a separate study, 152 individuals had 24-hr EE measured in a respiratory chamber. Results Eight groups with baseline weights of 54.6±7.3 (n=124), 64.2±7.7 (n=267), 73.6±7.8 (n=298), 86.1±10.2 (n=194), 95.5±6.7 (n=90), 97.9±10.4 (n=92), 110.9±11.9 (n=61), and 122.1±13.6 (n=31) kg (P<0.001) were delineated. Group 5, (initial weight=95.5±6.7 kg) maintained a comparatively stable weight over time (+3.3±10.3 kg, +3.8±11.2% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 13.1 years). All other groups gained weight over time (+29.9±21.1% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 16.3 years). Higher starting weight defined weight gain in most groups, but higher 2hr glucose predicted membership in the lower weight trajectories. The weight stable group had higher rates of impaired glucose regulation at baseline and higher 24-hr EE. Conclusions Weight in young adulthood defined weight gain trajectory underscoring the importance of intervening early to prevent weight gain. PMID:25131650
Ledda, Maria Giuseppina; Fratta, Anna Lisa; Pintor, Manuela; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cianchetti, Carlo
A comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in adolescents with three types of psychotic disorders: schizophrenic (SPh), schizoaffective (SA) and bipolar with psychotic features (BPP). Subjects (n = 41) were finally diagnosed (DSM-IV criteria) with SPh (n = 17), SA (n = 11) or BPP (n = 13). Clinical evaluation took place at onset and at a…
Davis, Maryann; Cooper, Deborah K.
This study used archival data to examine adult charges and court outcomes for 82 individuals who had been treated in public mental health programs as adolescents. Subjects' clinical records from their adolescent day treatment (18 percent), residential (23 percent) or hospital program (58 percent) were reviewed for sociodemographics, clinical…
Kirby, Anne V.
Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2,…
A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…
Cho, Rosa Minhyo; Tyler, John H.
The authors use administrative data from Florida to determine the extent to which prison-based adult basic education (ABE) improves inmate's postrelease labor market outcomes, such as earnings and employment. Using two nonexperimental comparison groups, the authors find evidence that ABE participation is associated with higher postrelease…
Stancliffe, Roger J.
This paper focuses on adults with disability and their inclusion in Australian society by examining various outcomes: community living, community participation and inclusive social roles such as open (competitive) employment, participation in university education, as well as use of generic community services like public transport. Australian…
Milman, Doris H.
Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…
Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.
Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…
Migliore, Alberto; Butterworth, John
This article describes national trends in outcomes of the vocational rehabilitation (VR) program, with a focus on adults with developmental disabilities during the period of 1995 to 2005. Findings show that the VR program has made substantial progress in excluding extended employment from the array of possible employment closures. Efforts are…
Adult literacy program outcomes have been disappointing. A number of principals and methods from cognitive and neuropsychological research can be used to make literacy instruction more effective, including the following: improving cognitive function; fast reading; reading practice; literacy as a motivator; and improving use of class time.…
McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.
Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…
Copeland, Amy L.; And Others
Two versions of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire for adults were developed and tested with 407 smokers and nonsmokers. The version with probability items appeared to have greater construct validity than the version with subjective expected utility items. The scale reflects the refinement of smokers' outcome expectancies with experience. (SLD)
Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.
Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…
Bouffard, Jeffrey A.; Muftic, Lisa R.
Relatively little research has examined the outcomes (either program completion or recidivism) of community service (CS) sentences among adult offenders in the United States, despite the fact that this form of alternative sanction has been employed in the United States for nearly 40 years. What little research exists, primarily from Europe,…
Althoff, Robert R.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Rettew, David C.; Hudziak, James J.; van der Ende, Jan
Objective: Using a general population sample, the adult outcomes of children who presented with severe problems with self-regulation defined as being concurrently rated highly on attention problems, aggressive behavior, and anxious-depression on the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) were examined. Method: Two thousand…
Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.
This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…
Legge, Eric L. G.; Spetch, Marciar L.
We investigated whether search accuracy of adult humans could be enhanced using differential reward contingencies in landmark-based spatial tasks conducted on a computer screen. We found that search accuracy was significantly enhanced by differential outcomes in a conditional spatial search task, in which the landmark-to-goal relationship depended…
Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Coppel-Batsch, Marthe; Couraud, Simone
Assessment of adult outcomes of 59 children from severely psychosocially dysfunctional families, who were placed in foster families for at least five years, found most had overcome their childhood adversities with 56% well-integrated socially and only 10% in situations of failure. Difficulties were linked to multiple family disturbances, traumatic…
McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J; Pentieva, Kristina; Ward, Mary
CVD is the most common cause of death in people over 65 years. This review considers the latest evidence for a potential protective effect of C(1) donors (folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins) in CVD. Such an effect may or may not be mediated via the role of these nutrients in maintaining plasma homocysteine concentrations within a desirable range. Despite predictions from epidemiological studies that lowering plasma homocysteine would reduce cardiovascular risk, several secondary prevention trials in at-risk patients published since 2004 have failed to demonstrate a benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy with B-vitamins on CVD events generally. All these trials were performed in CVD patients with advanced disease; thus current evidence suggests that intervention with high-dose folic acid is of no benefit in preventing another event, at least in the case of heart disease. The evidence at this time, however, is stronger for stroke, with meta-analyses of randomised trials showing that folic acid reduces the risk of stroke, particularly in people with no history of stroke. Genetic studies provide convincing evidence to support a causal relationship between sub-optimal B-vitamin status and CVD. People homozygous for the common C677T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), typically have a 14-21% higher risk of CVD. Apart from folate, riboflavin is required as a co-factor for MTHFR. New evidence shows that riboflavin intervention results in marked lowering of blood pressure, specifically in patients with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. This novel gene-nutrient interaction may provide insights as to the mechanism that links C(1) metabolism with CVD outcomes. PMID:22152927
Mustapić, Matej; Višković, Klaudija; Borić, Igor; Marjan, Domagoj; Zadravec, Dijana; Begovac, Josip
The aim of the study was to assess disease characteristics and outcome in patients with vertebral osteomyelitis (VO). A two medical centre retrospective cohort study was performed by chart review after discharge of 110 patients with confirmed VO treated during a 5-year period. Patients were divided in two groups: patients with uncomplicated VO and patients with complicated VO. All patients underwent clinical and biological examinations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the same protocol. Patients with complicated VO were significantly older (p = 0.038). They were longer treated with antibiotics parenterally (p = 0.047) and more often surgically (p < 0.001). In these patients, high Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score was more often observed (p = 0.024), as well as liver cirrhosis (p = 0.013) and degenerative spine disease (p = 0.007) as comorbidities. Patients with advanced MRI changes of VO had a modified CCI score of 2 or more (p = 0.006). They more often experienced neurological deficit (p = 0.021). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated bacterium from blood and tissue samples. Advanced MRI changes and complicated VO were more often observed in patients with high CCI score due to impaired immune system caused by chronic comorbid disease(s) or modulation of immunity with medications. High CCI scores were more frequently associated with positive blood cultures due to bacteremia because of impaired immunity. Patients with complicated VO were longer treated with antibiotics parenterally and more often surgically treated for phlegmon and abscess formation. Liver cirrhosis and degenerative spine disease, which were more often found in patients with complicated VO, obviously impacted the course of the disease. PMID:27333712
Endo, Jean; Bittner, Terry
Constructing a longitudinal student outcomes data file takes careful planning and attention to detail, but investment in such a resource yields substantial dividends in the ability to document and explain complex patterns of student success. (Author)
Romans, S E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; O'Shea, M L; Mullen, P E
The psychological outcome for a random community sample of women who had experienced significant childhood sexual abuse was assessed, using two outcome measures: (i) psychiatric morbidity (measured with the short PSE); (ii) self-esteem. Sexual abused women with a good outcome, i.e. who were not a PSE 'case' or who had high self-esteem were compared with abused women with a poor outcome. This paper describes the post-abuse factors that modified the two outcomes. In general, a range of variables, all correlated with each other in a complex manner, distinguished good outcome subjects from poor outcome subjects. Post-abuse adolescent variables included family factors (poor mother-father and parent-child relationships), high school factors (poor academic, sporting and social performance) and early pregnancy. Women who had a good adolescent relationship with their father did better than expected statistically. Sport emerged as an alternative at secondary school to academic achievement in catalysing a good psychological outcome. Adult factors included the quality of relationship with partner, which was associated with a good outcome on both measures. Current paid employment was linked to high self-esteem but not to lowered psychiatric morbidity, while the converse applied for high socio-economic status. These findings imply that different processes operate for each outcome measure. A clear recognition by the school of childhood sexual abuse may help to provide the opportunity for the girl to experience success in some arena; this in turn may protect her against the likely adult consequences of low self-esteem and increased psychiatric morbidity.
Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.
This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462
Loehlin, John C; Horn, Joseph M; Ernst, Jody L
A short mail questionnaire was sent to individuals, now adults, who had been studied over 30 years ago as children in the Texas Adoption Project. Their parents and (in many cases) siblings also described them using the same questionnaire, and the parents described themselves as well. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information about educational, occupational, and marital outcomes, as well as adult problems and personality. Results were obtained for 324 adopted and 142 biological children from the original 300 families, and for 266 parents. Although both the adopted and biological offsprings' outcomes were generally positive, those for the adopted offspring were somewhat less so. Biologically related family members tended to be more similar in their life outcomes than biologically unrelated family members, suggesting that genes were playing an important role.
Kuk, Linda; Banning, James
The focus and purpose of master's degree student affairs preparation programs is to prepare students to become competent student affairs practitioners. Program assessments, especially those focused on outcomes are important metrics for understanding the role and impact of student affairs professional preparation programs. A well designed…
Strömqvist, Fredrik; Strömqvist, Björn; Jönsson, Bo; Karlsson, Magnus K
Background and purpose - The outcome of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been thoroughly evaluated in middle-aged patients, but less so in elderly patients. Patients and methods - With validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and using SweSpine (the national Swedish Spine Surgery Register), we analyzed the preoperative clinical status of LDH patients and the 1-year postoperative outcome of LDH surgery performed over the period 2000-2012. We included 1,250 elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) and 12,840 young and middle-aged patients (aged 20-64). Results - Generally speaking, elderly patients were referred for LDH surgery with worse PROM scores than young and middle-aged patients, they improved less by surgery, they experienced more complications, they had inferior 1-year postoperative PROM scores, and they were less satisfied with the outcome (with all differences being statistically significant). Interpretation - Elderly patients appear to have a worse postoperative outcome after LDH surgery than young and middle-aged patients, they are referred to surgery with inferior clinical status, and they improve less after the surgery. PMID:27391663
Strömqvist, Fredrik; Strömqvist, Björn; Jönsson, Bo; Karlsson, Magnus K
Background and purpose The outcome of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been thoroughly evaluated in middle-aged patients, but less so in elderly patients. Patients and methods With validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and using SweSpine (the national Swedish Spine Surgery Register), we analyzed the preoperative clinical status of LDH patients and the 1-year postoperative outcome of LDH surgery performed over the period 2000–2012. We included 1,250 elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) and 12,840 young and middle-aged patients (aged 20–64). Results Generally speaking, elderly patients were referred for LDH surgery with worse PROM scores than young and middle-aged patients, they improved less by surgery, they experienced more complications, they had inferior 1-year postoperative PROM scores, and they were less satisfied with the outcome (with all differences being statistically significant). Interpretation Elderly patients appear to have a worse postoperative outcome after LDH surgery than young and middle-aged patients, they are referred to surgery with inferior clinical status, and they improve less after the surgery. PMID:27391663
Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph
Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. PMID:27194659
Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph
Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends.
Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L
Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In the present study, we assess the difference between juvenile and adult sex offenders in terms of the propensity for passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. A sample of 324 sex offenders (86 juveniles and 238 adults) who engaged in a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination as part of their treatment in an Intermountain West sex offender treatment agency was used for the analysis. Results from preliminary and logistic regression analyses indicate that juvenile and adult offenders do not significantly differ in the likelihood of passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:25049032
Jensen, Todd M; Shafer, Kevin; Roby, C Y; Roby, Jini L
Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In the present study, we assess the difference between juvenile and adult sex offenders in terms of the propensity for passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. A sample of 324 sex offenders (86 juveniles and 238 adults) who engaged in a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination as part of their treatment in an Intermountain West sex offender treatment agency was used for the analysis. Results from preliminary and logistic regression analyses indicate that juvenile and adult offenders do not significantly differ in the likelihood of passing a sexual history disclosure polygraph examination. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Bresciani, Marilee J.; Gardner, Megan Moore; Hickmott, Jessica
This practical guide to outcomes-based assessment in student affairs is designed to help readers meet the growing demand for accountability and for demonstrating student learning. The authors offer a framework for implementing the assessment of student learning and development and pragmatic advice on the strategies most appropriate for the…
Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Chen, Senlin; McBride, Ron
This study was designed to determine the impact of 12-week student teaching semesters on student teachers' self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs in teaching physical education classes. A pre-post design was used to examine changes in beliefs of 107 physical education student teachers. Self-efficacy (instructional strategies, class…
Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Babinski, Dara E; Walther, Christine; Cheong, Jeewon; Yu, Jihnhee; Kent, Kristine M
Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young adults with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD on educational and occupational outcomes and the predictors of these outcomes. Participants were from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a prospective study with yearly data collection. Significant group differences were found for nearly all variables such that educational and occupational attainment was lower for adults with compared to adults without histories of childhood ADHD. Despite the mean difference, educational functioning was wide-ranging. High school academic achievement significantly predicted enrollment in post-high school education and academic and disciplinary problems mediated the relationship between childhood ADHD and post-high school education. Interestingly, ADHD diagnosis and disciplinary problems negatively predicted occupational status while enrollment in post-high school education was a positive predictor. Job loss was positively predicted by a higher rate of academic problems and diagnosis of ADHD. This study supports the need for interventions that target the child and adolescent predictors of later educational and occupational outcomes in addition to continuing treatment of ADHD in young adulthood targeting developmentally appropriate milestones, such as completing post-high school education and gaining and maintaining stable employment.
