Science.gov

Sample records for adult tb patients

  1. Patient Reported Delays in Seeking Treatment for Tuberculosis among Adult and Pediatric TB Patients and TB Patients Co-Infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Alban, Rebecca E.; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R.; Oberhelman, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Conclusion: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level. PMID:25566523

  2. Universal HIV screening at a major metropolitan TB clinic: HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviors among TB patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, S E; Foresman, B; Cook, P E; Matty, K J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the outcome of implementing a policy of universal screening of patients with tuberculosis (TB) for HIV infection at a major metropolitan public health TB clinic. METHODS: HIV serologic testing was completed on 768 (93%) of 825 eligible patients. Ninety-eight HIV-positive cases (13%) were compared with 670 HIV-negative cases. The presence of adult HIV risk factors was determined by structured interview and review of medical records. RESULTS: One or more HIV risk factors were present in 93% of HIV-positive cases and 42% of HIV-negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The metropolitan TB clinic is well suited for HIV screening, and HIV-antibody testing and counseling should be provided to all TB patients. PMID:9987468

  3. Combination of Cytokine Responses Indicative of Latent TB and Active TB in Malawian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Yun-Gyoung; Gorak-Stolinska, Patricia; Ben-Smith, Anne; Lalor, Maeve K.; Chaguluka, Steven; Dacombe, Russell; Doherty, T. Mark; Ottenhoff, Tom H.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Crampin, Amelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background An IFN-γ response to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens is an effective biomarker for M. tuberculosis infection but it cannot discriminate between latent TB infection and active TB disease. Combining a number of cytokine/chemokine responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may enable differentiation of latent TB from active disease. Methods Asymptomatic recently-exposed individuals (spouses of TB patients) were recruited and tuberculin skin tested, bled and followed-up for two years. Culture supernatants, from a six-day culture of diluted whole blood samples stimulated with M. tuberculosis-derived PPD or ESAT-6, were measured for IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α and CXCL10 using cytokine ELISAs. In addition, 15 patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were recruited and tested. Results Spouses with positive IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 (>62.5 pg/mL) and TB patients showed high production of IL-17, CXCL10 and TNF-α. Higher production of IL-10 and IL-17 in response to ESAT-6 was observed in the spouses compared with TB patients while the ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-17 in response to M. tuberculosis-derived PPD were significantly higher in TB patients compared with the spouses. Tuberculin skin test results did not correlate with cytokine responses. Conclusions CXCL10 and TNF-α may be used as adjunct markers alongside an IFN-γ release assay to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection, and IL-17 and IL-10 production may differentiate individuals with LTBI from active TB. PMID:24260295

  4. Estimating the cost of TB and its social impact on TB patients and their households

    PubMed Central

    Onazi, O.; Gidado, M.; Onazi, M.; Daniel, O.; Kuye, J.; Obasanya, O.; Odusote, T.; Gande, S.

    2015-01-01

    Illness often poses a significant financial burden on individuals and their households, and tuberculosis (TB) is no exception. Although TB treatment is free in Nigeria, patients are likely to incur costs due to multiple visits during treatment. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the health-seeking behaviour of TB patients and the costs borne by TB patients in Nigeria, and 2) to assess the social impact of TB disease on TB patients and their families/households. Of 260 TB patients surveyed, the majority (74.7%) were aged between 20 and 49 years. TB patients expended an average of US$52.02 (N = 8323.58, at the rate of US$1 = N = 160) per person on all visits associated with diagnosis and receipt of diagnostic test results. Overall, households experienced a shortfall of about US$57.30 (N = 9174.72) or 24.9% of income loss due to TB illness. Further analysis revealed that 9.7% of TB patients relied on children of school age or below to finance the costs of TB illness. PMID:26400384

  5. Mediastinal Tuberculosis in an Adult Patient with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Philippe C.; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Carlotti, Agnès; Desmazes-Dufeu, Nadine; Farhi, David; Martin, Clémence; Kanaan, Reem; Mangialavori, Luigi; Palangié, Estelle; Dusser, Daniel; Poyart, Claire; Hubert, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is rarely observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We report the first case of mediastinal TB, associated with leg pain and skin rash, in an adult patient with CF, and discuss factors suggestive of TB in the course of CF. PMID:21106788

  6. Dipstick urinalysis for diabetes screening in TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Pino, Paula A.; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzman, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes knowledge among TB patients can contribute to improved TB treatment outcomes, but lack of diabetes diagnosis awareness is a limitation in developing countries. Given its low cost, the sensitivity of urine glucose dipsticks for diabetes screening in TB patients was assessed. Methods Glycosuria was assessed in 90 newly diagnosed TB patients (38 with diabetes) in south Texas, USA (n = 20) and northeast Mexico (n = 70) during January 2009–December 2010. Results Glycosuria was detected in 65% of the diabetic patients with chronic hyperglycemia (positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 84%). Conclusion We propose that TB clinics with limited budgets where portable glucometers may not be available conduct universal screening for diabetes with urine dipsticks. This could be followed by blood glucose or HbA1c testing in the subset of patients requiring confirmation or higher sensitivity assessment, to improve the comanagement of TB and diabetes. PMID:24030116

  7. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Kyaw, N. T. T.; Oo, M. M.; Aung, T. K.; Aung, S. T.; Oo, H. N.; Win, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Integrated HIV Care programme, Mandalay, Myanmar. Objectives: To determine time to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and its association with TB treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 1708 TB-HIV patients, 1565 (92%) started ATT first and 143 (8%) started ART first. Treatment outcomes were missing for 226 patients and were thus not included. In those starting ATT first, the median time to starting ART was 8.6 weeks. ART was initiated after 8 weeks in 830 (53%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 7%, with anaemia being an independent predictor. In patients starting ART first, the median time to starting ATT was 21.6 weeks. ATT was initiated within 3 months in 56 (39%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 12%, and in 20% of those starting ATT within 3 months. Patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 had a four times higher risk of an unsuccessful outcome. Conclusions: Timing of ART in relation to ATT was not an independent risk factor for unsuccessful outcome. Extensive screening for TB with rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons and close monitoring of anaemia and immunosuppression are recommended to further improve TB treatment outcomes among patients with TB-HIV. PMID:27358804

  8. Preferential adherence to antiretroviral therapy over tuberculosis (TB) treatment: a qualitative study of drug–resistant TB/HIV co–infected patients in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Daftary, Amrita; Padayatchi, Nesri; O’Donnell, Max

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and second–line antituberculosis medications is essential to achieve successful outcomes among individuals co–infected with HIV and multi or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR–TB). In 2012–13, we designed a qualitative study to explore barriers to adherence in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa. We conducted six focus groups comprising 23 adults receiving treatment for either MDR-TB (n=2) or XDR-TB (n=21); 17 were on concurrent ART. Participants expressed a preference for ART over M/XDR–TB treatment as a result of greater tolerability, lower pill burden, and a commitment to ART. Treatment outcomes and the social morbidity associated with M/XDR-TB, characterised by public notification, stigma, and social isolation, were perceived to be worse than with HIV. Poor communication, low patient involvement, and provider supervision of treatment exacerbated participants’ negative experiences with TB care. To improve adherence, it is critical that new regimens for drug-resistant TB be developed with better efficacy, lower pill burden, and fewer adverse effects. For the first time, such improved regimens are on the horizon. In parallel and equally important is the implementation of a cohesive approach that promotes patient involvement, empowerment, and treatment literacy for HIV and for TB. PMID:25035943

  9. Association of BMI Category Change with TB Treatment Mortality in HIV-Positive Smear-Negative and Extrapulmonary TB Patients in Myanmar and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Benova, Lenka; Fielding, Katherine; Greig, Jane; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; Casas, Esther Carrillo; da Fonseca, Marcio Silveira; du Cros, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Objective The HIV epidemic has increased the proportion of patients with smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnoses, with related higher rates of poor TB treatment outcomes. Unlike in smear-positive pulmonary TB, no interim markers of TB treatment progress are systematically used to identify individuals most at risk of mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body mass index (BMI) change at 1 month (±15 days) from TB treatment start with mortality among HIV-positive individuals with smear-negative and extrapulmonary TB. Methods and Findings A retrospective cohort study of adult HIV-positive new TB patients in Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treatment programmes in Myanmar and Zimbabwe was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association between BMI category change and mortality. A cohort of 1090 TB patients (605 smear-negative and 485 extrapulmonary) was followed during TB treatment with mortality rate of 28.9 per 100 person-years. In multivariable analyses, remaining severely underweight or moving to a lower BMI category increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 4.05, 95% confidence interval 2.77–5.91, p<0.001) compared with remaining in the same or moving to a higher BMI category. Conclusions We found a strong association between BMI category change during the first month of TB treatment and mortality. BMI category change could be used to identify individuals most at risk of mortality during TB treatment among smear-negative and extrapulmonary patients. PMID:22545150

  10. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm3. Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed active TB, none were urine LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm3; p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed. PMID:26600904

  11. Support of vulnerable patients throughout TB treatment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Potter, J L; Inamdar, L; Okereke, E; Collinson, S; Dukes, R; Mandelbaum, M

    2016-06-01

    Despite well-established treatment regimens, tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health burden; it disproportionately affects poor and marginalized populations who may not have access to social support, including migrants, homeless people and those dependent on drugs or alcohol. There is a clearly demonstrated need for housing and other appropriate social support, as part of a package of integrated clinical and social care. However, TB prevention and control efforts in the UK often do not address the specific vulnerabilities of these groups and it can be a challenge to support the continued TB treatment of these underserved populations. This challenge is exacerbated by complex issues concerning funding, immigration and the law. In this paper, we have reviewed current UK guidance and legislation, discussed several case studies and highlighted examples of existing models of community support for TB patients. Finally, we lay out our recommendations for ensuring a co-ordinated, whole system approach to successful TB treatment. PMID:25889386

  12. First use of bedaquiline in a patient with XDR-TB in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, Angeline Poh-Gek; Hoo, Grace Si-Ru; Chee, Cynthia Bin-Eng; Wang, Yee Tang

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a threat to global control of TB: 3.5% of new and 20.5% of previously treated TB cases were estimated to have multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB in 2013. Approximately 9% of patients with MDR-TB had extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. A 30-year-old Vietnamese woman previously treated for TB in her home country presented with 5 months of cough and shortness of breath 1 year after migrating to Singapore. Xpert MTB/Rif testing showed rpoB gene mutation. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing revealed XDR-TB. Second and third-line TB drugs were commenced. To strengthen the efficacy of her treatment regimen, the novel anti-TB drug bedaquiline was obtained for the patient on compassionate grounds. We report the first use in Singapore of bedaquiline for the treatment of XDR-TB. PMID:26400590

  13. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  14. Quality of life among tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health care patients in three districts in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction TB and HIV co-morbidity amount to a massive burden on healthcare systems in many countries. This study investigates health related quality of life among tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and TB-HIV co-infected public primary health care patients in three districts in South Africa. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 4900 TB patients who were in the first month of anti-TB treatment in primary public health care clinics in three districts in South Africa. Quality of life was assessed using the social functioning (SF)-12 Health Survey through face to face interviews. Associations of physical health (Physical health Component Summary = PCS) and mental health (Mental health Component Summary = MCS) were identified using logistic regression analyses. Results The overall physical and mental health scores were 42.5 and 40.7, respectively. Emotional role, general health and bodily pain had the lowest sub-scale scores, while energy and fatigue and mental health had the highest domain scores. Independent Kruskal–Wallis tests found significant positive effects of being TB-HIV co-infected on the domains of mental health functioning, emotional role, energy and fatigue, social function and physical role, while significant negative effects were observed on general health, bodily pain and physical function. In multivariable analysis higher educational, lower psychological distress, having fewer chronic conditions and being HIV negative were significantly positively associated with PCS, and low poverty, low psychological distress and being HIV positive were positively significantly associated with MCS. Conclusion TB and HIV weaken patients’ physical functioning and impair their quality of life. It is imperative that TB control programmes at public health clinics design strategies to improve the quality of health of TB and HIV co-infected patients. PMID:22742511

  15. TB tracer teams in South Africa: knowledge, practices and challenges of tracing TB patients to improve adherence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2008–2009 the South African National Tuberculosis (TB) Program (NTP) implemented a national pilot project, the TB Tracer Project, aiming to decrease default rates and improve patient outcomes. The current study aimed to inform the NTP by describing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TB program personnel involved with tracing activities. Methods A self-administered written questionnaire was sent to TB staff, managers and tracer team leaders to assess basic TB knowledge, attitudes and practices. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize results and the chi-squared statistic was used to compare responses of staff at facilities that participated in the TB Tracer Project (tracer) and those that followed standard NTP care (non-tracer). Results Of 560 total questionnaires distributed, 270 were completed and returned (response rate 48%). Total TB knowledge ranged from 70.8-86.3% correct across all response groups. However, just over half (range 50–59.3%) of each respondent group was able to correctly identify the four components of a DOT encounter. A patient no longer feeling sick was cited by 72.1% of respondents as the reason patients fail to adhere to treatment. Tracer teams were viewed as an effective means to get patients to return to treatment by 96.3% of health facility level respondents. Tracer team leaders reported concerns including lack of logistical support (41.7%), insufficient physical safety precautions (41.7%), and inadequate protection from contracting TB (39.1%). Upon patients returning to treatment at the clinic, facilities included in the TB Tracer Project were significantly more likely to discuss alternate DOTS arrangements than non-tracer facilities (79.2 vs. 66.4%, p = 0.03). Conclusions This study identified key components of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB patient tracing activities in South Africa. Educating patients on the essential need to complete treatment irrespective of clinical symptoms may

  16. [Duties of TB patients or suspected patients and their close relations].

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2015-01-01

    The effective laws impose the duty upon TB patients or persons suspected to have TB as well as their close relations to undergo compulsory sanitary and epidemiological examinations. Furthermore, treatment is also mandatory and in case of infective patients hospitalization and isolation. Duty does not however denote enforcement, which is required in certain particularly dangerous infectious diseases. Poland operates a system of mandatory TB vaccination applicable, today, only to infants. Persons suspected of TB have the obligation to provide necessary information helping in diagnosing the disease or helping to find the source of infection and transmission of the disease. TB patients are under obligation to discontinue performing their work to prevent the disease from spreading to other persons. PMID:26466461

  17. Paradoxical TB-IRIS in HIV-infected adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Namale, Phiona E; Abdullahi, Leila H; Fine, Stacey; Kamkuemah, Monika; Wilkinson, Robert J; Meintjes, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Paradoxical tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) was first described almost two decades ago. We undertook this systematic review and meta-analysis to collate findings across studies that have reported the incidence, clinical features, management and outcomes of paradoxical TB-IRIS. Forty studies that cumulatively reported 1048 paradoxical TB-IRIS cases were included. The pooled estimated incidence among patients with HIV-associated TB initiating antiretroviral therapy was 18% (95% CI: 16-21%). Frequent features were pulmonary and lymph node involvement. Hospitalization occurred in 25% (95% CI: 19-30%). In studies that reported treatment, corticosteroids were prescribed more frequently (38%; 95% CI: 27-48%) than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (28%; 95% CI: 2-53%). Case fatality was 7% (95% CI: 4-11%), but death attributed to TB-IRIS occurred in 2% of cases (95% CI: 1-3%). PMID:26059627

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Tuberculosis-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Impaired Lung Function Among Advanced HIV/TB Co-infected Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ravimohan, Shruthi; Tamuhla, Neo; Kung, Shiang-Ju; Nfanyana, Kebatshabile; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Gross, Robert; Weissman, Drew; Bisson, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients with pulmonary TB (pTB) can have worsening of respiratory symptoms as part of TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Thus, reconstitution of immune function on ART could drive incident lung damage in HIV/TB. Methods We hypothesized that increases in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can degrade lung matrix, on ART are associated with TB-IRIS among a cohort of advanced, ART naïve, HIV-infected adults with pTB. Furthermore, we related early changes in immune measures and MMPs on ART to lung function in an exploratory subset of patients post-TB cure. This study was nested within a prospective cohort study. Rank sum and chi-square tests, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression were used for analyses. Results Increases in MMP-8 following ART initiation were independently associated with TB-IRIS (p = 0.04; adjusted odds ratio 1.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.0–2.1]; n = 32). Increases in CD4 counts and MMP-8 on ART were also associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one-second post-TB treatment completion (r = − 0.7, p = 0.006 and r = − 0.6, p = 0.02, respectively; n = 14). Conclusions ART-induced MMP increases are associated with TB-IRIS and may affect lung function post-TB cure. End-organ damage due to TB-IRIS and mechanisms whereby immune restoration impairs lung function in pTB deserve further investigation. PMID:27014741

  19. Comparison of the Sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB According to Patient Age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are two types of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in use for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (GFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB. Owing to contradictory reports regarding whether the results of these IGRAs are affected by the age of the patient, we aimed to determine if these two tests have age-related differences in sensitivity. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of diagnosed TB patients who were tested using either QFT-GIT or T-SPOT.TB from February 2008 to December 2013. The positivity of the two tests was analyzed and compared with true TB infection, which was defined as active TB based on either a positive Mycobacterium culture or a positive TB polymerase chain reaction. The QFT-GIT group included 192 TB patients, and the T-SPOT.TB group included 212 TB patients. Of the patients with pulmonary TB, 76 (39.6%) were in the QFT-GIT group and 143 (67.5%) in the T-SPOT.TB group. The overall sensitivity was 80.2% for QFT-GIT and 91.0% for T.SPOT.TB. The sensitivities of QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB according to age group were as follows: <29 years, 93.3% and 96.7%; 30-49 years, 86.5% and 94.7%; 50-69 years, 76.8% and 87.5%; and >70 years, 68.3% and 85.7%, respectively. The trend of age-related changes in sensitivity was significant for both QFT-GIT (p = 0.004) and T.SPOT.TB (p = 0.039). However, only QFT-GIT was significantly related to age in the multivariate analysis. QFT-GIT, but not T-SPOT.TB, was significantly affected by patient age. PMID:27258377

  20. Comparison of the Sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB According to Patient Age

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Won; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are two types of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in use for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (GFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB. Owing to contradictory reports regarding whether the results of these IGRAs are affected by the age of the patient, we aimed to determine if these two tests have age-related differences in sensitivity. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of diagnosed TB patients who were tested using either QFT-GIT or T-SPOT.TB from February 2008 to December 2013. The positivity of the two tests was analyzed and compared with true TB infection, which was defined as active TB based on either a positive Mycobacterium culture or a positive TB polymerase chain reaction. The QFT-GIT group included 192 TB patients, and the T-SPOT.TB group included 212 TB patients. Of the patients with pulmonary TB, 76 (39.6%) were in the QFT-GIT group and 143 (67.5%) in the T-SPOT.TB group. The overall sensitivity was 80.2% for QFT-GIT and 91.0% for T.SPOT.TB. The sensitivities of QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB according to age group were as follows: <29 years, 93.3% and 96.7%; 30–49 years, 86.5% and 94.7%; 50–69 years, 76.8% and 87.5%; and >70 years, 68.3% and 85.7%, respectively. The trend of age-related changes in sensitivity was significant for both QFT-GIT (p = 0.004) and T.SPOT.TB (p = 0.039). However, only QFT-GIT was significantly related to age in the multivariate analysis. QFT-GIT, but not T-SPOT.TB, was significantly affected by patient age. PMID:27258377

  1. HIV testing and disclosure: a qualitative analysis of TB patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daftary, A; Padayatchi, N; Padilla, M

    2007-04-01

    In South Africa, more than 60% of TB patients have HIV co-infection. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is critical to effective HIV prevention, and TB facilities are optimal venues for delivery of these services. This study employed qualitative research methods to explore the decision-making processes for HIV testing and serostatus disclosure by 21 patients hospitalized with multi/extensively-drug resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) in Durban, KwaZulu Natal. Data collected from in-depth interviews characterized 3 broad themes: HIV testing history, experiences and perceptions of stigma and disclosure, and the relationship between TB and HIV/AIDS. Fear of AIDS-related stigma, the singular stress of TB infection, the absence of partner's consent, asymptomatic or incurable disease, and uncertainty about subsequent eligibility for antiretroviral treatment while still receiving TB treatment were identified as potential barriers to the uptake of VCT. HIV serostatus disclosure was impeded by the felt stigma of a 'discreditable' infection, manifested by social rejection and discrimination. The public disclosure of TB illness helped relieve some co-infected patients' overall burden of stigma through a process of 'covering'. HIV prevention [corrected] measures such as VCTare likely to be more effective within TB facilities if greater sensitivity is paid to TB patients' specific social issues and perceptions. These patients are not only at greater risk for HIV co-infection but also for experiencing the double stigma of TB and HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453600

  2. Access to and affordability of healthcare for TB patients in China: issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shenglan; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Hong; Chin, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the background, aim and objectives of the project entitled "China-the Gates Foundation Collaboration on TB Control in China" that has been underway for many years. It also summarizes the key findings of the nine papers included in this special issue, which used data from the baseline survey of Phase II of the project. Data were collected from the survey of TB and MDR-TB patients, from designated hospitals, health insurance agencies and the routine health information systems, as well as key informant interviews and focus group discussions with relevant key stakeholders. Key issues discussed in this series of papers include the uses of TB services and anti-TB medicines and their determining factors related to socio-economic and health systems development; expenditures on TB care and the financial burden incurred on TB patients; and the impact of health insurance schemes implemented in China on financial protection. PMID:26822583

  3. Predictors of tuberculosis (TB) and antiretroviral (ARV) medication non-adherence in public primary care patients in South Africa: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the downward trend in the absolute number of tuberculosis (TB) cases since 2006 and the fall in the incidence rates since 2001, the burden of disease caused by TB remains a global health challenge. The co-infection between TB and HIV adds to this disease burden. TB is completely curable through the intake of a strict anti-TB drug treatment regimen which requires an extremely high and consistent level of adherence.The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with adherence to anti-TB and HIV treatment drugs. Methods A cross-sectional survey method was used. Three study districts (14 primary health care facilities in each) were selected on the basis of the highest TB caseload per clinic. All new TB and new TB retreatment patients were consecutively screened within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample comprised of 3107 TB patients who had been on treatment for at least three weeks and a sub-sample of the total sample were on both anti-TB treatment and anti-retro-viral therapy(ART) (N = 757). Data collection tools included: a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire; a Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder (PTSD) Screen; a Psychological Distress Scale; the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT); and self-report measures of tobacco use, perceived health status and adherence to anti-TB drugs and ART. Results The majority of the participants (N = 3107) were new TB cases with a 55.9% HIV co-infection rate in this adult male and female sample 18 years and older. Significant predictors of non-adherence common to both anti-TB drugs and to dual therapy (ART and anti-TB drugs) included poverty, having one or more co-morbid health condition, being a high risk for alcohol mis-use and a partner who is HIV positive. An additional predictor for non-adherence to anti-TB drugs was tobacco use. Conclusions A comprehensive treatment programme addressing poverty, alcohol mis-use, tobacco use and psycho-social counseling is indicated

  4. TB-IRIS and remodelling of the T cell compartment in highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB: the CAPRI T (ANRS-12614) study

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, V.; Pean, P.; Jasenosky, L.D.; Madec, Y.; Laureillard, D.; Sok, T.; Sath, S.; Borand, L.; Marcy, O.; Chan, S.; Tsitsikov, E.; Delfraissy, J.-F.; Blanc, F.-X.; Goldfeld, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) upon immunological recovery and the T cell compartment after initiation of TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design and methods We prospectively evaluated T cell immunophenotypes by flow cytometry and cytokines by Luminex assays in a subset (n=154) of highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB from the CAMELIA randomized clinical trial. We compared findings from patients who developed TB-IRIS to findings from patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Data were evaluated with mixed effect linear regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and q-values were calculated to control for multiple comparisons. Results Development of TB-IRIS was associated with significantly greater pre-ART frequencies of HLA-DR+CD45RO+CD4+, CCR5+CD4+, OX40+CD4+, and Fas+ effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cells, and significantly elevated levels of plasma IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 and viral load. Post-ART initiation, EM CD4+ and Fas+ EM CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly expanded, and central memory (CM) CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly contracted in patients who experienced TB-IRIS. By week 34 post-TB treatment initiation, EM/CM CD4+ T cell ratios were markedly higher in TB-IRIS versus non-TB-IRIS patients. Conclusions A distinct pattern of pre-ART T cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T cell memory compartment towards an EM-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre- and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. PMID:25486415

  5. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadoev, Jamshid; Asadov, Damin; Tillashaykhov, Mirzagolib; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Gudmund Hinderaker, Sven; Parpieva, Nargiza; Ulmasova, Dilrabo; Jalolov, Avazbek; Hamraev, Atadjan; Ali, Engy; van den Boom, Martin; Hammerich, Asmus; Gozalov, Ogtay; Dara, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures) and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. Method A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%), adolescents (4%) and elderly patients (19%). Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB) was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure. Conclusion Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and

  6. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    PubMed

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  7. Social, Economic, and Psychological Impacts of MDR-TB Treatment in Tijuana, Mexico: A Patient's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Quezada, Liliana; Bhat, Priya; Moser, Kathleen; Smith, Jennifer; Perez, Hector; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Estrada-Guzman, Julia; Rodwell, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Setting The state of Baja California, Mexico had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in 2009. Objective To understand the socioeconomic burdens of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico. Design From July to November 2009, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 patients who were enrolled in a US-Mexico binational MDR-TB treatment program called “Puentes de Esperanza” (Bridges of Hope), which was designed to support MDR-TB patients. In-depth interviews were coded to identify major themes in patient experiences of MDR-TB diagnosis and care. Results While some patients were able to maintain their pre-MDR-TB lives to a limited extent, most patients reported losing their sense of identity due to their inability to work, social isolation, and stigmatization from family and friends. The majority of participants expressed appreciation for Puentes’ role in “saving their life.” Conclusion Being diagnosed with MDR-TB and undergoing treatment imposes significant psychological, social, and economic stress on patients. Strong social support elements within Puentes helped ameliorate these burdens. Improvements to the program might include peer-support groups for patients undergoing treatment and transitioning back into the community after treatment. PMID:23743315

  8. Tuberculosis Treatment Non-Adherence and Lost to Follow Up among TB Patients with or without HIV in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    TOLA, Habteyes Hailu; TOL, Azar; SHOJAEIZADEH, Davoud; GARMAROUDI, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review intended to combine factors associated with tuberculosis treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up among TB patients with/without HIV in developing countries. Comprehensive remote electronic databases (MEDLINE, (PMC, Pub Med Central), Google scholar and Web of science) search was conducted using the following keywords: Tuberculosis, treatment, compliance, adherence, default, behavioural factors and socioeconomic factors. All types of studies intended to assess TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up in developing countries among adult TB patient from 2008 to data extraction date were included. Twenty-six original and one-reviewed articles, which meet inclusion criteria, were reviewed. TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were continued across developing countries. The main factors associated with TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were socioeconomic factors: lack of transportation cost, lack of social support, and patients-health care worker poor communication. Behavioural factors were Feeling better after few weeks of treatments, tobacco and alcohol use, knowledge deficit about duration of treatment and consequences of non-adherence and lost to follow up. TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were continued across developing countries throughout the publication years of reviewed articles. Numerous, socioeconomic and behavioural factors were influencing TB treatment adherence and lost to follow up. Therefore, well understanding and minimizing of the effect of these associated factors is very important to enhance treatment adherence and follow up completion in developing countries. PMID:26060770

  9. Tuberculosis Treatment Non-Adherence and Lost to Follow Up among TB Patients with or without HIV in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tola, Habteyes Hailu; Tol, Azar; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review intended to combine factors associated with tuberculosis treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up among TB patients with/without HIV in developing countries. Comprehensive remote electronic databases (MEDLINE, (PMC, Pub Med Central), Google scholar and Web of science) search was conducted using the following keywords: Tuberculosis, treatment, compliance, adherence, default, behavioural factors and socioeconomic factors. All types of studies intended to assess TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up in developing countries among adult TB patient from 2008 to data extraction date were included. Twenty-six original and one-reviewed articles, which meet inclusion criteria, were reviewed. TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were continued across developing countries. The main factors associated with TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were socioeconomic factors: lack of transportation cost, lack of social support, and patients-health care worker poor communication. Behavioural factors were Feeling better after few weeks of treatments, tobacco and alcohol use, knowledge deficit about duration of treatment and consequences of non-adherence and lost to follow up. TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were continued across developing countries throughout the publication years of reviewed articles. Numerous, socioeconomic and behavioural factors were influencing TB treatment adherence and lost to follow up. Therefore, well understanding and minimizing of the effect of these associated factors is very important to enhance treatment adherence and follow up completion in developing countries. PMID:26060770

  10. Elevated serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with risk of TB progression in Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Agbla, Schadrac; Owiafe, Patrick; Donkor, Simon; Togun, Toyin; Sillah, Abdou K.; Ota, Martin O.C.; Sutherland, Jayne S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D is essential in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB) as an immune modulator. The aim of this study was to determine the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) from adult TB index cases before and after treatment and their exposed household contacts (HHC) in The Gambia. Methods Serum from adult index TB cases and their TB-exposed household contacts (HHC) was analysed for 25(OH) D and Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) status was used as a measure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity in the HHC. In addition, HHC who later progressed to active TB (incident cases) were assessed alongside non-progressors to determine the influence of 25 (OH) D levels on TB risk. Results Eighty-three TB cases, 46 TST+ and 52 TST− HHC were analysed. Generally levels of 25(OH) D were considered insufficient in all subjects. However, median levels of 25(OH) D and VDBP were significantly higher in TB cases compared to both TST+ and TST− HHC at recruitment and were significantly reduced after TB therapy (p < 0.0001 for all). In addition, levels of serum 25(OH) D at recruitment were significantly higher in TB progressors compared to non-progressors (median (IQR): 25.0(20.8–29.2) in progressors and 20.3 (16.3–24.6) ng/ml in non-progressors; p = 0.007). Conclusion In The Gambia, an equatorial country, 25(OH) D levels are higher in serum of TB progressors and those with active disease compared to latently infected and uninfected subjects. These results contrast to findings in non-equatorial countries. PMID:27156622

