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Sample records for adult subjects subjects

  1. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others.

  2. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-01-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior. PMID:27065759

  3. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  4. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  5. Morphological Uniformity and the Null Subject Parameter in Adult SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, William D.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the application of the Null Subject Parameter. Data reveals that some second-language learners exhibit knowledge that English is morphologically nonuniform yet still accept English null subject sentences. Findings disprove the Morphological Uniformity Hypothesis, indicating that any reformulation of the Null Subject Parameter must…

  6. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; DeCelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028

  7. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care. PMID:21194477

  8. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  9. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  10. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  11. Attachment, self-compassion, empathy, and subjective well-being among college students and community adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Shaffer, Phillip A

    2011-02-01

    Research on subjective well-being suggests that it is only partly a function of environmental circumstances. There may be a personality characteristic or a resilient disposition toward experiencing high levels of well-being even in unfavorable circumstances. Adult attachment may contribute to this resilient disposition. This study examined whether the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being was mediated by Neff's (2003a, 2003b) concept of self-compassion. It also examined empathy toward others as a mediator in the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being. In Study 1, 195 college students completed self-report surveys. In Study 2, 136 community adults provided a cross-validation of the results. As expected, across these 2 samples, findings suggested that self-compassion mediated the association between attachment anxiety and subjective well-being, and emotional empathy toward others mediated the association between attachment avoidance and subjective well-being.

  12. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  13. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  14. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  15. Subjective health literacy and older adults' assessment of direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads.

    PubMed

    An, Soontae; Muturi, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly the intended target of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug ads, but limited evidence exists as to how they assess the educational value of DTC ads and, more importantly, whether their assessment depends on their level of health literacy. In-person interviews of 170 older adults revealed that those with low subjective health literacy evaluated the educational value of DTC ads significantly lower than did those with high subjective health literacy. The results prompt us to pay more scholarly attention to determining how effectively DTC ads convey useful medical information, particularly to those with limited health literacy.

  16. Metabolite alterations in the hippocampus of high-functioning adult subjects with autism.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Sugihara, Genichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Isoda, Haruo; Sakahara, Harumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate metabolite alterations in the hippocampal formation as they relate to aggression in high-functioning adults with autism. We measured concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), and creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr) in the hippocampal formation by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 12 non-medicated male subjects with autism and 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Aggression was scored in the autistic subjects using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The concentrations of Cho and Cr+PCr in the hippocampal formation in autistic subjects were significantly higher than the corresponding values in control subjects, and a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentrations of these metabolites in the hippocampal formation and scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire in autistic subjects. Results suggest that high-functioning adult subjects with autism have abnormal metabolite concentrations in the hippocampal formation, which may in part account for their aggression.

  17. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  19. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  20. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  1. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  2. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  3. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  4. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  5. Objective and subjective quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorders in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, David; Alvarez, Rosa M; Lobatón, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-05-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective QoL measures. Outcome on objective QoL was extremely poor. Social networks were most frequently composed of family members. Community-oriented resources were absent in most cases. For two-thirds of the families, the ability to act as proxies for subjective QoL was seriously limited by the participants' poor social and communicative abilities. The results are indicative of the need for additional support to families of adults with ASD and increased community-based resources. Further conceptualization of indicators and measurement of subjective QoL in individuals with severe disabilities and ASD is also needed in order to include their own perspective in the evaluation of service provision.

  6. Is subjective hyperhidrosis assessment sufficient enough? prevalence of hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Idestal, Anette; Royton, Anders; Abi-Khalil, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults. Additionally, this work aimed at comparing the subjective and objective (gravimetric) method of hyperhidrosis assessment. Healthy medical students, volunteering to take part in this study, were included. The participants filled out a questionnaire assessing the occurrence and subjective intensity of hyperhidrosis in different areas of the body. Additionally, the students were subjected to gravimetric assessment in four localizations: the face, palms, axillae and abdomino-lumbar area. Two hundred and fifty-three students (102 males and 151 females, mean age 24.3 ± 3.21 years) were included in the study. Forty-two (16.7%) participants declared that they suffer from hyperhidrosis. Out of the 42 students declaring any type of hyperhidrosis, only 20 (47.6%) exceeded the gravimetric reference values. From among the students that exceeded the normative values for palmar hyperhidrosis, only 10 (55.6%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. In the group of students that exceeded the normative values for axillary hyperhidrosis, 16 (39%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. Subjectively declared hyperhidrosis incidence may significantly exceed the real-life occurrence of this disease. Basing studies solely on data gathered from questionnaires, may lead to false results. It is imperative, when assessing patients suffering from hyperhidrosis, to use both objective and subjective methods of evaluation.

  7. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions. PMID:22899923

  8. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p < 0.001). The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p = 0.020). No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance. Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality. PMID:27507944

  9. Subjective and Objective Cancer Screening Knowledge Among White- and Blue-Collar Chinese Midlife Adults.

    PubMed

    Hou, Su-I

    2016-08-26

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Chinese, yet little is known about cancer knowledge among this population. The study described the subjective and objective cancer screening knowledge among white- versus blue-collar Chinese midlife adults. A convenient sample of white-collar adults age 40+ years was recruited from government and academic agencies; and blue-collar adults age 40+ years were recruited from manufactory companies in Taiwan. An eight-item cancer screening knowledge test (CSKT) was used to measure objective knowledge and one five-point Likert scale item for assessing subjective (perceived) cancer screening knowledge. A total of 208 white- and 533 blue-collar workers completed the survey during 2008-2011. Mean ages between groups were comparable (41.1 versus 46.3 years), as well as family cancer history (41.5 %). About 76 % of the white-collar and 43 % of the blue-collar adults had college education. The mean score of the CSKT was lower in the blue-collar versus white-collar workers, 5.4 (SD = 1.76) versus 6.1 (SD = 1.40), indicating on average, 68 versus 76 % of the participants answered the cancer knowledge correctly. The subjective knowledge levels were, however, higher among the blue-collar workers (mean rating of 3.22 versus 2.78). The CSKT showed a good mix of relatively easy and moderately difficult items in both groups. Study showed that overall cancer screening knowledge was low among Chinese midlife adults. Although blue-collar workers scored lower on CSKT, the perceived knowledge level was higher. Results also suggest attention to communicating cancer screening information among Chinese blue-collar midlife workers in particular.

  10. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin plus sulbactam in healthy elderly and young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Rho, J P; Jones, A; Woo, M; Castle, S; Smith, K; Bawdon, R E; Norman, D C

    1989-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ampicillin and sulbactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, were evaluated in two different age groups. Twelve healthy elderly subjects (age 65-93 years) and 12 healthy young adult subjects (age 20-35 years) received both a dose of ampicillin 1 g plus sulbactam 0.5 g and a higher dose of ampicillin 2 g plus sulbactam 1 g after a one-week period between doses. A reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method was used for the quantitation of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and urine. The pharmacokinetic parameters for both ampicillin and sulbactam were calculated by computer-based two-compartment nonlinear model. After a 30-min infusion, serum concentrations of both drugs declined in a biexponential manner for both doses. Elderly subjects demonstrated significantly lower total clearances (Clt) than young adult subjects of ampicillin 1 g (220.0 +/- 104.2 vs 360.0 +/- 95.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), ampicillin 2 g (72.6 +/- 36.6 vs 306.8 +/- 109.77 ml/min/1.73 m2), sulbactam 0.5 g (122.3 +/- 47.8 vs 263.9 +/- 93.7 ml/min/1.73 m2), and sulbactam 1 g (171.2 +/- 85.8 vs 391.7 +/- 70.8 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Significance was defined as P less than 0.05. Renal clearance was also significantly reduced in the elderly subjects. Area under the curve was found to be significantly increased in the elderly subjects compared to the young subjects for both ampicillin and sulbactam as were the beta elimination half-lives. No significant difference in the apparent volume of distribution, when adjusted for body weight, was found for either sulbactam (P greater than 0.95) or ampicillin (P greater than 0.95) between the two groups. Linear regression analysis revealed that age was significantly correlated with the Clt of ampicillin 1 g (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001), ampicillin 2 g (r = 0.90, P less than 0.001), sulbactam 0.5 g (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001), and sulbactam 1 g (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed a slight

  11. [The age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects].

    PubMed

    Teplov, K V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

  12. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  13. Measurement of neural respiratory drive via parasternal intercostal electromyography in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    MacBean, V; Hughes, C; Nicol, G; Reilly, C C; Rafferty, G F

    2016-11-01

    Neural respiratory drive, quantified by the parasternal intercostal muscle electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a sensitive measure of respiratory system load-capacity balance. Reference values for EMGpara-based measures are lacking and the influence of individual anthropometric characteristics is not known. EMGpara is conventionally expressed as a percentage of that obtained during a maximal inspiratory effort (EMGpara%max), leading to difficulty in applying the technique in subjects unable to reliably perform such manoeuvres. To measure EMGpara in a large, unselected cohort of healthy adult subjects in order to evaluate relevant technical and anthropometric factors. Surface second intercostal space EMGpara was measured during resting breathing and maximal inspiratory efforts in 63 healthy adult subjects, median (IQR) age 31.0 (25.0-47.0) years, 28 males. Detailed anthropometry, spirometry and respiratory muscle strength were also recorded. Median (IQR EMGpara was 4.95 (3.35-6.93) µV, EMGpara%max 4.95 (3.39-8.65)% and neural respiratory drive index (NRDI, the product of EMGpara%max and respiratory rate) was 73.62 (46.41-143.92) %.breath/min. EMGpara increased significantly to 6.28 (4.26-9.93) µV (p  <  0.001) with a mouthpiece, noseclip and pneumotachograph in situ. Median (IQR) EMGpara was higher in female subjects (5.79 (4.42-7.98) µV versus 3.56 (2.81-5.35) µV, p  =  0.003); after controlling for sex neither EMGpara, EMGpara%max or NRDI were significantly related to anthropometrics, age or respiratory muscle strength. In subjects undergoing repeat measurements within the same testing session (n  =  48) or on a separate occasion (n  =  19) similar repeatability was observed for both EMGpara and EMGpara%max. EMGpara is higher in female subjects than males, without influence of other anthropometric characteristics. Reference values are provided for EMGpara-derived measures. Expressing EMGpara as a percentage of maximum confers no

  14. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia.

  15. Subjective Memory Complaint and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Mónica; Costa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older adults report subjective memory complaints (SMCs) but whether these are related to depression remains controversial. In this study we investigated the relationship between the SMCs and depression and their predictors in a sample of old adults. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 620 participants aged 55 to 96 years (74.04 ± 10.41). Outcome measures included a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a SMC scale (QSM), a Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results. The QSM mean total score for the main results suggests that SMCs are higher in old adults with depressed symptoms, comparatively to nondepressed old adults. The GDS scores were positively associated with QSM but negatively associated with education, MMSE, and MoCA. GDS scores predicted almost 63.4% of variance. Scores on QSM and MoCA are significantly predicted by depression symptomatology. Conclusion. Depression symptoms, lower education level, and older age may be crucial to the comprehension of SMCs. The present study suggested that depression might play a role in the SMCs of the older adults and its treatment should be considered. PMID:26880907

  16. A comparison of older adults' subjective experience with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  17. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (<75 mg) on sustained attention are limited and use short-term tests. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  18. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  19. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults.

  20. Comparative analysis of NK cell receptor repertoire in adults and very elderly subjects with cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Vega, Guillermo; Rangel-Ramírez, Velia; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Garcia-Sepúlveda, Christian; Noyola, Daniel E; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2017-01-16

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children and young adults has been associated with changes in the innate immune system. We herein analyzed the possible effect of very long term HCMV infection on the expression of several NK cell receptors. Ninety HCMV-seropositive individuals were included and classified as young adults (n=30), elderly (n=30) and very elderly subjects (n=30). A peripheral blood sample was obtained and the expression of NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C, ILT2, CD161, KIR2DL1, KIR3DL1, and KIR3DL2) by NK and other lymphocyte subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the frequency of the sixteen KIR genes was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant increase in the number of NKG2C+ NK and T cells in elderly individuals compared to young adults accompanied by an opposite trend in the number of NKG2A+ lymphocytes, and ILT2+ cells were also increased in elderly individuals. A significant increase in the levels of CD3-CD56+NKG2C+CD57+ cells was also detected in the elderly groups. Finally, KIR gene analysis revealed that the KIR genotype 2 was significantly less frequent in the elderly individuals. Our results support that long-term infection by HCMV exerts a significant progressive effect on the innate immune system.

  1. Improved Glycemic Control in Intensively Treated Adult Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Using Insulin Guidance Software

    PubMed Central

    Bookout, Tevin R.; McFann, Kim K.; Kelly, William C.; Beatson, Christie; Ellis, Samuel L.; Gutin, Raymond S.; Gottlieb, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Management of type 1 diabetes could be significantly improved with the availability of computerized insulin algorithms for home use. Methods This was a 1-year open label randomized control trial involving 123 adult subjects with type 1 diabetes (hemoglobin A1c values 7.5–11%) assigned to either the insulin guidance software (ACCU-CHEK® [Roche, Indianapolis, IN] Advisor) for personal data assistant (experimental group) or the control group. The primary aim of the study was to see if subjects using insulin dosing advisor software will improve glucose control over 1 year. The principal end point was an improvement in A1c at 6 and 12 months by ≥0.4%. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the two groups. Mean A1c was 8.54 ± 0.11% in the control group and 8.42 ± 0.11% (P = 0.4265) in the experimental group. The mean A1c was significantly lower from 3 to 12 months in the experimental group (P < 0.02). A1c reduction of ≥0.6% was maintained at 12 months in the experimental group. Also, a significantly higher number of subjects achieved A1c <7.5% in the experimental group from 3 to 9 months. Within target range glycemia (70–150 mg/dL) was higher in the experimental group at 3–9 months without any change in insulin dose or weight. Above target range glycemia was lower in the experimental group throughout the study. Frequency of testing per day was higher in the experimental group. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was not different between groups; however, the experimental group experienced more severe hypoglycemic events. Conclusions This is the first report that shows improved glycemic control can be maintained over 12 months in patients with type 1 diabetes by using Advisor with no change in insulin dose and weight. PMID:18715213

  2. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  3. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  4. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  5. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  6. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  7. Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Barry; Shulman, Melanie B.; Torossian, Carol; Leng, Ling; Zhu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) in older persons without manifest symptomatology is a common condition with a largely unclear prognosis. We hypothesized that (1) examining outcome for a sufficient period by using conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia would clarify SCI prognosis, and (2) with the aforementioned procedures, the prognosis of SCI subjects would differ significantly from that of demographically matched healthy subjects, free of SCI, termed no cognitive impairment (NCI) subjects. Methods A consecutive series of healthy subjects, aged ≥40 years, presenting with NCI or SCI to a brain aging and dementia research center during a 14-year interval, were studied and followed up during an 18-year observation window. The study population (60 NCI, 200 SCI, 60% female) had a mean age of 67.2 ± 9.1 years, was well-educated (mean, 15.5 ± 2.7 years), and cognitively normal (Mini-Mental State Examination, 29.1 ± 1.2). Results A total of 213 subjects (81.9% of the study population) were followed up. Follow-up occurred during a mean period of 6.8 ± 3.4 years, and subjects had a mean of 2.9 ± 1.6 follow-up visits. Seven NCI (14.9%) and 90 SCI (54.2%) subjects declined (P < .0001). Of NCI decliners, five declined to MCI and two to probable Alzheimer’s disease. Of SCI decliners, 71 declined to MCI and 19 to dementia diagnoses. Controlling for baseline demographic variables and follow-up time, Weibull proportional hazards model revealed increased decline in SCI subjects (hazard ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.9–10.3), whereas the accelerated failure time model analysis with an underlying Weibull survival function showed that SCI subjects declined more rapidly, at 60% of the rate of NCI subjects (95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.80). Furthermore, mean time to decline was 3.5 years longer for NCI than for SCI subjects (P = .0003). Conclusions These results indicate that SCI in subjects with normal cognition is a harbinger

  8. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  9. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  10. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  11. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

    PubMed

    Accordini, Simone; Calciano, Lucia; Bombieri, Cristina; Malerba, Giovanni; Belpinati, Francesca; Lo Presti, Anna Rita; Baldan, Alessandro; Ferrari, Marcello; Perbellini, Luigi; de Marco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study (www.geird.org), 326 subjects (aged 20-64) with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes) was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS) and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR). SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4) was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04), whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r(2) = 0.94) in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09). Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1) or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A) only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  12. Factors associated with subjective burden in siblings of adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Kim, H W; Greenley, J R

    1997-04-01

    Experiences of subjective burden were analyzed in a sample of 164 siblings of persons with serious mental illness. Findings indicated that the well sibling's experience of burden was consistently related to the symptomatology of the ill sibling. In addition, those who viewed the ill sibling's behavior as outside his or control exhibited lower levels of subjective burden than did those who viewed the behavior as within the sibling's control. Implications for research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  13. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population.

  14. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function

  15. Linear and angular control of circular walking in healthy older adults and subjects with cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Adam D; Paquette, Caroline; Jones, Geoffrey Melvill; Block, Edward W; Fletcher, William A; Hu, Bin; Horak, Fay B

    2012-05-01

    Linear and angular control of trunk and leg motion during curvilinear navigation was investigated in subjects with cerebellar ataxia and age-matched control subjects. Subjects walked with eyes open around a 1.2-m circle. The relationship of linear to angular motion was quantified by determining the ratios of trunk linear velocity to trunk angular velocity and foot linear position to foot angular position. Errors in walking radius (the ratio of linear to angular motion) also were quantified continuously during the circular walk. Relative variability of linear and angular measures was compared using coefficients of variation (CoV). Patterns of variability were compared using power spectral analysis for the trunk and auto-covariance analysis for the feet. Errors in radius were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar damage as compared to controls. Cerebellar subjects had significantly larger CoV of feet and trunk in angular, but not linear, motion. Control subjects also showed larger CoV in angular compared to linear motion of the feet and trunk. Angular and linear components of stepping differed in that angular, but not linear, foot placement had a negative correlation from one stride to the next. Thus, walking in a circle was associated with more, and a different type of, variability in angular compared to linear motion. Results are consistent with increased difficulty of, and role of the cerebellum in, control of angular trunk and foot motion for curvilinear locomotion.

  16. Subjective Sexual Well-Being in Chilean Adults: Evaluation of a Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo

    2016-05-18

    Research on sexuality has traditionally focused on sexual satisfaction, with studies into subjective sexual well-being being a recent phenomenon. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between sexual behavior, happiness, health, and subjective sexual well-being. The data were collected from 862 people aged between 18 and 50 years in Santiago, Chile, and were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results showed that sexual behavioral indicators (sexual frequency, sexual caresses, and touching), happiness, and perception of health taken as a whole predicted 47.4% of subjective sexual well-being (SSWB). Analysis of the four items of subjective sexual well-being separately showed that the dimension of physical satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators with a prediction percentage of 33.5%, whereas emotional satisfaction was associated with three variables of sexual behavior indicators and happiness, with a percentage of prediction of 43.3%. Satisfaction with sexual function was associated with perception of health and one sexual behavior indicator, with a prediction percentage of 29.2% of this variable. The importance of sex was associated with three sexual behavior variables that predicted 26.2% of this variable. The results confirm that subjective sexual well-being can be predicted and that its four dimensions present a different behavior compared to the study predictors.

  17. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes. PMID:27431215

  18. Penetration of Ceftaroline into the Epithelial Lining Fluid of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Riccobene, Todd A; Pushkin, Richard; Jandourek, Alena; Knebel, William; Khariton, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to (i) evaluate ceftaroline concentrations in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and (ii) develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for plasma and ELF to be used in PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment simulations. Ceftaroline concentrations in ELF and plasma at steady state (day 4) were measured in healthy adult subjects for two dosages: 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) and 600 mg every 8 h (q8h). Both were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. The penetration of free ceftaroline into ELF, assuming 20% protein binding in plasma and no protein binding in ELF, was ≈23%. The population PK model utilized a two-compartment model for both ceftaroline fosamil and ceftaroline. Goodness-of-fit criteria revealed the model was consistent with observed data and no systematic bias remained. At 600 mg q12h and a MIC of 1 mg/liter, 98.1% of simulated patients would be expected to achieve a target free drug concentration above the MIC (fT>MIC) in plasma of 42%, and in ELF 81.7% would be expected to achieve a target fT>MIC of 17%; at 600 mg q8h, 100% were predicted to achieve an fT>MIC in plasma of 42% and 94.7% to achieve an fT>MIC of 17% in ELF. The literature and data suggest the 600 mg q12h dose is adequate for MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. There is a need for clinical data in patients with MRSA pneumonia and data to correlate PK/PD relationships in ELF with clinical outcomes.

  19. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  20. The Eppelsheimer Subject Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gordon

    1971-01-01

    Since 1945, a method of catalog classification, originally devised by H.W. Eppelsheimer for the Mainz City Library, has found wide acceptance. It is a complex of catalogs which combines features of both subject classification and alphabetical subject indexing. (25 references) (Author/NH)

  1. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  2. International note: temperament and character's relationship to subjective well-being in Salvadorian adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between personality and Subjective Well-Being in a sample of 135 Salvadorian adolescents and young adults (age mean = 21.88 sd. = 4.70). Personality was assessed through self-reports using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Subjective Well-Being was also self-reported using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to determine relationships between personality and Subjective Well-Being. Regarding temperament dimensions, Harm Avoidance was positively associated to negative affect and negatively associated to positive affect, while Persistence was positively associated to positive affect. Regarding character dimensions, only Self-directedness was related to Subjective Well-Being: positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect. The results presented here mirror findings using the temperament and character model of personality among European and North American adolescents.

  3. Executive Functions in Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Roeliena C.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D.

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (>50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as well as subjective complaints (self- and proxy…

  4. An Examination of the Relationship between Passion and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Francois L.; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Activity engagement has long been linked to improved subjective well-being (SWB) in old age. However, recent studies testing Vallerand et al.'s (2003) Dualistic Model of Passion suggest that the type of passionate activity that underlies activity engagement might influence the extent to which individuals benefit from an active lifestyle. In the…

  5. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  6. [Subjective sensitivity to noise].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1991-01-01

    It is likely that individual variations in subjectively estimated noise sensitivity influence different social and psychophysiological reactions of people exposed to noise. Subjective noise sensitivity might be a relatively stable personal characteristic. A correlation have been found between high sensitiveness to noise and some medical symptoms (sleep disturbance, nervousness, depression), and worse work performance in noisy environments. An introvert person with neurotic symptoms is more frequently found in people highly sensitive to noise. Testing for subjective sensitivity to noise might be helpful in professional selection and orientation for noisy work-places as well as in housing advising.

  7. Enteric pathogens, immune status and therapeutic response in diarrhea in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from north India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Arun Kumar; Uppal, Beena; Chadha, Sanjim; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Ghosh, Roumi; Dewan, Richa

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal infection causing diarrheal disease is a dominant contributor to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This intervention study aimed to assess the response of specific anti-microbial and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on enteropathogens identified in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from northern India. Seventy five ART naive (group 1) and seventy five ART adherent (group 2) HIV/AIDS adult subjects with diarrhea were enrolled. Stool samples from all subjects were examined for enteropathogens by wet mount, staining methods, culture and ELISA. Subjects with enteropathogens were started on specific therapy as per National AIDS Control Organisation, Government of India's guidelines. Follow-up stool samples were examined after 2-4 weeks of completion of therapy for persistence/clearing of enteropathogens. CD4+ T lymphocyte count was done for all subjects. At enrollment, group 1 had 26.13% bacterial, 57.66% parasitic & 16.22% fungal pathogens while group 2 had 11.9%, 69.05% & 19.05% pathogens, respectively. Parasitic diarrhea was more common than bacterial diarrhea. The coccidian parasites (Cryptosporidium spp. & Isospora belli) were the common parasites identified. Clearance of enteric pathogens was significant after specific anti-microbial therapy (p = 0.0001). Persistence of enteropathogens was seen primarily for coccidian parasites. Clearance of enteropathogens after specific therapy and the diagnostic yield of stool specimens were influenced by the CD4+ counts. Immune competence coupled with specific anti-microbial therapy displays the best response against enteric pathogens.

  8. Assessing Error Awareness as a Mediator of the Relationship between Subjective Concerns and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Rachel F.; Laming, Gemma; Chen, Li Peng Evelyn; Crole, Alice; Hester, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Subjective concerns of cognitive decline (SCD) often manifest in older adults who exhibit objectively normal cognitive functioning. This subjective-objective discrepancy is counter-intuitive when mounting evidence suggests that subjective concerns relate to future clinical progression to Alzheimer’s disease, and so possess the potential to be a sensitive early behavioural marker of disease. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether individual variability in conscious awareness of errors in daily life might mediate this subjective-objective relationship. Methods 67 cognitively-normal older adults underwent cognitive, SCD and mood tests, and an error awareness task. Results Poorer error awareness was not found to mediate a relationship between SCD and objective performance. Furthermore, non-clinical levels of depressive symptomatology were a primary driving factor of SCD and error awareness, and significantly mediated a relationship between the two. Discussion We were unable to show that poorer error awareness mediates SCD and cognitive performance in older adults. Our study does suggest, however, that underlying depressive symptoms influence both poorer error awareness and greater SCD severity. Error awareness is thus not recommended as a proxy for SCD, as reduced levels of error awareness do not seem to be reflected by greater SCD. PMID:27832173

  9. The 10-year course of adult aggression toward others in patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Ivey, Alexandra M; Cohn, Danielle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2017-02-27

    This study had two aims. The first was to assess and compare various types of aggressive behavior toward others reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over time. The second was to determine the best baseline and time-varying predictors of aggressive behavior in these borderline patients. At baseline, a series of interviews and self-report measures were administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects. Measures assessing aggression toward others, axis I and II disorders as well as adult adversity were re-administered every two years over the course of ten years. It was found that borderline patients reported significantly higher rates of verbal, emotional, and physical aggression toward others than comparison subjects but the rates of these forms of aggression toward others declined significantly for those in both study groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that the strongest predictors of adult aggression towards others were severity of adult adversity and a substance use disorder. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients commonly report aggression toward others but that this aggression declines significantly over time. These results also suggest that this aggression toward others is most strongly associated with adult experiences of adversity and concurrent substance abuse.

  10. Adult Daughters’ Influence on Mothers’ Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    This study of mother–adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely as possible the mother–adult daughter relationship in the context of daily life. This inductive approach contrasts with the deductive origins of the construct. A sample of nine Mexican and Filipina immigrant and U.S.-born mothers and their adult daughters was recruited. Data were collected in two phases: (a) videotaped observations of mother–daughter dyads discussing health-related topics and (b) follow-up interviews designed to obtain an emic (insider) perspective of the videotaped interaction. Results show that adult daughters influence their mothers’ ability to navigate the health care system and contribute to health-related decision making and behavior, suggesting that it may be appropriate to include adult daughters in the assessment of subjective norms. PMID:19805795

  11. Neonatal Administration of Memantine Enhances Social Cognition in Adult Rats Subjected to Early Maternal Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Mendoza, Eduardo; Nieves, Nayadoleni; Merchor, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder; however, all the available treatment options are used when the disease becomes clinically significant in adolescence or early adulthood. Using a developmental rat model of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal treatment with memantine, an NMDA receptor modulator, can improve schizophrenic-like symptoms in adulthood. Early maternal deprivation in rats produces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. In contrast, memantine administrated in neonatal rats subjected to early maternal deprivation significantly reduces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. These results raise the possibility that pharmacological treatment with memantine at the early developmental stage helps people with a risk to develop schizophrenic-like symptoms. PMID:28035183

  12. Analysis of reliability, accuracy, sensitivity and predictive value of a subjective method to classify facial pattern in adults

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Gilberto Vilanova; Rino, José; de Paiva, João Batista; Capelozza, Leopoldino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Craniofacial pattern diagnosis is vital in Orthodontics, as it influences decision-making regarding treatment options and prognosis. Capelozza Filho proposed a subjective method for facial classification comprising five patterns: I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of a subjective classification method of facial patterns applied to adults. Methods: A sample consisting of 52 adults was used for this study. Frontal and lateral view photographs were taken with subjects at rest position, including frontal smile. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were organized in a PowerPoint® presentation and submitted to 20 raters. Method performance was assessed by examining reproducibility with Kappa test and calculating accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values, for which 70% was set as critical value. The gold standard of the classification was personally set by the author of the method. Results: Reproducibility was considered moderate (Kappa = 0.501); while accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values yielded similar results, but below 70%. Conclusions: The subjective method of facial classification employed in the present study still needs to have its morphological criteria improved in order to be used to discriminate the five facial patterns. PMID:28125141

  13. Distinctive modulation of inflammatory and metabolic parameters in relation to zinc nutritional status in adult overweight/obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Laura; Muti, Elisa; Malavolta, Marco; Cipriano, Catia; Giacconi, Robertina; Tesei, Silvia; Piacenza, Francesco; Pierpaoli, Sara; Gasparini, Nazzarena; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Boscaro, Marco; Polito, Angela; Mauro, Beatrice; Maiani, Francesca; Raguzzini, Anna; Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Emanuelli, Monica; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with low grade of inflammation and chronic inflammatory response characterized by abnormal production and activation of some pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Taking into account that obesity is the direct result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, the nutritional factors in the diet, with particular focus on zinc, may play a pivotal role in the development of obesity-associated comorbidities. Considering the potential interactions among zinc nutritional status, inflammation, overweight/obesity and insulin secretion, the aim of the present work was to clarify the influence of zinc dietary intake on some metabolic, inflammatory and zinc status parameters in adult overweight/obese subjects. We found a close interrelationship between nutritional zinc and obesity. In particular, subjects with a lower zinc dietary intake display a deeper inflammatory status, general impairment of the zinc status, an altered lipid profile and increased insulin production with respect to obese subjects with normal zinc dietary intake. Moreover, in the presence of low dietary zinc intake, the obese subjects are less capable to respond to oxidative stress and to inflammation leading to the development of obesity or to a worsening of already preexisting obesity status. In conclusion, a possible zinc supplementation in obese subjects with a deeper inflammatory status and more altered zinc profile may be suggested in order to limit or reduce the inflammation, taking also into account that zinc supplementation normalizes "inflammaging" as well as zinc profile leading to a correct intra- and extracellular zinc homeostasis.