Esteban, Laura; Plaza, Victoria; López-Crespo, Ginesa; Vivas, Ana B; Estévez, Angeles F
Previous studies have demonstrated that the differential outcomes procedure (DOP), which involves paring a unique reward with a specific stimulus, enhances discriminative learning and memory performance in several populations. The present study aimed to further investigate whether this procedure would improve face recognition memory in 5- and 7-year-old children (Experiment 1) and adults with Down syndrome (Experiment 2). In a delayed matching-to-sample task, participants had to select the previously shown face (sample stimulus) among six alternatives faces (comparison stimuli) in four different delays (1, 5, 10, or 15s). Participants were tested in two conditions: differential, where each sample stimulus was paired with a specific outcome; and non-differential outcomes, where reinforcers were administered randomly. The results showed a significantly better face recognition in the differential outcomes condition relative to the non-differential in both experiments. Implications for memory training programs and future research are discussed.
Jurich, Daniel P.; Bradshaw, Laine P.
The assessment of higher-education student learning outcomes is an important component in understanding the strengths and weaknesses of academic and general education programs. This study illustrates the application of diagnostic classification models, a burgeoning set of statistical models, in assessing student learning outcomes. To facilitate…
Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.
This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of…
Mangum, James Irvin, III
This study examined the correlation between teacher self-efficacy and student outcomes. Teacher self-efficacy was measured in 99 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Seminaries and Institutes seminary teachers using Tschannen-Moran and Hoy's Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale (2001). Student outcomes included academic grades, conduct…
Musah, Mohammed Borhandden; Ali, Hairuddin Bin Mohd; Al-Hudawi, Shafeeq Hussain Vazhathodi; Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Daud, Khadijah Binti; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim
The vibrant demand for academic excellence in the twenty-first century has brought diverse determinants of students' outcome into play. However, few studies have validated the instruments and examined the mediating effect between exogenous and endogenous variables of the student outcome model. This study, therefore, investigates the psychometric…
Danley-Scott, Jennifer; Scott, Gray
Articles on student learning outcomes assessment often treat faculty as one homogenous body. Yet the exponential growth of contingent faculty in universities and colleges has created two distinct faculty groups with varied concerns and thoughts on everything from the future of higher education to shared governance to student learning outcomes.…
Bravo, Rafael; Lucia-Palacios, Laura; Martin, Maria J.
The presence of student teamwork is increasing in most university degrees. However, there is still a gap in the literature regarding the connection between teamwork processes and their outcomes. In this paper, the authors analyze these processes and how they relate to teamwork outcomes from the students' perspective. Data was gathered from 129…
Dimmitt, Carey; Wilkerson, Belinda
This study explored relationships among school counseling practices, secondary school demographics, and student outcomes in the state of Rhode Island during a 2-year period. The results showed strong and consistent correlations between increased amounts of school counseling services and positive student outcomes. Schools with higher percentages of…
Ibukun, W. O.; Akinfolarin, C. A.; Alimi, O. S.
This study investigated resource utilisation in vocational and technical education as a correlate of student learning outcome in selected colleges of education in south west Nigeria. The study examined the relationship between time, space and physical resource utilisation and perceived student learning outcome. The study used the descriptive…
In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…
This research study examined the post-graduation employment outcomes of business undergraduate college students who have participated in a cooperative education (co-op) program. The co-op students' post-graduate employment outcomes were compared to those of non-program (co-op) participants. This data was gathered from the Sam M. Walton College of…
Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Lloyd, Claire A.; Rowe, Kenneth J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different types of leadership on students' academic and nonacademic outcomes. Research Design: The methodology involved an analysis of findings from 27 published studies of the relationship between leadership and student outcomes. The first meta-analysis, including 22 of the…
Tagaro, M; Harries, A D; Kool, B; Ram, S; Viney, K; Marais, B; Tarivonda, L
Contexte : Les cinq centres DOTS du Vanuatu.Objectifs : Déterminer le fardeau de la tuberculose (TB) à travers les classes d'âge, le profil de la maladie et les résultats du traitement des patients enregistré entre 2007 et 2011.Schema : Etude de cohorte rétrospective impliquant des registres de TB et des cartes de traitement.Resultats : Sur 588 patients enregistrés, 142 (24%) étaient des enfants (âgés de 0–14 ans), 327 étaient des adultes (âgés de 15–54 ans) et 119 des adultes plus âgés (âgés de ⩾55 ans, subdivisés en 55–64 et ⩾65 ans). Parmi eux, 568 étaient des nouveaux patients, et 13 avaient déjà été traités ; pour 7 d'entre eux, le statut était inconnu. Comparés aux adultes, les enfants avec une TB nouvelle avaient une plus grande prévalence de TB extra pulmonaire (75% contre 34% ; OR 5,7 ; IC95% 3,6–9,0) et une prévalence plus faible de TB pulmonaire frottis positif (11% contre 45% ; OR 0,15 ; IC95% 0,3–0,3). Les adultes âgés de ⩾55 ans avaient une prévalence plus élevée de TB pulmonaire à frottis négatif (38% contre 21% ; OR 2,4 ; IC95% 1,5–3,8). Le succès du traitement de la TB a été de 83% pour l'ensemble du groupe, mais seulement de 67% pour les patients âgés de ⩾65 ans avec un taux de létalité de 18%.Conclusion : Les enfants et les adultes plus âgés constituent 45% du fardeau de la TB au Vanuatu. Les différences constatées en termes de profil de la maladie et de résultats thérapeutiques moins bons chez les adultes âgés ont des implications en matière de politique et de pratiques.
Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis
This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…
Drevon, Daniel D; Almazan, Elbert P; Jacob, Susan; Rhymer, Katrina N
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study datasets, this study examined whether natural mentoring relationships during adolescence were associated with young adult outcomes among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Outcomes in three domains were investigated: education and employment, psychological wellbeing, and substance use and abuse. Results indicated that LGB persons reporting natural mentors during adolescence were about three times as likely to graduate from high school as those without. Discussion surrounds strategies to foster mentoring relationships within the school environment or community. PMID:26566579
Ohio State Literacy Resource Center, Kent.
This document contains 58 poems, essays, letters, personal narratives, reminiscences, and short stories that were selected from 255 entries submitted by 170 adult student writers in Ohio. The student-authored literary works, which adult educators can use in their adult literacy classrooms, are grouped under the following themes: family, learning,…
Southerland, J. Nathaniel
Adults are participating in all levels of higher education in increasing numbers due to a variety of societal, cultural, technological, and economic pressures. While many adult students attend 2-year colleges and technical institutions, 4-year colleges and universities are also enrolling substantial percentages of adult students. Nevertheless,…
Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive
The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.
Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive
The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats. PMID:26479236
Blevins, Claire E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A
Research and theory strongly support the importance of situational determinants of substance use as targets for intervention, but few studies have systematically examined situational use characteristics in marijuana dependent adults. The present study describes situational use of marijuana in a population of 87 marijuana dependent adults and reports relationships with outcomes of treatment. Use in negative affective situations was independently associated with psychological distress, maladaptive coping strategies, lower self-efficacy, and poorer outcomes post-treatment. The findings were consistent with research on using drugs to cope with negative affect providing evidence of convergence between two different methods of assessing high risk situations for substance use. The results support continued emphasis on coping with negative affect as a target in treatments for marijuana dependence.
Background Many studies have shown that clinical characteristics and outcomes differ depending on pathologic variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, these are not well defined in Asian populations. Methods This retrospective study evaluated clinical features and outcomes of pathologic FSGS variants in 111 adult patients between January 2004 and December 2012. Primary outcome was the composite of doubling of baseline serum creatinine concentrations (D-SCr) or onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcome included complete (CR) or partial remission (PR). Results There were 70 (63.1%), 20 (18.0%), 17 (15.3%), 3 (2.7%), and 1 (0.9%) patients with not-otherwise specified (NOS), tip, perihilar, cellular, and collapsing variants, respectively. At presentation, nephrotic-range proteinuria occurred more commonly in tip lesion than in other variants. The overall 5-year renal survival rate was 76.8%. During a median follow-up of 34.5 months, only 1 (5.0%) patient with a tip lesion reached the composite end point compared to 2 (11.8%) and 12 (17.1%) patients in perihilar and NOS variants, but this difference was not statistically significant in an adjusted Cox model. However, tip lesion was associated with a significantly increased probability of achieving CR (P = 0.044). Conclusion Similar to other populations, Korean adult patients with FSGS have distinct clinical features with the exception of a rare frequency of cellular and collapsing variants. Although pathologic variants were not associated with overall outcome, the tip variant exhibited favorable outcome in terms of achieving remission. Further studies are required to delineate long-term outcome and response to treatment of the pathologic variants. PMID:24666814
Lee, Yung Soo; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; McCrary, Stacey
A randomized field trial involving 883 students at 23 schools in three urban cities assessed the effectiveness of Experience Corps[R] (EC), a program that places older adult volunteers in elementary schools to tutor students who are poor readers. Students were assessed at the beginning and end of the academic year with standardized reading…
Attrill, Stacie; McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle
Placements provide opportunities for students to develop practice skills in professional settings. Learning in placements may be challenging for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students, international students, or those without sufficient English proficiency for professional practice. This study investigated whether these factors, which are hypothesized to influence acculturation, predict poor placement outcome. Placement outcome data were collected for 854 students who completed 2747 placements. Placement outcome was categorized into 'Pass' or 'At risk' categories. Multilevel binomial regression analysis was used to determine whether being CALD, an international student, speaking 'English as an additional language', or a 'Language other than English at home' predicted placement outcome. In multiple multilevel analysis speaking English as an additional language and being an international student were significant predictors of 'at risk' placements, but other variables tested were not. Effect sizes were small indicating untested factors also influenced placement outcome. These results suggest that students' English as an additional language or international student status influences success in placements. The extent of acculturation may explain the differences in placement outcome for the groups tested. This suggests that learning needs for placement may differ for students undertaking more acculturative adjustments. Further research is needed to understand this and to identify placement support strategies. PMID:27492321
Attrill, Stacie; McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle
Placements provide opportunities for students to develop practice skills in professional settings. Learning in placements may be challenging for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students, international students, or those without sufficient English proficiency for professional practice. This study investigated whether these factors, which are hypothesized to influence acculturation, predict poor placement outcome. Placement outcome data were collected for 854 students who completed 2747 placements. Placement outcome was categorized into 'Pass' or 'At risk' categories. Multilevel binomial regression analysis was used to determine whether being CALD, an international student, speaking 'English as an additional language', or a 'Language other than English at home' predicted placement outcome. In multiple multilevel analysis speaking English as an additional language and being an international student were significant predictors of 'at risk' placements, but other variables tested were not. Effect sizes were small indicating untested factors also influenced placement outcome. These results suggest that students' English as an additional language or international student status influences success in placements. The extent of acculturation may explain the differences in placement outcome for the groups tested. This suggests that learning needs for placement may differ for students undertaking more acculturative adjustments. Further research is needed to understand this and to identify placement support strategies.
Morse, Siobhan; MacMaster, Samuel
Opiate use patterns, user characteristics, and treatment response among young adults are of interest due to current high use prevalence and historical low levels of treatment engagement relative to older populations. Prior research in this population suggests that overall, young adults present at treatment with different issues. In this study the authors investigated potential differences between young adult (18-25 years of age) and older adult (26 and older) opiate users and the impact of differences relative to treatment motivation, length and outcomes. Data for this study was drawn from 760 individuals who entered voluntary, private, residential treatment. Study measures included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Treatment Service Review (TSR), and University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Interviews were conducted at program intake and 6-month post-discharge. Results indicate that older adults with a history of opiate use present at treatment with higher levels of severity for alcohol, medical, and psychological problems and young adults present at treatment with greater drug use and more legal issues. Significant improvement for both groups was noted at 6 months post treatment; there were also fewer differences between the two age groups of opiate users. Results suggest different strategies within treatment programs may provide benefit in targeting the disparate needs of younger opiate users. Overall, however, results suggest that individualized treatment within a standard, abstinence-based, residential treatment model can be effective across opiate users at different ages and with different issues, levels of severity, and impairment at intake.
Morse, Siobhan; MacMaster, Samuel
Opiate use patterns, user characteristics, and treatment response among young adults are of interest due to current high use prevalence and historical low levels of treatment engagement relative to older populations. Prior research in this population suggests that overall, young adults present at treatment with different issues. In this study the authors investigated potential differences between young adult (18-25 years of age) and older adult (26 and older) opiate users and the impact of differences relative to treatment motivation, length and outcomes. Data for this study was drawn from 760 individuals who entered voluntary, private, residential treatment. Study measures included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Treatment Service Review (TSR), and University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Interviews were conducted at program intake and 6-month post-discharge. Results indicate that older adults with a history of opiate use present at treatment with higher levels of severity for alcohol, medical, and psychological problems and young adults present at treatment with greater drug use and more legal issues. Significant improvement for both groups was noted at 6 months post treatment; there were also fewer differences between the two age groups of opiate users. Results suggest different strategies within treatment programs may provide benefit in targeting the disparate needs of younger opiate users. Overall, however, results suggest that individualized treatment within a standard, abstinence-based, residential treatment model can be effective across opiate users at different ages and with different issues, levels of severity, and impairment at intake. PMID:25879396
Although academic performance is a concern, African American students represent less than 8 percent of California's K-12 students, and at times get lost in California policy debates about improving student performance. Findings of this study indicate that: (1) California's African American students are concentrated in relatively few counties and…
Parviainen, Mickael; Pihlajamäki, Harri K.