  11. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, N. V.; Hoa, N. B.; Thuy, H. T.; Takarinda, K. C.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. Objectives: To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010–2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010–2012. Design: A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. Results: The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Conclusion: Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection—currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation. PMID:27051608

  12. Incidence of tuberculosis and immunological profile of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Baba Maiyaki; Musa, Babashani; Muhammed, Hamza; Ibrahim, Nashabaru; Musa, Abubakar Garbati

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We obtained estimates of the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among patients receiving HIV Treatment. We also modeled the relationship between incident TB and change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence of TB over 10 years from initiation of HIV treatment among 345 HIV treatment-naïve persons, who were enrolled in a cohort in Kano, Nigeria. We used Generalized Estimating Equation [GEE] to identify determinants of TB incidence and model the relationship between the occurrences of TB with change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. We created Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) treatment failure status to examine the effect of first line ART treatment failure on occurrence of TB. RESULT: During the 10-year period, 47(13.62%) had TB [incidence was 7.43 per (1,000) person year)]. It is associated with decreasing age (OR = 0.98), female gender (OR = 0.83), being on first line ART other than AZT (OR = 0.87), poor adherence (OR = 1.25), change in ART regimen (OR = 2.3) and ART treatment failure (OR = 1.51). Odds of TB occurrence was also associated with CD4 increment at 10 years (OR = 0.99). Those with TB/HIV co-infection tend to have statistically significant shorter time to failing first line ART regimen compared to those with HIV infection alone. CONCLUSION: There was high incidence of TB in the studied HIV cohort with a deleterious effect on the outcome of ART treatment. There is need for early TB screening and re-screening among all HIV patients. PMID:26229561

  13. The effect of HIV coinfection, HAART and TB treatment on cytokine/chemokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens in active TB patients and latently Mtb infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Desta; de Jager, Wilco; Gebremichael, Gebremedhin; Alemayehu, Yodit; Ran, Leonie; Fransen, Justin; Wolday, Dawit; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Tegbaru, Belete; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Baarle, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of Mtb specific induced cytokine/chemokine host biomarkers could assist in developing novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools for TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, IL-10, IP-10 and MIP-1α were measured in supernatants of whole blood stimulated with Mtb specific fusion protein ESAT-6/CFP-10 using xMAP technology. The study groups were HIV positive TB patients (HIV(+)TB(+)), HIV negative TB patients (HIV(-)TB(+)), HIV positive tuberculin skin test positive (TST+) (HIV(+)TST(+)), HIV negative TST+ (HIV(-)TST(+)), and HIV(-)TST(-) individuals. Compared to HIV(-)TST(-), latent TB infection led to increased levels of IP-10, IFN-γ and IL-17, while levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were increased with active TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 were increased in HIV(-)TST(+) individuals compared to HIV(-)TB(+) patients. HIV coinfection decreased the level of IFN-γ, IL-17, IP-10 and IL-2. After six months (M6) of anti-TB treatment (ATT) in HIV(-)TB(+) patients, IFN-γ, IL-10, and MIP-1α levels normalized. After M6 and M18 of ATT plus HAART in HIV(+)TB(+) patients, levels of MIP-1α and IL-10 normalized, while this was not the case for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IP-10 levels. In HIV(+)TST(+) patients on HAART, levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10 and MIP-1α normalized, while no change in the levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were observed. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing LTBI; IL-2 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing active TB; while IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 levels could help to discriminate LTBI and active TB. In addition, IL-10 and MIP-1α levels could help to monitor responses to TB treatment and HAART. PMID:26631832

  14. Drug Resistance Pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates From Patients Referred to TB Reference Laboratory in Ahvaz

    PubMed Central

    Badie, Fereshteh; Arshadi, Maniya; Mohsenpoor, Maryam; Gharibvand, Soodabeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculosis remains one of the top three infectious disease killers. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has increased substantially in the past 20 years. When drug resistance is not detected, MDR-TB patients cannot access life-saving treatment; this puts their communities at risk of ongoing MDR-TB transmission. We aimed to determine the patterns of resistance to antituberculosis drugs among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Khuzestan province in Iran. Methods A total of 850 clinical specimens from patients suspected of active TB were cultured in 2015. Drug susceptibility testing to the first line antiTB drugs for culture positive MTB was performed on Lowenstein–Jensen medium using the proportion method. Results Of 850 cultured specimens, 272 (32%) were culture positive for mycobacteria. Of 64 MTB isolates that were analyzed by the proportion method, 62 (96.8%) were pan-susceptible and two (3.1%) were MDR. Conclusion An important way to prevent the emergence of MDR and XDR TB, and the principles of full implementation of the strategy is directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The efficient diagnosis and timely treatment of MDR-TB patients can prevent disease transmission, reduce the risk of drug resistance developing, and avoid further lung damage. PMID:26981340

  15. Adverse Events among HIV/MDR-TB Co-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral and Second Line Anti-TB Treatment in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Isaakidis, Petros; Varghese, Bhanumati; Mansoor, Homa; Cox, Helen S.; Ladomirska, Joanna; Saranchuk, Peter; Da Silva, Esdras; Khan, Samsuddin; Paryani, Roma; Udwadia, Zarir; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Reid, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background Significant adverse events (AE) have been reported in patients receiving medications for multidrug- and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB & XDR-TB). However, there is little prospective data on AE in MDR- or XDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmatic settings. Methods Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is supporting a community-based treatment program for drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a slum setting in Mumbai, India since 2007. Patients are being treated for both diseases and the management of AE is done on an outpatient basis whenever possible. Prospective data were analysed to determine the occurrence and nature of AE. Results Between May 2007 and September 2011, 67 HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients were being treated with anti-TB treatment and ART; 43.3% were female, median age was 35.5 years (Interquartile Range: 30.5–42) and the median duration of anti-TB treatment was 10 months (range 0.5–30). Overall, AE were common in this cohort: 71%, 63% and 40% of patients experienced one or more mild, moderate or severe AE, respectively. However, they were rarely life-threatening or debilitating. AE occurring most frequently included gastrointestinal symptoms (45% of patients), peripheral neuropathy (38%), hypothyroidism (32%), psychiatric symptoms (29%) and hypokalaemia (23%). Eleven patients were hospitalized for AE and one or more suspect drugs had to be permanently discontinued in 27 (40%). No AE led to indefinite suspension of an entire MDR-TB or ART regimen. Conclusions AE occurred frequently in this Mumbai HIV/MDR-TB cohort but not more frequently than in non-HIV patients on similar anti-TB treatment. Most AE can be successfully managed on an outpatient basis through a community-based treatment program, even in a resource-limited setting. Concerns about severe AE in the management of co-infected patients are justified, however, they should not cause delays

  16. Alcohol and drug use disorders, HIV status and drug resistance in a sample of Russian TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, M. F.; Krupitsky, E.; Tsoy, M.; Zvartau, E.; Brazhenko, N.; Jakubowiak, W.; E. McCaul, M.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING: Alcohol use, tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior are of increasing concern in Russian TB patients. DESIGN: A prevalence study of alcohol use and HIV risk behavior was conducted in a sample of 200 adult men and women admitted to TB hospitals in St Petersburg and Ivanovo, Russia. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 72% were men. The mean age was 41. Active TB was diagnosed using a combination of chest X-ray, sputum smears and sputum cultures. Sixty-two per cent met DSM-IV criteria for current alcohol abuse or dependence. Drug use was uncommon, with only two patients reporting recent intravenous heroin use. There was one case of HIV infection. The mean total risk assessment battery score was 3.4. Depression was present in 60% of the sample, with 17% severely depressed. Alcohol abuse/dependence was associated with an eight-fold increase in drug resistance (OR 8.58; 95% CI 2.09-35.32). Patients with relapsing or chronic TB were more likely to meet the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.0-6.54). CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common in patients being treated for active TB, and are associated with significant morbidity. Additional surveys are needed to examine the relationship between alcohol use disorders and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. CONTEXTE: Chezles patients tuberculeux russes, l’utilisation d’alcool, la résistance aux médicaments antituberculeux et un comportement à risque pour le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) sont des sujets croissants d’inquiétude. SCHÉMA: Une étude: de prévalence de l’utilisation d’alcool et du comportement à risque pour le VIH a été menée sur un échantillon de 200 hommes et femmes adultes, admis dans des hôpitaux pour la tuberculose (TB) de Saint-Pétersbourg et d’Ivanovo en Russie. RÉSULTATS: Il y avait 72% d’hommes dans l’échantillon. L’âge moyen est de 41 ans. On a diagnostiqué la TB active par l

  17. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, O; Jeremiah, Z A; Adias, T C; Okere, CE

    2010-01-01

    The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB) undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75). The subjects studied were 36 male (30%) and 84 females (70%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25%) were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80%) compared to males 6 (20%) and among singles (66.7%) compared to married subjects (33.3%) (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001). HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40%) followed by the 18–28 year age group (20%) (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL) compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01). This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22096379

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary TB Patients in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Changalucha, John; McIlleron, Helen; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Aase Bengaard

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to lower-than-therapeutic levels of anti-tuberculosis drugs is likely to cause selection of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treatment failure. The first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) regimen consists of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, and correct management reduces risk of TB relapse and development of drug resistance. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of standard of care plus nutritional supplementation versus standard care on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol among sputum smear positive TB patients with and without HIV. In a clinical trial in 100 Tanzanian TB patients, with or without HIV infection, drug concentrations were determined at 1 week and 2 months post initiation of anti-TB medication. Data was analysed using population pharmacokinetic modelling. The effect of body size was described using allometric scaling, and the effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, age, sex, CD4+ count, weight-adjusted dose, NAT2 genotype, and time on TB treatment were investigated. The kinetics of all drugs was well characterised using first-order elimination and transit compartment absorption, with isoniazid and ethambutol described by two-compartment disposition models, and pyrazinamide by a one-compartment model. Patients with a slow NAT2 genotype had higher isoniazid exposure and a lower estimate of oral clearance (15.5 L/h) than rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (26.1 L/h). Pyrazinamide clearance had an estimated typical value of 3.32 L/h, and it was found to increase with time on treatment, with a 16.3% increase after the first 2 months of anti-TB treatment. The typical clearance of ethambutol was estimated to be 40.7 L/h, and was found to decrease with age, at a rate of 1.41% per year. Neither HIV status nor nutritional supplementations were found to affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in our cohort of patients. PMID:26501782

  19. Provision of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive TB patients--19 countries, sub-Saharan Africa, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Baddeley, Annabel; Pathmanathan, Ishani; Coggin, William; Firth, Jacqueline; Getahun, Haileyesus; Kaplan, Jonathan; Date, Anand

    2014-11-28

    Considerable progress has been made in the provision of life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide, resulting in an overall decrease in HIV incidence and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality. In the strategic scale-up of HIV care and treatment programs, persons with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are a priority population for receiving ART. TB is the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and remains a potential risk to the estimated 35 million persons living with HIV globally. Of the 9 million new cases of TB disease globally in 2013, an estimated 1.1 million (13%) were among persons living with HIV; of the 1.5 million deaths attributed to TB in 2013, a total of 360,000 (24%) were among persons living with HIV. ART reduces the incidence of HIV-associated TB disease, and early initiation of ART after the start of TB treatment reduces progression of HIV infection and death among HIV-positive TB patients. To assess the progress in scaling up ART provision among HIV-positive TB patients in 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa with high TB and HIV burdens, TB and HIV data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO) were reviewed. The results found that the percentage of HIV-positive TB patients receiving ART increased from 37% in 2010 to 69% in 2013. However, many TB cases among persons who are HIV-positive go unreported, and only 38% of the estimated number of HIV-positive new TB patients received ART in 2013. Although progress has been made, the combination of TB and HIV continues to pose a threat to global health, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25426652

  20. Isoniazid toxicity and TB development during biological therapy of patients with psoriasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cataño, Juan; Morales, Milena

    2016-10-01

    Background The use of biological therapy has been linked with an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. Objective The aim of this study was to present the follow-up results for Isoniazid (INH) chemoprophylaxis in patients with psoriasis receiving different biological therapies. Methods In this prospective observational study, patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were given INH chemoprophylaxis between two and nine months prior to the beginning of biological therapy. All patients were followed up monthly for any signs or symptoms of active TB or INH toxicity. Results A total of 101 patients, 44.5% females, with a mean age of 46.9 ± 11.5 years (20-73) were enrolled. LTBI was identified in 100 patients (99%), of whom 81.2% completed nine months of chemoprophylaxis. Three patients (2.9%) developed active TB and 17 patients (16.8%) developed intolerance or toxicity related to INH. Conclusions Chemoprophylaxis with INH seems to be effective and safe for the prevention of most TB reactivations in individuals with LTBI receiving biological therapy, but toxicity must be monitored during follow-up. PMID:27003177

  1. Household HIV Testing Uptake among Contacts of TB Patients in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Velen, Kavindhran; Lewis, James J.; Charalambous, Salome; Page-Shipp, Liesl; Popane, Flora; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Hoffmann, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high HIV prevalence settings, offering HIV testing may be a reasonable part of contact tracing of index tuberculosis (TB) patients. We evaluated the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among household contacts of index TB patients and the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons linked into care as part of a household TB contact tracing study. Methods We recruited index TB patients at public health clinics in two South African provinces to obtain consent for household contact tracing. During scheduled household visits we offered TB symptom screening to all household members and HCT to individuals ≥14years of age. Factors associated with HCT uptake were investigated using a random effects logistic regression model. Results & Discussion Out of 1,887 listed household members ≥14 years old, 984 (52%) were available during a household visit and offered HCT of which 108 (11%) self-reported being HIV infected and did not undergo HCT. Of the remaining 876, a total of 304 agreed to HCT (35%); 26 (8.6%) were newly diagnosed as HIV positive. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with uptake of HCT were prior testing (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.3) and another member in the household testing (odds ratio 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7–3.4). Within 3 months of testing HIV-positive, 35% reported initiating HIV care. Conclusion HCT as a component of household TB contact tracing reached individuals without prior HIV testing, however uptake of HIV testing was poor. Strategies to improve HIV testing in household contacts should be evaluated. PMID:27195957

  2. Factors associated with patient, and diagnostic delays in Chinese TB patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delay in seeking care is a major impediment to effective management of tuberculosis (TB) in China. To elucidate factors that underpin patient and diagnostic delays in TB management, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of factors that are associated with delays in TB care-seeking and diagnosis in the country. Methods This review was prepared following standard procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and checklist. Relevant studies published up to November 2012 were identified from three major international and Chinese literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure). Results We included 29 studies involving 38,947 patients from 17 provinces in China. Qualitative analysis showed that key individual level determinants of delays included socio-demographic and economic factors, mostly poverty, rural residence, lack of health insurance, lower educational attainment, stigma and poor knowledge of TB. Health facility determinants included limited availability of resources to perform prompt diagnosis, lack of qualified health workers and geographical barriers. Quantitative meta-analysis indicated that living in rural areas was a risk factor for patient delays (pooled odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.79 (1.62, 1.98)) and diagnostic delays (pooled OR (95% CI): 1.40 (1.23, 1.59)). Female patients had higher risk of patient delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 1.94 (1.13, 3.33)). Low educational attainment (primary school and below) was also a risk factor for patient delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 2.14 (1.03, 4.47)). The practice of seeking care first from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TMC) providers was also identified as a risk factor for diagnostic delay (pooled OR (95% CI): 5.75 (3.03, 10.94)). Conclusion Patient and diagnostic delays in TB care are mediated by individual and health facility factors. Population

  3. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers. PMID:20618942

  4. TB-SA antibody test for diagnosis and monitoring treatment outcome of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxu; Xu, Hancheng; Jiang, Shiwen; Jing, Kuanhe; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lixia

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the TB-SA antibody test to diagnose tuberculosis in sputum smear negative (SS-) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and its applicability for monitoring treatment outcomes in these patients. This study was conducted in three counties/districts in Chongqing Municipality, Liaoning Province, China between June 2005 and June 2007. A total of 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients were recruited and their blood was collected prior to treatment, at the end of 1 month of treatment, 2 months of treatment and 6 months of treatment (E6MT). The serum samples were analyzed with a TB-SA antibody test kit. Of the 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients, serum samples were obtained at all time points in 316 patients and analyzed. The 316 patients were divided into three groups according to sputum smear and sputum culture results and the chest X-ray results before treatment and at E6MT. Ten point four percent were SS-/culture positive (C+), 73.1% were SS-/culture negative (C-) with X-rays abnormalities, and 16.5% were SS-/C- without X-rays abnormalities. The positive rates for TB-SA antibody in the three groups were 57.6, 44.6 and 44.2%, respectively, before treatment, and 18.2, 19.1 and 26.9%, respectively, at E6MT. There was a significant decrease in TB-SA antibody positivity with treatment for all 3 groups. The TB-SA antibody test may be a useful adjunct to diagnose tuberculosis in SS- pulmonary TB patients, and may be useful for monitoring treatment outcomes of SS- pulmonary TB patients. PMID:22299440

  5. Screening adult tuberculosis patients for diabetes mellitus in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Brostrom, R.; Ram, S.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Seremai, J.; Hauma, M.; Paul, I. A.; Langidrik, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the screening of adult TB patients for diabetes (DM) using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of 62 patients registered between July 2010 and December 2012, 28 (45%) had DM. The only significant difference in baseline characteristics between those with and those without DM was higher age in those with DM. Two-month sputum smears and cultures were also not different between the two groups. Despite the limited sample size, this study shows that screening TB patients for DM in Ebeye is feasible and worthwhile and that it should be continued. PMID:26477288

  6. A Mutation in IL4RA Is Associated with the Degree of Pathology in Human TB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Christoph; Heitmann, Lisa; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Horstmann, Rolf D.; Meyer, Christian G.; Ehlers, Stefan; Thye, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of interleukin- (IL-) 4 receptor-alpha- (Rα-) dependent events in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) is controversial. We have recently shown IL-13 overexpression in mice to cause recrudescent Mtb replication and centrally necrotizing granulomas strongly resembling pathology of human TB. A deletion of IL-4Rα completely abrogates TB tissue pathology in these mice. To validate our results in human TB patients, we here determined the association of distinct variants of the IL4, IL13, IL4RA, IL13RA1, and IL13RA2 genes with cavity formation in a large Ghanaian cohort of HIV-negative individuals with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. In fact, the structural variant of the IL4RA I50V, previously shown to result in enhanced signal transduction, was significantly associated with greater cavity size, and a variant of IL13RA2 was associated with disease in females. To evaluate whether the human-like TB pathology in IL-13-overexpressing mice is specifically mediated through the IL-4Rα subunit, we analyzed IL-13 transgenic mice with a genetic ablation of the IL-4Rα. In these mice, the IL-13-mediated increased susceptibility, human-like pathology of collagen deposition around centrally necrotizing granulomas, and alternative macrophage activation were abolished. Together, our genetic association study in human TB patients further supports the assumption that IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent mechanisms are involved in mediating tissue pathology of human TB. PMID:26977119

  7. Disclosure of HIV status: Experiences of Patients Enrolled in an Integrated TB and HAART Pilot Programme in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Lurie, Mark N; Mthethwa, Nkosinathi; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2010-01-01

    The convergence between the tuberculosis (TB) and HIV epidemics has led to studies investigating strategies for integrated HIV and TB care. We present the experiences of a cohort of 17 patients enrolled in the first integrated TB and HIV treatment pilot programme, conducted in Durban, South Africa, as a precursor to a pivotal trial to answer the question of when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) in patients co-infected with HIV and TB. Patients’ experiences with integrated TB and HIV care can provide insight about the problems or benefits of introducing HIV treatment into existing TB care in resource-constrained settings, where stigma and discrimination are often pervasive and determining factors influencing treatment uptake and coverage. Individual interviews, focus group discussions, and observations were used to understand patients’ experiences with integrated TB and HIV treatment. The patients described incorporating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) into their daily routine as ‘easy’; however, the patients experienced difficulties with disclosing their HIV status. Non-disclosure to sexual partners may jeopardise safer-sex practices and enhance HIV transmission. Being on TB treatment created a safe space for all patients to conceal their HIV status from those to whom they did not wish to disclose. The data suggest that the context of directly observed therapy (DOT) for TB may have the added benefit of creating a safe space for introducing ART to patients who would benefit most from treatment initiation but who are not ready or prepared to disclose their HIV status to others. PMID:20411037

  8. “When Treatment Is More Challenging than the Disease”: A Qualitative Study of MDR-TB Patient Retention

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Kalpita S.; Isaakidis, Petros; Sagili, Karuna D.; Baxi, R. K.; Das, Mrinalini; Daftary, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    Background One-fifth of the patients on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment at the Drug-Resistant-TB (DR-TB) Site in Gujarat are lost-to-follow-up(LFU). Objective To understand patients’ and providers' perspectives on reasons for LFU and their suggestions to improve retention-in-care. Design Qualitative study conducted between December 2013-March 2014, including in-depth interviews with LFU patients and DOT-providers, and a focus group discussion with DR-TB site supervisors. A thematic-network analysis approach was utilised. Results Three sub-themes emerged: (i) Struggle with prolonged treatment; (ii) Strive against stigma and toward support; (iii) Divergent perceptions and practices. Daily injections, pill burden, DOT, migratory work, social problems, prior TB treatment, and adverse drugs effects were reported as major barriers to treatment adherence and retention-in-care by patients and providers. Some providers felt that despite their best efforts, LFU patients remain. Patient movements between private practitioners and traditional healers further influenced LFU. Conclusion The study points to a need for repeated patient counselling and education, improved co-ordination between various tiers of providers engaged in DR-TB care, collaboration between the public, private and traditional practitioners, and promotion of social and economic support to help patients adhere to MDR-TB treatment and avoid LFU. PMID:26959366

  9. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). In rural areas, there was no statistically significant difference between the wealth distribution of SQH clinic patients and general TB positive individuals (p > 0.05). Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas. PMID:23305063

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients with rifampicin resistance detected using Xpert® MTB/RIF in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Ade, S.; Harries, A. D.; Ncube, R. T.; Zishiri, C.; Sandy, C.; Mutunzi, H.; Takarinda, K.; Owiti, P.; Mafaune, P.; Chonzi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: In Zimbabwe, there are concerns about the management of tuberculosis (TB) patients with rifampicin (RMP) resistance diagnosed using Xpert® MTB/RIF. Objective: To assess linkages between diagnosis and treatment for these patients in Harare and Manicaland provinces in 2014. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 20 329 Xpert assays conducted, 90% were successful, 11% detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4.5% showed RMP resistance. Of 77 patients with RMP-resistant TB diagnosed by Xpert, 70% had samples sent to the reference laboratory for culture and drug susceptibility testing (CDST); 53% of the samples arrived. In 21% the samples showed M. tuberculosis growth, and in 17% the DST results were recorded, all of which confirmed RMP resistance. Of the 77 patients, 34 (44%) never started treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, with documented reasons being death, loss to follow-up and incorrect treatment. Of the 43 patients who started MDR-TB treatment, 12 (71%) in Harare and 17 (65%) in Manicaland started within 2 weeks of diagnosis. Conclusion: Xpert has been rolled out successfully in two Zimbabwe provinces. However, the process of confirming CDST for Xpert-diagnosed RMP-resistant TB works poorly, and many patients are either delayed or never initiate MDR-TB treatment. These shortfalls must be addressed at the programmatic level. PMID:27358806

  11. Risk of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in Taiwan with Free Access to HIV Care and a Positive T-Spot.TB Test

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been used to identify individuals at risk for developing active tuberculosis (TB). However, data regarding the risk of TB development in HIV-infected patients testing positive for IGRAs remain sparse in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 608 HIV-infected patients without active TB undergoing T-Spot.TB testing were enrolled in this prospective observational study at a university hospital designated for HIV care in Taiwan with a declining TB incidence from 72 per 100,000 population in 2005 to 53 per 100,000 population in 2012. All of the subjects were followed until September 30, 2014. The national TB registry was accessed to identify any TB cases among those lost to follow-up. Results T-Spot.TB tested negative in 534 patients (87.8%), positive in 64 patients (10.5%), and indeterminate in 10 patients (1.6%). In multivariate analysis, positive T-Spot.TB was significantly associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.172 per 10-year increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022-1.344, P=0.023), past history of TB (AOR, 13.412; 95% CI, 6.106-29.460, P<0.001), and higher CD4 counts at enrollment (AOR, per 50-cell/μl increase, 1.062; 95% CI, 1.017-1.109, P=0.007). Of the 64 patients testing positive for T-Spot.TB, none received isoniazid preventive therapy and all but 5 received combination antiretroviral therapy at the end of follow-up with the latest CD4 count and plasma HIV RNA load being 592.8 cells/μL and 1.85 log10 copies/mL, respectively. One patient (1.6%) developed active TB after 167 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), resulting in an incidence rate of 0.599 per 100 PFYU. None of the 534 patients testing negative for T-Spot.TB developed TB after 1380 PYFU, nor did the 24 patients with old TB and positive T-Spot.TB tests develop TB after 62.33 PYFU. Conclusions The risk of developing active TB in HIV-infected patients with positive T-Spot.TB receiving

  12. Predictors and Timing of ATT Initiation among HIV-TB Patients at ART Centers of Karnataka, India: Two Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. Objectives To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Methods Patients registered at sixteen ART centres in Karnataka, from October through December 2009 formed the study cohort and were followed till December 2011. Results A total of 604 HIV-TB patients were registered. Follow-up (a) at the end of one year had shown 63.6% (377)patients with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (b) at the end of second year, 55.6% (336)patients were alive on ART treatment. The variables male, smear negative TB, CD4 count less than 50cells per cumm and unfavorable TB outcome were significantly associated with unfavorable ART treatment outcome. Conclusions The programmes need to review the existing strategies and strengthen HIV-TB collaborative activities for timely treatment initiation with intensive monitoring of HIV-TB patients on treatment. PMID:26394397

  13. MDR-TB Outbreak among HIV-Negative Tunisian Patients followed during 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Dekhil, Naira; Meftahi, Nedra; Mhenni, Besma; Ben Fraj, Saloua; Haltiti, Raja; Belhaj, Sameh; Mardassi, Helmi

    2016-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outbreaks that evolve, from the outset, in a context strictly negative for HIV infection deserve special consideration since they reflect the true intrinsic epidemic potential of the causative strain. To our knowledge, the long-term evolution of such exceptional outbreaks and the treatment outcomes for the involved patients has never been reported hitherto. Here we provide a thorough description, over an 11-year period, of an MDR-TB outbreak that emerged and expanded in an HIV-negative context, Northern Tunisia. Methodology/Principal Findings From October 2001 to June 2011, the MDR-TB outbreak involved 48 HIV-negative individuals that are mainly young (mean age 31.09 yrs; 89.6% male) and noninstitutionalized. Drug susceptibility testing coupled to mutational analysis revealed that initial transmission involved an isolate that was simultaneously resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin. The causative Haarlem3-ST50 outbreak strain expanded mainly as an 11-banded IS6110 RFLP profile (77.1%), from which a 12-banded subclone evolved. After undergoing a 2-year treatment with second-line drugs, 22 (45.8%) patients were cured and 3 (6.2%) completed treatment, thus yielding an overall treatment success rate of 52.1%. Among the patients that experienced unfavorable treatment outcomes, 10 (20.8%) failed treatment, 3 (6.2%) were lost to follow-up, 5 (10.4%) died, and 5 (10.4%) could not be evaluated. Poor adherence to treatment was found to be the main independent predictor of unfavorable outcomes (HR: 9.15; 95% CI 1.72–48.73; P = 0.014). Intriguingly, the evolved 12-banded subclone proved significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes (HR: 4.90; 95% CI 1.04–23.04, P = 0.044). High rate of fatality and relapse was further demonstrated at the long-term, since 70% of those whose treatment failed have died, and 24% among those deemed successfully treated have relapsed. Conclusions

  14. Impact of socio-psychological factors on treatment adherence of TB patients in Russia.

    PubMed

    Jakubowiak, W M; Bogorodskaya, E M; Borisov, S E; Danilova, I D; Lomakina, O B; Kourbatova, E V

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and psychological factors on treatment adherence of patients with tuberculosis (TB). To this end a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among TB patients in four Russian regions (Orel, Vladimir, Belgorod oblasts, and Republic of Mari-El) from 01/04/2004 to 31/03/2005. A total of 87 non-adherent and 1302 adherent patients were interviewed. Compared to adherents, non-adherents were significantly more likely to be male, unemployed, have a technical college education, have a history of imprisonment, have a negative emotional status, consider themselves "not sick", not know the treatment period, have negative feelings and distrust for medical staff, not believe they will fully recover, and not want to continue treatment. Patients at highest risk for non-adherence should be identified at the start of treatment, and offered the services of a psychologist. A case management and patient-centered approach should be applied. PMID:18501675

  15. Knowledge and acceptability of HAART among TB patients in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Lurie, Mark N; Mthethwa, Nkosinathi; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2005-08-01

    From October 2002 to February 2003, we conducted semi-structured interviews on knowledge of HIV, antiretroviral treatment, and willingness to participate in voluntary counselling and testing and HAART with 54 consenting patients attending a tuberculosis (TB) clinic in Durban, South Africa. 74% of patients interviewed reported not knowing anything about antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Knowledge of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) was restricted to use in preventing mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT). 57.4% of the patients reported having an HIV test in the past, but less than 10% were aware of their current HIV status. Patients who did not know their current HIV status expressed fear and hesitation about testing HIV positive. However, 91% of the patients expressed willingness to participate in HIV treatment given the opportunity. The findings from this study indicate that knowledge of HIV treatment is limited. As access to HAART is expanded, information about HIV treatment options will need to be disseminated. TB centres may present unique opportunities for disseminating HIV prevention, care, and treatment options. PMID:16036263

