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Sample records for adult subjects subjects

  1. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  2. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  3. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  4. Subjective benefit of communication aids evaluated by postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Rihkanen, H

    1990-06-01

    Three groups of postlingually deaf adults were selected, trained and followed for about 2 years. The subjects with residual hearing were fitted with a powerful hearing aid (HA group, N = 10), the rest were given a single channel vibrotactile aid (V group, N = 8) or received a single channel cochlear implant (CI group, N = 10). The subjects were asked to evaluate the subjective benefit, disadvantage and magnitude of hearing impairment after the rehabilitation. Although the HA group achieved the highest scores in the audiological tests, the interviews revealed that the CI group found the implant quite beneficial in everyday life and in changing their attitude towards the handicap. After 2 years of use, this group reported the highest index of benefit, the best discrimination of everyday sounds and used the device most frequently. The V group were not as satisfied with their devices as the CI and HA groups. PMID:2364187

  5. Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, L.; Yan, K. Y.; Loblay, R. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in response to double blind, placebo controlled challenges on a strict elimination diet. However, this method is cumbersome and time consuming. A study was undertaken to determine whether changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine following food chemical challenge without an elimination diet might be a faster, more convenient method. METHODS: Eleven adult asthmatic subjects were challenged twice with metabisulphite, aspirin, monosodium glutamate, artificial food colours, sodium nitrite/ nitrate, 0.5% citric acid solution (placebo), and sucrose (placebo) on separate days. During the first set of challenges subjects consumed a normal diet. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine was assessed 90 minutes after each challenge. A greater than twofold increase in bronchial responsiveness was considered positive. For one month prior to and during the second set of challenges subjects followed a strict elimination diet and FEV1 was monitored during and for two hours after each challenge. A fall in FEV1 of 20% or more was considered positive. RESULTS: Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an unmodified diet, 20 were positive (six placebo responses). In two subjects it was not possible to perform a histamine test after one of the chemical challenges because of poor spirometric function. Of the 77 food chemical challenges performed on an elimination diet, 11 were positive (no placebo responses). Excluding the two challenges in which there were no corresponding histamine tests, only on two occasions did the positive responses in both methods coincide, giving the unmodified diet method a sensitivity of 22%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict dietary elimination and measurement of FEV1 after double blind food chemical challenge remains the most reliable method for the detection of food chemical intolerance in

  6. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  7. Aspartame metabolism in normal adults, phenylketonuric heterozygotes, and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Filer, L J; Stegink, L D

    1989-01-01

    This study reviews clinical studies testing the effects of various doses of aspartame on blood levels of phenylalanine, aspartate, and methanol in normal subjects and known phenylketonuric heterozygotes. The effect of aspartame on the phenylalanine-to-large neutral amino acid ratio under various feeding situations is shown. The clinical studies of aspartame in diabetic subjects are limited to observations of its effects on blood levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, and glucagon. These studies clearly demonstrate the safety of this high-intensity sweetener for use by humans. PMID:2653751

  8. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  9. Adult Biography Reviews in "Booklist": Have the Subjects Changed in Twenty Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Timothy R.

    All adult biographies reviewed in "Booklist" in 1960 through 1964 and 1987 through 1989 were examined to see if the gender, racial or ethnic background, geographic setting, and occupation of the subjects changed over time. A total of 879 reviews from the 1960s and 1,103 reviews from the 1980s were examined. The analysis shows that subjects of…

  10. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  11. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  12. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  13. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583

  14. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion hydrobromide and metabolites in healthy adolescent and adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Oh, D Alexander; Crean, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    Data from 2 pediatric single-dose studies, conducted at the same center, were combined to evaluate exposure levels of bupropion and metabolites in adolescents 12-17 years old, compared with adults > 18 years. Pharmacokinetic analyses of bupropion and its metabolites were performed using normalization and pharmacological/convulsive weighting methods on exposure. When compared with adults (>18 years), subjects 12-14 years had an increase in weight-normalized exposure to bupropion (ie, Cmax , 78%; AUC0-t , 83%; and AUCinf , 85%). Variability in this younger age group was also higher, with observations of a 3- to 4-fold increase in exposure. When the changes in metabolites were accounted within pharmacological and convulsive-weighted exposures, the relative ratio of 12-14 years to adults in body weight-normalized Cmax was 127% and 110%, respectively. Subjects 15-17 years did not exhibit a difference in exposure compared with adults. The influence of age on bupropion pharmacokinetics demonstrates that, in general, healthy adolescent subjects cannot be considered smaller healthy adult subjects; the increase in exposure is inversely related to age and appears to be solely associated with bupropion, not with its metabolites. Because there are no clinical safety and efficacy data of bupropion in adolescents, this data may shift its risk-benefit profile. PMID:27137143

  15. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Best, John R.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population—and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients—there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality—the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)—with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and

  16. Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Best, John R; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality decreases with aging and thus sleep complaints are prevalent in older adults, particularly for those with cognitive impairment and dementia. For older adults, emerging evidence suggests poor sleep quality increases risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the aging population-and the impending economic burden associated with increasing numbers of dementia patients-there is pressing need to improve sleep quality among older adults. As such, research efforts have increased focus on investigating the association between age-related sleep changes and cognitive decline in older adults. Sleep quality is a complex construct to evaluate empirically, and yet the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is commonly used in studies as their only measure of sleep quality. Furthermore, the PSQI may not be the best sleep quality measure for older adults, due to its reliance on the cognitive capacity to reflect on the past month. Further study is needed to determine the PSQI's validity among older adults. Thus, the current study examined sleep quality for 78 community dwelling adults 55+ to determine the PSQI's predictive validity for objective sleep quality (as measured by actigraphy). We compared two subjective measures of sleep quality-the PSQI and Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD)-with actigraphy (MotionWatch 8©; camntech). Our results suggest perceived sleep quality is quite different from objective reality, at least for adults 55+. Importantly, we show this difference is unrelated to age, gender, education, or cognitive status (assessed using standard screens). Previous studies have shown the PSQI to be a valuable tool for assessing subjective sleep quality; however, our findings indicate for older adults the PSQI should not be used as a substitute for actigraphy, or vice versa. Hence, we conclude best practice is to include both subjective and objective measures when examining sleep quality in older adults (i.e., the PSQI, CSD, and actigraphy). PMID

  17. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. PMID:26921056

  18. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  19. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  1. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  2. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  3. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  4. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. PMID:26868539

  5. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p < 0.001). The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p = 0.020). No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance. Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality. PMID:27507944

  6. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  7. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  8. Sleep Pattern Differences Between Older Adult Dementia Caregivers and Older Adult Noncaregivers Using Objective and Subjective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.; Campbell, Judy M.; Pe Benito, Andrea; Cheng, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia often complain about poor quality sleep; however, studies on caregivers have mixed results when examining sleep values. The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns in a subset of dementia caregivers who provide care during the night, and compare those patterns to noncaregiving adults. Methods: Data from a study on dementia caregivers and from a study of sleep in older adults were used. Both studies used objective and subjective methods to measure sleep in the home setting over a 7-day period. Participants were over 60 years old and relatively healthy. Results: Older dementia caregivers had worse objectively measured sleep than noncaregiving older adults, characterized by fewer minutes asleep and longer time to fall asleep. For subjectively measured sleep, depressive symptoms were the only predictive factor, with depressed participants reporting longer total sleep time, greater sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset. Caregivers' sleep had greater night-to-night variability. Conclusions: Caregivers consistently report poorer quality sleep and greater fatigue than noncaregivers. However, when sleep is measured objectively and subjectively, a mixed picture emerges regarding sleep deficits. Thus sleep changes are caused by a multitude of factors affecting sleep in a variety of ways. It is important for health care providers to assess sleep adequacy and depression in caregivers. Citation: Rowe MA; McCrae CS; Campbell JM; Benito AP; Cheng J. Sleep pattern differences between older adult dementia caregivers and older adult noncaregivers using objective and subjective measures. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(4):362–369. PMID:18763429

  9. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, McKee J.; Wallendal, Maggie S.; Hyde, Trevor F.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  10. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  11. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  12. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  13. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre- to post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, p ≤.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, p <.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  14. Subjective Memory Complaint and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mónica; Costa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older adults report subjective memory complaints (SMCs) but whether these are related to depression remains controversial. In this study we investigated the relationship between the SMCs and depression and their predictors in a sample of old adults. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 620 participants aged 55 to 96 years (74.04 ± 10.41). Outcome measures included a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a SMC scale (QSM), a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results. The QSM mean total score for the main results suggests that SMCs are higher in old adults with depressed symptoms, comparatively to nondepressed old adults. The GDS scores were positively associated with QSM but negatively associated with education, MMSE, and MoCA. GDS scores predicted almost 63.4% of variance. Scores on QSM and MoCA are significantly predicted by depression symptomatology. Conclusion. Depression symptoms, lower education level, and older age may be crucial to the comprehension of SMCs. The present study suggested that depression might play a role in the SMCs of the older adults and its treatment should be considered. PMID:26880907

  15. Dimensions of subjective well-being and effects of physical activity in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Ku, Po-Wen; McKenna, Jim; Fox, Kenneth R

    2007-10-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) and its relationship with physical activity have not been systematically investigated in older Chinese people. This study explored these issues using qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 23 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 55-78 y, 12 women); 16 were physically active and 7 physically inactive. Using cross-case analyses, 7 dimensions of SWB emerged: physical, psychological, developmental, material, spiritual, sociopolitical, and social. Although elements of SWB may be shared across cultures, specific distinctions were identified. Active respondents reported the unique contributions of physical activity to the physical, psychological, developmental, and social elements of SWB. The findings suggest that physical activity could enhance the quality of life in Chinese older adults. PMID:18048943

  16. A comparison of older adults' subjective experiences with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities.

    PubMed

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semistructured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  17. A comparison of older adults' subjective experience with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  18. Objective and subjective measurement of energy expenditure in older adults: A doubly-labeled water study

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Miguel Andres; Kim, Youngwon; Franke, Warren D.; Stewart, Jeanne M.; Welk, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Objective and subjective measurement instruments have been used to estimate energy expenditure as alternatives to the doubly labeled water (DLW) methodology, but their relative validity for older adults remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to validate an objective monitor (Sense Wear Mini Armband) and a self-report instrument (7-Day Physical Activity Recall) relative to the doubly-labeled water (DLW) under free-living conditions in older adults. Subjects/Methods Twenty-nine older adults (60–78 yrs) each wore the Mini for 14 consecutive days, and completed two 7D-PARs after each week. For each measurement method, activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as total energy expenditure (TEE) – measured resting metabolic rate –diet induced thermogenesis (10% of TEE). TEE and AEE from the Mini and 7D-PAR were each compared to values from the DLW. Results Equivalence testing indicated that estimates of TEE from the Mini and the 7D-PAR were statistically equivalent to those measured with DLW; however, differences were evident for estimates of AEE. The Mini had smaller mean absolute percent error for TEE (8.0%) and AEE (28.4%) than the 7D-PAR (13.8% and 84.5%, respectively) and less systematic bias in the estimates. Conclusions The Mini and 7D-PAR provided reasonably valid estimates of TEE but large errors in estimating AEE. The Mini and 7D-PAR have the potential to accurately estimate TEE for older adults. PMID:25351651

  19. Short, Subjective Measures of Numeracy and General Health Literacy in an Adult Emergency Department Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wallston, Kenneth A.; Rothman, Russell L.; Marcovitz, David E.; Storrow, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability and validity of brief subjective measures of numeracy and general health literacy in the adult emergency department setting. Methods A convenience sample of adult emergency department patients completed subjective measures of general health literacy (Short Literacy Screening questions, SLS) and numeracy (Subjective Numeracy Scale, SNS). These patients also completed two objective tests of literacy (the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, S-TOFHLA; and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, REALM) and an objective test of numeracy (WRAT4). Internal reliability of the subjective measures was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity of the subjective measures was assessed by correlating them against the S-TOFHLA, REALM, and WRAT4, using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, and hierarchical, multiple linear regression with adjustment for patient age, gender, race, and education. Results The median age of the 207 patients surveyed was 46 (interquartile range 32, 59); twenty-seven percent were African American. Sixty-one percent of patients reported their highest level of education was high school or below. As measured by the S-TOFHLA and REALM, most patients had adequate literacy levels (89% and 80%, respectively), while 44% of patients had below average numeracy skills on the WRAT4. Median SLS was 14 (IQR 12, 15) on a scale of 3 to 15; median SNS was 36 (IQR 30, 42) on a scale of 6 to 48. The SLS and SNS had good internal reliability, with Cronbach’s alphas of 0.74 and 0.82, respectively. The SLS Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient was 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.45) for the S-TOFHLA, with a standardized beta coefficient of 0.36 (p<0.05) after adjustment for patient demographics. The SLS correlation coefficient was 0.26 (95% CI 0.13, 0.38) for the REALM, with a standardized beta coefficient of 0.38 (p<0.05) after

  20. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  1. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  2. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  3. [A survey of dental-periodontal pathology in a sample of blind adult subjects].

    PubMed

    Campisi, G; Cumbo, V

    1994-01-01

    The authors, after a short inquiry into the Italian epidemiological reality of blind subjects, explain the results of a study made on a sample of 105 blind adults (average age: 60.3 years) in order to check their oral health conditions. In particular, they have pointed out the DMFT index, the average number of permanent teeth present, the OHI-S index in its two components ID and IC, the CPITN index. The results of this study point is a high DMFT index, mainly owing to teeth extracted for periodontal disease. A high OHI-S index and the prevalence of the codes 2 e 3 of the CPITN index direct the therapeutical choice towards a professional oral hygiene and oral preventive protocols adequate to their sensorial deficiency. PMID:8170450

  4. Executive Functions in Older Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints.

    PubMed

    Davids, Roeliena C D; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J; Tucha, Oliver M; van Balkom, Ingrid D C

    2016-09-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy reported BRIEF) in 36 ASD and 36 typically developed individuals (n = 72). High functioning older adults with ASD reported EF-impairments in metacognition, but did not deviate in EF task performance, except for a longer execution time of the Tower of London. The need for additional time to complete daily tasks may contribute to impairments in daily life and may be correlated to a higher level of experienced EF-difficulties in ASD. PMID:27278313

  5. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  6. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  7. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  8. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  9. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  10. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  11. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  12. Assessment of the pharmacokinetic interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir-ritonavir in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wire, Mary B; McLean, Heidi B; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W; Peng, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued. PMID:22391553

  13. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Eltrombopag and Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Heidi B.; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W.; Peng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued. PMID:22391553

  14. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

    PubMed

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi; de Marco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20-64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r2 = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever asthma

  15. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20–64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r2 = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  16. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  17. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  18. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report Versus Maternal Reports.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-04-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter's QoL. PMID:26707626

  19. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  20. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  1. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped higher and with less performance variability compared to the children. Group differences were mainly observed in the right-left foot coupling. The intra-subject coordination variability was higher in coupling of proximal segments in children compared to adults. No group differences were observed in inter-subject variability. Based on these results, it was concluded that the same movement solutions were available to both age groups, but the children were less able to consistently utilize the individually chosen coordination pattern. Thus, this ability appears to be developed through normal ontogenesis. PMID:26724430

  2. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  3. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors. PMID:26020732

  4. Coping flexibility in young adults: comparison between subjects with and without schizotypal personality features.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ji-gang; Chan, Raymond C K; Stone, William S; Hsi, Xiaolu; Cao, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Qing; Shi, Yan-fang; Wang, Yu-na; Wang, Ya

    2010-09-01

    The current study examined characteristics of coping patterns adopted by college students in mainland China. In particular, it examined the coping strategies adopted by subjects with schizotypal personality (SPD) features compared to those without SPD features, and compared the relative effectiveness of their coping. Four types of coping flexibility were identified among the college sample (n=427), including active-inflexible, passive-inflexible, active-inconsistent, and passive-inconsistent styles. The passive-inconsistent style was related to the worst outcomes. When comparing subjects with SPD features with those without SPD features, subjects with SPD features endorsed significantly more emotion-focused strategies in uncontrollable situations than those without SPD features. The SPD group experienced higher levels of trait anxiety, depression, paranoid ideation and general health problems. The SPD group also generally perceived more, less controllable stress than the non-SPD group and randomly used all four categories of coping strategies. PMID:20510586

  5. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  6. Teaching of subject matter.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    Psychology of subject matter refers to the scientific study of learning and instruction within school subjects. The growing research literature on teaching and learning of school subjects represents one of educational psychology's most productive accomplishments of the past two decades. The purpose of this chapter is to examine representative advances in the psychology of subject matter, including how people learn to read words, comprehend printed passages, write compositions, solve arithmetic word problems, and understand how scientific systems work. The introduction provides a historical overview of how to promote transfer and is followed by reviews of representative research in learning and teaching of reading fluency, reading comprehension, writing, mathematics, and science. PMID:14744232

  7. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  8. Examples of Lesson Plans in Elementary Subjects for Adults. Content Materials in Education for Adult Responsibilities. California Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Adult Education.

    Lesson plans prepared by Adult Basic Education teachers who attended one-day mini-workshops and the participants of a six-session course held at the University of Southern California are presented. The plans are in outline format. The content areas covered are: Consumer Education (Buying Foods, Bank Checking Accounts, Telephone and Directory,…

  9. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  10. The Eppelsheimer Subject Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gordon

    1971-01-01

    Since 1945, a method of catalog classification, originally devised by H.W. Eppelsheimer for the Mainz City Library, has found wide acceptance. It is a complex of catalogs which combines features of both subject classification and alphabetical subject indexing. (25 references) (Author/NH)

  11. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  12. The effect of inhaled bronchoconstrictors on transcutaneous gas tensions in normal adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Gray, B; Barnes, N

    1987-01-01

    The administration of histamine and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) by nebulised aerosol in logarithmically increasing doses to normal subjects resulted in significant bronchoconstriction. Transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) was monitored during and after the bronchial challenge tests. Following histamine challenge there was significant hypoxaemia in all subjects (mean fall in tcPO2, 20 mmHg). However, following LTD4 administration, there was a small and insignificant fall in tcPO2. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (tcPCO2) was also monitored throughout bronchial challenge, but showed no significant change. We suggest that the hypoxaemia following histamine challenge was due to increased ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching in the lung induced by histamine deposition. PMID:3673787

  13. Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  14. Deep Ecology and Subjectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Grover

    1988-01-01

    Describes Deep Ecology and criticizes its limitations. Discusses mysticism, the bomb, freedom, subjectivity and power as they are addressed by Deep Ecology. Stresses the need to teach ecological balance. (CW)

  15. (Un)veiling Desire: Re-Defining Relationships between Gendered Adult Education Subjects and Adult Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chopra, Priti

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges constructions of the "gendered illiterate Indian villager" as a homogenous group of people who are empowered through acquiring literacy. I strive to displace homogeneous representations of gendered "illiterate" subjects through ethnographic accounts of diverse people's realities in different villages in Bihar, India. I argue…

  16. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people “directly” did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  17. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  18. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  19. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  20. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  1. Database Subject Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.; Teitelbaum, Henry H.

    1978-01-01

    Broad subject headings which have been assigned to each of the 86 data bases available or announced on the five major on-line search systems--Lockheed, SDC, BRS, NIM, and New York Times Information Bank--are arranged alphabetically followed by the name(s) of the appropriate data base(s). (JPF)

  2. Introducing Behavioral Subjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A true elaboration of educational goals will include a set of both more and less well-structured aims, corresponding to behavioral objectives and subjectives, which can be tested respectively by direct methods and by less direct methods such as the native speaker or Turing tests. (Author/LS)

  3. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  4. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  5. Individual differences in the neural signature of subjective value among older adults.

    PubMed

    Halfmann, Kameko; Hedgcock, William; Kable, Joseph; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-07-01

    Some healthy older adults show departures from standard decision-making patterns exhibited by younger adults. We asked if such departures are uniform or if heterogeneous aging processes can designate which older adults show differing decision patterns. Thirty-three healthy older adults with varying decision-making patterns on a complex decision task (the Iowa Gambling Task) completed an intertemporal choice task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined whether value representation in the canonical valuation network differed across older adults based on complex decision-making ability. Older adults with advantageous decision patterns showed increased activity in the valuation network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and striatum. In contrast, older adults with disadvantageous decision patterns showed reduced or absent activation in the VMPFC and striatum, and these older adults also showed greater blood oxygen level dependent signal temporal variability in the striatum. Our results suggest that a reduced representation of value in the brain, possibly driven by increased neural noise, relates to suboptimal decision-making in a subset of older adults, which could translate to poor decision-making in many aspects of life, including finance, health and long-term care. Understanding the connection between suboptimal decision-making and neural value signals is a step toward mitigating age-related decision-making impairments. PMID:26089342

  6. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  7. Pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir when administered with mineral supplements in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Arya, Niki; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    All commercially available integrase inhibitors are 2-metal binders and may be affected by co-administration with metal cations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium and iron supplements on dolutegravir pharmacokinetics and strategies (dose separation and food) to attenuate the effects if significant reductions in dolutegravir exposure were observed. This was an open-label, crossover study that randomized 24 healthy subjects into 1 of 2 cohorts to receive 4 treatments: (1) dolutegravir alone, fasting; (2) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting; (3) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate with a moderate-fat meal; (4) dolutegravir administered 2 hours before calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting. Plasma dolutegravir AUC(0-∞), Cmax , and C24 were reduced by 39%, 37%, and 39%, respectively, when co-administered with calcium carbonate while fasting and were reduced by 54%, 57%, and 56%, respectively, when co-administered with ferrous fumarate while fasting. Dolutegravir administration 2 hours before calcium or iron supplement administration (fasted), as well as administration with a meal, counteracted the effect. Dolutegravir and calcium or iron supplements can be co-administered if taken with a meal. Under fasted conditions, dolutegravir should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after calcium or iron supplements. PMID:25449994

  8. A phase I randomized, multicenter trial of CPX in adult subjects with mild cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Nael A; Standaert, Thomas A; Teresi, Mary; Tuthill, Cynthia; Launspach, Janice; Kelley, Thomas J; Milgram, Laura J H; Hilliard, Kathleen A; Regelmann, Warren E; Weatherly, Mark R; Aitken, Moira L; Konstan, Michael W; Ahrens, Richard C

    2002-02-01

    CPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) is a novel compound currently under development as a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF). The drug has been shown to increase chloride efflux and CFTR trafficking in vitro in CF airway cells. This phase I multicenter, single-dose, placebo-controlled trial was performed at four institutions. Thirty-seven subjects homozygous for the Delta F(508) allele were studied in an escalating dose protocol of seven single-dose cohorts (1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1,000 mg) to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of CPX. Efficacy was determined using nasal transepithelial potential difference and sweat chloride measurements prior to dosing and at 1, 2, and 4 hr postdose. The incidence of adverse events in the treatment group was similar to that with placebo, indicating safety of the single doses studied. One serious adverse event (an acute pulmonary exacerbation) occurred 13 days after dosing, and was not considered related to the study drug. The maximal plasma CPX concentration and total amount of CPX absorbed appeared to be linearly related to dose, but was highly variable throughout the dose range studied, suggesting inconsistent absorption. There was no apparent effect of single-dose administration on either nasal transepithelial potential difference or sweat chloride measurements. The positive safety and pharmacokinetic findings of this study support continued development of CPX as a potential therapeutic for CF. PMID:11802244