  14. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  15. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  16. Database Subject Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.; Teitelbaum, Henry H.

    1978-01-01

    Broad subject headings which have been assigned to each of the 86 data bases available or announced on the five major on-line search systems--Lockheed, SDC, BRS, NIM, and New York Times Information Bank--are arranged alphabetically followed by the name(s) of the appropriate data base(s). (JPF)

  17. Schooling, Work and Subjectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Misook Kim; Apple, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the ways in which administrators, teachers, and students in two commercial high schools responded to the educational policies and work subjectivities that were articulated by the dominant faction in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and that resulted from the concern about the lack of manual workers in the country. (CMK)

  18. Sweet taste and chorda tympani transection alter capsaicin-induced lingual pain perception in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schöbel, N; Kyereme, J; Minovi, A; Dazert, S; Bartoshuk, L; Hatt, H

    2012-10-10

    Sweetness signals the nutritional value of food and may moreover be accompanied by a sensory suppression that leads to higher pain tolerance. This effect is well documented in infant rats and humans. However, it is still debated whether sensory suppression is also present in adult humans. Thus, we investigated the effects of sweet taste on the perception of the painful trigeminal stimulus capsaicin in two groups of healthy adult human subjects. A solution of 100 μM capsaicin was applied to the tip of the subject's tongues in order to stimulate trigeminal Aδ- and C-fiber nociceptors. When swallowed, 1M sucrose reduced the capsaicin-induced burning sensation by 29% (p ≤ 0.05) whereas a solution of similar taste intensity containing 1 μM quinine did not. Similarly, sucrose application to the frontal hemitongue suppressed the perception of the burning sensation induced by contralaterally applied capsaicin by 25% (p ≤ 0.01). We furthermore investigated the effects of documented unilateral transection of the chorda tympani nerve on capsaicin perception. In accordance with the ipsi-to-contralateral effect of sucrose on capsaicin perception in healthy subjects, hemiageusic subjects were more sensitive for capsaicin on the tongue contralateral to the taste nerve lesion (+38%; p ≤ 0.01). Taken together, these results argue I) for the existence of food intake-induced sensory suppression, if not analgesia, in adult humans and II) a centrally mediated suppression of trigeminal sensation by taste inputs that III) becomes disinhibited upon peripheral taste nerve lesion.

  19. Aging, Subjective Experience, and Cognitive Control: Dramatic False Remembering by Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Bishara, Anthony J.; Hessels, Sandra; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning…

  20. The Subject-Person of Adult Education in the Crisis of Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Mathias

    1990-01-01

    The crisis of modernity increases the tension between individual and societal development. Brookfield's critical thinking model of adult education tries to reduce societal dimensions into personal growth. Jarvis' adult learning model reduces personal development to adaptation to societal demands. Adult education needs new models to reconcile the…

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Dolutegravir When Administered With Mineral Supplements in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Arya, Niki; Wynne, Brian; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    All commercially available integrase inhibitors are 2-metal binders and may be affected by co-administration with metal cations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium and iron supplements on dolutegravir pharmacokinetics and strategies (dose separation and food) to attenuate the effects if significant reductions in dolutegravir exposure were observed. This was an open-label, crossover study that randomized 24 healthy subjects into 1 of 2 cohorts to receive 4 treatments: (1) dolutegravir alone, fasting; (2) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting; (3) dolutegravir with calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate with a moderate-fat meal; (4) dolutegravir administered 2 hours before calcium carbonate or ferrous fumarate, fasting. Plasma dolutegravir AUC(0–∞), Cmax, and C24 were reduced by 39%, 37%, and 39%, respectively, when co-administered with calcium carbonate while fasting and were reduced by 54%, 57%, and 56%, respectively, when co-administered with ferrous fumarate while fasting. Dolutegravir administration 2 hours before calcium or iron supplement administration (fasted), as well as administration with a meal, counteracted the effect. Dolutegravir and calcium or iron supplements can be co-administered if taken with a meal. Under fasted conditions, dolutegravir should be administered 2 hours before or 6 hours after calcium or iron supplements. PMID:25449994

  2. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ivermectin in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Cynthia A; Furtek, Christine I; Porras, Arturo G; Chen, Cong; Tipping, Robert; Clineschmidt, Coleen M; Sciberras, David G; Hsieh, John Y K; Lasseter, Kenneth C

    2002-10-01

    Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin, administered in higher and/or more frequent doses than currently approved for human use, were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study. Subjects (n = 68) were assigned to one of four panels (3:1, ivermectin/placebo): 30 or 60 mg (three times a week) or 90 or 120 mg (single dose). The 30 mg panel (range: 34 7-594 microg/kg) also received a single dose with food after a 1-week washout. Safety assessments addressed both known ivermectin CNS effects and general toxicity. The primary safety endpoint was mydriasis, accurately quantitated by pupillometry. Ivermectin was generally well tolerated, with no indication of associated CNS toxicity for doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 microg/kg. All dose regimens had a mydriatic effect similar to placebo. Adverse experiences were similar between ivermectin and placebo and did not increase with dose. Following single doses of 30 to 120 mg, AUC and Cmax were generally dose proportional, with t(max) approximately 4 hours and t1/2 approximately 18 hours. The geometric mean AUC of 30 mg ivermectin was 2.6 times higher when administered with food. Geometric mean AUC ratios (day 7/day 1) were 1.24 and 1.40 for the 30 and 60 mg doses, respectively, indicating that the accumulation of ivermectin given every fourth day is minimal. This study demonstrated that ivermectin is generally well tolerated at these higher doses and more frequent regimens.

  3. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Tafenoquine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine or Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Khadeeja; Goyal, Navin; Bouhired, Samia; Hussaini, Azra; Jones, Siôn W.; Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Kostov, Ivan; Taylor, Maxine; Wolstenholm, Allen; Duparc, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Tafenoquine is in development as a single-dose treatment for relapse prevention in individuals with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine must be coadministered with a blood schizonticide, either chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This open-label, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated potential drug interactions between tafenoquine and two ACTs: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Healthy volunteers of either sex aged 18 to 65 years without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were randomized into five cohorts (n = 24 per cohort) to receive tafenoquine on day 1 (300 mg) plus once-daily dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on days 1, 2, and 3 (120 mg/960 mg for 36 to <75 kg of body weight and 160 mg/1,280 mg for ≥75 to 100 kg of body weight), or plus artemether-lumefantrine (80 mg/480 mg) in two doses 8 h apart on day 1 and then twice daily on days 2 and 3, or each drug alone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tafenoquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were determined by using noncompartmental methods. Point estimates and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) comparisons of tafenoquine plus ACT versus tafenoquine or ACT. All subjects receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine experienced QTc prolongation (a known risk with this drug), but tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant additional effect. Tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant effects on dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, artemether, or lumefantrine pharmacokinetics. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration increased the tafenoquine Cmax by 38% (90% confidence interval, 25 to 52%), the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞) by 12% (1 to 26%), and the half-life (t1/2) by 29% (19 to 40%), with no effect on the AUC from time zero to the time of the last nonzero concentration (AUC0

  4. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Tafenoquine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine or Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Green, Justin A; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Goyal, Navin; Bouhired, Samia; Hussaini, Azra; Jones, Siôn W; Koh, Gavin C K W; Kostov, Ivan; Taylor, Maxine; Wolstenholm, Allen; Duparc, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Tafenoquine is in development as a single-dose treatment for relapse prevention in individuals with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine must be coadministered with a blood schizonticide, either chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This open-label, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated potential drug interactions between tafenoquine and two ACTs: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Healthy volunteers of either sex aged 18 to 65 years without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were randomized into five cohorts (n = 24 per cohort) to receive tafenoquine on day 1 (300 mg) plus once-daily dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on days 1, 2, and 3 (120 mg/960 mg for 36 to <75 kg of body weight and 160 mg/1,280 mg for ≥75 to 100 kg of body weight), or plus artemether-lumefantrine (80 mg/480 mg) in two doses 8 h apart on day 1 and then twice daily on days 2 and 3, or each drug alone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tafenoquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were determined by using noncompartmental methods. Point estimates and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) comparisons of tafenoquine plus ACT versus tafenoquine or ACT. All subjects receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine experienced QTc prolongation (a known risk with this drug), but tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant additional effect. Tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant effects on dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, artemether, or lumefantrine pharmacokinetics. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration increased the tafenoquine Cmax by 38% (90% confidence interval, 25 to 52%), the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 12% (1 to 26%), and the half-life (t1/2) by 29% (19 to 40%), with no effect on the AUC from time zero to the time of the last nonzero concentration (AUC0

  5. Subjects to Citizens: Adult Learning and the Challenges of Democracy in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Theme 1 of the "Hamburg Declaration on Adult Learning" boldly proclaimed that active citizenship and full participation of all citizens was the necessary foundation for "the creation of a learning society committed to social justice and general well-being" (UNESCO, 1997, p. 4). The "Declaration" advocated that future…

  6. Analysis of Exposure-Dose Variation of Inhaled Particles in Adult Subjects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles, available dose information is largely limited to young healthy adults under a few typical exposure conditions. Extrapolation of the limited dose information to different populat...

  7. Psychosocial Development and Subjective Well-Being in an Age Cross-Section of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch, Stephanie A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the internal consistency and construct validity of an expanded version of the Inventory of Psychosocial Development (E-IPD), which included the generativity and ego integrity scales creatd by Boylin et al. Total E-IPD scores from 79 adults were found to have high internal consistency, but many individual stage scales did not. (Author)

  8. Anxious Provision and Discourses of Certainty: The Sutured Subject of Mentally Ill Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a five-year study which explored the engagement of a group of long-term mentally ill adults in community provision in which they learned basic, expressive literacy. The research mapped points in the learning, writing and auto/biographic engagement where set identities were being troubled, and frisson created in the challenge…

  9. Subject Bibliography of Supplementary Adult Literacy Materials Purchased through LSCA Title VI Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Library Commission, Jackson.

    This annotated bibliography of supplementary materials for adult literacy students in Mississippi arranges the annotations in the following categories: automobiles; biography; communication skills; consumer information; coping skills; English as a second language; fiction; health, nutrition, and safety; history and government; insurance; job…

  10. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  11. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bureš, Vladimír; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Ponce, Daniela; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Methods Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. Results A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60–84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74–79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09–70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [−0.99–20.54] WHO

  12. Development and validation of a computer crash simulation model of an occupied adult manual wheelchair subjected to a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, R; Bertocci, G

    2010-04-01

    Wheelchairs are primarily designed for mobility and are not necessarily intended for use as motor vehicle seats. However, many wheelchairs serve as vehicle seats for individuals unable to transfer to a vehicle seat. Subjecting wheelchairs to sled testing, in part establishes the crashworthiness of wheelchairs used as motor vehicle seats. Computer simulations provide a supplemental approach for sled testing, to assess wheelchair response and loading under crash conditions. In this study a nonlinear, dynamic, computer model was developed and validated to simulate a wheelchair and occupant subjected to a frontal impact test (ANSI/RESNA WC19). This simulation model was developed utilizing data from two frontal impact 20 g/48 km/h sled tests, which consisted of identical, adult manual wheelchairs secured with 4-point tiedowns, occupied with a 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test device (ATD), restrained with a 3-point occupant restraint system. Additionally, the model was validated against sled data using visual comparisons of wheelchair and occupant kinematics, along with statistical assessments of outcome measures. All statistical evaluations were found to be within the acceptance criteria, indicating the model's high predictability of the sled tests. This model provides a useful tool for the development of crashworthy wheelchair design guidelines, as well as the development of transit-safe wheelchair technologies.

  13. When does meaning making predict subjective well-being? Examining young and older adults in two cultures.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Two studies in different cultures (Study 1: USA, N=174, Study 2: Trinidad, N=167) examined whether meaning making, (i.e., both searching for meaning, and directing behaviour) is positively related to subjective well-being (SWB) by age (younger, older adults). In both studies, participants self-reported engagement in meaning making, and SWB (e.g., affect, future time perspective, psychological well-being). In Study 1, young Americans (compared to older) more frequently used their past to direct behaviour but doing so was unrelated to SWB. In older Americans, both types of meaning making were positively associated with SWB. In Study 2, Trinidadian younger adults were again more likely than older adults to engage in meaning making. Unlike in the American sample, however, directing behaviour was positively related to SWB for both young and older adults. The studies demonstrate that whether meaning making shows benefits for SWB may depend on type of meaning, age and culture. Note that although meaning making was sometimes unrelated to SWB, no detrimental relations to meaning making were found. The discussion focuses on the role of moderators in understanding when meaning making should lead to benefits versus costs to SWB.

  14. Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Preliminary Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Smart, Colette M; Karr, Justin E; Areshenkoff, Corson N; Rabin, Laura A; Hudon, Carol; Gates, Nicola; Ali, Jordan I; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Buckley, Rachel F; Chetelat, Gael; Hampel, Harald; Jessen, Frank; Marchant, Natalie L; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Tales, Andrea; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Wesselman, Linda

    2017-03-07

    In subjective cognitive decline (SCD), older adults present with concerns about self-perceived cognitive decline but are found to have clinically normal function. However, a significant proportion of those adults are subsequently found to develop mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's dementia or other neurocognitive disorder. In other cases, SCD may be associated with mood, personality, and physical health concerns. Regardless of etiology, adults with SCD may benefit from interventions that could enhance current function or slow incipient cognitive decline. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis, conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, is to examine the benefits of non-pharmacologic intervention (NPI) in persons with SCD. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults aged 55 + with SCD defined using published criteria, receiving NPI or any control condition, with cognitive, behavioural, or psychological outcomes in controlled trails. Published empirical studies were obtained through a standardized search of CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES, supplemented by a manual retrieval of relevant articles. Study quality and bias was determined using PEDro. Nine studies were included in the review and meta-analysis. A wide range of study quality was observed. Overall, a small effect size was found on cognitive outcomes, greater for cognitive versus other intervention types. The available evidence suggests that NPI may benefit current cognitive function in persons with SCD. Recommendations are provided to improve future trials of NPI in SCD.

  15. [The clinics of subjectivity].

    PubMed

    Novella, Enric J

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the project of capturing, describing and cataloging subjective experiences as the constitutive and founding event of psychiatric knowledge. To substantiate this view, it provides first a look at the origins (and problems) of psychiatric semiology in the pioneering work of Philippe Pinel. Afterwards, it describes some of the resources used by his successors in order to gain access to the madman's inner world, expose the folds of his intimacy and enhance the scope of the psychopathological gaze and the semiological repertoire of psychological medicine. And finally it discusses the contraposition between the practice of the gaze and the practice of listening carried out by psychiatrists as a significant correlate of an epistemic culture obsessed with gaze, but whose very eagerness to take the human being as an object of inquiry in its double physical and moral condition doomed it to cultivate listening.

  16. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    PubMed

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  17. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of KNS-760704 (dexpramipexole) in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Bozik, Michael E; Mather, James L; Kramer, William G; Gribkoff, Valentin K; Ingersoll, Evan W

    2011-08-01

    Dexpramipexole (KNS-760704; [6R]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-N6-propyl-2,6-benzothiazole-diamine) is a novel synthetic amino-benzothiazole in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Preclinical studies have shown that dexpramipexole is neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo, is highly orally bioavailable and water soluble, and rapidly achieves and maintains high central nervous system concentrations relative to plasma. Two phase 1 clinical studies were conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of single and multiple doses of dexpramipexole in 54 healthy male and female adults. The effect of food on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole was also evaluated. Single doses (50 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg) and multiple doses (50 mg twice daily, 100 mg twice daily, or 150 mg twice daily) of dexpramipexole over 4.5 days were safe and well tolerated. Dexpramipexole was rapidly absorbed, with time to maximum plasma concentration ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 hours and half-life ranging from 6.4 to 8.1 hours under fasted conditions, and was mostly eliminated in urine as unchanged parent drug (84%-90% of dose). Food had no effect on the single-dose PK of dexpramipexole. These findings support the ongoing development of dexpramipexole for the treatment of ALS and further evaluation of the compound's therapeutic potential in other neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  19. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  20. Prospective memory on a novel clinical task in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Chi, Susan Y.; Wang, Cuiling; Fogel, Joshua; Kann, Sarah J.; Aronov, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of prospective memory to everyday functioning and the ability to live independently, prospective memory tasks are rarely incorporated into clinical evaluations of older adults. We investigated the validity and clinical utility of a recently developed measure, the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test (RPA-ProMem), in a demographically diverse, non-demented, community-dwelling sample of 257 older adults (mean age = 80.78 years, 67.7% female) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 18), non-amestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI, n = 38), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 83) despite intact performance on traditional episodic memory tests, and healthy controls (HC, n = 118). Those with aMCI and naMCI performed significantly worse than controls on the RPA-ProMem and its subtasks (time-based, event-based, short-term, long-term). Also, those with SCD scored significantly lower than controls on long-term, more naturalistic subtasks. Additional results supported the validity and inter-rater reliability of the RPA-ProMem and demonstrated a relation between test scores and informant reports of real-world functioning. The RPA-ProMem may help detect subtle cognitive changes manifested by individuals in the earliest stages of dementia, which may be difficult to capture with traditional episodic memory tests. Also, assessment of prospective memory can help guide the development of cognitive interventions for older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:24875614

  1. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    PubMed

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  2. [Subjective memory complaints in young adults: the influence of the emotional state].

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Molina-Rodríguez, Sergio; Soto-Amaya, Johnathan

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Many young people today display memory complaints that are not linked to their real cognitive performance. A number of studies have sought to identify the factors involved in this problem, such as anxious-depressive symptoms, the variables of anxiety traditionally being measured as somatic or cognitive manifestations with an activation that is unspecific or not linked to any particular stimulus. AIMS. To perform an exploratory analysis to determine the role played by symptoms of depression and of various subtypes of specific and unspecific anxiety in memory complaints in young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The sample used in this study was made of 193 university students, 71% of whom were females, with a mean age of 22.22 ± 3.67 years. The variable 'Memory complaints' was measured with the Memory Failures Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptom Check List was used to measure the variables 'Depression', 'Social anxiety', 'Obsessive-compulsive anxiety', 'Agoraphobic anxiety', 'Somatisation' and 'Insomnia'. RESULTS. The variables of specific anxiety show a greater correlation with memory complaints than unspecific anxiety. Multiple regression analysis explained 34.9% of the variance of memory complaints, although the only variable that made a significant contribution was 'Social anxiety', which alone explains 34.4%. CONCLUSIONS. A distinct influence between the different types of anxiety and memory complaints has been observed. The findings obtained are a novelty in this area of knowledge by pointing to a greater relevance of the variables of specific anxiety in comparison to unspecific anxiety in explaining memory complaints and the need to take a personalised approach.

  3. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  4. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  5. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  6. DTNSRDC Library Subject Thesaurus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    CHLORALOSECHICK EN S BT ANTIBIOTICS CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS BT GROUP A ARBOVIRUSES CHLORATES BT CHLORINE COMPOUNDS CHILDREN NT BARIUM CHLORATES BT YOUTH CHLORDANECHILE...EJECTORS E EJECTORS(ORDNANCE) EGG ALBUMIN BT ALBUMINS EJECTORS(DRONANCE) BT EJECTORS EGG FO0 YOUNG NT BOMB EJECTORS USE EGGS(CHICKEN) AND COO...HUMANITIES HYBRID BATTERIES USE ELECTRIC BATTERIES HUMANS AND HYSRID SYSTEMS BT PRIMATES NT ADULTS HYBRID CIRCUITS CHILDREN BT CIRCUITS MEN VOLUNTEERS HYBRID

  7. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  8. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  9. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  10. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  11. Association of low birth weight with beta cell function in the adult first degree relatives of non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J T; Levy, J C; Page, R C; Shaw, J A; Hattersley, A T; Turner, R C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between birth weight and beta cell function in the first degree relatives of non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of 101 adults of known birth weight from 47 families which had at least one member with non-insulin dependent diabetes. SUBJECTS--101 white adults aged mean 43 (SD 7) years. SETTING--Oxfordshire, England. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Glucose tolerance was measured by continuous infusion glucose tolerance test. beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated from the fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations with homeostasis model assessment. beta cell function was standardised to allow for the confounding effects of age and obesity. RESULTS--Twenty seven subjects had non-insulin dependent diabetes, 32 had impaired glucose tolerance, and 42 were normoglycaemic. Birth weight correlated with the beta cell function of the complete cohort (rs = 0.29, p = 0.005), the non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects (rs = 0.50, p = 0.023), and the non-diabetic subjects (rs = 0.29, p = 0.013). The non-insulin dependent diabetic (n = 27) and the non-diabetic (n = 74) subjects had similar mean (inter-quartile range) centile birth weight 50% (19%-91%), and 53% (30%-75%) respectively. Non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects had significantly lower beta function than the non-diabetic subjects: 69% (48%-83%) v 97% (86%-120%), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS--The cause of the association between low birth weight and reduced beta cell function in adult life is uncertain. Impaired beta cell function in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects was not accounted for by low birth weight, and genetic or environmental factors are likely to be necessary for development of diabetes. PMID:8461648

  12. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-10-18

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  13. Effects of ketoconazole treatment on the pharmacokinetics of safinamide and its plasma metabolites in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Krösser, Sonja; Marquet, Anne; Gallemann, Dieter; Wolna, Peter; Fauchoux, Nicolas; Hermann, Robert; Johne, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this mechanistic drug interaction study was to investigate the effects of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of safinamide. Ketoconazole was applied as a potent prototypic inhibitor of cytochrome CYP3A4, to determine the role of CYP3A4 in the metabolic clearance of safinamide. In an open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence cross-over study, 14 healthy adult subjects (7 males/7 females) received two single doses of 100 mg safinamide: alone and on top of multiple doses of ketoconazole (200 mg b.i.d.) given over 6 days. Serial blood samples were collected over 240 h post dose to quantify safinamide parent drug and metabolite concentrations for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Safinamide exposure was essentially unchanged when administered with and without ketoconazole: C(max) and AUC(0-∞) point estimates (90% CIs) for the treatment comparison were 106.6 (101.0; 112.4) and 112.9 (109.8; 116.03), respectively. Similarly, ketoconazole did not influence the formation and clearance of safinamide metabolites to a clinically relevant extent. Overall, the study shows that CYP3A4 plays a minor role in the metabolism of safinamide in vivo. Therefore, safinamide can be administered together with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors without any requirement for dose adjustment.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Fosamprenavir plus Ritonavir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Adult Subjects with Hepatic Impairment▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Elías, María J.; Morellon, María Larrousse; Ortega, Enrique; Hernández-Quero, José; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Felizarta, Franco; Gutiérrez, Felix; Pineda, Juan A.; Nichols, Garrett; Lou, Yu; Wire, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hepatic impairment on fosamprenavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetics was investigated. Sixty human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects, including 13, 20, and 10 subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively, and a comparator group of 17 subjects with normal hepatic function, were enrolled. Subjects with normal hepatic function received fosamprenavir at 700 mg plus ritonavir at 100 mg twice daily, whereas subjects with hepatic impairment received adjusted doses in anticipation of increased exposures. For subjects with mild hepatic impairment, the studied regimen of fosamprenavir 700 mg twice daily plus ritonavir 100 mg once daily delivered 17% higher values for the maximum plasma amprenavir concentration at the steady state (Cmax), 22% higher values for the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve over the dosing interval at the steady state [AUC(0-τ)], similar values for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval (Cτ), and 114% higher unbound Cτ values. For subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, the studied dosage regimen of fosamprenavir at 300 mg twice daily plus ritonavir at 100 mg once daily delivered 27% lower plasma amprenavir Cmax values, 27% lower AUC(0-24) values, 57% lower Cτ values, and 21% higher unbound amprenavir Cτ values. For subjects with severe hepatic impairment, the studied dosage regimen of fosamprenavir at 300 mg twice daily plus ritonavir at 100 mg once daily delivered 19% lower plasma amprenavir Cmax values, 23% lower AUC(0-24) values, 38% lower Cτ values, and similar unbound amprenavir Cτ values. With a reduced ritonavir dosing frequency of 100 mg once daily, the plasma ritonavir AUC(0-24) values were 39% lower, similar, and 40% higher for subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. The results of the study support the use of reduced fosamprenavir/ritonavir doses or dosing frequencies in the treatment of patients with hepatic

  15. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kottow, Andrea R; Kottow, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease. PMID:17603873

  16. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  17. Sensory Information and Subjective Contour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brussell, Edward M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The possibility that subjective contours are an artifact of brightness contrast was explored. Concludes that subjective contour and brightness contrast are distinct perceptual phenomena but share a dependency on the processing of edge information transmitted through the achromatic channels of the visual system. (Editor/RK)

  18. Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

  19. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diercks, Michael J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

  20. Cellular Aging and Restorative Processes: Subjective Sleep Quality and Duration Moderate the Association between Age and Telomere Length in a Sample of Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cribbet, Matthew R.; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M.; Uchino, Bert N.; Williams, Paula G.; Smith, Timothy W.; Gunn, Heather E.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Design: Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Setting: Social Neuroscience Laboratory. Participants: One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging. Citation: Cribbet MR; Carlisle M; Cawthon RM; Uchino BN; Williams PG; Smith TW; Gunn HE; Light KC. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and

  1. Two subjective factors as moderators between critical incidents and the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders: adult attachment and perception of social support.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Palmans, Vicky

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents the result of a research which investigated the influence of the subjective factors 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' in the occurrence of post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) in a population of 544 subjects working for a security company and the Belgian Red Cross. The analysis of the results suggests that 'adult attachment style' and 'perception of social support' moderate between a critical incident and the occurrence of a PTSD. In other words, these independent variables differentiate between individuals who are more, and who are less prone, to suffer from a PTSD after having experienced a critical incident. The results of this research shed light on subjective risk factors related to PTSD. The findings can also suggest guidelines for the treatment of individuals suffering from a PTSD.