Excision of the accessory bipartite fragment is widely used, but its long-term outcome is not known. We evaluated the outcome after surgical excision of a symptomatic accessory bipartite or multipartite patella fragment in young adult men performing their compulsory military service and determined the incidence of painful bipartite patellae in this group of skeletally mature adults. We followed 25 of 32 patients for a minimum of 10 years (mean, 15 years; range, 10–22 years). The incidence of painful, surgically treated bipartite patella was 9.2 per 100,000 recruits. Patients’ median age at surgery was 20 years. There were 19 superolateral and six lateral bipartite fragments. Other radiographic findings were rare. At followup, the Kujala score mean was 95 points (range, 75–100 points), and osteoarthrotic changes (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade 1) were seen in two knees. No reoperations related to bipartite patella occurred during the followup. Symptomatic bipartite patella is rare and does not seem primarily associated with anatomic deviations, but when incapacitating pain persists despite nonoperative treatment, surgical excision seems to yield reasonable functional outcome and quick recovery with no apparent adverse sequelae. Our data suggest there is no reason to avoid this technically undemanding procedure for treating persistent symptoms of bipartite patella in young adults. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18607662
Houle, Jason N.
In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…
Boulanger, Jennifer A.
All college students face new challenges and transitions, but for first-generation adult community college students, those challenges are more pervasive than those of their second-generation peers. The problem addressed is that first-generation adult community college students are at greater risk than their second-generation peers of dropping out…
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Michail, Domna
The paper explores accordance or discordance between efficacy beliefs of adult students and their writing performance, using a mixed methods design. The participants are 33 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 35 low-achieving (LA) students, who were attending two Second-Chance Schools (SCSs), a specific type of adult education.…
Howell, Cynthia Lake
This digest discusses adult students in community colleges, focusing on their learning expectations and needs. In 1997, nearly a third of community college students were age 30 or older. Adult students often have realistic, practical goals for their education and bring valuable life experience to the community college classroom. However, adults…
Adegoke, Benson Adesina
Introduction: Student's personality orientation and teacher's classroom behavior are among the many factors that influence student's learning. In this study, the author examined the effect of indirect teacher influence on dependent-prone students' learning outcomes (achievement) in mathematics at the senior secondary school level. Method: The…
Walker, Kristen; Curren, Mary T.; Kiesler, Tina; Lammers, H. Bruce; Goldenson, Jamie
The authors' intent was to show the effect of student discussion board activity on academic outcomes, after accounting for past academic performance. Data were collected from 516 students enrolled in a junior-level required business course. Controlling for students' grade point average, stepwise regression showed a significant…
Little empirical research has been done on student learning outcomes and college experiences in China, where the gross enrollment rate in higher education reached 26.5 percent and the undergraduate population exceeded 22 million in 2010. This study seeks to describe, explain, and interpret student learning as perceived from students in Chinese…
Hu, Shouping; McCormick, Alexander C.
Using data from the 2006 cohort of the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, we developed a student typology based on student responses to survey items on the National Survey of Student Engagement. We then examined the utility of this typology in understanding direct-assessment learning outcomes, self-reported gains, grade-point…
Chesbrough, Ronald D.
The purpose of this study was to add to our understanding of the motivations toward service among college students, to get a clearer sense of how students choose their service involvements, and to better understand the learning outcomes from service involvement during college. Findings indicated differences in how students spoke about their…
Hassed, Craig; de Lisle, Steven; Sullivan, Gavin; Pier, Ciaran
Medical students experience various stresses and many poor health behaviours. Previous studies consistently show that student wellbeing is at its lowest pre-exam. Little core-curriculum is traditionally dedicated to providing self-care skills for medical students. This paper describes the development, implementation and outcomes of the Health…
The relationship between organizational behavior and student outcomes has been understudied, especially in less selective public research universities and among students from underrepresented populations. This study draws on Berger and Milem's (2000) framework to examine the relationship between student entry characteristics, organizational…
Gallagher Dahl, Meghan; Meagher, Peter; Vander Velde, Stacy
A restorative justice program (RJP) was developed at a large university in the housing student conduct office. Students accused of misconduct who participated in a restorative justice (RJ) conference completed surveys regarding their motivations and perceived outcomes. Results showed that students who were motivated to make reparations to others…
Cho, Sung-Woo; Karp, Melinda Mechur
Using data from the Virginia Community College System and building upon prior Florida-based research, this study examines whether student success course enrollment, as well as student and institutional characteristics, has positive associations with shorter-term student outcomes, including earning any college credits within the first year and…
Mager, Marlowe Geoffrey
The purpose of this study was to identify instructor behaviors that lead to positive student outcomes in online courses. The study investigated the relationship between 12 predictive variables and three measures of student success (assignment grade, course grade, and student retention) in online courses. Archived online courses at a rural…
During the last decade, community colleges have taken a close look at the way they educate and train students, and are using an assortment of student engagement indicators in an effort to assess and document learning outcomes of their students. While these indicators have proven helpful, the extent to which new buildings, equipment, and technology…
Kersaint, Gladis; Dogbey, James; Barber, Jeff; Kephart, David
This study investigated outcomes (achievement, attitude, and retention) of college algebra students who had access to an online tutoring resource using a pre-posttest control group design. Students in the experimental groups were provided access to an online tutoring service unlike the students in the control group. Both groups had access to other…
Averett, Paige; Carawan, Lena; Burroughs, Courtney
This qualitative study sought to reveal the traits and outcomes of students who completed a rural community organizing field placement. All stakeholders involved in the placement of students took part in a focus group and follow-up individual interviews. Findings suggest that students need to be open, flexible, self-directed, and maverick in…
Goodboy, Alan K.; Bolkan, San
The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model of the relationship between teacher misbehaviors and both student communication behavior (i.e., student resistance, student participation) and learning outcomes (i.e., cognitive learning, affective learning, state motivation, communication satisfaction). Participants were 343 students…
Justice, Patricia J.
The concept of student engagement and its relationship to successful student performance and learning outcomes has a long history in higher education (Kuh, 2007). Attention to faculty and student engagement has only recently become of interest to the engineering education community. This interest can be attributed to long-standing research by…
Laskin, Selma B.; Palmo, Artis J.
Examined the impact of the College Entrance Examination Board's Decisions and Outcomes Program on the career maturity of 132 high school students. Results indicated the program increased students' career maturity and decision-making skills. Students with greater ego identity produced higher scores on certain attitude components of career maturity.…
Halbesleben, Jonathon R. B.; Wheeler, Anthony R.
Although management scholars have provided a variety of metaphors to describe the role of students in management courses, researchers have yet to explore students' identification with the models and how they are linked to educational outcomes. This article develops a measurement tool for students' identification with business education models and…
Crowe, Jessica A.; Silva, Tony; Ceresola, Ryan
In this study, we test the effect of in-class student peer review on student learning outcomes using a quasiexperimental design. We provide an assessment of peer review in a quantitative research methods course, which is a traditionally difficult and technical course. Data were collected from 170 students enrolled in four sections of a…
Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Clements, Margaret; Lavigne, Heather J.; Stafford, Erin T.
Student enrollment in online courses has increased in the past 15 years and continues to grow. However, little is known about students' education experiences or online course outcomes. These are areas of particular interest to the Midwest Virtual Education Research Alliance, whose goal is to understand how to support student success in online…
Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Baines, Antonio T.; McVey, Mitch; Thompson, Joseph T.; Wilkins, Heather
This study investigated student learning outcomes using a case-based approach focused on cellular respiration. Students who used the case study, relative to students who did not use the case study, exhibited a significantly greater learning gain, and demonstrated use of higher-order thinking skills. Preliminary data indicate that after engaging…
Elman, Cheryl; Wray, Linda A; Xi, Juan
Recent studies find lasting effects of poor youth health on educational attainment but use young samples and narrow life course windows of observation to explore outcomes. We apply a life course framework to three sets of Health and Retirement Study birth cohorts to examine early health status effects on education and skills attainment measured late in life. The older cohorts that we study were the earliest recipients of U.S. policies promoting continuing education through the GI Bill, community college expansions and new credentials such as the GED. We examine a wide range of outcomes but focus on GEDs, postsecondary school entry and adult human capital as job-related training. We find that older U.S. cohorts had considerable exposure to these forms of attainment and that the effects of youth health on them vary by outcome: health selection and ascription group effects are weak or fade, respectively, in outcomes associated with delayed or adult attainment. However, poorer health and social disadvantage in youth and barriers associated with ascription carry forward to limit attainment of key credentials such as diplomas and college degrees. We find that the human capital - health gradient is dynamic and that narrow windows of observation in existing studies miss much of it. National context also matters for studying health-education linkages over the life course.
Hastings, S. Nicole; Whitson, Heather E.; Purser, Jama L.; Sloane, Richard J.; Johnson, Kimberly S.
Objectives To determine the relationship between the reason for an emergency department (ED) visit and subsequent risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. Design Secondary analysis of data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Setting ED. Participants One thousand eight hundred fifty-one community-dwelling Medicare fee-for-service enrollees aged 65 and older discharged from the ED between January 2000 and September 2002. Measurements Independent variables were ED discharge diagnosis groups: injury or musculoskeletal (MSK) (e.g., fracture, open wound), chronic condition (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure), infection, non-MSK symptom (e.g., chest pain, abdominal pain), and unclassified. Adverse health outcomes were hospitalization or death within 30 days of the index ED visit. Results Injury or MSK was the largest ED diagnosis group (31.4%), followed by non-MSK symptom (22.2%), chronic condition (20.9%), and infection (7.8%); 338 (17.8%) had ED discharge diagnoses that were unclassified. In adjusted analyses, a discharge diagnosis of injury or MSK condition was associated with lower risk of subsequent adverse health outcomes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50–0.96) than for all other diagnosis groups. Patients seen in the ED for chronic conditions were at greater risk of adverse outcomes (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.37–2.52) than all others. There were no significant differences in risk between patients with infections, those with non-MSK symptoms, and the unclassified group. Conclusion Adverse health outcomes were common in older patients with an ED discharge diagnosis classified as a chronic condition. ED discharge diagnosis may improve risk assessment and inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce adverse health outcomes in older adults discharged from the ED. PMID:19694872
Liu, Sze Yan; Glymour, M Maria; Zahodne, Laura B; Weiss, Christopher; Manly, Jennifer J
Racially patterned disadvantage in Southern states, especially during the formative years of primary school, may contribute to enduring disparities in adult cognitive outcomes. Drawing on a lifecourse perspective, we examine whether state of school attendance affects cognitive outcomes in older adults and partially contributes to persistent racial disparities. Using data from older African American and white participants in the national Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the New York based Washington Heights Inwood Cognitive Aging Project (WHICAP), we estimated age-and gender-adjusted multilevel models with random effects for states predicting years of education and cognitive outcomes (e.g., memory and vocabulary). We summarized the proportion of variation in outcomes attributable to state of school attendance and compared the magnitude of racial disparities across states. Among WHICAP African Americans, state of school attendance accounted for 9% of the variance in years of schooling, 6% of memory, and 12% of language. Among HRS African Americans, state of school attendance accounted for 13% of the variance in years of schooling and also contributed to variance in cognitive function (7%), memory (2%), and vocabulary (12%). Random slope models indicated state-level African American and white disparities in every Census region, with the largest racial differences in the South. State of school attendance may contribute to racial disparities in cognitive outcomes among older Americans. Despite tremendous within-state heterogeneity, state of school attendance also accounted for some variability in cognitive outcomes. Racial disparities in older Americans may reflect historical patterns of segregation and differential access to resources such as education. PMID:26412671
Veenboer, Paul W.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.
Background The introduction of sophisticated treatment of bladder dysfunction and hydrocephalus allows the majority of SB patients to survive into adulthood. However, no systematic review on urological outcome in adult SB patients is available and no follow-up schemes exist. Objectives To systematically summarize the evidence on outcome of urinary tract functioning in adult SB patients. Methods A literature search in PubMed and Embase databases was done. Only papers published in the last 25 years describing patients with open SB with a mean age >18 years were included. We focused on finding differences in the treatment strategies, e.g., clean intermittent catheterization and antimuscarinic drugs versus early urinary diversion, with regard to long-term renal and bladder outcomes. Results A total of 13 articles and 5 meeting abstracts on urinary tract status of adult SB patients were found describing a total of 1564 patients with a mean age of 26.1 years (range 3–74 years, with a few patients <18 years). All were retrospective cohort studies with relatively small and heterogeneous samples with inconsistent reporting of outcome; this precluded the pooling of data and meta-analysis. Total continence was achieved in 449/1192 (37.7%; range 8–85%) patients. Neurological level of the lesion and hydrocephalus were associated with incontinence. Renal function was studied in 1128 adult patients. In 290/1128 (25.7%; range 3–81.8%) patients some degree of renal damage was found and end-stage renal disease was seen in 12/958 (1.3%) patients. Detrusor-sphincter dyssynergy and detrusor-overactivity acted as adverse prognostic factors for the development of renal damage. Conclusions These findings should outline follow-up schedules for SB patients, which do not yet exist. Since renal and bladder deterioration continues beyond adolescence, follow-up of these individuals is needed. We recommend standardization in reporting the outcome of urinary tract function in adult SB
Fish, Susan; Sampson, Lynne
This discussion paper endeavors to inform decision makers about the goals and outcomes for adult basic education in Washington State. It first examines the current goals operating in adult literacy programs in the state, concluding that, although there may appear to be agreement about the very general purposes of literacy education in the state,…
Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan
Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…
Lenk, Kathleen; Rode, Peter; Fabian, Lindsey; Bernat, Debra; Klein, Elizabeth; Forster, Jean
Objective: To examine cigarette smoking among young adults based on education status. Participants: Community-based sample of 2,694 young adults in the United States Methods: The authors compared 3 groups--those not in college with no college degree, 2-year college students/graduates, 4-year college students/graduates--on various smoking measures:…
The Social Cognitive Career Model proposes that career interests arise from beliefs about capability to execute a course of activity (self-efficacy), and beliefs about the consequences of performing particular activities (outcome expectations). In our study, 301 Japanese university students were given questionnaires including the Vocational Preference Inventory and scales assessing Career Self-efficacy and Career-outcome Expectations. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated both self-efficacy and outcome expectations were significantly related to vocational interests. Outcome expectations accounted for significant incremental variance in explaining interests across six of Holland's vocational environments. Implications of social cognitive theory for career development and interventions among Japanese university students are discussed.
Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit
Despite the high availability of offline gambling in Macao, China, Internet gambling may remain attractive to many gamblers due to its anonymity and convenience. Given the scarcity of relevant research, this study aims to not only investigate the public attitude and prevalence of Internet gambling but also identify the demographic and psychological characteristics of Internet gamblers in Macao. We recruited 952 community adults with the random residential number dialing method and 427 university students through convenience sampling. Only 5.4% of the community adult respondents preferred online gambling compared to offline gambling, and the past-year prevalence of online gambling was about 1%. As hypothesized, Internet gambling was found to be positively associated with pathological gambling in both community and student samples. It was also associated with casino employment across samples. Moreover, we found that male gender, casino employment, materialism, and life dissatisfaction were significant risk factors of pathological gambling among Chinese gamblers. The findings provide insights on future designs of preventive measures and research direction for Internet gambling and pathological gambling in Chinese communities.
Lapadat, Judith C.
A study used causal modeling to examine how second-grade students' language ability interacted with two characteristics of a teacher's language during naturalistic expository instruction to explain students' attention to and learning from a science lesson. Subjects, 120 students from 13 suburban classrooms, working with an instructor in groups of…
Neild, Ruth Curran; Boccanfuso, Christopher
Despite the proliferation of data about student performance, secondary school educators have had difficulty accessing data on their former students' post-high school employment and earnings in the formal economy. This article describes how one community used state unemployment insurance data, merged with student record data, to investigate the…
Dewart, Bonnie; Rowan, Linda
There has been increased interest in retention and completion with regard to tertiary student outcomes in relation to students' successful completion of their study and what influences this. In New Zealand, the government through the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC) has made it clear that it expects institutions to meet retention and completion…
Rao, Krishna; Santhosh, Kavitha; Mogle, Jill A.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Young, Vincent B.
Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a mild to moderate colitis in most patients, but some, especially older adults, develop severe, adverse outcomes. Biomarkers predicting outcomes are needed to optimize treatments. This study tested whether fecal calprotectin associated with a composite primary outcome of complicated CDI (intensive care unit admission, colectomy, or death due to CDI within 30 days of diagnosis) and/or 8-week recurrence. Methods Stool was collected in Cary-Blair media at the time of diagnosis from inpatients of age >60 years that tested positive for C. difficile (enzyme immunoassay [EIA] for toxin A/B or polymerase chain reaction for the tcdB gene). Fecal calprotectin was measured and normalized to solid stool weight. Analysis was performed using logistic regression. Variables were selected for the final model using likelihood ratio tests. Results Fifty patients were included with a mean age 72.8 (± 7.5), and 13 (26%) developed the primary outcome. Clinical variables such as age, gender, and comorbid disease did not associate with complicated CDI/recurrence, nor did traditional biomarkers such as serum albumin or white blood cell count. A high normalized fecal calprotectin (>2000 µg/g) associated with the primary outcome in the final model after adjustment for gender and detectable fecal toxin(s) by EIA (OR 24.9, 95% CI 2.4–257.9, P=.007) with a specificity of 91.9%. Conclusion This study provides evidence that fecal calprotectin level associates with complications from CDI in older adults. Further studies are required to validate these findings in larger cohorts and incorporate them into clinical prediction algorithms. PMID:27206404
Johnson, Cheryl A.; Heath, Claudia J.
A project was conducted to assess Family Studies bachelor's degree graduates' use of learning outcomes from course competencies in personal finance, family lifespan development, intervention, and advocacy and policy, and to determine how they apply these learning outcomes to their workplace, family, and community roles. Alumni surveys completed by…
Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Watt, Helen J; Line, E A; Bishop, Dorothy V M
Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised suggestions that developmental language disorder may be a high-functioning form of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is not yet clear whether these outcomes vary between individuals with different subtypes of language impairment. Aims: To compare the adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment (SLI), pragmatic language impairment (PLI) and ASD. Methods & Procedures: All participants took part in research as children. In total, there were 19 young adults with a childhood history of Specific Language Impairment (M age = 24;8), seven with PLI (M age = 22;3), 11 with high functioning ASD (M age = 21;9) and 12 adults with no history of developmental disorder (Typical; n = 12; M age = 21;6). At follow-up, participants and their parents were interviewed to elicit information about psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes & Results: Participants in the SLI group were most likely to pursue vocational training and work in jobs not requiring a high level of language/literacy ability. The PLI group tended to obtain higher levels of education and work in ‘skilled’ professions. The ASD participants had lower levels of independence and more difficulty obtaining employment than the PLI and SLI participants. All groups had problems establishing social relationships, but these difficulties were most prominent in the PLI and ASD groups. A small number of participants in each group were found to experience affective disturbances. The PLI and SLI groups showed lower levels of autistic symptomatology than the ASD group. Conclusions & Implications: The between-group differences in autistic symptomatology provide
Nobakht, H; Zamani, F; Ajdarkosh, H; Mohamadzadeh, Z; Fereshtehnejad, SM; Nassaji, M
BACKGROUND Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sporadic, paroxysmal attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. Although the disease usually begins before the age of 20 years, we aimed to evaluate the demography, clinical features and treatment outcome of familial Mediterranean fever in Iranian adult patients above 20 years old. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, adult patients (first attack at the age of >20 years) with a diagnosis of FMF who referred to the gastroenterology and rheumatology Clinics of Ardebil University of Medical Science (situated in north west of Iran) over the period of 2004-2009 were enrolled. FMF diagnosis was based on clinical criteria. RESULTS Forty four FMF patients (30 male and 14 female) with the mean [± Standard Deviation (SD)] age of first attack of 29 ± 7.8 years were enrolled. Abdominal pain (95.5%) and fever (91%) were the most common clinical findings. All of the patients had satisfactorily responded to therapy. Response was complete in 76.7% and partial in 23.3% of the patients. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of amyloidosis at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrated that adult-onset FMF in Iran has different characteristics (more common in males, lesser prevalence of arthritis and erysipelas-like erythema, less delay in diagnosis) and treatment outcome (favorable response even to low-dose colchicine) in comparison with the previous data on early onset patients. PMID:25197532
Nobakht, H; Zamani, F; Ajdarkosh, H; Mohamadzadeh, Z; Fereshtehnejad, Sm; Nassaji, M
BACKGROUND Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sporadic, paroxysmal attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. Although the disease usually begins before the age of 20 years, we aimed to evaluate the demography, clinical features and treatment outcome of familial Mediterranean fever in Iranian adult patients above 20 years old. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, adult patients (first attack at the age of >20 years) with a diagnosis of FMF who referred to the gastroenterology and rheumatology Clinics of Ardebil University of Medical Science (situated in north west of Iran) over the period of 2004-2009 were enrolled. FMF diagnosis was based on clinical criteria. RESULTS Forty four FMF patients (30 male and 14 female) with the mean [± Standard Deviation (SD)] age of first attack of 29 ± 7.8 years were enrolled. Abdominal pain (95.5%) and fever (91%) were the most common clinical findings. All of the patients had satisfactorily responded to therapy. Response was complete in 76.7% and partial in 23.3% of the patients. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of amyloidosis at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrated that adult-onset FMF in Iran has different characteristics (more common in males, lesser prevalence of arthritis and erysipelas-like erythema, less delay in diagnosis) and treatment outcome (favorable response even to low-dose colchicine) in comparison with the previous data on early onset patients.
Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Smith, Sharon M.; Grant, Bridget F.
Objective To examine 3-year quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among United States adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis), or no antisocial behavioral syndrome at baseline. Method Face-to-face interviews (n= 34,653). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV Version. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12v2). Other outcomes included past-year Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) scores, employment, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), welfare, and food stamps, and participation in social relationships. Results ASPD and AABS predicted poorer employment, financial dependency, social relationship, and physical health outcomes. Relationships of antisociality to SSI and food stamp receipt and physical health scales were modified by baseline age. Both antisocial syndromes predicted higher PSS-4, AABS predicted lower SF-12v2 Vitality, and ASPD predicted lower SF-12v2 Social Functioning scores in women. Conclusion Similar prediction of QOL by ASPD and AABS suggests limited utility of requiring CD before age 15 to diagnose ASPD. Findings underscore the need to improve prevention and treatment of antisocial syndromes. PMID:22375904
Rao, Bhavana B; Bhattacharya, Abhik; Agrawal, Varun
Obesity is a pandemic with several significant adverse health outcomes. Chronic kidney disease has been an overlooked consequence of obesity. Among diabetics, obesity is known to amplify the risk for kidney disease. Although bariatric surgery promises significant and sustained weight reduction with favorable impact on metabolic parameters such as glycemic control, hypertension and dyslipidemia, its impact on the renal complications of diabetes is poorly understood. This paper aims to comprehensively evaluate the evidence in the published literature on the impact of bariatric surgery on renal outcomes in obese adults with diabetic kidney disease. While many observational studies have demonstrated significant reduction in proteinuria after bariatric surgery, there is paucity of data regarding changes in renal filtration function such as doubling of serum creatinine or progression to end stage kidney disease. No randomized controlled trials comparing medical vs. surgical therapy in obese adults with diabetic kidney disease exist, hence assessing the metabolic benefits vs. the surgical risks is important before recommending bariatric surgery to this growing patient population. Future studies require a collaborative effort between bariatric surgeons and nephrologists to measure long-term effects of bariatric surgery on renal outcomes incorporating evolving markers of kidney injury to advance this field.
Holoviak, Stephen J.; Verney, Thomas P.; Weigle, Jerry A.; Holoviak, Justin S.
The purpose of this paper was to provide a demonstration of the assessment methods and processes that are used by the John L. Grove College of Business to assess student outcomes and how these assessments relate to mission and strategy.
Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.
Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…
Bartlett, Maggie; Potts, Jessica; McKinley, Bob
Keele medical students spend 113 days in general practices over our five-year programme. We collect practice data thought to indicate good quality teaching. We explored the relationships between these data and two outcomes for students; Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores and feedback regarding the placements. Though both are surrogate markers of good teaching, they are widely used. We collated practice and outcome data for one academic year. Two separate statistical analyses were carried out: (1) to determine how much of the variation seen in the OSCE scores was due to the effect of the practice and how much to the individual student. (2) to identify practice characteristics with a relationship to student feedback scores. (1) OSCE performance: 268 students in 90 practices: six quality indicators independently influenced the OSCE score, though without linear relationships and not to statistical significance. (2) Student satisfaction: 144 students in 69 practices: student feedback scores are not influenced by practice characteristics. The relationships between the quality indicators we collect for practices and outcomes for students are not clear. It may be that neither the quality indicators nor the outcome measures are reliable enough to inform decisions about practices' suitability for teaching. PMID:27117344
Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.
This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.
Bhatt, Parth; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Patel, Achint; Sonani, Rajesh; Patel, Aashay; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Thakkar, Badal; Savani, Chirag; Jhamnani, Sunny; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nish; Pant, Sadip; Patel, Samir; Arora, Shilpkumar; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Vikas; Chothani, Ankit; Patel, Jay; Ansari, Mohammad; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Bhimani, Ronak; Grines, Cindy; Cleman, Michael; Mangi, Abeel; Forrest, John K; Badheka, Apurva O
Use of transcatheter endovascular stenting has been increasing in the treatment of coarctation of aorta (CoA). The present study was undertaken on adults with CoA who underwent stent placement from 2000 to 2011 to analyze the relation of hospital volumes to the outcomes of stenting in adults with CoA. It was a retrospective study based on Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2000 to 2011 and identified subjects using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure code of 747.10 (CoA). Annual hospital volume was calculated using unique hospital identifiers. Weights provided by the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to generate national estimates. A total of 105 (weighted 521) subjects were identified with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of 39.90 (Endovascular stent). Hospital volumes were divided into tertiles. We compared the highest tertile (≥3 procedures annually) with other tertiles (<3 procedure annually). The composite outcomes of the analysis were procedure-related complications, length of stay (LOS), and cost in relation to the hospital volume. No inhospital death was reported in either group. Hospitals with ≥3 procedures annually had significantly lower incidence of complications (9.5% vs 23.0%) compared to the hospitals with <3 procedures annually (p-value 0.002). Similar results were obtained after multivariate regression analysis in relation to hospital volume. Shorter LOS and lower cost were observed with annual hospital volume of ≥3 procedures. In conclusion, stenting adults for CoA is remarkably safe, and the outcomes of the procedure have improved in centers with annual hospital volume of ≥3 procedures. There is also decreasing trend of procedure-related complications, shorter LOS, and lower costs compared to centers with annual volume <3 procedures.