  9. Association of body fat distribution with proinflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Puchau, Blanca; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) measurements have proved useful in recent studies to discern peripheral biomarkers for common complex diseases and for understanding host responses to drugs and nutrition in personalized medicine. Despite the initial promising data from PBMC, there is little information, however, on inflammatory and immune gene regulation in the context of body fat distribution and metabolic features in healthy adults. We investigated the putative association of body fat distribution and related-metabolic features with mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in PBMC. This study enrolled 136 healthy subjects (85 females/51 males; age: 21.5 +/- 2.5 years). Anthropometrical, clinical, metabolic, and proinflammatory variables were assessed with validated tools. Interestingly, in normal-weight subjects with lower truncal fat (TF) values, mRNA levels of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, and TNF-alpha in PBMC were lower (p < 0.05), compared to normal-weight individuals with higher TF (>58.5/50.2% for men/women, respectively) and overweight/obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2)]. After regression analyses were performed, individuals with the highest tertiles of TF and waist circumference displayed higher mRNA gene expressions as well as circulating proinflammatory (C-reactive protein and IL6) and metabolic (blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and LDL-c:HDL-c ratio) variables values (p < 0.05), independent from gender. Our findings collectively suggest that the mRNA expression of certain proinflammatory markers in PBMC is associated with body fat distribution in healthy adult subjects, which in turn, was also related to metabolic features and plasma proinflammatory markers concentrations. PMID:20450441

  10. Effect of 6-month caloric restriction on Cu bound to ceruloplasmin in adult overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Francesco; Malavolta, Marco; Basso, Andrea; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    In a randomized clinical trial of calorie restriction (CR), we demonstrated that important cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers were favorably influenced by CR alone and in conjunction with physical exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CR with or without exercise on copper bound to ceruloplasmin (CuCp), a well-known biomarker for CVD, in overweight men and women enrolled in the CALERIE phase 1 study. Forty-six individuals were randomized to one of four groups for 6 months: control, healthy weight maintenance; CR, 25% CR from baseline energy requirements; CR+exercise, 12.5% CR and 12.5% through aerobic exercise; and low-calorie diet, low-calorie diet until 15% reduction in body weight followed by weight maintenance diet. CuCp was determined in fasting blood samples by a high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methodology and compared with changes in body composition and markers of CVD. After 6 months, CR combined with exercise induced a decrease in plasma concentration of CuCp. CuCp was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. A cluster analysis showed that the percent change of weight after 6 months of intervention was the most important variable that could discriminate the intervention groups. The percent change of CuCp was the only other variable selected by the analysis. Decreased CuCp in overweight subjects by CR combined with exercise suggests a positive effect of this intervention on metabolic health. Further studies to explain the relationship between weight loss and CuCp and its relevance for cardiovascular health are needed. PMID:26001545

  11. Socioemotional selectivity in older adults: Evidence from the subjective experience of angry memories.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Tugba; Gulgoz, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the phenomenological properties of younger and older adults' memories for emotional events. Some studies suggest that younger adults remember negative information more vividly than positive information whereas other studies suggest that positive emotion yields phenomenologically richer memories than negative emotion for both younger and older adults. One problem with previous studies is a tendency to treat emotion as a dichotomous variable. In contrast, emotional richness demands inclusion of assessments beyond just a positive and negative dimension (e.g., assessing specific emotions like anger, fear and happiness). The present study investigated different properties of autobiographical remembering as a function of discrete emotions and age. Thirty-two younger and thirty-one older adults participated by recalling recent and remote memories associated with six emotional categories and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire for each. Results demonstrated that older adults' angry memories received lower ratings on some phenomenological properties than other emotional memories whereas younger adults' angry memories did not show this same pattern. These results are discussed within the context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:25029295

  12. Comparative Cognitive and Subjective Side Effects of Immediate Release Oxycodone in Healthy Middle Age and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherrier, M.; Amory, J.; Ersek, M.; Risler, L.; Shen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the objective and subjective neurocognitive effects of a single 10mg dose of immediate-release oxycodone in healthy, older (>65 years) and middle age (35 – 55 years) adults who were not suffering from chronic or significant daily pain. Seventy-one participants completed two separate study days and were blind to medication condition (placebo, 10 mg oxycodone). Plasma oxycodone concentration peaked between 60 and 90 min post dose (p<0.01) and pupil size, an indication of physiological effects of the medication peaked at approximately 90 to 120 min post dose (p<0.01). Significant declines in simple and sustained attention, working memory and verbal memory were observed at one hour post dose compared to baseline for both age groups with a trend toward return to baseline by five hours post dose. For almost all cognitive measures there were no medication by age interaction effects, which indicates that the two age groups exhibited a similar responses to the medication challenge. This study suggests that for healthy older adults who are not suffering from chronic pain, neurocognitive and pharmacodynamic changes in response to a 10 mg dose of immediate release oxycodone are similar to those observed for middle age adults. Perspective Study findings indicate that the metabolism, neurocognitive effects, and physical side effects of oral oxycodone are similar for healthy middle-age and older adults. Therefore, clinicians should not avoid prescribing oral opioids to older adults based on the belief that older adults are at higher risk for side effects than younger adults. PMID:19729346

  13. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future societies create "greater…

  14. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  15. Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

  16. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  17. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies. PMID:19251461

  18. Daily Variations in Objective Nighttime Sleep and Subjective Morning Pain in Older Adults with Insomnia: Evidence of Covariation Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Williams, Jacob M.; Roditi, Daniela; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin; McNamara, Joseph; Dautovich, Natalie; Robinson, Michael E.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured nocturnal sleep and subjective report of morning pain in older adults with insomnia. The goal of the paper was to not only examine the sleep-pain association between-persons (mean-level over 14 days), but also to investigate the within-person, day-to-day association. Design Cross-sectional. Setting North-Central Florida. Participants Fifty community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 69.10 years, SDage = 7.02 years, range = 60 – 90 years) with insomnia participated in the study. Measurements This study employed daily home-based assessment utilizing nightly actigraphic measurement of sleep and daily self-report of pain. Measures were completed over fourteen consecutive days. Results Between persons, average sleep over 14 days was not associated with average levels of rated pain. However, following a night in which an older adult with insomnia experienced above-average total sleep time s/he subsequently reported below-average pain ratings. The model explained approximately 24% of the within-person and 8% of the between-person variance in pain ratings. Conclusions Sleep and pain show day-to-day associations (i.e., covary over time) in older adults with insomnia. Such associations may suggest that common physiological systems underlie both the experience of insomnia and pain. Future research should examine the crossover effects of sleep treatment on pain and of pain treatment on sleep. PMID:20406316

  19. Facial soft tissue thickness in individuals with different occlusion patterns in adult Turkish subjects.

    PubMed

    Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Can; Ozener, Bariş; Zagyapan, Ragiba; Sahinoglu, Zahira; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of variation in facial soft tissue thickness is important for forensic anthropologists, dentists, and plastic surgeons. Forensic anthropologists use such information as a guide in facial reconstruction and superimposition methods. The purpose of this study was to measure facial tissue thicknesses of adult males and females of Turkish origin across different types of occlusion, and to compare the results with each other and with values obtained for other populations. The study was conducted on 200 healthy individuals. The analysis of facial tissue thickness included 20 landmarks (10 dentoskeletal and 10 soft tissue) and 10 linear variables. Sex-based variation in facial tissue thickness was noted. The highest soft tissue thickness values were observed in the group with Class III occlusion type at Sn-A point for both the females (16.9, SD=2.4) and the males (17.8, SD=3.3). In the Class I group, the highest tissue depth was observed at Sn-A point (15.3, SD=2.1) in females, and at Li-Id point (17.1, SD=1.9) in males. In the Class II group, contrary to the findings for Class I, the highest soft tissue depth was at Li-Id point (16.0, SD=1.4) in females, and at Sn-A point (18.1, SD=2.6) in males. In conclusion, facial tissue thickness varied in adults depending on the sex and on the type of occlusion. PMID:21741647

  20. Condylar growth after non-surgical advancement in adult subject: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino Marco; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    Background A defect of condylar morphology can be caused by several sources. Case report A case of altered condylar morphology in adult male with temporomandibular disorders was reported in 30-year-old male patient. Erosion and flattening of the left mandibular condyle were observed by panoramic x-ray. The patient was treated with splint therapy that determined mandibular advancement. Eight months after the therapy, reduction in joint pain and a greater opening of the mouth was observed, although crepitation sounds during mastication were still noticeable. Conclusion During the following months of gnatologic treatment, new bone growth in the left condyle was observed by radiograph, with further improvement of the symptoms. PMID:19619334

  1. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and cognition in subjects across the adult age span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lucy Y; Murphy, Richard R; Hanscom, Brett; Li, Ge; Millard, Steven P; Petrie, Eric C; Galasko, Douglas R; Sikkema, Carl; Raskind, Murray A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Peskind, Elaine R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate central nervous system noradrenergic activity enhances cognition, but excessive noradrenergic activity may have adverse effects on cognition. Previous studies have also demonstrated that noradrenergic activity is higher in older than younger adults. We aimed to determine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) concentration and cognitive performance by using data from a CSF bank that includes samples from 258 cognitively normal participants aged 21-100 years. After adjusting for age, gender, education, and ethnicity, higher CSF NE levels (units of 100 pg/mL) are associated with poorer performance on tests of attention, processing speed, and executive function (Trail Making A: regression coefficient 1.5, standard error [SE] 0.77, p = 0.046; Trail Making B: regression coefficient 5.0, SE 2.2, p = 0.024; Stroop Word-Color Interference task: regression coefficient 6.1, SE 2.0, p = 0.003). Findings are consistent with the earlier literature relating excess noradrenergic activity with cognitive impairment. PMID:23639207

  3. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning. PMID:26983399

  4. [Subjective memory complaints in young adults: the influence of the emotional state].

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Molina-Rodríguez, Sergio; Soto-Amaya, Johnathan

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Many young people today display memory complaints that are not linked to their real cognitive performance. A number of studies have sought to identify the factors involved in this problem, such as anxious-depressive symptoms, the variables of anxiety traditionally being measured as somatic or cognitive manifestations with an activation that is unspecific or not linked to any particular stimulus. AIMS. To perform an exploratory analysis to determine the role played by symptoms of depression and of various subtypes of specific and unspecific anxiety in memory complaints in young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The sample used in this study was made of 193 university students, 71% of whom were females, with a mean age of 22.22 ± 3.67 years. The variable 'Memory complaints' was measured with the Memory Failures Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptom Check List was used to measure the variables 'Depression', 'Social anxiety', 'Obsessive-compulsive anxiety', 'Agoraphobic anxiety', 'Somatisation' and 'Insomnia'. RESULTS. The variables of specific anxiety show a greater correlation with memory complaints than unspecific anxiety. Multiple regression analysis explained 34.9% of the variance of memory complaints, although the only variable that made a significant contribution was 'Social anxiety', which alone explains 34.4%. CONCLUSIONS. A distinct influence between the different types of anxiety and memory complaints has been observed. The findings obtained are a novelty in this area of knowledge by pointing to a greater relevance of the variables of specific anxiety in comparison to unspecific anxiety in explaining memory complaints and the need to take a personalised approach. PMID:25501452

  5. Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) and amplitude variation parameters in euphonic adult subjects. Normative study.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, M; Chiarella, G; Gallo, L V; Catalano, M; Cassandro, E

    2004-12-01

    The introduction, in the late 70s, of the first digital spectrograph (DSP Sonograph) by Kay Elemetrics has improved the possibilities of spectroacoustic voice analysis in the clinical field. Thanks to the marketing, in 1993, of the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) advanced system, it is now possible to analyse 33 quantitative voice parameters which, in turn, allow evaluation of fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectral energy balance and the presence of any sonority gap and diplophony. Despite its potentials, the above-mentioned system is not widely used yet, partly on account of the lack of a standard procedure. Indeed, there are still only a few case reports in the literature taking into consideration prescriptive aspects related both to procedure and analysis. This study aims to provide the results of amplitude perturbation parameter analysis in euphonic adult patients. In our opinion, these are the most significant parameters in determining the severity of a phonation disorder. The study has been carried out on 35 patients (24 female, 11 male, mean age 31.6 years, range 19-59). The voice signal has been recorded using a 4300 B Kay Computer Speech Lab (CSL) supported by a personal computer including a SM48 Shure-Prolog microphone located at a distance of 15 cm and angled at 45 degrees. Input microphone saturation has been adjusted to 6/9 of the CH1 channel. The voice sample consisted in a held /a/ and the analysis has been carried out on the central 3 seconds of the recording. The analysis has been carried out using a 5105 MDVP software version 2.3 and the signal digitalised at a 50 kHz sample rate. In order for the sample to be as free from intensity or frequency changes as possible, each patient underwent a training session (including at least 3 phonation tests) before the recording. The study included only emissions between 55 and 65 dB and with spectrum stability. Environmental noise has constantly been monitored and maintained below 30 dB. Data

  6. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  7. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  8. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  9. Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

  10. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Laura A; Smart, Colette M; Crane, Paul K; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Berman, Lorin M; Boada, Mercé; Buckley, Rachel F; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A; Gifford, Katherine A; Jefferson, Angela L; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Risacher, Shannon L; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Slavin, Melissa J; Snitz, Beth E; Sperling, Reisa A; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A M

    2015-09-24

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844-852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures- approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  11. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  12. Meropenem-RPX7009 Concentrations in Plasma, Epithelial Lining Fluid, and Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wenzler, Eric; Gotfried, Mark H; Loutit, Jeffrey S; Durso, Stephanie; Griffith, David C; Dudley, Michael N; Rodvold, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    The steady-state concentrations of meropenem and the β-lactamase inhibitor RPX7009 in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophage (AM) concentrations were obtained in 25 healthy, nonsmoking adult subjects. Subjects received a fixed combination of meropenem (2 g) and RPX7009 (2 g) administered every 8 h, as a 3-h intravenous infusion, for a total of three doses. A bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed once in each subject at 1.5, 3.25, 4, 6, or 8 h after the start of the last infusion. Meropenem and RPX7009 achieved a similar time course and magnitude of concentrations in plasma and ELF. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters ± the standard deviations of meropenem and RPX7009 determined from serial plasma concentrations were as follows: Cmax = 58.2 ± 10.8 and 59.0 ± 8.4 μg/ml, Vss = 16.3 ± 2.6 and 17.6 ± 2.6 liters; CL = 11.1 ± 2.1 and 10.1 ± 1.9 liters/h, and t1/2 = 1.03 ± 0.15 and 1.27 ± 0.21 h, respectively. The intrapulmonary penetrations of meropenem and RPX7009 were ca. 63 and 53%, respectively, based on the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC0-8) values of ELF and total plasma concentrations. When unbound plasma concentrations were considered, ELF penetrations were 65 and 79% for meropenem and RPX7009, respectively. Meropenem concentrations in AMs were below the quantitative limit of detection, whereas median concentrations of RPX7009 in AMs ranged from 2.35 to 6.94 μg/ml. The results from the present study lend support to exploring a fixed combination of meropenem (2 g) and RPX7009 (2 g) for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by meropenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens susceptible to the combination of meropenem-RPX7009. PMID:26349830

  13. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  14. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  15. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  16. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  17. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  18. Subjective experience and subjective response to neuroleptics in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Arduini, L; Stratta, P; Pallanti, S

    2000-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed the issue of the relationship between the subjective response to neuroleptics and drug compliance, very little attention has been given to the study of the subjective experience of psychosis and drug attitudes. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the relationship between the subjective experience of psychosis as assessed by the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF) and subjective response (SR) to neuroleptics as assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) in a group of schizophrenic patients. Significant correlations were found between the total scores on the FBF and DAI (r= .46, P< .01). The DAI total score also correlated with all four factors (central cognitive disturbances, perception and motility, depressivity, and internal and external overstimulation) on the FBF. This finding suggests that the SR neuroleptics is partly explained by a "positive" subjective experience of psychosis. PMID:11086150

  19. The strength of strong ties for older rural adults: regional distinctions in the relationship between social interaction and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Mair, Christine A; Thivierge-Rikard, R V

    2010-01-01

    Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social interaction as a predictor of health among the aged. Using data from Wave III of the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, this study examines the hypothesized differences between informal strong ties and formal weak ties on the subjective well-being of older adults in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Visiting with friends, neighbors, or relatives has a stronger positive effect on subjective well-being for rural older adults than urban. These findings highlight that: a) informal strong ties increase subjective well-being; and b) the effect of informal strong ties differs by region. We discuss the potential of our findings for policy and urge continued attention to regional variation in aging studies. PMID:20405586

  20. Validation of the Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview (SOFBI/ECFOS) in Primary Caregivers to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, A.; Pereda, A.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Ochoa, S.; Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the psychometric properties of instruments for assessing family care burden in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the usefulness of the 'Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview' (SOFBI) in the assessment of principal caregivers in Spain.…

  1. Sensory Information and Subjective Contour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brussell, Edward M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that subjective contours are an artifact of brightness contrast was explored. Concludes that subjective contour and brightness contrast are distinct perceptual phenomena but share a dependency on the processing of edge information transmitted through the achromatic channels of the visual system. (Editor/RK)

  2. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks, Michael J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

  3. Re-Energising Subject Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, John

    2012-01-01

    The value of knowledge and the role of subjects in the school curriculum have been widely questioned in recent years, often portrayed as old-fashioned and irrelevant, especially in the face of a fast-changing global economy. This article argues that this is both limited in its view of the potential of knowledge and subjects, and limiting for those…

  4. Resources for Educators of Adults. Annotated Bibliography for the Education of Public Offenders: by Descriptive Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Michael J.; And Others

    This bibliography is presented to assist educators who are engaged in research activities with inmate or ex-inmate populations. The first part contains entries under descriptive subject headings (alphabetically by author); the second part contains abstracts of the material listed in part 1 (alphabetically by title). The descriptive headings…

  5. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in…

  6. High circulating irisin levels are associated with insulin resistance and vascular atherosclerosis in a cohort of nondiabetic adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Sesti, G; Andreozzi, F; Fiorentino, T V; Mannino, G C; Sciacqua, A; Marini, M A; Perticone, F

    2014-10-01

    Irisin, a novel myokine, was proposed to be able to regulate glucose homeostasis and obesity in mice. Whether irisin levels are associated with cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and vascular atherosclerosis in humans remain unsettled. To determine the associations between circulating irisin levels, cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of vascular atherosclerosis, a cross-sectional evaluation of circulating irisin levels and cardio-metabolic variables in 192 White adults was conducted. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Common carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound. After adjusting for age and gender, irisin levels were positively correlated with body fat mass (r = 0.12, P < 0.05), fasting (r = 0.17, P < 0.01), 2 h post-load insulin (r = 0.15, P < 0.02) levels, and IMT (r = 0.29, P < 0.0001) and were negatively correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = -0.18, P = 0.007), Matsuda index (r = -0.13, P < 0.04), disposition index (r = -0.278, P < 0.0001), and insulin clearance (r = -0.26, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, individuals in the highest tertile of irisin levels exhibited higher body fat mass (P < 0.01), fasting (P < 0.05), 2 h post-load (P < 0.01) insulin levels, carotid IMT (P < 0.001), lower insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P < 0.001), Matsuda index (P < 0.01), disposition index (P < 0.01), and insulin clearance (P < 0.001) as compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of circulating irisin levels. Irisin is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity and positively associated with carotid IMT in humans, suggesting either increased release by adipose/muscle tissue in response to deterioration of insulin sensitivity or a compensatory increase in irisin to overcome an underlying irisin resistance. PMID:24619655

  7. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  8. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  9. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  10. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: a community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yiwei; Wang, Tinglin; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Xiaolan; Tian, Shan; Liu, Ying; Peng, Guanghui; Xue, Shuqi; Zhou, June; Wang, Renli; Meng, Xuemei; Pei, Guangde; Bai, Yunhua; Liu, Qing; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition in adolescents. The prevalence of acne is thought to vary between ethnic groups and countries. A large-scale community-based study was performed in six cities in China to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for acne in the Chinese population. A total of 17,345 inhabitants were included in this study. Of these, 1,399 were found to have acne. No acne was found in subjects under 10 years of age, and only 1.6% in the 10-year-old group had acne. Prevalence then increased rapidly with age, up to 46.8% in the 19-year-old group. After that, it declined gradually with age. Acne was rare in people over 50 years of age. In subjects in their late teens and 20s, acne was more prevalent in males, while in those over 30 years of age it was more prevalent in females. In subjects with acne, 68.4% had mild; 26.0% had moderate and 5.6% had severe acne. In adult acne, persistent acne was much more common (83.3%) than late-onset acne (16.7%). Smoking and drinking were found to be associated with adolescent acne, while no association was found between diet and acne. These results suggest that the prevalence of acne in the Chinese population is lower than that in Caucasian populations, and that adult acne is not uncommon in Chinese subjects. PMID:21710106

  11. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  12. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  13. Psychoanalysis and politics: historicising subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  14. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  15. Zanamivir pharmacokinetics and pulmonary penetration into epithelial lining fluid following intravenous or oral inhaled administration to healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Mark J; Lovern, Mark; Ng-Cashin, Judith; Jones, Lori; Gould, Elizabeth; Gauvin, Jennifer; Rodvold, Keith A

    2011-11-01

    Zanamivir serum and pulmonary pharmacokinetics were characterized following intravenous (i.v.) or oral inhaled administration. I.v. zanamivir was given as intermittent doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) for two doses or as a continuous infusion (6-mg loading dose followed by 3 mg/h for 12 h). Oral inhaled zanamivir (two 5-mg inhalations q12h for two doses) was evaluated as well. Each zanamivir regimen was administered to six healthy subjects with serial pharmacokinetic sampling. In addition, a single bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample was collected at various time points and used to calculate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations for each subject. For intermittent i.v. administration of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 600 mg zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF collected 12 h after dosing were 74, 146, and 419 ng/ml, respectively, each higher than the historic mean 50% inhibitory concentrations for the neuraminidases of wild-type strains of influenza A and B viruses. Median ELF/serum zanamivir concentration ratios ranged from 55 to 79% for intermittent i.v. administration (when sampled 12 h after the last dose) and 43 to 45% for continuous infusion (when sampled 6 to 12 h after the start of the infusion). For oral inhaled zanamivir, the median zanamivir concentrations in ELF were 891 ng/ml for the first BAL fluid collection and 326 ng/ml for subsequent BAL fluid collections (when sampled 12 h after the last dose); corresponding serum drug concentrations were undetectable. This study demonstrates zanamivir's penetration into the human pulmonary compartment and supports the doses selected for the continuing development of i.v. zanamivir in clinical studies of influenza. PMID:21896909

  16. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  17. On the Subject of Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbrook, David, Ed.