  2. Subjective Cognitive Impairment Subjects in Our Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Cavallin, Lena; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Kramberger, Milica Gregoric; Winblad, Bengt; Jelic, Vesna; Eriksdotter, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical challenge in subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) is to identify which individuals will present cognitive decline. We created a statistical model to determine which variables contribute to SCI and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) versus Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnoses. Methods A total of 993 subjects diagnosed at a memory clinic (2007-2009) were included retrospectively: 433 with SCI, 373 with MCI and 187 with AD. Descriptive statistics were provided. A logistic regression model analyzed the likelihood of SCI and MCI patients being diagnosed with AD, using age, gender, Mini-Mental State Examination score, the ratio of β-amyloid 42 divided by total tau, and phosphorylated tau as independent variables. Results The SCI subjects were younger (57.8 ± 8 years) than the MCI (64.2 ± 10.6 years) and AD subjects (70.1 ± 9.7 years). They were more educated, had less medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and frequently normal cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Apolipoprotein E4/E4 homozygotes and apolipoprotein E3/E4 heterozygotes were significantly less frequent in the SCI group (6 and 36%) than in the AD group (28 and 51%). Within the regression model, cardiovascular risk factors, confluent white matter lesions, MTA and central atrophy increased the AD likelihood for SCI subjects. Conclusions SCI patients form a distinct group. In our model, factors suggesting cardiovascular risk, MTA and central atrophy increased the AD likelihood for SCI subjects. PMID:25538726

  3. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  4. Resources for Educators of Adults. Annotated Bibliography for the Education of Public Offenders: by Descriptive Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Michael J.; And Others

    This bibliography is presented to assist educators who are engaged in research activities with inmate or ex-inmate populations. The first part contains entries under descriptive subject headings (alphabetically by author); the second part contains abstracts of the material listed in part 1 (alphabetically by title). The descriptive headings…

  5. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  6. Subjective perception of body sway

    PubMed Central

    Schieppati, M.; Tacchini, E.; Nardone, A.; Tarantola, J.; Corna, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND METHOD—The relation between body sway recorded through a stabilometric platform and the subjective report of steadiness was studied in 20 young and 20 elderly subjects and 20 neuropathic and 20parkinsonian patients standing upright. The trials were performed under two stances (feet apart, feet together) and two visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed). At the end of each trial, subjects scored their performance on a scale from 10 (complete steadiness) to 0(fall).
RESULTS—In all subjects, independently of the stance conditions, the larger the body sway the smaller the reported score. The function best fitting this relation was linear when sway was expressed on a logarithmic scale. The scoring reproducibility proved high both within and across subjects. Despite the different body sways and scores recorded under the different visual and postural conditions (eyes closed >eyes open, feet together>feet apart) in all groups of subjects and patients, the slopes of the relations between sway and score were broadly superimposable. In the normal subjects, the scores were slightly higher during eyes open than eyes closed trials for corresponding body sways. This was interpreted as a sign of perception of greater stability when vision was allowed. Parkinsonian patients swayed to a similar extent as normal subjects, and their scores were accordingly similar, both with eyes open and eyes closed. Neuropathic patients swayed to a larger extent than normal subjects, and their scores were matched appropriately. Although the slope of their relation with eyes closed was not different from that of normal subjects, with eyes open it was steeper and similar to that with eyes closed, suggesting that these patients did not feel more stable when they could take advantage of vision.
CONCLUSIONS—The subjective evaluation of body sway, irrespective of stance condition, age, neuropathy, and basal ganglia disease, reflects the actual sway, and is inversely proportional

  7. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  8. Yawning and subjective sleepiness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Iole; Giganti, Fiorenza; Uga, Valeria

    2008-09-01

    Yawning is related to sleep/wake transitions and time of day, probably reflecting the time course of sleepiness. As aging modifies sleep-wake and sleepiness rhythms, we suppose that yawning frequency and its time course vary as a function of age. Thirteen aged healthy subjects (77.15 +/- 4.09 years) and 12 young adults (24.41 +/- 3.31 years) were instructed to keep their habitual sleep schedules for three consecutive work-days, during which they were required to signal every yawning occurrence and to evaluate hourly their sleepiness level. Results showed that aged subjects yawn less frequently than young adults, particularly during morning and mid-afternoon hours. The time course of yawning was different between the two age groups: aged subjects showed earlier morning peak and evening rise compared with young adults; in addition, aged subjects showed two minor peaks in-between. Differences as a function of age in the time course of yawning were associated with differences in the time course of sleepiness. The only exception pertained to the early morning yawning peak, which was close to the awakening but it was not associated with high sleepiness in aged subjects. Our study discloses that aging modifies yawning frequency and its time course. Furthermore, as in the elderly yawning after the awakening is not associated with high sleepiness level as in young adult, we put forward that sleepiness level and the proximity of sleep/wake transitions could separately affect yawning.

  9. Gnathological features in growing subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ballanti, Fabiana; Ranieri, Salvatore; Baldini, Alberto; Pavoni, Chiara; Bollero, Patrizio; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of consecutive subjects. Materials and methods TMDs were recorded in a sample of 580 subjects (279 M, 301 F; mean age: 13.4y). For each subject a case history was compiled to evaluate the social and demographic parameters. An extraoral exam was effected to point out the face proportions, and an intraoral exam was performed to analyze dental occlusion, mandibular deviation during opening, presence of cross-bites, overjet and overbite. A functional exam was carried out to evaluate mandibular movements and to find joint sounds and myofascial pain. The sample was divided into 6 groups according to the: gender, age (ages 6y–11y and 12y–16y), Angle Dental Class, cross-bite, midline deviation and chewing side. For this investigation latex gloves, a millimeter calipers (precision 0,01 mm) and a phonendoscope were used. The percentages of signs and symptoms were compared using the ?2-test with Yates correction to determine the differences among the groups for the rates of TMDs, reduced opening/lateral/protrusive movements, and myofascial pain. Results The prevalence of TMDs in the total sample was 13,9%. Among 6y–11y subjects the percentage of TMD was 7,3% while it was 16,1% among 12y–16y subjects (?2=1.634;; p=0.201). Females showed a percentage of 16,6% of TMDs while males one of 10,8% (?2=0.556;; p=0.456). According to angle malocclusion, the prevalence was 14% in subjects with Class I malocclusion, 15% in sample with Class II and 9% in patients with Class III (?2=0.540;; p=0.763). According to presence or absence of crossbite, prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms was 13,8% among subjects without crossbite and 14,3% among subjects with crossbite, with no significant difference between the two subgroups (?2= 0,047619;; p=0.050). In relation of midline deviation, prevalence of TMDs was 15% in subjects without deviation, 15,8% in functional deviation

  10. The Perception of Subjective Surfaces,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    this article we develop an alternative account of subjective contours that derives from the developing computational theory of vision [see Marr 1982...with iistial agnosia who could not sec subjective contours when thecy were presented monocularly, but who could see thein whenI they were presented...a blob like that shown in (a) with a piece cut ouL Consider figure 29. For this article , the crucial point is that figure 29b appears to be

  11. Coherent Assessment of Subjective Probability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    known results of de Finetti (1937, 1972, 1974), Smith (1961), and Savage (1971) and some recent results of Lind- ley (1980) concerning the use of...provides the motivation for de Finettis definition of subjective probabilities as coherent bet prices. From the definition of the probability measure...subjective probability, the probability laws which are traditionally stated as axioms or definitions are obtained instead as theorems. (De Finetti F -7

  12. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with subjective symptoms of TMD in adults: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    PubMed

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Mack, Florian; John, Ulrich; Kocher, Thomas; Alte, Dietrich

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of exclusively representative population-based studies on adults has shown that only few and inconsistent associations could be detected between malocclusions and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)--and none for functional occlusion factors (occlusal interferences, non-working side contacts, etc). The aim of this study was to analyze associations between morphologic occlusion as well as factors of functional occlusion and subjectively perceived symptoms of TMD--again on the basis of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), providing a sample of 4310 subjects (out of 7008 subjects yielding a response rate of 68.8%) aged 20 to 81 years, and other international representative studies from the systematic review. Besides occlusal factors also parafunctions and socioeconomic status (SES) were taken into account (including age and sex). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used--adjusted for SES. In this study, none of the occlusal factors were significantly associated with the indication of more frequent subjective TMD symptoms. However, the parafunction "frequent clenching" was connected with subjective TMD symptoms (odds ratio = 3.4). Compared with other population-based studies few and (across studies) inconsistent associations between malocclusions and subjective TMD symptoms could be ascertained. No significant associations of factors of functional occlusion with TMD symptoms were identifiable.

  13. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  14. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  15. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  16. Subject position affects EEG magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Rice, Justin K; Rorden, Christopher; Little, Jessica S; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-01-01

    EEG (electroencephalography) has been used for decades in thousands of research studies and is today a routine clinical tool despite the small magnitude of measured scalp potentials. It is widely accepted that the currents originating in the brain are strongly influenced by the high resistivity of skull bone, but it is less well known that the thin layer of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) has perhaps an even more important effect on EEG scalp magnitude by spatially blurring the signals. Here it is shown that brain shift and the resulting small changes in CSF layer thickness, induced by changing the subject's position, have a significant effect on EEG signal magnitudes in several standard visual paradigms. For spatially incoherent high-frequency activity the effect produced by switching from prone to supine can be dramatic, increasing occipital signal power by several times for some subjects (on average 80%). MRI measurements showed that the occipital CSF layer between the brain and skull decreases by approximately 30% in thickness when a subject moves from prone to supine position. A multiple dipole model demonstrated that this can indeed lead to occipital EEG signal power increases in the same direction and order of magnitude as those observed here. These results suggest that future EEG studies should control for subjects' posture, and that some studies may consider placing their subjects into the most favorable position for the experiment. These findings also imply that special consideration should be given to EEG measurements from subjects with brain atrophy due to normal aging or neurodegenerative diseases, since the resulting increase in CSF layer thickness could profoundly decrease scalp potential measurements.

  17. Low insulin-like growth factor-1 levels are associated with anaemia in adult non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Caruso, Vittoria; Rudi, Stefania; Sciacqua, Angela; Andreozzi, Francesco; Hribal, Marta L; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2011-02-01

    Anaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among factors responsible for anaemia, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a plausible candidate. We evaluated the association of IGF-1 with haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and anaemia in a cohort of 1,039 Caucasians subjects. Subjects with anaemia exhibited lower IGF-1 (p=0.006), and higher hsCRP levels (p=0.003). To estimate the independent contribution of variables to Hb concentration, a multivariable regression analysis was modeled including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, IGF-1, fibrinogen, hsCRP, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). The variables significantly associated with Hb concentration were gender (p<0.0001), IGF-1 (p<0.0001), waist circumference (p=0.02), hsCRP (p<0.04), MCH (p<0.0001), MCV (p<0.0001), serum iron (p=0.001), IGF-1 (p=0.003), hsCRP (p=0.008), and waist circumference (p=0.01), accounting for 54.0% of its variation. Hb concentration was significant lower in subjects in the lowest IGF-1 quartile as compared with those in the third (p=0.02) and fourth (p=0.001). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, fibrinogen, hsCRP, MCH, MCV, serum iron, eGFR, and treatment with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, subjects in the first quartile of IGF-1 had a 2.49-fold higher risk of having anaemia as compared with those in the fourth (odds ratio 2.70, 95% confidence interval 1.02-7.16). Our data suggest that low IGF-1 may be an important contributor to mild anaemia.

  18. [Psychological problems of thalassemic subjects].

    PubMed

    Guasco, G; La Mantia, A; Cuniolo, A

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: Der Baumtest, drawing of the human figure. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).

  19. Influence of Coping, Social Support, and Depression on Subjective Health Status Among HIV-Positive Adults With Different Sexual Identities

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups. PMID:19064372

  20. Reestablishing clinical psychology's subjective core.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author suggests that the APA not only should make a place at psychology's policy making table for "clinical expertise" but should prioritize clinical and subjective sources of data -- the essence of the psychological -- and set policies to ensure that objective data, such as behaviors and DSM diagnoses, are considered in their subjective context. The APA should also encourage researchers to devise ways to preserve as much as possible the personal "feel" of the clinical encounter in their data analysis and published conclusions. The APA also needs to assign priority to subjective emotional and relational skills on a par with academic and analytic skills in the selection and training of clinical psychology students. Reconnecting clinical psychology with its subjective evidentiary roots in ways such as these should help to bring us out from under the dominance of medicine, to the benefit of our profession and our clients.

  1. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  2. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  3. On the Subjectivity of Intensifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiadou, Angeliki

    2007-01-01

    Intensification is a means of indexing the speakers' perspective. This paper attempts to show the semantic development of particular intensifiers following Langacker's framework of subjectivity. In this framework, the focus lies on the way the conceptualizer construes an event or a situation as an observer or as an experiencer with degrees of…

  4. On the Subject of Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbrook, David, Ed.

    This book begins by pointing out that although much has been written on how the drama elements of the English curriculum might be taught in schools, not much guidance is available for teachers who regard drama not as an adjunct of English but as an arts subject in its own right. The book (a collection of articles by drama experts) shows how the…

  5. Subject, Topic and Sesotho Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…

  6. Why Are School Subjects Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the contemporary debate by supporting school subjects. The article explores the technicist manner in which teachers' work is now configured and highlights ways in which competitive, output-led models and tick-list approaches have reified schools as qualification factories. Arguing for a deeper…

  7. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  8. A New Subject: Women's Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Margaret

    1974-01-01

    In 1971 the author introduced an interdisciplinary course, "Women in Modern Society," at Loyola College, Montreal, which now has a complete Women's Studies Program. She relates the development of her interest in the subject, problems encountered in obtaining support and approval, and the success of the first course with 50 students. (JT)

  9. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  10. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  11. Subjectivity, Lifeworld, and Work Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithaeuser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The bases of the article are the results of an empirical study about traditional work places in industry. There were made group discussions and special qualitative interviews with workers and employees of a German factory. The article tries to interpret and to integrate these subjective concepts in the actual discussion of theoretical perspectives…

  12. Human Subjects and Informed Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur A.

    1988-01-01

    The doctrine of informed consent has been enumerated to protect the rights of human subjects involved in biomedical research. The elements of informed consent are summarized along with the changes of emphasis that have evolved. The issue of liability and means for minimizing its impact are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  13. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  14. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

  15. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    coated with 3Z Carbowax 20 M. Serum proteins were removed by precipitation with 0.5 M percholoric acid. The clear, protein -free supernatant was...this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...no ethanol, and who according to the history had been two days without any alcohol intake . DISCUSSION The source of the 2,3-butanediol found in the

  16. [Integral assessment of learning subjects difficulties].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Shchudro, S A

    2010-01-01

    The integral criterion for subject difficulties in senior classes is substantiated in terms of progress in studies, variation coefficient, and subjective and expert appraisals of the difficulty of subjects. The compiled regression models adequately determine the difficulty of academic subjects. According to the root-mean-square deviation, all subjects were found to have 3 degrees of difficulty.

  17. Effect of Vortioxetine on Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Adult Male Subjects: Results of a Thorough QT/QTc Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Nomikos, George G; Karim, Aziz; Munsaka, Melvin; Serenko, Michael; Liosatos, Maggie; Harris, Stuart

    2013-10-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo- and positive-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated the effect of vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), an investigational multimodal antidepressant, on QT interval in accordance with current guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH-E14). A total of 340 healthy men were randomized to receive 1 of 4 treatments for 14 days: (1) vortioxetine 10 mg once daily (QD), (2) vortioxetine 40 mg QD, (3) placebo QD, or (4) placebo QD on Days 1 through 13 followed by a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg (positive control). The primary endpoint was the largest time-matched, baseline-adjusted least-squares (LS) mean difference for the individual-corrected QT interval (QTcNi [linear]) between vortioxetine and placebo. Alternative QT correction formulas (i.e., Fredericia [QTcF], Bazett [QTcB], Framingham [QTcFm], and QTcNi [nonlinear]) were used as secondary endpoints. The upper bound of the 2-sided 90% confidence interval around the LS mean difference from placebo for baseline-adjusted QTcNi (linear), QTcF, QTcB, QTcFm, and QTcNi (nonlinear) did not exceed 10 ms at any time point after multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg (therapeutic) or 40 mg (supratherapeutic). Overall, the study results indicate that vortioxetine is unlikely to affect cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects.

  18. Diseases of Anatomical Subjects (Bacteriomycosis and Entomobacteriomycosis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoli, Rene M., And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes problems with the preservation of anatomy subjects (cadavers) for subsequent studies. Occasionally, the subjects are diseased, and the process of bacteriomycosis and entomobacteriomycosis makes them worthless as anatomy subjects. (Author/ABB)

  19. Relative bioavailability and safety of aripiprazole lauroxil, a novel once-monthly, long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, following deltoid and gluteal administration in adult subjects with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turncliff, Ryan; Hard, Marjie; Du, Yangchun; Risinger, Robert; Ehrich, Elliot W

    2014-11-01

    Aripiprazole lauroxil is a linker lipid ester of aripiprazole for extended-release intramuscular (IM) injection. This multicenter, randomized, open-label study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), relative bioavailability, and tolerability of a single IM deltoid or gluteal injection of aripiprazole lauroxil in adult subjects with chronic stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Forty-six subjects were randomized 1:1 to aripiprazole lauroxil 441 mg IM in the deltoid or gluteal muscle. Samples were collected through 89 days post-dose to measure levels of aripiprazole lauroxil, N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole, aripiprazole, and dehydro-aripiprazole. Forty-three (93.5%) subjects completed all study assessments; most were CYP2D6 extensive or immediate metabolizers (96%); two (4%) were poor metabolizers. The PK of aripiprazole following aripiprazole lauroxil was characterized by a steady rise in plasma concentrations (Tmax 44-50 days), a broad peak, and prolonged exposure attributable to the dissolution of aripiprazole lauroxil and formation rate-limited elimination of aripiprazole (t1/2=15.4-19.2 days). Deltoid vs. gluteal administration resulted in slightly higher Cmax aripiprazole concentrations [1.31 (1.02, 1.67); GMR 90% CI]; total exposure (AUCinf) was similar between sites of administration [0.84 (0.57, 1.24)]. N-hydroxymethyl-aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole exposures were 10% and 33-36%, respectively, of aripiprazole exposure following aripiprazole lauroxil. The most common adverse events were injection site pain in 20 subjects (43.5%) and headache in 6 subjects (13.0%) of mild intensity occurring at a similar rate with deltoid and gluteal administration. Exposure ranges with deltoid and gluteal administration overlapped, suggesting that these sites may be used interchangeably. Despite a higher incidence of adverse events, deltoid muscle provides a more accessible injection site and could facilitate patient acceptance.

  20. Developmental aspects of automatic word processing: language lateralization of early ERP components in children, young adults and middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Reading words elicits a very early evoked potential termed "recognition potential" with a latency of about 150 ms and clearly located in left posterior regions. A review of the current literature indicates that N150 marks the automatic lexical classification of a word, is relatively independent of the task, and is followed by a later negative and more anterior component which is sensitive to the task. However, from the literature it is not clear whether the left lateralization of the neural networks involved in word recognition changes with age and experience, and how this lateralization is related with behavioral performance. To this aim, based on a previously validated paradigm [Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2006. Language lateralization in Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks: a slow evoked potential study. Behavioral Brain Research 175, 296-304; Spironelli, C., Angrilli, A., 2007. Influence of Phonological, Semantic and Orthographic tasks on the early linguistic components N150 and N350. International Journal of Psychophysiology 64, 190-198], we ran an experiment on three samples of subjects, 28 children (mean: 10 years), 22 young adults (23 years) and 20 middle-aged subjects (59 years). Subjects had to read the same sample of words in three blocked tasks, Orthographic, Phonological and Semantic, while EEG was recorded from 38 scalp locations. Analysis performed on N150 and four regions of interest/quadrants revealed typical significant left posterior negativity in young and aged subjects, but reversed lateralization and greater right negativity in children compared with the two adult groups. Analysis of the later N350 revealed a significant three-way group x laterality x task interaction, showing greater left negativity on the Phonological task only in the two adult groups, and a bilateral component in children. Results indicate that the functional lateralization of linguistic neural networks involved in automatic word recognition and in phonological

  1. Metabolic Monitoring of Hypobaric Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AL-TR-1991-0057 AD-A268 221• ~~II lI ii 111 1111 Ui!~I II II hl %- METABOUIC MONITORING OF HYPOBARIC SUBJECTS 7(A SR SM Janet F. Wiegman Sean A...62202F IPR - 7930 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - 18 Jaret F. Wiegman Robert W. Olson WU - Y1 Sean A. McLean Andrew A. Pilmanis 17. PERFrRMI,-" ORGANIZATION...Olson, J. Webb, and J. Wiegman . Effect of Isometric and Isotonic Exercise on Altitude Decompression Sickness. USAFSAM Experimental Protocol #87-15. 2

  2. Gastric digestion of α-lactalbumin in adult human subjects using capsule endoscopy and nasogastric tube sampling.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Louise M; Kehoe, Joseph J; Barry, Lillian; Buckley, Martin J M; Shanahan, Fergus; Mok, K H; Brodkorb, André

    2014-08-28

    In the present study, structural changes in the milk protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and its proteolysis were investigated for the potential formation of protein-fatty acid complexes during in vivo gastric digestion. Capsule endoscopy allowed visualisation of the digestion of the test drinks, with nasogastric tubes allowing sampling of the gastric contents. A total of ten healthy volunteers had nasogastric tubes inserted into the stomach and ingested test drinks containing 50 g/l of sucrose and 25 g/l of α-LA with and without 4 g/l of oleic acid (OA). The samples of gastric contents were collected for analysis at 3 min intervals. The results revealed a rapid decrease in the pH of the stomach of the subjects. The fasting pH of 2·31 (SD 1·19) increased to a pH maxima of pH 6·54 (SD 0·29) after ingestion, with a subsequent decrease to pH 2·22 (SD 1·91) after 21 min (n 8). Fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed partial protein unfolding, coinciding with the decrease in pH below the isoelectric point of α-LA. The activity of pepsin in the fasting state was found to be 39 (SD 12) units/ml of gastric juice. Rapid digestion of the protein occurred: after 15 min, no native protein was detected using SDS-PAGE; HPLC revealed the presence of small amounts of native protein after 24 min of gastric digestion. Mirocam® capsule endoscopy imaging and video clips (see the online supplementary material) revealed that gastric peristalsis resulted in a heterogeneous mixture during gastric digestion. Unfolding of α-LA was observed during gastric transit; however, there was no evidence of a cytotoxic complex being formed between α-LA and OA.

  3. Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dienes, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview of the use of subjective measures of unconscious knowledge. Unconscious knowledge is knowledge we have, and could very well be using, but we are not aware of. Hence appropriate methods for indicating unconscious knowledge must show that the person (a) has knowledge but (b) does not know that she has it. One way of determining awareness of knowing is by taking confidence ratings after making judgments. If the judgments are above baseline but the person believes they are guessing (guessing criterion) or confidence does not relate to accuracy (zero-correlation criterion) there is evidence of unconscious knowledge. The way these methods can deal with the problem of bias is discussed, as is the use of different types of confidence scales. The guessing and zero-correlation criteria show whether or not the person is aware of knowing the content of the judgment, but not whether the person is aware of what any knowledge was that enabled the judgment. Thus, a distinction is made between judgment and structural knowledge, and it is shown how the conscious status of the latter can also be assessed. Finally, the use of control over the use of knowledge as a subjective measure of judgment knowledge is illustrated. Experiments using artificial grammar learning and a serial reaction time task explore these issues.

  4. [Dynamic posturography in normal subjects].

    PubMed

    Salami, A; Guglielmetti, G; Bindi, G F; Dellepiane, M

    1990-01-01

    The relative lack of data on the dynamic posturography led us to start a study in order to give our contributions to the standardization of M1, M2, M3, response parameters in normal subjects. Our research was carried out on 35 normal subjects aged 21 to 50. All of them were standing in Romberg's position on a Tönnies model board in a normally lit and ventilated room. We performed two tests: the first one open-eyed staring at no point, the second, 5 minutes later, closed-eyed. The EMG signals were obtained by surface electrodes on triceps sural and front tibial muscles. The EMG recording was determined by a "tilt" movement of the board at a steady speed of 50 per sec. and 4 wide. We use a XT 286 IBM computer with "T POST" software for checking and testing the data. Our results showed a significant variation in the value of the duration parameter in open-eyed and closed-eyed tests. Latency and area values were inferior to those obtained by other authors, except for Diener and Dichgans (3) whose results differ in latency value only.

  5. Characterizing the subjective experience of episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking in healthy younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    De Brigard, Felipe; Giovanello, Kelly S; Stewart, Gregory W; Lockrow, Amber W; O'Brien, Margaret M; Spreng, R Nathan

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates remarkable overlap in the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and episodic counterfactual thinking. However, the extent to which the phenomenological characteristics associated with these mental simulations change as a result of ageing remains largely unexplored. The current study employs adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview to compare the phenomenological characteristics associated with both positive and negative episodic past, future, and counterfactual simulations in younger and older adults. Additionally, it explores the influence of perceived likelihood in the experience of such simulations. The results indicate that, across all simulations, older adults generate more external details and report higher ratings of vividness, composition, and intensity than young adults. Conversely, younger adults generate more internal details across all conditions and rated positive and negative likely future events as more likely than did older adults. Additionally, both younger and older adults reported higher ratings for sensory, composition, and intensity factors during episodic memories relative to future and counterfactual thoughts. Finally, for both groups, ratings of spatial coherence and composition were higher for likely counterfactuals than for both unlikely counterfactuals and future simulations. Implications for the psychology of mental simulation and ageing are discussed.

  6. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study on acceptability, safety and efficacy of oral administration of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to assess acceptability and side-effects of consumption of sacha inchi oil, rich in α-linolenic acid and sunflower oil, rich in linoleic acid, in adult human subjects. Thirty subjects received 10 or 15ml daily of sacha inchi or sunflower oil for 4months. Acceptability was assessed with daily self-report and with a Likert test at the end of the study. Safety was assessed with self- recording of side-effects and with hepatic and renal markers. Primary efficacy variables were the change in lipid profile. Subjects reported low acceptability of sacha inchi oil at week-1 (37.5%). However, since week-6, acceptability was significantly increased to 81.25-93.75%. No differences were observed in acceptability with respect to sex or oil volume (P>0.05). Most frequent adverse effects during first weeks of consuming sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil were nauseas. The side-effects were reduced with time. Biochemical markers of hepatic and kidney function were maintained unchanged. Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and arterial blood pressure were lowered with both oils (P<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol was observed with sacha inchi oil at month-4. In conclusion, sacha inchi oil consumed has good acceptability after week-1 of consumption and it is safety.

  7. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA.

  8. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  9. High dynamic range subjective testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.

  10. Pressure test in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.

  11. [Hearing disorders in young subjects].

    PubMed

    Kunel'skaia, N L; Skriabina, L Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the state of the hearing function and the prevalence of ear pathologies in the applicants and students of a higher education institution. A total of 44.525 subjects at the age varying from 15 to 30 years were available for the examination of whom 42.829 ones were involved in the routine medical examination programs for the applicants and students; 1696 persons presenting with acute ear diseases and impairment of hearing passed the primary medical examination in the University polyclinic. The hearing function was evaluated with the help of the speech and tuning fork tests; in part of the patients it was evaluated by tonal threshold audiometry in both the standard and the extended frequency ranges, tympanometry, registration of the ipsilateral acoustic reflex, and a questionnaire study. Chronic ear pathology is known to occur in 1.77-2.09% of the young people; it is the third most frequent condition after diseases of throat, nose, and paranasal sinuses in the structure of chronic ENT morbidity. The structure of chronic ear diseases is dominated by Eustachian tube pathology (0.99-1.4%) followed by chronic middle and inner ear diseases (0.35-0.62% and 0.15-0.26% respectively). The commonest chronic disease of the middle ear is adhesive otitis media that is accompanied by the conductive impairment of hearing in 53.5% of the cases. Next in importance is chronic suppurative otitis media associated with the conductive or mixed-type loss of hearing in 91.7% of the patients. The subclinical form of sensorineural hearing loss was found in 11.7-15.1% of the young subjects Including minimal sensorineural hearing loss (enhancement of the hearing threshold by 1-3 frequencies) in 11.7-12.4% of the patients. A frequent cause of impaired hearing in the case of chronic sensorineural hearing loss is a single or repeated acoustic trauma.

  12. Alzheimer disease pathology in subjects without dementia in 2 studies of aging: the Nun Study and the Adult Changes in Thought Study.

    PubMed

    SantaCruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Desrosiers, Mark F; Nelson, Peter T; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe(Braak stage V-VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory-impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults.

  13. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47–88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n = 47) or placebo (n = 51), using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe). Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3) (44/47) and severe SAD (43/47) than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp.) before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%)(13/44) (P < 0.01) and SAD (34.9%)(15/43)(P < 0.01) than placebo (5.1% (2/39) and 13.5% (5/37), resp.). Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs. PMID:27190539

  14. Relationship specialization amongst sources and receivers of social support and its correlations with loneliness and subjective well-being: a cross sectional study of Nepalese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chalise, Hom Nath; Saito, Tami; Takahashi, Miyako; Kai, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Social support, subjective well-being (SWB), and loneliness are issues of central importance in research concerned with the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people in the 21st century. However, very little is known about the situation in low-income countries such as in Nepal. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationships significant in social support (received (SSR) and provided (SSP)) and analyze their connections with loneliness and SWB. The subjects, not suffering from dementia, were 60 years and above living in Kathmandu city. The data was analyzed using logistic regression with some confounding variables controlled. The results indicate that loneliness is high and SWB is low amongst Nepalese older adults. SSR from children living together and SSP to spouse, children living together and friends and neighbors reduce loneliness. SSP to children living apart increases SWB-life satisfaction. SSR from children living together and SSP to children (living together and apart) increases SWB-life stability. However, SSP to relatives reduces SWB-life satisfaction and SSR from relatives reduces SWB-life stability in Nepalese older adult men.