  16. TB Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  17. Impacts of the “transport subsidy initiative on poor TB patients” in Rural China: A Patient-Cohort Based Longitudinal Study in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Wang, Lixia; Tao, Tao; Xu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the financial burden on TB patients for transportation during treatment, and to evaluate the impacts of the “transportation subsidy initiative on poor TB patients” in rural China for improving poor patients’ access to TB treatment. Methods A Case-cohort of 429 TB patients was investigated through questionnaire interviews in four counties of two provinces in China. Information on the financial burden for transportation during TB diagnosis and treatment was collected. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 26 TB patients were carried out to understand their perceptions of transportation subsidy initiative. Results The mean transportation cost of TB medical care was 97 CNY (70 CNY in median), varying from 0 to 700 CNY. About 51% of the patients spent more than 10 CNY per round trip to the TB dispensary. Of the 429 TB patients investigated, 139 had received transportation subsidies after getting TB diagnosis; 15/139 (10.9%) showed dissatisfaction, mainly because the subsidy amount being insufficient. The income of patients receiving transportation subsidies was significantly lower than those not receiving the subsidies (p<0.05). The impression that an appropriate transportation subsidy enables patients to complete the required visits during their TB treatment was obtained after observation of over 80% of the patients. Conclusion The transportation subsidy plays an important role in reducing financial burden on poor TB patients for the completion of treatment. However, the coverage was limited and the amount of subsidy was not enough under the present policy. Considering the poverty of rural TB patients, a universal coverage and a rational amount of transportation subsidy should be proposed. PMID:24282623

  18. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Efsen, Anne Marie W.; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A.; Panteleev, Alexander; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miller, Robert F.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Toibaro, Javier; Skrahin, Aliaksandr; Miro, Jose M.; Caylà, Joan A.; Girardi, Enrico; Bruyand, Mathias; Obel, Niels; Podlekareva, Daria N.; Lundgren, Jens D.; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE) and Latin America (LA). Design and Methods Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE), and LA) were enrolled. Results Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844), WE (N = 152), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001), MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p<0.0001), and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001). Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00–4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88–6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28–15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90–96% in other regions (p<0.0001). Conclusions In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART. PMID:26716686

  19. Pharmacogenetic & Pharmacokinetic Biomarker for Efavirenz Based ARV and Rifampicin Based Anti-TB Drug Induced Liver Injury in TB-HIV Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yimer, Getnet; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Habtewold, Abiy; Amogne, Wondwossen; Suda, Akira; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Burhenne, Jürgen; Aderaye, Getachew; Lindquist, Lars; Makonnen, Eyasu; Aklillu, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Background Implication of pharmacogenetic variations and efavirenz pharmacokinetics in concomitant efavirenz based antiviral therapy and anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI) has not been yet studied. We performed a prospective case-control association study to identify the incidence, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic and biochemical predictors for anti-tubercular and antiretroviral drugs induced liver injury (DILI) in HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients. Methods and Findings Newly diagnosed treatment naïve TB-HIV co-infected patients (n = 353) were enrolled to receive efavirenz based ART and rifampicin based anti-TB therapy, and assessed clinically and biochemically for DILI up to 56 weeks. Quantification of plasma efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefaviernz levels and genotyping for NAT2, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 genes were done. The incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The incidence of DILI was 30.0%, or 14.5 per 1000 person-week, and that of severe was 18.4%, or 7.49 per 1000 person-week. A statistically significant association of DILI with being of the female sex (p = 0.001), higher plasma efavirenz level (p = 0.009), efavirenz/8-hydroxyefavirenz ratio (p = 0.036), baseline AST (p = 0.022), ALT (p = 0.014), lower hemoglobin (p = 0.008), and serum albumin (p = 0.007), NAT2 slow-acetylator genotype (p = 0.039) and ABCB1 3435TT genotype (p = 0.001). Conclusion We report high incidence of anti-tubercular and antiretroviral DILI in Ethiopian patients. Between patient variability in systemic efavirenz exposure and pharmacogenetic variations in NAT2, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 genes determines susceptibility to DILI in TB-HIV co-infected patients. Close monitoring of plasma efavirenz level and liver enzymes during early therapy and/or genotyping practice in HIV clinics is recommended for early identification of patients

  20. Management of severe non-TB bacterial infection in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Katherine M; Feasey, Nicholas A; Heyderman, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Despite widespread antiretroviral therapy use, severe bacterial infections (SBI) in HIV-infected adults continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality globally. Four main pathogens account for the majority of documented SBI: Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typhoidal strains of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The epidemiology of SBI is dynamic, both in developing countries where, despite dramatic successes in antiretroviral therapy, coverage is far from complete, and in settings in both resource-poor and resource-rich countries where antiretroviral therapy failure is becoming increasingly common. Throughout the world, this complexity is further compounded by rapidly emerging antimicrobial resistance, making management of SBI very challenging in these vulnerable patients. We review the causes and treatment of SBI in HIV-infected people and discuss future developments in this field. PMID:25578883

  1. An Innovative Method to Enhance the Modified DOTS for TB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yekrang Sis, Hassan; Azabdaftari, Fariba; Mahdavi Poor, Behroz; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays establishing communication and educating patients to enhance their knowledge regarding disease and treatment process at home is one of the most important principles in providing patient care. Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental study was done on 57 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis in two care groups namely professional – family mix directly observed treatment short- course (PFM-DOTS) and family based-DOTS (FB-DOTS). The patients were referred to the tuberculosis and lung diseases research center for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Both the patient and a family supervisor were evaluated regarding their level of knowledge of the disease and the treatment regimen. Results: A significant difference between the degree of knowledge of groups of patients and the groups of family relatives before and after the intervention was indicated, with a higher increase in PFM-DOTS group than in F-B-DOTS group (P< 0.001). In PFM- DOTS group 100% of the patients, and in the FB-DOTS group 86.8% of the patients followed the recommended drug regimen (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO) for appropriate implementation of DOTS project combating TB, it seems the PFM-DOTS implementation is a more suitable method with greater effects on correct care and treatment of tuberculosis patients. PMID:26858763

  2. Unemployment in TB Patients – Ten-Year Observation at Regional Center of Pulmonology in Bydgoszcz, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Przybylski, Grzegorz; Dąbrowska, Anita; Pilaczyńska-Cemel, Marta; Krawiecka, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) affects the poorest of the poor and is an example of a disease that can contribute to the “disease-poverty trap”. The variable epidemiological situation is associated with social risk factors, such as unemployment, which may favor the occurrence of this disease. The aim of this study was to analyze unemployment as a factor that can influence the incidence and course of the disease. Material/Methods We analyzed TB patients with confirmed status of employment or unemployment admitted to the Regional Center of Pulmonology in Bydgoszcz in during the years 2001 to 2010. Out of 1130 patients, 604 were unemployed and the other confirmed their employment. Results The unemployed patients were mostly single men over age 40, with a low level of education, and living in a city. We observed that the proportions of smokers and alcohol abusers were significantly higher among the unemployed patients. The advanced radiological lesions, smear-positive pulmonary TB, and extra-pulmonary sites were diagnosed significantly more often in this group. The rate of death in the course of hospitalization was significantly higher in the group of unemployed patients. Conclusions Unemployment among TB patients is a serious problem. We found that more advanced radiological lesions were associated with more frequent treatment interruptions and a higher rate of death in the course of hospitalization. Increased efforts are needed to reduce and eliminate the problem of unemployment among patients with TB. This may, indirectly, contribute to a decrease in notifications of TB cases and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25362504

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lateral Flow Urine LAM Assay for TB Screening of Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression Attending Routine HIV Care in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hanifa, Yasmeen; Fielding, Katherine L.; Chihota, Violet N.; Adonis, Lungiswa; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Nicol, Mark P.; Ndlovu, Nontobeko T.; Sahid, Faieza; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Determine TB-LAM (LF-LAM) to screen for tuberculosis among ambulatory adults established in HIV care in South Africa. Methods A systematic sample of adults attending for HIV care, regardless of symptomatology, were enrolled in the XPHACTOR study, which tested a novel algorithm for prioritising investigation with Xpert MTB/RIF. In this substudy, restricted to participants with enrolment CD4<200x106/l, urine was stored at enrolment for later testing with LF-LAM. Sputum was sent for immediate Xpert MTB/RIF if any of: current cough, fever ≥3 weeks, body mass index (BMI)<18.5kg/m2, CD4<100x106/l (or <200x106/l if pre-ART), weight loss ≥10% or strong clinical suspicion were present; otherwise, sputum was stored for Xpert testing at study completion. Participants were reviewed monthly, with reinvestigation if indicated, to 3 months, when sputum and blood were taken for mycobacterial culture. We defined tuberculosis as “confirmed” if Xpert, line probe assay or culture for M. tuberculosis within six months of enrolment were positive, and “clinical” if tuberculosis treatment started without microbiological confirmation. Results Amongst 424 participants, 61% were female and 57% were taking ART (median duration 22 months); median age, CD4 and BMI were 39 years, 111x106/l, and 23 kg/m2. 56/424 (13%) participants had tuberculosis (40 confirmed, 16 clinical). 24/424 (5.7%) vs. 8/424 (1.9%) were LAM-positive using grade 1 vs. grade 2 cut-off. Using grade 1 cut-off, sensitivity for confirmed TB (all clinical TB excluded) was 12.5% (95% CI 4.2%, 26.8%) and in CD4<100x106/l vs. CD4 ≥100x106/l was 16.7% (95% CI 4.7%, 37.4%) vs. 6.3% (95% CI 0.2%, 30.2%). Specificity was >95% irrespective of diagnostic reference standard, CD4 stratum, or whether grade 1 or grade 2 cut-off was used. Conclusion Sensitivity of LF-LAM is too low to recommend as part of intensified case finding in ambulatory patients established in HIV care

  4. Tuberculosis (TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis (TB) Overview In developed countries, such as the ... thought to be infected with TB bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). TB is a chronic bacterial infection. It ...

  5. The use of Quantiferon-TB gold in-tube test in screening latent tuberculosis among Saudi Arabia dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Wakeel, Jamal Saleh; Makoshi, Ziyad; Al Ghonaim, Mohammed; Al Harbi, Ali; Al Suwaida, Abdulkareem; Algahtani, Farjah; Al Hedaithy, Mogbil; Almogairin, Sultan; Abdullah, Sami

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Screening for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling infection. This study aimed to detect latent TB among dialysis patients. METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh involving hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients aged ≥18 years. Patients were screened for latent TB infection (LTBI) using both TBskin test (TST) and QuantiFERONTB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT). All participants were followed-up clinically and radiologically every 3 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 243 (181 HD and 62 PD) patients were included and 112(46.1%) were males. 45.3% showed positive QFT in HD patients with sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 71.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 19.5%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.1%. TST results in HD showed that positive TST was 17.4%, sensitivity was 63.2%, specificity was 95.5%, PPV was 51.5%, and NPV was 91.1%. Five (8.1%) showed positive QFT in PD patients with sensitivity of 7.7%, specificity of 91.8%, PPV of 6.6%, and NPV of 92.3%. TST results in PD showed that positive TST was 9.8%, sensitivity was 35.7%, specificity was 97.9%, PPV was 55.8%, and NPV was 93.3%. Previous TB infection was significantly correlated with QFT only in HD patients, but significantly associated with TST in both HD and PD patients. Also in HD, QFT was significantly associated with TST (P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Due to high variability of QFT-GIT sensitivity, we recommend its use for its NPV and to use either TST or QFT in screening latent TB. PMID:26664568

  6. Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a

  7. Changes in CD4+ T-cells and HIV RNA resulting from combination of anti-TB therapy with Dzherelo in TB/HIV dually infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaeva, Lyudmila G; Maystat, Tatyana V; Masyuk, Lilia A; Pylypchuk, Volodymyr S; Volyanskii, Yuri L; Kutsyna, Galyna A

    2008-01-01

    The open-label, phase II clinical trial of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) with or without oral immunomodulator Dzherelo (Immunoxel) was conducted in TB/HIV coinfected, antiretroviral therapy naïve patients to evaluate the effect on CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and viral load. The arm A (n = 20) received isoniazid (H); rimfapicin (R); pyrazinamide (Z); streptomycin (S); and ethambutol (E), and arm B (n = 20) received 50 drops of Dzherelo twice per day in addition to HRZSE. After 2 months in 90% of Dzherelo patients the population of absolute CD4 T-cells expanded by an average of 71.2% (from 174 to 283 cells/μl; P = 0.00003), but declined in ATT-alone patients (182 to 174; P = 0.34). The ratio between CD4/CD8 cells deteriorated in 80% of individuals in arm A (1.213 > 0.943; P = 0.002), but improved in the same proportion of patients in arm B (1.244 > 1.536; P = 0.007). The number of total CD3+ lymphocytes rose from 728 to 921 cells in arm B (P = 0.025) whereas it fell from 650 to 585 cells in arm A (P = 0.25). The viral load, as measured by plasma RNA-PCR, decreased in 70% of Dzherelo recipients (2.174 > 1.558 copies/ml; P = 0.002), but increased in 70% of HRZSE only receivers (1.907 > 2.076 copies/ml; P = 0.03). Dzherelo has a favorable effect on the immune status and viral burden in TB/HIV patients when given as an immunomodulating adjunct to ATT. PMID:19920896

  8. Successful Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes among HIV/TB Coinfected Patients Down-Referred from a District Hospital to Primary Health Clinics in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Karen B.; Moll, Anthony P.; Friedland, Gerald H.; Shenoi, Sheela V.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV and tuberculosis (TB) coinfection remains a major public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa. Integration and decentralization of HIV and TB treatment services are being implemented, but data on outcomes of this strategy are lacking in rural, resource-limited settings. We evaluated TB treatment outcomes in TB/HIV coinfected patients in an integrated and decentralized system in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We retrospectively studied a cohort of HIV/TB coinfected patients initiating treatment for drug-susceptible TB at a district hospital HIV clinic from January 2012-June 2013. Patients were eligible for down-referral to primary health clinics(PHCs) for TB treatment completion if they met specific clinical criteria. Records were reviewed for patients’ demographic, baseline clinical and laboratory information, past HIV and TB history, and TB treatment outcomes. Results Of 657(88.7%) patients, 322(49.0%) were female, 558(84.9%) were new TB cases, and 572(87.1%) had pulmonary TB. After TB treatment initiation, 280(42.6%) were down-referred from the district level HIV clinic to PHCs for treatment completion; 377(57.4%) remained at the district hospital. Retained patients possessed characteristics indicative of more severe disease. In total, 540(82.2%) patients experienced treatment success, 69(10.5%) died, and 46(7.0%) defaulted. Down-referred patients experienced higher treatment success, and lower mortality, but were more likely to default, primarily at the time of transfer to PHC. Conclusion Decentralization of TB treatment to the primary care level is feasible in rural South Africa. Treatment outcomes are favorable when patients are carefully chosen for down-referral. Higher mortality in retained patients reflects increased baseline disease severity while higher default among down-referred patients reflects failed linkage of care. Better linkage mechanisms are needed including improved identification of potential defaulters, increased

  9. Design considerations for adult patient education.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P L

    1982-01-01

    A variety of factors require attention in the design of patient education programs for adults. Andragogy, the art and science of helping adults learn, describes certain conditions of learning that are more conducive to growth and development for adults and prescribes practices in the learning-teaching transaction to meet them. Stigma, a special discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity, reduces a patient's self-esteem and fosters a feeling of dependence on others for care. Anxiety related to diagnosis and illness creates a situation in which patients cannot productively learn. The stages in acceptance of diagnosis provide a roadmap for understanding a patient's feelings/psychological processes and insight into opportunities to intervene with patient education. The specific disease a patient has effects his ability to learn. Each of these factors is considered with implications described for designing and implementing patient education activities for adults. PMID:10258421

  10. A prospective cohort study of latent tuberculosis in adult close contacts of active pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Hyo; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Hee Jin; Menzies, Dick

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in adult close contacts of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Korea. Methods: Adult close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients were recruited at a regional tertiary hospital in Korea. The participants were tested for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) test. LTBI patients, who consented to treatment, were randomly assigned to receive isoniazid for 9 months (9INH) or rifampin for 4 months (4RIF). Results: We examined 189 adult close contacts (> 18 years) of 107 active pulmonary TB patients. The TST and QFT-G were positive (≥ 10 mm) in 75/183 (39.7%) and 45/118 (38.1%) tested participants, respectively. Among 88 TST or QFT-G positive LTBI participants, 45 participants were randomly assigned to receive 4RIF (n = 21) or 9INH (n = 24), respectively. The average treatment duration for the 4RIF and 9INH groups was 3.3 ± 1.3 and 6.1 ± 2.7 months, respectively. Treatment was completed in 25 participants (4RIF, n = 16; 9INH, n = 9). LTBI participants who accepted treatment were more likely to be women and have more cavitary lesions on the chest radiographs of index cases and positive TST and QFT-G results compared to those who refused treatment. Conclusions: About 40% of adult close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients had LTBI; about 50% of these LTBI participants agreed to treatment. PMID:27052266

  11. Hospital Patients Are Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Patient education is recognized by health care providers and patients themselves as an important component of adequate health care for hospital patients. Through this informational process, patients receive information about specific health problems, learn the necessary competencies to deal with them, and develop accepting attitudes toward the…

  12. Tuberculosis (TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis Research The New Challenge for TB Research NIAID ... HIV/AIDS Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Research Agenda (PDF) TB Research at NIAID Research ...

  13. Diagnosis of Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Nichols, David P

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is being made with increasing frequency in adults. Patients with CF diagnosed in adulthood typically present with respiratory complaints, and often have recurrent or chronic airway infection. At the time of initial presentation individuals may appear to have clinical manifestation limited to a single organ, but with subclinical involvement of the respiratory tract. Adult-diagnosed patients have a good response to CF center care, and newly available cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor-modulating therapies are promising for the treatment of residual function mutation, thus increasing the importance of the diagnosis in adults with unexplained bronchiectasis. PMID:26857767

  14. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control. PMID:26884494

  15. Differential cellular recognition pattern to M. tuberculosis targets defined by IFN-γ and IL-17 production in blood from TB + patients from Honduras as compared to health care workers: TB and immune responses in patients from Honduras

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the quality of cellular immune responses directed against molecularly defined targets will guide the development of TB diagnostics and identification of molecularly defined, clinically relevant M.tb vaccine candidates. Methods Recombinant proteins (n = 8) and peptide pools (n = 14) from M. tuberculosis (M.tb) targets were used to compare cellular immune responses defined by IFN-γ and IL-17 production using a Whole Blood Assay (WBA) in a cohort of 148 individuals, i.e. patients with TB + (n = 38), TB- individuals with other pulmonary diseases (n = 81) and individuals exposed to TB without evidence of clinical TB (health care workers, n = 29). Results M.tb antigens Rv2958c (glycosyltransferase), Rv2962c (mycolyltransferase), Rv1886c (Ag85B), Rv3804c (Ag85A), and the PPE family member Rv3347c were frequently recognized, defined by IFN-γ production, in blood from healthy individuals exposed to M.tb (health care workers). A different recognition pattern was found for IL-17 production in blood from M.tb exposed individuals responding to TB10.4 (Rv0288), Ag85B (Rv1886c) and the PPE family members Rv0978c and Rv1917c. Conclusions The pattern of immune target recognition is different in regard to IFN-γ and IL-17 production to defined molecular M.tb targets in PBMCs from individuals frequently exposed to M.tb. The data represent the first mapping of cellular immune responses against M.tb targets in TB patients from Honduras. PMID:23497342

  16. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Departments & Divisions Home Conditions Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Our Specialists Charles L. Daley, ...

  17. Sleep Disorders in Adult Sickle Cell Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Efird, Jimmy T.; Knupp, Charles; Kadali, Renuka; Liles, Darla; Shiue, Kristin; Boettger, Peter; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: While sleep apnea has been studied in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), little is known about sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep disordered breathing and its polysomnographic characteristics in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Methods: The analysis cohort included 32 consecutive adult SCD patients who underwent a comprehensive sleep evaluation and overnight polysomnography in an accredited sleep center after reporting symptoms suggesting disordered sleep or an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 10. Epworth score, sleep parameters, comorbid conditions, and narcotic use were reviewed and compared in patients with and without sleep disordered breathing. SCD complication rates in the two groups also were compared. Results: In adult SCD patients who underwent overnight polysomnography, we report a high prevalence (44%) of sleep disordered breathing. Disease severity was mild to moderate (mean apnea-hypopnea index = 17/h (95% CI: 10–24/h). Concomitant sleep disorders, including insomnia complaints (57%) and delayed sleep-phase syndrome (57%), also were common in this population. In this limited cohort, we did not find increased SCD complications associated with sleep disordered breathing in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: A high burden of sleep disordered breathing and other sleep-related complaints were identified in the adult sickle cell population. Our results provide important information on this unique population. Citation: Sharma S, Efird JT, Knupp C, Kadali R, Liles D, Shiue K, Boettger P, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):219–223. PMID:25515282

  18. Patient and Provider Reported Reasons for Lost to Follow Up in MDRTB Treatment: A Qualitative Study from a Drug Resistant TB Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Sreenivas, Achuthan; Kumar, A. M. V.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Parmar, Malik; Moonan, Patrick K.; Lo, Terrence Q.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) is emerging public health concern globally. Lost to follow-up (LTFU) is one of the key challenge in MDRTB treatment. In 2013, 18% of MDR TB patients were reported LTFU in India. A qualitative study was conducted to obtain better understanding of both patient and provider related factors for LTFU among MDR TB treatment. Methods Qualitative semi-structured personal interviews were conducted with 20 MDRTB patients reported as LTFU and 10 treatment providers in seven districts linked to Nagpur Drug resistant TB Centre (DRTBC) during August 2012–February 2013. Interviews were transcribed and inductive content analysis was performed to derive emergent themes. Results We found multiple factors influencing MDR TB treatment adherence. Barriers to treatment adherence included drug side effects, a perceived lack of provider support, patient financial constraints, conflicts with the timing of treatment services, alcoholism and social stigma. Conclusions Patient adherence to treatment is multi-factorial and involves individual patient factors, provider factors, and community factors. Addressing issue of LTFU during MDRTB treatment requires enhanced efforts towards resolving medical problems like adverse drug effects, developing short duration treatment regimens, reducing pill burden, motivational counselling, flexible timings for DOT services, social, family support for patients & improving awareness about disease. PMID:26301748

  19. Ex Vivo Cytokine mRNA Levels Correlate with Changing Clinical Status of Ethiopian TB Patients and their Contacts Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Wassie, Liya; Demissie, Abebech; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Yamuah, Lawrence; Tilahun, Hiwot; Petros, Beyene; Rook, Graham; Zumla, Alimuddin; Andersen, Peter; Doherty, T. Mark

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence which suggests that IL-4 plays a role in the pathogenesis of TB, but a general consensus on its role remains elusive. We have previously published data from a cohort of Ethiopian TB patients, their contacts, and community controls suggesting that enhanced IL-4 production is associated with infection with M. tuberculosis, rather than overt disease and that long-term protection in infected community controls is associated with co-production of the IL-4 antagonist IL-4d2, alongside elevated IL-4. Here, for the first time, we compare data on expression of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-4δ2 over time in TB patients and their household contacts. During the follow-up period, the TB patients completed therapy and ceased to display TB-like symptoms. This correlated with a decrease in the relative amount of IL-4 expressed. Over the same period, the clinical status of some of their contacts also changed, with a number developing TB-like symptoms or clinically apparent TB. IL-4 expression was disproportionately increased in this group. The findings support the hypothesis that elevated IL-4 production is generally associated with infection, but that TB disease is associated with a relatively increased expression of IL-4 compared to IFN-γ and IL-4δ2. However, the data also suggest that there are no clear-cut differences between groups: the immune response over time appears to include changes in the expression of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-4δ2, and it is the relative, not absolute levels of cytokine expression that are characteristic of clinical status. PMID:18231607

  20. Potential utility of empirical tuberculosis treatment for HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency in high TB-HIV burden settings.

    PubMed

    Lawn, S D; Ayles, H; Egwaga, S; Williams, B; Mukadi, Y D; Santos Filho, E D; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Granich, R M; Harries, A D

    2011-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB-HIV) epidemics remain uncontrolled in many resource-limited regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The scale of these epidemics requires the consideration of innovative bold interventions and 'out-of-the-box' thinking. To this end, a symposium entitled 'Controversies in HIV' was held at the 40th Union World Conference on Lung Health in Cancun, Mexico, in December 2009. The first topic debated, entitled 'Annual HIV testing and immediate start of antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-infected persons', received much attention at international conferences and in the literature in 2009. The second topic forms the subject of this article. The rationale for the use of empirical TB treatment is premised on the hypothesis that in settings worst affected by the TB-HIV epidemic, a subset of HIV-infected patients have such a high risk of undiagnosed TB and of associated mortality that their prognosis may be improved by immediate initiation of empirical TB treatment used in conjunction with antiretroviral therapy. In addition to morbidity and mortality reduction, additional benefits may include prevention of nosocomial TB transmission and TB preventive effect. Potential adverse consequences, however, may include failure to consider other non-TB diagnoses, drug co-toxicity, compromised treatment adherence, and logistical and resource challenges. There may also be general reluctance among national TB programmes to endorse such a strategy. Following fruitful debate, the conclusion that this strategy should be carefully evaluated in randomised controlled trials was strongly supported. This paper provides an in-depth consideration of this proposed intervention. PMID:21333094

  1. Plasma Levels of Neopterin and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in Tuberculosis (TB) with and without HIV Coinfection in Relation to CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Skogmar, Sten; Schön, Thomas; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Sturegård, Erik; Jansson, Marianne; Björkman, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background While the risk of TB is elevated in HIV-positive subjects with low CD4 cell counts, TB may in itself be associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia. We investigated markers of immune activation (neopterin) and inflammation (CRP) in TB patients with and without HIV coinfection and their association with CD4 cell levels, and determined their predictive capacity as alternative markers of advanced immunosuppression. Methods Participants selected from a cohort of adults with TB at Ethiopian health centers (195 HIV+/TB+, 170 HIV-/TB+) and 31 controls were tested for plasma levels of neopterin and CRP. Baseline levels of neopterin and CRP were correlated to CD4 cell count before and after anti-TB treatment (ATT). The performance to predict CD4 cell strata for both markers were investigated using receiver operating curves. Results Levels of both biomarkers were elevated in TB patients (neopterin: HIV+/TB+ 54 nmol/l, HIV-/TB+ 23 nmol/l, controls 3.8 nmol/l; CRP: HIV+/TB+ 36 μg/ml, HIV-/TB+ 33 μg/ml, controls 0.5 μg/ml). Neopterin levels were inversely correlated (-0.53, p<0.001) to CD4 cell count, whereas this correlation was weaker for CRP (-0.25, p<0.001). Neither of the markers had adequate predictive value for identification of subjects with CD4 cell count <100 cells/mm3 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.64 for neopterin, AUC 0.59 for CRP). Conclusion Neopterin levels were high in adults with TB, both with and without HIV coinfection, with inverse correlation to CD4 cell count. This suggests that immune activation may be involved in TB-related CD4 lymphocytopenia. However, neither neopterin nor CRP showed promise as alternative tests for immunosuppression in patients coinfected with HIV and TB. PMID:26630153

  2. Listening to Those at the Frontline: Patient and Healthcare Personnel Perspectives on Tuberculosis Treatment Barriers and Facilitators in High TB Burden Regions of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Sarah J.; Rubinstein, Fernando; Discacciati, Vilda; Pearce, Patricia F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. In Argentina, tuberculosis (TB) control measures have not achieved key treatment targets. The purpose of this study was to identify modes of treatment delivery and explore patient and healthcare personnel perceptions of barriers and facilitators to treatment success. Methods. We used semistructured group and individual interviews for this descriptive qualitative study. Eight high burden municipalities were purposively selected. Patients in treatment for active TB (n = 16), multidisciplinary TB team members (n = 26), and TB program directors (n = 12) at local, municipal, regional, and national levels were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results. Modes of treatment delivery varied across municipalities and types of healthcare facility and were highly negotiated with patients. Self-administration of treatment was common in hospital-based and some community clinics. Barriers to TB treatment success were concentrated at the system level. This level relied heavily on individual personal commitment, and many system facilitators were operating in isolation or in limited settings. Conclusions. We outline experiences and perspectives of the facilitating and challenging factors at the individual, structural, social, and organizational levels. Establishing strong patient-healthcare personnel relationships, responding to patient needs, capitalizing on community resources, and maximizing established decentralized system could mitigate some of the barriers. PMID:25328701

  3. Risk factors for false-negative results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay in non-HIV-infected patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2011-07-01

    Limited information is available on the risk factors for false-negative results with the new generation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) tests in non-HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB). We sought to identify risk factors for false-negative QFT-GIT results in culture-confirmed TB patients. We reviewed the microbiological, laboratory, radiographic, and clinical data of 362 patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures who received QFT-GIT tests at a Korean tertiary hospital between September 2006 and March 2010. Of these, 311 (85.9%) had true-positive and 51 (14.1%) had false-negative results. The false-negative group was more likely to have immunosuppressant diseases and lower platelet, protein, and albumin levels than the true-positive group. An immunosuppressive condition was an independent risk factor for false-negative QFT-GIT results in non-HIV-infected patients with active TB (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-6.47; P = .006). Careful interpretation of negative QFT-GIT results is thus necessary in immunocompromised patients suspected of having active TB. PMID:21546200

  4. Association between Health Systems Performance and Treatment Outcomes in Patients Co-Infected with MDR-TB and HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Implications for TB Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Loveday, Marian; Padayatchi, Nesri; Wallengren, Kristina; Roberts, Jacquelin; Brust, James C. M.; Ngozo, Jacqueline; Master, Iqbal; Voce, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To improve the treatment of MDR-TB and HIV co-infected patients, we investigated the relationship between health system performance and patient treatment outcomes at 4 decentralised MDR-TB sites. Methods In this mixed methods case study which included prospective comparative data, we measured health system performance using a framework of domains comprising key health service components. Using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients we quantified the direction and magnitude of the association between health system performance and MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Qualitative data from participant observation and interviews analysed using systematic text condensation (STC) complemented our quantitative findings. Findings We found significant differences in treatment outcomes across the sites with successful outcomes varying from 72% at Site 1 to 52% at Site 4 (p<0.01). Health systems performance scores also varied considerably across the sites. Our findings suggest there is a correlation between treatment outcomes and overall health system performance which is significant (r = 0.99, p<0.01), with Site 1 having the highest number of successful treatment outcomes and the highest health system performance. Although the ‘integration’ domain, which measured integration of MDR-TB services into existing services appeared to have the strongest association with successful treatment outcomes (r = 0.99, p<0.01), qualitative data indicated that the ‘context’ domain influenced the other domains. Conclusion We suggest that there is an association between treatment outcomes and health system performance. The chance of treatment success is greater if decentralised MDR-TB services are integrated into existing services. To optimise successful treatment outcomes, regular monitoring and support are needed at a district, facility and individual level to ensure the local context is supportive of new programmes and implementation is according to guidelines. PMID

  5. CCL2, CCL18 and sIL-4R in renal, meningeal and pulmonary TB; a 2 year study of patients and contacts.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Armando; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Contreras, Salvador; Aguilar, Diana; Rook, Graham A W

    2011-03-01

    The role of Th2 cytokines and Th2-associated chemokines in tuberculosis (TB) remains controversial, though in Mexico a polymorphism causing increased production of CCL2 is a risk factor. We studied levels of the Th2-associated chemokines CCL2 and CCL18, circulating soluble IL-4 receptors (sIL-4R), IL-4 and the inhibitory splice variant of IL-4 (IL-4δ2) in a cohort of patients with pulmonary TB and their healthy contacts. These were followed for 2 years during which time 10 contacts developed pulmonary TB. Results were compared with measurements made in renal and meningeal TB, and in disease controls with bacterial pneumonias or Dengue fever that have large Th2 components. In these disease controls both chemokines were significantly raised. They were also very significantly raised in all forms of TB, irrespective of age or disease site. Levels of CCL18 were raised least in meningeal TB, and most in pulmonary patients with long histories, when levels were similar to those in disease controls. Levels of CCL2, although also raised in all three forms of TB, were negatively correlated with CCL18. We found that levels of sIL-4R were strikingly reduced in all forms of TB, particularly meningeal. Contacts who progressed could not be distinguished from contacts who remained healthy at 2 years in terms of IL-4, sIL-4R, CCL2 or CCL18. However contacts had raised expression of IL-4δ2 as previously found. These results indicate vigorous and previously unrecorded activity within the Th2 axis, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:21251883

  6. Delayed initiation of anti-retroviral therapy in TB/HIV co-infected patients, Sanyati District, Zimbabwe, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Maponga, Brian Abel; Chirundu, Daniel; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Bangure, Donewell; Takundwa, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem and is driven by HIV. Recent studies indicate that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiated during the first two months of anti-TB treatment (ATT) reduces risk of HIV morbidity and mortality. In Sanyati district, 14% of TB/HIV co-infected patients were initiated on ART during TB treatment, in 2010. The study was conducted to determine the magnitude and determinants of delay in ART initiation, in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Methods An analytic cross sectional study was conducted at three study sites in Sanyati district. The outcome was delayed ART initiation, being failure to be initiated on ART during the first two months of ATT. Respondents were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Epi-Info™ was used to generate frequencies, means, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Stratified and logistic regression analysis was done. Results Of the 186 respondents, 63% had delayed ART initiation. Median delay from initiation of ATT to ART was 48 days (Q1=20; Q3=82). Risk factors for delayed ART initiation were: being treated for TB first time, AOR=2.23 (p=0.03); initially registered for HIV care outside Sanyati, AOR=3.08 (p<0.01); staying more than 5km from a clinic, AOR=3.29 (p<0.01). Enabling factors for early ART initiation was having a family member on ART, AOR=0.23 (p<0.01). Conclusion Significant delay and barriers to ART initiation were identified. Decentralization of ART initiation should be expedited. ART initiation should be expedited in patients with identified risk factors for delaying ART initiation. Peer support should be strengthened in families and community. Periodic evaluation of magnitude of delay and impact of early ART initiation in TB/HIV patients is recommended. PMID:26401222

  7. [Difficult situations in radiotherapy: agitated adult patients].