    This book begins by pointing out that although much has been written on how the drama elements of the English curriculum might be taught in schools, not much guidance is available for teachers who regard drama not as an adjunct of English but as an arts subject in its own right. The book (a collection of articles by drama experts) shows how the…

  18. Involvement in Subject Learning Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujold, Neree; Saint-Pierre, Henri; Bhushan, Vidya

    1997-01-01

    The Involvement in Subject Learning Scale (ISLS) was developed and validated as an educational outcome measure to be used in assessing higher education quality. The origins and development of the scale, its factor analysis, potential applications, limitations, and pilot use in France and Quebec (Canada) are described. The instrument is appended.…

  19. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  20. Subjectivity, Lifeworld, and Work Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithaeuser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The bases of the article are the results of an empirical study about traditional work places in industry. There were made group discussions and special qualitative interviews with workers and employees of a German factory. The article tries to interpret and to integrate these subjective concepts in the actual discussion of theoretical perspectives…

  1. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  2. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  3. Why Are School Subjects Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the contemporary debate by supporting school subjects. The article explores the technicist manner in which teachers' work is now configured and highlights ways in which competitive, output-led models and tick-list approaches have reified schools as qualification factories. Arguing for a deeper…

  4. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  5. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high school students in a wealthy…

  6. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  7. The enigmatic signifier and the decentred subject.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Ladson

    2009-11-01

    War, genocide, economic upheaval and terrorism have crushed belief in endlessly 'enlightened' progress. We more and more doubt the teleological nature of psychological events, including the activity of a Self or centre that guides the development of the subject. There is a growing view of a 'decentred' subject that develops in the face of an enigmatic Otherness. Jean Laplanche has created an extensive metapsychology describing this situation, emphasizing the original helplessness of an infant who is bathed in enigmatic messages from its very beginnings. These messages from the adult other are often sexualized, and are partly or largely unconscious to the sender. Laplanche calls this situation 'primal seduction'. The immature human cannot fully metabolize such adult messages, and through 'primal repression' they remain as the unconscious core of subjectivity. They disrupt psychological life, conveying a sense of signifying something to the subject. What they signify is an enigma, like finding a hieroglyph in the desert. The story of relationships and culture is the story of our repeated attempts to translate them, to respond to them. An analytic case illustrates these concepts as they appear in the transference, first as gaps and monsters, and then in the crucial and surprising appearance of transformative laughter. The vicissitudes of the clinical situation illustrate the vital importance of the enigmatic signifier in the development of the subject. PMID:19840157

  8. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pérennou, Dominic; Pfitzenmeyer, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions), psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations) or psychological (depression) can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management. PMID:19281059

  9. Experimental subjects are not different

    PubMed Central

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M.; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this “particular” subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  10. Experimental subjects are not different.

    PubMed

    Exadaktylos, Filippos; Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using economic games are becoming a major source for the study of human social behavior. These experiments are usually conducted with university students who voluntarily choose to participate. Across the natural and social sciences, there is some concern about how this "particular" subject pool may systematically produce biased results. Focusing on social preferences, this study employs data from a survey-experiment conducted with a representative sample of a city's population (N = 765). We report behavioral data from five experimental decisions in three canonical games: dictator, ultimatum and trust games. The dataset includes students and non-students as well as volunteers and non-volunteers. We separately examine the effects of being a student and being a volunteer on behavior, which allows a ceteris paribus comparison between self-selected students (students*volunteers) and the representative population. Our results suggest that self-selected students are an appropriate subject pool for the study of social behavior. PMID:23429162

  11. [Subjective assessment of olfactory function].

    PubMed

    Evren, Cenk; Yiğit, Volkan Bilge; Çınar, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Of the five senses, the sense of smell is the most complex and unique in structure and organization. As diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are often underdeveloped, the sense of smell has been inadequately studied. Olfactory disorders may result from benign pathologies such as sinusitis as well as several diseases including Parkinson's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease. In this article, we aim to instruct the otorhinolaryngology specialists and residents regarding the tests which measure odor subjectively. PMID:25934410

  12. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA. PMID:24967992

  13. Assessment of Antero-Posterior Skeletal and Soft Tissue Relationships of Adult Indian Subjects in Natural Head Position and Centric Relation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Vishnu Ben; Keshavaraj; Rai, Rohan; Hegde, Gautham; Shajahan, Shabna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to verify the intra-individual reproducibility of natural head position (NHP) in centric relation (CR) position, to prove the inter-individual differences in the Frankfort horizontal plane and sella-nasion line compared with the true horizontal line, and to establish linear norms from A-point, B-point, Pog as well as soft tissue A-point, soft tissue B-point, and soft tissue Pog to nasion true vertical line (NTVL) in adult Indian subjects. Methods: Lateral cephalograms (T1) of Angle’s Class I subjects were taken in NHP and with bite in CR. A second lateral cephalogram (T2) of these subjects with ANB angle in the range 1-4° were taken after 1 week using the same wax bite and both the radiographs were analyzed based on six angular parameters using cephalometric software (Do-it, Dental studio NX version 4.1) to assess the reproducibility of NHP. Linear values of six landmarks were taken in relation to NTVL, and the mean values were calculated. A total of 116 subjects were included in this study. Results: When the cephalometric values of T1 and T2 were analyzed, it was found that, the parameters showed a P < 0.001, indicating the reproducibility of NHP in CR. Mean values for point A, point B, Pog and their soft tissue counterparts were also obtained. Conclusion: The study proved that NHP is a reproducible and accurate when recorded with the mandible in CR. Linear norms for skeletal Class I subjects in relation to NTVL were established. PMID:26124598

  14. Intranasal Oxytocin Lessens the Attentional Bias to Adult Negative Faces: A Double Blind within-Subject Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Min; Corfield, Freya; Jeong, Da-Woon; Jang, Eun-Young; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is involved in social emotional processing. A leading hypothesis is that oxytocin facilitates positive prosocial behaviors; the peptide may also play a more general role in inhibiting withdrawal-related social behaviors. The present study examined these possibilities. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design was used with 31 healthy women. Forty-five minutes following the administration of 40 IU of intranasal oxytocin or a placebo, the participants were presented with two dot probe tests with pairs of face stimuli depicting emotional and neutral faces in adults. Results Oxytocin specifically reduced the attention bias toward the location of the faces of adults showing negative emotions, particularly in the case of disgust. Oxytocin did not enhance the attentional bias toward adult happy faces. The effect of oxytocin toward adult negative emotion was correlated with the sensitivity of the drive in the behavioral motivational system. Conclusion Oxytocin reduces attention to negative social emotions in adults, which supports oxytocin serves to inhibit withdrawal-related social behaviour. PMID:24843371

  15. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  16. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study on acceptability, safety and efficacy of oral administration of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to assess acceptability and side-effects of consumption of sacha inchi oil, rich in α-linolenic acid and sunflower oil, rich in linoleic acid, in adult human subjects. Thirty subjects received 10 or 15ml daily of sacha inchi or sunflower oil for 4months. Acceptability was assessed with daily self-report and with a Likert test at the end of the study. Safety was assessed with self- recording of side-effects and with hepatic and renal markers. Primary efficacy variables were the change in lipid profile. Subjects reported low acceptability of sacha inchi oil at week-1 (37.5%). However, since week-6, acceptability was significantly increased to 81.25-93.75%. No differences were observed in acceptability with respect to sex or oil volume (P>0.05). Most frequent adverse effects during first weeks of consuming sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil were nauseas. The side-effects were reduced with time. Biochemical markers of hepatic and kidney function were maintained unchanged. Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and arterial blood pressure were lowered with both oils (P<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol was observed with sacha inchi oil at month-4. In conclusion, sacha inchi oil consumed has good acceptability after week-1 of consumption and it is safety. PMID:24389453

  17. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. PMID:24905432

  18. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  19. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

  20. The investigator as volunteer subject.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Howard B

    1982-07-01

    It is particularly within the past three decades that increased attention has been focused on human experimentation, both in regard to the scientific design that ensures the greatest chance of success and to conformity to ethical principles that are most likely to receive public approbation. The story of man's experimentation on man dates back to prehistoric times. In the past two centuries, these investigations have been carried out at an increasing level of sophistication. In this saga, the narratives of the auto-experimenters define a special group of investigators, to many of whom the term "heroic" can be applied. When investigators involve themselves as subjects of their research, a situation of informed consent is often assumed to exist. Discussions concerning voluntarism and ethical propriety have been much less voluminous when the investigators have themselves been subjects that when this is not so. It is within the past half century that physiologists particularly have often been auto-experimenters, and Dr. Earl Wood belongs to the best of this illustrious group. PMID:11650742

  1. [A case in which the subject was affected by Listeia meningoencephalitis during administration of infliximab for steroid-dependent adult onset Still's disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Chie; Ohara, Mikiko; Suzuki, Chisako; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Nonaka, Michio; Imai, Kohzoh

    2006-06-01

    The subject was a 22-year-old woman who developed high fever and arthralgias and eruptions in the extremities around June 2005. She sought medical advice at a nearby dermatology clinic, where hepatic dysfunction was noted on blood testing. The patient was thus hospitalized the next day. Although CRP levels were significantly high, no sign of infection was observed and bone marrow cell differentiation was normal. Adult onset Still's disease was diagnosed based on the observation of persistent high fever >39 degrees C, eruptions, increased leukocytes, pharyngeal pain, splenomegaly, hepatic dysfunction, negative autoantibody results from blood testing, and high serum ferritin levels. Administration of prednisolone 30 mg/day was initiated, but proved ineffective. Steroid pulse therapy was conducted, and the subject was transferred to our medical facility for continued treatment. Attempts were made to control the disease using combined steroid and cyclosporine administration; but exacerbation of high serum ferritin levels and hepatic dysfunctions were observed, so a second course of steroid pulse therapy was conducted. Symptoms improved temporarily, but steroid levels were difficult to reduce. Cyclosporine was therefore replaced by methotrexate, and administration of infliximab was initiated. In the course of treatment, administration of a sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim combination was initiated, but was discontinued due to suspicion of drug-induced hepatic injury. A second administration of infliximab was conducted in late August, and rapid improvements in clinical symptoms and abnormal test values was observed. However, high fever and headache developed suddenly in early September. Based on the results of spinal fluid testing, blood and spinal fluid cultures and MRI of the head, Listeria meningoencephalitis was diagnosed. Diplopia and impaired consciousness occurred during the disease course, and formation of a brain abscess was observed on imaging. However, symptoms

  2. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47–88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs. PMID:27190539

  3. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47-88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs. PMID:27190539

  4. Non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction in adults: comparison of the double-pass system, retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor

    PubMed Central

    Vilaseca, Meritxell; Arjona, Montserrat; Pujol, Jaume; Peris, Elvira; Martínez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the accuracy of spherical equivalent (SE) estimates of a double-pass system and to compare it with retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor. METHODS Non-cycloplegic refraction was performed on 125 eyes of 65 healthy adults (age 23.5±3.0 years) from October 2010 to January 2011 using retinoscopy, subjective refraction, autorefraction (Auto kerato-refractometer TOPCON KR-8100, Japan) and a double-pass system (Optical Quality Analysis System, OQAS, Visiometrics S.L., Spain). Nine consecutive measurements with the double-pass system were performed on a subgroup of 22 eyes to assess repeatability. To evaluate the trueness of the OQAS instrument, the SE laboratory bias between the double-pass system and the other techniques was calculated. RESULTS The SE mean coefficient of repeatability obtained was 0.22D. Significant correlations could be established between the OQAS and the SE obtained with retinoscopy (r=0.956, P<0.001), subjective refraction (r=0.955, P<0.001) and autorefraction (r=0.957, P<0.001). The differences in SE between the double-pass system and the other techniques were significant (P<0.001), but lacked clinical relevance except for retinoscopy; Retinoscopy gave more hyperopic values than the double-pass system -0.51±0.50D as well as the subjective refraction -0.23±0.50D; More myopic values were achieved by means of autorefraction 0.24±0.49D. CONCLUSION The double-pass system provides accurate and reliable estimates of the SE that can be used for clinical studies. This technique can determine the correct focus position to assess the ocular optical quality. However, it has a relatively small measuring range in comparison with autorefractors (-8.00 to +5.00D), and requires prior information on the refractive state of the patient. PMID:24195036

  5. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  6. Effects of meal type on the oral bioavailability of the ALK inhibitor ceritinib in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yvonne Y; Gu, Wen; Lin, Tiffany; Song, Dongweon; Yu, Richard; Scott, Jeffrey W

    2016-05-01

    Ceritinib is a potent inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which has shown acceptable safety and substantial antitumor activity in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Two food-effect studies were conducted in healthy adults to investigate the influence of food on the oral bioavailability of ceritinib: a study with low- or high-fat meals at 500 mg and a study with a light snack at 750 mg. Compared with the fasted state, AUC0-∞ (90%CI) of ceritinib was increased by 58% (34%, 86%) after the intake of a low-fat meal, by 73% (46%, 105%) after the intake of a high-fat meal, and by 54% (19%, 99%) after the intake of a light snack. Safety assessments also suggested that food may improve gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability after a single ceritinib dose. Based on the pharmacokinetic results, it is essential to avoid any type of meal during dosing of ceritinib because the intake of food may increase the occurrence of exposure-dependent, non-GI toxicities at the labeled dose of 750 mg daily during fasting. A randomized trial is ongoing to determine an alternative way to give ceritinib (450 mg or 600 mg with food) that may enhance GI tolerability in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. PMID:26272586

  7. Number concentration and size of particles in urban air: effects on spirometric lung function in adult asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Penttinen, P; Timonen, K L; Tiittanen, P; Mirme, A; Ruuskanen, J; Pekkanen, J

    2001-01-01

    Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution are associated with variations in respiratory lung function. It has been suggested that the effects of particulate matter may be due to particles in the ultrafine (0.01-0.1 microm) size range. Because previous studies on ultrafine particles only used self-monitored peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), we assessed the associations between particle mass and number concentrations in several size ranges measured at a central site and measured (biweekly) spirometric lung function among a group of 54 adult asthmatics (n = 495 measurements). We also compared results to daily morning, afternoon, and evening PEFR measurements done at home (n = 7,672-8,110 measurements). The median (maximum) 24 hr number concentrations were 14,500/cm(3) (46,500/cm(3)) ultrafine particles and 800/cm(3) (2,800/cm(3)) accumulation mode (0.1-1 microm) particles. The median (maximum) mass concentration of PM(2.5) (particulate matter < 2.5 microm) and PM(10) (particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) were 8.4 microg/m(3) (38.3 microg/m(3)) and 13.5 microg/m(3) (73.7 microg/m(3)), respectively. The number of accumulation mode particles was consistently inversely associated with PEFR in spirometry. Inverse, but nonsignificant, associations were observed with ultrafine particles, and no associations were observed with large particles (PM(10)). Compared to the effect estimates for self-monitored PEFR, the effect estimates for spirometric PEFR tended to be larger. The standard errors were also larger, probably due to the lower number of spirometric measurements. The present results support the need to monitor the particle number and size distributions in urban air in addition to mass. PMID:11335178

  8. Subjectivity NOT Statement and NOT APA!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihelkova, Dana

    2013-01-01

    I inspect in a brief theoretical-philosophical essay the roots of subjectivity and suggest many possible directions for examining the phenomenon of subjectivity so that multiple different meanings can be revealed. For instance, a researcher can explore her or his own subjectivity or he/she can attempt to define subjectivity per se or the…

  9. Prisoner subjects and drug testing.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1977-09-01

    Objections to prison research are based more often on opposition to the evils of prison life than to unethical practices and to the memories of atrocities committed in the name of science in Nazi prison camps during World War II. The National Commission's pronouncements on prison research specifically illustrate this general phenomenon. Having decided that research on prisoners can be performed ethically, and having learned that most prisoner volunteers bitterly resent being deprived of the opportunity to participate in research, the Commission has nevertheless stipulated prison conditions that cannot realistically be met and thus has de facto eliminated such research. The most serious potential loss is the elimination of the unique facility in Lexington, Kentucky--the Addiction Research Center. Predicting the addiction liability of drugs is not likely to be feasible in any nonprison setting, so that the addiction potential of new marketed drugs will be established in the future as it was in the past--by trial-and-error in patients, who will become the unwilling, uninformed research subjects in this area. PMID:892002

  10. [On the subject of tradition].

    PubMed

    Zuurmont, I

    1996-04-01

    HIV/STD prevention programs can stimulate debate over behavior change at the community level. In 1993, Yayasan Haumeni, a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) in Timor, southeastern Asia, launched an HIV/STD prevention program when voluntary health agents announced an increased level of STDs in the community. The NGO first conducted a study in 12 villages to identify the main modes of HIV transmission. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and group discussions with traditional healers, religious leaders, and youth. A ritual linked to puberty was found to be a practice potentially fostering the transmission of HIV/STDs in the community. Once circumcised by traditional practitioners, pubescent boys in the community are expected to have sexual relations with 2-4 different women. Study participants also discussed the subjects of multiple sex partners, abortion, adolescent pregnancy, family planning, and the exodus of young people. Study results were presented to district decision-makers, who decided to implement an education program on HIV and STDs designed to foment debate upon the circumcision ritual, the sex roles of men and women, and perceptions of male sexual power. Even though it remains too early to assess sexual behavior changes in the community, some young people and their families have begun to question the traditional circumcision practice and its associated rituals. PMID:12322626

  11. [The present situation and subject].

    PubMed

    Mori, Hisazumi; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Tokonami, Norihito; Natsuaki, Toshikatsu; Takashima, Tsuneo; Shigenobu, Mitsunori

    2002-12-01

    Terumo Corporation has been supporting the regional medical network, developing new products for home health care and providing service through the Home-Joint system in the fields of HPN, HEN, and HOT. In the chain of servicing, we are carrying out call center operations that can receive inquiries regarding machine operation and machine trouble from the patients, for 24 hours a day, all year round. Most inquiries are settled then and there, but some cases need further treatment. The principal cases are, Lowness mastery degree of patients or tenders, wants of knowledge of the person in charge of answering inquiries, and coming under the medical treatment. It is indispensable to connect closely with Hospitals, the visiting nurse, and agencies. Today's Subject: Pursuit of simplicity and safety of equipment based on On-Call experience. Thorough, careful confirmation for several days from the start. Standardization of On-call information and sharing with the agency and hospital. Advancement of knowledge for answering inquiries. Making a system to cope with medical facilities. PMID:12536853

  12. Payment expectations for research participation among subjects who tell the truth, subjects who conceal information, and subjects who fabricate information.

    PubMed

    Devine, Eric G; Knapp, Clifford M; Sarid-Segal, Ofra; O'Keefe, Sean M; Wardell, Cale; Baskett, Morgan; Pecchia, Ashley; Ferrell, Katie; Ciraulo, Domenic A

    2015-03-01

    Multiple models guide researchers' payment practices but few studies have assessed subjects' expectations for payment. Payments in excess of subjects' expectations may result in undue inducement, while payments below these expectations may be associated with exploitation. Data on subjects' payment expectations will help inform practices to avoid undue inducement and exploitation. This study examined subjects' expectations for payment for common research procedures and explored the relationship between subjects' honesty and payment expectations. One-hundred subjects who participated in two or more studies in the last year reported the minimum payment they expect for completing study procedures. They were also asked about their use of deception while screening for studies. Subjects expected $20 on average to complete the least risky and least burdensome procedure. Subjects' expectations for payment consistently increased with greater procedure risks. Subjects who denied using deception to enroll in studies refused more procedures than subjects who reported using deception. Among subjects who used deception, the rate of procedure refusal increased with procedure risks, suggesting that these subjects have some risk aversion and may act to protect themselves from undue inducement. Although subjects expect greater payments for more risky procedures, ethical considerations for limiting undue inducement may prevent researchers from meeting subjects' expectations. Subjects who use deceptive practices appear to be more risk-tolerant than subjects who deny using deception; nonetheless, these deceptive subjects also exercise some risk aversion when they refuse higher-risk procedures. These subjects may be able to protect themselves from undue inducement by refusing procedures that exceed their risk tolerance. PMID:25530307

  13. Fecal carriage of vancomycin- and ampicillin-resistant Enterococci observed in Swedish adult patients with diarrhea but not among healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, M B; Pörnull, K J; Karnell, A; Telander, B; Svenungsson, B

    2001-01-01

    During a 1-y prospective study between 1 October 1996 and 30 September 1997, fecal samples from 786 adult patients with diarrhea and 203 healthy control subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and ampicillin-resistant Enterococci (ARE). The carriage rates of VRE and ARE were 0.4% and 6%, respectively among patients and 0% among controls. The 3 VRE isolates were all VanA and were obtained from patients who had been abroad (Thailand, Spain, France) within the previous 3 months. Thirteen of the 45 patients with ARE (29%) had been abroad within 2 weeks of the onset of diarrhea. These findings suggest a potential risk of introduction of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in Swedish hospitals by patients receiving treatment for diarrhea after traveling abroad. PMID:11669222

  14. Comparison of Compositions and Metabolic Activities of Fecal Microbiotas in Young Adults and in Antibiotic-Treated and Non-Antibiotic-Treated Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Woodmansey, Emma J.; McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Macfarlane, George T.; Macfarlane, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    The colonic microbiota mediates many cellular and molecular events in the host that are important to health. These processes can be affected in the elderly, because in some individuals, the composition and metabolic activities of the microbiota change with age. Detailed characterizations of the major groups of fecal bacteria in healthy young adults, in healthy elderly people, and in hospitalized elderly patients receiving antibiotics were made in this study, together with measurements of their metabolic activities, by analysis of fecal organic acid and ammonia concentrations. The results showed that total anaerobe numbers remained relatively constant in old people; however, individual bacterial genera changed markedly with age. Reductions in numbers of bacteroides and bifidobacteria in both elderly groups were accompanied by reduced species diversity. Bifidobacterial populations in particular showed marked variations in the dominant species, with Bifidobacterium angulatum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis being frequently isolated from the elderly and Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium boum, and Bifidobacterium infantis being detected only from the healthy young volunteers. Reductions in amylolytic activities of bacterial isolates in healthy elderly subjects and reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations supported these findings, since bifidobacteria and bacteroides are important saccharolytic groups in the colon. Conversely, higher numbers of proteolytic bacteria were observed with feces samples from the antibiotic-treated elderly group, which were also associated with increased proteolytic species diversity (fusobacteria, clostridia, and propionibacteria). Other differences in the intestinal ecosystem in elderly subjects were observed, with alterations in the dominant clostridial species in combination with greater numbers of facultative anaerobes. PMID:15466557

  15. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  16. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. PMID:27372801

  17. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Bar-Haim Erez, Asnat; Katz, Noomi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the “Roim Rachok Program” (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  18. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim; Katz, Noomi

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the "Roim Rachok Program" (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  19. The Transition from Optional to Required Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Proposes that the optional subject phenomenon in early child language arises because children have not yet acquired the morphological elements (primarily modal and tense) necessary to distinguish subject-taking verbs (e.g., finite verbs) from their non-subject-taking counterparts (e.g., infinitives). (Author/CB)

  20. Subject Access Points in Electronic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorland, Birger; Nielsen, Lykke Kyllesbech

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of subject access points in databases concentrates on the broader theoretical perspective. Topics include technology-driven stages in the development of subject access points; a taxonomy of subject access points; document titles; abstracts; references and citations; full text; and descriptors, identifiers, classification codes, and…

  1. Subject Access to Archival Materials Using LCSH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiraglia, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of subject access to archival materials focuses on the use of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). The process of subject analysis is described, an example of the depth of cataloging for archival materials is given, and the basic principles of syndetic structure of LCSH are explained. (five references) (LRW)

  2. Technical Subjects. Mathematics. Science. Curriculum RP-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Technical subjects and special mathematics and science courses for technical students. Technical subjects include air conditioning, auto mechanics, carpentry, drafting, applied electronics, masonry, painting, plumbing, service station operation, welding, and woodworking. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL…