  15. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  16. Granulocyte elastase activity and PGE2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid in relation to the presence of subgingival periodontopathogens in subjects with untreated adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, L J; Söder, P O; Leung, W K; Corbet, E F; Samaranayake, L P; Söder, B; Davies, W I

    1999-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between the levels of granulocyte elastase and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in GCE and the concomitant presence of periodontopathogens in untreated adult periodontitis (AP). GCF and subgingival plaque were sampled by paper strips and paper points respectively, from various periodontal sites in 16 AP subjects. Granulocyte elastase activity in GCF was analyzed with a low molecular weight substrate specific for granulocyte elastase, pGluProVal-pNA, and the maximal rate of elastase activity (MR-EA, mAbs/min/site) was calculated. PGE2 levels in GCF were determined by radioimmunoassay. 5 species-specific DNA probes were used to detect the presence of A. actinomyceterncomitans (A.a., ATCC 43718), B. forsythus (B.f, ATCC 43037), P. gingivalis (P.g., ATCC 33277), P. intermedia (P.i., ATCC 33563), and T. denticola (T.d., ATCC 35405), with a sensitivity of 10(3) cells/paper point. No A.a. was detectable from all sites sampled. The predominant combination of species detected was B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. and it was significantly higher at periodontitis sites (68%) than at healthy (7%) or gingivitis sites (29%) (p<0.05). Overall, MR-EA values were strongly correlated with PGE2 levels (r=0.655, p<0.001), especially at these periodontitis sites co-infected by B.f., P.g., P.i. & T.d. (r=0.722, p<0.001). The periodontitis sites co-infected by the 4 species were observable from 15 subjects. These sites were sub-grouped into 8 subjects with a high MR-EA and 7 subjects with a low MR-EA. The PGE2 levels in the high MR-EA group were significantly higher than in the low MR-EA group (p<0.05). No significant differences in clinical or bacterial data were found between the two groups. While within the high MR-EA group, similar results were found between the paired periodontitis sites in each subject with highest and lowest MR-EA values. This study shows that the local host response to bacterial challenge in untreated periodontal pockets is diverse in

  17. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  19. Housing satisfaction among chronically homeless adults: identification of its major domains, changes over time, and relation to subjective well-being and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Mares, Alvin S; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2012-06-01

    There is limited consensus on the critical domains of housing satisfaction among chronically homeless adults and little information on changes in housing satisfaction over time or whether housing satisfaction at initial entry into housing is correlated with subsequent subjective well-being or other outcomes. The current study tracked housing satisfaction over a 2-year period in a multi-site supported housing initiative and examined the predictive value of clients' housing satisfaction when they were first housed on various subjective and functional outcomes. A total of 756 participants from 11 sites were enrolled in the study. Six domains of housing satisfaction were identified: good environment, control and consumer choice, physical quality, geographic proximity to desirable resources, positive case manager contact, and frequency of landlord interaction. Over 2 years, there were slight declines in housing satisfaction on physical quality of housing and satisfaction with case manager contact, and an increase in satisfaction with landlord interaction. Consistent with some previous research, housing satisfaction was not predictive of housing tenure, clinical outcomes, or duration of program participation. While becoming housed is a significant gain for chronically homeless people, their satisfaction with housing did not predict functional outcomes.

  20. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.

  1. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  2. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  3. Promoting Subjective Well-Being at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joyce E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly shown the relationship between subjective well-being and work performance, even though there is debate over the causality of that relationship (i.e., does subjective well-being cause higher work performance or does greater work performance lead to subjective well-being?). Regardless, researchers and practitioners would agree…

  4. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  5. The Transition from Optional to Required Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Proposes that the optional subject phenomenon in early child language arises because children have not yet acquired the morphological elements (primarily modal and tense) necessary to distinguish subject-taking verbs (e.g., finite verbs) from their non-subject-taking counterparts (e.g., infinitives). (Author/CB)

  6. Ensuring Subjects' Understanding of Informed Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Deborah L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of informed consent by human subjects in experimentation presents background on the consent issue, including federal requirements; lists factors that may affect a subject's ability to understand the consent document; and offers suggestions for preparing consent forms to ensure the subject's better comprehension. (Author/MSE)

  7. Subject Access in the Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Carol A.

    This review of the research on subject access to library collections focuses on the problems of and prospects for improved online subject access to library collections. Summaries of the general findings of studies on library catalog use and catalog users and some reasons for the frequent failure of subject searches in library catalogs are followed…

  8. Subjects of Choice and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the discursive practices of neoliberal government through which the subject is constituted as a subject of choice--subjects whose life trajectory is shaped by the imperatives of a labour market in which they will become mobile and flexible workers with multiple careers and jobs. Mobility among these multiple careers…

  9. Subject Retrieval in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Contains nine papers read at the National Cataloguing Conference for 1981 of the section entitled, "Subject Retrieval in the 1980s." Topics include cost of subject access, research problems, options for automated subject access, and authority control. (Library Association of Australia, The Science Center, 35 Clarence St., Sydney, NSW…

  10. Short-term effects of particle size fractions on circulating biomarkers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects and healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Kashani, Homa; Faridi, Sasan; Kunzli, Nino; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Zare, Ahad; Pourpak, Zahra; Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud

    2017-04-01

    Systemic inflammation biomarkers have been associated with risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify associations of acute exposure to particulate matter (PM10 (PM < 10 μm), PM2.5-10 (PM 2.5-10 μm), PM2.5 (PM < 2.5 μm), PM1-2.5 (PM 1-2.5 μm), and PM1 (PM < 1 μm)) with systemic inflammation using panels of elderly subjects and healthy young adults. We followed a panel of 44 nonsmoking elderly subjects living in a retirement home and a panel of 40 healthy young adults living in a school dormitory in Tehran city, Iran from May 2012 to May 2013. Blood biomarkers were measured one every 7-8 weeks and included white blood cells (WBC), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-soluble receptor-II (sTNF-RII), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and von Willebrand factor (vWF). We measured hourly indoor and outdoor exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1 mass concentration to derive weighted averages of personal exposure based on simultaneously collected time-activity data. The random intercept linear mixed effects model was used for data analysis. We observed significant positive associations for WBC and IL-6 with exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1; sTNF-RII with PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1; hsCRP with PM2.5 and PM1; and vWF with PM10 and PM2.5-10, PM2.5, and PM1-2.5 mass concentration in elderly subjects from the current-day and multiday averages. For healthy young adults, we found significant positive associations for WBC and IL-6 with exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, and PM1-2.5, but no with PM1. The results showed that increase of hsCRP, sTNF-RII, and vWF were not significantly associated with any of the PM sizes investigated in the healthy young subjects. Our results provided some evidence that short-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5, PM1-2.5, and PM1 was associated with inflammation and coagulation blood markers, but associations were depended on PM size and also differed across the

  11. Aerodynamic estimates of induced anterior orifice openings in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Guyette, T W; Smith, B E; Reisberg, D J

    1994-05-01

    This study first examined the accuracy of pressure-flow area estimates of experimental openings in anterior palatal obturators of three adult subjects. Second, we evaluated pressure-flow measures of the same experimental openings using a model. Results indicated that percent error in orifice estimates was slightly higher for induced openings in human subjects (13%) versus those in the model (11%). Results for our human subjects were similar to those reported by previous investigators.

  12. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Langa, Kenneth M.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia—an understudied but potentially vulnerable population. Methods and findings In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses) without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737) or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247). Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory (“How would you rate your memory at the present time?”). We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC). Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y), were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus

  13. Adult and child use of love, like, don't like and hate during family mealtimes. Subjective category assessments as food preference talk.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Food preference is now a ubiquitous concept in eating research, and closely associated with actual consumption, particularly in relation to children's food preferences. Research in this area is beginning to reveal the effects of parent-child interaction on eating practices though relatively little attention has been paid to the discursive and lexical processes involved. Food preferences are typically associated with the terms 'likes' and 'dislikes' in food preference research. By contrast, adults and children typically use the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate' to construct and manage food preferences in everyday meal conversations. A corpus of 270 video- and audio-recorded English and Scottish family mealtimes, involving children aged 1-17 years, was searched and analysed for any and all occurrences of subjective category assessments (SCAs; e.g., 'I like X'), featuring the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate'. Discursive psychology was used to analyse the transcripts and recordings, and illustrated the disparity between adult and child use of SCAs and food preference talk. Within the data set, parents typically made claims about what their children like, and in doing so claimed epistemic primacy over their children's food preferences. Children, by contrast, typically made claims about their own 'don't likes' and likes, and these were frequently countered by their parents or treated as inappropriate claims. Implications for how parents and researchers might reorient to the food preferences lexicon are discussed.

  14. Subjective Invulnerability, Optimism Bias and Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between subjective invulnerability and optimism bias in risk appraisal, and their comparative association with indices of risk activity, substance use and college adjustment problems was assessed in a sample of 350 (M [subscript age] = 20.17; 73% female; 93% White/European American) emerging adults. Subjective invulnerability was…

  15. NASA aerospace database subject scope: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Outlined here is the subject scope of the NASA Aerospace Database, a publicly available subset of the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) Database. Topics of interest to NASA are outlined and placed within the framework of the following broad aerospace subject categories: aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry and materials, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical and computer sciences, physics, social sciences, space sciences, and general. A brief discussion of the subject scope is given for each broad area, followed by a similar explanation of each of the narrower subject fields that follow. The subject category code is listed for each entry.

  16. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  17. Subject-to-Subject Raising and the Syntax of Tense in L2 Spanish: A Full Access Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…

  18. Unequal treatment of human research subjects.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-02-01

    Unequal treatment of human research subjects is a significant ethical concern, because justice in research involving human subjects requires equal protection of rights and equal protection from harm and exploitation. Disputes sometimes arise concerning the issue of unequal treatment of research subjects. Allegedly unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is a genuine dispute concerning the appropriateness of equal treatment. Patently unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is not a genuine dispute about the appropriateness of equal treatment. Allegedly unequal treatment will probably always occur in research with human subjects due to disagreements about fundamental questions of justice. The best way to deal with allegedly unequal treatment is to promote honest and open discussions of the issues at stake. Research regulations can help to minimize patently unequal treatment by providing rules for investigators, ethical review boards, institutions, and sponsors to follow. However, patently unequal treatment may still occur because the regulations are subject to interpretation. Federal agencies have provided interpretive guidance that can help promote consistent review and oversight of human subjects research. Additional direction may be needed on topics that are not adequately covered by current guidance or regulations. International guidelines can help promote equal treatment of human subjects around the globe. While minor variations in the treatment of research subjects should be tolerated and even welcomed, major ones (i.e. those that significantly impact human rights or welfare) should be avoided or minimized.

  19. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  20. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  1. [Subjective well-being and self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Makino, Y; Tagami, F

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between subjective well-being and self acceptance, and to design a happiness self-writing program to increase self acceptance and subjective well-being of adolescents. In study 1, we examined the relationship between social interaction and self acceptance. In study 2, we created a happiness self-writing program in cognitive behavioral approach, and examined whether the program promoted self acceptance and subjective well-being. Results indicated that acceptance of self-openness, an aspect of self acceptance, was related to subjective well-being. The happiness self-writing program increased subjective well-being, but it was not found to have increased self acceptance. It was discussed why the program could promote subjective well-being, but not self acceptance.

  2. Enhancing Subject Access in Online Systems: The Year's Work in Subject Analysis, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Arlene G.

    1992-01-01

    Review of the 1991 literature on subject access in online systems discusses users and subject searching; subject access in online catalogs, including improvement of the database, search processing, the user interface, and user understanding; subject cataloging and indexing; information retrieval; thesaurus and indexing approaches; classification;…

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2016-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2016-07-01 2016-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  4. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2015-07-01 2015-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  5. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  6. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  7. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  8. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  9. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  10. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2002-07-01 2002-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Regulations of the Offices of the Department.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  12. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  13. Nocturnal bruxing events in healthy geriatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Okeson, J P; Phillips, B A; Berry, D T; Cook, Y; Paesani, D; Galante, J

    1990-09-01

    Thirty healthy geriatric subjects were studied during a single night of sleep in a sleep laboratory. Unilateral masseter muscle activity was recorded in addition to the standard polysomnographic study. The geriatric subjects in this study exhibited fewer bruxing events than other subjects reported in the literature. Certain conditions that have not been previously investigated, such as sleep position, type of bruxing event, and relationship to the state of the dentition, are reported.

  14. Unequal Treatment of Human Research Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Unequal treatment of human research subjects is a significant ethical concern, because justice requires that equals be treated equally. If two research subjects are the same in the relevant respects, they should be treated equally. However, not all human subjects are the same in relevant respects: people differ with respect to age, health, gender, race, mental abilities, socioeconomic status, and other characteristics. Disputes sometimes arise concerning the issue of whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and should therefore be treated equally. Allegedly unequal treatment occurs when subjects are treated differently and there is a serious dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects. Patently unequal treatment occurs when there is no significant dispute about whether subjects are the same in relevant respects and they are treated unequally. Research regulations can help to minimize patently unequal treatment by providing rules for investigators, institutional review boards, institutions, and sponsors to follow. However, patently unequal treatment may still occur because the regulations are subject to interpretation. Additional guidance may be necessary to minimize patently unequal treatment of research subjects. PMID:24879129

  15. Effects of puddings containing whey protein and polydextrose on subjective feelings of appetite and short-term energy intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Marcela; Walz, Florencia; Goñi, Eva; Passutti, Giovanna; Osella, Carlos; Drago, Silvina R

    2017-01-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of puddings with whey protein (WP) and polidextrose (PX) on appetite feelings and energy intake. A single-blind randomized, crossover study was carried out in 25 healthy adults. Participants consumed two different puddings, including control or test pudding (12.9 g WP and 6 g PX). Two testing days were completed, including satiety questionnaires and ad libitum lunch. For all participants, energy intake at lunch was similar after consumption of control or test pudding. Consumption of test pudding did not favor subjective feelings of appetite during satiation period, but it decreased iAUC for desire to eat by 24.2% (p = .049) and marginally decreased iAUC for hunger (p = .081) by 24.3% as compared with the control during the satiety. These data suggest that the consumption of pudding with WP and PX might be a useful strategy to decrease desire of eat.

  16. Year's Work in Subject Analysis: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews contributions by scholars and institutions in the fields of classification, subject headings, thesauri, indexing, abstracting, and automatic classification and indexing. Also included are works exploring the theoretical foundations of subject analysis and the history of indexing and abstracting. There are 111 references. (RAA)

  17. Year's Work in Subject Analysis: 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Jennifer A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a selective review of works in 1981 concerned with subject access to information sources, with specific discussions devoted to general and theoretical works, vocabulary management, classification schemes, subject headings, indexing, and automatic indexing and classification. A 110-item bibliography is included. (JL)

  18. Sliding Subject Positions: Knowledge and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Rowley, Harriet; Smith, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In England, adjustments to policy in teacher education have had implications for how subject knowledge is understood and for how job descriptions are defined. That is, the interface between teacher educator and subject knowledge representation has been changing. This paper reports on a wider study that considers the experience of university…

  19. Hydroxychloroquine relative bioavailability: within subject reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Tett, S; Day, R; Cutler, D

    1996-03-01

    Six healthy volunteers received hydroxychloroquine sulphate 200 mg orally on four occasions (three tablets, one solution). Maximum hydroxychloroquine blood concentration (Cmax; range 135-422 ng ml-1) and time to maximum (tmax; range 1.5-7.0 h) for the three tablet doses showed significant differences between subjects (P < 0.009; between subject coefficients of variation (CVs) 34% and 27%, respectively). There were no within subject differences in Cmax (P = 0.32; mean within subject CV 11%), Cmax corrected for weight (P = 0.28) or tmax (P = 0.35; mean within subject CV 16%). Truncated areas under the hydroxychloroquine blood concentration-time curve of the three tablets were different between (P = 0.0001) but not within subjects (P = 0.13). Again, between subject CV (38%) was more than three times the mean within subject CV (12%). Bioavailability was not limited by tablet formulation. The significant variability in relative bioavailability between but not within individuals indicated that individualising dosing to target concentrations associated with optimal outcomes may minimise variability in response.

  20. A Prestige Study of Business Education Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faidley, Ray A.; DeMuth, Audry S.

    1977-01-01

    High and low prestige factors perceived by business education teachers, chapter officers of Delta Pi Epsilon, in various business education subjects showed close agreement between high school and college teachers on the prestige attached to teaching certain subjects. Implications for curriculum and teacher education are given. (MF)

  1. Auditory perception in vestibular neurectomy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zeng, F G; Martino, K M; Linthicum, F H; Soli, S D

    2000-04-01

    The auditory efferent nerve is a feedback pathway that originates in the brainstem and projects to the inner ear. Although the anatomy and physiology of efferents have been rather thoroughly described, their functional roles in auditory perception are still not clear. Here, we report data in six human subjects who had undergone vestibular neurectomy, during which their efferent nerves were also presumably severed. The surgery had alleviated these subjects' vertigo but also resulted in mild to moderate hearing loss. We designed our experiments with a focus on the possible role of efferents in anti-masking. Consistent with previous studies, we found little effects of vestibular neurectomy on pure-tone detection and discrimination in quiet. However, we noted several new findings in all subjects tested. Efferent section increased loudness sensation (one subject), reduced overshoot effect (five subjects), accentuated 'the midlevel hump' in forward masking (two subjects), and worsened intensity discrimination in noise (four subjects). Poorer speech in noise recognition was also observed in the surgery ear than the non-surgery ear in three out of four subjects tested, but this finding was confounded by hearing loss. The present results suggest an active role of efferents in auditory perception in noise.

  2. Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…

  3. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  4. Subject Preference Regarding Three Psychotherapy Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Thomas G.

    Research has shown that therapy preference affects both the quality of the initial therapy session and treatment outcome. To determine personality characteristics which would affect subjects' preference of therapeutic orientation and to obtain qualitative information about subjects' therapy preferences, 203 community college students indicated…

  5. Preposed Subjects in Questions: Some Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipski, John M.

    1977-01-01

    The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)

  6. Subjects and Objects in Modern Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the medical model and the current cognitive model in corrections are based on a subject-object relationship between keepers and prisoners. Suggests approaches to correctional rehabilitation that facilitate transformations in prisoners' lives by relating to them as subjects rather than as objects. (JOW)

  7. Subject Access in the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turock, Betty J.; Shelton, Hildred C.

    This pilot study on the subject access problems of patrons of small to medium size libraries was designed to measure the extent to which users' vocabularies matched the search vocabulary of bibliographic records in the card catalog, and to enhance subject access by develooping a microcomputer system which integrated Library of Congress Subject…

  8. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  9. Centring the Subject in Order to Educate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    It is important for educators to recognise that the various calls to decentre the subject--or self--should not be interpreted as necessarily requiring the removal of the subject altogether. Through the individualism of the Enlightenment the self was centred. This highly individualistic notion of the sovereign self has now been decentred especially…

  10. Subject/Author Index 1968-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupidura, Eva, Ed.; Kupidura, Peter, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This 25-year index contains annotations of feature articles by subject and by author. Representative subjects include basic education, development education, empowerment, human rights, lifelong education, peace education, popular education, rural development, social/political action, technological advancement, and transformative research. Articles…

  11. Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…

  12. 46 CFR 535.201 - Subject agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject agreements. 535.201 Section 535.201 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Scope § 535.201...

  13. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment. PMID:11495403

  14. A living wage for research subjects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research.

  15. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  16. Macular dazzling test on normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Ulla, F; Louro, O; Mosquera, M

    1986-01-01

    The macular dazzling test was performed on 240 healthy eyes, classified into six groups according to the ages of the subjects. The test was used to assess both long distance and short distance vision with a simultaneous study of the influence of mydriasis and miosis. The MDT is a test easy to perform, requires a minimum of co-operation by the subject, and gives repeatable results. The MDT values increase significantly as the age of the subject increases. The sex of the subject has no influence on it, and there are no significant differences between a subject's right and left eyes. Mydriasis does not affect the MDT, but miosis reduces the recovery period. All the values are statistically greater for long distance vision than for short distance vision. PMID:3954979

  17. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  18. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Kvale, Mark N; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Cao, Yang; Chan, David; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Eshragh, Jasmin; Finn, Andrea; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lao, Richard; Lu, Yontao; Ludwig, Dana; Mathauda, Gurpreet K; McGuire, William B; Mei, Gangwu; Miles, Sunita; Mittman, Michael; Patil, Mohini; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Shapero, Michael; Shen, Ling; Shenoy, Tanu; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Wan, Eunice; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A; Wong, Simon; Zau, Chia; Zhan, Yiping; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California-San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1-95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions.

  19. Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Kyle; Kvale, Mark N; Lin, Jue; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Fang, Lynn; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; McGuire, William B; Miles, Sunita; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil; Schaefer, Catherine; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-08-01

    The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis.

  20. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  1. Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of an Oral, Inactivated Whole-Cell Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Harro, Clayton; DeNearing, Barbara; Bream, Jay; Bauers, Nicole; Dally, Len; Flores, Jorge; Van de Verg, Lillian; Sack, David A.; Walker, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Shigella causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide, but there is no licensed vaccine for shigellosis yet. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated whole-cell Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine, Sf2aWC, given orally to adult volunteers. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 82 subjects were randomized to receive three doses of vaccine in dose escalation (2.6 ± 0.8 × 108, × 109, × 1010, and × 1011 vaccine particles/ml). Vaccine safety was actively monitored, and antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were determined in serum, antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS), and fecal samples. Cytokines were measured in the serum. Sf2aWC was well tolerated and generally safe at all four dose levels. The vaccine resulted in a dose-dependent immune response. At the highest dose, the vaccine induced robust responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both serum and ALS samples. The highest magnitude and frequency of responses occurred after the first dose in almost all samples but was delayed for IgG in serum. Fifty percent of the vaccinees had a >4-fold increase in anti-LPS fecal antibody titers. Responses to invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa) were low. The levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-2, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10 were increased, and IL-8 was decreased immediately after first dose, but these changes were very transient. This phase I trial demonstrated that the Sf2aWC vaccine, a relatively simple vaccine concept, was safe and immunogenic. The vaccine elicited immune responses which were comparable to those induced by a live, attenuated Shigella vaccine that was protective in prior human challenge studies. PMID:26865592

  2. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.

  3. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kvale, Mark N.; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Cao, Yang; Chan, David; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Eshragh, Jasmin; Finn, Andrea; Gollub, Jeremy; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Lao, Richard; Lu, Yontao; Ludwig, Dana; Mathauda, Gurpreet K.; McGuire, William B.; Mei, Gangwu; Miles, Sunita; Mittman, Michael; Patil, Mohini; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Shapero, Michael; Shen, Ling; Shenoy, Tanu; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Wan, Eunice; Webster, Teresa; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Wong, Simon; Zau, Chia; Zhan, Yiping; Schaefer, Catherine; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California—San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1–95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions. PMID:26092718

  4. Why to treat subjects as fixed effects.

    PubMed

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R² targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an interaction involving subjects, they broke down the interaction into individual subject data. Courrieu and Rey's (2015) commentary argues that (a) single-subject data need not be more reliable than subject-average data, and (b) anyway, treating groups of subjects as random samples leads to valid conclusions about general mechanisms of reading. Point (a) was not part of Adelman et al.'s claim. In this reply, we examine the consequences of using the fixed-effect assumption. It (a) produces the correct target to check if by-items regression models contain all necessary variables, (b) more accurately constrains cognitive models, (c) more accurately reveals general mechanisms, and (d) can offer more powerful tests of effects. Even when individual differences are not the primary focus of a study, the fixed-effect analysis is often preferable to the random-effects analysis.

  5. Subjectivity and objectivity in analytic listening.

    PubMed

    Smith, H F

    1999-01-01

    Analysts use the concepts of subjectivity and intersubjectivity to support many different technical recommendations; this represents a misuse of theory. The dichotomy between subjectivity and objectivity is a false one. Arguing against the notion of objectivity, analysts conflate it with the idealized notion of pure objectivity and then eliminate various technical devices in its name. One cannot have a concept of subjectivity without a concept of objectivity, or an intersubjective perspective that does not include some agreed-upon concept of objectivity. The simplest definition of objectivity is a directional one. Objectivity is the perception or experience of the external; subjectivity is the perception or experience of the internal. Subjectivity and objectivity are both necessary pathways to knowledge and are dependent on each other. Any form of looking or listening does to some extent preclude another, but to speak solely from a subjective or an objective perspective represents a regression in thinking to a form of naive objectivism or naive subjectivism. Clinical examples illustrate how the forming and testing of hypotheses require the cooperation of both subjective and objective listening.

  6. Subjective judgements in scientific practice and art.

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Since art and science went their separate ways in the 18th century, the purpose of science has been to generate true knowledge based on reason and objectivity. However, during the second half of the 20th century, opinions emerged within science that showed the impossibility of eliminating subjectivity in scientific practice. This paper describes the similarity of the subjective judgements that form part of the peer-review system-the method devised by the scientific community to guarantee truth and objectivity-and the subjective judgements involved in artistic evaluation.

  7. Subjective Evaluation Of A Perceptual Quality Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles F.

    1981-12-01

    A major problem which has plagued image processing has been the lack of an effective image quality measure. It is well known that common measures which are mathematical and analytically tractable do not correlate with human subjective evaluation. This paper presents the results of a subjective evaluation on twelve versions of a black and white image (the SPIE GIRL) and the rank ordering obtained with three computational measures. It was found that a measure based on a model of the human visual system compared to the subjective evaluation with a correlation of .92.

  8. Objective and subjective probability in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Joel D

    2012-09-01

    In this paper I address the question of whether the probabilities that appear in models of stochastic gene expression are objective or subjective. I argue that while our best models of the phenomena in question are stochastic models, this fact should not lead us to automatically assume that the processes are inherently stochastic. After distinguishing between models and reality, I give a brief introduction to the philosophical problem of the interpretation of probability statements. I argue that the objective vs. subjective distinction is a false dichotomy and is an unhelpful distinction in this case. Instead, the probabilities in our models of gene expression exhibit standard features of both objectivity and subjectivity.

  9. Leakage of Experimental Information to Potential Future Subjects by Debriefed Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Edward; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Leakage of experimental information from debreifed subjects into a university subject pool was studied. It was concluded that in settings similar to those of the experiment, leakage of information is not a serious problem. (Authors)

  10. Hypothesis-testing from a limited set: an example of mentally retarded subjects outperforming college subjects.

    PubMed

    Spitz, H H; Carroll, J G; Johnson, S J

    1975-05-01

    By making a discrimination problem's solution equivalent to an hypothesis (response alternation) known to be more dominant in retarded subjects than college students, superior performance by retarded subjects can be accurately predicted.

  11. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  12. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  13. Creating Better Subject Access with Multiple Vocabularies: Upgrading the Subject Heading List for the Alzheimer's Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marilyn J.; Cochrane, Pauline Atherton

    1999-01-01

    A new subject list was generated for the Alzheimer's Association's Green-Field Library catalog, resulting in a mix of Medical Subject Headings and Library of Congress Subject Headings, augmented by local- and reviewer-supplied terms. The list gives the Library authoritative terms to use for original and copy cataloging. It can also be placed with…

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2016-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2016-10-01 2016-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  18. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  20. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1...

  1. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  2. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  3. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  4. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  6. Subject Compatibility between "Chemical Abstracts" Subject Sections and Search Profiles Used for Computerized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Inge Berg

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of relevant answers to 41 search profiles among the 80 subject sections of Chemical Abstracts" revealed that the average profile requires 10 CA-subject sections for adequate coverage. The average printing expense could be reduced 25 percent by searching the individual profiles in the appropriate subject sections. (5…

  7. In Search of Subject Matter Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Liz

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for subject-matter experts who understands that purity of content must be coupled with ensuring that the participants actually learn. Looks at ways to leverage and circulate intellectual capital within an organization. (JOW)

  8. The research subject as wage earner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James A; Weijer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The practice of paying research subjects for participating in clinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis. Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in which research subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that of unskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows? Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplace legislation and political theory. All workers, including paid research subjects under Dickert and Grady's analysis, have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week, extra pay for overtime hours, a safe workplace, no fault compensation for work-related injury, and union organization. If we accept that paid research subjects are wage earners like any other, then the implications for changes to current practice are substantial.