    PubMed

    Noël, S; Noël, G

    2013-10-01

    The causes of agitation in adult patients are numerous. Agitation may cause difficulty or impossibility to initiate the radiotherapy technique but also can lead to accidents harmful to patients. However, the decision to not irradiate agitated patients may lead to a loss of curability chance or chance to palliate symptoms. Before taking such a decision, thinking about the possibilities available to calm the patient should be undertaken with the patient and the referring practitioners to attempt to make this therapy if it is considered major in the management of cancer. In all cases, current adaptations of radiotherapy should be used to deliver an effective radiation of a suitable time and safely. It is notable that the medical literature is extremely rare on this subject. PMID:23932645

  8. A Phase I study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of MVA85A, a candidate TB vaccine, in HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Angela M; Rowland, Rosalind; Beveridge, Natalie E R; Poulton, Ian D; Satti, Iman; Harris, Stephanie; Poyntz, Hazel; Hamill, Matthew; Griffiths, Kristin; Sander, Clare R; Ambrozak, David R; Price, David A; Hill, Brenna J; Casazza, Joseph P; Douek, Daniel C; Koup, Richard A; Roederer, Mario; Winston, Alan; Ross, Jonathan; Sherrard, Jackie; Rooney, Guy; Williams, Nicola; Lawrie, Alison M; Fletcher, Helen A; Pathan, Ansar A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Control of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is a global health priority and one that is likely to be achieved only through vaccination. The critical overlap with the HIV epidemic requires any effective TB vaccine regimen to be safe in individuals who are infected with HIV. The objectives of this clinical trial were to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a leading candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in healthy, HIV-infected adults. Design This was an open-label Phase I trial, performed in 20 healthy HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve subjects. Two different doses of MVA85A were each evaluated as a single immunisation in 10 subjects, with 24 weeks of follow-up. The safety of MVA85A was assessed by clinical and laboratory markers, including regular CD4 counts and HIV RNA load measurements. Vaccine immunogenicity was assessed by ex vivo interferon γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot assays and flow-cytometric analysis. Results MVA85A was safe in subjects with HIV infection, with an adverse-event profile comparable with historical data from previous trials in HIV-uninfected subjects. There were no clinically significant vaccine-related changes in CD4 count or HIV RNA load in any subjects, and no evidence from qPCR analyses to indicate that MVA85A vaccination leads to widespread preferential infection of vaccine-induced CD4 T cell populations. Both doses of MVA85A induced an antigen-specific IFN-γ response that was durable for 24 weeks, although of a lesser magnitude compared with historical data from HIV-uninfected subjects. The functional quality of the vaccine-induced T cell response in HIV-infected subjects was remarkably comparable with that observed in healthy HIV-uninfected controls, but less durable. Conclusion MVA85A is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults infected with HIV. Further safety and efficacy evaluation of this candidate vaccine in TB- and HIV-endemic areas is merited. PMID:22102640

  9. The provision of and need for social support among adult and pediatric patients with tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem in Peru, causing an estimated 35,000 new cases each year, 6.7% of whom are co-infected with HIV. Social support mechanisms are key in influencing health-seeking behavior, adherence, and overall patient wellbeing in clinical settings. We examine the types of social support received by TB patients and parents of pediatric patients in peri-urban Lima, Peru, to understand its role in patients’ psychosocial wellbeing during treatment. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2004 and May 2005 among 43 individuals: 19 adults with TB, 8 adults with TB/HIV, 13 parents of pediatric TB patients, and 3 parents of pediatric TB/HIV patients. Results Patients described the need for psychosocial support to mitigate the difficulty of continually going to the clinic to take medications, tending to other family or professional responsibilities while on treatment, and confronting stigma and social isolation within their community. Family members most often contributed to meeting these psychosocial needs, and were also crucial in providing economic support to patients faced with burdensome medical expenses or who were forced to leave their jobs due to being on treatment. Most healthcare personnel were described as key providers of emotional support and encouragement for patients to successfully adhere to treatment, however there were a select few doctors whose “scare tactics” seemingly discouraged patient adherence. During the treatment process, patients described being more socially withdrawn as a result of feeling fatigued from their medications, however most participants also described forming new mutually supportive friendships among their fellow patients. Conclusions Despite the general reluctance of patients to disclose their disease status, patients received a significant amount of psychosocial support from both family members to whom they disclosed, and from positive

  10. The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

  11. The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

  12. The Impact of a Line Probe Assay Based Diagnostic Algorithm on Time to Treatment Initiation and Treatment Outcomes for Multidrug Resistant TB Patients in Arkhangelsk Region, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Eliseev, Platon; Balantcev, Grigory; Nikishova, Elena; Gaida, Anastasia; Bogdanova, Elena; Enarson, Donald; Ornstein, Tara; Detjen, Anne; Dacombe, Russell; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Mann, Gillian; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Mariandyshev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Arkhangelsk region of Northern Russia, multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) rates in new cases are amongst the highest in the world. In 2014, MDR-TB rates reached 31.7% among new cases and 56.9% among retreatment cases. The development of new diagnostic tools allows for faster detection of both TB and MDR-TB and should lead to reduced transmission by earlier initiation of anti-TB therapy. Study Aim The PROVE-IT (Policy Relevant Outcomes from Validating Evidence on Impact) Russia study aimed to assess the impact of the implementation of line probe assay (LPA) as part of an LPA-based diagnostic algorithm for patients with presumptive MDR-TB focusing on time to treatment initiation with time from first-care seeking visit to the initiation of MDR-TB treatment rather than diagnostic accuracy as the primary outcome, and to assess treatment outcomes. We hypothesized that the implementation of LPA would result in faster time to treatment initiation and better treatment outcomes. Methods A culture-based diagnostic algorithm used prior to LPA implementation was compared to an LPA-based algorithm that replaced BacTAlert and Löwenstein Jensen (LJ) for drug sensitivity testing. A total of 295 MDR-TB patients were included in the study, 163 diagnosed with the culture-based algorithm, 132 with the LPA-based algorithm. Results Among smear positive patients, the implementation of the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 50 and 66 days compared to the culture-based algorithm (BacTAlert and LJ respectively, p<0.001). In smear negative patients, the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 78 days when compared to the culture-based algorithm (LJ, p<0.001). However, several weeks were still needed for treatment initiation in LPA-based algorithm, 24 days in smear positive, and 62 days in smear negative patients. Overall treatment outcomes

  13. Testing for TB Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  14. The START Study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to enhance antiretroviral therapy uptake and retention during TB treatment among TB/HIV patients in Lesotho: rationale and design of a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea A.; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Frederix, Koen; Daftary, Amrita; Saito, Suzue; Gross, Tal; Wu, Yingfeng; Maama, Llang Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Background Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) early during tuberculosis (TB) treatment increases survival; however, implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap. Objective The Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study is a mixed-methods, cluster-randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability of a combination intervention package (CIP) to improve early ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success among TB/HIV patients in Berea District, Lesotho. Design Twelve health facilities were randomized to receive the CIP or standard of care after stratification by facility type (hospital or health center). The CIP includes nurse training and mentorship, using a clinical algorithm; transport reimbursement and health education by village health workers (VHW) for patients and treatment supporters; and adherence support using text messaging and VHW. Routine data were abstracted for all newly registered TB/HIV patients; anticipated sample size was 1,200 individuals. A measurement cohort of TB/HIV patients initiating ART was recruited; the target enrollment was 384 individuals, each to be followed for the duration of TB treatment (6–9 months). Inclusion criteria were HIV-infected; on TB treatment; initiated ART within 2 months of TB treatment initiation; age ≥18; English- or Sesotho-speaking; and capable of informed consent. The exclusion criterion was multidrug-resistant TB. Three groups of key informants were recruited from intervention clinics: early ART initiators; non/late ART initiators; and health care workers. Primary outcomes include ART initiation, retention, and TB treatment success. Secondary outcomes include time to ART initiation, adherence, change in CD4+ count, sputum smear conversion, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability. Follow-up and data abstraction are complete. Discussion The START

  15. Presumed latent ocular tuberculosis diagnosed with the positive quantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in a HLA-A29-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Carlos Mario; Atencia, Cesar; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Fernandez-Vega Sanz, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    A 59-year-old Hispanic woman presented with a 3-year history of floaters associated with bilateral reduced visual acuity. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/40. Both anterior segments were without inflammation, but fundoscopy showed mild vitreous inflammation and multiple inflammatory choroidal lesions. Tests for inflammatory and infectious diseases were negative except for human leucocyte antigen A29. The patient was diagnosed with birdshot choroidoretinopathy, and treatment was initiated with cyclosporine A 2.5 mg/kg/day. One year after treatment, the patient reported systemic symptoms with no improvement in visual acuity. Fundus findings remained with vitreal inflammation. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test was positive, and a diagnosis of presumed latent ocular tuberculosis (TB) was made. We initiated anti-TB treatment for 9 months. At 6 months of anti-TB therapy, there was no active inflammation. The patient was followed for 2 years with no medications and no active inflammation. Her final BCVA was 20/25. PMID:26045521

  16. Factors that Predict Negative Results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Patients with Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Ryu, Yon Ju; Choi, Jae Chol; Kim, Ho Cheol; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon-γ release assays such as the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT-GIT) are designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, whether latent or manifesting as disease. However, a substantial number of persons with culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) have negative QFT-GITs. Information on host factors contributing to false-negative and indeterminate results are limited. Methods A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed with 1,264 culture-confirmed TB patients older than 18 years who were subjected to the QFT-GIT at one of the six hospitals between May 2007 and February 2014. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection were excluded. Clinical and laboratory data were collected in South Korea. Results Of all patients, 87.6% (1,107/1,264) were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 12.4% (157/1,264) with extrapulmonary TB. The rate of negative results was 14.4% (182/1,264). The following factors were highly correlated with false-negative results in the QFT-GIT: advanced age (age ≥ 65 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.39), bilateral disease as determined by chest radiography (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13–2.72), malignancy (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.30–4.49), and lymphocytopenia (total lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 109/L, OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.21–2.87). Conclusions Consequently, QFT-GIT results need to be interpreted with caution in patients with these host risk factors such as the elderly, bilateral disease on chest radiography, or malignancy, or lymphocytopenia. PMID:26070207

  17. An African woman with pulmonary cavities: TB or not TB?

    PubMed

    Delsing, C E; Ruesen, C; Boeree, M J; van Damme, P A; Kuipers, S; van Crevel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity. PMID:25387555

  18. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817

  19. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Stephen D.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    TB is the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally. New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to avert deaths from undiagnosed HIV-associated TB. Although simple assays that detect lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine have been commercially available for years, their specific role and utility were initially misunderstood, such that they have been slower to emerge from the diagnostics pipeline than otherwise might have been expected. In this article, we review and explain how urine-LAM assays should be understood as diagnostics for disseminated TB in HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency, in whom haematogenous TB dissemination to the kidneys serves as the primary mechanism by which LAM enters the urine. These insights are critical for the appropriate design of studies to evaluate these assays and to understand how they might be most usefully implemented. This understanding also supports the 2015 WHO recommendations on the restricted use of these assays in sick HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency. PMID:26884498

  20. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE protein Rv1168c induces stronger B cell response than Rv0256c in active TB patients.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Philip Raj; Udgata, Atul; Latha, Gaddam Suman; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious global health problem and is responsible for millions of deaths every year. For effective control of this dreadful disease, it is necessary to diagnose TB cases at the initial stages of infection. The serodiagnosis of disease represents simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used at the primary health care levels. In this study we have compared sensitivity of two PPE proteins of M. tuberculosis, i.e., Rv0256c and Rv1168c for their use as serodiagnostic markers in active tuberculosis patients. Employing a standardized enzyme immunoassay with these PPE proteins as candidate antigens we were able to successfully discriminate the TB patients' sera from the BCG-vaccinated healthy controls. Further, we observed that Rv1168c displayed higher sensitivity in detecting extrapulmonary and smear negative pulmonary TB cases which are difficult to diagnose by available diagnostic methods. Overall the study highlights that Rv1168c can be used as a potential serodiagnostic marker for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease. PMID:26364913

  1. Raised Venous Lactate and Markers of Intestinal Translocation Are Associated With Mortality Among In-Patients With HIV-Associated TB in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Katalin A.; van Halsema, Clare L.; Rao, Suhasini Subba; Boyles, Tom; Utay, Netanya S.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Case fatality among in-patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis (HIV-TB) in Africa is high. We investigated the factors associated with mortality in a rural South African hospital. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of HIV-TB in-patients, with death by 8 weeks the endpoint. Results: Of 99 patients (median CD4 count 72 cells/mm3), 32 (32%) died after median 8-day TB treatment. TB was diagnosed microbiologically in 75/99 and clinico-radiologically in 24, with no mortality difference between these groups [31% versus 38% (P = 0.53)]. Median venous lactate was 5.5 mmol/L (interquartile range 3.9–6.2) in those who died and 3.1 mmol/L (interquartile range 2.2–4.1) in survivors (P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, lactate ≥4 mmol/L [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 9.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0 to 32.2], Glasgow Coma Score <15 (aOR 6.6, 95% CI: 1.5 to 29.6), CD4 count <50 cells per cubic millimeter (aOR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.6 to 18.5), and age ≥50 (aOR 7.7, 95% CI: 1.2 to 46.9) independently predicted death. In a nested case–control study, comparing those who died versus CD4-matched survivors, median plasma lipopolysaccharide concentrations were 93 and 57 pg/mL (P = 0.026) and intestinal fatty acid–binding protein, 132 and 0 pg/mL (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Mortality was high and predicted by elevated lactate, likely reflecting a sepsis-syndrome secondary to TB or bacterial coinfection with intestinal barrier dysfunction appearing to contribute. PMID:26186506

  2. First series of patients with XDR and pre-XDR TB treated with regimens that included meropenen-clavulanate in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Domingo; González Montaner, Pablo; Cufré, Mónica; García, Ana; Vescovo, Marisa; Poggi, Susana

    2015-10-01

    XDR (extensively drug-resistant) and pre-XDR tuberculosis (TB) seriously compromise prognosis and treatment possibilities, and inevitably require the use of group V drugs (World Health Organization). The progress of all patients with XDR and pre-XDR TB seen in a specialized unit during 2012 and 2013 and treated with regimens that included at least 6 months of meropenem-clavulanate (MPC), capreomycin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, clofazimine, high-dose isoniazid, PAS, and bedaquiline in 1 case, were retrospectively analysed. Ten patients were treated, 9 with an extensive pattern of resistance to at least 6 drugs, and 1 because of adverse reactions and drug interactions leading to a similar situation. Eight of the 10 patients treated achieved bacteriological sputum conversion (2 consecutive negative monthly cultures) over a period of 2-7 months, while 2 died. No adverse reactions attributable to prolonged administration of MPC were observed. PMID:26026689

  3. Diagnostic Usefulness of IFN-Gamma Releasing Assays Compared With Conventional Tests in Patients With Disseminated Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi Nae; Jung, Jiwon; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Su Jin; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Abstract IFN-gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) such as T-SPOT.TB assay and QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have yielded promising results for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). However, little is known about the usefulness of these assays for diagnosing disseminated TB. We therefore compared their usefulness with traditional tests in patients with disseminated TB. All adult patients with suspected disseminated TB were prospectively enrolled at a tertiary hospital in an intermediate TB-burden country during a 6-year period. Disseminated TB was defined as involvement of the bone marrow or ≥2 noncontiguous organs, or presence of miliary lung lesions. A total of 101 patients with confirmed and probable disseminated TB were finally analyzed. Of these 101 patients, 52 (52%) had miliary TB and the remaining 49 (48%) had nonmiliary disseminated TB. In addition, 63 (62%) had no underlying disease. Chronic granuloma with/without necrosis, acid-fast bacillus staining, Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR, and culture for M tuberculosis were positive in 77% (41/53), 43% (43/101), 70% (67/96), and 72% (73/101), of the patients, respectively. The T-SPOT.TB assay was positive in 90% (91/101) of them. The sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB assay in patients with miliary TB (90%) was similar to that in patients with nonmiliary TB (90%) (P > 0.99). In a subgroup analysis of the 58 patients in whom both QFT-GIT and the T-SPOT.TB results were available, the sensitivity of QFT-GIT (67%) was lower than that of T-SPOT.TB (95%) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, T-SPOT.TB assay may be a helpful adjunct test for disseminated TB. PMID:26181542

  4. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy in a patient on anti-TB treatment for glandular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, G; Sadasivam, P B; Gaspar, J H; Isphani, N; Lawrence, R

    1992-08-01

    An 84 years old male patient presented with hypercalcemic encephalopathy and mild azotemia while on anti-tuberculous treatment for glandular tuberculosis. He recovered fully during treatment with hydration, intravenous frusemide and oral prednisolone while continuing on the antituberculous therapy. PMID:1308493

  5. Tricks to translating TB transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coussens, Anna K

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection. PMID:26046091

  6. The effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in pulmonary TB patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Gill, Pooria; Jazayeri, Shima; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Shamsardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acceleration in sputum smear conversion helps faster improvement and decreased probability of the transfer of TB. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Iran. Methods: In this double blind clinical study, TB patients were divided into intervention, (n=43) receiving 500 mg green tea extract (GTE), and control groups (n=40) receiving placebo for two months, using balanced randomization. Random allocation and allocation concealment were observed. Height and weight were measured at the beginning, and two and six months post-treatment. Evaluations were performed on three slides, using the ZiehlNeelsen method. Independent and paired t test, McNemar’s, Wilcoxon, Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression model and Log-Rank test were utilized. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. This trial was registered under IRCT201212232602N11. Results: The interventional changes and the interactive effect of intervention on weight were not significant (p>0.05). In terms of shortening the duration of conversion, the case to control proportion showed a significant difference (p=0.032). Based on the Cox regression model, the hazard ratio of the relative risk of delay in sputum smear conversion was 3.7 (p=0.002) in the higher microbial load group compared to the placebo group and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31-0.94) in the intervention compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: GTE decreases the risk of delay in sputum smear conversion, but has no effect on weight gain. Moreover, it may be used as an adjuvant therapy for faster rehabilitation for pulmonary TB patients. PMID:27493925

  7. Risk Factors for DOTS Treatment Default Among New HIV-TB Coinfected Patients in Nalgonda (Dist.) Telangana (State): A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Satti, Siva Balaji; Kondagunta, Nagaraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic regimens as recommended by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis, but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. Aim and Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the influence of patient related factors for DOTS Treatment Default among HIV-TB Co-infected cases. Setting and Design: This was a case control study conducted in Nalgond, Telangana. Materials and Methods: All new HIV-TB coinfected and DOTS-defaulted patients registered under RNTCP for the period from January 2010 to December 2012 were selected. Of the 154 patients, 23 had died and 11 could not be traced, and these were excluded. Thus the total number of available cases were 120 for those age- and sex-matched controls (HIV-TB coinfected patients and those who had completed the DOTS regimen successfully) were selected. Results: The mean age was 36.5 ± 9 years; the majority (23.3%) of patients defaulted during the second month of treatment. Significant risk factors associated with defaulting included unskilled occupation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-11.56], lower middle class socioeconomic status (AOR: 17.16; 95% CI: 3.93-74.82), small family size (AOR: 21.3; 95% CI: 6.4-70.91), marital disharmony (AOR: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.93-23.76), not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel (AOR: 7.38; 95% CI: 2.32-23.39), smoking (AOR: 8.5; 95% CI: 2.31-31.21), and side effects of drugs (AOR: 4.18; 95% CI: 1.35-12.9). Conclusion: Unskilled occupation, marital disharmony, small family size, lower middle class socioeconomic status, not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel, smoking, and drug side effects were significantly associated with defaulting. Information on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB), the outcome of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT), and the factors associated with it will help in planning

  8. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. PMID:27553415

  9. Economic Support to Patients in HIV and TB Grants in Rounds 7 and 10 from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.; Lönnroth, Knut; Desmond, Chris; Jackson, Robin; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weil, Diana

    2014-01-01

    People with TB and/or HIV frequently experience severe economic barriers to health care, including out-of-pocket expenses related to diagnosis and treatment, as well as indirect costs due to loss of income. These barriers can both aggravate economic hardship and prevent or delay diagnosis, treatment and successful outcome, leading to increased transmission, morbidity and mortality. WHO, UNAIDS and the ILO argue that economic support of various kinds is essential to enable vulnerable people to protect themselves from infection, avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, overcome barriers to adherence, and avert destitution. This paper analyses successful country proposals to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria that include economic support in Rounds 7 and 10; 36 and 20 HIV and TB grants in Round 7 and 32 and 26, respectively, in Round 10. Of these, up to 84 percent included direct or indirect economic support for beneficiaries, although the amount constituted a very small proportion of the total grant. In TB grants, the objectives of economic support were generally clearly stated, and focused on mechanisms to improve treatment uptake and adherence, and the case was most clearly made for MDR-TB patients. In HIV grants, the objectives were much broader in scope, including mitigation of adverse economic and social effects of HIV and its treatment on both patients and families. The analysis shows that economic support is on the radar for countries developing Global Fund proposals, and a wide range of economic support activities are in place. In order to move forward in this area, the wealth of country experience that exists needs to be collated, assessed and disseminated. In addition to trials, operational research and programme evaluations, more precise guidance to countries is needed to inform evidence-based decision about activities that are cost-effective, affordable and feasible. PMID:24489702

  10. Physical and psychosocial challenges in adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    duTreil, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Numerous challenges confront adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors, including difficulty in controlling bleeding episodes, deterioration of joints, arthritic pain, physical disability, emotional turmoil, and social issues. High-intensity treatment regimens often used in the treatment of patients with inhibitors also impose significant scheduling, economic, and emotional demands on patients and their families or primary caregivers. A comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment of the physical, emotional, and social status of adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors is essential for the development of treatment strategies that can be individualized to address the complex needs of these patients. PMID:25093002

  11. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  12. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  13. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  14. A Clinical Scoring Algorithm for Determination of the Risk of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults: A Cohort Study Performed at Ethiopian Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Balcha, T. T.; Skogmar, S.; Sturegård, E.; Schön, T.; Winqvist, N.; Reepalu, A.; Jemal, Z. H.; Tibesso, G.; Björk, J.; Björkman, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background  The World Health Organization (WHO) tuberculosis (TB) symptom screening instrument (WHO-TB) can identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals at low risk of tuberculosis (TB); however, many patients report WHO-TB symptoms and require further TB investigations. We hypothesized that further clinical scoring could classify subjects with a positive WHO-TB screening result (WHO-TB+) for the likelihood of TB. Methods  HIV-infected adults eligible to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) were recruited and prospectively followed at 5 Ethiopian health centers. Irrespective of symptoms, all participants underwent sputum bacteriological testing for TB. Symptoms, physical findings, hemoglobin, and CD4 cell count results were compared between subjects with and those without bacteriologically confirmed TB. Variables associated with TB in WHO-TB+ individuals were used to construct a scoring algorithm with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results  Among 812 participants, 137 (16.9%) had TB. One hundred fifty-nine persons (20%) had a negative WHO-TB screen, 10 of whom had TB (negative predictive value [NPV], 94% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 90%–97.5%]). For WHO-TB+ subjects, the following variables were independently associated with TB, and were assigned 1 point each in the clinical scoring algorithm: cough, Karnofsky score ≤80, mid-upper arm circumference <20 cm, lymphadenopathy, and hemoglobin <10 g/dL. Among subjects with 0–1 points, 20 of 255 had TB (NPV, 92% [95% CI, 89%–95%]), vs 19 of 34 participants with ≥4 points (positive predictive value, 56% [95% CI, 39%–73%]). The use of WHO-TB alone identified 159 of 784 (20%) with a low risk of TB, vs 414 of 784 (53%) using WHO-TB followed by clinical scoring (P< .001). The difference in proportions of confirmed TB in these subsets was nonsignificant (6.3% vs 7.2%; P= .69). Conclusions  Clinical scoring can further classify HIV-infected adults with positive WHO-TB screen to

  15. Outbreak of Tuberculosis in a Colony of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) after Possible Indirect Contact with a Human TB Patient.