  3. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  4. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  5. Testing subject comprehension of utility questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Dobrez, Deborah G; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Utility questionnaires are often considered difficult for subjects to understand. Our study reports pilot testing of two subject comprehension tests to determine whether comprehension can be directly measured. Current health utilities were assessed using the standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale. Subjects were randomized to one of two tests: (1) Logical consistency was tested by comparing rankings of two health states with an investigator-assigned a priori ranking; (2) Utility responses for two hypothetical respondents were presented; the subject was asked who had the better health. Thirty-one subjects completed the SG and TTO for two health states: being blind and wearing glasses. No subjects had inconsistent rankings. Post hoc analyses found that subjects reporting utilities below the first decile for the state, wearing glasses, had significantly lower current health utility than remaining subjects. Of the thirty subjects who evaluated the hypothetical respondents' utilities, five incorrectly judged the respondent with worse utility to have better health. Those subjects also reported current health utilities significantly lower than the remaining subjects. Our study findings suggest that a minority should be expected to have difficulty completing utility questionnaires. Comprehension checks may improve the reliability of utility data by enhancing training and by identifying subjects who may have misunderstood the utility questions. PMID:15085909

  6. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  7. Subjects of Choice and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the discursive practices of neoliberal government through which the subject is constituted as a subject of choice--subjects whose life trajectory is shaped by the imperatives of a labour market in which they will become mobile and flexible workers with multiple careers and jobs. Mobility among these multiple careers…

  8. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  9. The Subject and the World: Educational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the notion of "the subject" in the context of education as an alternative to more limited concepts such as the student or learner. Drawing on the thought of Cornelius Castoriadis, the subject under consideration is a conscious, self-reflective subject that organizes and modifies itself in relation to a world of…

  10. The Effectiveness of Subject Matter Experts as Technical Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Saundra Wall

    2001-01-01

    Subject matter experts have knowledge and experience to be technical trainers, but they may require training in adult learning theory and teaching methods. Research on trainer effectiveness is needed to identify ways to improve the use of subject matter experts as trainers. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  11. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  12. Acute and subchronic effects of nefazodone and imipramine on highway driving, cognitive functions, and daytime sleepiness in healthy adult and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    van Laar, M W; van Willigenburg, A P; Volkerts, E R

    1995-02-01

    The acute and subchronic effects of two dosages of a new serotonergic antidepressant, nefazodone, and those of the tricyclic imipramine were examined in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-four healthy subjects from two age groups (12 adults and 12 elderly from both sexes) received the four treatments (nefazodone, 100 and 200 mg twice daily; imipramine, 50 mg twice daily; and placebo) for 7 days with a 7-day washout period. Measurements were performed after the morning doses on day 1 and day 7. These included a standard over-the-road highway driving test, a psychomotor test battery, and sleep latency tests. Blood samples were taken on both days and analyzed to determine concentrations of parent drugs and their major metabolites. The main results showed that the reference drug, imipramine, had a detrimental effect after a single dose on lateral position control in the driving test, primarily in the adult group, that diminished after repeated dosing. Minor impairment on psychomotor test performance was found with both days. On the other hand, a single administration of both doses of nefazodone did not impair highway driving performance (even showed some improvement) and had no or only minor effects on psychomotor performance. After repeated dosing, nefazodone 200 mg twice daily (but not the 100-mg dose) produced slight impairment of lateral position control; dose-related impairment of cognitive and memory functions was found. The effects of nefazodone were generally in the same direction in both age groups. Significant correlations were found between steady-state concentrations of nefazodone in plasma (200-mg, twice-daily condition) as well as imipramine, and reaction time changes in a memory scanning task. Neither drug appeared to induce daytime sleepiness as measured by the sleep latency tests. PMID:7714226

  13. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. PMID:24693824

  14. Subject-to-Subject Raising and the Syntax of Tense in L2 Spanish: A Full Access Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…

  15. Average ambulatory measures of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and vocal dose do not differ between adult females with phonotraumatic lesions and matched control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Burns, James A.; Barbu, Anca M.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Methods Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Results Paired t-tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t-tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. PMID:26024911

  16. Psychological characteristics and subjective intolerance for xenobiotic agents of normal young adults with trait shyness and defensiveness. A parkinsonian-like personality type?

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Amend, D; Peterson, J M; Kaszniak, A W; Miller, C S

    1994-07-01

    The present study examines the psychological characteristics and self-reported responses to xenobiotic agents such as tobacco smoke and pesticide of normal young adults with personality traits similar to those claimed for Parkinsonian patients. Previous research, though controversial, has suggested that persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have premorbid personality traits that may include shyness and repressive defensiveness. Other epidemiological evidence indicates that PD patients may have premorbidly increased prevalence of anxiety, affective, and/or somatoform disorders; decreased rates of smoking and alcohol consumption; and elevated exposure to herbicides or pesticides. A total of 783 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed the Cheek-Buss Scale (shyness), the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (defensiveness), Symptom Checklist 90 (revised), the Mastery Scale, a health history checklist, and rating scales for frequency of illness from alcohol and 10 common environmental chemicals. Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of above- versus below-median scores on the Cheek-Buss and Marlowe-Crowne scales (persons high in shyness and defensiveness, those high only in shyness, those high only in defensiveness, and those low in both shyness and defensiveness). The group high in shyness but low in defensiveness had the highest, whereas the group low in shyness but high in defensiveness had the lowest, total scores on the SCL-90-R; the two shyest groups were lowest in sense of mastery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8021635

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Subjective Social Status

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Sarah; Malspeis, Susan; Adler, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Subjective social status (SSS), a person’s sense of their (or for youth, their family’s) position in the socioeconomic hierarchy, is strongly related to health in adults but not health in adolescence. Understanding this developmental discrepancy requires first understanding the developmental trajectory of SSS. The objective of this study was to identify the number and shape of SSS trajectories as adolescents transition to adulthood and explore if trajectory membership affects health. METHODS: Using data from 7436 assessments from the Princeton School District Study, a decade-long cohort study of non-Hispanic black and white youth, latent class growth models with 3 to 7 SSS trajectories were developed. Model fit, trajectory structure, and shape were used to guide optimal model selection. Using this optimal model, the associations of trajectory membership with BMI and depressive symptoms in young adulthood were explored. RESULTS: The 5-class model was optimal. In this model, trajectories were persistent high (7.8%), mid–high (32.2%), middle (43.4%), low–lower (7.4%), and high–low (9.1%). Non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, lower household income, and low parent education were associated with membership in this high–low trajectory. High–low trajectory membership was associated with higher BMI and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white subjects but was not associated with depressive symptoms. It was associated with lower BMI only after adjustment for BMI in adolescence in non-Hispanic black subjects. CONCLUSIONS: SSS is relatively stable in adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and it generally reflects objective markers of social advantage. However, socially disadvantaged youth with high SSS in early adolescence may be at increased health risk. PMID:26324868

  18. Subjective socioeconomic status and health: relationships reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Jenna; Weintraub, Miranda Ritterman; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-04-01

    Subjective status, an individual's perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  19. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  20. Unequal Treatment of Human Research Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Unequal treatment of human research subjects is a significant ethical concern, because justice requires that equals be treated equally. If two research subjects are the same in the relevant respects, they should be treated equally. However, not all human subjects are the same in relevant respects: people differ with respect to age, health, gender, race, mental abilities, socioeconomic status, and other characteristics. Disputes sometimes arise concerning the issue of whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and should therefore be treated equally. Allegedly unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is a serious dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects. Patently unequal treatment occurs when there is no significant dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and they are treated unequally. Research regulations can help to minimize patently unequal treatment by providing rules for investigators, institutional review boards, institutions, and sponsors to follow. However, patently unequal treatment may still occur because the regulations are subject to interpretation. Additional guidance may be necessary to minimize patently unequal treatment of research subjects. PMID:24879129

  1. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2002-07-01 2002-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Regulations of the Offices of the Department.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  2. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  4. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  5. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  6. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2015-07-01 2015-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  7. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  8. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  9. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  10. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  12. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  13. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  15. Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of an Oral, Inactivated Whole-Cell Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Harro, Clayton; DeNearing, Barbara; Bream, Jay; Bauers, Nicole; Dally, Len; Flores, Jorge; Van de Verg, Lillian; Sack, David A; Walker, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Shigellacauses high morbidity and mortality worldwide, but there is no licensed vaccine for shigellosis yet. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated whole-cellShigella flexneri2a vaccine, Sf2aWC, given orally to adult volunteers. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 82 subjects were randomized to receive three doses of vaccine in dose escalation (2.6 ± 0.8 × 10(8), × 10(9), × 10(10), and × 10(11)vaccine particles/ml). Vaccine safety was actively monitored, and antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were determined in serum, antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS), and fecal samples. Cytokines were measured in the serum. Sf2aWC was well tolerated and generally safe at all four dose levels. The vaccine resulted in a dose-dependent immune response. At the highest dose, the vaccine induced robust responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both serum and ALS samples. The highest magnitude and frequency of responses occurred after the first dose in almost all samples but was delayed for IgG in serum. Fifty percent of the vaccinees had a >4-fold increase in anti-LPS fecal antibody titers. Responses to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa) were low. The levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-2, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10 were increased, and IL-8 was decreased immediately after first dose, but these changes were very transient. This phase I trial demonstrated that the Sf2aWC vaccine, a relatively simple vaccine concept, was safe and immunogenic. The vaccine elicited immune responses which were comparable to those induced by a live, attenuatedShigellavaccine that was protective in prior human challenge studies. PMID:26865592

  16. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kvale, Mark N.; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Cao, Yang; Chan, David; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Eshragh, Jasmin; Finn, Andrea; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lao, Richard; Lu, Yontao; Ludwig, Dana; Mathauda, Gurpreet K.; McGuire, William B.; Mei, Gangwu; Miles, Sunita; Mittman, Michael; Patil, Mohini; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Shapero, Michael; Shen, Ling; Shenoy, Tanu; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Wan, Eunice; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Wong, Simon; Zau, Chia; Zhan, Yiping; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California—San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1–95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions. PMID:26092718

  17. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  18. Subjects and Objects in Modern Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the medical model and the current cognitive model in corrections are based on a subject-object relationship between keepers and prisoners. Suggests approaches to correctional rehabilitation that facilitate transformations in prisoners' lives by relating to them as subjects rather than as objects. (JOW)

  19. International Collaboration on Internet Subject Gateways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Emma

    A number of libraries in Europe are involved in the development of Internet subject gateways--services that aim to help users find high quality resources on the Internet. Subject gateways such as SOSIG (Social Science Information Gateway) have been available on the Internet for some years now, and they offer an alternative to Internet search…

  20. Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Different Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the favorite subject to teach and enjoyment of teaching of 490 elementary school teachers (K-5) from two rural school districts in the southeastern United States. Reading and language arts were consistently ranked among the favorite and most enjoyed subjects to teach, whereas science and writing were consistently ranked…

  1. Sliding Subject Positions: Knowledge and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Rowley, Harriet; Smith, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In England, adjustments to policy in teacher education have had implications for how subject knowledge is understood and for how job descriptions are defined. That is, the interface between teacher educator and subject knowledge representation has been changing. This paper reports on a wider study that considers the experience of university…

  2. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  3. 46 CFR 535.201 - Subject agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Scope § 535.201 Subject agreements. (a) Ocean common carrier agreements. This part applies to agreements by or among ocean...

  4. 46 CFR 535.201 - Subject agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Scope § 535.201 Subject agreements. (a) Ocean common carrier agreements. This part applies to agreements by or among ocean...

  5. 46 CFR 535.201 - Subject agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Scope § 535.201 Subject agreements. (a) Ocean common carrier agreements. This part applies to agreements by or among ocean...

  6. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  7. Subject Access in the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turock, Betty J.; Shelton, Hildred C.

    This pilot study on the subject access problems of patrons of small to medium size libraries was designed to measure the extent to which users' vocabularies matched the search vocabulary of bibliographic records in the card catalog, and to enhance subject access by develooping a microcomputer system which integrated Library of Congress Subject…

  8. Centring the Subject in Order to Educate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    It is important for educators to recognise that the various calls to decentre the subject--or self--should not be interpreted as necessarily requiring the removal of the subject altogether. Through the individualism of the Enlightenment the self was centred. This highly individualistic notion of the sovereign self has now been decentred especially…

  9. Subject Preference Regarding Three Psychotherapy Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Thomas G.

    Research has shown that therapy preference affects both the quality of the initial therapy session and treatment outcome. To determine personality characteristics which would affect subjects' preference of therapeutic orientation and to obtain qualitative information about subjects' therapy preferences, 203 community college students indicated…

  10. Impossible Subjects: Writing, Ethics, and Radical Alterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes-Burton, Cynthia

    One way to "reinitiate" possible productive responses to the question of the subject for composition theory and pedagogy is to defuse the terror of the "impossible," to "negotiate" with the impossible, and to ask impossible questions. Although there are dangers associated with any critical theorizing about the subject positions of students and/or…

  11. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  12. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  13. Dissemination to research subjects: operationalizing investigator accountability.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik Shaul, Randi; Reid, Lynette; Essue, Beverley; Gibson, Julie; Marzinotto, Velma; Daneman, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent articles have argued from principles of bioethics for the right of research subjects to receive the results of the studies in which they have participated. We argue that accountability is a powerful tool of meso-level analysis appropriate to reasoning about answerability in research ethics, and that it captures the responsibility of researchers to disseminate study results to research subjects. We offer the following features of the research situation as relevant to the manner of dissemination to study subject, in addition to factors already proposed in the literature (risk and impact on health outcome): (a) features of the research subject in relation to identity, personal investment, disease, and community; (b) characteristics of the research study and field of inquiry in relation to certainty and significance; and (c) relationships among the research subjects and the healthcare workers involved in their care and in the research. PMID:16021788

  14. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  15. A living wage for research subjects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. PMID:21561519

  16. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment. PMID:11495403

  17. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  18. Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Furio; Valtueña, Silvia; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Ardigò, Diego; Del Rio, Daniele; Salvatore, Sara; Piatti, PierMarco; Serafini, Mauro; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2005-05-01

    Inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is associated with low plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins. In addition to vitamins, other antioxidants modulate the synthesis of inflammatory markers in vitro and contribute to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of a diet. However, the relationship between dietary TAC and markers of inflammation has never been evaluated in vivo. We investigated the relationship between dietary TAC and markers of systemic (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leucocytes) and vascular (soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1) inflammation in 243 non-diabetic subjects. General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed a significant (P=0.005) inverse relationship between hs-CRP and quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary TAC, even when recognized modulating factors of inflammation, namely alcohol, fibre, vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, insulin sensitivity and plasma beta-carotene, were included in the model as covariates (P=0.004). The relationship was stronger for subjects with hypertension (P=0.013 v. P=0.109 for normotensive individuals). Among dietary factors, TAC was significantly higher (5.3 (sd 3.0) v. 4.9 (sd 2.7) mmol Trolox/d; P=0.026) in subjects with low plasma hs-CRP (range: 0.0-4.1 mg/l) than in subjects with high plasma hs-CRP (range: 4.2-27.8 mg/l). We conclude that dietary TAC is inversely and independently correlated with plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and this could be one of the mechanisms explaining the protective effects against CVD of antioxidant-rich foods such as fruits, whole cereals and red wine. This could be of particular significance for subjects with high blood pressure. PMID:15975160

  19. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Design Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Setting Norway. Participants 1010 youths and adults aged 15–22. Primary outcome measures Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, ‘would rather try’ and ‘easier to quit’ for pairs of packages. Results Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, p<0.001), taste (index score 1.21/1.12 vs 1.70, p<0.001) and as less harmful (index score 1.0.34/0.36 vs 0.82, p<0.001) among females. Among males, the difference between the plain with and without descriptors versus branded condition was significant for appeal (index score 2.08/1.92 vs 2.58, p<0.005) and between the plain without descriptors versus branded condition for taste (index score 1.18 vs 1.70, p<0.00). The pack comparison task showed that the packs with descriptors suggesting a lower content of harmful substances, together with lighter colours, were more positively rated in the branded compared with the plain condition on dimensions less harmful (β −0.77, 95% CI −0.97 to −0.56), would rather try (β −0.32, 95% CI −0.50 to −0.14) and easier to quit (β −0.58, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.39). Conclusions The results indicate that a shift from branded to plain cigarette

  20. Subjective Evaluation Of A Perceptual Quality Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles F.

    1981-12-01

    A major problem which has plagued image processing has been the lack of an effective image quality measure. It is well known that common measures which are mathematical and analytically tractable do not correlate with human subjective evaluation. This paper presents the results of a subjective evaluation on twelve versions of a black and white image (the SPIE GIRL) and the rank ordering obtained with three computational measures. It was found that a measure based on a model of the human visual system compared to the subjective evaluation with a correlation of .92.

  1. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = −.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  2. In Search of Subject Matter Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for subject-matter experts who understands that purity of content must be coupled with ensuring that the participants actually learn. Looks at ways to leverage and circulate intellectual capital within an organization. (JOW)

  3. 29 CFR 1690.101 - Subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES ON INTERAGENCY COORDINATION OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ISSUANCES General § 1690.101 Subject. Procedures on Interagency Coordination of Equal Employment Opportunity Issuances....

  4. The research subject as wage earner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James A; Weijer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The practice of paying research subjects for participating in clinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis. Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in which research subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that of unskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows? Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplace legislation and political theory. All workers, including paid research subjects under Dickert and Grady's analysis, have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week, extra pay for overtime hours, a safe workplace, no fault compensation for work-related injury, and union organization. If we accept that paid research subjects are wage earners like any other, then the implications for changes to current practice are substantial. PMID:12516838

  5. Auditory-pupillary responses in deaf subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Naoharu; Otsuka, Koji; Ogawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shigetaka; Hayashi, Mami; Ichimura, Akihide; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    Pupillary dilation in response to sound stimuli is well established and is generally considered to represent a startle reflex to sound. We believe that the auditory-pupillary response represents not only a simple startle reflex to sound stimuli but also represents a reaction to stimulation of other sense organs, such as otolith organs. Eight young healthy volunteers without a history of hearing and equilibrium problems and 12 subjects with bilateral deafness participated in this study. Computer pupillography was used to analyze the auditory-pupillary responses of both eyes in all subjects. We found that auditory-pupillary responses occurred even in subjects with bilateral deafness and that this response was comparable to those of normal subjects. We propose that the auditory-pupillary response also relates to vestibular function. Thus, assessing the auditory-pupillary response may be useful for evaluating the vestibulo-autonomic response in patients with peripheral disequilibrium. PMID:20826936

  6. Subjective experiences in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Luca; Kalyvoka, Artemis; Stratta, Paolo; Gianfelice, Daniela; Rinaldi, Osvaldo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    Studies comparing 'subjective experiences' in schizophrenic and affective disorders have reached inconclusive results. We investigated the pattern of 'subjective perceived cognitive disturbances' in a group of 55 schizophrenic patients and 39 bipolar patients hospitalized for an index psychotic episode. The assessment of the subjective experiences was made using the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF). Comparing the two groups on the four FBF factors, schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher scores in the areas of 'central cognitive disturbances', 'perception and motility' other than a significantly higher FBF total score. Our results suggest that cognitive, perception and motility disturbances are the most characteristic subjective experiences of schizophrenic patients in comparison with bipolar patients. This finding need to be further explored in light of the issue of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:12056578

  7. Variable Subject Presence in ASL Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Alyssa; Dudis, Paul; Bayley, Robert; Lucas, Ceil

    2002-01-01

    Examines one kind of syntactic variation--variable subject pronoun presence with American Sign Language plain verbs. Focuses on narratives that occurred during conversations recorded as part of a larger study. (Author/VWL)

  8. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  9. Creating Better Subject Access with Multiple Vocabularies: Upgrading the Subject Heading List for the Alzheimer's Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marilyn J.; Cochrane, Pauline Atherton

    1999-01-01

    A new subject list was generated for the Alzheimer's Association's Green-Field Library catalog, resulting in a mix of Medical Subject Headings and Library of Congress Subject Headings, augmented by local- and reviewer-supplied terms. The list gives the Library authoritative terms to use for original and copy cataloging. It can also be placed with…

  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1...

  11. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  18. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  20. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  1. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  2. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  3. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  4. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  6. Subject Compatibility between "Chemical Abstracts" Subject Sections and Search Profiles Used for Computerized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Inge Berg

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of relevant answers to 41 search profiles among the 80 subject sections of Chemical Abstracts" revealed that the average profile requires 10 CA-subject sections for adequate coverage. The average printing expense could be reduced 25 percent by searching the individual profiles in the appropriate subject sections. (5…

  7. Subjective Frequency Ratings for 432 ASL Signs

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Hall, Matthew L.; Zvaigzne, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of lexical frequency for psycholinguistic research, and the lack of comprehensive frequency data for sign languages, we collected subjective estimates of lexical frequency for 432 signs in American Sign Language. Participants were 59 deaf signers who first began to acquire ASL at ages ranging from birth to 14 years with a minimum of 10 years experience. Subjective frequency estimates were made on a scale ranging from 1 = rarely see the sign to 7 = always see the sign. Mean subjective frequency ratings for individual signs did not vary in relation to age of sign language exposure (AoLE), chronological age, or length of ASL experience. Nor did AoLE show significant effects on response time for making the ratings. However, RT was highly correlated with mean frequency rating. These results suggest that the distributions of subjective lexical frequencies are consistent across signers with varying AoLE. The implications for research practice are that subjective frequency ratings from random samples of highly experienced deaf signers can provide a reasonable measures of lexical control in sign language experiments. The appendix gives the mean and median subjective frequency rating, and the median and mean log(RT) for the ASL signs for the entire sample; the supplemental material gives these measures for three AoLE groups, Native, Early, and Late. PMID:23943581

  8. Subjective frequency ratings for 432 ASL signs.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Rachel I; Hall, Matthew L; Zvaigzne, Meghan

    2014-06-01

    Given the importance of lexical frequency for psycholinguistic research and the lack of comprehensive frequency data for sign languages, we collected subjective estimates of lexical frequency for 432 signs in American Sign Language (ASL). Our participants were 59 deaf signers who first began to acquire ASL at ages ranging from birth to 14 years old and who had a minimum of 10 years of experience. Subjective frequency estimates were made on a scale ranging from 1 = rarely see the sign to 7 = always see the sign. The mean subjective frequency ratings for individual signs did not vary in relation to age of sign language exposure (AoLE), chronological age, or length of ASL experience. Nor did AoLE show significant effects on the response times (RTs) for making the ratings. However, RTs were highly correlated with mean frequency ratings. These results suggest that the distributions of subjective lexical frequencies are consistent across signers with varying AoLEs. The implications for research practice are that subjective frequency ratings from random samples of highly experienced deaf signers can provide a reasonable measure of lexical control in sign language experiments. The Appendix gives the mean and median subjective frequency ratings and the mean and median log(RT) of the ASL signs for the entire sample; the supplemental material gives these measures for the three AoLE groups: native, early, and late. PMID:23943581

  9. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly. PMID:25051653

  10. The Transition to Adulthood: Life Course Structures and Subjective Perceptions*

    PubMed Central

    Eliason, Scott R.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Vuolo, Mike

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationships between objective life course structures and the subjective sense of timing of adult roles and acquisition of adult identity. Hierarchical latent class analysis is applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, describing roles related to school, work, family formation, and living arrangements from age 17 to 30. The transition to adulthood in this cohort is well-represented by five pathways probabilistically mapping the timing and sequencing of these roles and their configurations. Three pathways are characterized by a school-to-work transition with on-time, delayed, or negligible family formation. The remaining pathways involve early parenthood with either a partner and stable full-time work or the lack of a partner and low labor force attachment. We then show that the subjective sense of timing with respect to certain adult roles and adult identity acquisition is empirically tied to these life course structures. PMID:26441473

  11. [Subjectivity sense, language and subject: a new postrationalist perspective in psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy. PMID:22322683

  12. [Medical research and vulnerable subjects: unemployed people].