Nelson, Robin G
With insights from the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), this study explores the impact of childhood nutritional stress on adult health outcomes in Jamaica. Jamaica experienced a lengthy period of political and economic instability beginning in the postcolonial period of the early 1960s. This study tests whether decreased government spending on public resources and limited access to imported food products during the early postcolonial period will be reflected in increased adiposity and body mass index among Jamaican adults. Ethnographic and anthropometric data were collected from individuals born between 1958 and 1988. Variability in health outcomes was assessed using Z-score values for body mass index and summed skinfold thickness measures. Age was employed as both a continuous and categorical independent variable. In partial correlation models controlling for economic status, body mass index values and summed skinfold thickness increased with age. Birth cohort and gender effects were also apparent. Women born between 1959 and 1968 had higher body mass index Z-score values than younger women. Both men and women born between 1959 and 1968 had significantly higher skinfold thickness measures than younger individuals. Individuals born between 1959 and 1968 were children during the immediate postcolonial era in Jamaica. Experiences of nutritional stress during critical developmental periods may have contributed to the observed age-related increases in adipose tissue and body mass index values. This study informs our understanding of the ways that fluctuations in the sociopolitical environment during development can mediate and contribute to poor adult health outcomes.
Bennett, Alice L; Moore, David; Bampton, Peter A; Bryant, Robert V; Andrews, Jane M
AIM: To describe the disease and psychosocial outcomes of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) transition cohort and their perspectives. METHODS: Patients with IBD, aged > 18 years, who had moved from paediatric to adult care within 10 years were identified through IBD databases at three tertiary hospitals. Participants were surveyed regarding demographic and disease specific data and their perspectives on the transition process. Survey response data were compared to contemporaneously recorded information in paediatric service case notes. Data were compared to a similar age cohort who had never received paediatric IBD care and therefore who had not undergone a transition process. RESULTS: There were 81 returned surveys from 46 transition and 35 non-transition patients. No statistically significant differences were found in disease burden, disease outcomes or adult roles and responsibilities between cohorts. Despite a high prevalence of mood disturbance (35%), there was a very low usage (5%) of psychological services in both cohorts. In the transition cohort, knowledge of their transition plan was reported by only 25/46 patients and the majority (54%) felt they were not strongly prepared. A high rate (78%) of discussion about work/study plans was recorded prior to transition, but a near complete absence of discussion regarding sex (8%), and other adult issues was recorded. Both cohorts agreed that their preferred method of future transition practices (of the options offered) was a shared clinic appointment with all key stakeholders. CONCLUSION: Transition did not appear to adversely affect disease or psychosocial outcomes. Current transition care processes could be optimised, with better psychosocial preparation and agreed transition plans. PMID:26937149
Bhatt, Parth; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Patel, Achint; Sonani, Rajesh; Patel, Aashay; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Thakkar, Badal; Savani, Chirag; Jhamnani, Sunny; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nish; Pant, Sadip; Patel, Samir; Arora, Shilpkumar; Dave, Abhishek; Singh, Vikas; Chothani, Ankit; Patel, Jay; Ansari, Mohammad; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Bhimani, Ronak; Grines, Cindy; Cleman, Michael; Mangi, Abeel; Forrest, John K; Badheka, Apurva O
Use of transcatheter endovascular stenting has been increasing in the treatment of coarctation of aorta (CoA). The present study was undertaken on adults with CoA who underwent stent placement from 2000 to 2011 to analyze the relation of hospital volumes to the outcomes of stenting in adults with CoA. It was a retrospective study based on Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2000 to 2011 and identified subjects using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure code of 747.10 (CoA). Annual hospital volume was calculated using unique hospital identifiers. Weights provided by the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to generate national estimates. A total of 105 (weighted 521) subjects were identified with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of 39.90 (Endovascular stent). Hospital volumes were divided into tertiles. We compared the highest tertile (≥3 procedures annually) with other tertiles (<3 procedure annually). The composite outcomes of the analysis were procedure-related complications, length of stay (LOS), and cost in relation to the hospital volume. No inhospital death was reported in either group. Hospitals with ≥3 procedures annually had significantly lower incidence of complications (9.5% vs 23.0%) compared to the hospitals with <3 procedures annually (p-value 0.002). Similar results were obtained after multivariate regression analysis in relation to hospital volume. Shorter LOS and lower cost were observed with annual hospital volume of ≥3 procedures. In conclusion, stenting adults for CoA is remarkably safe, and the outcomes of the procedure have improved in centers with annual hospital volume of ≥3 procedures. There is also decreasing trend of procedure-related complications, shorter LOS, and lower costs compared to centers with annual volume <3 procedures. PMID:26471501
Sato, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Masato; Genma, Rieko; Shirai, Kenji; Ohki, Shigeru; Morita, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi; Watanabe, Hiroshi
Objective Individuals with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) are known to be predisposed to both short final height and cardiometabolic disorders. However, associations between final height and cardiometabolic outcomes including glucose metabolism in VLBW individuals in young adulthood are not fully investigated. Methods We investigated glucose metabolism and other cardiometabolic outcomes such as lipid profiles, blood pressure, renal function, urinary albumin, and thyroid function in young adults with VLBW born between 1980 and 1990. Short stature was defined as a final height <10th percentile. Glucose intolerance [diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG)] was determined using 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests. Associations between final height and cardiometabolic outcomes were examined using logistic or multiple linear regression. Results A total of 628 VLBW individuals were screened and 111 young adults with VLBW (19–30 years) participated in the study. Of the participants, 40 subjects (36%) had short stature with a final height <10th percentile. Eight subjects (7.2%) had glucose intolerance (1, diabetes; 6, IGT; 1, IFG). Short stature was correlated with glucose intolerance (odds ratio 11.1; 95% CI 1.92, 99.7; P = 0.006). Final height was inversely associated with the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance, HOMA-β, insulinogenic index, and total/LDL-cholesterol. The associations of final height with insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles remained after adjustment for target height and age at puberty onset. Conclusions Shorter final height was associated with less favorable metabolic profiles in young adults with VLBW, and may be partly mediated by reduced insulin sensitivity. These associations were independent of target height or age at puberty onset. PMID:25397968
Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Nordon, Clémentine; Michel, Marc; Viallard, Jean-François; Adoue, Daniel; Magy-Bertrand, Nadine; Durand, Jean-Marc; Quittet, Philippe; Fain, Olivier; Bonnotte, Bernard; Morin, Anne-Sophie; Morel, Nathalie; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Khellaf, Mehdi; Perlat, Antoinette; Sacre, Karim; Lefrere, François; Abenhaim, Lucien; Godeau, Bertrand
This prospective observational cohort study aimed to explore the clinical features of incident immune thrombocytopenia in adults and predictors of outcome, while determining if a family history of autoimmune disorder is a risk factor for immune thrombocytopenia. All adults, 18 years of age or older, recently diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia were consecutively recruited across 21 hospital centers in France. Data were collected at diagnosis and after 12 months. Predictors of chronicity at 12 months were explored using logistic regression models. The association between family history of autoimmune disorder and the risk of developing immune thrombocytopenia was explored using a conditional logistic regression model after matching each case to 10 controls. One hundred and forty-three patients were included: 63% female, mean age 48 years old (Standard Deviation=19), and 84% presented with bleeding symptoms. Median platelet count was 10×109/L. Initial treatment was required in 82% of patients. After 12 months, only 37% of patients not subject to disease-modifying interventions achieved cure. The sole possible predictor of chronicity at 12 months was a higher platelet count at baseline [Odds Ratio 1.03; 95%CI: 1.00, 1.06]. No association was found between outcome and any of the following features: age, sex, presence of either bleeding symptoms or antinuclear antibodies at diagnosis. Likewise, family history of autoimmune disorder was not associated with incident immune thrombocytopenia. Immune thrombocytopenia in adults has been shown to progress to a chronic form in the majority of patients. A lower platelet count could be indicative of a more favorable outcome. PMID:27229715
Royal, Kenneth D.
Background: The importance of assessing student learning outcomes has demanded attention from most everyone involved in the higher education enterprise, as accreditation and funding implications are often linked to the results. Faculty, however, are often critical of the assessment process because outcomes assessment is costly with regard to time,…
Stoyanovich, Carlee; Gandhi, Aneri; Flynn, Alison B.
An outcome-based approach to teaching and learning focuses on what the student demonstrably knows and can do after instruction, rather than on what the instructor teaches. This outcome-focused approach can then guide the alignment of teaching strategies, learning activities, and assessment. In organic chemistry, mastery of organic acid-base…
This article deals with the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes among students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This investigation examines the multiculturalism literature, as well as the literature specific to HBCUs, in an attempt to answer the question: What is the effect of multiculturalism on diversity outcomes of…
Rawls, Janita; Hammons, Stacy
This study investigated learning outcomes in both traditional and accelerated degree populations. Using the National Survey of Student Engagement, outcomes were examined relating to critical thinking, oral and written communication, and cultural and global understanding. Literature from life stage development and degree delivery mode areas were…
Okimoto, Hae K.
President Obama's Blueprint for Keeping College Affordable and Within Reach for All Americans (2012), includes challenges to improve American higher education outcomes. One outcome that has drawn national concern is the low four- and six-year graduation rates of undergraduate students entering the nation's colleges and universities. The…
Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry
Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA)…
Logistic and Cox regression methods are practical tools used to model the relationships between certain student learning outcomes and their relevant explanatory variables. The logistic regression model fits an S-shaped curve into a binary outcome with data points of zero and one. The Cox regression model allows investigators to study the duration…
Rezendes, George J.; Gable, Robert K.
This paper discusses the efforts of the Department of Mathematics at the United States Coast Guard Academy (USCGA) to determine the degree to which their courses support the published academic outcomes of the institution, and presents the results of a survey of student attitudes toward the academic outcomes. A survey questionnaire was developed…
Judd, Thomas P.; Pondish, Christopher; Secolsky, Charles
Benchmarking is a process that can take place at both the inter-institutional and intra-institutional level. This paper focuses on benchmarking intra-institutional student learning outcomes using case examples. The findings of the study illustrate the point that when the outcomes statements associated with the mission of the institution are…
Lawson, Romy; Taylor, Tracy; French, Erica; Fallshaw, Eveline; Hall, Cathy; Kinash, Shelley; Summers, Jane
Assurance of learning (AOL) is a quality enhancement and quality assurance process used in higher education. It involves a process of determining programme learning outcomes and standards, and systematically gathering evidence to measure students' performance on these. The systematic assessment of whole-of-programme outcomes provides a basis for…
Palmer, Lauren E.; Erford, Bradley T.
This study explored the prediction of student outcome variables from the ASCA national model level of program implementation. A total sampling of schools from two suburban school districts was conducted. Outcome variables were measures of math and reading achievement scores, attendance and graduation rates. Such measures play a central role in…
Mikulec, Erin; McKinney, Kathleen
Learning takes place both inside and outside of the classroom. While there are a few studies that focus on the professional, developmental, and learning outcomes of participation in student organizations, there has been insufficient research on these outcomes in sport clubs. The paper reports on the results of an online, primarily qualitative…
Burgess, Sloane; Cimera, Robert E.
The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) served by vocational rehabilitation services (VR) over the last 10 years by state. A secondary purpose was to compare employment outcomes of individuals with ASD to those of the overall transition-aged population…
Lipman, Ellen L.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Objective: Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged less than or equal to 20 years…
Stein, Aryeh D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Hao, Wei; Horta, Bernardo L.; Lee, Nanette; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramji, Siddarth; Stein, Alan; Richter, Linda
Objective To assess the impact of being born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) on several adult outcomes. Study design We analyzed data for 4518 adult participants in 5 birth cohorts from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results In the study population, 12.8% of males and 11.9% of females were born preterm, and 26.8% of males and 22.4% of females were born term but SGA. Adults born preterm were 1.11 cm shorter (95% CI, 0.57-1.65 cm), and those born term but SGA were 2.35 cm shorter (95% CI, 1.93-2.77 cm) compared with those born at term and appropriate size for gestational age. Blood pressure and blood glucose level did not differ by birth category. Compared with those born term and at appropriate size for gestational age, schooling attainment was 0.44 years lower (95% CI, 0.17-0.71 years) in those born preterm and 0.41 years lower (95% CI, 0.20-0.62 years) in those born term but SGA. Conclusion Being born preterm or term but SGA is associated with persistent deficits in adult height and schooling, but is not related to blood pressure or blood glucose level in low- and middle-income settings. Increased postnatal growth is associated with gains in height and schooling regardless of birth status, but not with increases in blood pressure or blood glucose level. PMID:24064150
Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Shimi, Rafik; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel
The adult onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory pathology of unknown pathogeny. The clinical features are variable. The diagnosis is difficult since exclusion of infectious, systemic and tumoral pathologies should be done. The articular complications are frequent and can be revelatory of this pathology. The articular prognosis depends on the diagnosis delay and the treatment efficiency. Our study aims to analyze different aspects of articular manifestations complicating adult onset Still disease to define epidemiological, clinical and evolving characteristics of these complications. It was a cross-sectional study concerning 18 cases of adult onset Still disease diagnosed from 1990 to 2014 in the internal medicine A department of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, meeting Yamaguchi criteria. We identified clinical, radiological, evolving and therapeutic profile of the articular manifestations occurred in these patients. There were 11 women and 7 men. The average age was 27 years. The arthralgias were reported in all cases; while, the arthritis interested thirteen patients. A hand deformation was found in four patients. A wrist ankylosis was noted in one case and a flexion elbow in one patient. The Standard articular radiographs were normal in ten cases. The treatment associated essentially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and/or corticosteroids and/or methotrexate. Concerning the evolving profile, the monocyclic form was present in 25% of the cases, the intermittent form in 40% and the chronic articular form in 35% of our patients. The adult onset Still's disease is rare and heterogeneous. The articular disturbances are frequent and have various outcomes.