  9. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  10. Shifting loyalties: reconsidering psychology's subject matter.

    PubMed

    Beckstead, Zachary

    2009-09-01

    Schwarz (IPBS: Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 43:3, 2009) cogently demonstrates that in conjunction with scientific conventionalism psychology has developed a rather deficient view of their subject matter: the human being. Psychology based on an impoverished notion of empirical has rendered subjectivity or 'the measuring apparatus man' invisible. As his story implicitly demonstrates, psychologists supported by a positivistic view of science (in part to be empirical) and notion of 'objectivity' have learned to trust their 'rigorous' methods instead of their participants as capable of revealing important and interesting phenomena. If we are going to take subjectivity and experience seriously there should be a cultivation of a new attitude or orientation regarding psychology's subject matter (i.e., the human being) and science. This commentary discusses Mark Freeman's (2007) argument that the first requirement of science should be 'fidelity to the phenomena' and elaborates on the implications for psychology grounded in this view of science.

  11. Imagery limitations in totally congenitally blind subjects.

    PubMed

    De Beni, R; Cornoldi, C

    1988-10-01

    Research on totally blind subjects performing tasks that involve visual imagery has often shown that they do not behave differently from matched sighted subjects, even when their blindness is congenital. If visual imagery is based on visual perception, such tasks may not required visual imagery. In the present article visual images are considered as representations maintaining some properties of visible objects and constructed on the basis of information from various sources. Owing to the absence of visual experience, the limitations of such representations are explored in a series of experiments requiring memorization of single nouns, pairs of nouns, or triplets of nouns associated with a cue noun. Recall by blind subjects was impaired when multiple interactive images (with noun pairs and triplets) are formed. The poorer recall of blind subjects reflected also loss of order information. Recall was better for both groups with locative noun cues and high-imagery targets.

  12. Neural representations of subjective reward value.

    PubMed

    Peters, J; Büchel, C

    2010-12-01

    Decision neuroscience suggests that there exists a core network for the subjective valuation of rewards from a range of different domains, encompassing the ventral striatum and regions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), in particular the ventromedial aspect of the OFC. Here we first review ways to measure subjective value experimentally in a cognitive neuroscience context, and provide a brief overview over different types of value (outcome, goal and decision value). We then compare results of functional neuroimaging studies of subjective value representations across these different types of value. Our analysis suggests that the same region of the mOFC represents the outcome values of primary reinforcers, but also more complex decision values in which multiple dimensions of the reward need to be integrated. The subjective (hedonic) experience of processing highly valued decision options (regardless of whether they refer to actually experienced rewards or merely potential future rewards) appears to be what is reflected in value-related mOFC activity.

  13. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  14. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries in adult Nigerian subjects.

    PubMed

    Onuwe, H A; Amadi, K; Odeh, S O

    2013-12-20

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of pain among subjects who suffered from musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs).Sixty (60) subjects were assigned randomly to one of three groups: DMT group (n=20) received cryotherapy and 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis, PHONO group (n=20) received 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis and CRYO group (n=20) received cryotherapy and "sham‟ phonophoresis. Ultrasound at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm² and frequency of 1MHz was used to apply methyl salicylate while intermittent cryotherapy was the mode of application. Subjects‟ pre- and post-treatment pain perception scores (PPS) using visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed and the sessions of treatment in all groups were recorded. Treatment was administered on alternate days and discharges were made in all groups when subjects were pain free. A total of 275 treatment sessions was recorded - 72 (26.2%) in DMT, 105 (38.2%) in PHONO and 98 (35.6%) in CRYO group respectively which indicated no significant difference (P>0.05). Nineteen (19), thirteen (13) and twelve (12) subjects were pain free in DMT, CRYO or PHONO groups respectively after 1 to 5 treatments. The difference in the severity of pain was significant (P<0.05) in each group post-treatment which suggests that DMT, phonophoresis and cryotherapy were equally effective. The study has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy of DMT, but it was not superior to the single treatment protocol of phonophoresis or cryotherapy. However, it might take fewer sessions in the DMT group to treat and make more than 90% of the subjects pain free and fit to return to active performance.

  15. Subjective scaling of smooth surface friction.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Scott, S H

    1996-05-01

    1. Six men and four women, 30-51 yr of age, were asked to use the tip of the washed and dried index finger to stroke six different featureless, flat surfaces mounted on a three-dimensional force platform. The six surfaces were rosin-coated glass, glass, satin-finished aluminum, poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, Teflon, and nyloprint (polyamide plastic). The subjects were requested to indicate where the sensation produced by each surface should be placed on an unidimensional scale represented by an 18cm line labeled at one end by the words "most slippery" and at the other end by the words "most sticky." The coefficients of friction for each surface and for each subject were subsequently assessed by asking each subject to stroke the surfaces as if they were assessing its slipperiness for 5 s. 2. The finger forces normal and tangential to the stroked surfaces were digitized at 250 Hz and stored on a laboratory computer. The ratio of the mean tangential force to the mean perpendicular force during stroking was used to calculate the mean coefficient of kinetic friction. The mean friction for all subjects ranged from 0.43 for the nyloprint surface to 2.79 for the rosin-coated glass. Correlation coefficients calculated between the subjective estimates of friction and the measured coefficients of friction for each subject individually resulted in a mean correlation of 0.85 (n = 10, P < 0.001). 3. These data indicate that subjects can accurately scale relative differences in the friction of macroscopically smooth, flat surfaces, by modulating the tangential force applied to the finger while keeping the normal force relatively constant. The fact that subjects maintained a relatively constant normal force and instead varied the tangential force across different surfaces suggests that receptors sensitive to these tangential forces are important in the perception of smooth surface friction.

  16. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = −.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  17. Vergence adaptation in subjects with convergence excess.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria; Brautaset, Rune L

    2011-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the vergence adaptive ability in subjects diagnosed with convergence excess (CE) phoria (ie, subjects with an esophoric shift from distance to near but without an intermittent tropia at near). Vergence adaptation was measured at far and near with both base-in and base-out prisms using a "flashed" Maddox rod technique in 20 control subjects and 16 subjects with CE. In addition, accommodative adaptation and the stimulus AC/A and CA/C cross-links were measured. The AC/A and CA/C ratios were found to be high and low, respectively, and accommodative adaptation was found to be reduced in CE subjects as compared with the controls (P<0.005), all as predicted by the present theory. However, vergence adaptive ability was found to be reduced in the CE subjects at both distance and near and in response to both base-in and base-out prisms (P=0.002). This finding is not in accordance with and is difficult to reconcile with the present theory of CE.

  18. Human research subjects as human research workers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Holly Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. But in several ways, the regulatory scheme governing human subjects research is counter-intuitively less protective than the labor and employment laws applicable to many workers. This Article relies on analogical and legal reasoning to demonstrate that this should not be the case; in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. Bearing these important similarities in mind, the question becomes whether there is any good reason to treat subjects and protected workers differently as a matter of law. With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly.

  19. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    PubMed

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  20. On the imitation of CP gait patterns by healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rezgui, Taysir; Megrot, Fabrice; Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    The comparison of gait imitated by healthy subjects with real pathological CP gaits is expected to contribute to a better distinction between primary deviations directly induced by neurological troubles and secondary compensatory deviations in relation with the biomechanics of the pathological gait. However, the ability of healthy subjects for imitating typical CP gaits such as "jump" or "crouch" gaits still remains to be determined. The present study proposes to investigate healthy subjects imitating these typical CP gait patterns. 10 healthy adult subjects performed three types of gait: one "normal" and two imitated "jump" and "crouch" gaits. Kinematics and kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle were computed in the sagittal plane. Rectified normalized EMG was also analysed. Our data were compared with reference data. For the statistical analysis, the coefficient of multicorrelation has been used. It has been demonstrated that healthy subjects were able to voluntarily modify their gait pattern with a high level of intra-session and inter-subject reproducibility as quantified by a CMC values higher than 0.76 for all parameters. The comparison with literature reference data showed that healthy subjects not could perfectly reproduce a CP gait, however could only simulate the main characteristics of "crouch" and "jump" gaits pattern. As a perspective, pathological gaits imitated by healthy subjects could be used as valuable additional material to analyse the relationship between a voluntarily modified posture and the altered muscle activation to explore a new paradigm on pathological gait pattern analysis and musculoskeletal modelling.

  1. [Subjectivity sense, language and subject: a new postrationalist perspective in psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy.

  2. Velopharyngeal mucosal surface topography in healthy subjects and subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Christopher; Amatoury, Jason; Wang, Ziyu; Foster, Sheryl; Amis, Terence; Kairaitis, Kristina

    2017-03-01

    Macroscopic pharyngeal anatomical abnormalities are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of upper airway (UA) obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Microscopic changes in the UA mucosal lining of OSA subjects are reported; however, the impact of these changes on UA mucosal surface topography is unknown. This study aimed to 1) develop methodology to measure UA mucosal surface topography, and 2) compare findings from healthy and OSA subjects. Ten healthy and eleven OSA subjects were studied. Awake, gated (end expiration), head and neck position controlled magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the velopharynx (VP) were obtained. VP mucosal surfaces were segmented from axial images, and three-dimensional VP mucosal surface models were constructed. Curvature analysis of the models was used to study the VP mucosal surface topography. Principal, mean, and Gaussian curvatures were used to define surface shape composition and surface roughness of the VP mucosal surface models. Significant differences were found in the surface shape composition, with more saddle/spherical and less flat/cylindrical shapes in OSA than healthy VP mucosal surface models (P < 0.01). OSA VP mucosal surface models were also found to have more mucosal surface roughness (P < 0.0001) than healthy VP mucosal surface models. Our novel methodology was utilized to model the VP mucosal surface of OSA and healthy subjects. OSA subjects were found to have different VP mucosal surface topography, composed of increased irregular shapes and increased roughness. We speculate increased irregularity in VP mucosal surface may increase pharyngeal collapsibility as a consequence of friction-related pressure loss.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A new methodology was used to model the upper airway mucosal surface topography from magnetic resonance images of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and healthy adults. Curvature analysis was used to analyze the topography of the models, and a new metric was derived to describe

  3. Phenotype, hormonal profile and genotype of subjects with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: report of a family with four adult males and one child with disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, B; Philibert, P; Eunice, M; Audran, F; Paris, F; Khurana, M L; Ammini, A C; Charles, S

    2009-08-01

    There is little information on the molecular basis of intrafamilial and inter-familial phenotypic heterogeneity with the same androgen receptor (AR) mutation in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. A genetic analysis was performed in a large kindred with ambiguous genitalia and the genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed. The index case was brought for sex assignment. Family history revealed four other affected members who had hypospadias and varying degrees of virilisation. All the affected males had hemizygous mutations in the third exon of the AR gene (A596T). One was also found to have a heterozygous mutation in the fourth exon of the 5 alpha reductase type 2 gene (G196S). This affected male with double mutations was better virilised compared with the other affected members with a single mutation. The degree of virilisation correlated with serum testosterone levels. Gynaecomastia was not present in any of these subjects. It is concluded that the subject with dual gene defects also had higher levels of testosterone and pubertal virilsation. Testosterone levels possibly govern the degree of pubertal virilisation in subjects with A596T gene defects. It is not clear whether the better pubertal virilsation and higher testosterone are in any way causally related to the SRD5A2 gene defect.

  4. The neural correlates of subjective pleasantness.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-05-15

    Processing of subjective pleasantness is essential in daily life decision making, particularly in the context of cognitive and environmental factors. Pleasure is mediated by a neural network and this network has been suggested to be the biological basis of pleasure including a whole range of different modalities and domains of pleasantness. This quantitative meta-analysis of brain imaging data focuses on studies 1) based on correlations between self-reported judgements of pleasantness and brain regions and investigates whether 2) immediate (during scanning) versus subsequent judgements (after scanning) differ in brain activity. We investigated concurrence across 40 studies reporting brain regions correlated with self-reported judgements of subjective pleasantness (attractiveness, liking or beauty) by means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE). Positive correlates of subjective pleasantness were found in mOFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, left ventral striatum, pregenual cortex, right cerebellum, left thalamus and the mid cingulate cortex. Negative correlates were found in left precentral gyrus, right cerebellum and right inferior frontal gyrus. A comparison of studies with subjective pleasantness judgement during or after scanning revealed no significant differences in brain activation. We conclude that subjective pleasantness judgements are directly related to brain regions that have been described as part of the reward circuitry (mOFC, ventral striatum). The results suggest that the evaluation of likability or pleasure is an automatic process and that it is neither elicited nor enhanced by instructions to report the outcome of these judgements.

  5. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-09-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government has regulated research involving human subjects. With current procedures, a proposal soliciting federal funds for a research project involving human subjects will be flagged by the applicants institution and checked for compliance with appropriate regulations. However, there is a large body of Physics Education Research that is not federally funded and thus may not be flagged. Nevertheless, there are ethical standards that apply to this research. This paper outlines the preliminary considerations for conducting such research.

  6. Subjective video quality comparison of HDTV monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.

  7. Decoding subjective decisions from orbitofrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Erin L.; Wallis, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    When making a subjective choice, the brain must compute a value for each option and compare those values to make a decision. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critically involved in this process, but the neural mechanisms remain obscure, in part due to limitations in our ability to measure and control the internal deliberations that can alter the dynamics of the decision process. Here, we tracked the dynamics by recovering temporally precise neural states from multi-dimensional data in OFC. During individual choices, OFC alternated between states associated with the value of two available options, with dynamics that predicted whether a subject would decide quickly or vacillate between the two alternatives. Ensembles of value-encoding neurons contributed to these states, with individual neurons shifting activity patterns as the network evaluated each option. Thus, the mechanism of subjective decision-making involves the dynamic activation of OFC states associated with each choice alternative. PMID:27273768

  8. Dichotic listening in commissurotomized and hemispherectomized subjects.

    PubMed

    Corballis, M C; Ogden, J A

    1988-01-01

    Three commissurotomized and two left-hemispherectomized subjects were tested on spoken report of sequences of three dichotic pairs of digits. With instruction to report only one digit from each pair, there was an overall advantage to the ear contralateral to the hemisphere mediating speech, but report of ipsilateral-ear digits ranged from 40 to 100%. In commissurotomized subjects, the more extreme ipsilateral suppression under instructions to report all digits may be due to failure to gain access to unattended information stored in the right hemisphere, rather than to suppression of the ipsilateral pathway. However one commissurotmized patient did appear to have access to right-hemisphere items, the result either of subcortical transfer or of external cross-cueing. The hemispherectomized subjects seemed able to store both attended and unattended information in the same hemisphere.

  9. Ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing-Guo; Hansen, James E; Garatachea, Nuria; Storer, Thomas W; Wasserman, Karlman

    2002-12-01

    When evaluating dyspnea in patients with heart or lung disease it is useful to measure the quantity of ventilation needed to eliminate metabolically produced CO2 (i.e., the ventilatory efficiency). Mathematically, the relationship between ventilation (VE) and CO2 output is determined by the arterial CO2 pressure and the physiologic dead space-tidal volume ratio. We decided to determine how age, sex, size, fitness, and the type of ergometer influenced ventilatory efficiency in normal subjects. Three methods were compared for expressing this relationship: (1) the VE versus CO2 output slope below the ventilatory compensation point, commonly used by cardiologists for estimating the severity of heart failure; (2) the VE/CO2 output ratio at the anaerobic threshold, commonly used by pulmonologists; and (3) the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio during exercise, the latter parameter not previously reported. We studied 474 healthy adults, between 17 and 78 years of age during incremental cycle and treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise tests at three test sites, correcting the total VE for the equipment dead space. The lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was insignificantly different from the ratio at the anaerobic threshold, less variable than that for the slope relationship, and unaffected by the site, ergometer, and gas exchange measurement systems. The regression equation for the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was 27.94 + 0.108 x age + (0.97 = F, 0.0 = M) - 0.0376 x height, where age is in years and height is in centimeters. We conclude that the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio is the preferred noninvasive method to estimate ventilatory inefficiency.

  10. Acquiring Constraints on Morphosyntactic Variation: Children's Spanish Subject Pronoun Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Naomi Lapidus

    2016-01-01

    Constraints on linguistic variation are consistent across adult speakers, yielding probabilistic and systematic patterns. Yet, little is known about the development of such patterns during childhood. This study investigates Spanish subject pronoun expression in naturalistic data from 154 monolingual children in Mexico, divided into four age…

  11. Career Decidedness as a Predictor of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…

  12. The Development of Contour Interpolation: Evidence from Subjective Contours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Adults are skilled at perceiving subjective contours in regions without any local image information (e.g., [Ginsburg, 1975] and [Kanizsa, 1976]). Here we examined the development of this skill and the effect thereon of the support ratio (i.e., the ratio of the physically specified contours to the total contour length). Children (6-, 9-, and…

  13. Social Relationships and Children's Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Haridhan

    2012-01-01

    The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…

  14. Ethical genetic research on human subjects.

    PubMed

    Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    Since the Nuremberg trials and the Nazi doctors trial following World War II, international ethics protocols have emerged designed to protect human subjects from the atrocities of medical experimentation that were literally routine under the Nazis. Some of the apparent "lessons" from the Nazi period have been encapsulated in the Declaration of Helsinki, perhaps the leading medical ethics protocol. This paper argues that these protocols have not been notably conducive to human welfare or to the protection of human rights in the field of human genetics research. The paper proposes new protocols and a new approach to the ethics of research on human subjects.

  15. Subjective measures and clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Delitto, A

    1989-07-01

    I have attempted to use Feinstein's model of clinimetric indexes and his criteria as a focus for further development of measures that in physical therapy are currently considered "soft" or "subjective". I feel this development will enhance the body of knowledge by objectifying a portion of clinical assessment (eg, the patient's complaints, "subjective" portion of the POMR's SOAP format) that is in tremendous need of quantification. By making these "soft" data "hard," I feel we will enhance the decision-making power of clinicians.

  16. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  17. Synchronicity of frequently sampled thyrotropin (TSH) and leptin concentrations in healthy adults and leptin-deficient subjects: evidence for possible partial TSH regulation by leptin in humans.

    PubMed

    Mantzoros, C S; Ozata, M; Negrao, A B; Suchard, M A; Ziotopoulou, M; Caglayan, S; Elashoff, R M; Cogswell, R J; Negro, P; Liberty, V; Wong, M L; Veldhuis, J; Ozdemir, I C; Gold, P W; Flier, J S; Licinio, J

    2001-07-01

    Leptin signals the status of energy reserves to the brain. Leptin stimulates biosynthesis of TRH in vitro and influences the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in vivo in rodents. Because blood levels of both leptin and TSH display diurnal variation with a distinct nocturnal rise, we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between fluctuations in circulating leptin and TSH. We measured serum leptin and TSH levels every 7 min for 24 h in five healthy men and found that both leptin and TSH levels are highly organized and pulsatile. A similar pattern of leptin and TSH rhythms was observed, with TSH and leptin levels reaching a nadir in late morning and a peak in the early morning hours. Importantly, cosinor analysis on the absolute leptin and TSH levels revealed a statistically significant fit for a 24-h period and the two hormones showed similar probabilities of rhythm and superimposable peak values. Furthermore, this study shows a strong positive Pearson correlation between the 24-h patterns of variability of leptin and TSH in healthy subjects. Finally, the ultradian fluctuations in leptin levels showed pattern synchrony with those of TSH as determined by cross-correlation analysis, by cross-approximate enthropy and Bayessian analysis applied independently. To further explore whether these associations could reflect an underlying regulation of TSH secretion by leptin, we also studied frequently sampled leptin and TSH levels in four brothers, members of a family with leptin deficiency (one normal homozygote, two heterozygotes, and one leptin-deficient homozygote). Leptin levels of the homozygous leptin-deficient subject are detectable but bioinactive, and the rhythm of his TSH is disorganized. 24-h pattern of leptin and TSH variability in the heterozygous subjects, although significantly correlated, showed a weaker correlation compared with the strong correlation in the normal subjects. These data are consistent with the possibility that

  18. Prevalence, Clinical Profile, Iron Status, and Subject-Specific Traits for Excessive Erythrocytosis in Andean Adults Living Permanently at 3,825 Meters Above Sea Level

    PubMed Central

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Huicho, Luis; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Wise, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is a prevalent condition in populations living at high altitudes (> 2,500 m above sea level). Few large population-based studies have explored the association between EE and multiple subject-specific traits including oxygen saturation, iron status indicators, and pulmonary function. METHODS: We enrolled a sex-stratified and age-stratified sample of 1,065 high-altitude residents aged ≥ 35 years from Puno, Peru (3,825 m above sea level) and conducted a standardized questionnaire and physical examination that included spirometry, pulse oximetry, and a blood sample for multiple clinical markers. Our primary objectives were to estimate the prevalence of EE, characterize the clinical profile and iron status indicators of subjects with EE, and describe subject-specific traits associated with EE. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of EE was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.3%-6.0%). Oxygen saturation was significantly lower among EE than non-EE group subjects (85.3% vs 90.1%, P < .001) but no difference was found in iron status indicators between both groups (P > .09 for all values). In multivariable logistic regression, we found that age ≥ 65 years (OR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.16-5.09), male sex (3.86, 1.78-9.08), having metabolic syndrome (2.66, 1.27-5.75) or being overweight (5.20, 1.95-16.77), pulse oximetry < 85% (14.90, 6.43-34.90), and % predicted FVC < 80% (13.62, 4.40-41.80) were strongly associated with EE. Attributable fractions for EE were greatest for being overweight (26.7%), followed by male sex (21.5%), pulse oximetry < 85% (16.4%), having metabolic syndrome (14.4%), and % predicted FVC < 80% (9.3%). CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower prevalence of EE than in previous reports in the Peruvian Andes. Although the presence of hypoxemia and decreased vital capacity were strongly associated with excessive erythrocytosis, being overweight or having metabolic syndrome were associated with an important fraction of cases in our study population. PMID

  19. Enframing Geography: Subject, Curriculum, Knowledge, Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The word "geo-graphy" means "writing the earth". The subject of geography bears responsibility for engaging, constituting and configuring world knowledge, in other words, what the world is. This paper describes an enquiry into the nature of school geographical knowledge at a time of curriculum policy reform. In 2010, the newly…

  20. On the subjectivity of personality theory.

    PubMed

    Atwood, G E; Tomkins, S S

    1976-04-01

    Every theorist of personality views the human condition from the unique perspective of his own individuality. As a consequence, personality theories are strongly influenced by personal and subjective factors. These influences are partially responsible for the present day lack of consensus in psychology as to basic conceptual frameworks for the study of man. The science of human personality can achieve a greater degree of consensus and generality only if it begins to turn back on itself and question its own psychological foundations. The role of subjective and personal factors in this field can be studied and made more explicit by means of a psychobiographical method which interprets the major ideas of personality theories in the light of the formative experiences in the respective theorists' lives. This method is briefly illustrated by an examination of the influence of personal experiences on theoretical concepts in the work of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Wilhelm Reich, and Gordon Allport. The subjective factors disclosed by psychobiographical analysis can bee seen to interact with influences stemming from the intellectual and historical context within which the theorist work. The psychobiographical study of personality theory is only one part of a larger discipline, the psychology of knowledge, which would study the role of subjective and personal factors in the structure of man's knowledge in general.

  1. Subjective evaluation of HEVC in mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari

    2013-03-01

    Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.

  2. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government…

  3. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  4. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau.

  5. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  6. Punctuation in Library of Congress Subject Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Hilda

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the punctuation of the eighth edition Library of Congress Subject Headings reveals that the hyphen, coma and parentheses are most often used. Examples of these and the use of the apostrophe, dash, and period are discussed. (Author/MBR)

  7. Dissociative Mothers' Subjective Experience of Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 54 mothers with a dissociative disorder, 20 mothers with other mental problems, and 20 normal mothers investigated what effect, if any, dissociation had on parenting. When tested on the Subjective Experiences of Parenting Scale, mothers with dissociation presented significantly more negative parenting behavior and attitudes. (CR)

  8. "Being Good" at Maths: Fabricating Gender Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronaki, Anna; Pechtelidis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Current research in mathematics education places emphasis on the analysis of men and women's accounts about their life trajectories and choices for studying, working and developing a career that involves the learning and teaching of mathematics. Within this realm, the present study aims to highlight how mathematics, gender and subjectivity become…

  9. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  10. Subjective Wellbeing: Telling Only Half the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckersley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A new paper presents a strong case for life satisfaction scales (Diener et al. in "Soc Indic Res," 2012). However, it underestimates two important weaknesses in subjective wellbeing (SWB) measures: the contrast between individual satisfaction and social discontent; and the contradictory evidence on the benefits of personal freedom. This commentary…

  11. Protection of Human Subjects: Proposed Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1974

    1974-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 30, 1974, regulations were published as Part 46 of Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations providing generally for the protection of human subjects involved in research, development, or related activities supported by Department of Health, Education, and Welfare grants or contracts. This notice of proposed…

  12. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  13. Impossible Subjects: Writing, Ethics, and Radical Alterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes-Burton, Cynthia

    One way to "reinitiate" possible productive responses to the question of the subject for composition theory and pedagogy is to defuse the terror of the "impossible," to "negotiate" with the impossible, and to ask impossible questions. Although there are dangers associated with any critical theorizing about the subject…

  14. Excessive Interviews: Listening to Maternal Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willink, Kate

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits an interview with Ava Montalvo--a mother of two living in Albuquerque, New Mexico--which initially confounded her interpretive resources. This reflexive, performative article examines the role of excess as an analytical lens through which to understand maternal subjectivity and elaborates the methodological…

  15. Auto- Versus Heterohypnosis: Behavioral and Subjective Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn S.; Weight, David G.

    This paper examines and compares tyo hypnotic modes in terms of behavioral and experimental responses. The two modes are: (1) autohypnosis and (2) heterohypnosis. The two types of hypnosis experiences were administered to each of two randomly assigned groups. Subjects were 25 male and 23 female volunteer introductory psychology students. The…

  16. Beyond Useful Knowledge: Developing the Subjective Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wringe, Colin

    2015-01-01

    While not underestimating the value of useful knowledge and skills, it is suggested that education should also develop the subjective self of the learner. A distinction is drawn between an "additive" view of education which simply furnishes the individual with knowledge and skills and a "transformative" concept which concerns…

  17. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  18. The Future for Mathematics Subject Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Subject associations have developed, over the years, to serve the interests of the mathematics education community. We live in changing times, and education is often at the forefront of such change. So, to remain contemporary, relevant, and to have a regard for the future in a world influenced by technology, it is suggested that there is a need…

  19. Neighborhood Disorder, Subjective Alienation, and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2009-01-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry…

  20. Religious Culture as a School Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozyrev, F. N.; Avest, K. H. ter

    2007-01-01

    In Russia a new school subject has been introduced in order to facilitate educators in shaping the enculturation process of the autonomous student into the cumulative tradition. In this article the Russian societal and educational context is described and the concepts "religion" and "culture" are clarified. Together they build…

  1. Career Construction and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Taber, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Experienced happiness and reported life contentment represent cardinal elements of subjective well-being (SWB). Achieving happiness and contentment with work and other domains, such as love, play, and community, constitute fundamental life goals. Career construction offers a developmental theory of vocational behavior and a career assessment and…

  2. National accounts of subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    Diener (2000) proposed that National Accounts of Well-Being be created to complement existing economic and social indicators that reflect the quality of life in nations. These national accounts can provide valuable information to policymakers and other leaders. Systematic measurement of subjective well-being provides novel information about the quality of life in societies, and it allows for the accumulation of detailed information regarding the circumstances that are associated with high subjective well-being. Thus, accounts of subjective well-being can help decision makers evaluate policies that improve societies beyond economic development. Progress with well-being accounts has been notable: Prestigious scientific and international institutions have recommended the creation of such national accounts, and these recommendations have been adopted in some form in over 40 nations. In addition, increasing research into policy-relevant questions reveals the importance of the accounts for policy. Psychologists can enlarge their role in the formulation and adoption of policies by actively studying and using accounts of subjective well-being to evaluate and support the policies they believe are needed.

  3. Consciousness of subjective time in the brain.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Lars; Kim, Alice S N; Habib, Reza; Levine, Brian; Tulving, Endel

    2010-12-21

    "Mental time travel" refers to conscious experience of remembering the personal past and imagining the personal future. Little is known about its neural correlates. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the hypothesis that mental time travel into "nonpresent" times (past and future) is enabled by a special conscious state (chronesthesia). Well-trained subjects repeatedly imagined taking one and the same short walk in a familiar environment, doing so either in the imagined past, present, or future. In an additional condition, they recollected an instance in which they actually performed the same short walk in the same familiar setting. This design allowed us to measure brain activity correlated with "pure" conscious states of different moments of subjective time. The results showed that the left lateral parietal cortex was differentially activated by nonpresent subjective times compared with the present (past and future > present). A similar pattern was observed in the left frontal cortex, cerebellum, and thalamus. There was no evidence that the hippocampal region is involved in subjective time travel. These findings provide support for theoretical ideas concerning chronesthesia and mental time travel.