    PubMed

    Niebrój, Lesław

    2006-01-01

    Although the importance of medical research for the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases is unquestionable, the use of human subjects, however, still presents a complex ethical problem. Moral difficulties occur in particular when the medical research deals with vulnerable subjects. Vulnerable individuals are defined as those who experience diminished actual autonomy. Among the groups which should be considered as being vulnerable are usually listed the following: children, pregnant women, mentally or emotionally disabled, physically disabled, homeless, and institutionalized people. This study addresses key concerns that gave rise to the question of whether unemployed people had to be recognized as vulnerable subjects. The term "vulnerability" was clarified and it was assumed that the "vulnerability" of medical research subjects' had to be understood as a form of continuum from potential, through the circumstantial, temporal, episodic, permanent to inevitable vulnerability. The conclusion was drawn that unemployed people were, at least, potentially vulnerable subjects. Research involving unemployed people presents important moral challenges to researchers and should be undertaken very carefully, following special ethical guidelines. PMID:17441390

  13. Subjective organization of U.S. presidents.

    PubMed

    Brown, N R; Siegler, R S

    1991-01-01

    College students appear to subjectively organize U.S. presidents into three groups and to use this organization to help them learn new information. Results of a paired comparison task in Experiment 1 suggested that subjects organized the presidents into Founding Fathers (Washington through John Quincy Adams), post-World War II presidents (Truman through Reagan), and noncontemporary presidents (Jackson through Franklin Roosevelt). This hypothesized organization was tested in Experiment 2 by presenting subjects with several lists with alternative organizations of the presidents. Difficulty of learning classifications of particular presidents within each list was predicted on the basis of the relation between that president's classification in the list and in the hypothesized preexisting organization. Instances where the preexisting and new classifications were consistent both for the particular president and for all other members of the group were easiest to learn. Instances where the particular president's classification was consistent but where some other presidents in the group were classified differently were of intermediate difficulty. Instances where neither the individual president's classification nor that of the entire group were consistent were most difficult. The results provided converging evidence for the hypothesized subjective organization of the presidents and also demonstrated the usefulness of a method that may be applicable to testing subjective organizations in a wide variety of other areas. PMID:2058756

  14. QT/QTc study conducted in Japanese adult healthy subjects: a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor topiroxostat was not associated with QT prolongation.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Hiroya; Nakamura, Yuji; Fujita, Tomoe; Kumagai, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    A QT/QTc study was conducted in compliance with ICH E14 guideline to evaluate the effects of a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor topiroxostat in Japanese healthy subjects. Forty-eight Japanese healthy subjects (males 24; females 24) received a single oral dose of topiroxostat (60 or 180 mg), moxifloxacin (400 mg) or placebo in a single-center, double-blind, four-period crossover design. Fridericia's formula (QTcF = QT/RR(0.33) ) was used as a primary method for QT-interval correction. The mean QTcF was prolonged by moxifloxacin, of which largest time-matched difference from placebo administration was 13.6 milliseconds with 90% confidence interval (CI) of 11.2 and 15.9 milliseconds at 4 hours post-dose. The mean QTcF was hardly affected by either dose of topiroxostat, of which largest time-matched difference from placebo administration was 2.9 milliseconds with 90% CI of 0.6 and 5.3 milliseconds at 4 hours post-dose for 60 mg, and 2.3 milliseconds with 90% CI of 0 and 4.7 milliseconds at 1 hour post-dose for 180 mg. The results were essentially the same in the sex subgroup analysis. Moxifloxacin can be used as a positive control for QT/QTc studies in Japanese subjects; and topiroxostat may not cause QT-interval prolongation in males as well as females. PMID:24214189

  15. Prevalence, Clinical Profile, Iron Status, and Subject-Specific Traits for Excessive Erythrocytosis in Andean Adults Living Permanently at 3,825 Meters Above Sea Level

    PubMed Central

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Huicho, Luis; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Wise, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is a prevalent condition in populations living at high altitudes (> 2,500 m above sea level). Few large population-based studies have explored the association between EE and multiple subject-specific traits including oxygen saturation, iron status indicators, and pulmonary function. METHODS: We enrolled a sex-stratified and age-stratified sample of 1,065 high-altitude residents aged ≥ 35 years from Puno, Peru (3,825 m above sea level) and conducted a standardized questionnaire and physical examination that included spirometry, pulse oximetry, and a blood sample for multiple clinical markers. Our primary objectives were to estimate the prevalence of EE, characterize the clinical profile and iron status indicators of subjects with EE, and describe subject-specific traits associated with EE. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of EE was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.3%-6.0%). Oxygen saturation was significantly lower among EE than non-EE group subjects (85.3% vs 90.1%, P < .001) but no difference was found in iron status indicators between both groups (P > .09 for all values). In multivariable logistic regression, we found that age ≥ 65 years (OR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.16-5.09), male sex (3.86, 1.78-9.08), having metabolic syndrome (2.66, 1.27-5.75) or being overweight (5.20, 1.95-16.77), pulse oximetry < 85% (14.90, 6.43-34.90), and % predicted FVC < 80% (13.62, 4.40-41.80) were strongly associated with EE. Attributable fractions for EE were greatest for being overweight (26.7%), followed by male sex (21.5%), pulse oximetry < 85% (16.4%), having metabolic syndrome (14.4%), and % predicted FVC < 80% (9.3%). CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower prevalence of EE than in previous reports in the Peruvian Andes. Although the presence of hypoxemia and decreased vital capacity were strongly associated with excessive erythrocytosis, being overweight or having metabolic syndrome were associated with an important fraction of cases in our study population. PMID

  16. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN HUMAN SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty human subjects with asthma and chronic bronchitis and ten normal, healthy adults were exposed to 0.5 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for two hours in an environmental chamber. They engaged in one 15-minute, light to medium-exercise stint on a bicycle ergometer during this pe...

  17. Social Relationships and Children's Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Haridhan

    2012-01-01

    The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…

  18. Career Decidedness as a Predictor of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…

  19. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  20. The Development of Contour Interpolation: Evidence from Subjective Contours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Adults are skilled at perceiving subjective contours in regions without any local image information (e.g., [Ginsburg, 1975] and [Kanizsa, 1976]). Here we examined the development of this skill and the effect thereon of the support ratio (i.e., the ratio of the physically specified contours to the total contour length). Children (6-, 9-, and…

  1. Objective versus subjective assessment of methylphenidate response.

    PubMed

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-09-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio 67%:33%) aged 5-18 (11.09 +/- 3.43) years. TOVA was administered before and after MPH challenge (0.3 mg/kg). Self-perception CGI-C scores were compared to the TOVA scores. An inverse correlation was found only between CGI-C and the TOVA-Commission-scores (r = -0.326, p < 0.001). We thus conclude that subjective reports are too unreliable to be used in order to assess MPH benefit in ADHD pediatric populations. PMID:18058019

  2. Is waiting bad for subjective health?

    PubMed

    Howell, Jennifer L; Sweeny, Kate

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the possibility that waiting is bad for one's subjective health. Specifically, we examined longitudinal trends in the self-reported health, self-reported sleep disruption, distress, and emotion regulation strategies of law school graduates waiting for their bar exam results. Multilevel analyses suggest that waiting was particularly detrimental to participants' self-reported health and sleep disruption at the beginning and end of the waiting period. Moreover, distress and most emotion regulation efforts were associated with poorer subjective health on average, and personal increases in distress and emotion regulation were largely associated with personal increases in poor self-reported health and sleep disruption. Our results suggest that waiting periods can take a toll on subjective health and that individual and temporal variations in distress and emotion regulation efforts are associated with these health trajectories. PMID:26969093

  3. Subjective video quality comparison of HDTV monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.

  4. Forearm vasoreactivity in type 1diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Allen, J D; Welsch, M; Aucoin, N; Wood, R; Lee, M; LeBlanc, K E

    2001-02-01

    This study compared forearm vasoreactivity in 15 Type I diabetic subjects with 15 healthy controls. The groups were matched for age, exercise capacity, and the absence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Vasoreactivity was measured using strain gauge plethysmography, at rest, after arterial occlusion (OCC), and following OCC coupled with handgrip exercise (ROCC). Forearm blood flows were significantly elevated between conditions 2.58 +/- 0.37ml/100mltissue at rest to 26.80 +/- 6.56 after OCC and 32.80 +/- 8.26ml/100mltissue following ROCC in Type I diabetic subjects. There were no differences in forearm blood flow between groups for any of the conditions. These data indicate the degree of forearm blood flow is directly related to the intensity of the vasodilatory stimulus. However, our study did not reveal evidence of impaired vasodilatory capacity in Type I diabetic subjects compared to controls in the absence of other risk factors. PMID:11173668

  5. Decoding subjective decisions from orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rich, Erin L; Wallis, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    When making a subjective choice, the brain must compute a value for each option and compare those values to make a decision. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critically involved in this process, but the neural mechanisms remain obscure, in part due to limitations in our ability to measure and control the internal deliberations that can alter the dynamics of the decision process. Here we tracked these dynamics by recovering temporally precise neural states from multidimensional data in OFC. During individual choices, OFC alternated between states associated with the value of two available options, with dynamics that predicted whether a subject would decide quickly or vacillate between the two alternatives. Ensembles of value-encoding neurons contributed to these states, with individual neurons shifting activity patterns as the network evaluated each option. Thus, the mechanism of subjective decision-making involves the dynamic activation of OFC states associated with each choice alternative. PMID:27273768

  6. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-09-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government has regulated research involving human subjects. With current procedures, a proposal soliciting federal funds for a research project involving human subjects will be flagged by the applicants institution and checked for compliance with appropriate regulations. However, there is a large body of Physics Education Research that is not federally funded and thus may not be flagged. Nevertheless, there are ethical standards that apply to this research. This paper outlines the preliminary considerations for conducting such research.

  7. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  8. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects. PMID:27120561

  9. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic interaction between repeated doses of rifapentine or rifampin and a single dose of bedaquiline in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Murray, Stephen; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the effects of rifapentine or rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of bedaquiline and its M2 metabolite in healthy subjects using a two-period single-sequence design. In period 1, subjects received a single dose of bedaquiline (400 mg), followed by a 28-day washout. In period 2, subjects received either rifapentine (600 mg) or rifampin (600 mg) from day 20 to day 41, as well as a single bedaquiline dose (400 mg) on day 29. The pharmacokinetic profiles of bedaquiline and M2 were compared over 336 h after the administration of bedaquiline alone and in combination with steady-state rifapentine or rifampin. Coadministration of bedaquiline with rifapentine or rifampin resulted in lower bedaquiline exposures. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the maximum observed concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve to the last available concentration time point (AUC0-t), and AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf) of bedaquiline were 62.19% (53.37 to 72.47), 42.79% (37.77 to 48.49), and 44.52% (40.12 to 49.39), respectively, when coadministered with rifapentine. Similarly, the GMRs and 90% CIs for the Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of bedaquiline were 60.24% (51.96 to 69.84), 41.36% (37.70 to 45.36), and 47.32% (41.49 to 53.97), respectively, when coadministered with rifampin. The Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of M2 were also altered when bedaquiline was coadministered with rifapentine or rifampin. Single doses of bedaquiline, administered alone or with multiple doses of rifapentine or rifampin, were well tolerated, with no safety concerns related to coadministration. Daily administration of rifapentine to patients with tuberculosis presents the same drug interaction challenges as rifampin and other rifamycins. Strong inducers of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 should be avoided when considering the use of bedaquiline. (This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT02216331

  10. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  11. Subjective evaluation of HEVC in mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari

    2013-03-01

    Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.

  12. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  13. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING POSTER Requirements for Display of Posters § 110.10 Persons subject. (a) Except to the extent that... Sale or Rental of Housing and Other Prohibited Practices, shall post and maintain a fair housing poster... post and maintain a fair housing poster at any place of business where the dwelling is offered for...

  14. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING POSTER Requirements for Display of Posters § 110.10 Persons subject. (a) Except to the extent that... Sale or Rental of Housing and Other Prohibited Practices, shall post and maintain a fair housing poster... post and maintain a fair housing poster at any place of business where the dwelling is offered for...

  15. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING POSTER Requirements for Display of Posters § 110.10 Persons subject. (a) Except to the extent that... Sale or Rental of Housing and Other Prohibited Practices, shall post and maintain a fair housing poster... post and maintain a fair housing poster at any place of business where the dwelling is offered for...

  16. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING POSTER Requirements for Display of Posters § 110.10 Persons subject. (a) Except to the extent that... Sale or Rental of Housing and Other Prohibited Practices, shall post and maintain a fair housing poster... post and maintain a fair housing poster at any place of business where the dwelling is offered for...

  17. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING POSTER Requirements for Display of Posters § 110.10 Persons subject. (a) Except to the extent that... Sale or Rental of Housing and Other Prohibited Practices, shall post and maintain a fair housing poster... post and maintain a fair housing poster at any place of business where the dwelling is offered for...

  18. Constructing Multiple Subjectivities in Classroom Literacy Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthey, Sarah J.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates ways in which three students in a multi-age, literature-based grade 3/4 classroom constructed and reconstructed their subjectivities based on demands of the social setting. Notes that each student's participation was influenced by gender, social class, ethnicity, and the task. Suggests that interpretations of students' interactions…

  19. Subjective and objective probabilities in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Srednicki, Mark

    2005-05-15

    We discuss how the apparently objective probabilities predicted by quantum mechanics can be treated in the framework of Bayesian probability theory, in which all probabilities are subjective. Our results are in accord with earlier work by Caves, Fuchs, and Schack, but our approach and emphasis are different. We also discuss the problem of choosing a noninformative prior for a density matrix.

  20. The Period Subdivision in Subject Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lois Mai

    1972-01-01

    The Hines-Harris computer filing code is examined with reference to the basic nature and function of the period subdivision in subject headings and with regard to its use from the catalog user's point of view. (9 references) (Author/SJ)

  1. Punctuation in Library of Congress Subject Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Hilda

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the punctuation of the eighth edition Library of Congress Subject Headings reveals that the hyphen, coma and parentheses are most often used. Examples of these and the use of the apostrophe, dash, and period are discussed. (Author/MBR)

  2. Subjective Well-Being among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuzgol Dost, Meliha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of subjective well-being to gender, perceived economic status, perceived parental attitudes, satisfaction with physical appearance, religious belief, and locus of control among university students. The sample of the study consisted of 700 university students of Hacettepe University during…

  3. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  4. Thematic Role Properties of Subjects and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kako, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests two claims about the thematic roles Agent and Patient: first, that they can be decomposed into more primitive features, as laid out in Dowty's (1991) Proto-Roles Hypothesis; and second, that these properties can be inferred directly from the grammatical roles subject and object. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the…

  5. Career Construction and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Experienced happiness and reported life contentment represent cardinal elements of subjective well-being (SWB). Achieving happiness and contentment with work and other domains, such as love, play, and community, constitute fundamental life goals. Career construction offers a developmental theory of vocational behavior and a career assessment and…

  6. Beyond Useful Knowledge: Developing the Subjective Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wringe, Colin

    2015-01-01

    While not underestimating the value of useful knowledge and skills, it is suggested that education should also develop the subjective self of the learner. A distinction is drawn between an "additive" view of education which simply furnishes the individual with knowledge and skills and a "transformative" concept which concerns…

  7. On Explaining Change in School Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Barry

    1983-01-01

    Drawing on a recent empirical study of curriculum change in English secondary school mathematics and on the work of Kuhn, Bucher and Strauss, Archer, and Bhaskar, a tentative model for analyzing how and why changes occur in the legitimacy of particular definitions of secondary school mathematics and science subjects is developed. (Author/IS)

  8. Subjective Wellbeing: Telling Only Half the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckersley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A new paper presents a strong case for life satisfaction scales (Diener et al. in "Soc Indic Res," 2012). However, it underestimates two important weaknesses in subjective wellbeing (SWB) measures: the contrast between individual satisfaction and social discontent; and the contradictory evidence on the benefits of personal freedom. This commentary…

  9. Objective versus Subjective Responses to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, James M.

    1979-01-01

    Measured psychological sequelae to induced abortion among women pregnant out of wedlock, using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and questions specific to willingness to repeat abortion under similar circumstances. Analyses indicated no relation between objective and subjective indicators. Affectivity after induced abortion had…

  10. Subject Matter Knowledge for Teaching Statistical Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to describe the subject matter knowledge needed for teaching statistical association at the secondary level. Taking a practice-based qualitative approach, three experienced teachers were observed as they taught statistical association and interviewed immediately following each observation. Records of practice were assembled to…

  11. What Can Be Learnt from Subject Review?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottewill, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To consider the shortcomings and strengths of the subject review process with a view to identifying criteria that might be used to assess the value of externally administered quality assurance processes in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Use is made of material from a variety of secondary sources blended with personal…

  12. Enframing Geography: Subject, Curriculum, Knowledge, Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The word "geo-graphy" means "writing the earth". The subject of geography bears responsibility for engaging, constituting and configuring world knowledge, in other words, what the world is. This paper describes an enquiry into the nature of school geographical knowledge at a time of curriculum policy reform. In 2010, the newly appointed Coalition…

  13. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  14. How Preschool Children Understand Missing Complement Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratsos, Michael P.

    Two studies investigated preschool children's comprehension of the missing subject of infinitival complement clauses. In the first study, use of a Surface Structure Minimal Distance principle of the type outlined by C. Chomsky was distinguished from use of a Semantic Role Principle. Preschoolers acted out sentences in which the use of the two…

  15. Women, Subjectivities and Learning to Be Adaptable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance understandings of the subjectivities that influence auxiliary-level female employees' work and learning experiences in general legal practice. Moreover, the aim is to maximise the opportunities for these workers. Design/methodology/approach: A broader critical ethnographic study investigated…

  16. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  17. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  18. Subject Index to Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Designed to provide a ready resource for government, educators, librarians, and the general public, the Index contains demographic information on a wide variety of population-related topics and is the first bibliographic inventory of all Current Populaton Reports. The Index's 20 sections are listed sequentially by subject, series number, year…

  19. Developmental Topographical Disorientation in a Healthy Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, F.; Incoccia, C.; Palermo, L.; Piccardi, L.; Zompanti, L.; Sabatini, U.; Peran, P.; Guariglia, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of F.G., a healthy, normally developed 22-year-old male subject affected by a pervasive disorder in environmental orientation and navigation who presents no history of neurological or psychiatric disease. A neuro-radiological examination showed no evidence of anatomical or structural alterations to the brain. We submitted the…

  20. The Future for Mathematics Subject Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Subject associations have developed, over the years, to serve the interests of the mathematics education community. We live in changing times, and education is often at the forefront of such change. So, to remain contemporary, relevant, and to have a regard for the future in a world influenced by technology, it is suggested that there is a need…

  1. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  2. Protection of Human Subjects: Proposed Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1974

    1974-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 30, 1974, regulations were published as Part 46 of Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations providing generally for the protection of human subjects involved in research, development, or related activities supported by Department of Health, Education, and Welfare grants or contracts. This notice of proposed…

  3. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  4. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  5. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    PubMed

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:7643735

  6. CNS Sites Cooperate to Detect Duplicate Subjects with a Clinical Trial Subject Registry

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Charles S.; Gevorgyan, Lilit; Shawkat, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To report the results of the first 1,132 subjects in a pilot project where local central nervous system trial sites collaborated in the use of a subject database to identify potential duplicate subjects. Method: Central nervous system sites in Los Angeles and Orange County, California, were contacted by the lead author to seek participation in the project. CTSdatabase, a central nervous system-focused trial subject registry, was utilized to track potential subjects at pre-screen. Subjects signed an institutional review board-approved authorization prior to participation, and site staff entered their identifiers by accessing a website. Sites were prompted to communicate with each other or with the database administrator when a match occurred between a newly entered subject and a subject already in the database. Results: Between October 30, 2011, and August 31, 2012, 1,132 subjects were entered at nine central nervous system sites. Subjects continue to be entered, and more sites are anticipated to begin participation by the time of publication. Initially, there were concerns at a few sites over patient acceptance, financial implications, and/or legal and privacy issues, but these were eventually overcome. Patient acceptance was estimated to be above 95 percent. Duplicate Subjects (those that matched several key identifiers with subjects at different sites) made up 7.78 percent of the sample and Certain Duplicates (matching identifiers with a greater than 1 in 10 million likelihood of occurring by chance in the general population) accounted for 3.45 percent of pre-screens entered into the database. Many of these certain duplicates were not consented for studies because of the information provided by the registry. Conclusion: The use of a clinical trial subject registry and cooperation between central nervous system trial sites can reduce the number of duplicate and professional subjects entering clinical trials. To be fully effective, a trial subject

  7. Unsupervised Subject Detection via Remote PPG.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjin; Stuijk, Sander; de Haan, Gerard

    2015-11-01

    Subject detection is a crucial task for camera-based remote healthcare monitoring. Most existing methods in subject detection rely on supervised learning of physical appearance features. However, their performances are highly restricted to the pretrained appearance model, while still suffering from the false detection of human-similar objects. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised method to detect alive subject in a video using physiological features. Our basic idea originates from the observation that only living skin tissue of a human presents pulse signals, which can be exploited as the feature to distinguish human skin from nonhuman surfaces in videos. The proposed VPS method, named voxel-pulse-spectral, consists of three steps: it 1) creates hierarchical voxels across the video for temporally parallel pulse extraction; 2) builds a similarity matrix for hierarchical pulse signals based on their intrinsic properties; and 3) utilizes incremental sparse matrix decomposition with hierarchical fusion to robustly identify and combine the voxels that correspond to single/multiple subjects. Numerous experiments demonstrate the superior performance of VPS over a state-of-the-art method. On average, VPS improves 82.2% on the precision of skin-region detection; 595.5% on the Pearson correlation, and 542.2% on Bland-Altman agreement of instant pulse rate. ANOVA shows that in all-round evaluations, the improvements of VPS are significant. The proposed method is the first method that uses pulse to robustly detect alive subjects in realistic scenarios, which can be favorably applied for healthcare monitoring. PMID:26186760

  8. Pre-sleep behaviour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Lemmens; Parkes

    1995-12-01

    Behaviour in the 2-h period before sleep onset was evaluated in 90 subjects with normal sleep/wake habits using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. This determined the timing of events from the initial preparation for sleep. The nature of the pre-sleep environment, the level of physical activity, and patterns of feeding behaviour were recorded together with self-ratings of tiredness, mood and security. Estimated sleep duration and sleep quality were determined. Ninety of 120 subjects responded. Sleep 'preparatory latency', from the time of initial sleep preparation to sleep onset, was 77 +/- 48 min; bed time to sleep onset time (sleep latency) was 41 +/- 42 min; lights out to sleep onset latency was 26 +/- 45 min. The estimated total sleep time was 7 +/- 1 h. In the pre-sleep period, mean noise and illumination levels were low and environmental temperature rating was at the median point on a very cold-very hot scale (mean scale scores: 23, 28 and 50, respectively). All subjects went to the bathroom before going to bed. Twenty-five percent of normal subjects had a snack or meal in the 2-h period before sleep onset. Sixty percentage recorded setting an alarm, 27% had a bath or shower, 23% checked door locks or windows and 49% read in bed. Nine percent of subjects slept with a cat on the bed. Humans, like other animal species, show a complex behavioural sequence in the 2-h period before falling asleep. A constant environment with limited metabolic activity may predispose to thermoregulatory changes prior to sleep onset. PMID:10607159