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha
This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. PMID:26804731
Klein, Jennifer; Hopper, Tammy
The purpose of this mixed-methods research study was to examine the impact of organizational change on patient outcomes and staff experiences in a rehabilitation program for older adults. Program restructuring focused on reducing patient length of stay and increasing admissions to the rehabilitation program. Study findings revealed that patients admitted after restructuring, as compared to the time period just prior, experienced shorter lengths of stay yet made similar progress towards rehabilitation goals. The average discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores between the two time periods were not significantly different. Yet FIM efficiency scores improved after the restructuring. With this reorganization, rehabilitation staff reported working harder to help patients achieve satisfactory outcomes, although initially staff reported lower morale. Findings extend the current literature and have practical implications for health care professionals interested in facilitating successful organizational change.
Veerbeek, Marjolein A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Pot, Anne Margriet
ABSTRACT Background: Meta-analyses show efficacy of several psychological and pharmacological interventions for late-life psychiatric disorders, but generalization of effects to routine mental health care for older people remains unknown. Aim of this study is to investigate the improvement of functioning within one year of referral to an outpatient mental health clinic for older adults. Methods: Pre-post measurement of the Health of Nations Outcome Scale 65+ (HoNOS 65+) in 704 older people referred for psychiatric problems (no dementia) to any of the seven participating mental health care organizations. Results: The pre-post-test Cohen's d effect size was 1.08 in the total group and 1.23 in depressed patients, the largest subgroup. Linear regression identified better functioning at baseline, comorbid personality disorder, somatic comorbidity and life events during treatment as determinants of a worse outcome. Conclusions: Functioning of older persons with psychiatric problems largely improves after treatment in routine mental health care.
Castonguay, Andree L; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M
This study explored body-related emotional experiences of pride in young adult males (n=138) and females (n=165). Data were collected using a relived emotion task and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Thirty-nine codes were identified and grouped into six categories (triggers, contexts, cognitive attributions, and affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes) for each of two themes (hubristic and authentic pride). Hubristic pride triggers included evaluating appearance/fitness as superior. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority. Behaviors included strategies to show off. Triggers for authentic pride were personal improvements/maintenance in appearance and meeting or exceeding goals. Feeling accomplished was a cognitive outcome, and physical activity was a behavioral strategy. Contexts for the experience of both facets of pride primarily involved sports settings, swimming/beach, and clothes shopping. These findings provide theoretical support for models of pride as it applies to body image, and advances conceptual understanding of positive body image.
Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V
Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:22910195
Balcom, Janet Jones
In November 2007, area voters approved the consolidating of four districts into the Twin Rivers Unified School District (TRUSD) intending to create an articulated pre-K-adult urban district of 27,000 students. Since the creation of TRUSD no studies have been conducted to measure the impact of the consolidation on student achievement and related…
Melburg, Valerie; Hanner, Mary Beth
Regents College of the University of the State of New York (USNY) offers nursing degree programs that are self-paced and accessible for adult learners. Students receive guided independent study in the form of advisement and degree planning, but learning course content is the responsibility of the student. An evaluation of the program was conducted…
Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.
Eifert, Sandra; Guethoff, Sonja; Kaczmarek, Ingo; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Seeland, Ute; Gulbins, Helmut; Seeburger, Jörg; Deutsch, Oliver; Jungwirth, Bettina; Katsari, Elpiniki; Dohmen, Pascal; Pfannmueller, Bettina; Hultgren, Rebecka; Schade, Ina; Kublickiene, Karolina; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Gansera, Brigitte
Summary Background Applying the gender lens to risk factors and outcome after adult cardiac surgery is of major clinical interest, as the inclusion of sex and gender in research design and analysis may guarantee more comprehensive cardiovascular science and may consecutively result in a more effective surgical treatment as well as cost savings in cardiac surgery. Methods We have reviewed classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking) according to a gender-based approach. Furthermore, we have examined comorbidities such as depression, renal insufficiency, and hormonal influences in regard to gender. Gender-sensitive economic aspects have been evaluated, surgical outcome has been analyzed, and cardiovascular research has been considered from a gender perspective. Results The influence of typical risk factors and outcome after cardiac surgery has been evaluated from a gender perspective, and the gender-specific distribution of these risk factors is reported on. The named comorbidities are listed. Economic aspects demonstrated a gender gap. Outcome after coronary and valvular surgeries as well as after heart transplantation are displayed in this regard. Results after postoperative use of intra-aortic balloon pump are shown. Gender-related aspects of clinical and biomedical cardiosurgical research are reported. Conclusions Female gender has become an independent risk factor of survival after the majority of cardiosurgical procedures. Severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction independently predicts survival in men, whereas age does in females. PMID:26288584
Rude, Harvey; Bailey-Anderson, Susan; Dotter, Susan
The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) was developed in 1995 in response to increased incidents of student behavior problems. The intent of MBI is to improve educational environments to meet the needs of all students, including those with behavioral challenges. Each participating school conducts needs assessments and develops site-specific goals…
Champney, Leonard; Edleman, Paul
This study employs the Solomon Four-Group Design to measure student knowledge of the United States government and student knowledge of current events at the beginning of a U.S. government course and at the end. In both areas, knowledge improves significantly. Regarding knowledge of the U.S. government, both males and females improve at similar…
Elfner, Eliot S.
Resource allocation processes suitable for use in not-for-profit institutions are discussed and a conceptual model for resource allocation in institutions of higher education is presented. The objectives of higher education include the personal development and education of students, not merely the certification of students by conferring degrees.…
Dohrmann, Kathryn Rindskopf; Nishida, Tracy K.; Gartner, Alan; Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Grimm, Kevin J.
The study compares two groups of students who graduated from high school in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) during 1997-2001. Students who had participated in MPS Montessori programs from preschool through 5th grade were matched to a comparison group on the basis of gender, SES, race/ethnicity, and high school attended. Data from the ACT and…
Tanner, C. Kenneth
This descriptive study investigated the possible effects of selected school design patterns on third-grade students' academic achievement. A reduced regression analysis revealed the effects of school design components (patterns) on ITBS achievement data, after including control variables, for a sample of third-grade students drawn from 24…
Phillips, Laura; Phillips, Mark
Statistics is a required competency in numerous college majors, but students frequently approach the topic with anxiety. This paper describes an undergraduate statistics course that was "flipped," with most of the content delivery moved online and class time devoted to application and practice. Students were given a menu of learning…
Washington, Christina R.
The transition to an institution of higher education can present challenges and difficulties, but it is a student's expectations that can ultimately predict adjustment (Jackson, Pancer, Pratt, & Hunsberger, 2000). A larger number of students who experience difficulties in their adjustment end up withdrawing from the institution (Baker…
Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Madden, Katherine; Jensen, Christopher
Honors programs at colleges and universities are one way to provide additional learning opportunities to enhance the undergraduate experience for students. Honors programs provide students academically enriching activities through small classes, research, internships, and community service (National Collegiate Honors Council, n.d.). To further the…
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013
As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…
This article endeavours to increase educators' understanding of the experiences of students who have been expelled from school in order to represent this critical stakeholder group in future policy development and programme implementation. Students' perspectives are presented through thick description in this narrative case study.…
Bailey, Thomas; Alfonso, Mariana; Scott, Marc; Leinbach, Timothy
This brief discusses a research study that was conducted to determine the rates of degree completion of community college occupational students compared with other types of postsecondary students, and to identify factors that might explain those differences. Much of the existing literature on college persistence and completion is focused on…
Quaye, Stephen John
For years, educators and politicians have sought to foster a sense of hope among students--a hope that moves them beyond cynicism about society and incite them to envision better days ahead. Yet as Princeton University professor of religion and author Cornel West discusses in his 2004 book "Democracy Matters", many students today are disillusioned…
Hoops, Leah D.; Yu, Shirley L.; Burridge, Andrea Backscheider; Wolters, Christopher A.
Both community colleges and four-year institutions offer Student Success Courses (SSCs) to promote student engagement (self-regulated learning, SRL) and performance (grades, retention, and graduation). However, little work has been done to examine the holistic impact of SSC interventions or to determine which aspects of course curriculum most…
Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle; Cho, Sung-Woo; Xu, Di
To support the long-term success of underprepared students, many community colleges are experimenting with accelerated developmental education models, which allow students to complete remediation and enroll in college-level math and English within a shorter time frame. This study examines three developmental acceleration programs, including two in…
Crawford, C. B.; Brungardt, Curt
As administrators, students, and the political machinery make higher education more accountable, assessment has become a relevant and timely topic. Recent interest in assessment and evaluation have brought significant changes in the way that educators in the field of organizational communication judge their students' work. The lecture method is…
As student evaluation of teaching (SET) instruments are increasingly administered online, research has found that the response rates have dropped significantly. Validity concerns have necessitated research that explores student motivation for completing SETs. This study uses Vroom's [(1964). "Work and motivation" (3rd ed.). New…
Baker, Maureen J; Durham, Carol Fowler
This study examines students' collaborative competencies after participating in an interprofessional education (IPE) course offered to undergraduates in nursing, medicine, and pharmacy. Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) was foundational to the course. The Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey was administered to 33 students who had successfully completed the interprofessional education course; 17 students completed the survey, for a response rate of 52%. The students' collaborative competencies in the core areas of communication, collaboration, roles and responsibilities, collaborative patient- and family-centered approach, conflict management and resolution, and team functioning significantly improved (n = 17, p < 0.001) after course completion, compared with their collaborative competencies before the course. The findings suggest that students' perceptions of their development of interprofessional and collaborative competencies significantly improved after course completion. This may influence their professional practice at the point of care and enhance patient safety. PMID:24256003
Hubbard, Laura E.
The focus of this study is to understand, from their own perspective, the learning needs of adult college students with comorbid attention deficits and psychiatric disabilities, and to identify services and practices that support their success in the college environment. Adult students with comorbid attention deficits and psychiatric disorders…
MacGowan, Sandra, Ed.
Information is presented on enrollment management for adult students. Papers presented at various seminars on the subject are compiled as follows: "Enrollment Management: College Recruitment Philosophy for the Eighties" (Don Hossler); "Enrollment Management Without Adult Students: Only Half the Story" (Carol B. Aslanian); "Avoid Detroit's…
Mayo, J. B., Jr.
This article is a commentary on the seven papers in this special issue of "Sex Education." A compelling theme interwoven throughout all the articles in subtle and explicit ways is the role that adults play in the lives of students, particularly in the ways in which adults impact how students enact and respond to the multiple…
Mundon, Chandra R.
This study sought to determine whether clinical psychology doctoral students hold uniquely stigmatizing views of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to adults with other clinical disorders. Through the use of clinical vignettes and attitudinal measures, three hypotheses investigated clinical psychology doctoral students'…
Johnson, LaToya S.
The focus of this study was to examine the attitudes, experiences, and opinions of adult math students in Adult Basic Education programs. Sixty students participated in the study, by completing observations, questionnaires, and completing the Attitude Towards Mathematics Survey (ATMS). The ATMS survey analyzed four factors. These factors included…
Smith Staley, Charlesetta
This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…
The School for New Learning (SNL) was established in 1972 at DePaul University especially for adult students. SNL students are adults, age 24 or older, who want to accelerate their progress to a degree by using experience as well as classwork for academic credit, and who want to design their own programs with help from an advisory committee of…
The purpose of this quantitative study was to describe the perceptions of students pursuing an Adult Education graduate degree at King Saud University; the students' perception was examined regarding the teaching practices they received in the classroom. Participants for this study were males and females pursuing Adult Education degrees at King…
Jeynes, William H.
This study examines the effects of attending religious revival services on the educational and behavioral outcomes of urban students. Specifically, the influence of attending the most recognized revival of the past decade is analyzed. Urban student attendees from throughout the United States attend, are surveyed, and then are randomly selected to…
Larkin, Helen; Richardson, Ben
Higher education needs to provide challenging yet supportive learning environments catering for students with diverse academic needs. There is also an emphasis on using student-driven outcome measures to determine teaching effectiveness. How can these measures be used to reflect upon and evaluate teaching initiatives? Using an undergraduate…
Bishop, Bradley Wade; Grubesic, Tony H.; Parrish, Theresa
In higher education's environment of accountability, the development and assessment of student learning outcomes (SLOs) are driven by both external stakeholder requirements for accreditation and internal institutional pressures to demonstrate student learning as the core function of universities and colleges. This paper presents a framework to…
Silverman, Rebecca D.; Coker, David; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey; Piantedosi, Kelly W.; Hartranft, Anna M.
The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between language variables and writing outcomes with linguistically diverse students in grades 3-5. The participants were 197 children from three schools in one district in the mid-Atlantic United States. We assessed students' vocabulary knowledge and morphological and syntactical skill as…
Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Walker, Rebecca; Batchelor, Julie; O'Steen, Billy; Angelo, Tom
Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is promoted as a teaching approach that can enhance student learning outcomes. IBL can be categorised according to scale (e.g. tasks, course/module/paper, degree), mode (structured, guided, open) and framing (information or discovery-oriented). Our research used a survey instrument to determine how student perceptions…
Pearson, Gregory J.