    PubMed

    Mätz-Rensing, K; Hartmann, T; Wendel, G M; Frick, J S; Homolka, S; Richter, E; Munk, M H; Kaup, F-J

    2015-01-01

    Simian tuberculosis is one of the most important bacterial diseases of non-human primates. Outbreaks of tuberculosis have been reported in primate colonies almost as long as these animals have been used experimentally or kept in zoological gardens. Significant progress has been made in reducing the incidence of tuberculosis in captive non-human primates, but despite reasonable precautions, outbreaks continue to occur. The most relevant reason is the high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst the human population, in which tuberculosis is regarded as an important re-emerging disease. Furthermore, many non-human primate species originate from countries with a high burden of human TB. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant threat in animals imported from countries with high rates of human infection. We report an outbreak of tuberculosis among a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in a closed, long-term colony. The outbreak coincided with reactivation of a TB infection in a co-worker who never had direct access to the animal house or laboratories. Eleven of 26 rhesus monkeys developed classical chronic active tuberculosis with typical caseous granulomata of varying size within different organs. The main organ system involved was the lung, suggesting an aerosol route of infection. Such an outbreak has significant economic consequences due to animal loss, disruption of research and costs related to disease control. Precautionary measures must be improved in order to avoid TB in non-human primate colonies. PMID:26166434

  16. Partners against tuberculosis: Ethiopia's "TB clubs".

    PubMed

    Getahun, H

    1998-11-01

    TB (tuberculosis) clubs were first introduced in the Estie district of South Gonder administrative zone, Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia in January 1997, in an attempt to improve TB control in rural areas. Before the clubs were introduced, patients who were family members or close neighbors were given different treatment follow-up dates. Walking long distances alone to secure treatment, patients often grew discouraged from continuing treatment once their health began to improve. However, upon the introduction of the TB clubs, neighboring patients, or those in the same family, had their follow-up appointment dates rearranged in the same clinics. Local neighborhoods were also used to group nearby patients in the same follow-up clinic. The patients then formed their own groups (TB clubs) and elected leaders. 3-10 members usually comprise each club, with the club leaders monitoring drug intake and new developments, such as drug side effects and toxic skin reactions. The social ostracism and stigma otherwise experienced by patients have been largely overcome as a result of the TB information disseminated within the communities by the clubs, while patient attendance for treatment has increased from 68% to 98%, according to one study's findings. This intervention has taken place using the long-course treatment protocol (2STH/EH and 10TH/EH). TB clubs are improving patient adherence to treatment, passive case detection, defaulter tracing, TB reporting and recording, and community involvement in health care. PMID:12294916

  17. Pulmonary manifestations in adult patients with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Salvator, Hélène; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Catherinot, Emilie; Rivaud, Elisabeth; Pilmis, Benoit; Borie, Raphael; Crestani, Bruno; Tcherakian, Colas; Suarez, Felipe; Dunogue, Bertrand; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Durieu, Isabelle; Fouyssac, Fanny; Hermine, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier; Fischer, Alain; Couderc, Louis-Jean

    2015-06-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by failure of superoxide production in phagocytic cells. The disease is characterised by recurrent infections and inflammatory events, frequently affecting the lungs. Improvement of life expectancy now allows most patients to reach adulthood. We aimed to describe the pattern of pulmonary manifestations occurring during adulthood in CGD patients. This was a retrospective study of the French national cohort of adult patients (≥16 years old) with CGD. Medical data were obtained for 67 adult patients. Pulmonary manifestations affected two-thirds of adult patients. Their incidence was significantly higher than in childhood (mean annual rate 0.22 versus 0.07, p=0.01). Infectious risk persisted despite anti-infectious prophylaxis. Invasive fungal infections were frequent (0.11 per year per patient) and asymptomatic in 37% of the cases. They often required lung biopsy for diagnosis (10 out of 30). Noninfectious respiratory events concerned 28% of adult patients, frequently associated with a concomitant fungal infection (40%). They were more frequent in patients with the X-linked form of CGD. Immune-modulator therapies were required in most cases (70%). Respiratory manifestations are major complications of CGD in adulthood. Noninfectious pulmonary manifestations are as deleterious as infectious pneumonia. A specific respiratory monitoring is necessary. PMID:25614174

  18. HIV treatment cascade in tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Lessells, Richard J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Globally, the number of deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection remains unacceptably high. We review the evidence around the impact of strengthening the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients and explore recent findings about how best to deliver integrated TB/HIV services. Recent findings There is clear evidence that the timely provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in TB/HIV coinfected adults. Despite this, globally in 2013, only around a third of known HIV-positive TB cases were treated with ART. Although there is some recent evidence exploring the barriers to achieve high coverage of HIV testing and ART initiation in TB patients, our understanding of which factors are most important and how best to address these within different health systems remains incomplete. There are some examples of good practice in the delivery of integrated TB/HIV services to improve the HIV treatment cascade. However, evidence of the impact of such strategies is of relatively low quality for informing integrated TB/HIV programming more broadly. In most settings, there remain barriers to higher-level organizational and functional integration. Summary There remains a need for commitment to patient-centred integrated TB/HIV care in countries affected by the dual epidemic. There is a need for better quality evidence around how best to deliver integrated services to strengthen the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients, both at primary healthcare level and within community settings. PMID:26352390

  19. Wilms Tumor: An Uncommon Entity in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Fade; Allen, M Brandon; Cox, Roni; Davis, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor, the most common kidney tumor in children, is rarely seen in adults, making it a challenge for the adult oncologist to diagnose and treat. Unlike with renal cell carcinoma, patients with Wilms tumor should receive adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. Adult oncologists may not be familiar with pediatric oncology protocols, so it is important to consult with pediatric oncologists who have more experience in this disease. Multimodal therapy based on pediatric protocols improved the outcomes of adults with Wilms tumor worldwide. We report a rare case of a 24-year-old woman with a slow-growing mass of the left kidney during a 4-year period. The mass was surgically removed and final diagnosis confirmed by pathology to be Wilms tumor. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and has been free of disease since 2014. PMID:27043834

  20. Outcomes of a clinical diagnostic algorithm for management of ambulatory smear and Xpert MTB/Rif negative HIV infected patients with presumptive pulmonary TB in Uganda: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Walusimbi, Simon; Semitala, Fred; Bwanga, Freddie; Haile, Melles; De Costa, Ayesha; Davis, Lucian; Joloba, Moses; Hoffner, Sven; Kamya, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnostic guidelines for Tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infected patients previously relied on microscopy where the value of initial antibiotic treatment for exclusion of pulmonary TB (PTB) was limited. New guidelines rely on the Xpert MTB Rif test (Xpert). However, the value of the antibiotic treatment remains unclear particularly in individuals who are smear-negative and Xpert-negative-given Xpert has only moderate sensitivity for smear-negative PTB. We assessed an algorithm involving initial treatment with antibiotics prior empiric TB treatment in HIV patients with presumptive PTB who were both smear and Xpert negative. Methods We performed a prospective study with six month follow-up to establish patient response to a course of broad spectrum antibiotics prior empiric TB treatment between March 2012 and June 2013. We calculated the proportion of patients who responded to the antibiotic treatment and those who did not. We computed the crude and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals, for response to the antibiotic treatment on various patient characteristics. We report treatment outcomes for patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics only or who were initiated empiric TB treatment. Results Our cohort comprised 162 smear-negative and Xpert-negative patients, of whom 59% (96 of 162) were female, 81% (131 of 162) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a median of 8.7 months. Overall, 88% (141 of 160) responded to the antibiotic treatment, 8% (12 of 160) got empiric TB treatment and 4% (7 out of 160) were treated for other respiratory disease. The odds of improvement on antibiotics were lower in patients with advanced HIV disease than in patients with early HIV disease. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for HIV clinical stage (AOR; 0.038,) and duration on ART (AOR; 1.038,). Conclusion The majority of HIV patients with presumptive PTB with smear-negative and Xpert negative results improved on the antibiotic treatment and did not

  1. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  2. T-SPOT.TB in Detection of Active Tuberculosis During Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiaopei; Guo, Xuxiao; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Maoshui

    2016-01-01

    Background Interferon-gamma release assays have not been validated in active TB among pregnant women. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective study was to estimate the diagnostic value of T-SPOT.TB in active TB among pregnant women. Material/Methods Between May 2012 and May 2015, 26 consecutive pregnant women with suspected TB were enrolled in our study. The clinicopathological characteristics and T-SPOT.TB results were reviewed and analyzed. Results Pregnant patients were divided into a TB group (n=21) and a Non-TB group (n=5). In the TB group, 5 patients had pulmonary TB, 5 had pulmonary TB+ extrapulmonary TB, and 11 had exclusively extrapulmonary TB. The most common site of extrapulmonary TB was pleural (n=11). Statistical analysis showed that the lymphocyte count in the TB group was lower than in the Non-TB group (P<0.05). For detection of active TB during pregnancy, T-SPOT.TB had a high sensitivity of 100.0% (84.5%–100.0%) and a specificity of 80.0% (37.6–96.4%). Conclusions T-SPOT.TB shows good performance in detection of active tuberculosis during pregnancy. Interferon gamma release assay for TB screening of pregnant women is recommended in clinical practice because it may be a more appropriate diagnostic tool than the tuberculin skin test. PMID:26732770

  3. [Mesial temporal sclerosis syndrome in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Consalvo, D; Giobellina, R; Silva, W; Rugilo, C; Saidón, P; Schuster, G; Kochen, S; Sica, R

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential tool in the work-up of epilepsy. Since its appearance it has been possible to identify pathologies, such as hippocampal sclerosis (HS), that had previously only been detected by histopathological assays. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical manifestations, EEG and the outcome of patients with HS as shown by MRI. We revised the clinical histories of 384 outpatients from the Epilepsy Center, Ramos Mejía Hospital, who had been studied by MRI. Thirty five of them (15.5%) had a diagnosis of HS, based on the structural changes observed on the images. Six patients were excluded because of incomplete clinical data. Therefore, we studied 29 patients including 15 men. The mean age was 32.7 +/- 10.2 years (range: 19-58). All of them had partial seizures. Ten subjects had had febrile convulsions (34.5%) in childhood. Neurological examination was normal in all subjects. Interictal EEG showed focal abnormalities that were coincident in their location with the MRI abnormalities in 16 patients (55.1%). Fourteen patients (48.3%) showed right side hippocampal lesions on MRI, thirteen on the left side (44.9%) and 2 bilateral HS (6.8%). Twenty-seven patients (93.1%) had intractable epilepsy. Anterior temporal lobectomy was performed in 3 subjects with good outcome. The identification of these patients who present certain clinical and MRI characteristics, provides an opportunity to define the mesial temporal sclerosis syndrome. This could benefit patients in their prognosis and for specific treatments. PMID:10962804

  4. Acne in the adult female patient: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Faranak; Shinkai, Kanade

    2012-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common reason why adult women present to dermatologists and can be a clinical challenge to treat. It may also be an important sign of an underlying endocrine disease such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Although standard acne therapies can be successfully used to treat acne in adult female patients, hormonal treatment is a safe and effective therapeutic option that may provide an opportunity to better target acne in this population, even when other systemic therapies have failed. In this article, a practical approach to the adult female patient with acne will be reviewed to enhance the dermatologist's ability to use hormonal acne therapies and to better identify and evaluate patients with acne in the setting of a possible endocrine disorder. PMID:22994662

  5. Practical fluoride and remineralization protocols for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel C N; Wefel, James S; Caughman, W Frank

    2004-12-01

    There is a wealth of information on preventive measures and procedures that can be used to care for paediatric and adolescent patients. However, few studies have been conducted in adult or geriatric populations, and an understanding of preventive and non-surgical treatment regimens for these patients is lacking. Traditionally, caries incidence is high among risk groups of low income, low dental IQ and certain ethnic subgroups, but we are now witnessing a high incidence of caries among middle-income and healthy adult patients with an imbalance of protective factors and cariogenic factors. We will direct our attention to the adult population and attempt to address some of the most common questions. PMID:15736834

  6. Pyridoxine deficiency in adult patients with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Dave, Hina N; Eugene Ramsay, Richard; Khan, Fawad; Sabharwal, Vivek; Irland, Megan

    2015-11-01

    An 8-year-old girl treated at our facility for superrefractory status epilepticus was found to have a low pyridoxine level at 5 μg/L. After starting pyridoxine supplementation, improvement in the EEG for a 24-hour period was seen. We decided to look at the pyridoxine levels in adult patients admitted with status epilepticus. We reviewed the records on patients admitted to the neurological ICU for status epilepticus (SE). Eighty-one adult patients were identified with documented pyridoxine levels. For comparison purposes, we looked at pyridoxine levels in outpatients with epilepsy (n=132). Reported normal pyridoxine range is >10 ng/mL. All but six patients admitted for SE had low normal or undetectable pyridoxine levels. A selective pyridoxine deficiency was seen in 94% of patients with status epilepticus (compared to 39.4% in the outpatients) which leads us to believe that there is a relationship between status epilepticus and pyridoxine levels. PMID:26418265

  7. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  8. TB Fluoroscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Follow-up though Dec 31, 2002 has been completed for a study of site-specific cancer mortality among tuberculosis patients treated with artificial lung collapse therapy in Massachusetts tuberculosis sanatoria (1930-1950).

  9. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility. PMID:27052242

  10. Approach to Adult Patients with Acute Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    DeVos, Elizabeth; Jacobson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Undifferentiated patients in respiratory distress require immediate attention in the emergency department. Using a thorough history and clinical examination, clinicians can determine the most likely causes of dyspnea. Understanding the pathophysiology of the most common diseases contributing to dyspnea guides rational testing and informed, expedited treatment decisions. PMID:26614245

  11. [Adult patients with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Grabitz, R G; Kaemmerer, H; Mohr, F-W

    2013-01-01

    Unlike a few decades ago, today most patients with congenital heart disease reach adulthood after intervention or reparative surgery. As complete correction is generally not possible, a patient population with great complexity and a particular challenge to medical management is rising and a regular follow-up is mandatory. The aim of care is the timely recognition of residual or associated problems. Frequency and intensity of follow-up examinations depend on type and complexity of the lesion. The standard repertoire at follow-up consists of a specific history, clinical examination, ECG, Holter-monitoring, exercise tests, and echocardiography. Depending on the indication, cardio-MRI, CT scan, and sophisticated cardiac catheterization may become necessary. Long-term complications like rhythm disturbances, pulmonary hypertension, or heart failure are frequent, despite optimal care. Acute complications like arrhythmias, infective endocarditis, cerebral events, cerebral abscesses, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding have to be recognized early and treated appropriately. Additional focus has to be placed on counseling and management of noncardiac disease and surgery, pregnancy and delivery, exercise at work and in private life, driving, and insurance issues. Training and certification of physicians as well as the establishment of specialized centers will help to ensure high quality health care for the affected patient population. PMID:23318541

  12. Peculiarities of Anxiety Score Distribution in Adult Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Blank, Mikhail; Blank, Olga; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze possible peculiarities of the psychological state of cancer patients undergoing treatment. Scores characterizing the trait and state anxiety were acquired using the Integrative Anxiety Test from four groups: adults with no appreciable disease, pregnant women, cancer patients examined during the specific antitumor treatment, and cancer patients brought into lasting clinical remission. Statistical analysis of the testing results revealed the bimodal type of the distribution of scores. The only statistically significant exception was the distribution of the state anxiety scores in cancer patients undergoing treatment that was clearly unimodal. PMID:26176239

  13. Nutritional profile of adult patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, L; Delibasic, M; Peta, V; Turkulov, V; De Lorenzo, A; Medić-Stojanoska, M

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated gluten dependent enteropathy induced by ingestion of gluten, characterized by intestinal malabsorption and subtotals or total atrophy of intestinal villi. The predominant consequence of CD in untreated patients, is malnutrition as a result of malabsorption. Moreover, several and increasing extra-intestinal clinical manifestations have been described in the CD patients. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves nutritional status, inducing an increase in fat and bone compartments, but does not completely normalize body composition and nutritional deficiencies. An early and accurate evaluation of nutritional status can be of the pivotal step in the clinical management of the adult CD patients. The aim of this review is to present the most important and recent data on nutritional and metabolic features in the CD adult patients, the related implications and the effects of the GFD on these conditions. PMID:26636515

  14. Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescent and young adult patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Egas-Bejar, Daniela; Huh, Winston W

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin, is the third most common extracranial malignant solid tumor in children and adolescents. However, in adults, RMS represents <1% of all solid tumor malignancies. The embryonal and alveolar histologic variants are more commonly seen in pediatric patients, while the pleomorphic variant is rare in children and seen more often in adults. Advances in the research of the embryonal and alveolar variants have improved our understanding of certain genes and biologic pathways that are involved in RMS, but much less is known for the other variants. Multimodality therapy that includes surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for RMS. Improvements in the risk stratification of the pediatric patients based on presurgical (primary tumor site, tumor size, regional lymph node involvement, presence of metastasis) and postsurgical parameters (completeness of resection or presence of residual disease or metastasis) has allowed for the treatment assignment of patients in different studies and therapeutic trials, leading to increases in 5-year survival from 25%–70% over the past 40 years. However, for adult patients, in great part due to rarity of the disease and the lack of consensus on optimal treatment, clinical outcome is still poor. Many factors have been implicated for the differing outcomes between pediatric RMS versus adult RMS, such as the lack of standardized treatment protocols for adult RMS patients and the increased prevalence of advanced presentations. Now that there are increased numbers of survivors, we can appreciate the sequelae from therapy in these patients, such as bone growth abnormalities, endocrinopathies, and infertility. Improvements in risk stratification have led to clinical trials using lower doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy with the intention of decreasing the incidence of side effects without compromising survival outcome. PMID

  15. Pain Assessment in Noncommunicative Adult Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Deborah B; Kaiser, Karen Snow; Haisfield-Wolfe, Mary Ellen; Iyamu, Florence

    2016-09-01

    Palliative care patients who have pain are often unable to self-report their pain, placing them at increased risk for underrecognized and undertreated pain. Use of appropriate pain assessment tools significantly enhances the likelihood of effective pain management and improved pain-related outcomes. This paper reviews selected tools and provides palliative care clinicians with a practical approach to selecting a pain assessment tool for noncommunicative adult patients. PMID:27497016

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prisons, or homeless shelters. If you work in hospitals or health-care settings where TB patients are likely to be seen, you should consult infection control or occupational health experts. Ask about administrative and ...

  17. A Future for Adult Educators in Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education in healthcare comes in several forms: degree and certificate programs aimed at preparing better academic and clinical educators; and community education programs aimed at wellness, rehabilitation, or learning to live with chronic diseases. Patient-centered healthcare, however, is part of something new: coordinated and transitional…

  18. Improvement with Duloxetine in an Adult ADHD Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourjman, Smadar Valerie; Bilodeau, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and disabling disorder among adults and is treated with stimulant and non stimulant medication. Objective: To report the case of a patient with ADHD showing good clinical response to duloxetine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). Case…

  19. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Alyousif, Sarah M; Alshabanah, Najla; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M; Alharbi, Shemylan; Alhejaili, Fayze F; Alsayyari, Abdullah A; Qandil, Abeer Ma; Qandil, Amjad M

    2014-07-01

    Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD) at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8). The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012), being married (P = 0.012) increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024) decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence. PMID:24969185

  20. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe. PMID:22903808

  1. Detection of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected African Adults Using Whole Blood RNA Expression Signatures: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Suzanne T.; Bangani, Nonzwakazi; Banwell, Claire M.; Brent, Andrew J.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Eley, Brian; Heyderman, Robert S.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Kern, Florian; Langford, Paul R.; Ling, Ling; Mendelson, Marc; Ottenhoff, Tom H.; Zgambo, Femia; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background A major impediment to tuberculosis control in Africa is the difficulty in diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB), particularly in the context of HIV infection. We hypothesized that a unique host blood RNA transcriptional signature would distinguish TB from other diseases (OD) in HIV-infected and -uninfected patients, and that this could be the basis of a simple diagnostic test. Methods and Findings Adult case-control cohorts were established in South Africa and Malawi of HIV-infected or -uninfected individuals consisting of 584 patients with either TB (confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [M.TB] from sputum or tissue sample in a patient under investigation for TB), OD (i.e., TB was considered in the differential diagnosis but then excluded), or healthy individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). Individuals were randomized into training (80%) and test (20%) cohorts. Blood transcriptional profiles were assessed and minimal sets of significantly differentially expressed transcripts distinguishing TB from LTBI and OD were identified in the training cohort. A 27 transcript signature distinguished TB from LTBI and a 44 transcript signature distinguished TB from OD. To evaluate our signatures, we used a novel computational method to calculate a disease risk score (DRS) for each patient. The classification based on this score was first evaluated in the test cohort, and then validated in an independent publically available dataset (GSE19491). In our test cohort, the DRS classified TB from LTBI (sensitivity 95%, 95% CI [87–100]; specificity 90%, 95% CI [80–97]) and TB from OD (sensitivity 93%, 95% CI [83–100]; specificity 88%, 95% CI [74–97]). In the independent validation cohort, TB patients were distinguished both from LTBI individuals (sensitivity 95%, 95% CI [85–100]; specificity 94%, 95% CI [84–100]) and OD patients (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI [100–100]; specificity 96%, 95% CI [93–100]). Limitations of our study include the use of

  2. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  3. Alarming Levels of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in Metropolitan Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Isaakidis, Petros; Das, Mrinalini; Kumar, Ajay M V; Peskett, Christopher; Khetarpal, Minni; Bamne, Arun; Adsul, Balkrishna; Manglani, Mamta; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Parmar, Malik; Kanchar, Avinash; Rewari, B.B.; Deshpande, Alaka; Rodrigues, Camilla; Shetty, Anjali; Rebello, Lorraine; Saranchuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a looming threat to tuberculosis control in India. However, no countrywide prevalence data are available. The burden of DR-TB in HIV-co-infected patients is likewise unknown. Undiagnosed and untreated DR-TB among HIV-infected patients is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of DR-TB (defined as resistance to any anti-TB drug) in patients attending public antiretroviral treatment (ART) centers in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults and children ART-center attendees. Smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility-testing (DST) against all first and second-line TB-drugs using phenotypic liquid culture (MGIT) were conducted on all presumptive tuberculosis patients. Analyses were performed to determine DR-TB prevalence and resistance patterns separately for new and previously treated, culture-positive TB-cases. Results Between March 2013 and January 2014, ART-center attendees were screened during 14135 visits, of whom 1724 had presumptive TB. Of 1724 attendees, 72 (4%) were smear-positive and 202 (12%) had a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall DR-TB was diagnosed in 68 (34%, 95% CI: 27%–40%) TB-patients. The proportions of DR-TB were 25% (29/114) and 44% (39/88) among new and previously treated cases respectively. The patterns of DR-TB were: 21% mono-resistant, 12% poly-resistant, 38% multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), 21% pre-extensively-drug-resistant (MDR-TB plus resistance to either a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable), 6% extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) and 2% extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB plus resistance to any group-IV/V drug). Only previous history of TB was significantly associated with the diagnosis of DR-TB in multivariate models. Conclusion The burden of DR-TB among HIV-infected patients attending public ART-centers in Mumbai was alarmingly high, likely representing ongoing

  4. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  5. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001). The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms. PMID:25623609

  6. ACG Clinical Guideline: Nutrition Therapy in the Adult Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A; DiBaise, John K; Mullin, Gerard E; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-03-01

    The value of nutrition therapy for the adult hospitalized patient is derived from the outcome benefits achieved by the delivery of early enteral feeding. Nutritional assessment should identify those patients at high nutritional risk, determined by both disease severity and nutritional status. For such patients if they are unable to maintain volitional intake, enteral access should be attained and enteral nutrition (EN) initiated within 24-48 h of admission. Orogastric or nasogastric feeding is most appropriate when starting EN, switching to post-pyloric or deep jejunal feeding only in those patients who are intolerant of gastric feeds or at high risk for aspiration. Percutaneous access should be used for those patients anticipated to require EN for >4 weeks. Patients receiving EN should be monitored for risk of aspiration, tolerance, and adequacy of feeding (determined by percent of goal calories and protein delivered). Intentional permissive underfeeding (and even trophic feeding) is appropriate temporarily for certain subsets of hospitalized patients. Although a standard polymeric formula should be used routinely in most patients, an immune-modulating formula (with arginine and fish oil) should be reserved for patients who have had major surgery in a surgical ICU setting. Adequacy of nutrition therapy is enhanced by establishing nurse-driven enteral feeding protocols, increasing delivery by volume-based or top-down feeding strategies, minimizing interruptions, and eliminating the practice of gastric residual volumes. Parenteral nutrition should be used in patients at high nutritional risk when EN is not feasible or after the first week of hospitalization if EN is not sufficient. Because of their knowledge base and skill set, the gastroenterologist endoscopist is an asset to the Nutrition Support Team and should participate in providing optimal nutrition therapy to the hospitalized adult patient. PMID:26952578

  7. Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce

    2016-05-01

    In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. PMID:27026148

  8. Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-up of Collaborative TB/HIV Activities in TB Facilities in Rwanda, 2005-2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2005, Rwanda drafted a national TB/HIV policy and began scaling-up collaborative TB/HIV activities. Prior to the scale-up, we evaluated existing TB/HIV practices, possible barriers to policy and programmatic implementation, and patient treatment outcomes. We then used our evaluation data as a baseline for evaluating the national scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities from 2005 through 2009. Methods Our baseline evaluation included a cross-sectional evaluation of 23/161 TB clinics. We conducted structured interviews with patients and clinic staff and reviewed TB registers and patient records to assess HIV testing practices, provision of HIV care and treatment for people with TB that tested positive for HIV, and patients' TB treatment outcomes. Following our baseline evaluation, we used nationally representative TB/HIV surveillance data to monitor the scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities Results Of 207 patients interviewed, 76% were offered HIV testing, 99% accepted, and 49% reported positive test results. Of 40 staff interviewed, 68% reported offering HIV testing to >50% of patients. From 2005-2009, scaled-up TB/HIV activities resulted in increased HIV testing of patients with TB (69% to 97%) and provision of cotrimoxazole (15% to 92%) and antiretroviral therapy (13% to 49%) for patients with TB disease and HIV infection (TB/HIV). The risk of death among patients with TB/HIV relative to patients with TB not infected with HIV declined from 2005 (RR = 6.1, 95%CI 2.6, 14.0) to 2007 (RR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.68, 1.94). Conclusions Our baseline evaluation highlighted that staff and patients were receptive to HIV testing. However, expanded access to testing, care, and treatment was needed based on the proportion of patients with TB having unknown HIV status and the high rate of HIV infection and poorer TB treatment outcomes for patients with TB/HIV. Following our evaluation, scale-up of TB/HIV services resulted in almost all patients with TB knowing

  9. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  10. Assessing the utility of Xpert® MTB/RIF as a screening tool for patients admitted to medical wards in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Heidebrecht, Christine L.; Podewils, Laura J.; Pym, Alexander S.; Cohen, Ted; Mthiyane, Thuli; Wilson, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Many hospital inpatients in South Africa have undiagnosed active and drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Early detection of TB is essential to inform immediate infection control actions to minimize transmission risk. We assessed the utility of Xpert® MTB/RIF (GeneXpert) as a screening tool for medical admissions at a large public hospital in South Africa. Consecutive adult patients admitted to medical wards between March-June 2013 were enrolled; sputum specimens were collected and tested by GeneXpert, smear microscopy, and culture. Chest X-rays (CXRs) were conducted as standard care for all patients admitted. We evaluated the proportion of patients identified with TB disease through each diagnostic method. Among enrolled patients whose medical charts were available for review post-discharge, 61 (27%) were diagnosed with TB; 34 (56% of diagnosed TB cases) were GeneXpert positive. When patients in whom TB was identified by other means were excluded, GeneXpert yielded only four additional TB cases. However, GeneXpert identified rifampicin-resistant TB in one patient, who was initially diagnosed based on CXR. The utility of GeneXpert for TB screening was limited in an institution where CXR is conducted routinely and which serves a population in which TB and TB/HIV co-infection are highly prevalent, but it allowed for rapid detection of rifampicin resistance. PMID:26786396

  11. Study of inhaler technique in asthma patients: differences between pediatric and adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Manríquez, Pablo; Acuña, Ana María; Muñoz, Luis; Reyes, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Inhaler technique comprises a set of procedures for drug delivery to the respiratory system. The oral inhalation of medications is the first-line treatment for lung diseases. Using the proper inhaler technique ensures sufficient drug deposition in the distal airways, optimizing therapeutic effects and reducing side effects. The purposes of this study were to assess inhaler technique in pediatric and adult patients with asthma; to determine the most common errors in each group of patients; and to compare the results between the two groups. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Using a ten-step protocol, we assessed inhaler technique in 135 pediatric asthma patients and 128 adult asthma patients. Results: The most common error among the pediatric patients was failing to execute a 10-s breath-hold after inhalation, whereas the most common error among the adult patients was failing to exhale fully before using the inhaler. Conclusions: Pediatric asthma patients appear to perform most of the inhaler technique steps correctly. However, the same does not seem to be true for adult patients. PMID:26578130

  12. Organ doses to adult patients for chest CT

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Sterzik, Alexander; Tipnis, Sameer; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to estimate organ doses for chest CT examinations using volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) data as well as accounting for patient weight. Methods: A CT dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator) was used to compute organ doses for a 70 kg patient undergoing chest CT examinations, as well as volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) in a body CT dosimetry phantom at the same CT technique factors. Ratios of organ dose to CTDI{sub vol} (f{sub organ}) were generated as a function of anatomical location in the chest for the breasts, lungs, stomach, red bone marrow, liver, thyroid, liver, and thymus. Values of f{sub organ} were obtained for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV for 1, 4, 16, and 64 slice CT scanners from two vendors. For constant CT techniques, we computed ratios of dose in water phantoms of differing diameter. By modeling patients of different weights as equivalent water cylinders of different diameters, we generated factors that permit the estimation of the organ doses in patients weighing between 50 and 100 kg who undergo chest CT examinations relative to the corresponding organ doses received by a 70 kg adult. Results: For a 32 cm long CT scan encompassing the complete lungs, values of f{sub organ} ranged from 1.7 (thymus) to 0.3 (stomach). Organs that are directly in the x-ray beam, and are completely irradiated, generally had f{sub organ} values well above 1 (i.e., breast, lung, heart, and thymus). Organs that are not completely irradiated in a total chest CT scan generally had f{sub organ} values that are less than 1 (e.g., red bone marrow, liver, and stomach). Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV resulted in modest increases in f{sub organ} for the heart (9%) and thymus (8%), but resulted in larger increases for the breast (19%) and red bone marrow (21%). Adult patient chests have been modeled by water cylinders with diameters between

  13. Vaccination of Adult Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Fontes, Maria Francisca; Antunes, Ana Margarida; Gruner, Heidi; Riso, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the Portuguese vaccination program 50th anniversary it seems appropriate to review vaccination in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Controversial issues as regards the association between autoimmune diseases, infections, and vaccines are discussed as well as vaccine safety and efficacy issues as regards chronic immunosuppressant (IS) drug therapy. After a brief overview of national policies, specific recommendations are made as regards vaccination for adult patients with SLE with a particular focus on current IS therapy and unmet needs. PMID:27069477

  14. Osteosarcoma in Adult Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Leonard C.; Ferreira, Nando

    2013-01-01

    Background. HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, with an estimated prevalence of 21.5% in adults living in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Several malignancies have been identified as part of the spectrum of immunosuppression-related manifestations of HIV infection. Very few reports, however, exist regarding the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining sarcomas in the extremities or limb girdles. Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all adult patients, between the ages of 30 and 60 years, with histologically confirmed osteosarcomas of the appendicular skeleton referred to a tertiary-level orthopaedic oncology unit. Results. Five out of the nine patients (62.5%) included in the study were found to be HIV positive. The average CD4 count of these patients was 278 (237–301) cells/mm3, indicating advanced immunological compromise. Three of the malignancies in HIV-positive patients occurred in preexisting benign or low-grade tumours. Conclusion. A heightened index of suspicion is required in HIV patients presenting with unexplained bone and joint pain or swelling. Judicious use of appropriate radiological investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of suspicious lesions and timely referral to an appropriate specialized orthopaedic oncology unit, is recommended. PMID:23762607

  15. MDR-TB, Isolation, and Anomie: Has Anyone Referred to Social Work? : Comment on "The Ethics of Isolation for Patients With Tuberculosis in Australia".