  9. Blood rheology effect of submaximal exercise on young subjects.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Aranda, Rafael; Gómez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays cardiac and metabolic diseases are a matter of concern. Exercise is a valid treatment and method of prevention for not only adults, but also young subjects. Physical activity causes transient blood rheology impairment in adults. However little is known about the effects of exercise on blood flow characteristics in young subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of a light aerobic exercise session on blood rheology in young subjects. Ten young subjects (aged 12-16 years) performed 1 hour of submaximal aerobic exercise (70% HRmax). Blood samples were drawn just before and after exercise. We determined blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, erythrocyte deformability and aggregability. No changes in blood viscosity (p > 0.05), erythrocyte aggregation (p > 0.05) and fibrinogen (p > 0.05) were observed. Hematocrit (p = 0.025) and plasma viscosity (p = 0.018) rose with exercise, while erythrocyte elongation index lowered (p < 0.001). Plasma volume slightly reduced which may explain the lack of changes in blood viscosity. The results of the present study indicate a similar hemorheological response to submaximal exercise in both young people and adults. PMID:23302596

  10. Impairment of cytomegalovirus and host balance in elderly subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Musiani, M; Zerbini, M; Zauli, D; Cometti, G; La Placa, M

    1988-01-01

    The titres of IgG antibody against "late antigens", "immediate early antigens", and "early antigens" induced by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and IgM antibody against "late antigens" induced by CMV were analysed in 67 geriatric subjects by immunocytochemical techniques. The titres obtained were compared with those of an adult control population. Significantly increased titres of IgG antibody against induced antigens and a significant increase in CMV reactivated infections occurred in the elderly compared with control subjects. These findings indicate that the CMV and host balance in the elderly is disturbed, leading to activation of the CMV latent carrier state that follows primary CMV infection. PMID:2842379

  11. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  15. Infants' perception of subjective contours from apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kanazawa, So; Okamura, Hiromi

    2008-01-01

    We examined infants' perception of subjective contours in Subjective-Contour-from-Apparent-Motion (SCAM) stimuli [e.g., Cicerone, C. M., Hoffman, D. D., Gowdy, P. D., & Kim, J. S. (1995). The perception of color from motion. Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 761-777] using the preferential looking technique. The SCAM stimulus is composed of random dots which are assigned two different colors. Circular region assigned one color moved apparently, keeping all dots' location unchanged. In the SCAM stimulus, adults can perceive subjective color spreading and subjective contours in apparent motion (http://c-faculty.chuo-u.ac.jp/ approximately ymasa/okamura/ibd_demo.html). In the present study, we conducted two experiments by using this type of SCAM stimulus. A total of thirty-six 3-8-month-olds participated. In experiment 1, we presented two stimuli to the infants side by side: a SCAM stimulus consisting of different luminance, and a non-SCAM stimulus consisting of isoluminance dots. The results indicated that the 5-8-month-olds showed preference for the SCAM stimuli. In experiments 2 and 3, we confirmed that the infants' preference for the SCAM stimulus was not generated by the local difference and local change made by luminance of dots but by the subjective contours. These results suggest that 5-8-month-olds were able to perceive subjective contours in the SCAM stimuli. PMID:17727955

  16. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training. PMID:26938648

  17. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness. PMID:21542199

  18. Teaching physics as a service subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, T. L.; Hayes, M.

    1986-07-01

    At South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education physics is taught over a wide range of courses. In addition to the more conventional courses found in science, technology and education faculties there is a physics input into areas such as beauty therapy, applied biology, catering, chiropody, dental technology, environmental health, food technology, hairdressing, human-movement studies, industrial design, applied life sciences, marine technology, medical laboratory science, physiological measurement, nursing and speech therapy. Due to the fundamental differences in emphasis required when teaching physics as a 'minor' subject on these types of courses, and since the authors have no courses which lead to a 'major' physics qualification, it is necessary to develop a rational strategy for teaching physics as a 'service' subject. If this is not achieved then staff satisfaction and student interest are likely to suffer. They describe their strategy.

  19. Breathing pattern during exercise in myopathic subjects.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Russo, A K; Piçarro, I C; Tarasantchi, J; Schmidt, B; Gabbai, A; Oliveira, A S

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have described a neurogenic-induced ventilatory tachypneic response during exercise. The present paper compares the breathing pattern of control and myopathic human subjects submitted to exercise. Peripheral neurogenic stimuli (PNS) at the same level of oxygen consumption should be enhanced in myopathic subjects as a consequence of muscular mass loss. Myopathic individuals showed hyperventilation (increased VeO2 and VeCO2) which was mostly due to higher respiratory frequency. The shorter respiratory cycle was due chiefly to Te reduction, since the Ti/TTOT ratio was greater in the myopathic individuals for a VO2 of 1 L. These results are in agreement with previous studies in anesthetized dogs and in unanesthetized humans in which a tachypneic mechanism associated to the relative work load was observed. These results also suggest that PNS may have a facilitatory effect upon the inspiratory off switch mechanism. PMID:3452445

  20. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M. Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient’s response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper’s main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques—including Jackson’s Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)—relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software’s usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training. PMID:26938648

  1. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  2. Development of a subjective refraction simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perches, S.; Ares, J.; Collados, M. V.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed simulation software by Matlab (MathworksInc.) with a graphical interface designed for non-expert users. This simulator allows you to complete the process of subjective refraction starting from the aberrometry of the patients and analyse the influence of different factors during the exam. In addition to explain the graphical interface and its working, we show two examples about a complete process of subjective refraction with the influence of high order aberrations and without them showing the retinal image obtained in each step of the refraction process. When the Jackson Cross-Cylinder technique is made with this software, it becomes clear the difficulty of chosen between two images when high order aberrations are present. Therefore, the variability of response during the refraction can be a problem when the examiner has to reach an adequate optical prescription.

  3. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent. PMID:27587443

  4. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects.

  5. Subjective Response to Alcohol and ADH Polymorphisms in a Select Sample of Young Adult Male East Indians and Africans in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Montane Jaime, Lazara Karelia; Shafe, Samuel; Liang, Tiebing; Wills, Derek N; Berg, Greta I; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Level of response to alcohol has been associated with risk of alcohol dependence in a number of ethnic groups. In the present study, subjective and objective responses to alcohol were evaluated in Indo-Trinidadians (Indo-T) and Afro-Trinidadians (Afro-T). Associations of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms with response to alcohol, using the Subjective High Assessment Scale (SHAS), and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) were tested. Method: Regular male drinkers without alcohol dependence (n = 112) ages 18–25 years participated in alcohol challenge sessions consisting of placebo and two doses of alcohol (target BrAC: 0 g/dl for placebo, .04 g/dl low dose, and .08 g/dl high dose) and genotyped for variants in ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2. Results: Indo-T had significantly higher BrAC, pulse rates, and cortisol levels when compared with Afro-T but did not have significantly higher SHAS values. Higher responses on the SHAS items muddle/confused and nauseated were significantly associated with the presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele following the high dose of alcohol in Afro-T. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele displayed significantly different Drug × Time interactions for the SHAS item effects of alcohol at the low dose and for the SHAS items clumsy, muddle/confused, effects of alcohol, floating, drunk, and total at the high dose from Indo-T with two ADH1C*1 alleles. Conclusions: This is the first study that has investigated individual sensitivity to alcohol in a Caribbean population and in people of East Indian descent. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele may be at higher risk for heavy drinking by feeling less of the effects of alcohol, including nausea. In Afro-T, having at least one ADH1B*3 allele appears to exert a protective effect by enhancing the unpleasant effects of alcohol, such as nausea and confusion. PMID:25208201

  6. The pupillary light reflex in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, C J

    1981-01-01

    In 19 normal subjects the pupillary reflex to light was studied over a range of stimulus intensities by infrared electronic pupillography and analysed by a computer technique. Increasing stimulus intensity was associated with an increase in direct light reflex amplitude and maximum rate of constriction and redilatation. Latency from stimulus to onset of response-decreased with increasing stimulus intensity. The normal range for each of these parameters is given and the significance of these results in clinical pupillary assessment discussed. PMID:7326222

  7. Subjective alertness rhythms in elderly people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of subjective alertness and to explore the circadian mechanisms underlying such changes. Using a visual analogue scale (VAS) instrument, 25 older men and women (71 y and older; 15 female, 10 male) rated their subjective alertness about 7 times per day during 5 baseline days of temporal isolation during which habitual bedtimes and waketimes were enforced. Comparisons were made with 13 middle-aged men (37-52 y) experiencing the same protocol. Advancing age (particularly in the men) resulted in less rhythmic alertness patterns, as indicated by lower amplitudes and less reliability of fitted 24-h sinusoids. This appeared in spite of the absence of any reliable age-related diminution in circadian temperature rhythm amplitude, thus suggesting the effect was not due to SCN weakness per se, but to weakened transduction of SCN output. In a further experiment, involving 36 h of constant wakeful bedrest, differences in the amplitude of the alertness rhythm were observed between 9 older men (79 y+), 7 older women (79 y+), and 17 young controls (9 males, 8 females, 19-28 y) suggesting that with advancing age (particularly in men) there is less rhythmic input into subjective alertness from the endogenous circadian pacemaker. These results may explain some of the nocturnal insomnia and daytime hypersomnia that afflict many elderly people.

  8. Subjective loudness response to simulated sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of laboratory studies were conducted at LaRC to: (1) quantify the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness; (2) evaluate candidate loudness metrics; (3) quantify the effects of signature asymmetry on loudness; and (4) document sonic boom acceptability within the laboratory. A total of 212 test subjects evaluated a wide range of signatures using the NASA Langley Research Center's sonic boom simulator. Results indicated that signature shaping via front-shock minimization was particularly effective in reducing subjective loudness without requiring reductions in peak overpressure. Metric evaluations showed that A-weighted sound exposure level, Perceived Level (Stevens Mark 7), and Zwicker's Loudness level were effective descriptors of the loudness of symmetrical shaped signatures. The asymmetrical signatures were generally rated as being quieter than symmetrical signatures of equal calculated metric level. The magnitude of the loudness reductions were observed to increase as the degree of asymmetry increased and to be greatest when the rear half of the signature was loudest. This effect was not accounted for by the loudness metrics. Sonic boom acceptability criteria were determined within the laboratory. These agreed well with results previously obtained in more realistic situations.

  9. Mapping brain function in freely moving subjects

    PubMed Central

    Holschneider, Daniel P.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of many fundamental mammalian behaviors such as, for example, aggression, mating, foraging or social behaviors, depend on locomotor activity. A central dilemma in the functional neuroimaging of these behaviors has been the fact that conventional neuroimaging techniques generally rely on immobilization of the subject, which extinguishes all but the simplest activity. Ideally, imaging could occur in freely moving subjects, while presenting minimal interference with the subject’s natural behavior. Here we provide an overview of several approaches that have been undertaken in the past to achieve this aim in both tethered and freely moving animals, as well as in nonrestrained human subjects. Applications of specific radiotracers to single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography are discussed in which brain activation is imaged after completion of the behavioral task and capture of the tracer. Potential applications to clinical neuropsychiatry are discussed, as well as challenges inherent to constraint-free functional neuroimaging. Future applications of these methods promise to increase our understanding of the neural circuits underlying mammalian behavior in health and disease. PMID:15465134

  10. Children as research subjects: a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, L M

    2000-12-01

    A complex problem exists about how to promote the best interests of children as a group through research while protecting the rights and welfare of individual research subjects. The Nuremberg Code forbids studies without consent, eliminating most children as subjects, and the Declaration of Helsinki disallows non-therapeutic research on non-consenting subjects. Both codes are unreasonably restrictive. Another approach is represented by the Council for the International Organizations of Medical Science, the U.S. Federal Research Guidelines, and many other national policies. They allow research ethics committees or institutional review boards to authorize studies with acceptable balances of likely benefits and harms, but neither clarify how to balance them nor explain the meaning of pivotal concepts, like "minimal risk." Paths to the improvement of balancing or consequentialist approaches include (1) improving standardizing of risk assessment, (2) rejecting crude utilitarianism, (3) identifying and justifying normative or moral judgments, and (4) acknowledging extra-regulatory thresholds and deontological or non-negotiable duties to children. PMID:11262635

  11. Evaluation of the effect of food and gastric pH on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of cabozantinib in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh; Holland, Jaymes; Mamelok, Richard; Laberge, Marie-Kristine; Grenier, Julie; Swearingen, Dennis; Armas, Danielle; Lacy, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Cabozantinib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. Cabozantinib exhibits a pH-dependent solubility profile in vitro. Two phase 1 clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in healthy subjects to evaluate whether factors that may affect cabozantinib solubility and gastric pH could alter cabozantinib bioavailability: a food effect study (study 1) and a drug-drug interaction (DDI) study with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole (study 2). Following a high-fat meal (study 1), cabozantinib Cmax and AUC were increased (40.5% and 57%, respectively), and the median tmax was delayed by 2 hours. Cabozantinib should thus not be taken with food (patients should not eat for at least 2 hours before and at least 1 hour after administration). In the DDI study (study 2), the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) around the ratio of least-squares means of cabozantinib with esomeprazole versus cabozantinib alone for AUC0-inf were within the 80%-125% limits; the upper 90%CI for Cmax was 125.1%. Because of the low apparent risk of a DDI, concomitant use of PPIs or weaker gastric pH-altering agents with cabozantinib is not contraindicated. PMID:25907407

  12. The Effect of Intra- and Intergenerational Caregiving on Subjective Well-Being – Evidence of a Population Based Longitudinal Study among Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB) of the caregivers longitudinally. Methods Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations). SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB), positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner’s mother or partner’s father. Results Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women) and mental health (total sample and men), whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men) and cognitive well-being (women). Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed. PMID:26859511

  13. Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Ryan T; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G; Straub, Stephen J; Sitler, Michael R

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN AND SETTING: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. SUBJECTS: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 +/- 2.5 years, height = 181.0 +/- 5.8 cm, weight = 90 +/- 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). MEASUREMENTS: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r =.53, P <.01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r (2) =.58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r (2) =.48). Also, the spinal canal (r (2) =.66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r (2) =.23). CONCLUSIONS: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC

  14. Hybrid Processing of Measurable and Subjective Data

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J. ARLIN; ROGINSKI, ROBERT J.

    2001-10-01

    Conventional systems surety analysis is basically restricted to measurable or physical-model-derived data. However, most analyses, including high-consequence system surety analysis, must also utilize subjective information. In order to address this need, there has been considerable effort on analytically incorporating engineering judgment. For example, Dempster-Shafer theory establishes a framework in which frequentist probability and Bayesian incorporation of new data are subsets. Although Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer methodology both allow judgment, neither derives results that can indicate the relative amounts of subjective judgment and measurable data in the results. The methodology described in this report addresses these problems through a hybrid-mathematics-based process that allows tracking of the degree of subjective information in the output, thereby providing more informative (as well as more appropriate) results. In addition, most high consequence systems offer difficult-to-analyze situations. For example, in the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear weapons program, the probability that a weapon responds safely when exposed to an abnormal environment (e.g., lightning, crush, metal-melting temperatures) must be assured to meet a specific requirement. There are also non-probabilistic DOE and DoD requirements (e.g., for determining the adequacy of positive measures). The type of processing required for these and similar situations transcends conventional probabilistic and human factors methodology. The results described herein address these situations by efficiently utilizing subjective and objective information in a hybrid mathematical structure in order to directly apply to the surety assessment of high consequence systems. The results can also improve the quality of the information currently provided to decision-makers. To this end, objective inputs are processed in a conventional manner; while subjective inputs are derived from the combined engineering

  15. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  16. Index to 35mm Educational Filmstrips. Fourth Edition. Volume II. Subject Heading Outline, Index to Subject Headings, Subject Guide, Producer/Distributor Code Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Comprising the second volume of the index to 35mm educational filmstrips, this subject guide and directory of producers-distributors lists filmstrips appearing in the alphabetical index (Volume I). The subject guide lists filmstrips by categories and subcategories, and a subject headings outline and index to subject headings made the categories…

  17. Causes of dissociation between subjective workload measures and performance - Caveats for the use of subjective assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Wickens, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Dissociations between subjective workload assessments and performance were investigated. The difficulty of a Sternberg memory search task was manipulated by varying stimulus presentation rate, stimulus discernibility, value of good performance, and automaticity of performance. All Sternberg task conditions were performed both alone and concurrently with a tracking task. Bipolar subjective workload assessments were collected. Dissociations between workload and performance were found related to automaticity, presentation rate, and motivation level. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that the specific cognitive processes responsible for subjective assessments can differ from those responsible for performance. The potential contamination these dissociations could inflict on operational workload assessments is discussed.

  18. The subjective importance of noise spectral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.

  19. Unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of pain.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini; Salins, Naveen; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient's felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors' review of literature on perspectives of 'unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain" to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed. PMID:23766590

  20. [Body and subjectivity: about anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Pereña Garcia, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    To start with the clinical description of anorexia nervosa is indicative of the difficulty involved not only with regard to its etiology (whether it is an endocrine, neurological or psychological disorder) but also with regard to its diagnosis (whether or not it is a hysterical disorder, whether or not it is a disease as such) and with regard to its treatment (the stubbornness of the symptom). The early-onset differential criterion is rejection. The subject's eating-related problem must be placed within the framework of the radical dependency the human organism has with regard to the mother's body, thus breaking the close connection between need and demand, which throws the instinctive life out of balance. Drive is the name given to this imbalance. Drived life must be controlled by wish. The transmitting of life is the transmitting of the innermost wish to live, without which the body fails or life and the body separate from one another. Rejection, which is the subjectivity-related aspect, then turns into anorexia in rejection of the body and in submission to bewildering ideals with which anorexic subjects attempt to find their bearings. Bulimia marks the most addictive aspect of impulsive imbalance. There is no ready answer to the question as to why anorexia occurs more among females than males. Female sexuality (the relationship with sexual wish and reproduction), as well as how in a aboundance society, women symbolize the trimming on the cake, an inert virtual figure. Anorexia nervosa can be taken as a pronouncement against an automated, devitalized family life and of a society characterized by commodity fetishism and cannibalism. PMID:18274356

  1. On the emergence of the subject.

    PubMed

    Zittoun, Tania

    2012-09-01

    The paper retraces the elaboration of a model that accounts for the emergence of subjectivity-the possibility to distance self from others and oneself-if we consider people as always taken in social and cultural streams of meaning and tensions. It builds a model considering first, human experience as possible when a person takes distance from the here-and-now. Second, it suggests considering two general semiotic streams that feed in, or support, that distancing-social and cultural discourses, and personal experience. Third, a knitting model suggests the constant creation of personal patters out of these two streams. Fourth, a dynamic, star-like model is proposed to account for the actual and constant emergence of subjectivity out of such social and cultural configurations. The model is constituted by a 2, 3 or N-number of eight-shaped crossing loops, resulting in a star-like model situated in a 3 dimensional space. The proposition is to analyze a person in a specific situation: the attractors enabling these loops, or end-points of the star, are the relevant social and cultural elements: others with whom he or she interacts, specific bodies of shared knowledge, social representations, cultural elements and tools, and so on. In each situation, the relative strength of these elements, or the tension they generate, are negotiated by the person; the unique ways of dealing with that situation and inviting solutions can thus be seen as the emergent subjectivity. The model is explored to account for developmental dynamics at various scales in the lifecourse. Finally, the pragmatic interest of a model emphasizing complex configurations, not simple causalities, is recalled. PMID:22660947

  2. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  3. Subjective wellbeing: a primer for poverty analysts

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the current theory and measurement of subjective wellbeing (SWB). The first two sections discuss growing efforts in many countries to measure and monitor national wellbeing, particularly in the United Kingdom. The third and fourth sections discuss the novelty and controversies about SWB research. It concludes that a critical approach is essential in evaluating SWB research but dismissing it offhand or framing it as antithetical to objective wellbeing is misconceived. The pressing issue for poverty research and public policy is to determine which insights about SWB are worth using, and how much space within conceptions of wellbeing used in public policy should be given to SWB. PMID:24382984

  4. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    PubMed

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition. PMID:26838589

  5. Inattention, impulsive action, and subjective response to d-amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Background Both impulsivity and sensitivity to the rewarding effects of drugs have long been considered risk factors for drug abuse. There is some preclinical evidence to suggest that the two are related; however, there is little information about how specific behavioral components of impulsivity are related to the acute euphorigenic effects of drugs in humans. The aim of the current study was to examine the degree to which both inattention and impulsive action predicted subjective response to amphetamine. Methods Healthy adults (n=165) performed the behavioral tasks and rated their subjective response to amphetamine (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg). Inattention was assessed as attention lapses on a simple reaction time task, and impulsive action was measured by stop RT on the stop task. Subjective response to amphetamine was assessed with the Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed significant negative associations between attention lapses and subjective response to amphetamine on DEQ measures. By contrast, stop RT was positively associated with responses on both DEQ and POMS measures. Additionally, a dose-response relationship was observed, such that the strength of these associations increased with higher doses of amphetamine. Conclusions These findings suggest that inattention is associated with less subjective response to amphetamine. By contrast, the heightened sensitivity to stimulant drug reward observed in individuals high in impulsive action suggests that this might be one mechanism contributing to increased risk for stimulant drug abuse in these individuals. PMID:23790566

  6. Serum calcitriol concentrations measured with a new direct automated assay in a large population of adult healthy subjects and in various clinical situations.