The present study investigates how parental influence, career maturity, and self efficacy affect perceptions of postsecondary outcomes among deaf or hard-of-hearing students. Research suggests that deaf or hard-of-hearing students graduate from high school with the equivalent of a 4th or 5th grade reading level. Subsequently, this population of…
Gross, David; Pietri, Evava S.; Anderson, Gordon; Moyano-Camihort, Karin; Graham, Mark J.
Active-learning environments such as those found in a flipped classroom are known to increase student performance, although how these gains are realized over the course of a semester is less well understood. In an upper-level lecture course designed primarily for biochemistry majors, we examine how students attain improved learning outcomes, as…
Endo, Jean J.; Harpel, Richard L.
The impact of liberal arts and professional programs on student outcomes variables was studied. Data were gathered from the 1975 entering freshman cohort at the University of Colorado at Boulder through a 1975 Freshman Questionnaire and a 1979 Graduating Students Survey. Program impact was measured using a model developed by Astin. Type of program…
This study examined the educational environment placement and educational outcomes of students identified as having an emotional disturbance (ED). The sample was drawn from special education enrollment data for students aged 6-21 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC in 2010. Additional economic and demographic state-level variables were…
Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia
Background: Self-managed learning groups are increasingly used in higher education. There is a need for more systematic investigation of university students' perceptions of the processes and outcomes of this learning method. Aims: This study aimed to identify the domains of process issues that students perceive as relevant to their participation…
Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.
Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…
Grayson, J. Paul
In Canada, there has been little systematic inquiry into the nature and extent of discrimination against university students and the potential impact of discrimination on educational outcomes. On the basis of an examination of domestic and international students at the University of British Columbia (Vancouver), York (Toronto), McGill (Montreal),…
Davis, James Michael
Economic and fiscal challenges, increased public scrutiny, and calls for accountability from stakeholders necessitate that community colleges work diligently to improve student success outcomes. Programs, services, and initiatives need to be developed and implemented that will increase student retention. Orientation is an important intervention…
Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Len
This study attempted to examine students' learning outcomes and their learning experiences through playing a Serious Educational Game. A mixed-method research design was employed collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 98 middle-school students ranging from sixth to eighth grades participated through paper-and-pencil…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015
This summary highlights the key findings from the report "A preliminary analysis of the outcomes of students assisted by VET FEE-HELP". VET FEE-HELP is an income-contingent loan scheme that assists eligible students undertaking certain vocational education training (VET) courses with an approved provider by paying for all or part of…
Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon
Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…
Boardman, Alison; Buckley, Pamela; Maul, Andrew; Vaughn, Sharon
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a set of research-based strategies designed to improve reading comprehension, enhance students' content area learning, facilitate access to higher-level texts, and to promote student engagement. The present study examines how fidelity of implementation of CSR is associated with reading outcomes for students…
Junco, Reynol; Elavsky, C. Michael; Heiberger, Greg
Herein, we present data from two studies of Twitter usage in different postsecondary courses with the goal of analyzing the relationships surrounding student engagement and collaboration as they intersect learning outcomes. Study 1 was conducted with 125 students taking a first-year seminar course, half of who were required to use Twitter while…
Avery, Christopher; Howell, Jessica S.; Page, Lindsay
Identifying the best set of colleges to which to apply is not a simple task. The importance of any one application depends on the likely outcomes of other applications, and this logic and information is difficult to grasp for anyone, let alone high school students. To simplify this task, the College Board recommends that students submit a total of…
Sevier, Carol; Chyung, Seung Youn; Callahan, Janet; Schrader, Cheryl B.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using a service learning (SL) method on influencing introductory engineering students' motivation and ABET program outcomes, compared to the effectiveness of using a conventional, non-service-learning (NSL) method. The sample used in the study was 214 students enrolled in…
Cho, Sung-Woo; Karp, Melinda Mechur
Using data from the Virginia Community College System and building upon prior Florida-based research, this study examines whether student success course enrollment has positive associations with shorter term student outcomes, including earning any college credits within the first year and persisting into the second year. The present study finds…
Lee, Hollylynne Stohl; Angotti, Robin L.; Tarr, James E.
We examined how middle school students reason about results from a computer-simulated die-tossing experiment, including various representations of data, to support or refute an assumption that the outcomes on a die are equiprobable. We used students' actions with the software and their social interactions to infer their expectations and whether or…
Ross, Craig M.; Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.
Institutions of higher education are increasingly being held more accountable for assessing student learning both in and out of their classrooms along with reporting results to their stakeholders. The purpose of this study, which examined assessment of student learning outcomes in undergraduate park and recreation academic programs, was two-fold:…
Shafaei, Azadeh; Razak, Nordin Abd
This study develops and empirically tests a conceptual model capturing the factors impacting students' cross-cultural adaptation and the outcomes resulting from such adaption. Data were obtained from a sample of international postgraduate students from six Malaysian public universities using a structured questionnaire. Structural equation…
Graesser, Art; Rodriguez, Gina; Brasiel, Sarah J.
There are research-based principles and practices from the learning and cognitive sciences that can be applied to all content areas in middle grades education to improve student outcomes. Even teachers of courses like Physical Education can consider these strategies for assisting students in remembering rules of sports, different sports…
Schreiner, Laurie A.; Kim, Young K.
This study examined the patterns of college experiences and outcomes among 3,501 students attending colleges or universities that belong to the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU). As part of the CCCU-sponsored Comprehensive Assessment Project (CAP), 25 member institutions collected data from their first-year students using the…
Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi; Vogt, Kristen E.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Owen, Julie; Johnson, Dawn
The National Study of Living-Learning Programs (NSLLP) survey instrument was designed to assess college environments and student learning and development outcomes associated with participation in living-learning programs. Data from the NSLLP show that students in living-learning programs demonstrate higher self-reported engagement and outcomes…
In 2004, the Department of Writing Studies at Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island, the U.S., began an assessment of student outcomes for two first-year writing courses (Fall 04 to Fall 05) to evaluate performance on previously established criteria. A study of the students' Portfolio Assessment Sheets concluded that one pervasive…
Crosta, Peter M.
This study examines the relationship between community college enrollment patterns and student outcomes--credential completion and transfer to a 4-year institution--introducing a new way of visualizing the various attendance patterns of community college students. Patterns of enrollment intensity (full- or part-time status) and continuity…
Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie
This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…
Cox, Philip; Godfrey, John R.
In Perth, Western Australia, summative assessment has not been a teaching tool in the teaching of religious education courses in the Catholic schools. This study investigated whether the use of formal assessment procedures in the teaching of religion had an effect on student learning outcomes. Subjects were 128 students (4 classes) in year 8 of an…
Troxel, Verne Aubry
The outcomes of 1333 students enrolled in Chemical Educational Materials Study (CHEMS), Chemical Bond Approach (CBA), and a traditional chemistry course were compared on the basis of grade and ability level. For the total group, students taking CHEMS and CBA performed significantly better on the American Chemical Society Cooperative Examination in…
Greene, G. Kennedy; Huerta, Luis A.; Richards, Craig
Most research on the association between school resources and student outcomes has concentrated on finances as measured in dollars. This study takes a fresh look at the issue by focusing on the allocation of real resources, defined as the personnel and materiel used to increase student learning, which are more relevant measures of a school's…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene
Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…
Dugan, John P.; Kusel, Michelle L.; Simounet, Dawn M.
We explored transgender students' perceptions, engagement, and educational outcomes across 17 dimensions of the collegiate experience. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 91 transgender-identified college students as well as matching samples of nontransgender LGB and heterosexual peers for comparative purposes.…
Medsker, Larry; Allard, Lee; Tucker, Lucas J.; O'Donnell, Jodi L.; Sterne-Marr, Rachel; Bannon, Jon; Finn, Rose; Weatherwax, Allan
The Tech Valley Scholars (TVS) program included 38 students who joined this program over the course of three academic years, from 2009 to 2012. These students comprise the experimental group for this study to determine if participating in the NSF-funded Tech Valley Scholars program improved academic outcomes. The experimental group was compared to…
Martin, Andrew J.
The present study examined the implications of grade retention (repeating a grade) and social promotion (automatic promotion to the next grade each year) for high school students' academic and non-academic outcomes. Based on data from 3261 high school students, structural equation modeling demonstrated that, after controlling for interactions with…
Palaroan, Michelle A.
The quantitative study was a comparison of Limited English Proficient (LEP) students' assessment outcomes when taught by a teacher with specialized training and when taught by teachers with no specialized training. The comparison of 2007-2008 Northern Nevada LEP third grade student scores in the content areas of English language arts and…
Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2009
The 2009 SOAR (Student Outcome and Achievement Report) relies upon two sets of data, the academic performance data (which are collected directly from the colleges and universities) and the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test)/ACT (American College Testing Program) data, to examine the relationship between students' academic achievements and…
Mitee, Telimoye Leesi; Obaitan, Georgina N.
The cognitive learning outcome of Senior Secondary School chemistry students has been poor over the years in Nigeria. Poor mathematical skills and inefficient teaching methods have been identified as some of the major reasons for this. Bloom's theory of school learning and philosophy of mastery learning assert that virtually all students are…
Mulder, Raoul; Baik, Chi; Naylor, Ryan; Pearce, Jon
Involving students in peer review has many pedagogical benefits, but few studies have explicitly investigated relationships between the content of peer reviews, student perceptions and assessment outcomes. We conducted a case study of peer review within a third-year undergraduate subject at a research-intensive Australian university, in which we…
Porntaweekul, Satjatam; Raksasataya, Sarintip; Nethanomsak, Teerachai
This work aims to investigate the reflective thinking instructional model for enhancing empowerment of pre-service and in-service educational students in Roi-Et Rajabhat University, Thailand. In this research, qualitative methods, observation, interview, short note, and group discussion were used to indicate students' desirable learning outcomes,…
Rowland, Janet Wedge
The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the outcome performance of second degree students in an Accelerated BSN (ABSN) and an Entry Level MSN (ELMSN) program. In addition to student demographics (ethnicity/race, age, and gender), study variables included admission and end-of-program indicators. Admission criteria included the…
Canto, Angela I.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances
The researchers examined the educational outcomes of three groups of college students who received an evaluation due to academic difficulties: those diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) who subsequently registered for services through the university student disability resource center; those diagnosed with an LD who did not register for…
Payne, Camille; Ziegler, M Penny; Baughman, Diana M; Jones, Jackie
A primary responsibility for nurse educators is to provide students with theoretical knowledge and clinical skills for professional nursing. In this study, laboratory faculty developed a creative pedagogical strategy to reduce nursing student stress during assessment of skill performance. Mock competencies were structured so that students participated in peer-to-peer evaluations in simulated competency assessments. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this pedagogical strategy had an impact on first-round pass rates for skills competency assessments. PMID:25950797
Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S
The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes. PMID:24771270
Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S
The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.
Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive
Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for
Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.
This teaching guide is part of a series of materials developed, with input from adult learners, to aid adult literacy teachers in incorporating health education into the curriculum. This guide aims to help teachers to provide adult students with information about good nutritional habits and positive health behaviors that will substantially reduce…
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Div. of Adult Basic and Literacy Education Programs.
This document describes the 10 winners of the 1990 ABLE Award, which recognizes outstanding adult students in Pennsylvania adult basic and literacy education programs. The award, given for achievement based on learning excellence (ABLE), is presented by the Pennsylvania Division of Adult Basic and Literacy Education Programs. The winners are…
Swanson, Joan Ann; Walker, Erica
Emerging adult college students have developmental and educational needs which are unique to their phase of life. Emerging adults are also increasingly identified by their technology use and practices. Collegiate instructors will be better equipped for educating these individuals when armed with insights concerning emerging adults' technology…
DeCoux, Valerie; And Others
To examine the relationship among the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS), Educational Orientation Questionnaire (EOQ), and Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory (PAEI), the three instruments were administered to 111 graduate adult education students. The instruments had similar purposes: PAEI measured philosophical orientation relative to…
Lavie Alon, Nirit; Tal, Tali
In this study, we used the classification and regression trees (CART) method to draw relationships between student self-reported learning outcomes in 26 field trips to natural environments and various characteristics of the field trip that include variables associated with preparation and pedagogy. We wished to examine the extent to which the preparation for the field trip, its connection to the school curriculum, and the pedagogies used, affect students' self-reported outcomes in three domains: cognitive, affective, and behavioral; and the extent the students' socioeconomic group and the guide's affiliation affect students' reported learning outcomes. Given that most of the field trips were guide-centered, the most important variable that affected the three domains of outcomes was the guide's storytelling. Other variables that showed relationships with self-reported outcomes were physical activity and making connections to everyday life-all of which we defined as pedagogical variables. We found no significant differences in student self-reported outcomes with respect to their socioeconomic group and the guide's organizational affiliation.
Bamberger, Yael; Tal, Tali
The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the range of outcomes of class visits to natural history museums. The theoretical framework is based on the multifaceted process of learning in free choice learning environments, and emphasizes the unique and individual learning experience in museum settings. The study's significance is in highlighting several possible cognitive as well as non-cognitive learning effects in museums class visits, by providing the student's point of view. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews with 50 students in grades 6-8 on the day following the visit. We present evidence that students expressed several learning outcomes, connected directly and indirectly to the scientific content of the visit. Content oriented outcomes included acquiring scientific knowledge and making connections to prior knowledge; social oriented outcomes were identified in students' statements regarding communicating knowledge and social aspects of learning; and interest oriented outcomes were evidenced by students' expressions about emotions, interest and curiosity. The aggregate data addressed the common outcomes and the impact of class visits to natural history museums in the short term. Comparisons between two types of museums show significant differences in several aspects, regarding the exhibit and/or the activity type. Practical ideas for structuring the ultimate experience are included.
Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.
We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795
Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.
Objective The study aims to characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method The study included 58 females from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. Thirty-four (M=19.97 years old) met DSM criteria for ADHD in childhood, while the remaining 24 (M=19.83 years old) did not. Self- and parent-reports of psychopathology, delinquency, interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, job performance, and substance use were collected. Results The findings suggest that girls with ADHD experience difficulties in late adolescence and young adulthood, such as more conflict with their mothers, being involved in fewer romantic relationships, and experiencing more depressive symptoms than comparison women. However, differences did not emerge in all domains, such as job performance, substance use, and self-reported ADHD symptomatology. Conclusion The findings of this study add to the literature on the negative late adolescent and young adult outcomes associated with childhood ADHD in females. PMID:20562386
B. Duci, Shkelzen; M. Arifi, Hysni; R. Ahmeti, Hasan; K. Zatriqi, Violeta; A. Buja, Zejn; T. Hoxha, Enver; Y. Mekaj, Agon
BACKGROUND Advances in burn care over the past 50 years have brought about remarkable improvement in mortality rates such that survival has become an expected outcome even in patients with extensive injuries. Although these improvements have occurred in all age groups, survival in older adults still lags far behind that in younger cohorts. This study determines the outcomes of older adults with burn injury in University Clinical Center of Kosovo. METHODS This is a retrospective study that includes 56 burn patients, older than 60 years who were admitted at the Department of Plastic Surgery, between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. Data processing was done with the statistical package of Stat 3. From the statistical parameters the structural index, arithmetic median, and standard deviation were calculated. RESULTS Fifty six burned patient older than 60 years were included during a 10-year period. Of the 56 elderly patients 29 were women and 27 were men with a mean age of 66.7 years (range, 60-85 years). The differences were not statistically significant for both genders regarding the causes of burn injury. CONCLUSION Considering the gradual increase of the elderly population in our country based on the data of the Ministry of Public Services, an increase is expected to the incidence of burn injuries in the population of this category of our country. PMID:26284184
Conn, Vicki S.; Koopman, Richelle J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Mehr, David R.; Hafdahl, Adam R.
Objective Although exercise can improve insulin sensitivity, no adequate synthesis exists of exercise intervention studies with regard to their effect on insulin sensitivity. This comprehensive meta-analysis synthesized the insulin sensitivity outcomes of supervised exercise interventions. Method Extensive literature searching located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured insulin sensitivity outcomes. Eligible studies tested supervised exercise interventions among healthy adults. Primary study characteristics and results were coded. Random-effects meta-analyses of standardized mean differences included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 2,509 subjects (115 samples, 78 reports). The overall mean effect size for two-group post-intervention comparisons was 0.38 (95% CI [0.25, 0.51], I2 = 0%) and for two-group pre-post comparisons was 0.43 (95% CI [0.30, 0.56], I2 = 52%) (higher mean insulin sensitivity for treatment than control subjects). The post-intervention mean of 0.38 is consistent with treatment subjects ending studies with a mean fasting insulin of 6.8 mU/l if control participants’ mean fasting insulin were 7.9 mU/l. Exploratory moderator analyses did not document different insulin sensitivity effect sizes across intervention characteristics or sample attributes. Conclusion This study documented that exercise is a valuable primary care and community health strategy for healthy adults to improve insulin sensitivity and lower the risk for diabetes conferred by insulin resistance. PMID:24474665
Devine, Emily Beth; Hakim, Zafar; Green, Jesse
Sleep dysfunction can manifest in several ways, ranging from insomnia to somnolence, and from disrupted sleep to lack of restful sleep. Measuring sleep dysfunction is an area of active research and there exist a number of patient-reported outcome instruments that measure various aspects of sleep dysfunction. However, these instruments have not been evaluated systematically. We used a conceptual model of sleep that included four physical domains of general interest to patients and investigators, and cover the breadth of this disorder: sleep initiation; sleep maintenance; sleep adequacy; and somnolence. We next considered the additional health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL) domains of psychological and social functioning, progressing along the continuum to include health perceptions and opportunity. We then conducted a literature review to identify instruments and, using criteria developed by the Medical Outcomes Trust Scientific Advisory Committee, evaluated these instruments for their potential use in measuring sleep dysfunction. Twenty-two instruments were identified. Six instruments were found to include the four physical domains defined a priori (Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study - Sleep Problems Measures, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Self-Rated Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep Dissatisfaction Questionnaire). Several additional instruments addressed at least some of the domains and thus may be useful for specific purposes. A few instruments addressed overall HR-QOL, but did not include all four domains of interest (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Quality of Life in Insomniacs and the Sleep-Wake Activity Inventory). Two instruments had undergone extensive psychometric evaluation (Medical Outcomes Study - Sleep Problems Measures and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), with only the latter reporting information about interpretability. Our review indicates that
Martin, Wendy; Strother, Scott; Beglau, Monica; Bates, Lauren; Reitzes, Timothy; Culp, Katherine McMillan
This article presents findings from an evaluation of an instructional-technology professional development (PD) program that uses many practices advocated by PD experts. In this multiphase evaluation, evaluators examined the program, determined whether variations in program implementation had an impact on teacher outcomes, and then looked at…
Narumi, Takatsune; Gotoh, Yasushi
How to guarantee graduate attributes has become an urgent challenge amid the increasing progress in scientific and technological development and the globalization of economic activity. In order to solve these problems, a system is required which can visualize learning outcomes in relation to attainment targets, and store and sample records of the…
Pedersen, Daphne E.
Objective: Using a stress carry-over perspective, this study examines the relationship between stress stemming from school and family domains and physical and mental health outcomes. Methods: The study sample included 268 undergraduate men and women from a Midwestern university. Participants completed an anonymous online questionnaire. OLS…
Background Spontaneous meningitis caused by gram-negative bacilli in adult patients is uncommon and poorly characterized. Our objective is to describe and compare the characteristics and the outcome of adult patients with spontaneous gram-negative bacilli meningitis (GNBM) and spontaneous meningitis due to other pathogens. Methods Prospective single hospital-based observational cohort study conducted between 1982 and 2006 in a university tertiary hospital in Barcelona (Spain). The Main Outcome Measure: In-hospital mortality. Results Gram-negative bacilli meningitis was diagnosed in 40 (7%) of 544 episodes of spontaneous acute bacterial meningitis. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas species. On admission, characteristics associated with spontaneous gram-negative bacilli meningitis by multivariate modeling were advanced age, history of cancer, nosocomial acquisition of infection, urinary tract infection as distant focus of infection, absence of rash, hypotension, and a high cerebrospinal fluid white-cell count. Nine (23%) episodes were acquired in the hospital and they were most commonly caused by Pseudomonas. The in-hospital mortality rate was 53%. The mortality rate was higher among patients with Gram-negative bacillary meningitis than among those with other bacterial meningitis and their risk of death was twenty times higher than among patients infected with Neisseria meningitidis (odds ratio 20.47; 95% confidence interval 4.03-103.93; p<0.001). Conclusions Gram-negative bacilli cause 9% of spontaneous bacterial meningitis of known etiology in adults. Characteristics associated with GNBM include advanced age, history of cancer, nosocomial acquisition, and urinary tract infection as distant focus of infection. The mortality rate is higher among patients with gram-negative bacillary meningitis than among those with other bacterial meningitides. PMID:24079517
Garrison, Michelle M.; Courtney, Mark E.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Foster youth have high rates of health problems in childhood. Little work has been done to determine whether they are similarly vulnerable to increased health problems once they transition to adulthood. We sought to prospectively evaluate the risk of cardiovascular risk factors and other chronic conditions among young adults formerly in foster care (FC) and young adults from economically insecure (EI) and economically secure (ES) backgrounds in the general population. METHODS: We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (FC group; N = 596) and an age-matched sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (EI and ES groups; N = 456 and 1461, respectively). After controlling for covariates, we performed multivariate regressions to evaluate health outcomes and care access by group at 2 time points (baseline at late adolescence, follow-up at 25–26 years). RESULTS: Data revealed a consistent pattern of graduated increase in odds of most health outcomes, progressing from ES to EI to FC groups. Health care access indicators were more variable; the FC group was most likely to report having Medicaid or no insurance but was least likely to report not getting needed care in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Former foster youth appear to have a higher risk of multiple chronic health conditions, beyond that which is associated with economic insecurity. Findings may be relevant to policymakers and practitioners considering the implementation of extended insurance and foster care programs and interventions to reduce health disparities in young adulthood. PMID:25367543
Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan
Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to
Keller, Thomas E; Pryce, Julia M
This prospective, mixed-methods study investigated how the nature of joint activities between volunteer mentors and student mentees corresponded to relationship quality and youth outcomes. Focusing on relationships in school-based mentoring programs in low-income urban elementary schools, data were obtained through pre-post assessments, naturalistic observations, and in-depth interviews with mentors and mentees. Adopting an exploratory approach, the study employed qualitative case study methods to inductively identify distinctive patterns reflecting the focus of mentoring activities. The activity orientations of relationships were categorized according to the primary functional role embodied by the mentor and the general theme of interactions: teaching assistant/tutoring, friend/engaging, sage/counseling, acquaintance/floundering. Next, these categories were corroborated by comparing the groups on quantitative assessments of relationship quality and change in child outcomes over time. Relationships characterized by sage mentoring, which balanced amicable engagement with adult guidance, were rated most favorably by mentees on multiple measures of relationship quality. Furthermore, students involved in sage mentoring relationships showed declines in depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors. For disconnected pairs (acquaintances), students reported more negative relationship experiences. Findings suggest effective mentoring relationships represent a hybrid between the friendly mutuality of horizontal relationships and the differential influence of vertical relationships.
Chi, Donald L; Pickrell, Jacqueline E; Riedy, Christine A
Educational technologies such as video cases can improve health professions student learning outcomes, but few studies in dentistry have evaluated video-based technologies. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes associated with video and paper cases used in an introductory public health dentistry course. This was a retrospective cohort study with a historical control group. Based on dual coding theory, the authors tested the hypotheses that dental students who received a video case (n=37) would report better affective, cognitive, and overall learning outcomes than students who received a paper case (n=75). One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses across ten cognitive, two affective, and one general assessment measures (α=0.05). Students in the video group reported a significantly higher overall mean effectiveness score than students in the paper group (4.2 and 3.3, respectively; p<0.001). Video cases were also associated with significantly higher mean scores across the remaining twelve measures and were effective in helping students achieve cognitive (e.g., facilitating good discussions, identifying public health problems, realizing how health disparities might impact their future role as dentists) and affective (e.g., empathizing with vulnerable individuals, appreciating how health disparities impact real people) goals. Compared to paper cases, video cases significantly improved cognitive, affective, and overall learning outcomes for dental students.
Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S
Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.
Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S
Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395
Nursing has a social mandate to ensure effective practice within its domain and to be accountable for the outcomes of nursing care. Using standardized nursing terminologies makes it possible to measure aspects of nursing care. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a significant difference in outcome ratings exists from admission to discharge for hospitalized older adults with heart failure (HF) using Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A retrospective descriptive research design was used. Data were obtained from 268 inpatient records of patients discharged with HF during a 1-year period. All top 10 NOC outcomes demonstrated statistically significant improvement in outcome ratings from admission to discharge. Findings from this study provide insight on the possible contribution of nursing to outcomes of hospitalized older adults with HF. Validating and incorporating nursing-sensitive outcome measures in future prospective experimental research can contribute to the advancement of science regarding effective treatment of older adults hospitalized with HF, while highlighting the contribution of nursing care to outcomes.
This paper specifies 14 benchmarks and exit standards for the introduction of Materials Science and Technology in a secondary school education. Included is the standard that students should be able to name an example of each category of technological materials including metals, glass/ceramics, polymers (plastics) and composites. Students should know that each type of solid material has specific properties that can be measured. Students will learn that all solid materials have either a long range crystalline structure or a short range amorphous structure (i.e., glassy). They should learn the choice of materials for a particular application depends on the properties of the material, and the properties of the material depends on its crystal structure and microstructure. The microstructure may be modified by the methods by which the material is processed; students should explain this by the example of sintering a ceramic body to reduce its porosity and increase its densification and strength. Students will receive exposure to the world of work, post secondary educational opportunities, and in general a learning that will lead to a technologically literate intelligent citizen.
Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira
Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes. PMID:26650919
Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira
Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes.
Wahl, Shawn T.; Williams, Kesha Morant; Berkos, Kristen M.; Disbrow, Lynn M.
Using the conceptual foundation "diversity matters" (Orbe & Allen, 2008), this essay calls for research examining the NCA learning outcomes in communication related to diversity, inclusion, privilege, and intercultural communication (mostly existing in LOC 8). The authors argue this research will serve as a relevant and vital…
Foti, Megan K.; Eleazar, Crystal; Furphy, Kimberly A.
This qualitative study explored the benefits of implementing (international) teleconsultation in a Master of Science in Occupational Therapy (MSOT) curriculum. Twenty-one students provided supervised teleconsultative services to individuals with disabilities in Guatemala and were responsible for completing assessments, setting goals, and providing resources to address goals and improve quality of life. Data were collected through student presentations and coded for relevant themes. Analysis revealed new learning in the areas of the occupational therapy process, cultural awareness, and technology. Three themes emerged: Increased Understanding of Awareness of and Challenges to Working with People of a Different Culture; Need for Adaptability and Flexibility as Practicing Clinicians; Emerging Role of Technology in Occupational Therapy. Based on results from this study, occupational therapy academicians should consider implementing similar programs into curricula and conduct related research in order to promote not only student learning, but also to advance the use of telehealth technology in occupational therapy practice. PMID:25945222