  4. Subjective rating scales: science or art?

    PubMed

    Annett, John

    2002-11-15

    Subjective rating scales are widely used in almost every aspect of ergonomics research and practice for the assessment of workload, fatigue, usability, annoyance and comfort, and lesser known qualities such as urgency and presence, but are they truly scientific? This paper raises some of the key issues as a basis for debate. First, it is argued that all empirical observations, including those conventionally labelled as 'objective', are unavoidably subjective. Shared meaning between observers, or intersubjectivity, is the key criterion of scientific probity. The practical steps that can be taken to increase intersubjective agreement are discussed and the well-known sources of error and bias in human judgement reviewed. The role of conscious experience as a mechanism for appraising the environment and guiding behaviour has important implications for the interpretation of subjective reports. The view that psychometric measures do not conform to the requirements of truly 'scientific' measurement is discussed. Human judgement of subjective attributes is essentially ordinal and, unlike physical measures, can be matched to interval scales only with difficulty, but ordinal measures can be used successfully both to develop and test substantive theories using multivariate statistical techniques. Constructs such as fatigue are best understood as latent or inferred variables defined by a set of manifest or directly observed indicator variables. Both construct validity and predictive validity are viewed from this perspective and this helps to clarify several problems including the dissociation between measures of different aspects of a given construct, the question of whether physical (e.g. physiological) measures should be preferred to subjective measures and whether a single measure of constructs which are essentially multidimensional having both subjective and physical components is desirable. Finally, the fitness of subjective ratings to different purposes within the broad

  5. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects.

  6. Subjective acceleration of time experience in everyday life across adulthood.

    PubMed

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-12-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608; Study 2: N = 398), participants completed a web-based version of the day reconstruction method. In Study 3 (N = 392) participants took part in a newly developed tomorrow construction method, a web-based experimental method for assessing everyday life plans. Results confirmed that older adults' subjective interpretation of everyday episodes is that these episodes pass more quickly compared with younger adults. The subjective acceleration of time experience in old age was more pronounced during productive activities than during regenerative-consumptive activities. The age differences were partly related to limited time remaining in life. In addition, subjective acceleration of time experience was associated with positive evaluations of everyday activities. Findings suggest that subjective acceleration of time in older adults' daily lives reflects an adaptation to limitations in time remaining in life. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Introduction to Subject Indexing; A Programmed Text. Volume One: Subject Analysis and Practical Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan George

    This programed text presents the basic principles and practices of subject indexing--limited to the area of precoordinate indexing. This first of two volumes deals with the subject analysis of documents, primarily at the level of summarization, and the basic elements of translation into classification schemes. The text includes regular self-tests…

  8. Introduction to Subject Indexing; a Programmed Text. Volume Two: UDC and Chain Procedure in Subject Cataloguing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. G.; And Others

    This is the second of two volumes dealing with practical classification and subject indexing. The programed text considers use of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and techniques of cross referencing based on UDC in the construction of classified and alphabetical subject catalogs. (Author/LS)

  9. 76 FR 54408 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Menikoff, M.D., J.D., Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP), Department of Health and Human Services... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Parts 50 and 56 Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects...

  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... policy, ; 86.9 Distribution, 86.9(c) Notification of policy, ; 86.9(a) Publications, 86.9(b) Dress codes... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Distribution, 106.9(c) Notification of policy, ; 106.9(a) Publications, 106.9(b) Dress codes 106.31(b) (4) E... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of...

  12. Effects of Subject-Area Degree and Classroom Experience on New Chemistry Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science…

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  17. 19 CFR 191.3 - Duties and fees subject or not subject to drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: (i) Duties paid on an entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption for which liquidation... consumption, for which liquidation has not become final, subject to the conditions and requirements of § 191... warehouse, for consumption for which the duties are paid, subject to the conditions and requirements...

  18. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic interaction between repeated doses of rifapentine or rifampin and a single dose of bedaquiline in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Murray, Stephen; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the effects of rifapentine or rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of bedaquiline and its M2 metabolite in healthy subjects using a two-period single-sequence design. In period 1, subjects received a single dose of bedaquiline (400 mg), followed by a 28-day washout. In period 2, subjects received either rifapentine (600 mg) or rifampin (600 mg) from day 20 to day 41, as well as a single bedaquiline dose (400 mg) on day 29. The pharmacokinetic profiles of bedaquiline and M2 were compared over 336 h after the administration of bedaquiline alone and in combination with steady-state rifapentine or rifampin. Coadministration of bedaquiline with rifapentine or rifampin resulted in lower bedaquiline exposures. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the maximum observed concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve to the last available concentration time point (AUC0-t), and AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf) of bedaquiline were 62.19% (53.37 to 72.47), 42.79% (37.77 to 48.49), and 44.52% (40.12 to 49.39), respectively, when coadministered with rifapentine. Similarly, the GMRs and 90% CIs for the Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of bedaquiline were 60.24% (51.96 to 69.84), 41.36% (37.70 to 45.36), and 47.32% (41.49 to 53.97), respectively, when coadministered with rifampin. The Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-inf of M2 were also altered when bedaquiline was coadministered with rifapentine or rifampin. Single doses of bedaquiline, administered alone or with multiple doses of rifapentine or rifampin, were well tolerated, with no safety concerns related to coadministration. Daily administration of rifapentine to patients with tuberculosis presents the same drug interaction challenges as rifampin and other rifamycins. Strong inducers of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 should be avoided when considering the use of bedaquiline. (This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT02216331.).

  19. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Repeated Doses of Rifapentine or Rifampin and a Single Dose of Bedaquiline in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J.; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of rifapentine or rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of bedaquiline and its M2 metabolite in healthy subjects using a two-period single-sequence design. In period 1, subjects received a single dose of bedaquiline (400 mg), followed by a 28-day washout. In period 2, subjects received either rifapentine (600 mg) or rifampin (600 mg) from day 20 to day 41, as well as a single bedaquiline dose (400 mg) on day 29. The pharmacokinetic profiles of bedaquiline and M2 were compared over 336 h after the administration of bedaquiline alone and in combination with steady-state rifapentine or rifampin. Coadministration of bedaquiline with rifapentine or rifampin resulted in lower bedaquiline exposures. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the maximum observed concentration (Cmax), area under the concentration-time curve to the last available concentration time point (AUC0–t), and AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0–inf) of bedaquiline were 62.19% (53.37 to 72.47), 42.79% (37.77 to 48.49), and 44.52% (40.12 to 49.39), respectively, when coadministered with rifapentine. Similarly, the GMRs and 90% CIs for the Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–inf of bedaquiline were 60.24% (51.96 to 69.84), 41.36% (37.70 to 45.36), and 47.32% (41.49 to 53.97), respectively, when coadministered with rifampin. The Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–inf of M2 were also altered when bedaquiline was coadministered with rifapentine or rifampin. Single doses of bedaquiline, administered alone or with multiple doses of rifapentine or rifampin, were well tolerated, with no safety concerns related to coadministration. Daily administration of rifapentine to patients with tuberculosis presents the same drug interaction challenges as rifampin and other rifamycins. Strong inducers of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 should be avoided when considering the use of bedaquiline. (This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under identifier

  20. Extended Broca's area in the functional connectome of language in adults: combined cortical and subcortical single-subject analysis using fMRI and DTI tractography.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Golby, Alexandra; Wells, William M; Pujol, Sonia; Tie, Yanmei; Rigolo, Laura; Yarmarkovich, Alexander; Pieper, Steve; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Jolesz, Ferenc; Kikinis, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Traditional models of the human language circuitry encompass three cortical areas, Broca's, Geschwind's and Wernicke's, and their connectivity through white matter fascicles. The neural connectivity deep to these cortical areas remains poorly understood, as does the macroscopic functional organization of the cortico-subcortical language circuitry. In an effort to expand current knowledge, we combined functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to explore subject-specific structural and functional macroscopic connectivity, focusing on Broca's area. Fascicles were studied using diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking seeded from volumes placed manually within the white matter. White matter fascicles and fMRI-derived clusters (antonym-generation task) of positive and negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal were co-registered with 3-D renderings of the brain in 12 healthy subjects. Fascicles connecting BOLD-derived clusters were analyzed within specific cortical areas: Broca's, with the pars triangularis, the pars opercularis, and the pars orbitaris; Geschwind's and Wernicke's; the premotor cortex, the dorsal supplementary motor area, the middle temporal gyrus, the dorsal prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar region. We found a functional connectome divisible into three systems-anterior, superior and inferior-around the insula, more complex than previously thought, particularly with respect to a new extended Broca's area. The extended Broca's area involves two new fascicles: the operculo-premotor fascicle comprised of well-organized U-shaped fibers that connect the pars opercularis with the premotor region; and (2) the triangulo-orbitaris system comprised of intermingled U-shaped fibers that connect the pars triangularis with the pars orbitaris. The findings enhance our understanding of language function.

  1. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent.

  2. A Session Type System with Subject Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Keigo; Yuen, Shoji; Agusa, Kiyoshi

    Distributed applications and services have become pervasive in our society due to the widespread use of internet and mobile devices. There are urgent demands to efficiently ensure safety and correctness of such software. A session-type system is a framework to statically check whether communication descriptions conform to certain protocols. They are shown to be effective yet simple enough to fit in harmony with existing programming languages. In the original session type system, the subject reduction property does not hold. This paper establishes a conservative extension of the original session type system with the subject reduction property. Finally, it is also shown that our typing rule properly extends the set of typeable processes.

  3. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.

  4. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects.

  5. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.

  6. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M. Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient’s response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper’s main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques—including Jackson’s Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)—relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software’s usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training. PMID:26938648

  7. The subjective brain, identity, and neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant R

    2009-09-01

    The human brain is subjective and reflects the life of a being-in-the-world-with-others whose identity reflects that complex engaged reality. Human subjectivity is shaped and in-formed (formed by inner processes) that are adapted to the human life-world and embody meaning and the relatedness of a human being. Questions of identity relate to this complex and dynamic reality to reflect the fact that biology, human ecology, culture, and one's historic-political situation are inscribed in one's neural network and have configured its architecture so that it is a unique and irreplaceable phenomenon. So much is a human individual a relational being whose own understanding and ownership of his or her life is both situated and distinctive that neurophilosophical conceptions of identity and human activity that neglect these features of our being are quite inadequate to ground a robust neuroethics.

  8. Teaching physics as a service subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, T. L.; Hayes, M.

    1986-07-01

    At South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education physics is taught over a wide range of courses. In addition to the more conventional courses found in science, technology and education faculties there is a physics input into areas such as beauty therapy, applied biology, catering, chiropody, dental technology, environmental health, food technology, hairdressing, human-movement studies, industrial design, applied life sciences, marine technology, medical laboratory science, physiological measurement, nursing and speech therapy. Due to the fundamental differences in emphasis required when teaching physics as a 'minor' subject on these types of courses, and since the authors have no courses which lead to a 'major' physics qualification, it is necessary to develop a rational strategy for teaching physics as a 'service' subject. If this is not achieved then staff satisfaction and student interest are likely to suffer. They describe their strategy.

  9. The responsible subject in the global age.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Elena

    2010-09-01

    The first thesis of this article is that the concept of responsibility takes on an unprecedented meaning in the twentieth century resulting from the emergence of a new dimension of the other: to be responsible comes to mean not just to account for oneself in relation to the other, but also to take the other into account, to take care of the other-what I call responsibility towards (the other). The main reason for this change consists in the emergence of global risks and the necessity, as underlined by Hans Jonas, to be responsible for the destiny of the world and future generations. The problem, as explored in the article's second thesis, is that this implies the existence of a subject who is capable of responsibility. Jonas's insights on this point are insufficient, since he only recognizes duty as the fundament for his ethics of responsibility and thus neglects the problem of motivation. This is a particularly crucial problem today as we are witnessing the presence of a pathological subject, characterized by a split in his faculties (between doing and imagining, knowing and feeling). To underline this fact, this article makes use of Günther Anders's reflections, which provide a psycho-anthropological analysis of the subject, showing his pathologies and the necessity, from a moral perspective, to overcome his scission. Finally, this author suggests, as the article's third thesis, that this overcoming is the necessary fundament for the perception of risk, which in turn reinstates the subject's perception of his own vulnerability. Responsibility thus finds a motivation, which is neither altruistic nor duty-centred, in the awareness of our own vulnerability and the bond with the destiny of humankind as a whole.

  10. Methodology for Subjective Assessment of Technological Advancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    industrial and university backgrounds, may be desirable. -4- to support the effort. But other information is desirable: Is the subject of R&D being...ignored completely by other supporters (in the DoD and other federal agencies) and by private industry ? What are our allies doing in the area? The...statistics13 and the theory of psychological 14 measurement. It is easy to see how careless selection methods could reflect institutional rivalries and

  11. Ultrafine particle deposition in subjects with asthma.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, David C; Morrow, Paul E; Oberdörster, Günter; Utell, Mark J; Frampton, Mark W

    2004-06-01

    Ambient air particles in the ultrafine size range (diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter. However, there are few data on ultrafine particle deposition during spontaneous breathing, and none in people with asthma. Sixteen subjects with mild to moderate asthma were exposed for 2 hr, by mouthpiece, to ultrafine carbon particles with a count median diameter (CMD) of 23 nm and a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. Deposition was measured during spontaneous breathing at rest (minute ventilation, 13.3 +/- 2.0 L/min) and exercise (minute ventilation, 41.9 +/- 9.0 L/min). The mean +/- SD fractional deposition was 0.76 +/- 0.05 by particle number and 0.69 +/- 0.07 by particle mass concentration. The number deposition fraction increased as particle size decreased, reaching 0.84 +/- 0.03 for the smallest particles (midpoint CMD = 8.7 nm). No differences between sexes were observed. The deposition fraction increased during exercise to 0.86 +/- 0.04 and 0.79 +/- 0.05 by particle number and mass concentration, respectively, and reached 0.93 +/- 0.02 for the smallest particles. Experimental deposition data exceeded model predictions during exercise. The deposition at rest was greater in these subjects with asthma than in previously studied healthy subjects (0.76 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.10, p < 0.001). The efficient respiratory deposition of ultrafine particles increases further in subjects with asthma. Key words: air pollution, asthma, deposition, dosimetry, inhalation, ultrafine particles.

  12. Subjective effects of transdermal nicotine among nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-04-01

    The subjective experience of nicotine, which may be influenced by personality traits as well as environmental factors, may be important for understanding the factors associated with the initiation and maintenance of nicotine dependence. The present study examined the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine among a relatively large sample (n = 91; 44 women) of college-aged nonsmokers. Using a placebo controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, nicotine's effects were examined at rest and again after participants completed a sustained attention task. Sex and personality factors (Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Approach; BIS/BAS Scales; Carver & White, 1994) were examined as potential moderators. Overall, the effects of nicotine were generally modest and unpleasant. In the context of the cognitive task, nicotine increased nausea and negative affect but reduced fatigue, relative to placebo. In contrast, effects of nicotine during the initial 4 hr of patch administration, in which participants were in their natural environments, were moderated by individual differences in behavioral approach. Neither behavioral inhibition nor gender reliably moderated any subjective effects of nicotine. The present work suggests transdermal nicotine exerts only modest, mostly negative effects among nonsmokers. Future work should examine both contextual and personality moderators in large samples of participants who are exposed to nicotine through multiple routes of administration.

  13. Subjective refraction: the mechanism underlying the routine.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F

    2007-11-01

    The routine of subjective refraction is usually understood, explained and taught in terms of the relative positions of line or point foci and the retina. This paper argues that such an approach makes unnecessary and sometimes invalid assumptions about what is actually happening inside the eye. The only assumption necessary in fact is that the subject is able to guide the refractionist to (or close to) the optimum power for refractive compensation. The routine works even in eyes in which the interval of Sturm does not behave as supposed; it would work, in fact, regardless of the structure of the eye. The idealized subjective refraction routine consists of two steps: the first finds the best sphere (the stigmatic component) and the second finds the remaining Jackson cross-cylinder (the antistigmatic component). The model makes use of the concept of symmetric dioptric power space. The second part of the refraction routine can be performed with Jackson cross-cylinders alone. However, it is usually taught and practiced using spheres, cylinders and Jackson cross-cylinders in a procedure that is not easy to understand and learn. Recognizing that this part of the routine is equivalent to one involving Jackson cross-cylinders only allows one to teach and understand the procedure more naturally and easily.

  14. Subjective alertness rhythms in elderly people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of subjective alertness and to explore the circadian mechanisms underlying such changes. Using a visual analogue scale (VAS) instrument, 25 older men and women (71 y and older; 15 female, 10 male) rated their subjective alertness about 7 times per day during 5 baseline days of temporal isolation during which habitual bedtimes and waketimes were enforced. Comparisons were made with 13 middle-aged men (37-52 y) experiencing the same protocol. Advancing age (particularly in the men) resulted in less rhythmic alertness patterns, as indicated by lower amplitudes and less reliability of fitted 24-h sinusoids. This appeared in spite of the absence of any reliable age-related diminution in circadian temperature rhythm amplitude, thus suggesting the effect was not due to SCN weakness per se, but to weakened transduction of SCN output. In a further experiment, involving 36 h of constant wakeful bedrest, differences in the amplitude of the alertness rhythm were observed between 9 older men (79 y+), 7 older women (79 y+), and 17 young controls (9 males, 8 females, 19-28 y) suggesting that with advancing age (particularly in men) there is less rhythmic input into subjective alertness from the endogenous circadian pacemaker. These results may explain some of the nocturnal insomnia and daytime hypersomnia that afflict many elderly people.

  15. Subjective loudness response to simulated sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1992-01-01

    A series of laboratory studies were conducted at LaRC to: (1) quantify the effects of sonic boom signature shaping on subjective loudness; (2) evaluate candidate loudness metrics; (3) quantify the effects of signature asymmetry on loudness; and (4) document sonic boom acceptability within the laboratory. A total of 212 test subjects evaluated a wide range of signatures using the NASA Langley Research Center's sonic boom simulator. Results indicated that signature shaping via front-shock minimization was particularly effective in reducing subjective loudness without requiring reductions in peak overpressure. Metric evaluations showed that A-weighted sound exposure level, Perceived Level (Stevens Mark 7), and Zwicker's Loudness level were effective descriptors of the loudness of symmetrical shaped signatures. The asymmetrical signatures were generally rated as being quieter than symmetrical signatures of equal calculated metric level. The magnitude of the loudness reductions were observed to increase as the degree of asymmetry increased and to be greatest when the rear half of the signature was loudest. This effect was not accounted for by the loudness metrics. Sonic boom acceptability criteria were determined within the laboratory. These agreed well with results previously obtained in more realistic situations.

  16. From synchronous neuronal discharges to subjective awareness?

    PubMed

    John, E Roy

    2005-01-01

    For practical clinical purposes, as well as because of their deep philosophical implications, it becomes increasingly important to be aware of contemporary studies of the brain mechanisms that generate subjective experiences. Current research has progressed to the point where plausible theoretical proposals can be made about the neurophysiological and neurochemical processes which mediate perception and sustain subjective awareness. An adequate theory of consciousness must describe how information about the environment is encoded by the exogenous system, how memories are stored in the endogenous system and released appropriately for the present circumstances, how the exogenous and endogenous systems interact to produce perception, and explain how consciousness arises from that interaction. Evidence assembled from a variety of neuroscience areas, together with the invariant reversible electrophysiological changes observed with loss and return of consciousness in anesthesia as well as distinctive quantitative electroencephalographic profiles of various psychiatric disorders, provides an empirical foundation for this theory of consciousness. This evidence suggests the need for a paradigm shift to explain how the brain accomplishes the transformation from synchronous and distributed neuronal discharges to seamless global subjective awareness. This chapter undertakes to provide a detailed description and explanation of these complex processes by experimental evidence marshaled from a wide variety of sources.

  17. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  18. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality. PMID:20401332

  19. Binaural auditory processing in multiple sclerosis subjects.

    PubMed

    Levine, R A; Gardner, J C; Stufflebeam, S M; Fullerton, B C; Carlisle, E W; Furst, M; Rosen, B R; Kiang, N Y

    1993-06-01

    In order to relate human auditory processing to physiological and anatomical experimental animal data, we have examined the interrelationships between behavioral, electrophysiological and anatomical data obtained from human subjects with focal brainstem lesions. Thirty-eight subjects with multiple sclerosis were studied with tests of interaural time and level discrimination (just noticeable differences or jnds), brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Interaural testing used two types of stimuli, high-pass (> 4000 Hz) and low-pass (< 1000 Hz) noise bursts. Abnormal time jnds (Tjnd) were far more common than abnormal level jnds (70% vs 11%); especially for the high-pass (Hp) noise (70% abnormal vs 40% abnormal for low-pass (Lp) noise). The HpTjnd could be abnormal with no other abnormalities; however, whenever the BAEPs, LpTjnd and/or level jnds were abnormal HpTjnd was always abnormal. Abnormal wave III amplitude was associated with abnormalities in both time jnds, but abnormal wave III latency with only abnormal HpTjnds. Abnormal wave V amplitude, when unilateral, was associated with a major HpTjnd abnormality, and, when bilateral, with both HpTjnd and LpTjnd major abnormalities. Sixteen of the subjects had their MR scans obtained with a uniform protocol and could be analyzed with objective criteria. In all four subjects with lesions involving the pontine auditory pathway, the BAEPs and both time jnds were abnormal. Of the twelve subjects with no lesions involving the pontine auditory pathway, all had normal BAEPs and level jnds, ten had normal LpTjnds, but only five had normal HpTjnds. We conclude that interaural time discrimination is closely related to the BAEPs and is dependent upon the stimulus spectrum. Redundant encoding of low-frequency sounds in the discharge patterns of auditory neurons, may explain why the HpTjnd is a better indicator of neural desynchrony than the LpTjnd. Encroachment of MS lesions upon the pontine

  20. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  1. Hybrid Processing of Measurable and Subjective Data

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J. ARLIN; ROGINSKI, ROBERT J.

    2001-10-01

    Conventional systems surety analysis is basically restricted to measurable or physical-model-derived data. However, most analyses, including high-consequence system surety analysis, must also utilize subjective information. In order to address this need, there has been considerable effort on analytically incorporating engineering judgment. For example, Dempster-Shafer theory establishes a framework in which frequentist probability and Bayesian incorporation of new data are subsets. Although Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer methodology both allow judgment, neither derives results that can indicate the relative amounts of subjective judgment and measurable data in the results. The methodology described in this report addresses these problems through a hybrid-mathematics-based process that allows tracking of the degree of subjective information in the output, thereby providing more informative (as well as more appropriate) results. In addition, most high consequence systems offer difficult-to-analyze situations. For example, in the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear weapons program, the probability that a weapon responds safely when exposed to an abnormal environment (e.g., lightning, crush, metal-melting temperatures) must be assured to meet a specific requirement. There are also non-probabilistic DOE and DoD requirements (e.g., for determining the adequacy of positive measures). The type of processing required for these and similar situations transcends conventional probabilistic and human factors methodology. The results described herein address these situations by efficiently utilizing subjective and objective information in a hybrid mathematical structure in order to directly apply to the surety assessment of high consequence systems. The results can also improve the quality of the information currently provided to decision-makers. To this end, objective inputs are processed in a conventional manner; while subjective inputs are derived from the combined engineering

  2. Orthostatic hypotension and subjective sleep quality in older people.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Joanna E; Fan, Chie W; Kenny, Rose Ann; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Poor sleep quality and orthostatic hypotension are common complaints in an older population, and both are related to factors such as polypharmacy and depression. However, it is not known whether there is a direct association between the two. Our objective is to investigate a potential association between orthostatic blood pressure response and subjective sleep quality in older people. A within-subjects, cross-sectional design embedded in a larger longitudinal study design. Participants were recruited from the community to visit the TRIL clinic at St James's Hospital, where they underwent a structured medical and psychosocial assessment. A total of 505 community dwelling adults aged 60+ (321 females, mean age 72.44) were participated in this study. Orthostatic blood pressure responses were recorded during an active stand using Finometer equipment, and health-related factors such as pain ratings, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, timed up and go, Mini-Mental State Examination score, body mass index, as well as depression, anxiety, age and gender, were also recorded. Self-reported sleep quality was also assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The results showed that timed up and go, polypharmacy, depression, anxiety, gender and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis were associated with subjective poor sleep quality. There is an association between subjective sleep quality and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis, independent of mental health or polypharmacy effects, in older adults. This link may have implications for the management of sleep disorders in older people.

  3. The Effect of Intra- and Intergenerational Caregiving on Subjective Well-Being – Evidence of a Population Based Longitudinal Study among Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB) of the caregivers longitudinally. Methods Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations). SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB), positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner’s mother or partner’s father. Results Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women) and mental health (total sample and men), whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men) and cognitive well-being (women). Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed. PMID:26859511

  4. Evaluation of the effect of food and gastric pH on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of cabozantinib in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh; Holland, Jaymes; Mamelok, Richard; Laberge, Marie-Kristine; Grenier, Julie; Swearingen, Dennis; Armas, Danielle; Lacy, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Cabozantinib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. Cabozantinib exhibits a pH-dependent solubility profile in vitro. Two phase 1 clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in healthy subjects to evaluate whether factors that may affect cabozantinib solubility and gastric pH could alter cabozantinib bioavailability: a food effect study (study 1) and a drug-drug interaction (DDI) study with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole (study 2). Following a high-fat meal (study 1), cabozantinib Cmax and AUC were increased (40.5% and 57%, respectively), and the median tmax was delayed by 2 hours. Cabozantinib should thus not be taken with food (patients should not eat for at least 2 hours before and at least 1 hour after administration). In the DDI study (study 2), the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) around the ratio of least-squares means of cabozantinib with esomeprazole versus cabozantinib alone for AUC0-inf were within the 80%-125% limits; the upper 90%CI for Cmax was 125.1%. Because of the low apparent risk of a DDI, concomitant use of PPIs or weaker gastric pH-altering agents with cabozantinib is not contraindicated.

  5. Effects of a program to prevent social isolation on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of older adults: a randomized trial among older migrants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Kai, Ichiro; Takizawa, Ayako

    2012-01-01

    Social isolation among the elderly is a concern in developed countries. Using a randomized trial, this study examined the effect of a social isolation prevention program on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of the elderly in Japan. Among the elderly people who relocated to suburban Tokyo, 63 who responded to a pre-test were randomized and assessed 1 and 6 months after the program. Four sessions of a group-based program were designed to prevent social isolation by improving community knowledge and networking with other participants and community "gatekeepers." The Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Ando-Osada-Kodama (AOK) loneliness scale, social support, and other variables were used as outcomes of this study. A linear mixed model was used to compare 20 of the 21 people in the intervention group to 40 of the 42 in the control group, and showed that the intervention program had a significant positive effect on LSI-A, social support, and familiarity with services scores and a significant negative effect on AOK over the study period. The program had no significant effect on depression. The findings of this study suggest that programs aimed at preventing social isolation are effective when they utilize existing community resources, are tailor-made based on the specific needs of the individual, and target people who can share similar experiences.

  6. The Cardiovascular Function Profile and Physical Fitness in Overweight Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megawati, E. R.; Lubis, L. D.; Harahap, F. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity in children and young adult is associated with cardiovascular risk in short term and long term. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the cardiovascular functions parameters and physical fitness in overweight. This is an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. The samples of this study were 85 randomly selected subjects aged 18 to 24 years with normoweight and body mass index <40. The parameters measures were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cardiovascular function parameters (resting pulse, blood pressure, and peak flow meter) and physical fitness parameters (VO2max dengan McArdle step test). The mean BMI was 24,53±4,929. The WC and WHR mean were 86,7±14,10 cms and 0,89±0,073 cm respectively. The mean of resting pulses were higher in normoweight subject (p=0,0209). The mean systole were lower in normoweight subject (p=0,0026). No differences VO2 max between groups (p=0,3888). The peak flow meter was higher in normoweight (p=0,0274). The result of this study indicate that heart rate, systole and peak flow meter are signifantly different between groups. The heart rate and the peak flow meter in the overweight subjects were lower meanwhile the systole blood pressure was higher compared to normoweight subjects.