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne; Delanaye, Pierre; Massart, Catherine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cormier, Catherine; Borderie, Didier; Benachi, Alexandra; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of calcitriol [1,25(OH2)D], is important for the differential diagnosis of several disorders of calcium/phosphorus metabolism but is time-consuming and tricky. We measured serum calcitriol with a new automated direct assay on the Liaison XL platform in 888 healthy French Caucasian subjects aged 18-89 years, 32 patients with a surgically-proven PHPT, 32 pregnant women at the end of the first and at the end of the third trimester, and 24 dialysis patients before and after one year of supplementation with vitamin D3 or placebo. The mean calcitriol concentration (±SD) in the healthy population was 52.9±14.5 ng/L with a 95% CI interval of 29-83.6 ng/L. In PHPT patients, calcitriol concentration was 81.6±29.0 ng/L, 15 of them (46.9%) having a concentration >83.6 ng/L. In pregnant women, calcitriol was 80.4±26.4 ng/L at the end of the first trimester, and 113.1±33.0 ng/L at the end of the third trimester, 12 (37.5%) and 26 (81.3%) of them having a calcitriol concentration >83.6 ng/L at the first and third trimesters respectively. In 14 dialysis patients, calcitriol was 9.5±7.7 ng/L and rose to 19.3 ng/L after one year of supplementation with 50,000 IU vitamin D3/month. In 10 other dialysis patients, calcitriol was 9.9±2.9 ng/L and remained stable (12.4±3.7 ng/L) after one year of placebo. In conclusion, this new automated calcitriol assay, in addition to presenting excellent analytical performances, gives the expected variations in patients compared to "normal" values obtained in an extensive reference population. PMID:26409159

  7. Autism spectrum disorders in institutionalized subjects.

    PubMed

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Saury, Jean-Michel; Råstam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    What do we know about the prevalence and the specific features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among subjects in forensic psychiatry and special youth centres? A clinical case series consisting of 42 subjects with ASD, recruited from three well-characterized populations in forensic psychiatry and special youth care, was used to determine: 1) the prevalence of ASD in these institutions (at least 13%), 2) the distribution of diagnostic criteria in this special population (mostly social interaction and communication problems, few or atypical flexibility problems), 3) the degree of comorbidity (the rule rather than the exception), 4) neuropsychological test profiles (lowered IQ with uneven profiles), 5) types of crimes and offences (very heterogeneous, often stress-related with dissociated features), 6) mental health care needs (high), and 7) special clinical features (especially expressions of flexibility deficits in non-classical areas and proneness to dissociation). This descriptive study indicates that ASD is a clinically relevant problem among forensic populations that has to be considered in diagnostics, assessments of needs and treatment planning. PMID:18569781

  8. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  9. Subjective Cognitive Decline: Self and Informant Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kewei; Locke, Dona E.C.; Lee, Wendy; Roontiva, Auttawut; Bandy, Dan; Fleisher, Adam S.; Reiman, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether self or informant-based subjective cognition better distinguishes emotional factors from early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods 447 healthy members of the Arizona Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Cohort and their informants completed both the self and informant paired Multidimensional Assessment of Neurodegenerative Symptoms questionnaire (MANS). Results 30.6% of members and 26.2% of informants endorsed decline on the MANS. Both self and informant-based decliners had higher scores of psychological distress and slightly lower cognitive scores than nondecliners. Over the next 6.7 years, 20 developed mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Converters were older at entry than nonconverters (63.8[7.0] vs 58.8[7.3] years, p=.003), 85% were APOE e4 carriers (p<.0001), and they self-endorsed decline earlier than informants (58.9[39.2] vs 28.0[40.4] months before MCI; p=.002). Conclusions Both self and informant based subjective decline correlated with greater psychological distress, and slightly lower cognitive performance. Those with incident MCI generally self-endorsed decline earlier than informants. PMID:23562429

  10. Extensible Ontological Modeling Framefork for Subject Mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, L. A.; Skvortsov, N. A.

    An approach for extensible ontological model construction in a mediation environment intended for heterogeneous information sources integration in various subject domains is presented. A mediator ontological language (MOL) may depend on a subject domain and is to be defined at the mediator consolidation phase. On the other hand, for different information sources different ontological models (languages) can be used to define their own ontologies. Reversible mapping of the source ontological models into MOL is needed for information sources registration at the mediator. An approach for such reversible mapping is demonstrated for a class of the Web information sources. It is assumed that such sources apply the DAML+OIL ontological model. A subset of the hybrid object-oriented and semi-structured canonical mediator data model is used for the core of MOL. Construction of a reversible mapping of DAML+OIL into an extension of the core of MOL is presented in the paper. Such mapping is a necessary pre-requisite for contextualizing and registration of information sources at the mediator. The mapping shows how extensible MOL can be constructed. The approach proposed is oriented on digital libraries where retrieval is focused on information content, rather than on information entities.

  11. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1978-12-01

    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson. PMID:739097

  12. The analyst's subjectivity and the analyst's objectivity.

    PubMed

    Renik, O

    1998-06-01

    The author suggests that, increasingly, contemporary psychoanalysts have been acknowledging and examining the intersubjectivity of the clinical encounter and that this trend has sometimes been misunderstood as necessitating the conclusion that objectivity is impossible to achieve in clinical psychoanalysis. In contrast to this, the author proposes a pragmatic definition of the analyst's objectivity that is entirely consistent with acceptance of the analyst's irreducible subjectivity, and illustrates his view by means of a clinical example. He suggests that objectivity concerns both objects and objectives, and indicates that a pragmatic conception of objectivity is employed throughout modern science. He explains why he regards psychoanalysis as a science, rather than as a hermeneutic discipline. He takes up the way in which implicit positivist assumptions can disadvantageously influence our thinking about the relation between an analyst's subjectivity and an analyst's objectivity. Finally, he discusses the important role of consensus in objectivity generally and in psychoanalytic objectivity particularly, as well as some of the differences that exist among analysts with regard to the specific objectives that take priority in clinical work. PMID:9717097

  13. An adolescent's subjective experiences of mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Dellbridge, Carey-Ann; Lubbe, Carien

    2009-12-01

    An adolescent's subjective experiences of mindfulness were explored in a single case study of a 17-year-old female. Data were created by means of 'mindfulness sessions', unstructured interviews, creative expression, journals and field notes. The data were analysed and interpreted using a combination of typological and interpretive analysis strategies. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework of mindfulness derived by the main author from the literature review. Five themes emerged from the data in relation to the conceptual framework applied, namely present-centered awareness and attention, attitude and heart qualities, self-regulation, universalism and mindlessness. Overall findings suggest firstly that the participant subjectively experienced mindfulness as being predominantly task-oriented. Secondly, it appears that the participant experienced personal growth and development in terms of her understanding and practice of mindfulness. These findings could make a potential contribution towards qualitative research on mindfulness, and research on how mindfulness could possibly apply to an adolescent. Studies have shown mindfulness to be a potentially promising intervention and quality to be cultivated in the development of well-being. The study is thus significant in the context of positive psychology and a move towards more holistic health and well-being. PMID:25865726

  14. Subjective evidence based ethnography: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saadi; Le Bellu, Sophie; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators' gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed "how" of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques. PMID:25579747

  15. Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, K. T.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Das, H.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with space motion sickness in astronauts. Side effects of PMZ include sedation, dizziness and cognitive performance impairment. In this study, we examined pharmacodynamics (PD) in human subjects and validated methods for evaluating cognitive performance effects of medications in space. METHODS: PMZ (12.5,25, and 50 mg) or placebo was administered by IM injection to human subjects in a randomized double-blind treatment design. Samples and data were collected for 72 h post dose. PD evaluation was performed using a battery of performance tests administered using WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) on a laptop computer, and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) on a PDA, plasma concentrations of PMZ were measured using a LC-MS method. RESULTS: Results indicate a linear correlation between PMZ concentration and cognitive performance parameters (p<0.01). Test accuracy decreased and test completion time and response time increased significantly with increasing plasma PMZ concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a concentration dependent decrement in cognitive performance associated with PMZ. WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive tools for the assessment PMZ PD and may be applicable for such evaluations with other neurocognitive drugs.

  16. A Discourse of Disconnect: Young People from the Eastern Cape Talk about the Failure of Adult Communications to Provide Habitable Sexual Subject Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Face-to-face adult communication with young people about sexuality is, for the most part, assigned to two main groups of people: educators tasked with teaching school-based sexuality education that is provided as part of the compulsory Life Orientation (LO) learning area, and parents. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with Further…

  17. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  18. The paradox of better subjective oral health in older age.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E

    2011-11-01

    We analyzed data from the 2004-06 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health to investigate the paradoxical relationship of better subjective oral health in older adults compared with young or middle-aged adults. In interviews with 14,092 adults, prevalence of problems with eating or appearance was not significantly associated with age among dentate people with no denture(s). In contrast, among dentate denture-wearers, prevalence ranged from 18.7% in ≥ 65-year-olds to 46.7% in 25- to 34-year-olds (p < 0.01). Dentate interviewees (n = 3,724) underwent oral epidemiological examinations and completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, evaluating adverse impacts of oral conditions. In multivariable analysis, mean OHIP-14 scores were only weakly associated with age among people who had none of 5 clinical conditions [≥ 5 missing teeth, denture(s), untreated decay, moderate/severe periodontitis, toothache]. However, for people with ≥ 2 clinical conditions, there was a three-fold, inverse association between age and mean OHIP-14 scores (p < 0.01). The findings show that experience of oral disease is more deleterious to subjective oral health when it occurs early in adulthood than when it occurs in old age, a pattern that likely reflects high expectations of young generations and, conversely, great resilience in Australia's oldest generation. PMID:21917599

  19. Rheumatic pains of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Rajala, U; Uusimäki, A; Kivelä, S L

    1995-01-01

    To identify the early diabetic musculoskeletal symptoms of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects, a case-control study was carried out. The cases and controls were recruited from a population aged 55 years. Questions concerning the symptoms were asked before the 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). The results show that pain in the right hand was the most prominent symptom among the diabetic women. Pains in the left hand and the shoulders in the diabetic women and pains in the right knee and the right hip joint in the diabetic men tended to be more prevalent than the corresponding symptoms in the controls. The highest prevalence of most musculoskeletal pains occurred in the highest tertile of 2-h OGTT values among women. The conclusion is that the hand pain is closely associated with the development of diabetes and may give clues to an early diagnosis of diabetes in a middle-aged population. PMID:7481588

  20. Transcranial cerebral oximetry in random normal subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Mukesh; Stark, Jennifer; Dujovny, Manuel; Alp, M. Serdar; Widman, Ronald; Ausman, James I.

    1997-08-01

    Near infrared optical spectroscopy is becoming a useful method for monitoring regional cerebral oxygenation status. The method is simple, reliable and noninvasive and the information which it provides is clinically significant in managing a growing number of neurological ailments. Use of this technique has been described previously by numerous authors. In the present study, regional cerebral oxygen saturation was measured at rest in 94 subjects randomly elected from a diverse population of individuals. This sample consisted of 38 males and 65 females, with the age ranging from 18 - 70. There were 68 light-skinned individuals and 35 with darker skin comprising various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation was recorded as 67.14 plus or minus 8.84%. The association of the mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation in various group of individuals in relationship of their age, race, sex and skin color is examined.

  1. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  2. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  3. Radiologists: The Unsuspecting Subject Matter Experts.

    PubMed

    McGann, Camille; Miaullis, Aaron; Page, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The social and political climates are changing rapidly in the United States and the world at large. The threat of a chemical, biologic, radiologic, and/or nuclear event is a rising concern to many. The current Ebola crisis has shed light on health care providers' preparedness for such an event. Radiologists, including radiation oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and all radiology subspecialists are considered "subject matter experts" in this area and are likely to be called upon in response to a radiation incident. Although others, such as radiation safety officers, provide important expertise, the clinical leadership will be the responsibility of physicians and other health care providers. However, many radiologists are unaware that they are considered subject matter experts who may be called on to assist, should their local hospital's emergency department need to take care of casualties from a radiation incident. A mass-casualty situation with hundreds of patients would require the immediate assistance of all available medical providers. Radiologists are primed and positioned to take the lead in ensuring preparedness of their local hospital and community, through emergency planning for a radiologic incident, given their combined medical and radiation physics knowledge. Therefore, increasing the skills of radiologists first is the more prudent approach in such planning. This preparation can be done through understanding of the critical components of such scenarios: the threat, types of radiation incidents, contamination, detection, decontamination, and acute radiation syndrome and its treatment. Once the necessary knowledge supplementation has been completed, radiologists can participate in educating their fellow medical colleagues and health care staff, and assist in the radiation-related aspects of an "all hazards" emergency department response, decreasing "radiophobia" in the process. PMID:25890886

  4. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Kunliang; Lu, Xuehui; Zhang, Riping; Wang, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82 ± 1.34 mmHg and 9.64 ± 1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (r = −0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p ≤ 0.015), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r = 0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p < 0.001), but not with axial length/refraction, corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. PMID:27525109

  5. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kozacz, Agnieszka; Grunt, Paulina; Steczkowska, Marta; Mikulski, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Jan; Górecka, Monika; Sanocka, Urszula; Ziemba, Andrzej Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < 0.0004). Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79 ± 23.65 versus 188.41 ± 15.84 mmol/L·min, P < 0.003 and 7563.27 ± 863.65 versus 4987.72 ± 583.88 mU/L·min, P < 0.03 resp.). Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69 ± 0.08 versus 0.30 ± 0.07 nmol/L, P < 0.0001, and NAmax—6.42 ± 0.86 versus 2.54 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.0002). It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action. PMID:24711817

  6. Comparison of Subjective Refraction under Binocular and Monocular Conditions in Myopic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Handa, Tomoya; Ando, Wakako; Kawamorita, Takushi; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-01-01

    To compare subjective refraction under binocular and monocular conditions, and to investigate the clinical factors affecting the difference in spherical refraction between the two conditions. We examined thirty eyes of 30 healthy subjects. Binocular and monocular refraction without cycloplegia was measured through circular polarizing lenses in both eyes, using the Landolt-C chart of the 3D visual function trainer-ORTe. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relations among several pairs of variables and the difference in spherical refraction in binocular and monocular conditions. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition (p < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were seen in subjective cylindrical refraction (p = 0.99). The explanatory variable relevant to the difference in spherical refraction between binocular and monocular conditions was the binocular spherical refraction (p = 0.032, partial regression coefficient B = 0.029) (adjusted R(2) = 0.230). No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition. Eyes with higher degrees of myopia are more predisposed to show the large difference in spherical refraction between these two conditions. PMID:26218972

  7. Comparison of Subjective Refraction under Binocular and Monocular Conditions in Myopic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Handa, Tomoya; Ando, Wakako; Kawamorita, Takushi; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-01-01

    To compare subjective refraction under binocular and monocular conditions, and to investigate the clinical factors affecting the difference in spherical refraction between the two conditions. We examined thirty eyes of 30 healthy subjects. Binocular and monocular refraction without cycloplegia was measured through circular polarizing lenses in both eyes, using the Landolt-C chart of the 3D visual function trainer-ORTe. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relations among several pairs of variables and the difference in spherical refraction in binocular and monocular conditions. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition (p < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were seen in subjective cylindrical refraction (p = 0.99). The explanatory variable relevant to the difference in spherical refraction between binocular and monocular conditions was the binocular spherical refraction (p = 0.032, partial regression coefficient B = 0.029) (adjusted R2 = 0.230). No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition. Eyes with higher degrees of myopia are more predisposed to show the large difference in spherical refraction between these two conditions. PMID:26218972

  8. Discovering and validating between-subject variations in plasma lipids in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Husna; Li, Bowen; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Soong, Richie; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wenk, Markus R.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid levels are commonly used in clinical settings as disease biomarkers, and the advent of mass spectrometry-based (MS) lipidomics heralds the possibility of identifying additional lipids that can inform disease predispositions. However, the degree of natural variation for many lipids remains poorly understood, thus confounding downstream investigations on whether a specific intervention is driving observed lipid fluctuations. Here, we performed targeted mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring across a comprehensive spectrum of 192 plasma lipids on eight subjects across three time-points separated by six hours and two standardized meals. A validation study to confirm the initial discoveries was performed in a further set of nine subjects, subject to the identical study design. Technical variation of the MS was assessed using duplicate measurements in the validation study, while biological variation was measured for lipid species with coefficients of variation <20%. We observed that eight lipid species from the phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine lipid classes were discovered and validated to vary consistently across the three time-points, where the within-subject variance can be up to 1.3-fold higher than between-subject variance. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the range of biological variation in plasma lipids as a precursor to their use in clinical biochemistry. PMID:26743939

  9. Discovering and validating between-subject variations in plasma lipids in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Begum, Husna; Li, Bowen; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Soong, Richie; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wenk, Markus R

    2016-01-01

    Lipid levels are commonly used in clinical settings as disease biomarkers, and the advent of mass spectrometry-based (MS) lipidomics heralds the possibility of identifying additional lipids that can inform disease predispositions. However, the degree of natural variation for many lipids remains poorly understood, thus confounding downstream investigations on whether a specific intervention is driving observed lipid fluctuations. Here, we performed targeted mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring across a comprehensive spectrum of 192 plasma lipids on eight subjects across three time-points separated by six hours and two standardized meals. A validation study to confirm the initial discoveries was performed in a further set of nine subjects, subject to the identical study design. Technical variation of the MS was assessed using duplicate measurements in the validation study, while biological variation was measured for lipid species with coefficients of variation <20%. We observed that eight lipid species from the phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine lipid classes were discovered and validated to vary consistently across the three time-points, where the within-subject variance can be up to 1.3-fold higher than between-subject variance. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the range of biological variation in plasma lipids as a precursor to their use in clinical biochemistry. PMID:26743939

  10. Cluster subtypes of the Spanish version of the California Verbal Learning Test in a sample of adults with subjective memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Campos-Magdaleno, María; Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Braña, Teresa; Pereiro, Arturo Xosé

    2014-01-01

    We examined subtypes of learning and memory by administering the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) to a sample of adults with memory complaints that included a subsample of healthy controls and another of participants with amnesic mild cognitive impairment. We performed two-stage cluster analyses for CVLT variables representing three main factors-General Verbal Learning, Inaccurate Memory, and Serial Effect. Four, three, and two reliable subtypes were differentiated in the total sample and in the two subsamples, respectively. Gender, age, education, reading habits, vocabulary, memory complaints, and general cognitive performance were meaningfully related to variability in the performance of the subtypes. PMID:24597836

  11. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050

  12. The Human Brain Encodes Event Frequencies While Forming Subjective Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    d’Acremont, Mathieu; Schultz, Wolfram; Bossaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make adaptive choices, humans need to estimate the probability of future events. Based on a Bayesian approach, it is assumed that probabilities are inferred by combining a priori, potentially subjective, knowledge with factual observations, but the precise neurobiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we study whether neural encoding centers on subjective posterior probabilities, and data merely lead to updates of posteriors, or whether objective data are encoded separately alongside subjective knowledge. During fMRI, young adults acquired prior knowledge regarding uncertain events, repeatedly observed evidence in the form of stimuli, and estimated event probabilities. Participants combined prior knowledge with factual evidence using Bayesian principles. Expected reward inferred from prior knowledge was encoded in striatum. BOLD response in specific nodes of the default mode network (angular gyri, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex) encoded the actual frequency of stimuli, unaffected by prior knowledge. In this network, activity increased with frequencies and thus reflected the accumulation of evidence. In contrast, Bayesian posterior probabilities, computed from prior knowledge and stimulus frequencies, were encoded in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Here activity increased for improbable events and thus signaled the violation of Bayesian predictions. Thus, subjective beliefs and stimulus frequencies were encoded in separate cortical regions. The advantage of such a separation is that objective evidence can be recombined with newly acquired knowledge when a reinterpretation of the evidence is called for. Overall this study reveals the coexistence in the brain of an experience-based system of inference and a knowledge-based system of inference. PMID:23804108

  13. Staffing, Status and Subject Knowledge: What Does the Construction of Citizenship as a New Curriculum Subject in England Tell Us about the Nature of School Subjects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Jeremy; Jerome, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Almost a decade ago, the new subject of citizenship was created in the English National Curriculum and several universities were funded to train teachers in this new subject. This presented a rare challenge, namely how to train people to teach a subject that did not exist in schools, and in which they were unlikely to have a specialist degree. In…

  14. Beyond the Masks. Race, Gender and Subjectivity. Critical Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mama, Amina

    This book explores the construction of subjectivity and advances a theoretical account of the processes through which subjectivities are constituted in the context of a two-fold study of black subjectivity. The first three chapters are devoted to the deconstruction of the black subject construed by scientific psychology, and the remainder is…

  15. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  16. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  17. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  18. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  19. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  20. Influence of Some Hypnotist and Subject Variables on Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Robert P.; Land, Jay M.

    1971-01-01

    As predicted, subjects run by the objectively warmer, more competent appearing hypnosis obtained significantly higher susceptibility scores. Structured warmth produced significant differences only in subjects run by the objectively less warm hypnotists. Both structured warmth and experience affected subjects' subjective impressions of whether they…

  1. Monitoring microvascular reactivity in dental subjects.

    PubMed

    Roth, G I; Matheny, J L; Gonty, A A; Paterson, R L

    1980-01-01

    to be studied are in human subjects where surgical intervention is unacceptable. For these reasons, previous studies of dimensional changes in the microcirculation, involving a variety of techniques (still photography, cinematography, television microscopy,(5) image-scanning,(6) image-shearing(7,8) and optical density measurements(9)), were almost always carried out in animals.In order to determine the effects of drugs and anesthetic gases on the peripheral microcirculation in human subjects undergoing dental treatment, we have employed a non-invasive photomicrographic method to measure planar dimensional changes in human nailfold capillaries. In this report we will describe this technique, its use in measuring microcirculatory changes in humans in a dental setting, and the results of a study undertaken to determine if it is sensitive enough to measure an induced change in vascular dimensions. PMID:6933869

  2. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  3. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  4. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Turkish subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erbagci, Hulya; Oren, Burak; Okumus, Seydi; Kenan, Serhat; Celemler, Pelin; Erbagci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT), measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), in healthy Turkish volunteers. Materials and methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, 57 eyes of 57 healthy Turkish subjects were enrolled. Each participant underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and peripapillary CT measurement using EDI-OCT. Results The mean age of the 25 female and 32 male patients in the study was 30.9±10.6 years (range, 18–56 years). The mean peripapillary CT at the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites was 225±57, 183±47, 220±57, and 233±59 μm, respectively. The inferior peripapillary CT value was significantly lower than the peripapillary CT values (P<0.001 for all), whereas no significant differences were found between the superior, nasal, and temporal peripapillary CT values. Conclusion The findings of the study revealed that Turkish people had significantly lower peripapillary CT values in the inferior quadrant than in the superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants. PMID:26257510

  5. Daytime intrusive thoughts and subjective insomnia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Louise D; Baldwin, David S; Garner, Matthew

    2015-10-30

    Insomnia is increasingly recognised as a 24h complaint that is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. However, the effects of insomnia symptoms on maladaptive daytime patterns of thinking are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between subjective insomnia symptoms, attentional control and negative thought intrusions during daytime in a large sample of undergraduates experiencing poor sleep. A total of 109 participants completed self-report measures of sleep quality, current sleepiness, anxiety and attentional control. A behavioural measure of intrusive thought required participants to control their attention during two focus periods separated by a 5min period of self-referential worry. Thought intrusions were sampled throughout the pre- and post-worry periods. Perceived insomnia severity was associated with the reduced ability to focus attention and uniquely associated with increased negative thought intrusions in the pre-worry period. These results support suggestions that acute episodes of poor sleep can dysregulate key networks involved in attentional control and emotion regulation, and that promote negative cognitive activity. PMID:26279126

  6. Proper name hypermnesia in an autistic subject.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Belleville, S; Stip, E

    1996-06-01

    The case study of an autistic "savant" subject with person names hypermnesia is presented. NM's performance in memorizing person names is compared to that of normal controls, IQ-matched controls, and one overtrained control. The data show a selective hypermnesia for both the free recall of person names and the recognition of faces. Recall of common names and of biographical informations linked to faces is unremarkable. NM's hypermnesia is restricted to list learning as low performance is observed in face-name learning tasks. A comparison of the data with that of the overtrained control indicates that training is not responsible for NM's pattern of results. These findings, when combined with previous results involving proper names, demonstrate a double dissociation between proper names and other types of semantic and referential information. However, aspects of NM's performance pattern are more compatible with a network model of proper names than with a sequential model. We propose that the contextual regularity of proper names in ecological situations can be responsible for their high memorization by NM. PMID:8798332

  7. Mouse Ability to Perceive Subjective Contours.

    PubMed

    Okuyama-Uchimura, Fumi; Komai, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    In contrast to the previously held notion that mice have a weak visual system, it is now generally accepted that mice can perceive rather complicated figures in various contexts such as in cognitive experiments and in social settings. Here, we show that mice could even be capable of perceiving a visual illusion--subjective contours. This illusion requires the visual system to compensate for a lack of visual information in compressed 2D images on the retina. In this experiment, we trained mice to respond appropriately to a rectangle-shaped rewarded figure of specific orientation in a two-choice visual discrimination task with a touchscreen monitor. In Transfer Test 1, mice could discriminate illusory rectangle-shaped figures significantly as compared with a figure, which did not induce illusory figures. In Transfer Test 2, the choice rate of targets decreased with imperfect illusory figures, which produced weak perception of rotated or deficient inducers. Moreover, in Transfer Test 3, mice could not discriminate the low-resolution illusory figure, which also induced weak perception. These results demonstrated the possibility that mice might be useful for investigating fundamental properties of the neural visual system. PMID:26562875

  8. Scene reduction for subjective image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska (Tomaszewska), Anna

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of image quality is important for many image processing systems, such as those used for acquisition, compression, restoration, enhancement, or reproduction. Its measurement is often accompanied by user studies, in which a group of observers rank or rate results of several algorithms. Such user studies, known as subjective image quality assessment experiments, can be very time consuming and do not guarantee conclusive results. This paper is intended to help design an efficient and rigorous quality assessment experiment. We propose a method of limiting the number of scenes that need to be tested, which can significantly reduce the experimental effort and still capture relevant scene-dependent effects. To achieve it, we employ a clustering technique and evaluate it on the basis of compactness and separation criteria. The correlation between the results obtained from a set of images in an initial database and the results received from reduced experiment are analyzed. Finally, we propose a procedure for reducing the initial scenes number. Four different assessment techniques were tested: single stimulus, double stimulus, forced choice, and similarity judgments. We conclude that in most cases, 9 to 12 judgments per evaluated algorithm for a large scene collection is sufficient to reduce the initial set of images.