    PubMed

    Watts, Krista N

    2016-03-01

    MDR-TB and admission to isolation can induce a situation in which individuals are normless, unable to achieve the social goals that they have learned to pursue. Described as anomie, this situation can induce deviant behaviour. Addressing the psychosocial ethics of MDR-TB and isolation, this paper responds to the call for consideration of resource allocation and liberty. PMID:26847829

  16. Experimental identification of potential falls in older adult hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo

    2016-05-01

    Patient falls within hospitals have been identified as serious but largely preventable incidents, particularly among older adult patients. Previous literature has explored intrinsic factors associated with patient falls, but literature identifying possible extrinsic or situational factors related to falls is lacking. This study seeks to identify patient motions and activities along with associated environmental design factors in a patient bathroom and clinician zone setting that may lead to falls. A motion capture experiment was conducted in a laboratory setting on 27 subjects over the age of seventy using scripted tasks and mockups of the bathroom and clinician zone of a patient room. Data were post-processed using Cortex and Visual3D software. A potential fall was characterized by a set of criteria based on the jerk of the upper body׳s center of mass (COM). Results suggest that only motion-related factors, particularly turning, pushing, pulling, and grabbing, contribute most significantly to potential falls in the patient bathroom, whereas only pushing and pulling contribute significantly in the clinician zone. Future work includes identifying and changing precise environmental design factors associated with these motions for an updated patient room and performing motion capture experiments using the new setup. PMID:26920507

  17. Assessing the Consequences of Stigma for Tuberculosis Patients in Urban Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Anne Lia; de Laat, Myrthe Manon; Kapata, Nathan; Gerrets, Rene; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Stigma is one of the many factors hindering tuberculosis (TB) control by negatively affecting hospital delay and treatment compliance. In Zambia, the morbidity and mortality due to TB remains high, despite extended public health attempts to control the epidemic and to diminish stigma. Study Aim To enhance understanding of TB-related stigmatizing perceptions and to describe TB patients’ experiences of stigma in order to point out recommendations to improve TB policy. Methods We conducted a mixed method study at Kanyama clinic and surrounding areas, in Lusaka, Zambia; structured interviews with 300 TB patients, multiple in-depth interviews with 30 TB patients and 10 biomedical health workers, 3 focus group discussions with TB patients and treatment supporters, complemented by participant observation and policy analysis of the TB control program. Predictors of stigma were identified by use of multivariate regression analyses; qualitative analysis of the in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation was used for triangulation of the study findings. Results We focused on the 138/300 patients that described TB-related perceptions and attitudes, of whom 113 (82%) reported stigma. Stigma provoking TB conceptions were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, alleged immoral behaviour, (perceived) incurability, and (traditional) myths about TB aetiology. Consequences of stigma prevailed both among children and adults and included low self-esteem, insults, ridicule, discrimination, social exclusion, and isolation leading to a decreased quality of life and social status, non-disclosure, and/or difficulties with treatment compliance and adherence. Women had significantly more stigma-related problems than men. Conclusions The findings illustrate that many TB patients faced stigma-related issues, often hindering effective TB control and suggesting that current efforts to reduce stigma are not yet optimal. The content

  18. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  19. TB Is Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, particularly of new drug-resistant strains, points up the need for well-coordinated school health programs. Immigration effects, growing populations of HIV-infected persons, and relaxed screening procedures are partly responsible for TB's reemergence. Two sidebars offer advice on coping with TB at school and…

  20. Clinical features in adult patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, E; Rodríguez-González, F

    2014-06-01

    The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) encompasses deletions at the distal part of the short arm of one chromosome 4 (4p16 region). Clinical signs frequently include a typical facial appearance, mental retardation, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia with decreased muscle bulk and seizures besides congenital heart malformations, midline defects, urinary tract malformations and brain, hearing and ophthalmologic malformations. Pathogenesis of WHS is multigenic and many factors are involved in prediction of prognosis such as extent of deletion, the occurrence of severe chromosome anomalies, the severe of seizures, the existence of serious internal, mainly cardiac, abnormalities and the degree of mental retardation. The phenotype of adult with WHS is in general similar to that of childhood being facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and mental retardation the rule in both adults and children. Avoid long-term complications and provide rehabilitation programs and genetic counseling may be essential in these patients. PMID:24656633

  1. Clostridium difficile infections among Jordanian adult hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, Lina M; Bakri, Fares G; Shehabi, Asem A

    2009-12-01

    This prospective study investigated the important epidemiologic aspects of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) among Jordanian adult hospitalized patients. A total of 300 stool specimens were investigated using culture and polymerase chain reaction methods for detection of C difficile, its toxins, and fluoroquinolone resistance. C difficile-positive cultures were found in 13.7% of the patients, and 73% of the isolates carried tcdA and/or tcdB toxin genes, and all C difficile isolates were negative for binary toxin. The isolates showed moderate level of resistance to both ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, whereas metronidazole and vancomycin were highly susceptible. This study indicates the need for early detection of CDIs and prevention of its severe disease in hospitalized patients. PMID:19712999

  2. Urinary considerations for adult patients with spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Veenboer, Paul W; de Kort, Laetitia M O; Chrzan, Rafal J; de Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of newborns with spinal dysraphism is diminishing worldwide, although survival of individuals with this condition into adulthood continues to improve. The number of adults with spinal dysraphism will, therefore, increase in the coming years, which will pose new challenges in patient management. Urological manifestations of spinal dysraphism can include increased risks of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, urinary calculi, sexual dysfunction, end-stage renal disease and iatrogenic metabolic disturbances; however, the severity and incidence of these symptoms varies substantially between patients. Owing to the presence of multiple comorbidities, treatment and follow-up protocols often have to be adapted to best suit the needs of specific patients. Authors describe bladder and kidney function and long-term complications of treatments initiated in childhood, as well as the potential for improvements in quality of life through better follow-up schedules and future developments. PMID:25963964

  3. Amelogenesis imperfecta - lifelong management. Restorative management of the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; McDonnell, S T; Iram, S; Chan, M F W-Y

    2013-11-01

    The biggest challenge restorative dentists face in rehabilitating patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is trying to restore aesthetics, function and occlusal stability while keeping the treatment as conservative as possible. The goals of treatment should be to prolong the life of the patient's own teeth and avoid or delay the need for extractions and subsequent replacement with conventional fixed, removable or implant retained prostheses. In order to achieve these goals a stepwise approach to treatment planning is required starting with the most conservative but aesthetically acceptable treatment. This article discusses the management of AI and presents the various treatment options available for restoring the adult patient who presents to the dentist with AI. PMID:24201615

  4. Asthma Economic Costs in Adult Asthmatic Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; POURPAK, Zahra; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; BOKAIE, Saied; MOEZZI, Hamid Reza; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoushirvan; MOIN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: High prevalence and increasing rate of asthmatic patients around the word witnesses the high burden of asthma. We have limited data on asthma burden and economic costs in Iran. This study aimed to find direct and indirect economic costs of asthma and their association with some background factors in one of the referral tertiary centers for adult patients with asthma. Methods: We surveyed asthma related economic costs of 197 adult patients who referred to Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran from Jun 2007 to January 2010. The patients were followed up for a period of one-year ±1 month and asthma related costs and its control status were registered. Results: Patients were consisted of 125 (64.1%) females and 70 (35.9%) males. Total cost of asthma was 590.22 ±32.18 USD for one patient per one year, the cost of drug, paraclinic, doctor visit, hospitalization, emergency, transportation, and absent days were 327.02, 4.76, 35.44, 3.82, 0.26, 113.03, 105.89 USD respectively. Men showed a significant elevation in their total (P=0.009) and drug costs (P=0.028). In addition, we found significant differences between total asthma costs and asthma control status (P=0.002). Conclusions: According to the high proportion of asthma, related cost compare to Total Income of an Iranian family, the necessity of public coverage of health assurance is quite clear. We suggest that improving asthma management and accessibility to specialized treatment centers can result in decreasing asthma medication and transportation costs as major direct and indirect asthma related costs. PMID:26587495

  5. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  6. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  7. An Imbalanced Learning based MDR-TB Early Warning System.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Tang, Bo; He, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    As a man-made disease, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is mainly caused by improper treatment programs and poor patient supervision, most of which could be prevented. According to the daily treatment and inspection records of tuberculosis (TB) cases, this study focuses on establishing a warning system which could early evaluate the risk of TB patients converting to MDR-TB using machine learning methods. Different imbalanced sampling strategies and classification methods were compared due to the disparity between the number of TB cases and MDR-TB cases in historical data. The final results show that the relative optimal predictions results can be obtained by adopting CART-USBagg classification model in the first 90 days of half of a standardized treatment process. PMID:27209184

  8. Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Nicole; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcomas (UESs) are uncommon tumours that are seen predominantly in late childhood. Cases in adults are rare and generally present once a large mass develops and may be mistaken for other tumours. A case of an UES of the liver with an isolated peritoneal metastasis is described. The patient presented with a palpable mass with imaging findings suggestive of a cystic tumour. She had complete surgical resection of the liver mass and isolated peritoneal metastasis. She was tumour-free on imaging at 6 months without adjuvant chemotherapy. An UES should be considered in the differential of large cystic hepatic lesions, with aggressive surgical resection considered when possible. PMID:22690347

  9. Midface fracture in an unoperated adult patient with cleft palate

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Sanyog; Baliga, Shridhar; Kotrashetti, Sharadaindu Mahadevappa; Pillai, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    In western countries, it is hard to find an unoperated cleft palate due to better healthcare services and awareness. Here, we present an unoperated adult case of cleft palate that had midfacial fractures following a road traffic accident. The patient's cleft lip was repaired when he was 2 years old but the palate was not operated because of poor follow-up. We would like to share the difficulties encountered in diagnosis and treatment planning for this rare kind of trauma case. After routine investigations, a palatal acrylic splint was constructed for fixation and an acceptable degree of function and aesthetics was achieved postoperatively. PMID:25150231

  10. Survival and determinants of mortality in adult HIV/Aids patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Somali Region, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Damtew, Bereket; Mengistie, Bezatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown high initial mortality in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) programs from resource-limited settings. However, there is dearth of evidence on treatment outcomes and associated determinant factors in public hospitals. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess survival and identify predictors of death in adult HIV-infected patients initiating ART at a public hospital in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing baseline and follow-up records of patients who started ART between December 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011 at Kharamara hospital. Time to death was the main outcome measure. Kaplan-Meier models were used to estimate mortality and Cox proportional hazards models to identify predictors of mortality. Results A total of 784 patients (58.4% females) were followed for a median of 60 months. There were 87 (11.1%) deaths yielding an overall mortality rate of 5.15/100 PYO (95% CI: 4.73-6.37). The estimated mortality was 8.4%, 9.8%, 11.3%, 12.7% and 14.1% at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months respectively. The independent predictors of death were single marital status (AHR: 2.31; 95%CI: 1.18-4.50), a bedridden functional status (AHR: 5.91; 95%CI: 2.87-12.16), advanced WHO stage (AHR: 7.36; 95%CI: 3.17-17.12), BMI < 18.5 Kg/m2 (AHR: 2.20; 95%CI: 1.18-4.09), CD4 count < 50 cells/µL (AHR: 2.70; 95%CI: 1.26-5.80), severe anemia (AHR: 4.57; 95%CI: 2.30-9.10), and TB co-infection (AHR: 2.30; 95%CI: 1.28-4.11). Conclusion Improved survival was observed in patients taking ART in Somali region of Ethiopia. The risk for death was higher in patients with advanced WHO stage, low CD4 count, low Hgb, low BMI, and concomitant TB infection. Intensive case management is recommended for patients with the prognostic factors. Optimal immunologic and weight recoveries in the first 6 months suggest increased effort to retain patients in care at this period. PMID:26889319

  11. Psychopharmacological options for adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Miniati, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Ciberti, Agnese; Mariani, Michela Giorgi; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize evidence from research on psychopharmacological options for adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Database searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO (from January 1966 to January 2014) were performed, and original articles published as full papers, brief reports, case reports, or case series were included. Forty-one papers were screened in detail, and salient characteristics of pharmacological options for AN were summarized for drug classes. The body of evidence for the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in AN was unsatisfactory, the quality of observations was questionable (eg, the majority were not blinded), and sample size was often small. More trials are needed, while considering that nonresponse and nonremission are typical of patients with AN. PMID:26145463

  12. [Salmonella enteritidis: an unusual meningitis agent in an adult patient].

    PubMed

    Metan, Gökhan; Alp, Emine; Eşel, Duygu; Aygen, Bilgehan; Sümerkan, Bülent

    2005-10-01

    Salmonella species may cause wide spectrum of infections changing from enterocolitis to sepsis. However, Salmonella meningitis in adults is a rare but important clinical condition with a high mortality rate. In this report, a 71 years old male patient with Salmonella enteritidis meningitis who was followed-up with the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura and had been administered azothioprin and prednisolone, has been presented and similar cases in the literature have been reviewed. The cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded S. enteritidis, and the isolate was intermediate susceptible to ampicillin, susceptible to cefotaxime, trimethoprim-sulphametoxasole, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Our patient was successfully treated with ceftriaxone (2 x 2 gr i.v.) and discharged with total cure. PMID:16544553

  13. Determinants for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Awoke, Worku; Wilder-Smith, Annalies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify determinants for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia. Design Case–control study. Setting Three hospitals and 10 health centres in Northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 446 individuals consented to participate in the study (150 cases and 296 controls). Cases were HIV-infected adults diagnosed with active TB, and controls were HIV-infected adults without active TB. Main outcome measure The link between TB and determinants was assessed using logistic regression. Determinants were categorised as sociodemographic, host-related, clinical and environmental. Results Smoking (adjusted OR (AOR) 5.47; 95% CI 2.26 to 13.22), presence of a TB patient in the family (AOR 2.66; 95% CI 1.25 to 5.66), alcohol consumption (AOR 2.49; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.80) and chewing khat (AOR 2.22; 95% CI 1.11 to 4.41) were independent determinants for increased occurrence of TB. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (AOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.51), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41) and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (AOR 0.32; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55) had a protective effect against TB. Conclusions HIV-infected adults with substance abuse (tobacco smoking, khat chewing and alcohol) should be prioritised for TB screening. This study reaffirmed that HAART and IPT are some of the best strategies for reducing TB occurrence in HIV-infected adults. These findings provide impetus to intensify tracing of TB household contacts. PMID:27084271

  14. Intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oils have shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases due to their pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cell signalling pathways. In a variety of experimental and clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids attenuated hyperinflammatory conditions and induced faster recovery. This chapter will shed light on the effects of intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and will discuss clinical data and recent meta-analyses on the topic. While significant beneficial effects on infection rates and the lengths of ICU and hospital stays have concordantly been identified in three recent meta-analyses on non-ICU surgical patients, the level of evidence is not so clear for critically ill patients. Three meta-analyses published in 2012 or 2013 explored data on the ICU population. Although the present data suggest the consideration of enteral nutrition enriched with fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants in mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, only one of the three meta-analyses found a trend (p = 0.08) of lower mortality in ICU patients receiving intravenous omega-3 fatty acids. Two of the meta-analyses indicated a significantly shorter hospital stay (5.17-9.49 days), and one meta-analysis found a significant reduction in ICU days (1.92). As a result of these effects, cost savings were postulated. Unlike in surgical patients, the effects of fish oil on infection rates were not found to be statistically significant in ICU patients, and dose-effect relationships were not established for any cohort. Thus, obvious positive secondary outcome effects with intravenous fish oil have not yet been shown to transfer to lower mortality in critically ill patients. There is a need for adequately powered, well-planned and well-conducted randomized trials to give clear recommendations on the individual utility and dosage of intravenous omega-3 fatty acids in critical illness. PMID:25471809

  15. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk that the first TST is a false-negative reaction, a second skin test is given ... species, for example Mycobacterium kansasii , will give a false-positive TST or IGRA result for TB. Positive ...

  16. Prosthodontic treatment of the edentulous adult cleft palate patient.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Leanne M

    2003-03-01

    Clefts of the upper lip and plate are relatively common, yet dental treatment of these patients is still very poor and many grow up suffering dental neglect. Dental practitioners should become involved in the treatment team as dental needs are present from birth to death. Adult cleft patients often need tooth replacement with obturation of any residual clefts. They are best treated with tooth-supported removable appliances including partial and complete overdentures, thus preservation of their natural dentition is desirable. Edentulous cleft palate patients present with restorative difficulties due to their compromised maxillary arches as well as the presence of scar tissue in their palates and lips. An outline of these complications and guidelines for their treatment is illustrated in the form of three case reports from members of one family all presenting with varying cleft lip and palate defects. This article highlights the need for dental students to be exposed to dentally compromised patients so that they will feel confident enough to treat them in private practice. PMID:12800267

  17. TB screening among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Date, Anand; Modi, Surbhi

    2015-04-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), making improved prevention and treatment of HIV-associated TB critical to ensuring long-term survival of PLHIV. TB screening among PLHIV is central to implementation of the World Health Organization's 3 I's interventions for reducing the impact of the TB and HIV syndemics. Effective TB screening will result in the identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB disease (ie, those with a positive symptom screen who require appropriate evaluation, including the use of diagnostic tools such as the Xpert MTB/RIF assay) and those eligible for isoniazid preventive therapy (ie, those who have a negative clinical symptom screen or who have a positive screen but are found not to have TB disease). Identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB also facilitates implementation of basic administrative measures for TB infection control, including fast tracking of coughing patients and separation from noncoughing PLHIV to reduce TB transmission. By contributing to the early diagnosis of TB disease among PLHIV, TB screening is also critical to facilitate early initiation of antiretroviral treatment among PLHIV diagnosed with TB disease who might not otherwise be eligible for antiretroviral treatment based on CD4 count or clinical staging. TB screening thus serves as a gateway for multiple TB/HIV interventions and is an integral part of routine clinical services for PLHIV at each clinic visit. PMID:25768866

  18. Systematic review of surgical treatment techniques for adult and pediatric patients with pectus excavatum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This compares outcome measures of current pectus excavatum (PEx) treatments, namely the Nuss and Ravitch procedures, in pediatric and adult patients. Original investigations that stratified PEx patients based on current treatment and age (pediatric = 0–21; adult 17–99) were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures were: operation duration, analgesia duration, blood loss, length of stay (LOS), outcome ratings, complications, and percentage requiring reoperations. Adult implant patients (18.8%) had higher reoperation rates than adult Nuss or Ravitch patients (5.3% and 3.3% respectively). Adult Nuss patients had longer LOS (7.3 days), more strut/bar displacement (6.1%), and more epidural analgesia (3 days) than adult Ravitch patients (2.9 days, 0%, 0 days). Excluding pectus bar and strut displacements, pediatric and adult Nuss patients tended to have higher complication rates (pediatric - 38%; adult - 21%) compared to pediatric and adult Ravitch patients (12.5%; 8%). Pediatric Ravitch patients clearly had more strut displacements than adult Ravitch patients (0% and 6.4% respectively). These results suggest significantly better results in common PEx surgical repair techniques (i.e. Nuss and Ravitch) than uncommon techniques (i.e. Implants and Robicsek). The results suggest slightly better outcomes in pediatric Nuss procedure patients as compared with all other groups. We recommend that symptomatic pediatric patients with uncomplicated PEx receive the Nuss procedure. We suggest that adult patients receive the Nuss or Ravitch procedure, even though the long-term complication rates of the adult Nuss procedure require more investigation. PMID:24506826

  19. Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Janneke A.; Lukande, Robert L.; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M.; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The detection of urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a mycobacterial cell wall component, is used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). How LAM enters the urine is not known. To investigate if urinary LAM-positivity is the result of renal TB infection we correlated the outcomes of urinary LAM-antigen testing to renal histology in an autopsy cohort of hospitalized, Ugandan, HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a complete autopsy, including renal sampling, in HIV-infected adults that died during hospitalization after written informed consent was obtained from the next of kin. Urine was collected postmortem through post-mortem catheterisation or by bladder puncture and tested for LAM with both a lateral flow assay (LFA) and an ELISA assay. Two pathologists assessed the kidney histology. We correlated the LAM-assay results and the histology findings. Results Of the 13/36 (36%) patients with a positive urinary LAM ELISA and/or LFA, 8/13 (62%) had renal TB. The remaining 5 LAM-positive patients had disseminated TB without renal involvement. Of the 23 LAM-negative patients, 3 had disseminated TB without renal involvement. The remaining LAM-negative patients had no TB infection and died mostly of fungal and bacterial infections. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 100% to diagnose TB at any location, and the LAM ELISA a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 100%. 54% (7/13) LAM LFA-positive patients were not on anti-TB treatment at the time of death. Conclusion Renal TB infection explained LAM-positivity in the majority of patients. Patients with disseminated TB without renal involvement can also be diagnosed with LAM. This suggests that other mechanisms that lead to urinary LAM-positivity exist in a minority of patients. PMID:25897661

  20. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  1. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  2. Identification of Novel RD1 Antigens and Their Combinations for Diagnosis of Sputum Smear-/Culture+ TB Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Qie, Shuang; Li, Lili; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Dai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xuhui; Duan, Cuimi; Que, Haiping; Zhao, Ping; Johnson, Heather; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an unresolved problem worldwide, especially for sputum smear- (S-) cases. In this study, five antigen genes including Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RD1 and overexpressed to generate antigen fragments. These antigens and their combinations were investigated for PTB serodiagnosis. 298 serum samples were collected from active PTB patients, including 117 sputum smear+ (S+) and sputum culture+ (C+) cases, 101 S-/C+ cases, and 80 S-/C- cases. The serum IgG levels of the five antigens were measured by ELISA. Based on IgG levels, the sensitivity/specificity of Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 for PTB detection was 81.21%/74.74%, 63.09%/94.78%, 32.21%/87.37%, 62.42%/85.26%, and 83.56%/83.16%, respectively. Furthermore, the optimal result for PTB diagnosis was achieved by combining antigens Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879. In addition, the IgG levels of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were found to be higher in S-/C+ PTB patients than in other PTB populations. More importantly, combination of the three antigens demonstrated superior diagnostic performance for both S-/C+ and S-/C- PTB. In conclusion, the combination of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 induced higher IgG response in sputum S-/C+ PTB patients and represents a promising biomarker combination for diagnosing of PTB. PMID:26885516

  3. Identification of Novel RD1 Antigens and Their Combinations for Diagnosis of Sputum Smear−/Culture+ TB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Qie, Shuang; Li, Lili; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Dai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xuhui; Duan, Cuimi; Que, Haiping; Zhao, Ping; Johnson, Heather; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an unresolved problem worldwide, especially for sputum smear− (S−) cases. In this study, five antigen genes including Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RD1 and overexpressed to generate antigen fragments. These antigens and their combinations were investigated for PTB serodiagnosis. 298 serum samples were collected from active PTB patients, including 117 sputum smear+ (S+) and sputum culture+ (C+) cases, 101 S−/C+ cases, and 80 S−/C− cases. The serum IgG levels of the five antigens were measured by ELISA. Based on IgG levels, the sensitivity/specificity of Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 for PTB detection was 81.21%/74.74%, 63.09%/94.78%, 32.21%/87.37%, 62.42%/85.26%, and 83.56%/83.16%, respectively. Furthermore, the optimal result for PTB diagnosis was achieved by combining antigens Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879. In addition, the IgG levels of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were found to be higher in S−/C+ PTB patients than in other PTB populations. More importantly, combination of the three antigens demonstrated superior diagnostic performance for both S−/C+ and S−/C− PTB. In conclusion, the combination of Rv3871, Rv3876, and Rv3879 induced higher IgG response in sputum S−/C+ PTB patients and represents a promising biomarker combination for diagnosing of PTB. PMID:26885516

  4. Towards earlier inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis (TB) drugs trials: Consensus statements from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Sharon; Ahmed, Amina; Amanullah, Farhana; Becerra, Mercedes C; Botgros, Radu; Brigden, Grania; Browning, Renee; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Hafner, Richard; Hesseling, Anneke; How, Cleotilde; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Lessem, Erica; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mbelle, Nontombi; Marais, Ben; McIlleron, Helen; Mc Neeley, David F; Mendel, Carl; Murray, Stephen; Navarro, Eileen; Oramasionwu, Gloria E; Porcalla, Ariel R; Powell, Clydette; Powell, Mair; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Samson, Pearl; Schaaf, H. Simon; Shah, Seema; Starke, Jeff; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wobudeya, Eric; Worrell, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Children represent a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden, and may be disproportionately more affected by its most severe clinical manifestations. Currently available treatments for pediatric drug-susceptible (DS) and drug-resistant (DR) TB, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxicities, and an overall lack of suitable, child-friendly formulations. The complex and burdensome nature of administering the existing regimens to treat DS TB also contributes to the rise of DR TB strains. Despite the availability and use of these therapies for decades, a dearth of dosing evidence in children underscores the importance of sustained efforts for TB drug development to better meet the treatment needs of children with TB. Several new TB drugs and regimens with promising activity against both DS and DR TB strains have recently entered clinical development and are in various phases of clinical evaluation in adults or have received marketing authorization for adults. However, initiation of clinical trials to evaluate these drugs in children is often deferred, pending the availability of complete safety and efficacy data in adults or after drug approval. This document summarizes consensus statements from an international panel of childhood TB opinion leaders which support the initiation of evaluation of new TB drugs and regimens in children at earlier phases of the TB Drug development cycle. PMID:25957923

  5. Preference for One or Two Hearing Aids among Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robyn M; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Noe, Colleen M.; Alexander, Genevieve C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Most practitioners believe that use of two hearing aids is the ideal fitting for adults with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss. However, previous research has consistently shown that a substantial proportion of these patients actually prefer to use only one hearing aid. The current study explored whether this pattern of preferences is seen with technologically advanced hearing aids. In addition, a selection of variables that were available pre-fitting were used to attempt to predict which patients will prefer one hearing aid rather than two. Design The study was designed as a 12-week field trial including structured and unstructured use of one and two hearing aids. Ninety-four subjects with mild to moderate bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss were bilaterally fit with 2005-2007 era hearing aids. Potential predictors included demographic, audiometric, auditory lifestyle, personality, and binaural processing variables. After the field trial, each subject stated his/her preference for one or two hearing aids and completed three self-report outcome questionnaires for their preferred fitting. Results Previous research was confirmed with modern technology hearing aids: after the field trial 46% of the subjects preferred to use one hearing aid rather than two. Subjects who preferred two hearing aids tended to report better real-world outcomes than those who preferred one. Subjects who reported more hearing problems in daily life, who experienced more binaural loudness summation, and whose ears were more equivalent in dichotic listening were more likely to prefer to use two hearing aids. Contrary to conventional wisdom (ideas that are generally accepted as true), audiometric hearing loss and auditory lifestyle were not predictive of aiding preference. However, the best predictive approach from these data yielded accurate predictions for only two-thirds of subjects. Conclusions Evidence-based practice calls for a conscientious melding of current evidence

  6. [Tuberculosis annual report 2008--series 2. TB in foreigners].