  7. The subjective importance of noise spectral content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.

  8. Unpleasant Subjective Emotional Experiencing of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vallath, Nandini; Salins, Naveen; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient's felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors’ review of literature on perspectives of ‘unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain” to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed. PMID:23766590

  9. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    PubMed

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition.

  10. [The Frankfurt-Pamplona subjective experience scale].

    PubMed

    Cuesta Zorita, M J; Peralta Martín, V; Irigoyen Recalde, I

    1995-01-01

    Several instruments have been designed to assess subjective experiences (SE). The Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) is the most widely used scale to assess SE. This study was aimed to replicate the factor validation of the scale in a Spanish sample. A factor analysis we carried out on the 98-items of FCQ. No a four-factor solution was found, as initially it had been proposed by authors of the scale. A simplified version of the FCQ was derived through procedures of unidimensionality analysis of factors.

  11. Subjective experience of image quality: attributes, definitions, and decision making of subjective image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisti, Tuomas; Radun, Jenni; Virtanen, Toni; Halonen, Raisa; Nyman, Göte

    2009-01-01

    Subjective quality rating does not reflect the properties of the image directly, but it is the outcome of a quality decision making process, which includes quantification of subjective quality experience. Such a rich subjective content is often ignored. We conducted two experiments (with 28 and 20 observers), in order to study the effect of paper grade on image quality experience of the ink-jet prints. Image quality experience was studied using a grouping task and a quality rating task. Both tasks included an interview, but in the latter task we examined the relations of different subjective attributes in this experience. We found out that the observers use an attribute hierarchy, where the high-level attributes are more experiential, general and abstract, while low-level attributes are more detailed and concrete. This may reflect the hierarchy of the human visual system. We also noticed that while the observers show variable subjective criteria for IQ, the reliability of average subjective estimates is high: when two different observer groups estimated the same images in the two experiments, correlations between the mean ratings were between .986 and .994, depending on the image content.

  12. Watching neutral and threatening movies: subjective experience and autonomic responses in subjects with different hypnotizability levels.

    PubMed

    Santarcangelo, E L; Paoletti, G; Balocchi, R; Scattina, E; Ghelarducci, B; Varanini, M

    2012-04-01

    Subjects with high hypnotizability scores (Highs) have been considered more prone to experience negative affect and more vulnerable to its autonomic effects with respect to low hypnotizable individuals (Lows). The aim of the study was to analyze the subjective experience, tonic skin conductance (SC), respiratory frequency (RF), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy Highs and Lows during a long-lasting, emotionally neutral task (Session R, 46 subjects) and a moderately threatening one (Session T, 35 subjects). At the end of the relaxing Session R, all participants reported an increased relaxation. At the end of the threatening Session T, only 20 subjects reported a decreased relaxation (effective T: eT subsample). Highs and Lows of this subsample reported a similarly reduced relaxation and showed a similarly increased skin conductance. HR and HRV did not differ between the two sessions and between Highs and Lows. Among the subjects not reporting decreased relaxation at the end of Session T (ineffective T: iT subsample, n=15), relaxation was deeper and associated with lower skin conductance in Highs, although HR and HRV did not differ between Highs and Lows. All together, the results do not support the hypothesis of higher proneness of Highs to experience negative affect and to exhibit the autonomic correlates of negative emotion.

  13. Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, K. T.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Das, H.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with space motion sickness in astronauts. Side effects of PMZ include sedation, dizziness and cognitive performance impairment. In this study, we examined pharmacodynamics (PD) in human subjects and validated methods for evaluating cognitive performance effects of medications in space. METHODS: PMZ (12.5,25, and 50 mg) or placebo was administered by IM injection to human subjects in a randomized double-blind treatment design. Samples and data were collected for 72 h post dose. PD evaluation was performed using a battery of performance tests administered using WinSCAT (Windows based Space Cognitive Assessment Test) on a laptop computer, and ARES (ANAM Readiness Evaluation System) on a PDA, plasma concentrations of PMZ were measured using a LC-MS method. RESULTS: Results indicate a linear correlation between PMZ concentration and cognitive performance parameters (p<0.01). Test accuracy decreased and test completion time and response time increased significantly with increasing plasma PMZ concentration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a concentration dependent decrement in cognitive performance associated with PMZ. WinSCAT and ARES are sensitive tools for the assessment PMZ PD and may be applicable for such evaluations with other neurocognitive drugs.

  14. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  15. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan (1972). Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure.

  16. Mechanisms of dyspnea in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Francesco

    2010-06-30

    Dyspnea is a general term used to characterize a range of different descriptors; it varies in intensity, and is influenced by a wide variety of factors such as cultural expectations and the patient's experiences. Healthy subjects can experience dyspnea in different situations, e.g. at high altitude, after breath-holding, during stressful situations that cause anxiety or panic, and more commonly during strenuous exercise. Discussing the mechanisms of dyspnea we need to briefly take into account the physiological mechanisms underlying the sensation of dyspnea: the functional status of the respiratory muscles, the role of chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors, and how the sense of respiratory motor output reaches a level of conscious awareness. We also need to take into account theories on the pathophysiological mechanisms of the sensation of dyspnea and the possibility that each pathophysiological mechanism produces a distinct quality of breathing discomfort. The terms used by subjects to identify different characteristics of breathing discomfort - dyspnea descriptors - may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of dyspnea and providing the rationale for a specific diagnosis.

  17. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan (1972). Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure. PMID:28018280

  18. The Absence of a Clinically Significant Effect of Food on the Single Dose Pharmacokinetics of Vorapaxar, a PAR-1 Antagonist, in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Behm, Martin O; Kosoglou, Teddy; Miltenburg, André M M; Li, Jing; Statkevich, Paul; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Martinho, Monika; Fackler, Paul

    2013-10-01

    In this open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study, 16 healthy subjects received a single oral 2.5-mg dose of vorapaxar in the fed (i.e., standardized high-fat breakfast) and fasted (i.e., an overnight fast) state with a 6-week washout. Plasma samples for vorapaxar assay were obtained pre-dose and up to 72 hours post-dose. Least squares (LS) geometric mean AUC0-72 hr and Cmax were analyzed by ANOVA. If 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the geometric mean ratios (GMRs; fed/fasted) of AUC0-72 hr and Cmax were within the 50-200% range, then food was deemed not to have a clinically important effect. The LS geometric mean (90% CI) AUC0-72 hr and Cmax of vorapaxar in the fasted state were 314 (284-348) ng hr/mL and 23.4 (20.7-26.4) ng/mL, respectively. The GMRs (fed/fasted) and 90% CIs for AUC0-72 hr and Cmax were 96.9 (92.2-102) and 79.1 (67.6-92.5), respectively. Vorapaxar was generally safe and well tolerated in the presence and absence of food. Concomitant food decreased the rate (i.e., 21% reduction in Cmax and 45-min delay in Tmax ) with no effect on the extent of vorapaxar absorption when administered as a single 2.5-mg dose. Thus, vorapaxar can be administered without regard to food.

  19. Institutions in modern society: caretakers and subjects.

    PubMed

    Romano, O I

    1974-02-22

    The problems that relate to the outermost limits of institutional care, if such limits exist, will certainly be among the most salient problems during the coming years-no matter whether such care proceeds on an inpatient or an outpatient basis. Whatever course may be taken will certainly affect the lives of every citizen in urbanized and industrialized society. At present in California there is considerable shifting of individuals from one care status or category to another, in efforts to find accommodations that will better reflect the realities of modern existence. However, such shifting of caseloads as the moving of individuals from nursing and convalescent homes to hospitals and back again does not constitute a change, either from the standpoint of the subjects involved or from the standpoint of significantly affecting the overall caseload. Most commonly, the shifting of caseloads has been merely jurisdictional. Much the same can be said of the transfers from a police agency to welfare, or vice versa. Similarly, a shift from inpatient status to outpatient status does not constitute a significant change. Such transfers from one jurisdiction to another reflect a reduction in caseload for one agency, but a corresponding increase in caseload for another. Thus, there has been no significant change in the subject population as such. Jurisdictional transfers are often merely caretaking actions that reflect bureaucratic decisions. Equally often, such decisions do not address themselves to the basic priorities that guide the functions of caretaking. Explicitly stated priorities must supersede jurisditional transfers if the concept of caretaking is to include better resources for human development and if the subject population is to participate in the managing of institutions. On any given day during 1969 in the state of California, virtually 8 million people from an estimated population of 19,800,000 were under some form of institutional care or in some institutional

  20. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 - E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  1. Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n = 8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n = 8) did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6) = 0.06, p = 0.92, λ de Wilks = 0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7) = 2.11, p = 0.17, λ de Wilks = 0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27) = 0.18, p = 0.94, λ de Wilks = 0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation. PMID:26042031

  2. Effects of subject-area degree and classroom experience on new chemistry teachers' subject matter knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Campbell, Benjamin K.; Luft, Julie A.

    2016-07-01

    Science teachers need to understand the subject matter they teach. While subject matter knowledge (SMK) can improve with classroom teaching experience, it is problematic that many secondary science teachers leave the profession before garnering extensive classroom experience. Furthermore, many new science teachers are assigned to teach science subjects for which they do not hold a degree. This study investigates the SMK of new secondary science teachers assigned to teach chemistry in their first three years of teaching. These new teachers do not have the advantage of years of experience to develop their SMK and half hold a degree in biology rather than chemistry. This qualitative study explores the effects of holding a degree in the subject area one teaches as well as classroom teaching experience on teachers' SMK for two chemistry topics, conservation of mass and chemical equilibrium. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews indicated that the SMK of teachers who had a chemistry degree and more extensive classroom experience was more coherent, chemistry-focused, and sophisticated than that of teachers who lacked this preparation and experience. This study provides evidence that new science teachers' SMK is influenced by both holding a degree in the subject area and having classroom experience.

  3. Comparison of Subjective Refraction under Binocular and Monocular Conditions in Myopic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Hidenaga; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Handa, Tomoya; Ando, Wakako; Kawamorita, Takushi; Igarashi, Akihito; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-07-28

    To compare subjective refraction under binocular and monocular conditions, and to investigate the clinical factors affecting the difference in spherical refraction between the two conditions. We examined thirty eyes of 30 healthy subjects. Binocular and monocular refraction without cycloplegia was measured through circular polarizing lenses in both eyes, using the Landolt-C chart of the 3D visual function trainer-ORTe. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relations among several pairs of variables and the difference in spherical refraction in binocular and monocular conditions. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition (p < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were seen in subjective cylindrical refraction (p = 0.99). The explanatory variable relevant to the difference in spherical refraction between binocular and monocular conditions was the binocular spherical refraction (p = 0.032, partial regression coefficient B = 0.029) (adjusted R(2) = 0.230). No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors. Subjective spherical refraction in the monocular condition was significantly more myopic than that in the binocular condition. Eyes with higher degrees of myopia are more predisposed to show the large difference in spherical refraction between these two conditions.

  4. Nonlinear subjective and dynamic responses of seated subjects exposed to horizontal whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Nawayseh, N.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2009-03-01

    The effect of the magnitude of fore-and-aft and lateral vibration on the subjective and mechanical responses of seated subjects has been investigated experimentally using simultaneous measurements of relative discomfort and apparent mass. Twelve male subjects were exposed to sinusoidal vibration at nine frequencies (between 1.6 and 10 Hz) at four magnitudes (in the range 0.125-1.0 m s -2 r.m.s.) in both horizontal directions (fore-and-aft and lateral). The method of magnitude estimation was used to estimate discomfort relative to that caused by a 4 Hz reference vibration in the same axis. The apparent mass was calculated from the acceleration and the applied force so as to quantify the mechanical response of the body. With each direction of excitation, the apparent mass was normalised by dividing it by the apparent mass obtained at 4 Hz, so that the mechanical responses could be compared with the subjective responses. The relative discomfort and the normalised apparent mass were similarly affected by the frequency and magnitude of vibration, with significant correlations between the relative discomfort and the normalised apparent mass. The results indicate that the discomfort caused by horizontal whole-body vibration is associated with the apparent mass in a frequency range where motion of the whole body is dominant. In this frequency range, the nonlinear subjective responses may be attributed, at least in part, to the nonlinear dynamic responses to horizontal whole-body vibration.

  5. Individual Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity in Near Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment. Subjective and objective fixation disparity represent the different physiological mechanisms of motor and sensory fusion, but the precise relation between these two is still unclear. This study measures both types of fixation disparity at viewing distances of 40, 30, and 24 cm while observers fixated a central stationary fusion target. 20 young adult subjects with normal binocular vision were tested repeatedly to investigate individual differences. For heterophoria and subjective fixation disparity, this study replicated that the binocular system does not properly adjust to near targets: outward (exo) deviations typically increase as the viewing distance is shortened. This exo proximity effect—however—was not found for objective fixation disparity, which–on the average–was zero. But individuals can have reliable outward (exo) or inward (eso) vergence errors. Cases with eso objective fixation disparity tend to have less exo states of subjective fixation disparity and heterophoria. In summary, the two types of fixation disparity seem to respond in a different way when the viewing distance is shortened. Motor and sensory fusion–as reflected by objective and subjective fixation disparity–exhibit complex interactions that may differ between individuals (eso versus exo) and vary with viewing distance (far versus near vision). PMID:28135308

  6. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  7. HIV Testing, Subjective Beliefs and Economic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of learning HIV status on economic behavior among rural Malawians. According to economic life-cycle models, if learning HIV results is informative about additional years of life, being diagnosed HIV-positive or negative should predict changes in consumption, investment and savings behavior with important micro and macro-economic implications. Using an experiment that randomly assigned incentives to learn HIV results, I find that while learning HIV results had short term effects on subjective belief of HIV infection, these differences did not persist after two years. Consistent with this, there were relatively few differences two years later in savings, income, expenditures, and employment between those who learned and did not learn their status. PMID:24369439

  8. Human intestinal lipoproteins. Studies in chyluric subjects.

    PubMed

    Green, P H; Glickman, R M; Saudek, C D; Blum, C B; Tall, A R

    1979-07-01

    To explore the role of the human intestine as a source of apolipoproteins, we have studied intestinal lipoproteins and apoprotein secretion in two subjects with chyluria (mesenteric lymphatic-urinary fistulae). After oral corn oil, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) output in urine increased in parallel to urinary triglyceride. One subject, on two occasions, after 40 g of corn oil, excreted 8.4 and 8.6 g of triglyceride together with 196 and 199 mg apoA-I and on one occasion, 56 mg apoA-II. The other subject, after 40 g corn oil, excreted 0.3 g triglyceride and 17.5 mg apoA-I, and, after 100 g of corn oil, excreted 44.8 mg apoA-I and 5.8 mg apoA-II. 14.5+/-2.1% of apoA-I and 17.7+/-4.3% of apoA-II in chylous urine was in the d < 1.006 fraction (chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein). Calculations based on the amount of apoA-I and apoA-II excreted on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins revealed that for these lipid loads, intestinal secretion could account for 50 and 33% of the calculated daily synthetic rate of apoA-I and apoA-II, respectively. Similarly, subject 2 excreted 48-70% and 14% of the calculated daily synthetic rate of apoA-I and apoA-II, respectively. Chylous urine contained chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins, all of which contained apoA-I. Chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins contained a previously unreported human apoprotein of 46,000 mol wt. We have called this apoprotein apoA-IV because of the similarity of its molecular weight and amino acid composition to rat apoA-IV. In sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, chylomicron apoproteins consisted of apoB 3.4+/-0.7%, apoA-IV 10.0+/-3.3%, apoE 4.4+/-0.3%, apoA-I 15.0+/-1.8%, and apoC and apoA-II 43.3+/-11.3%. Very low density lipoprotein contained more apoB and apoA-IV and less apoC than chylomicrons. Ouchterlony immunodiffusion of chylomicron apoproteins revealed the presence of apoC-I, apoC-II, and apoC-III. In contrast, plasma

  9. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  10. Contact heat evoked potentials in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-An; Hung, Steven Wu; Chen, Yu-Hsien; Lim, Siew-Na; Tsai, Yu-Tai; Hsiao, Cheng-Lun; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Tony

    2006-09-01

    Laser-evoked potentials are widely used to investigate nociceptive pathways. The newly developed contact heat stimulator for evoking brain response has the advantages of obtaining reliable scalp potentials and absence of cutaneous lesions. This study aimed to identify the most appropriate stimulation site with consistent cortical responses, and to correlate several parameters of the contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) with age, gender, and body height in normal subjects. CHEPs were recorded at Cz with a contact heat stimulator (Medoc, Israel) in 35 normal controls. The subjects were asked to keep eyes open and remain alert. The baseline temperature was 32 degrees C, and stimulation peak heat intensity of 51 degrees C was applied to five body sites: bilateral forearm, right dorsum hand, right peroneal area, and right dorsum foot. Reproducible CHEPs were recorded more frequently when stimulated at volar forearm (62.5%) than at the lower limbs (around 40%). The first negative peak latency (N1) was 370.1 +/- 20.3 ms, first positive peak latency (P1) was 502.4 +/- 33.0 ms, and peak to peak amplitude was 10.2 +/- 4.9 microV with stimulation of the forearm. Perceived pain intensity was not correlated with the presence or amplitude of CHEPs. No gender or inter-side differences were observed for N1 latency and N1-P1 amplitude. Also, no correlation was noted between N1 and age or body height. These results support future clinical access of CHEPs as a diagnostic tool.

  11. Neural components underlying subjective preferential decision making.

    PubMed

    Lindsen, Job P; Jones, Rhiannon; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of the current study were twofold: (i) to investigate the neural precursors of the formation of a subjective preference of facial stimuli, and (ii) to characterize the spatiotemporal brain activity patterns distinguishing between preferred and non-preferred faces. Multivariate EEG signals were recorded while participants made preference decisions, based on approachability, between two faces presented sequentially with unrestricted viewing time; the decision being made after presentation of the second face. The paired faces were similar in their physical properties, emphasizing the role of the subjective experience of the participants in making the decisions. EEG signals were analyzed in terms of event-related-potential (ERP) components and wavelet-based time-frequency-representations (TFR). The behavioural data showed that the presentation order and the exposure duration did not influence preference formation. The EEG data showed three effects. The earliest effect, the sustained posterior ERP positivity for preferred first faces as compared to non-preferred first faces, was found following the onset of the first face, and this was interpreted as the formation of a positive first impression of the first face. The two later effects following the second faces were an increase of frontal theta band oscillations around 500 ms for preferred second faces and of posterior gamma band oscillations around 650 ms for preferred first faces; both of which were interpreted as being related to the formation of a preference. All of these effects occurred well before the moment of conscious decision, thereby suggesting the implicitness of these neurally identifiable components.

  12. Being anorexic: hunger, subjectivity, and embodied morality.

    PubMed

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2008-09-01

    This article explores the embodied process of being anorexic and the moral repertoires within which this process is entangled. The point of departure for this discussion is that, while critical feminist epistemology plays an important role in politicizing anorexia as a symbolic cluster of meanings, it has provided us with limited analytical tools for an in-depth understanding of an anorexic's lived experiences and of the embodied realities involved in being anorexic. At the same time, autobiographical accounts of anorexia provide insightful emic perspectives on being anorexic but are not engaged with symbolic and theoretical etic perspectives on anorexia. This article attempts to bridge this gap through an anthropological exploration of anorexia from within; that is, as a situated embodied knowledge of anorexic women anchored in concrete lived experiences. Findings from an ethnographic study of young women who were diagnosed with anorexia and admitted to an outpatient hospital unit in Israel suggest that anorexic women actively construct a "heroic moral subjectivity," in which the experience of hunger plays a crucial role, and in which everyday (mundane) practices gain "out-of-the-ordinary" meanings. While these findings partially accord with feminist philosophical explorations of anorexia, I argue that it is only via a detailed ethnographic account that we can follow the ongoing phenomenological and semiotic process through which such heroic subjectivity actually develops. Using an anthropological perspective to bear on the phenomenology of anorexia as an embodied experience contributes toward extending our understanding of the concrete ways in which "culture" becomes present in anorexia. The concluding section discusses gaps between feminist and anorexic narratives of anorexia in terms of therapeutic encounters.

  13. Gravity dependence of subjective visual vertical variability.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, A A; Bockisch, C; Straumann, D; Olasagasti, I

    2009-09-01

    The brain integrates sensory input from the otolith organs, the semicircular canals, and the somatosensory and visual systems to determine self-orientation relative to gravity. Only the otoliths directly sense the gravito-inertial force vector and therefore provide the major input for perceiving static head-roll relative to gravity, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV). Intraindividual SVV variability increases with head roll, which suggests that the effectiveness of the otolith signal is roll-angle dependent. We asked whether SVV variability reflects the spatial distribution of the otolithic sensors and the otolith-derived acceleration estimate. Subjects were placed in different roll orientations (0-360 degrees, 15 degrees steps) and asked to align an arrow with perceived vertical. Variability was minimal in upright, increased with head-roll peaking around 120-135 degrees, and decreased to intermediate values at 180 degrees. Otolith-dependent variability was modeled by taking into consideration the nonuniform distribution of the otolith afferents and their nonlinear firing rate. The otolith-derived estimate was combined with an internal bias shifting the estimated gravity-vector toward the body-longitudinal. Assuming an efficient otolith estimator at all roll angles, peak variability of the model matched our data; however, modeled variability in upside-down and upright positions was very similar, which is at odds with our findings. By decreasing the effectiveness of the otolith estimator with increasing roll, simulated variability matched our experimental findings better. We suggest that modulations of SVV precision in the roll plane are related to the properties of the otolith sensors and to central computational mechanisms that are not optimally tuned for roll-angles distant from upright.

  14. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  15. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  16. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  17. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  18. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  19. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  20. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  1. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  2. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which...

  3. Influence of Some Hypnotist and Subject Variables on Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Robert P.; Land, Jay M.

    1971-01-01

    As predicted, subjects run by the objectively warmer, more competent appearing hypnosis obtained significantly higher susceptibility scores. Structured warmth produced significant differences only in subjects run by the objectively less warm hypnotists. Both structured warmth and experience affected subjects' subjective impressions of whether they…

  4. Subject Heading Patterns in OCLC Monographic Records. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Edward T.; Aluri, Rao

    An analysis of a sample of 33,455 monographic records taken from the OCLC (Ohio College Library Center) database found that 94 percent of the sample's 50,213 subject headings were Library of Congress (LC) subject headings. Each record had an average of 1.4 LC subject headings; however, 18.6 percent of the records had no LC subject headings…

  5. Correlation between Objective and Subjective Assessment of Nasal Patency

    PubMed Central

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Gera, Roberto; Bulgheroni, Chiara; Ambrogi, Federico; Schindler, Antonio; Ottaviani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to evaluate the correlation between the objective and subjective sensation of nasal patency, assessed through a validated questionnaire, the Italian version of the NOSE scale, and the rhinomanometric results in a large cohort of patients complaining about nasal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from a total of 233 adult patients, (123 males, 110 females, with a mean age of 43.7 years) with a diagnosis of septal deviation and complaining about nasal obstruction. Anterior active rhinomanometry was used for objective assessment, while the I-NOSE scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) were used for subjective evaluation. Results: Positive correlations between I-NOSE scores and VAS and rhinomanometric results were found. The higher correlation was demonstrated between the HUNR (higher unilateral nasal resistance) parameter of rhinomanometry and the second item of the I-NOSE scale (Nasal blockage or obstruction). No significant correlation was found between the fourth item of the I-NOSE (Trouble sleeping) and the VAS score. The VAS score appeared mildly, but still significantly, correlated with the HUNR parameter of rhinomanometry. Conclusion: The correlation between the subjective sensation of nasal patency and the rhinomanometric data proved to be significant. No correlation between subjective sensation of trouble sleeping and rhinomanometric assessment was found. In counselling with patients complaining of nasal obstruction trouble in sleeping should not be considered as a symptom related to nasal obstruction. PMID:27738607

  6. Implicit Theories About Willpower Predict Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Bernecker, Katharina; Herrmann, Marcel; Brandstätter, Veronika; Job, Veronika

    2017-04-01

    Lay theories about willpower-the belief that willpower is a limited versus nonlimited resource-affect self-control and goal striving in everyday life (Job, Dweck, & Walton, 2010). Three studies examined whether willpower theories also relate to people's subjective well-being by shaping the progress they make toward their personal goals. A cross-sectional (Study 1) and two longitudinal studies (Studies 2 and 3) measured individuals' willpower theories and different indicators of subjective well-being. Additionally, Study 3 measured goal striving and personal goal progress. A limited theory about willpower was associated with lower subjective well-being in a sample of working adults (Study 1, N = 258). Further, a limited theory predicted lower levels of well-being at a time when students faced high self-regulatory demands (Study 2, N = 196). Study 3 (N = 157) replicated the finding that students with a limited theory experienced lower well-being in phases of high self-regulatory demands and found that personal goal progress mediated this relationship. Results suggest that the belief that willpower is based on a limited resource has negative implications not only for self-control but also for personal goal striving and subjective well-being.

  7. A Discourse of Disconnect: Young People from the Eastern Cape Talk about the Failure of Adult Communications to Provide Habitable Sexual Subject Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Face-to-face adult communication with young people about sexuality is, for the most part, assigned to two main groups of people: educators tasked with teaching school-based sexuality education that is provided as part of the compulsory Life Orientation (LO) learning area, and parents. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with Further…

  8. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  9. Autonomy, subject-relativity, and subjective and objective theories of well-being in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    Among the different approaches to questions of biomedical ethics, there is a view that stresses the importance of a patient's right to make her own decisions in evaluative questions concerning her own well-being. This approach, the autonomy-based approach to biomedical ethics, has usually led to the adoption of a subjective theory of well-being on the basis of its commitment to the value of autonomy and to the view that well-being is always relative to a subject. In this article, it is argued that these two commitments need not lead to subjectivism concerning the nature of well-being.

  10. Experimental induction of the "sensed presence" in normal subjects and an exceptional subject.

    PubMed

    Cook, C M; Persinger, M A

    1997-10-01

    9 of the 15 volunteers who were exposed to successive 3-min. durations of bursts of different types of weak (1 microT) complex magnetic fields or sham-fields reported the sense of a presence as indicated by a button press at the time of the experience. Reports of subjective experiences indicated that attempts to "focus" cognitively upon the location of the presence altered its location or induced its "movement." An exceptional subject who had a history of experiencing within his upper left peripheral visual field "flashing images" concerning the health and history of people [when handling their photographs] was also exposed to the burst sequences. Numbers of button presses associated with the experiences of a mystical presence, to whom the subject attributed his capacity, increased when the complex magnetic fields were applied without the subject's knowledge. The results support the hypothesis that the sense of a presence, which may be the common phenomenological base from which experiences of gods, spirits, angels, and other entities are derived, is a right hemispheric homologue of the left hemispheric sense of self.

  11. A Distillation of Subject-Matter Content for the Subject Areas of Geography and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.; Schoch-Roberts, Lisa; Young-Reynolds, Sara

    This study was designed to provide schools, districts, and states with a means for identifying the knowledge and skills that are most important for students to learn for the subject areas of geography and history. Five state standards documents were selected to represent the exemplary content in geography and history. These documents were selected…

  12. The Emergence of Creole Subject-Verb Agreement and the Licensing of Null Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to resolve an outstanding question as to the most appropriate structural description of the relationship between subject and verb in Bislama (a Melanesian creole spoken in Vanuatu), discusses what the implications of this analysis might be for a Creole ontogeny, and attempts to unify this analysis to the verb system with the distribution…

  13. School Subjects, Subject Communities and Curriculum Change: The Social Construction of Economics in the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jephcote, Martin; Davies, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The place of economics in the curriculum in England and Wales provides a lens through which we may view the ways in which the curriculum as a whole is fought over and remains shifting terrain. Conceived of as social movements, school subject communities are made up of competing factions giving rise to contest and conflict both within themselves…

  14. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... influence, such as children, prisoners, pregnant women, mentally disabled persons, or economically or... fundamental ethical principles for all human subjects research--respect for persons, beneficence, and justice... some other person of such minimal risk exempt studies is neither required nor even recommended;...

  15. Dissociation between subjective vertical and subjective body orientation elicited by galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mars, Franck; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Popov, Konstantin

    2005-02-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that sensory stimulation could differentially affect the subjective vertical (SV) and the subjective body orientation (SBO). This suggests that the central nervous system elaborates various references of verticality in function of the task demands and of the available sensory information. In this study, we tested whether the dissociation between SV and SBO appears for a selective stimulation of the vestibular system, by using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Seated subjects performed vertical settings by controlling the orientation of a visual rod during GVS. Subjects were also instructed to evaluate the orientation of the head and trunk relative to gravity. The results revealed a large variability in the way SV and SBO were affected. In all cases, the effect of GVS on SV was not a mirror image of a distorted SBO. We propose that this dissociation is mainly determined by central processes involved in the estimation of sensory cues reliability. GVS also yielded a tilt of the head when the head was unrestrained. The results suggest that changes in actual head orientation yielded by GVS may be related to the perceived direction of gravity but cannot be explained by a compensation of an illusory orientation of the head.