  9. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Game, Edward T.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-12-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner.

  10. Religious involvement and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Ellison, C G

    1991-03-01

    This study examines the multifaceted relationships between religious involvement and subjective well-being. Findings suggest that the beneficent effects of religious attendance and private devotion reported in previous studies are primarily indirect, resulting from their respective roles in strengthening religious belief systems. The positive influence of religious certainty on well-being, however, is direct and substantial: individuals with strong religious faith report higher levels of life satisfaction, greater personal happiness, and fewer negative psychosocial consequences of traumatic life events. Further, in models of life satisfaction only, the positive influence of existential certainty is especially pronounced for older persons and persons with low levels of formal education. Finally, there are persistent denominational variations in life satisfaction, but not in happiness: nondenominational Protestants, liberal Protestants, and members of nontraditional groups such as Mormons and Jehovah's Witnesses report greater life satisfaction than do their unaffiliated counterparts, even with the effects of other dimensions of religiosity held constant. Several directions for additional research on religion and psychological well-being are discussed. PMID:2007763

  11. On Subject Variations in Achievement Motivations: A Study in Business Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; van der Loeff, Sybrand Schim; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2011-01-01

    Student achievement motivations are crucial in learning in two ways: as a determinant and an aim of learning. In this study, we focus on two related questions with regard to achievement motivations: to what extent are they subject-specific, and to what extent are they malleable? Answers to both questions are especially important when aiming to…

  12. Science K-12. Teacher Handbook. North Carolina Competency-Based Curriculum Subject-by-Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    An integrated competency-based course of study in the sciences is provided in the handbook for North Carolina teachers of grades K-12. Recommended goals, objectives, and suggested measures for each subject and skill area related to the sciences are outlined. This guide contains: (1) an introduction (defining North Carolina's basic educational…

  13. School Subjects, Subject Communities and Curriculum Change: The Social Construction of Economics in the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jephcote, Martin; Davies, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The place of economics in the curriculum in England and Wales provides a lens through which we may view the ways in which the curriculum as a whole is fought over and remains shifting terrain. Conceived of as social movements, school subject communities are made up of competing factions giving rise to contest and conflict both within themselves…

  14. Beta oscillatory responses in healthy subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Kurt, Pınar; Yener, Görsev Gülmen; Başar, Erol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of beta oscillatory responses upon cognitive load in healthy subjects and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The role of beta oscillations upon cognitive stimulation is least studied in comparison to other frequency bands. The study included 17 consecutive patients with MCI (mean age = 70.8 ± 5.6 years) according to Petersen's criteria, and 17 age- and education-matched normal elderly controls (mean age = 68.5 ± 5.5 years). The experiments used a visual oddball paradigm. EEG was recorded at 30 cortical locations. EEG-evoked power, inter-trial phase synchronization, and event-related beta responses filtered in 15-20 Hz were obtained in response to target and non-target stimuli for both groups of subjects. In healthy subjects, EEG-evoked beta power, inter-trial phase synchronization of beta responses and event-related filtered beta responses were significantly higher in responses to target than non-target stimuli (p < 0.05). In MCI patients, there were no differences in evoked beta power between target and non-target stimuli. Furthermore, upon presentation of visual oddball paradigm, occipital electrodes depict higher beta response in comparison to other electrode sites. The increased beta response upon presentation of target stimuli in healthy subjects implies that beta oscillations could shift the system to an attention state, and had important function in cognitive activity. This may, in future, open the way to consider beta activity as an important operator in brain cognitive processes. PMID:24179847

  15. [Obesity and dyslipidemia in Tunisian bipolar subjects].

    PubMed

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with lipid parameters in bipolar patients. Our study included 130 patients with bipolar disorder and 130 control subjects aged respectively 37.9 +/- 12.1 and 37.2 +/- 13.1 years. Obesity was evaluated by body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, cLDL and cHDL were determined by enzymatic methods and ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) by techniques immunoturbidimetric. The prevalence of obesity in patients is 30.1% vs 12.3% in controls. A significant increase in BMI was noted in patients compared with controls regardless of sex and tobacco status and in patients aged less than 35 years and those consumers of alcohol. The majority of obese and overweight patients are treated with valproic acid. We found increase in cholesterol (4.41 +/- 1.02 vs 3.90 +/- 0.98 mmol/L), in cLDL (2.13 +/- 1.09 vs 1.29 +/- 0.56 mmol/L) and in Lp(a) (236 +/- 207 vs 163 +/- 150 mg/L) and decrease in HDLc (0.98 +/- 0.28 vs 1.09 +/- 0.36 mmol/L), more frequent at the obese patients and those presenting an overweight. In conclusion, in bipolar patients, obesity and overweight are frequent and associated with perturbations in lipid profile particularly an increase in total cholesterol, cLDL and Lp(a) and decrease in cHDL that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20478770

  16. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin (<= 40 nm) lipids have significantly lower OST, and a larger OST drop range, potentially due to more evaporation. However, as long as the lipid layer is not thin (> 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  17. Repeatability, Reproducibility, and Comparability of Subjective and Objective Measurements of Intraocular Forward Scattering in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Ayaka; Shimizu, Kimiya; Kobashi, Hidenaga; Saito, Aya; Kamiya, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability, reproducibility, and comparability of measurements of subjective and objective forward scattering in healthy subjects. Methods. We prospectively examined twenty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (7 men and 13 women; ages, 28.4 ± 4.1 years). The logarithmic straylight value (log(s)) and the objective scattering index (OSI) were measured with a straylight meter (C-Quant) and a point-spread function meter (OQAS), respectively. Results. The 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between first and second measurements ranged from −0.211 to 0.207 for the C-Quant and from −0.302 to 0.477 for the OQAS. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the repeatability of the log(s) and OSI measurements were 0.815 and 0.926, respectively. The mean difference between examiners was −0.051 ± 0.133 (95% LoA; −0.311 to 0.209) for the C-Quant and 0.080 ± 0.307 (−0.522 to 0.682) for the OQAS. There was a modest, but significant, correlation between the log(s) and the OSI (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.498, p = 0.026). Conclusions. The C-Quant and the OQAS provide good repeatability and reproducibility, although the OQAS measurement provides a slightly higher ICC than the C-Quant measurement. The subjective forward scattering may be to some extent expressed in the objective forward scattering in healthy subjects. PMID:26176015

  18. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI) obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF) of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration) and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases). Inter-rater median (IQR) agreement was 91% (82-96). The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC) obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases). Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia. PMID:20222975

  19. Subjective Visual Vertical during Caloric Stimulation in Healthy Subjects: Implications to Research and Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Funabashi, Martha; Flores, Aline I; Vicentino, Amanda; Barros, Camila G C; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Leite, João P; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G

    2015-01-01

    Background. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is a perception often impaired in patients with neurologic disorders and is considered a sensitive tool to detect otolithic dysfunctions. However, it remains unclear whether the semicircular canals (SCCs) are also involved in the visual vertical perception. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of horizontal SCCs on SVV by caloric stimulation in healthy subjects. Methods. SVV was performed before and during the ice-cold caloric stimulation (4°C, right ear) in 30 healthy subjects. Results. The mean SVV tilts before and during the caloric stimulation were 0.31° ± 0.39 and -0.28° ± 0.40, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean SVV tilts before and during stimulation (p = 0.113). Conclusion. These results suggest that horizontal SCCs do not influence SVV. Therefore, investigations and rehabilitation approaches for SVV misperceptions should be focused on otolithic and cognitive strategies. PMID:26161271

  20. The subjective postural vertical in standing: reliability and normative data for healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jeannine; Kreuzpointner, Monica-Antoanela; Krewer, Carmen; Bardins, Stanislav; Schepermann, Andreas; Koenig, Eberhard; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Impaired verticality perception can cause falls, or even the inability to stand, due to lateropulsion or retropulsion. The internal estimate of verticality can be assessed through the subjective visual, haptic, or postural vertical (SPV). The SPV reflects impaired upright body orientation, but has primarily been assessed in sitting position. The internal representations of body orientation might be different between sitting and standing, mainly because of differences in somatosensory input for the estimation of SPV. To test the SPV during standing, we set up a paradigm using a device that allows movement in three dimensions (the Spacecurl). This study focused on the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of SPV measurements (n = 25) and provides normative values for the age range 20-79 years (n = 60; 10 healthy subjects per decade). The test-retest and interrater reliabilities for SPV measurements in standing subjects were good. The normality values ranged from -1.7° to 2.3° in the sagittal plane, and from -1.6° to 1.2° in the frontal plane. Minor alterations occurred with aging: SPV shifted backward with increasing age, and the variability of verticality estimates increased. Assessment of SPV in standing can be done with reliable results. SPV should next be used to test patients with an impaired sense of verticality, to determine its diagnostic value in comparison to established tools. PMID:25522832

  1. Accuracy and the Effect of Possible Subject-Based Confounders of Magnitude-Based MRI for Estimating Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction in Adults, Using MR Spectroscopy as Reference

    PubMed Central

    Heba, Elhamy R.; Desai, Ajinkya; Zand, Kevin A.; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Schlein, Alexandra N.; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.; Middleton, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy and the effect of possible subject-based confounders of magnitude-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for different numbers of echoes in adults with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, using MR spectroscopy (MRS) as a reference. Materials and Methods In this retrospective analysis of 506 adults, hepatic PDFF was estimated by unenhanced 3.0T MRI, using right-lobe MRS as reference. Regions of interest placed on source images and on six-echo parametric PDFF maps were colocalized to MRS voxel location. Accuracy using different numbers of echoes was assessed by regression and Bland–Altman analysis; slope, intercept, average bias, and R2 were calculated. The effect of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on hepatic PDFF accuracy was investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. Results MRI closely agreed with MRS for all tested methods. For three- to six-echo methods, slope, regression intercept, average bias, and R2 were 1.01–0.99, 0.11–0.62%, 0.24–0.56%, and 0.981–0.982, respectively. Slope was closest to unity for the five-echo method. The two-echo method was least accurate, underestimating PDFF by an average of 2.93%, compared to an average of 0.23–0.69% for the other methods. Statistically significant but clinically nonmeaningful effects on PDFF error were found for subject BMI (P range: 0.0016 to 0.0783), male sex (P range: 0.015 to 0.037), and no statistically significant effect was found for subject age (P range: 0.18–0.24). Conclusion Hepatic magnitude-based MRI PDFF estimates using three, four, five, and six echoes, and six-echo parametric maps are accurate compared to reference MRS values, and that accuracy is not meaningfully confounded by age, sex, or BMI. PMID:26201284

  2. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately. PMID:22024809

  3. Increased Bilateral Interactions in Middle-Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Heetkamp, Jolien; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Zijdewind, Inge

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of the age-related neural reorganization is that old versus young adults execute typical motor tasks by a more diffuse neural activation pattern including stronger ipsilateral activation during unilateral tasks. Whether such changes in neural activation are present already at middle age and affect bimanual interactions is unknown. We compared the amount of associated activity, i.e., muscle activity and force produced by the non-task hand and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by magnetic brain stimulation between young (mean 24 years, n = 10) and middle-aged (mean 50 years, n = 10) subjects during brief unilateral (seven levels of % maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs) and bilateral contractions (4 × 7 levels of % MVC combinations), and during a 120-s-long MVC of sustained unilateral index finger abduction. During the force production, the excitability of the ipsilateral (iM1) or contralateral primary motor cortex (cM1) was assessed. The associated activity in the “resting” hand was ~2-fold higher in middle-aged (28% of MVC) versus young adults (11% of MVC) during brief unilateral MVCs. After controlling for the background muscle activity, MEPs in iM1 were similar in the two groups during brief unilateral contractions. Only at low (bilateral) forces, MEPs evoked in cM1 were 30% higher in the middle-aged versus young adults. At the start of the sustained contraction, the associated activity was higher in the middle-aged versus young subjects and increased progressively in both groups (30 versus 15% MVC at 120 s, respectively). MEPs were greater at the start of the sustained contraction in middle-aged subjects but increased further during the contraction only in young adults. Under these experimental conditions, the data provide evidence for the reorganization of neural control of unilateral force production as early as age 50. Future studies will determine if the altered neural control of such inter-manual interactions are of

  4. Postprandial plasma retinyl ester response is greater in older subjects compared with younger subjects. Evidence for delayed plasma clearance of intestinal lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Krasinski, S D; Cohn, J S; Schaefer, E J; Russell, R M

    1990-01-01

    Postprandial vitamin A and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism was studied in 86 healthy men and women, aged 19-76 yr. Three independent experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, a supplement dose of vitamin A (3,000 retinol equivalents [RE]) was given without a meal to 59 subjects, aged 22-76 yr. In the second experiment, 20 RE/kg body wt was given with a fat-rich meal (1 g fat/kg body wt) to seven younger subjects (aged less than 50 yr) and seven older subjects (aged greater than or equal to 50 yr). In both experiments, postprandial plasma retinyl ester response increased significantly with advancing age (P less than 0.05). In the third experiment, retinyl ester-rich plasma was infused intravenously into nine young adult subjects (aged 18-30 yr) and nine elderly subjects (aged greater than or equal to 60 yr), and the rate of retinyl ester disappearance from plasma during the subsequent 3 h was determined. Mean (+/- SE) plasma retinyl ester residence time was 31 +/- 4 min in the young adult subjects vs. 57 +/- 8 min in the elderly subjects (P less than 0.05). These data are consistent with the concept that increased postprandial plasma retinyl ester concentrations in older subjects are due to delayed plasma clearance of retinyl esters in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of intestinal origin. PMID:2312731

  5. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  6. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  7. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  8. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  9. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  10. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  11. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  12. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  13. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  14. School Subject Preferences: Age and Gender Differences Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)

  15. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  16. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  17. 46 CFR 11.950 - Subjects for engineer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subjects for engineer endorsements. 11.950 Section 11.950 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Subjects of Examinations and Practical Demonstrations of Competence § 11.950 Subjects for engineer endorsements....

  18. Difficulties Regarding Subject Difficulties: Developing Reasonable Explanations for Observable Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, Carol Taylor; Vincent, Luke

    1997-01-01

    Responds to an article that questioned the authors' previous attempts to define "subject difficulty" and compare subjects based on their level of difficulty. Argues that "subject difficulty" is a reasonable term and is important to the interpretation of examination data. Questions arguments that only qualitative judgments of difficulty are…

  19. Let's Change the Subject: Focus Movement in Early Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Rosalind

    2002-01-01

    Reanalyzes what the literature has taken to be children's productions of Gen subjects and argues that Gen subjects do not exist in child English. Suggests that what look like Gen subjects appear only in specific discourse contexts: contexts of contrastive focus or contexts of emphatic focus. (Author/VWL)

  20. Subject Headings Listing for Small Instructional Materials Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Nancy

    Intended to facilitate the cataloging of both print and non-print materials in small instructional materials centers, where each item may require original cataloging, this system of subject headings enables the cataloger to find appropriate subject headings by referring to a single subject area listing of terms that have been specifically…

  1. 40 CFR 71.3 - Sources subject to permitting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... they are subject to 40 CFR part 60, subpart AAA—-Standards of Performance for New Residential Wood... because they are subject to 40 CFR part 61, subpart M—National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sources subject to...

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Leisure and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byunggook

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a conceptual framework for an individual's subjective perception of leisure that contributes to Subjective Well-Being (SWB). More specifically, this study was an attempt to examine causal relationships among social cognitive variables, subjective perception of leisure, and SWB. A survey was administered to…

  3. The Acquisition of Jamaican Creole: Null Subject Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisser, Tamirand Nnena; Durrleman, Stephanie; Rizzi, Luigi; Shlonsky, Ur

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the first systematic analysis of early subject omission in a creole language. Basing our analysis on a longitudinal corpus of natural production of Jamaican Creole (JC), we observe that early subject drop is robustly attested for several months. Early subject omission is basically confined to the clause initial position,…

  4. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  5. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  6. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  7. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  8. 7 CFR 1726.36 - Documents subject to RUS approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documents subject to RUS approval. 1726.36 Section... subject to RUS approval. Unless otherwise indicated, the borrower shall make all contracts and amendments that are subject to RUS approval effective only upon RUS approval....

  9. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  10. 25 CFR 173.15 - Permittee subject to State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permittee subject to State law. 173.15 Section 173.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND... subject to State law. The holder of any permit issued under this part shall be subject to and abide by...

  11. 25 CFR 173.15 - Permittee subject to State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permittee subject to State law. 173.15 Section 173.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND... subject to State law. The holder of any permit issued under this part shall be subject to and abide by...

  12. 25 CFR 173.15 - Permittee subject to State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permittee subject to State law. 173.15 Section 173.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND... subject to State law. The holder of any permit issued under this part shall be subject to and abide by...

  13. 25 CFR 173.15 - Permittee subject to State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Permittee subject to State law. 173.15 Section 173.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND... subject to State law. The holder of any permit issued under this part shall be subject to and abide by...

  14. 25 CFR 173.15 - Permittee subject to State law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permittee subject to State law. 173.15 Section 173.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND... subject to State law. The holder of any permit issued under this part shall be subject to and abide by...

  15. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  16. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  17. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  18. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  19. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following provision: Notice to Offerors of Requirements of 45 CFR Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects... protection of human subjects, 45 CFR Part 46, are available from the Office for Human Research Protections... directly regulated by 45 CFR Part 46. (c) Activities in which the only involvement of human subjects...

  5. 48 CFR 352.270-4 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following provision: Notice to Offerors of Requirements of 45 CFR Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects... protection of human subjects, 45 CFR Part 46, are available from the Office for Human Research Protections... directly regulated by 45 CFR Part 46. (c) Activities in which the only involvement of human subjects...

  6. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results showed that the…

  7. Being Online: Social Presence as Subjectivity in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehrwald, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between social presence and subjectivity in online learning environments. Drawing from views of subjectivity synthesised by de Sousa and an exploratory study into online social presence (by Kehrwald), the presentation identifies the links between various forms of subjectivity and the operation of social…

  8. 46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subjects for MODU endorsements. 11.920 Section 11.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Subjects of Examinations and Practical Demonstrations of Competence § 11.920 Subjects for MODU endorsements. Table...

  9. 46 CFR 11.910 - Subjects for deck officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subjects for deck officer endorsements. 11.910 Section 11.910 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Subjects of Examinations and Practical Demonstrations of Competence § 11.910 Subjects for deck officer...

  10. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  11. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  12. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  13. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  14. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Powerplant Curriculum Subjects D Appendix D... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Pt. 147, App. D Appendix D to Part 147—Powerplant Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Powerplant Curriculum Subjects D Appendix D... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Pt. 147, App. D Appendix D to Part 147—Powerplant Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at...

  17. A Value Analysis of Historically Significant Forms of Subject Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presno, Vincent

    The purpose of this paper is to articulate the relative meanings and values of various forms of subject matter. The paper first constructs a synthesizing definition of subject matter. All subject matter is conceptual in nature and is composed of words or statements concerning objects and events of the world which are to be taught and learned. The…

  18. Subjective Appraisal as a Feedback Tool. Technical Report 604.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Billy L.

    This report examines the accuracy of subjective appraisals of several aspects of task performance, including proficiency, difficulty, frequency, and criticality. An introduction discusses current Army use of subjective appraisal, feedback methods, and problems with subjective appraisal. Data pertaining to the accuracy of various types of appraisal…

  19. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  20. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  1. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  2. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  3. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  4. 46 CFR 148.450 - Cargoes subject to liquefaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargoes subject to liquefaction. 148.450 Section 148.450... liquefaction. (a) This section applies only to cargoes identified in Table 148.10 of this part with a reference... in this section— (1) Cargo subject to liquefaction means a material that is subject to...

  5. 46 CFR 148.450 - Cargoes subject to liquefaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargoes subject to liquefaction. 148.450 Section 148.450... liquefaction. (a) This section applies only to cargoes identified in Table 148.10 of this part with a reference... in this section— (1) Cargo subject to liquefaction means a material that is subject to...

  6. 46 CFR 148.450 - Cargoes subject to liquefaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargoes subject to liquefaction. 148.450 Section 148.450... liquefaction. (a) This section applies only to cargoes identified in Table 148.10 of this part with a reference... in this section— (1) Cargo subject to liquefaction means a material that is subject to...

  7. 46 CFR 148.450 - Cargoes subject to liquefaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargoes subject to liquefaction. 148.450 Section 148.450... liquefaction. (a) This section applies only to cargoes identified in Table 148.10 of this part with a reference... in this section— (1) Cargo subject to liquefaction means a material that is subject to...

  8. Subject Access to Serial Publications in Toronto Bank Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Steven Blake

    1991-01-01

    A survey of five major bank libraries revealed three distinct levels of subject access to serial publications: manually based systems with no formal subject access; computer-aided systems in which the sorting capabilities of computerized serials management are utilized to generate printed lists arranged by subject; and online catalogs with subject…

  9. Subject Leadership in Primary Schools--Towards Distributed Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on findings from the authors' PhD thesis looking at the role of Subject Leadership in primary schools. The study reports data collected from 20 subject leaders in 10 schools within 2 Local Education Authorities and sets the role of the subject leader within the context of a primary school, highlighting the varied complexities…

  10. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  11. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  12. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  13. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  14. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  15. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  16. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  17. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  18. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  19. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  20. Pharmacotherapy of Disruptive Behavior in Mentally Retarded Subjects: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Frank; Reis, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The review presented here describes the state of the art of pharmacological treatment of aggression in subjects with mental retardation (MR) summing up results for both, children and adults. In general, psychopharmacological treatment of disruptive behavior in individuals with MR is similar to the treatment in subjects without MR. Compared to…