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Statistics on tuberculosis (TB) in foreigners have been obtained since 1998 in Japan. The number of foreign TB patients increased from 739 in 1998 to 945 in 2008. In contrast, the number of Japanese TB patients decreased during this period and hence the proportion of foreign TB patients increased from 2.1% in 1998 to 3.9% in 2008, excluding those of unknown nationality. Especially, the proportion of those aged 20-29 years increased greatly from 9.1% in 1998 to 26.3% in 2008. Although the number of nationalities was 47, the majority of patients were from China (27.7%), the Philippines (24.8%) and Korea (10.2%) in 2008. The number of foreign TB patients aged 20-29 years was 468, accounting for 49.5% of all foreign TB patients in 2008. Seventy-seven percent of foreign patients aged 20-29 years had developed TB within 5 years of entering Japan. The equivalent proportion was 49% of those aged 30-39 years and 32% of those aged 40-49 years. Regarding occupation, 39.7% of foreign patients aged 20-29 years were full-time workers, 28.6% were students and 13.7% were part-time workers. PMID:19999597

  7. Survival Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Saatchi, Mohammad; Khazaei, Salman; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: At present, limited clinical data is available regarding survival rates of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the survival chances of active TB adults who disclosed their symptoms of TB in this part of Iran. Patients and Methods: The records and data of 807 patients only infected with TB and 21 co-infected patients with HIV/TB, who were admitted to primary health care units in Iran, were evaluated. Their survival time was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Log-rank test and SPSS version 16. Results: Cox regression analysis showed that co-infection with HIV significantly affects the survival rate of TB patients so that the rate of death was 20.7 (8.1-53) times more than TB infected patients alone. Also, married patients with tuberculosis were 2.7 times more at risk of death than single subjects. We also confirmed that in HIV/TB positive patients, married individuals were more prone to death than single subjects (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results denote the need to progress diagnostic and preventive measures in this part of Iran. PMID:25371800

  8. Attachment and Parenting in Adult Patients with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother’s care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions. PMID:24155770

  9. Primary Care for the Older Adult Patient: Common Geriatric Issues and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine; Shi, Sandra; Kiraly, Carmela

    2016-06-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population and the majority of older adults are women. Primary care for the older adult patient requires a wide variety of skills, reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of this patient population. Individualizing care through consideration of patients' goals, medical conditions, and prognosis is paramount. Quality care for the older adult patient requires familiarity with common geriatric syndromes, such as dementia, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, developing the knowledge and communication skills necessary for complex care and end-of-life care planning is essential. PMID:27212097

  10. [Comparison of serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients and healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Yin, D Z

    1990-05-01

    The contents of 15 trace elements in the sera of 30 liver cancer patients and 30 healthy adults were assayed by ICP-AES method. The data obtained were analysed by routine statistical tests, multi-variate discrimination analysis, multi-variate stepwise regression analysis and non-linear mapping algorithm. The results showed that the contents of copper, vanadium, cadmium, stannum, cobalt, nickel in liver cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy adults. The serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients was different from that of healthy adults. Hence, the liver cancer patients could be differentiated from healthy adults by serum trace element spectrum. PMID:2249593

  11. [Factors associated with geographic access to health services by TB patients in three State capitals in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Márcia São Pedro Leal; Aquino, Rosana; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Natividade, Marcio; Ximenes, Ricardo; Souza, Wayner; Dantas, Odimariles Maria; Braga, José Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with geographic access to health services by tuberculosis patients in three State capitals in Northeast Brazil. The sample consisted of new tuberculosis cases reported in 2007. The study used data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases and the National Registry of Healthcare Organizations. Addresses of households and health services were geocoded, and difficult access was defined as a distance greater than 800 meters from the household to the health service. Crude prevalence ratios were estimated, as well as adjusted prevalence ratios using Poisson regression. After adjusting the study variables, the only variable that remained associated with difficult access was primary healthcare units in Salvador, Bahia State (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.720-0.794) and in Recife, Pernambuco State (PR = 0.402; 95%CI: 0.318-0.508). The study concluded that decentralization of primary care can help improve access to health services. PMID:25715296

  12. Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Al Ashry, Haitham S.; Modrykamien, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  13. Research proposal: evaluation of ART in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Zanata, Régia Luzia

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is to reduce the indication of tooth extraction by means of a low-cost technique. Considering the difficulties of Brazilian public services to meet the demand of care of the low-income population, with lack of care to the adult population, which usually receives only emergency care, the aim of this study is to assess the performance of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements accomplished by the modified atraumatic restorative treatment in one- and multiple-surface cavities, compared to the conventional restorative approach. It will be analyzed the clinical performance of the materials; cost (material and human resources); patient satisfaction with the treatment received; and preventive effect of treatment. PMID:19089083

  14. Adult patients with Fontan circulation: What we know and how to manage adults with Fontan circulation?

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    Most of patients after the Fontan operation can reach their adulthood, however, the management strategy for this complex pathophysiology has not been yet established. In general, elevated central venous pressure (CVP) and low cardiac output (CO) due to impaired ventricular preload characterize the Fontan circulation and the ideal hemodynamics could be a combination of a lower CVP with a higher CO. Thus, preserved functional systemic ventricle with low pulmonary artery resistance is thought to be crucial for better long-term outcome. However, on the other hand, because of the unique hemodynamics, these patients have significantly higher incidence of complications, sequelae, and even mortality. The major complications are supraventricular arrhythmias, heart failure, and Fontan-related problems, including protein-losing enteropathy and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, both of which are refractory to the treatments, and most of these "Fontan inconveniences" increase as patients age. In addition, one of the recent emerging problems is Fontan-associated liver disease that includes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, women with Fontan circulation also reach childbearing age and there have been increasing numbers of reports showing a high incidence of pregnancy-associated complications. All these problems may be a part of "Fontan inconveniences" because most of the current Fontan patients are still "young" i.e. in their twenties or thirties and it may be not surprising that more new Fontan-associated pathophysiology emerges as patients age. Recent evidence reminds us of the concept that adult Fontan pathophysiology is not just a cardiovascular disease, rather, a multiorgan disease with many interactions between cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular organs. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to take care of and anticipate the better long-term outcome. PMID:27134136

  15. Potential Harm of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusion in Adult Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tau-Hong; Wong, Joshua G. X.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Thein, Tun-Linn; Ng, Ee-Ling; Lee, Linda K.; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of dengue infection, and bleeding is a dreaded complication of dengue fever. Prophylactic platelet transfusion has been used to prevent bleeding in the management of dengue fever, although the evidence for its benefit is lacking. In adult dengue patients with platelet count <20,000/mm3 without bleeding, we aimed to assess if prophylactic platelet transfusion was effective in reducing clinical bleeding and other outcomes. Method We conducted a retrospective non-randomised observational study of dengue patients with platelet count < 20,000/mm3 without bleeding (except petechiae) admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from January 2005 to December 2008. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the non-transfused vs. transfused groups. Outcomes studied were clinical bleeding, platelet increment, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit admission and death. Results Of the 788 patients included, 486 received prophylactic platelet transfusion. There was no significant difference in the presence of clinical bleeding in the two groups (18.2% in non-transfused group vs. 23.5% in transfused group; P = 0.08). Patients in the transfused group took a median of 1 day longer than the non-transfused group to increase their platelet count to 50,000/mm3 or more (3 days vs. 2 days, P <0.0001). The median duration of hospital stay in the non-transfused group was 5 days vs. 6 days in the transfused group (P< 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the proportion requiring ICU admission (non-transfused 0.66% vs. transfused 1.23%, P = 0.44) and death (non-transfused 0% vs. transfused 0.2%, P = 0.43). Conclusion Platelet transfusion in absence of bleeding in adult dengue with platelet count <20,000/mm3 did not reduce bleeding or expedite platelet recovery. There was potential harm by slowing recovery of platelet count to >50,000/mm3 and increasing length of hospitalization. PMID:27015272

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Fecal Specimens From Adults Diagnosed With Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using the Xpert MTB/Rifampicin Test

    PubMed Central

    Kokuto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Mizuno, Kazue; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampicin (RIF) is a fully automated diagnostic test that allows for the detection of MTB including its RIF resistance. Although the test is used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in sputum samples worldwide, studies using fecal specimens are scarce. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for detection of MTB in fecal specimens obtained from adult pulmonary TB patients, confirmed by culture and/or molecular diagnostic methods. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to provide proof-of-concept regarding the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test using fecal samples for diagnosing pulmonary TB via detection of MTB in adult patients (≥20 years) at the Fukujuji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Results. Fecal specimens were obtained from 56 active pulmonary TB patients (including 48 sputum smear-positive and 8 sputum smear-negative patients), 10 non-TB patients (including 4 Myocobacterium avium complex infections), and 27 healthy individuals who were exposed to active pulmonary TB patients. The sensitivity of the fecal Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% (81.7%–100%) for detection of MTB in specimens from sputum smear-positive (1+ to 3+) patients, 81.0% (58.1%–94.6%) in specimens from sputum smear scanty positive patients, and 50.0% (15.7%–84.3%) in specimens from sputum smear-negative patients. Meanwhile, each of the fecal specimens from the non-TB group was negative for MTB (specificity 100%; 95% confidence interval, 86.2–100). Conclusions. The fecal Xpert MTB/RIF test could detect MTB in a large proportion of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, without frequent false-positive results at a TB referral hospital in Japan. PMID:26125035

  18. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-08-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  19. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  20. Genetic risk factors of cisplatin induced ototoxicity in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Talach, T; Rottenberg, J; Gal, B; Kostrica, R; Jurajda, M; Kocak, I; Lakomy, R; Vogazianos, E

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxicity is an important adverse effect of using Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) (CDDP) as a form of chemotherapy. The clinical picture of CDDP induced ototoxicity includes perceptive hearing impairment (reversible or permanent) and tinnitus. Ototoxicity manifests with considerable variability between patients. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate a possible genetic background to this variability. We assessed ototoxicity induced by therapeutic doses of CDDP in adult patients with germinative testicular tumors, or other tumors treated with an identical CDDP dosage scheme. Audiological examination before, during and after the treatment has shown deterioration in hearing; first in the high-frequencies and with increased CDDP cumulative doses, impairment in other frequencies as well. Occurrence of tinnitus was not dependent on the administered dose of CDDP, or the other risk factors examined in this study. The association of CDDP induced ototoxicity with genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes was examined. Our study has demonstrated an association of early onset of CDDP induced ototoxicity with the presence of two copies of GSTT1 gene (p=0,009) and with T allele of rs9332377 polymorphism in COMT gene (p=0,001). PMID:26774148

  1. Using Adult Learning Concepts To Assist Patients in Completing Advance Directives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rose Mary

    2000-01-01

    Advance directives that enable individuals to control their health care are underused due to lack of patient knowledge. Nurses can teach patients about them using adult learning principles, transformation theory, and skills for learning how to learn. (SK)

  2. Cystic Fibrosis below the Diaphragm: Abdominal Findings in Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Lisa P; McEvoy, Sinead H; Ni Mhurchu, Elaine; Gibney, Robert G; McMahon, Colm J; Heffernan, Eric J; Malone, Dermot E

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disease in the white population. Mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene on chromosome 7 results in production of abnormally viscous mucus and secretions in the lungs of patients with CF. A similar pathologic process occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary system. Inspissated mucus causes luminal obstruction and resultant clinical and radiologic complications associated with the disease process. Pancreatic involvement can result in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, pancreatic atrophy, fatty replacement, or lipomatous pseudohypertrophy. Acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic calcification, cysts, and cystosis also occur. Hepatic manifestations include hepatic steatosis, focal biliary and multilobular cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Biliary complications include cholelithiasis, microgallbladder, and sclerosing cholangitis. The entire digestive tract can be involved. Distal ileal obstruction syndrome, intussusception, appendicitis, chronic constipation, colonic wall thickening, fibrosing colonopathy, pneumatosis intestinalis, gastroesophageal reflux, and peptic ulcer disease have been described. Renal manifestations include nephrolithiasis and secondary amyloidosis. The educational objectives of this review are to reveal the abdominal manifestations of CF to facilitate focused analysis of cross-sectional imaging in adult patients. Life expectancy in patients with CF continues to improve because of a combination of aggressive antibiotic treatment, improved emphasis on nutrition and physiotherapy, and development of promising new CF transmembrane conductance regulator modulators. As lung function and survival improve, extrapulmonary conditions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal malignancy, will be an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Awareness of the expected abdominal manifestations of CF may assist radiologists in identifying

  3. Validating a Scoring System for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coimbra, Isabella; Maruza, Magda; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Batista, Joanna D’Arc Lyra; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Moura, Líbia Vilela; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito Barros; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes

    2014-01-01

    Background The challenge of diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB (tuberculosis) in people living with HIV justifies the use of instruments other than the smear test for diagnosing the disease. Considering the clinical-radiological similarities of TB amongst HIV-infected adults and children, the proposal of this study was to assess the accuracy of a scoring system used to diagnose smear-negative pulmonary TB in children and adolescents, in HIV-infected adults suspected of having smear-negative pulmonary TB. Methods A Phase III validation study aiming to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a scoring system for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB in HIV-infected adults. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values of the scoring system. Three versions of the scoring system were tested. Results From a cohort of 2,382 (HIV-infected adults), 1276 were investigated and 128 were diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Variables associated with the diagnosis of TB were: coughing, weight loss, fever, malnutrition, chest X-ray, and positive tuberculin test. The best diagnostic performance occurred with the scoring system with new scores, with sensitivity = 81.2% (95%-CI 74.5% –88%), specificity = 78% (75.6% –80.4%), PPV = 29.2% (24.5% –33.9%) and NPV = 97.4% (96.4% –98.4%), LR+ = 3.7 (3.4–4.0) and LR− = 0.24 (0.2–0.4). Conclusion The proposed scoring system (with new scores) presented a good capacity for discriminating patients who did not have pulmonary TB, in the studied population. Further studies are necessary in order to validate it, thus permitting the assessment of its use in diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary TB in HIV-infected adults. PMID:24755628

  4. Rasch Measurement in the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adult Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis; Roset, Montse; Badia, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Tested the metric properties of a Spanish version of the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire through Rasch analysis with a sample of 356 adult patients in Spain. Results suggest that the Spanish AGHDA could be a useful complement of the clinical evaluation of growth hormone deficiency patients at group and…

  5. Warming up Improves Speech Production in Patients with Adult Onset Myotonic Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Swart, B.J.M.; van Engelen, B.G.M.; Maassen, B.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study whether warming up decreases myotonia (muscle stiffness) during speech production or causes adverse effects due to fatigue or exhaustion caused by intensive speech activity in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. Thirty patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy (MD) and ten healthy controls…

  6. Cervical Node Tuberculosis in Adults of an Urban Middle Class Community: Incidence and Management.

    PubMed

    Khajanchi, Monty; Bambarkar, Supriya; Gadgil, Anita; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of cervical node tuberculosis (TB) in an urban middle class population and to describe an effective protocol for management of cervical lymphadenopathy. The present study is a prospective observational study conducted over two years (2007-2009) in a community hospital in Mumbai, India. All adults (age ≥14 years) presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, not resolving were included and their details of history and examination were noted. All patients were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and biopsy was done selectively as indicated. The response at 1, 3 and 6 months of starting anti tuberculous treatment (ATT) were noted. A total of 191 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 41 years and male to female ratio was 1:1.1 in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. A history of contact with a patient of TB was the most significantly associated history seen in patients diagnosed to have TB of cervical nodes (p < 0.001). TB (38.7%) followed by reactive nodes (37.6%) were the most common etiologies. A 90.6% response rate was seen in patients taking 6 months ATT for cervical node TB. The incidence of adult (≥14 years) cervical node TB was 52/100,000 people in an urban middle class community in Mumbai. A single swelling in the neck without other associated symptoms or signs was the commonest mode of presentation of TB of the neck nodes. A history of contact with TB, demonstrated an association with the final diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenopathy. PMID:27508138

  7. Diabetes Reduces the Rate of Sputum Culture Conversion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Salindri, Argita D.; Kipiani, Maia; Kempker, Russell R.; Gandhi, Neel R.; Darchia, Lasha; Tukvadze, Nestani; Blumberg, Henry M.; Magee, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diabetes is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB), but little is known about the relationship between diabetes and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. We aimed to assess risk factors for primary MDR TB, including diabetes, and determine whether diabetes reduced the rate of sputum culture conversion among patients with MDR TB. Methods. From 2011 to 2014, we conducted a cohort study at the National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Tbilisi, Georgia. Adult (≥35 years) patients with primary TB were eligible. Multidrug-resistant TB was defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid. Patients with capillary glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% or previous diagnosis were defined to have diabetes. Polytomous regression was used to estimate the association of patient characteristics with drug resistance. Cox regression was used to compare rates of sputum culture conversion in patients with and without diabetes. Results. Among 318 patients with TB, 268 had drug-susceptibility test (DST) results. Among patients with DST results, 19.4% (52 of 268) had primary MDR TB and 13.4% (36 of 268) had diabetes. In multivariable analyses, diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–6.31) and lower socioeconomic status (aOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.56–8.20) were associated with primary MDR TB. Among patients with primary MDR TB, 44 (84.6%) converted sputum cultures to negative. The rate of sputum culture conversion was lower among patients with diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.34; 95% CI, .13–.87) and among smokers (aHR, 0.16; 95% CI, .04–.61). Conclusions. We found diabetes was associated with an increased risk of primary MDR TB; both diabetes and smoking were associated with a longer time to sputum culture conversion. PMID:27419188

  8. Diabetes Reduces the Rate of Sputum Culture Conversion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Salindri, Argita D; Kipiani, Maia; Kempker, Russell R; Gandhi, Neel R; Darchia, Lasha; Tukvadze, Nestani; Blumberg, Henry M; Magee, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Background.  Diabetes is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB), but little is known about the relationship between diabetes and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. We aimed to assess risk factors for primary MDR TB, including diabetes, and determine whether diabetes reduced the rate of sputum culture conversion among patients with MDR TB. Methods.  From 2011 to 2014, we conducted a cohort study at the National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Tbilisi, Georgia. Adult (≥35 years) patients with primary TB were eligible. Multidrug-resistant TB was defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid. Patients with capillary glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% or previous diagnosis were defined to have diabetes. Polytomous regression was used to estimate the association of patient characteristics with drug resistance. Cox regression was used to compare rates of sputum culture conversion in patients with and without diabetes. Results.  Among 318 patients with TB, 268 had drug-susceptibility test (DST) results. Among patients with DST results, 19.4% (52 of 268) had primary MDR TB and 13.4% (36 of 268) had diabetes. In multivariable analyses, diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.31) and lower socioeconomic status (aOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.56-8.20) were associated with primary MDR TB. Among patients with primary MDR TB, 44 (84.6%) converted sputum cultures to negative. The rate of sputum culture conversion was lower among patients with diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.34; 95% CI, .13-.87) and among smokers (aHR, 0.16; 95% CI, .04-.61). Conclusions.  We found diabetes was associated with an increased risk of primary MDR TB; both diabetes and smoking were associated with a longer time to sputum culture conversion. PMID:27419188

  9. Chest CT findings of influenza virus‐associated pneumonia in 12 adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Jiro; Bandoh, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Objective  In this study, we describe the chest computed tomography findings of influenza virus‐associated pneumonia in adult patients. Methods  Our retrospective study included 12 adult patients who had proven influenza virus ‐ associated pneumonia. Results  Out of 12 patients, six were diagnosed as having pure influenza virus pneumonia, five as having bronchopneumonia caused by bacteria associated with influenza A infection, and one as having a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia associated with influenza A infection. Conclusion  Radiographic findings of influenza virus pneumonia in adult patients consist of ground‐glass attenuation. Localized patchy consolidations were observed in cases of bronchopneumonia. PMID:19453425

  10. Responding to requests from adult patients for neuroenhancements

    PubMed Central

    Larriviere, Dan; Williams, Michael A.; Rizzo, Matt; Bonnie, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, persons who have no diagnosed medical or mental health condition are increasingly seeking and utilizing, for the ostensible purpose of enhancing their memory or cognitive skills, prescription drugs that were originally developed to improve executive function or memory in persons diagnosed with disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or Alzheimer disease. Evidence suggests that this practice, now known as neuroenhancement, is gathering momentum. As a result, neurologists may be encountering patients without a diagnosed illness asking for medications with the goal of improving their memory, cognitive focus, or attention span. Strong arguments have been made for and against this practice, often reflecting strongly held convictions concerning the appropriate practice of medicine. The purpose of this report is to provide neurologists with an overview of the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of pharmaceuticals prescribed to enhance or augment normal cognitive or affective functioning, as well as practical guidance for responding to an adult patient’s request for neuroenhancement. GLOSSARY ELHC = Ethics, Law and Humanities Committee; FDA = Food and Drug Administration. PMID:19776378

  11. Are we doing enough to stem the tide of acquired MDR-TB in countries with high TB burden? Results of a mixed method study in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Ehiri, John; Oren, Eyal; Hu, Daiyu; Luo, Xingneng; Liu, Ying; Li, Daikun; Wang, Qingya

    2014-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) represents a threat to health and development in countries with high TB burden. China's MDR-TB prevalence rate of 6.8% is the highest in the world. Interventions to remove barriers against effective TB control, and prevention of MDR-TB are urgently needed in the country. This paper reports a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 513 pulmonary TB (PTB) patients, and qualitative interviews of 10 healthcare workers (HCWs), and 15 PTB patients. The objective was to assess barriers against effective control of PTB and prevention of MDR-TB by elucidating the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Results showed that more than half of the patients experienced patient delay of over 12.5 days. A similar proportion also experienced detection delay of over 30 days, and delay in initiating treatment of over 31 days. Consulting a non-TB health facility ≥3 times before seeking care at TB dispensary was a risk factor for both detection delay [AOR (95% CI): 1.89(1.07, 3.34) and delay in initiating treatment[AOR (95% CI): 1.88 (1.06, 3.36). Results revealed poor implementation of Directly Observed Therapy (DOT), whereby treatment of 34.3% patients was never monitored by HCWs. Only 31.8% patients had ever accessed TB health education before their TB diagnosis. Qualitative data consistently disclosed long patient delay, and indicated that patient's poor TB knowledge and socioeconomic barriers were primary reasons for patient delay. Seeking care and being treated at a non-TB hospital was an important reason for detection delay. Patient's long work hours and low income increased risk for treatment non-adherence. Evidence-based measures to improve TB health seeking behavior, reduce patient and detection delays, improve the quality of DOT, address financial and system barriers, and increase access to TB health promotion are urgently needed to address the burgeoning prevalence of MDR-TB in China. PMID:24505476

  12. Tubby-RFP Balancers for Developmental Analysis: FM7c 2xTb-RFP, CyO 2xTb-RFP and TM3 2xTb-RFP

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Cara; Pignoni, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    We report here the construction of Tubby-RFP balancers for the X, 2nd and 3rd chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. The insertion of a 2xTb-RFP transgene on the FM7c, CyO and TM3 balancer chromosomes introduces two easily scorable, dominant, developmental markers. The strong Tb phenotype is visible to the naked eye at the larval L2, L3 and pupal stages. The RFP associated with the cuticle is easily detected at all stages from late embryo to adult with the use of a fluorescence stereomicroscope. The FM7c Bar 2xTb-RFP, CyO Cy 2xTb-RFP and TM3 Sb 2xTb-RFP balancers will greatly facilitate the analysis of lethals and other developmental mutants in L2/L3 larvae and pupae, but also provide coverage of other stages beginning in late embryogenesis through to the adult. PMID:21913310

  13. Delay in commencing treatment for MDR TB at a specialised TB treatment centre in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Narasimooloo, R; Ross, A

    2012-06-01

    Background. According to the National Department of Health (NDoH) guidelines, patients diagnosed with MDR TB must be referred to a specialised treatment centre for initiation of effective therapy. MDR TB is difficult to diagnose and the centralised referral model is beset with challenges that contribute to treatment delays, increased patient morbidity and mortality, and MDR TB nosocomial transmission. Culture and DST takes 8 weeks or longer to obtain results while line probe assays (LPAs) can give a result in hours. LPAs and the GeneXpert MTB/Rif (GX) are ground-breaking discoveries for TB diagnosis. However, they are not easily accessible or available to those needing it, so culture and sensitivity testing remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Aim. This study aimed to assess the delay in the initiation of MDR TB treatment and profiled the patients being referred to a specialised drug-resistant treatment centre in KwaZulu-Natal. Results. Of all the patients, 75% referred showed a mean delay of 12.4 weeks from the date of sputum collection for culture and drug sensitivity testing to the start of treatment. Most of the patients were symptomatic for TB and HIV-positive. Discussion. Our findings suggest that current policy on the initiation of effective treatment needs urgent revision. Staff should be appropriately trained in LPA and GX technology to reduce delays in initiating treatment for MDR TB. The NDoH's plans for rapid diagnosis and reducing the treatment burden on centralised MDR TB management facilities are in the early phases of implementation and will take years to achieve favourable and significant outcomes. Conclusion. There is a significant delay in initiating definitive management for MDR TB. PMID:22668906

  14. Psychosocial Functioning of Adult Epileptic and MS Patients and Adult Normal Controls on the WPSI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Siang-Yang

    1986-01-01

    Psychosocial functioning of adult epileptic outpatients as assessed by the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was compared to that of adult multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatients and normal subjects. When only valid WPSI profiles were considered, the only significant finding was that the epilepsy group and the MS group had more…

  15. Management of patients with multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe: a TBNET consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Christoph; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Bothamley, Graham; Caminero, Jose A.; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Codecasa, Luigi; Correia, Ana; Crudu, Valeriu; Davies, Peter; Dedicoat, Martin; Drobniewski, Francis; Duarte, Raquel; Ehlers, Cordula; Erkens, Connie; Goletti, Delia; Günther, Gunar; Ibraim, Elmira; Kampmann, Beate; Kuksa, Liga; de Lange, Wiel; van Leth, Frank; van Lunzen, Jan; Matteelli, Alberto; Menzies, Dick; Monedero, Ignacio; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Sandgren, Andreas; Scardigli, Anna; Skrahina, Alena; Tortoli, Enrico; Volchenkov, Grigory; Wagner, Dirk; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Williams, Bhanu; Yew, Wing-Wai; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) substantially challenges TB control, especially in the European Region of the World Health Organization, where the highest prevalence of MDR/XDR cases is reported. The current management of patients with MDR/XDR-TB is extremely complex for medical, social and public health systems. The treatment with currently available anti-TB therapies to achieve relapse-free cure is long and undermined by a high frequency of adverse drug events, suboptimal treatment adherence, high costs and low treatment success rates. Availability of optimal management for patients with MDR/XDR-TB is limited even in the European Region. In the absence of a preventive vaccine, more effective diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic interventions the control of MDR/XDR-TB will be extremely difficult. Despite recent scientific advances in MDR/XDR-TB care, decisions for the management of patients with MDR/XDR-TB and their contacts often rely on expert opinions, rather than on clinical evidence. This document summarises the current knowledge on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of adults and children with MDR/XDR-TB and their contacts, and provides expert consensus recommendations on questions where scientific evidence is still lacking. PMID:24659544

  16. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  17. Prognostic significance of the intervals between the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and anti-tuberculosis treatment in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients: Results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Hoon; Zhou, Jialun; Lee, Man Po; Zhao, Hongxin; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Pujari, Sanjay; Lee, Christopher; Faridah Syed Omar, Sharifah; Ditangco, Rossana; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Yunihastuti, Evy; Tanuma, Junko; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Sohn, Annette H.; Choi, Jun Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the effect of time intervals between the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculosis (TB) treatment on clinical outcomes in HIV-TB co-infected patients in an Asian regional cohort. Methods Adult HIV-TB co-infected patients in an observational HIV cohort database who had a known date of ART initiation and history of TB treatment were eligible for study inclusion. The time intervals between the initiation of ART and TB treatment were categorized as follows: TB diagnosed while on ART, early ART (<90 days after TB treatment), delayed ART (>90 days after TB treatment), and ART not started. Outcomes were assessed using survival analyses. Results A total of 768 HIV-TB co-infected patients were included in this study. Median CD4 T-cell count at TB diagnosis was 100 (IQR 40–208) cells/µL. The treatment outcomes between early ART and delayed ART initiation were not significantly different. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that mortality was highest for those diagnosed with TB while on ART (3.77 deaths per 100 person-years), and the prognoses of other groups were not different (in deaths per 100 person-years: 2.12 early ART, 1.46 delayed ART, and 2.94 ART not started). In a multivariate model, the interval between ART initiation and TB therapy did not significantly impact all-cause mortality. Conclusions The negative impact of delayed ART in patients co-infected with TB was not observed in this observational cohort of moderately to severely immunosuppressed patients. The broader impact of earlier ART in actual clinical practice should be monitored more closely. PMID:23980589

  18. Are We Doing Enough to Stem the Tide of Acquired MDR-TB in Countries with High TB Burden? Results of a Mixed Method Study in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Ehiri, John; Oren, Eyal; Hu, Daiyu; Luo, Xingneng; Liu, Ying; Li, Daikun; Wang, Qingya

    2014-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) represents a threat to health and development in countries with high TB burden. China’s MDR-TB prevalence rate of 6.8% is the highest in the world. Interventions to remove barriers against effective TB control, and prevention of MDR-TB are urgently needed in the country. This paper reports a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 513 pulmonary TB (PTB) patients, and qualitative interviews of 10 healthcare workers (HCWs), and 15 PTB patients. The objective was to assess barriers against effective control of PTB and prevention of MDR-TB by elucidating the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Results showed that more than half of the patients experienced patient delay of over 12.5 days. A similar proportion also experienced detection delay of over 30 days, and delay in initiating treatment of over 31 days. Consulting a non-TB health facility ≥3 times before seeking care at TB dispensary was a risk factor for both detection delay [AOR (95% CI): 1.89(1.07, 3.34) and delay in initiating treatment[AOR (95% CI): 1.88 (1.06, 3.36). Results revealed poor implementation of Directly Observed Therapy (DOT), whereby treatment of 34.3% patients was never monitored by HCWs. Only 31.8% patients had ever accessed TB health education before their TB diagnosis. Qualitative data consistently disclosed long patient delay, and indicated that patient’s poor TB knowledge and socioeconomic barriers were primary reasons for patient delay. Seeking care and being treated at a non-TB hospital was an important reason for detection delay. Patient’s long work hours and low income increased risk for treatment non-adherence. Evidence-based measures to improve TB health seeking behavior, reduce patient and detection delays, improve the quality of DOT, address financial and system barriers, and increase access to TB health promotion are urgently needed to address the burgeoning prevalence of MDR-TB in China. PMID:24505476

  19. Histopathological Characteristics of Distal Middle Cerebral Artery in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasushi; Hermanto, Yulius; Takahashi, Jun C; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Mineharu, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-06-15

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a unique progressive steno-occlusive disease of the distal ends of bilateral internal arteries and their proximal branches. The difference in clinical symptoms between adult and children MMD patients has been well recognized. In this study, we sought to investigate the phenomenon through histopathological study. Fifty-one patients underwent surgical procedures for treatment of standard indications of MMD at Kyoto University Hospital. Fifty-nine specimens of MCA were obtained from MMD patients during the surgical procedures. Five MCA samples were also obtained in the same way from control patients. The samples were analyzed by histopathological methods. In this study, MCA specimens from MMD patients had significantly thinner media and thicker intima than control specimens. In subsequent analysis, adult (≥ 20 years) patients had thicker intima of MCA compared to pediatric (< 20 years) patients. There is no difference in internal elastic lamina pathology between adult and pediatric patients. Our results indicated that the pathological feature of MMD in tunica media occurs in both adult and pediatric patients. However, the MMD feature in tunica intima of MCA is more prominent in adult patients. Further analysis from MCA specimens and other researches are necessary to elucidate the pathophysiology of MMD. PMID:27087193

  20. Recognising falls risk in older adult mental health patients and acknowledging the difference from the general older adult population.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen; Al Omari, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Older adults admitted to inpatient mental health units present with complex mental health care needs which are often compounded by the challenges of living with physical co-morbidities. They are a mobile population and a high risk group for falling during hospitalisation. To address quality and safety concerns around the increased risk for falls, a qualitative research study was completed to obtain an improved understanding of the factors that increase the risk of falling in this patient cohort. Focus groups were conducted with mental health professionals working across older adult mental health services in metropolitan Western Australia. Data were analysed using content analysis and three themes emerged that were significant concepts relevant to falls risk in this patient group. These themes were (1) limitations of using generic falls risk assessment and management tools, (2) assessment of falls risk not currently captured on standardised tools, and (3) population specific causes of falls. The findings demonstrate that older adult mental health patients are a highly mobile group that experience frequent changes in cognition, behaviour and mental state. The mix of patients with organic or functional psychiatric disorders within the same environment also presents complex and unique care challenges and multi-disciplinary collaboration is central to reduce the risk of falls. As this group of patients are also frequently admitted to both general inpatient and aged care settings, the findings are relevant to the assessment and management of falls risk across all health care settings. PMID:27188045

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T-cell response is increased, and Treg cells decreased, in anthelmintic-treated patients with latent TB.