  16. Beta oscillatory responses in healthy subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Güntekin, Bahar; Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Kurt, Pınar; Yener, Görsev Gülmen; Başar, Erol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of beta oscillatory responses upon cognitive load in healthy subjects and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The role of beta oscillations upon cognitive stimulation is least studied in comparison to other frequency bands. The study included 17 consecutive patients with MCI (mean age = 70.8 ± 5.6 years) according to Petersen's criteria, and 17 age- and education-matched normal elderly controls (mean age = 68.5 ± 5.5 years). The experiments used a visual oddball paradigm. EEG was recorded at 30 cortical locations. EEG-evoked power, inter-trial phase synchronization, and event-related beta responses filtered in 15-20 Hz were obtained in response to target and non-target stimuli for both groups of subjects. In healthy subjects, EEG-evoked beta power, inter-trial phase synchronization of beta responses and event-related filtered beta responses were significantly higher in responses to target than non-target stimuli (p < 0.05). In MCI patients, there were no differences in evoked beta power between target and non-target stimuli. Furthermore, upon presentation of visual oddball paradigm, occipital electrodes depict higher beta response in comparison to other electrode sites. The increased beta response upon presentation of target stimuli in healthy subjects implies that beta oscillations could shift the system to an attention state, and had important function in cognitive activity. This may, in future, open the way to consider beta activity as an important operator in brain cognitive processes.

  17. Molecular genetics and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Tiemeier, Henning; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Krueger, Robert F; Bartels, Meike

    2013-06-11

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is a major topic of research across the social sciences. Twin and family studies have found that genetic factors may account for as much as 30-40% of the variance in SWB. Here, we study genetic contributions to SWB in a pooled sample of ≈ 11,500 unrelated, comprehensively-genotyped Swedish and Dutch individuals. We apply a recently developed method to estimate "common narrow heritability": the fraction of variance in SWB that can be explained by the cumulative additive effects of genetic polymorphisms that are common in the population. Our estimates are 5-10% for single-question survey measures of SWB, and 12-18% after correction for measurement error in the SWB measures. Our results suggest guarded optimism about the prospects of using genetic data in SWB research because, although the common narrow heritability is not large, the polymorphisms that contribute to it could feasibly be discovered with a sufficiently large sample of individuals.

  18. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Game, Edward T.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-12-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner.

  19. Reduced liquid movement subject of Denver Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reduction of subsurface movement of liquids was the subject of a 1-day symposium sponsored by Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and cosponsored by the U.S. Committee on Large Dams (USCOLD) of the International Commission on Large Dams. The Symposium on Impermeable Barriers for Soil and Rock, the first specialized symposium of its kind, was held in Denver, Colorado, on June 25, 1984. The program emphasized the interaction of the environmental system of soil and rock containment, impermeable barriers, and enclosed liquids. The theory, testing, and design considerations of such interactive systems was explored in relation to slurry walls and clay and earth additive linings as applied to geotechnical engineering projects such as tailings and waste containment ponds, landfills, solar and biomass ponds, ditches, canals, and reservoirs. A number of papers presented research results on the interaction of various chemical and hazardous wastes with the soil and rock materials and lining or slurry materials.

  20. Molecular genetics and subjective well-being

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Tiemeier, Henning; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Krueger, Robert F.; Bartels, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is a major topic of research across the social sciences. Twin and family studies have found that genetic factors may account for as much as 30–40% of the variance in SWB. Here, we study genetic contributions to SWB in a pooled sample of ≈11,500 unrelated, comprehensively-genotyped Swedish and Dutch individuals. We apply a recently developed method to estimate “common narrow heritability”: the fraction of variance in SWB that can be explained by the cumulative additive effects of genetic polymorphisms that are common in the population. Our estimates are 5–10% for single-question survey measures of SWB, and 12–18% after correction for measurement error in the SWB measures. Our results suggest guarded optimism about the prospects of using genetic data in SWB research because, although the common narrow heritability is not large, the polymorphisms that contribute to it could feasibly be discovered with a sufficiently large sample of individuals. PMID:23708117

  1. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Turkish subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erbagci, Hulya; Oren, Burak; Okumus, Seydi; Kenan, Serhat; Celemler, Pelin; Erbagci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT), measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), in healthy Turkish volunteers. Materials and methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, 57 eyes of 57 healthy Turkish subjects were enrolled. Each participant underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and peripapillary CT measurement using EDI-OCT. Results The mean age of the 25 female and 32 male patients in the study was 30.9±10.6 years (range, 18–56 years). The mean peripapillary CT at the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites was 225±57, 183±47, 220±57, and 233±59 μm, respectively. The inferior peripapillary CT value was significantly lower than the peripapillary CT values (P<0.001 for all), whereas no significant differences were found between the superior, nasal, and temporal peripapillary CT values. Conclusion The findings of the study revealed that Turkish people had significantly lower peripapillary CT values in the inferior quadrant than in the superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants. PMID:26257510

  2. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin (<= 40 nm) lipids have significantly lower OST, and a larger OST drop range, potentially due to more evaporation. However, as long as the lipid layer is not thin (> 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  3. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets.

    PubMed

    Breymeyer, Kara L; Lampe, Johanna W; McGregor, Bonnie A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT

  4. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  5. EMG activity of finger flexor muscles and grip force following low-dose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Michal; Zaltsberg, Nir; Dickstein, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Somatosensory stimulation modulates cortical and corticospinal excitability and consequently affects motor output. Therefore, low-amplitude transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has the potential to elicit favorable motor responses. The purpose of the two presented pilot studies was to shed light on TENS parameters that are relevant for the enhancement of two desirable motor outcomes, namely, electromyographic (EMG) activity and contraction strength of the finger flexors and wrist muscles. In 5 and 10 healthy young adults (in Study I and Study II, respectively) TENS was delivered to the volar aspect of the forearm. We manipulated TENS frequency (150 Hz vs. 5 Hz), length of application (10, 20, and 60 min), and side of application (unilateral, right forearm vs. bilateral forearms). EMG amplitude and grip force were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post), and following 15 min of no stimulation (Study I only). The results indicated that low-frequency bursts of TENS applied to the skin overlying the finger flexor muscles enhance the EMG activity of the finger flexors and grip force. The increase in EMG activity of the flexor muscles was observed after 20 min of stimulation, while grip force was increased only after 1 h. The effects of uni- and bilateral TENS were comparable. These observations allude to a modulatory effect of TENS on the tested motor responses; however, unequivocal conclusions of the findings are hampered by individual differences that affect motor outcomes, such as in level of attention.

  6. The stability of marker characteristics across tests of the same subject and across subjects.

    PubMed

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the stability of marker characteristics within a very short period of time for both tests on the same subject as well as tests on different subjects. It reports on the scoring of the scripts of the whole cohort of students that took three high stakes tests in 2003 in a European country: a Language test consisting of a Literacy and a Literature paper and a History test. The many-facets Rasch model was used to study marker severity and marking consistency and it was found that some markers had more stable characteristics than others. Although the stability of marker characteristics was generally weak, it was non-negligible (correlation indices as indicators of stability ranged up to 0.707). This study, however, is not absolutely accurate due to the small sample sizes employed and it can be added that more research is needed to reach definite results.

  7. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Cathrin; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28) for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable. PMID:27891255

  8. Compensation for injured study subjects in clinical trials: an ethical obligation in human subjects research.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues suggested in its report "Research Across Borders: Proceedings of the International Research Panel of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues" that the United States should implement a system to compensate research subjects for research-related injuries. This article not only analyzes the Commission's recommendation critically, but also discusses if an ethical obligation exists to compensate study subjects for research-related injuries. In addition, the article compares the status quo of the United States to the one in Germany. Germany is one of the countries, which has an established insurance system for research-related injuries based on a non-fault system.

  9. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Rin; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. Results A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ≥3 and diabetes, a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, a waist circumference ≥90 cm, and a visceral fat area ≥100 cm2. The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634102

  10. Subjective Visual Vertical during Caloric Stimulation in Healthy Subjects: Implications to Research and Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Funabashi, Martha; Flores, Aline I.; Vicentino, Amanda; Barros, Camila G. C.; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M.; Leite, João P.; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is a perception often impaired in patients with neurologic disorders and is considered a sensitive tool to detect otolithic dysfunctions. However, it remains unclear whether the semicircular canals (SCCs) are also involved in the visual vertical perception. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of horizontal SCCs on SVV by caloric stimulation in healthy subjects. Methods. SVV was performed before and during the ice-cold caloric stimulation (4°C, right ear) in 30 healthy subjects. Results. The mean SVV tilts before and during the caloric stimulation were 0.31° ± 0.39 and −0.28° ± 0.40, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean SVV tilts before and during stimulation (p = 0.113). Conclusion. These results suggest that horizontal SCCs do not influence SVV. Therefore, investigations and rehabilitation approaches for SVV misperceptions should be focused on otolithic and cognitive strategies. PMID:26161271

  11. Subjective invulnerability, optimism bias and adjustment in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lapsley, Daniel K; Hill, Patrick L

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between subjective invulnerability and optimism bias in risk appraisal, and their comparative association with indices of risk activity, substance use and college adjustment problems was assessed in a sample of 350 (M (age) = 20.17; 73% female; 93% White/European American) emerging adults. Subjective invulnerability was measured with the newly devised adolescent invulnerability scale (AIS). Optimism bias in decision-making was assessed with a standard comparative-conditional risk appraisal task. Results showed that the danger- and psychological invulnerability subscales of the AIS demonstrated strong internal consistency and evidence of predictive validity. Subjective invulnerability and optimism bias were also shown to be empirically distinct constructs with differential ability to predict risk and adjustment. Danger invulnerability and psychological invulnerability were more pervasively associated with risk behavior than was optimism bias; and psychological invulnerability counter-indicated depression, self-esteem and interpersonal problems. Results support recent claims regarding the "two faces" of adolescent invulnerability. Implications for future research are drawn.

  12. Increased mean platelet volume in patients with idiopathic subjective tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Sarıkaya, Yasin; Bayraktar, Cem; Karataş, Mehmet; Doğan, Sedat; Olt, Serdar; Kaskalan, Emin; Türkbeyler, İbrahim Halil

    2016-11-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound with no external stimulus and idiopathic subjective tinnitus is the most common type in adults. Mean platelet volume (MPV) alterations were shown in some inflammatory diseases and were evaluated as a clinically useful marker. Our aim was to investigate MPV alterations in idiopathic subjective tinnitus patients. A total of 101 patients and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Patients included in the study had complaints of tinnitus for at least 3 months. All patients underwent detailed otolaryngologic examination, blood sampling, pure tone audiometry, magnetic resonance imaging of ear, and vertebrobasilar artery Doppler ultrasonography to make the differential diagnosis of tinnitus. Blood sampling consisted of renal-liver-thyroid function tests, lipid profile, and complete blood count. All tests and examinations except the imaging modalities were also performed for the control group. There were no differences in age and sex distribution of groups. Mean platelet volume values were significantly increased in tinnitus patients when compared with controls (p = 0.001). We think that MPV can be qualified as a useful marker in tinnitus patients.

  13. The Discrepancy Between Subjective and Objective Findings After Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Umihanic, Sekib; Brkic, Fuad; Osmic, Munevera; Umihanic, Sefika; Imamovic, Suad; Kamenjakovic, Samir; Hodzic, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical and medical treatments of nasal obstruction are a common parts of otolaryngologist practice. The definitive treatment of deviated nasal septum is septoplasty. Aim: In this study was to evaluate the values of subjective parameters, and active anterior rhinomanometry parameters prior and three months after the septoplasty. Patients and Methods: We analyzed the subjective parameters (“NOSE” scale), the active anterior rhinomanometry parameters according to International Committee on Standardization of Rhinomanometry, on 40 patients. Thirty healthy adult volunteers participated belonged to the control group. None of the patients or healthy volunteers had previous history of nasal surgery or active rhinological disease. Results: The post-operative improvement in symptoms of nasal obstruction obtained in 92,5% patients and improvement parameters of the active anterior rhinomanometry in 42,5% patients. Conclusion: The correlation between the findings with rhinomanometry and subjective sensation of nasal patency remains uncertain. There still seems to be only a limited argument for the use of rhinomanometry for quantifying surgical results. Three months postoperative findings are very early results to interpret the permanent effects. PMID:27994291

  14. Perception of imposed leg length inequality in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Seamus; Kernohan, George; Fitzpatrick, Claire; Hill, Janet; Beverland, David

    2010-01-01

    Lower limb length differences of up to 10mm exist in 60% - 95% of the population.There are usually no symptoms or functional effects. Following Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), satisfactory clinical results can be spoiled by dissatisfaction due to a change in leg length. Although the change in leg length may be modest in comparison to the normal variation, the patient may perceive this as a leg length discrepancy. To study the average threshold for perception, artificial leg length discrepancies of 5 mm to 25 mm were created in 30 young healthy adults using calibrated wooden blocks. Responses were recorded and analysed using a chi-squared test for independence and an independent measures t-test. Awareness of leg length discrepancy was related to the magnitude of the discrepancy (X2 (15)= 156.6, p<0.05 on the right side, and X2 (15)= 178.725 p<0.05 on the left side). It was shown that no subject reported a 5mm increase in leg length to be uncomfortable while all subjects were aware of leg length discrepancies of 20 mm and 25 mm. When there was a discrepancy of 10 mm in either lower limb, 29 out of 30 subjects (96.7%) thought there was a difference in leg length. Consequently it is suggested that during total hip arthroplasty the surgeon should aim for a leg length discrepancy of less than 10 mm.

  15. Enhanced sensitivity to echo cues in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Dufour, André; Després, Olivier; Candas, Victor

    2005-09-01

    Many studies have reported that blind people compensate for their visual deficit by sharpening auditory processes. Here we compare the sensitivity to echo cues between blind and sighted subjects. In the first experiment, the blind subjects were more accurate than the sighted subjects in localizing an object on the basis of echo cues. To ensure that enhanced echolocalization abilities were not only due to the fact that blind individuals are more used to consciously paying attention to echo cues and are more familiar with this kind of tasks than sighted subjects, we tested both groups of subjects in a simple azimuthal localization task of auditory stimuli. In this second experiment, we evaluated the influence of irrelevant echo signals on auditory localization by placing the subjects and the sound sources at different positions in a sound reverberant room. Results revealed that blind subjects exhibit a higher sensitivity to echo signals than sighted subjects.

  16. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subjects research protocol, all questionnaires, surveys, advertisements, and informed consent forms..., questionnaires, surveys, advertisements, and informed consent forms by the cognizant IRB; (3) Documentation of... . (f) In addition, if the contractor modifies a human subjects research protocol, questionnaire,...

  17. [Ethics and laws related to human subject research].

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Ju; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chang, Su-Fen

    2011-10-01

    Advances in medical technology rely on human subject research to test the effects on real patients of unproven new drugs, equipment and techniques. Illegal human subject research happens occasionally and has led to subject injury and medical disputes. Familiarity with the laws and established ethics related to human subject research can minimize both injury and disputes. History is a mirror that permits reflection today on past experience. Discussing the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki and Belmont Report, this article describes the laws, ethics, history and news related to human subject research as well as the current definition and characteristics of human subject research. Increasing numbers of nurses serve as research nurses and participate in human subject research. The authors hope this article can increase research nurse knowledge regarding laws and ethics in order to protect human research subjects adequately.

  18. Protections for Subjects in Human Research with Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All pesticide research using human subjects must meet our strict protective standards before we would consider using them in evaluating pesticides. EPA's regulation “Protections for Subjects in Human Research” was promulgated in 2006 and amended in 2013.

  19. Subject variability of shoulder abduction strength testing.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, S P; Gleim, G W; Nicholas, J A

    1990-01-01

    To quantify normal biological variability of shoulder abduction strength testing with an isokinetic and a hand-held dynamometer, we tested nine healthy subjects over a clinically relevant period. One side was tested with a Cybex at 60 deg/sec and the other with a hand-held dynamometer. Six maximal trials, following warmup, were conducted on each of 5 days, separated by 1 to 2 weeks. Intraday correlations of individual trials ranged from 0.82 to 0.995 for hand-held dynamometer, and 0.88 to 0.996 for Cybex. Interday correlations ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 for hand-held dynamometer, and 0.88 to 0.97 for Cybex. The best values to use for Cybex interday variability were the average of the first three repetitions, and yielded standard errors of 8.6% to 19.2% of the sample mean. The average of the last three repetitions were the best for hand-held dynamometers, and yielded standard errors of 5.5% to 10.8%. There was a significant decline (P less than 0.05) in strength of the mean of the last three versus the mean of the first three daily repetitions on Day 1 and 4 for hand-held dynamometers, and a trend toward this on the other days, that was not seen with Cybex. Regression of average Day 1 values for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer yielded r = 0.86 (P less than 0.01) with a slope of 1.07 indicating good agreement between modalities. In conclusion, intraday/interday correlations were high for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer. Interday variability was minimized by using the mean score of the first three and last three repetitions for Cybex and hand-held dynamometer, respectively. Changes in Cybex and hand-held dynamometer strength of less than 19% and 11%, respectively, are within the area of "measurement error" and should therefore not be considered clinically significant.

  20. Acid Inhibitory Effect of a Combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate (CDFR0209) Compared With Delayed-Release Omeprazole 40 mg Alone in Healthy Adult Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Yang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyunil; Kwak, Seong Shin; Kim, Young-Sang; Cho, Doo-Yeoun

    2017-01-23

    CDFR0209, a combination of an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 40 mg and sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg, has been developed to treat acid-related disorders. We compared the acid inhibitory effects of CDFR0209 and delayed-release omeprazole (omeprazole-DR, Losec 40 mg) after repeated dosing in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy adult male subjects. In this 2-period crossover study, 30 subjects were randomized to CDFR0209 or omeprazole-DR daily for 7 days. An ambulatory continuous 24-hour intragastric pH recording was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 7 of each administration period. Integrated gastric acidity was calculated from time-weighted average hydrogen ion concentrations at each hour of the 24-hour record. An analysis of variance model was used to test the pharmacodynamic equivalence of CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR, using the natural logarithmic transformation of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity for the 24-hour interval after the seventh dose of each omeprazole formulation. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (CDFR0209/omeprazole-DR) of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity was 0.98 (90%CI, 0.93-1.07). Both CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR are equally effective in decreasing integrated gastric acidity at steady state.

  1. How to bet on a memory: developmental linkages between subjective recollection and decision making.

    PubMed

    Hembacher, Emily; Ghetti, Simona

    2013-07-01

    The current study investigated the development of subjective recollection and its role in supporting decisions in 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- and 10-year-olds, and adults (N=78). Participants encoded items and details about them. Later, they were asked to recognize the items, recall the details, and report on subjective feelings of recollection and familiarity for test items. Critically, they were required to select a subset of trials to be evaluated for the possibility of a reward. All age groups were more likely to report subjective recollection when they accurately recalled details, demonstrating an ability to introspect on subtle differences in subjective memory states, although 6- and 7-year-olds could do so reliably only for color details. However, only 9- and 10-year-olds and adults were more likely to select trials that were associated with subjective recollection, suggesting that a connection between this subjective experience and decision making emerges later during middle childhood.

  2. Evidence Relating Subjective Contours and Interpretations Involving Occlusion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    This article describes a patient with visual agnosia who is both unable to make the usual occlusion interpretations and is unable to see subjective... article describes a patient with visual agnosia who is both unable to make the usual occlusion interpretions and is unable to see subjective contours...Subjective contours This article examines a prediction that follows from the following two postulates of the above theory: (i) that subjective

  3. Let's Change the Subject: Focus Movement in Early Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Rosalind

    2002-01-01

    Reanalyzes what the literature has taken to be children's productions of Gen subjects and argues that Gen subjects do not exist in child English. Suggests that what look like Gen subjects appear only in specific discourse contexts: contexts of contrastive focus or contexts of emphatic focus. (Author/VWL)

  4. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results…

  5. Descriptive Analysis of Single Subject Research Designs: 1983-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Diana; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Single subject research methodology is commonly used and cited in special education courses and journals. This article reviews the types of single subject research designs published in eight refereed journals between 1983 and 2007 used to answer applied research questions. Single subject designs were categorized as withdrawal/reversal, time…

  6. Subject Access in Online Catalogs: A Design Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marcia J.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for the design of online catalog subject access based on three principles: the uncertainty of subject indexing, the need for greater variety in searcher's queries, and the complexity of the search process. The proposed system is based on existing Library of Congress subject cataloging. (EM)

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Leisure and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byunggook

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a conceptual framework for an individual's subjective perception of leisure that contributes to Subjective Well-Being (SWB). More specifically, this study was an attempt to examine causal relationships among social cognitive variables, subjective perception of leisure, and SWB. A survey was administered to…

  8. Use of Single-Subject Research Designs in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilo, John; Gast, David L.; Loy, David P.; Malley, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rationale for using single-subject research designs to examine the effects of therapeutic recreation (TR), offering a description of single-subject research designs, examining research requirements, explaining data analysis through visual inspection, presenting examples of single-subject research designs, and concluding that this…

  9. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Powerplant Curriculum Subjects D Appendix D... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Pt. 147, App. D Appendix D to Part 147—Powerplant Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at...

  10. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  11. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  12. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  13. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  14. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  15. 8 CFR 103.29 - Records not subject to correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records not subject to correction. 103.29... DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.29 Records not subject to correction. The following records are not subject to correction or amendment by individuals: (a) Transcripts or written statements made under...

  16. 28 CFR 700.21 - Records not subject to correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records not subject to correction. 700.21... Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.21 Records not subject to correction. The following records are not subject to correction or amendment as provided in § 700.20: (a) Transcripts of testimony...

  17. 28 CFR 700.21 - Records not subject to correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records not subject to correction. 700.21... Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.21 Records not subject to correction. The following records are not subject to correction or amendment as provided in § 700.20: (a) Transcripts of testimony...

  18. 8 CFR 103.29 - Records not subject to correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records not subject to correction. 103.29... DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.29 Records not subject to correction. The following records are not subject to correction or amendment by individuals: (a) Transcripts or written statements made under...

  19. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  20. Genitive Case-Marked Subject in Modern Mongolian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayabaatar, Dalai; Dashdavaa, Vanchinsuren; Enkhjargal, Dagvasumberel; Onon, Tsulbaatar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents peculiarities of the genitive case marked subject in Modern Mongolian. First, we argue that subordinate clauses with the genitive case-marked subject in Modern Mongolian are CP. Second, we provide an explanation for certain conditions of the genitive subject construction in Modern Mongolian (MM). Third, we attempt to show the…

  1. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  2. Single-Subject Evaluation: A Tool for Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuehring, Elane M.; Pascone, Anne B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of single-subject designs in peer review, in utilization review, and in other quality-assurance audits is encouraged. Presents an overview of the methodologies of single-subject designs and quality assurance, and provides examples of cases in which single-subject techniques furnished relevant quality assurance documentation. (Author/ABB)

  3. The Acquisition of Jamaican Creole: Null Subject Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisser, Tamirand Nnena; Durrleman, Stephanie; Rizzi, Luigi; Shlonsky, Ur

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the first systematic analysis of early subject omission in a creole language. Basing our analysis on a longitudinal corpus of natural production of Jamaican Creole (JC), we observe that early subject drop is robustly attested for several months. Early subject omission is basically confined to the clause initial position,…

  4. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  5. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  6. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  7. 43 CFR 3813.2 - Minerals subject to disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals subject to disposition. 3813.2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.2 Minerals subject to disposition....

  8. Variation in Subject Pronominal Expression in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates subject pronominal expression in second language Chinese and compares learner usage with patterns found in their first language. The results show that (a) overt pronouns are used more for singular, +animate subjects than plural, -animate ones; (b) switch in subject surface form favors overt pronouns; (c) English and Russian…

  9. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant Curriculum Subjects D Appendix D... Appendix D to Part 147—Powerplant Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at least 750 hours of each powerplant curriculum, in addition to at least 400 hours in general...

  10. Library of Congress Subject Heading Patterns in OCLC Monographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Edward T.; Aluri, Rao

    1981-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of subject headings found in OCLC cataloging records. The study analyzed a sample of 33,455 monographic records taken from the OCLC database, and found that 94 percent of the subject headings used were Library of Congress subject headings. Twenty-seven references are cited. (Author/FM)

  11. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  12. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  13. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  14. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  15. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  16. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  17. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  18. 43 CFR 3822.1 - Subject to mining location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject to mining location. 3822.1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Lands Patented Under the Alaska Public Sale Act § 3822.1 Subject to mining location. Lands segregated...

  19. 43 CFR 3815.6 - Locations subject to mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locations subject to mining laws. 3815.6... Mineral Locations in Stock Driveway Withdrawals § 3815.6 Locations subject to mining laws. Prospecting for minerals and the location of mining claims on lands in such withdrawals shall be subject to the...

  20. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  1. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of human research subjects. If a grantee uses a human subject in a research project, the grantee shall protect...

  2. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  3. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  4. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  5. 48 CFR 1552.223-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... 1552.223-70 Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 1523.303-70, insert the following contract clause when the contract involves human test subjects. Protection of Human Subjects (APR 1984) (a)...

  6. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of human research subjects. If a grantee uses a human subject in a research project, the grantee shall protect...

  7. 34 CFR 76.681 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of human subjects. 76.681 Section 76.681 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... of human subjects. If a State or a subgrantee uses a human subject in a research project, the...

  8. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of human research subjects. 75.681 Section... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of human research subjects. If a grantee uses a human subject in a research project, the grantee shall protect...

  9. 45 CFR 63.31 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human subjects. 63.31 Section 63.31 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Protection of human subjects. All grants made pursuant to this part are subject to the specific provisions...

  10. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of human... Protection of human subjects. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1335.006(a), insert the following provision: Protection of Human Subjects (APR 2010) (a) Research involving human subjects is not permitted under this...

  11. Subject Leadership in Primary Schools--Towards Distributed Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on findings from the authors' PhD thesis looking at the role of Subject Leadership in primary schools. The study reports data collected from 20 subject leaders in 10 schools within 2 Local Education Authorities and sets the role of the subject leader within the context of a primary school, highlighting the varied complexities…

  12. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  13. Creating Subjects: The Language of the Stage 6 English Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Daniel W. J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the language of the 2009 NSW Stage 6 English Syllabus. I argue that the language of the syllabus aims to create two distinct subjects: Subject English, that is, what students learn; and the subject position of its students, that is, what students are expected to become. Analysis reveals themes of personal development and…

  14. 5 CFR 841.305 - Decisions subject to reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decisions subject to reconsideration. 841... Decisions subject to reconsideration. (a) A OPM decision under FERS is subject to reconsideration by OPM, whenever the decision is in writing and states the right to reconsideration. (b) OPM will reconsider...

  15. 7 CFR 1955.138 - Property subject to redemption rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Property subject to redemption rights. 1955.138... Property General § 1955.138 Property subject to redemption rights. If, under State law, FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's interest may be sold subject to redemption rights, the...

  16. Quality and the Scholarship of Teaching: Learning from Subject Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottewill, Roger; Macfarlane, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which subject review can contribute to the scholarship of teaching. Subject review was a quality assessment process conducted under the auspices of the UK's Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. A preliminary discussion considers the potential and pitfalls of using subject review as a basis for…

  17. 17 CFR 229.1002 - (Item 1002) Subject company information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1002) Subject company....1002 (Item 1002) Subject company information. (a) Name and address. State the name of the subject company (or the issuer in the case of an issuer tender offer), and the address and telephone number of...

  18. 17 CFR 229.1002 - (Item 1002) Subject company information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1002) Subject company....1002 (Item 1002) Subject company information. (a) Name and address. State the name of the subject company (or the issuer in the case of an issuer tender offer), and the address and telephone number of...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1002 - (Item 1002) Subject company information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1002) Subject company....1002 (Item 1002) Subject company information. (a) Name and address. State the name of the subject company (or the issuer in the case of an issuer tender offer), and the address and telephone number of...

  20. 17 CFR 229.1002 - (Item 1002) Subject company information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1002) Subject company....1002 (Item 1002) Subject company information. (a) Name and address. State the name of the subject company (or the issuer in the case of an issuer tender offer), and the address and telephone number of...