    PubMed

    Toulza, Frederic; Tsang, Lillian; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Brown, Michael; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    In many settings, adults with active or latent tuberculosis will also be coinfected with helminths. Our study aimed to investigate how anthelmintic treatment modulates antimycobacterial immunity, in a setting where helminth reinfection should not occur. We investigated the potential impact of helminth infection on immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in patients with latent Mtb infection with or without helminth infection (Strongyloides or Schistosoma), and tested T-cell responses before and after anthelmintic treatment. The study was performed in migrants resident in the United Kingdom, where reexposure and reinfection following anthelmintic treatment would not occur. The frequency of CD4(+) IFN-γ(+) T cells was measured following stimulation with Mtb Purified Protein Derivative or ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigen, and concentrations of IFN-γ in culture supernatants measured by ELISA and multiplex bead array. Helminth infection was associated with a lower frequency of CD4(+) IFN-γ(+) T cells, which increased following treatment. Patients with helminth infection showed a significant increase in CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T cells (Treg) compared to those without helminth infection. There was a decrease in the frequency of Treg cells, and an associated increase in CD4(+) IFN-γ(+) T cells after the anthelmintic treatment. Here, we show a potential role of Treg cells in reducing the frequency and function of antimycobacterial CD4(+) IFN-γ(+) T cells, and that these effects are reversed after anthelmintic treatment. PMID:26638865

  2. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed. PMID:25238985

  3. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  4. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  5. Variation in Insurance Status by Patient Demographics and Tumor Site Among Nonelderly Adult Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Stephen R.; Walker, Gary V.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Koshy, Matthew; Allen, Pamela K.; Mahmood, Usama

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the United States, an estimated 48 million individuals live without health insurance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the variation in insurance status by patient demographics and tumor site among nonelderly adult patients with cancer. METHODS A total of 688,794 patients aged 18 to 64 years who were diagnosed with one of the top 25 incident cancers (representing 95% of all cancer diagnoses) between 2007 and 2010 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were analyzed. Patient characteristics included age, race, sex, marital status, and rural or urban residence. County-level demographics included percent poverty level. Insurance status was defined as having non-Medicaid insurance, Medicaid coverage, or no insurance. RESULTS On multivariate logistic regression analyses, younger age, male sex, nonwhite race, being unmarried, residence in counties with higher levels of poverty, and rural residence were associated with being uninsured versus having non-Medicaid insurance (all P <.001). The highest rates of non-Medicaid insurance were noted among patients with prostate cancer (92.3%), melanoma of the skin (92.5%), and thyroid cancer (89.5%), whereas the lowest rates of non-Medicaid insurance were observed among patients with cervical cancer (64.2%), liver cancer (67.9%), and stomach cancer (70.9%) (P <.001). Among uninsured individuals, the most prevalent cancers were lung cancer (14.9%), colorectal cancer (12.1%), and breast cancer (10.2%) (P <.001). Lung cancer caused the majority of cancer mortality in all insurance groups. CONCLUSIONS Rates of insurance coverage vary greatly by demographics and by cancer type. The expansion of health insurance coverage would be expected to disproportionally benefit certain demographic populations and cancer types. PMID:25917222

  6. Transition from Pediatric to Adult Health Care in Patients with Chronic Illnesses: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer; Slobodov, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify barriers, themes, or additional insight specific to the transitional care processes from a pediatric to an adult health care setting for patients with spina bifida. PMID:26630779

  7. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charlotte A; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods.  This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results.  Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7-27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4(+) cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions.  The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  8. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Charlotte A.; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods. This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results. Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7–27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4+ cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions. The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  9. [A clinical study on tuberculosis among young adults in Japan: analysis on patients admitted to national hospitals in Kanto- and Kinki-areas in the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Hideki; Yonemaru, Makoto; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Sasaki, Yuka; Toyoda, Emiko; Yamagishi, Fumio; Kudoh, Koichiro; Kurasawa, Takuya; Ito, Masami; Kawashiro, Takeo; Sakatani, Mitsunori; Mori, Masashi

    2003-08-01

    Considering the high social activity, the trend of tuberculosis among young adults appears to be one of the key factors that influence the future morbidity rate of tuberculosis in Japan. To investigate its current characteristics, we analyzed new cases of tuberculosis aged 20 to 29 who were admitted to 7 national hospitals in Kanto- and Kinki-areas during the period of January 1st to December 31st, 2000. Data on the following items were compiled: sex, age, body height and weight, nationality; background factors such as life style, complications; course of the disease before the diagnosis; result of PPD skin test; severity of the disease estimated by the amount of M. tuberculosis in sputum and the grade of chest X-ray findings; therapeutic regimens and the response rate. Data were collected from 234 patients (129 males and 105 females) and the results were as follows: 1) about 80% of the patients were symptomatic and in 50% of patients who presented with cough, more than one month was needed before establishing the diagnosis as TB, 2) the disease was found in advanced stage in more than half of the patients, 3) foreigner patients, most of them were from Kanto-area, accounted for 11%, and were in advanced stage, some with drug-resistant tuberculosis, 4) INH resistance was noted in 7.7%, 5) pyrazinamide was included in the therapeutic regimens in 84.0% of the smear positive patients, 6) the admission period was within 90 days in 63.7% of the patients, however, the duration of treatment was 6 months in only 48.0% of patients who were treated with regimens containing pyrazinamide. More efforts for early detection of patients is needed to prevent the transmission of the disease, and more extensive use of directly observed therapy is essential for the prevention of dropout. We also argued about the shortening of the admission and duration of treatment in these patients. PMID:14509224

  10. Optimizing Management of Patients with Adult T Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yared, Jean A.; Kimball, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma is a rare disease with a high mortality rate, and is challenging for the clinician. Early allogeneic stem cell transplant can confer durable remission. As novel therapeutic agents become available to treat T cell malignancies, it is increasingly important that medical oncologists, hematologists, and hematopathologists recognize and accurately diagnose adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma. There is no uniform standard of treatment of adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma, and clinical trials remain critical to improving outcomes. Here we present one management approach based on the recent advances in treatment for adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma patients. PMID:26610571

  11. Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray, or positive sputum smear or culture • • Has active TB bacteria in his/her body • • Usually feels sick and may have symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss • • May spread TB bacteria to others • • Needs treatment to treat ...

  12. Screening for coeliac disease in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: myths, facts and controversy.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Sjoerd F; Tushuizen, Maarten E; von Blomberg, Boudewina M E; Bontkes, Hetty J; Mulder, Chris J; Simsek, Suat

    2016-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the present knowledge on the clinical consequences of concomitant coeliac disease (CD) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The cause of the increased prevalence of CD in T1DM patients is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Current screening guidelines for CD in adult T1DM patients are not uniform. Based on the current evidence of effects of CD on bone mineral density, diabetic complications, quality of life, morbidity and mortality in patients with T1DM, we advise periodic screening for CD in adult T1DM patients to prevent delay in CD diagnosis and subsequent CD and/or T1DM related complications. PMID:27478507

  13. Rules for improving pharmacotherapy in older adult patients: part 1 (rules 1-5).

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2015-02-01

    The population of older adult patients in the United States is growing each year. Appropriate pharmacotherapy has allowed many older patients to live longer and maintain healthy lives. Unfortunately, the inappropriate utilization of medications can be harmful to older adult patients. Inappropriate pharmacotherapy may lead to overusing medications and polypharmacy. Polypharmacy can contribute to a higher incidence of adverse effects, increase the risk of dangerous drug interactions, cause noncompliance with appropriate medication use, and significantly increase the cost of health care. The polypharmacy issue with geriatric patients has been described as an epidemic and this issue must be addressed. This review provides objective rules that may help prevent polypharmacy. Consideration of these rules when prescribing, dispensing, and caring for older adult patients will improve the overall pharmacotherapy regimens instituted by healthcare providers. PMID:25688894

  14. Strengthening the effectiveness of patient education: applying principles of adult education.

    PubMed

    Padberg, R M; Padberg, L F

    1990-01-01

    In spite of the recognized significance of patient education, many factors contribute to difficulties in providing effective patient teaching: diminished time from reduced hospital stays, the shortage of nursing personnel, and often, the patient's compromised physical and emotional status. With these constraints, teaching must be effective and efficient. In reviewing the literature, primary emphasis was found on providing sound clinical information with little attention to the techniques of effective methods for teaching adults. This article draws upon the principles of andragogy--the methods of teaching adults delineated by Malcolm Knowles--to provide a conceptual framework for developing effective patient education practice. Examples of both effective and ineffective practice are provided from the nursing literature. The information provided should assist nurses in understanding how adults learn and provide them with a structure to use in tailoring their teaching to meet the individual needs of their patients. PMID:2300506

  15. Detection and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients from lower income countries

    PubMed Central

    Ballif, Marie; Nhandu, Venerandah; Wood, Robin; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Carter, E. Jane; Cortes, Claudia P.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Diero, Lameck; Graber, Claire; Renner, Lorna; Hawerlander, Denise; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Du, Quy Tuan; Sterling, Timothy R.; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Setting Drug resistance threatens tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Objective We surveyed antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs from lower-income countries on prevention and management of drug-resistant TB. Design We used online questionnaires to collect program-level data in 47 ART programs in Southern Africa (14), East Africa (8), West Africa (7), Central Africa (5), Latin America (7) and Asia-Pacific (6 programs) in 2012. Patient-level data were collected on 1,002 adult TB patients seen at 40 of the participating ART programs. Results Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing was available at 36 (77%) ART programs, but only used for 22% of all TB patients. Molecular drug resistance testing was available at 33 (70%) programs and used for 23% of all TB patients. Twenty ART programs (43%) provided directly observed therapy (DOT) during the whole treatment, 16 (34%) during intensive phase only and 11 (23%) did not follow DOT. Fourteen (30%) ART programs reported no access to second-line TB regimens; 18 (38%) reported TB drug shortages. Conclusions Capacity to diagnose and treat drug-resistant TB was limited across ART programs in lower income countries. DOT was not always implemented and drug supply was regularly interrupted, which may contribute to the global emergence of drug resistance. PMID:25299866

  16. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among adult asthmatic patients in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Afshan; Alam, Syed Mahboob; Qadir, Farida

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has assumed pandemic proportions all over the world. It has been documented as a frequent problem in studies of young adults, elderly person and children in other countries, but there is no reliable data on vitamin D status of adult asthmatic patients in Pakistan. To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in adult asthmatic patients with moderate to severe asthma using a cross-sectional study design in Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi.311 adult asthmatic patients with moderate to severe asthma were recruited from JPMC, tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Questionnaires were administered together demographics, height, weight, nutritional and physical activity assessment. Blood samples for vitamin D measurement were also taken. Results show high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (88.10%) in adult patients with moderate to severe persistent asthma. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was more frequently observed in female than in male patients.67.66% of the female patients had serum vitamin D level less than 20 ng/ml as compare to 56.1% of the male patients (p=0.01). PMID:26045376

  17. Adult Day Care for Alzheimer's Patients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Dan; Suzuki, Thelma

    1983-01-01

    Harbor Area Adult Day Care Center has operated for two years with a primary purpose of providing respite care to families caring for a relative with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. The rationale, history, program, staffing, funding, and experience for the first two years of the project are provided. (Author/RC)

  18. Low Literacy Levels in Adults: Implications for Patient Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Health-education materials often require reading levels higher than that of many patients. Nurses need awareness of the prevalence of low literacy and the ability to assess reading levels so they can develop appropriate patient-education materials. (SK)

  19. Psychotherapy Interventions for Managing Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Adult Brain Tumor Patients: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Adult brain tumor (BT) patients and longer-term survivors are susceptible to experiencing emotional problems, including anxiety and/or depression disorders, which may further compromise their quality-of-life (QOL) and general well-being. The objective of this paper is to review psychological approaches for managing anxiety and depressive symptoms in adult BT patients. A review of psychological interventions comprising mixed samples of oncology patients, and which included BT patients is also evaluated. The review concludes with an overview of a recently developed transdiagnostic psychotherapy program, which was specifically designed to treat anxiety and/or depressive symptoms in adult BT patients. Methods Electronic databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane) were searched to identify published studies investigating psychological interventions for managing anxiety and depressive symptoms in adult BT patients. Only four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. Results Only one of the RCTs tested a psychosocial intervention, which was specifically developed for primary BT patients, and which was found to improve QOL including existential well-being as well as reducing depressive symptoms. A second study tested a combined cognitive rehabilitation and problem-solving intervention, although was not found to significantly improve mood or QOL. The remaining two studies tested multidisciplinary psychosocial interventions in heterogeneous samples of cancer patients (included BT patients) with advanced stage disease. Maintenance of QOL was found in both studies, although no secondary gains were found for improvements in mood. Conclusion There is a notable paucity of psychological interventions for adult BT patients across the illness trajectory. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence base for psychological interventions in managing anxiety and depressive symptoms, and enhancing the QOL of distressed adults diagnosed with a BT

  20. Efficacy of a new model for delivering integrated TB and HIV services for people living with HIV/AIDS in Delhi -- case for a paradigm shift in national HIV/TB cross-referral strategy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anil Kumar; Singh, Girraj Pratap; Goel, Sudha; Kaushik, Pratap Bhan; Joshi, Bipin Chandra; Chakraborty, Sabyasachi

    2014-02-01

    Under National TB/HIV framework, all TB patients are referred by Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP) service providers to Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers (ICTCs) for voluntary counseling and testing (C&T) and ICTC "TB-suspects" are referred to RNTCP facilities for TB diagnosis and treatment. HIV-TB coinfected patients are then referred to Anti Retroviral Treatment (ART) center for initiation of ART between two weeks and two months of initiating TB treatment. During the third phase of National AIDS Control Programme (NACP-III, April 2007-April 2012), 30749/130503 (23.6%) TB/HIV cross-referrals were lost to follow up (LTFU) and there was missed opportunity for 940/1884 (49.9%) HIV-TB coinfected patients for initiation of ART during TB treatment. This motivated Delhi State AIDS Control Society (DSACS) and State TB Cell (STC) to revise existing cross-referral strategy. The new strategy was launched in May 2012, wherein HIV-TB coinfected and HIV-positive "TB-suspects" were referred to nearest ART center for HIV care and investigations of TB at Chest Clinic/Designated Microscopy Centre (DMC) located within the same hospital instead of referral to area RNTCP facility. Outcome of the strategy was evaluated in March 2013. The new HIV-TB cross-referral strategy in Delhi has shown advantage over national strategy: first, improved retention of coinfected clients in HIV care; second, ensured timely initiation of TB-treatment and ART; and third, significantly improved survival of HIV-TB coinfected patients. PMID:24364397

  1. Nutrition in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hebuterne, Xavier; Filippi, Jerome; Schneider, Stephane M

    2014-01-01

    Seventy five percent of hospitalized patients with Crohn's disease suffer from malnutrition. One third of Crohn's disease patients have a body mass index below 20. Sixty percent of Crohn's disease patients have sarcopenia. However some inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are obese or suffer from sarcopenic-obesity. IBD patients have many vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, which can lead to important consequences such as hyperhomocysteinemia, which is associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic disease. Nutritional deficiencies in IBD patients are the result of insufficient intake, malabsorption and protein-losing enteropathy as well as metabolic disturbances directly induced by the chronic disease and its treatments, in particular corticosteroids. Screening for nutritional deficiencies in chronic disease patients is warranted. Managing the deficiencies involves simple nutritional guidelines, vitamin supplements, and nutritional support in the worst cases. PMID:25266810

  2. Propranolol Dosing Practices in Adult Burn Patients: Implications for Safety and Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Brown, David A; Gibbons, Janet; Honari, Shari; Klein, Matthew B; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2016-01-01

    Studies in children with burn injuries have demonstrated that propranolol improves metabolism and reduces muscle protein wasting. However, safety and efficacy in adults are less well established than in children. The purpose of this study was to determine safety of propranolol use in adult patients with burn injuries. Medical records were reviewed for burn-injured adults receiving propranolol. Patients between 18 and 65 years old and with ≥20% TBSA burn were included. Fifty-four patients met the criteria with mean age of 37 years and mean burn size of 38% TBSA. Propranolol dosages ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 mg/kg/day, with an average maximum dosage of 0.61 mg/kg/day. Mean heart rate decreased by 25% during 4 weeks. Seventy-two percent of patients experienced at least one episode of hypotension and 15% experienced bradycardia. Propranolol doses were most frequently held for low blood pressure; 32% of patients had at least one dose held for hypotension. This retrospective analysis suggests that modest dosing of propranolol results in frequent episodes of hypotension or bradycardia. Our data suggest that adults do not tolerate the higher doses reported in a pediatric population. Despite potential beneficial anti-catabolic effects of propranolol, burn care providers must recognize potential iatrogenic hemodynamic effects of this intervention. Our data support the need for prospective multicenter studies to delineate the safety and efficacy of propranolol in adult burn-injured patients. PMID:25882517

  3. Temporal Cytokine Profiles in Severely Burned Patients: A Comparison of Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N; Gamelli, Richard; Gibran, Nicole; Klein, Matthew; Silver, Geoff; Arnoldo, Brett; Remick, Daniel; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2008-01-01

    A severe burn leads to hypermetabolism and catabolism resulting in compromised function and structural changes of essential organs. The release of cytokines has been implicated in this hypermetabolic response. The severity of the hypermetabolic response following burn injury increases with age, as does the mortality rate. Due to the relationship between the hypermetabolic and inflammatory responses, we sought to compare the plasma cytokine profiles following a severe burn in adults and in children. We enrolled 25 adults and 24 children who survived a flame burn covering more than 20% of total body surface area (TBSA). The concentrations of 22 cytokines were measured using the Linco multiplex array system (St. Charles, MO, USA). Large perturbations in the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were seen following thermal injury. During the first week following burn injury, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8 were detected at significantly higher levels in adults compared with children, P < 0.05. Significant differences were measured during the second week post-burn for IL-1β (higher in children) and IL-5 (higher in adults), P < 0.05. IL-18 was more abundant in children compared with adults during the third week post-burn, P < 0.05. Between post-burn d 21 and d 66, IL-1α was detected at higher concentrations in pediatric compared with adult patients, P < 0.05. Only GM-CSF expression was significantly different at all time points; it was detected at lower levels in pediatric patients, P < 0.05. Eotaxin, G-CSF, IL-13, IL-15, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1α were detected at significantly different concentrations in adult compared with pediatric patients at multiple time points, P < 0.05. There were no differences in IL-12, IL-2, IL-7, or TNF levels in adult compared with pediatric burn patients at any of these time points. Following severe flame burns, the cytokine profiles in pediatric patients differ compared with those in adult patients, which may

  4. Epilepsy in Adults with Supratentorial Glioblastoma: Incidence and Influence Factors and Prophylaxis in 184 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuli; Zhang, Junchen; Zhang, Shaohui; Fu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence of epilepsy in adult patients with supratentorial glioblastoma, assess the factors influencing the development of epilepsy in these cases, and evaluate patients’ response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a series of 184 patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the 184 adult patients diagnosed with supratentorial glioblastoma. All subjects were treated within our hospital and subsequently died between 2003 and 2013. The incidence of epilepsy was assessed before and after initial resection and reexamined every 2 months thereafter. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic AEDs in this patient population based on the gathered incidence data. Results Of 184 patients, 43 (23.37%) were diagnosed with epilepsy before their initial resection. The total incidence of epilepsy (both pre- and postoperative) was 68.48%. The prevalence of active epilepsy reached over 80% in patients with epilepsy and survival of greater than 13 months postoperatively. Patients with glioblastoma in the frontal and/or temporal lobes had a higher prevalence of epilepsy. In the 43 patients with preoperative epilepsy, total resection of glioblastoma resulted in significantly lower seizure frequency. Patients who received epilepsy prophylaxis with AEDs for at least 6 months had significantly fewer seizures and higher Karnofsky scores than those receiving AEDs for less than one month or not at all. Conclusion The incidence of epilepsy in adult patients with glioblastoma was high and responded poorly to AEDs in the short term. However, when taken for longer periods, AEDs can reduce the frequency of seizures in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:27438472

  5. Operative and nonoperative treatment options for ACL tears in the adult patient: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Matava, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common among athletic individuals. Both nonoperative and operative treatment options exist. The optimal treatment of an adult with an ACL tear depends on several patient-specific factors, including age, occupation, and desired activity level. In less active patients with sedentary jobs, nonoperative management, consisting of physical therapy, bracing, and activity modification can yield successful results. In active patients who want to resume participation in jumping, cutting, or pivoting sports, patients who have physically demanding occupations, or patients who fail a trial of nonoperative management, ACL reconstruction is recommended. Reconstruction utilizing autograft tissue is preferred over allograft, especially in the younger athlete, but allograft tissue is a reasonable option in the older (aged > 40 years) and less active adult, as well. Successful results have been achieved with both patellar tendon and hamstring grafts. The optimal treatment in adult patients with ACL tears should be based on careful consideration of the patient's goals for return to activity, knee-specific comorbidities, such as coexistent meniscal pathology or osteoarthritis, and his or her willingness to follow a detailed rehabilitation regimen. Our article provides an overview of current nonoperative and operative treatment options for adults with ACL tears, considers the outcomes of both nonoperative and operative strategies, and provides general recommendations as to the ideal management for a given patient. PMID:24231595

  6. Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Wan-Seok; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Joong-Hyeon; Song, Shin-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Few well-controlled studies have considered neurofeedback treatment in adult psychiatric patients. In this regard, the present study investigates the characteristics and effects of neurofeedback on adult psychiatric patients in a naturalistic setting. A total of 77 adult patients with psychiatric disorders participated in this study. Demographic data and neurofeedback states were retrospectively analyzed, and the effects of neurofeedback were evaluated using clinical global impression (CGI) and subjective self-rating scales. Depressive disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (19; 24.7 %), followed by anxiety disorders (18; 23.4 %). A total of 69 patients (89.6 %) took medicine, and the average frequency of neurofeedback was 17.39 ± 16.64. Neurofeedback was applied to a total of 39 patients (50.6 %) more than 10 times, and 48 patients (62.3 %) received both β/SMR and α/θ training. The discontinuation rate was 33.8 % (26 patients). There was significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment CGI scores (<.001), and the self-rating scale also showed significant differences in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and inattention (<.001). This is a naturalistic study in a clinical setting, and has several limitations, including the absence of a control group and a heterogenous sample. Despite these limitations, the study demonstrates the potential of neurofeedback as an effective complimentary treatment for adult patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:25740085

  7. Tuberculosis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Shobita

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's most lethal infectious diseases. Preventive and control strategies among other high-risk groups, such as the elderly population, continues to be a challenge. Clinical features of TB in older adults may be atypical and confused with age-related diseases. Diagnosis and management of TB in the elderly person can be difficult; treatment can be associated with adverse drug reactions. This article reviews the current global epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management, and prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in community-dwelling and institutionalized aging adults. PMID:27394018

  8. Successfully treated but not fit for purpose: paying attention to chronic lung impairment after TB treatment.

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Ade, S; Burney, P; Hoa, N B; Schluger, N W; Castro, J L

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, 86% of patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) successfully completed treatment and were discharged from care. However, long-term studies in industrialised and resource-poor countries all point to a higher risk of death in TB survivors than in the general population. The likely explanation is chronic restrictive and obstructive lung disease consequent to TB. We call for better linkages between TB control programmes and respiratory medicine services, a better understanding of the burden of respiratory disability at the end of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and political, programmatic, clinical and research action to improve the quality of life of affected patients. PMID:27393532

  9. Practical review of immunizations in adult patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Heredia, Ella J; Chemaly, Roy F

    2015-01-01

    Compared with the general population, patients with cancer in general are more susceptible to vaccine-preventable infections, either by an increased risk due to the malignancy itself or immunosuppressive treatment. The goal of immunizations in these patients is therefore to provide protection against these infections, and to decrease the number of vulnerable patients who can disseminate these organisms. The proper timing of immunization with cancer treatment is key to achieving better vaccine protection. As the oncology field continues to advance, leading to better quality of life and longer survival, immunization and other aspects of preventive medicine ought to move to the frontline in the care of these patients. Herein, we review the vaccines most clinically relevant to patients with cancer, as well as special cases including vaccines after splenectomy, travel immunization and recommendations for family members. PMID:26110220

  10. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in paediatric and young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Turner, Suzanne D; Lamant, Laurence; Kenner, Lukas; Brugières, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a heterogeneous disease of debateable origin that, in children, is largely anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive with aberrant ALK activity induced following the formation of chromosomal translocations. Whilst the survival rates for this disease are relatively high, a significant proportion (20-40%) of patients suffer disease relapse, in some cases on multiple occasions and therefore suffer the toxic side-effects of combination chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients are treated with a combination of agents although recent data from relapse patients have suggested that low risk patients might benefit from single agent vinblastine and, going forward, the addition of ALK inhibitors to the therapeutic regimen may have beneficial consequences. There are also a plethora of other drugs that might be advantageous to patients with ALCL and many of these have been identified through laboratory research although the decision as to which drugs to implement in trials will not be trivial. PMID:26913827

  11. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  12. TB-HIV co-infection: a catastrophic comradeship.

    PubMed

    Narendran, G; Swaminathan, S

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic association of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV poses a challenge to human survival. HIV complicates every aspect of TB including presentation, diagnosis and treatment. HIV-TB patients encounter unique problems like drug-drug interactions, cumulative toxicity, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), lower plasma drug levels and emergence of drug resistance during treatment despite adherence. TB may also be overdiagnosed in HIV due to a number of diseases that closely resemble TB. Notable among them are non-tuberculous mycobacteria, Pneumocystis Jirovecii and Nocardia. Even though diagnostic procedures have improved over the years, patients in developing countries usually seek health care at later stage of the disease. Research data ascertains the duration of therapy for TB to be 6 months with rifampicin and isoniazid, reinforced with ethambutol and pyrazinamide in the first 2 months. The schedule of therapy is still debatable with daily regimens being preferred in the context of HIV. Many reasons exist for persistence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.TB) in sputum, or delayed-clearance of TB from sputum smears in HIV, apart from emergence of drug resistance and non-compliance. Acquired rifampicin resistance (ARR) is a unique phenomenon complicating HIV-associated TB when an intermittent regimen of antituberculosis therapy (ATT) is used without timely initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially in patients harbouring isoniazid-resistant strains Immune restoration is often incomplete ('swiss cheese' pattern) even with effective HAART if not started early. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition often with radiological deterioration, due to an enhanced immune response with HAART. IRIS occurs despite an effective virological suppression and a favourable response to ATT. The incidence of IRIS in HIV has reached up to 54%, requiring utilization of experts

  13. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  14. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  15. Intensive care outcomes in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Nates, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    Although outcomes of intensive care for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have improved in the last two decades, the short-term mortality still remains above 50% among allogeneic HSCT patients. Better selection of HSCT patients for intensive care, and consequently reduction of non-beneficial care, may reduce financial costs and alleviate patient suffering. We reviewed the studies on intensive care outcomes of patients undergoing HSCT published since 2000. The risk factors for intensive care unit (ICU) admission identified in this report were primarily patient and transplant related: HSCT type (autologous vs allogeneic), conditioning intensity, HLA mismatch, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At the same time, most of the factors associated with ICU outcomes reported were related to the patients’ functional status upon development of critical illness and interventions in ICU. Among the many possible interventions, the initiation of mechanical ventilation was the most consistently reported factor affecting ICU survival. As a consequence, our current ability to assess the benefit or futility of intensive care is limited. Until better ICU or hospital mortality prediction models are available, based on the available evidence, we recommend practitioners to base their ICU admission decisions on: Patient pre-transplant comorbidities, underlying disease status, GVHD diagnosis/grade, and patients’ functional status at the time of critical illness. PMID:26862493

  16. The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB) cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB-related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i) treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii) the month of death and iii) characteristics associated with "early" death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methods This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs) in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children) registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009. Results There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males) of whom 492 (6%) were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12%) and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%). There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with "early death". Conclusion In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i) the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii) co-morbidities, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed. PMID:22166132

  17. Investing to end epidemics: the role of the Global Fund to control TB by 2030.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Osamu; Yassin, Mohammed A; Wandwalo, Eliud

    2016-03-01

    The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria provides over three-quarters of all international financing towards TB programs with US$4.7 billion disbursed, supporting provision of treatment for 13.2 million patients with smear-positive TB and 210 000 patients with multidrug-resistant TB in over 100 countries since 2002. In 2013, the Global Fund launched a new funding model that, among others, is advancing strategic investments to maximize impact, addressing 'missing' TB cases, enhancing a synergistic response to TB/HIV dual epidemics, and building resilient and sustainable systems for health. A new Global Fund Strategy is under development through consultation with various stakeholders, with which the Global Fund will work to play a more catalytic role and foster innovations to end the TB epidemic. PMID:26884492

  18. Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in Hiv-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maunank; Hanrahan, Colleen; Wang, Zhuo Yu; Dendukuri, Nandini; Lawn, Stephen D; Denkinger, Claudia M; Steingart, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive individuals, who have higher rates of extrapulmonary TB compared with HIV-negative individuals. The lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) is a new, commercially available point-of-care test that detects lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a lipopolysaccharide present in mycobacterial cell walls, in people with active TB disease. Objectives To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM for the diagnosis of active TB disease in HIV-positive adults who have signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB diagnosis).To assess the accuracy of LF-LAM as a screening test for active TB disease in HIV-positive adults irrespective of signs and symptoms suggestive of TB (TB screening). Search methods We searched the following databases without language restriction on 5 February 2015: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE (PubMed,1966); EMBASE (OVID, from 1980); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED, from 1900), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S, from 1900), and BIOSIS Previews (from 1926) (all three using the Web of Science platform; MEDION; LILACS (BIREME, from 1982); SCOPUS (from 1995); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&l (from 1861). Selection criteria Eligible study types included randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies that determined LF-LAM accuracy for TB against a microbiological reference standard (culture or nucleic acid amplification test from any body site). A higher quality reference standard was one in which two or more specimen types were

  19. Management of Spinal Deformity in Adult Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Boniello, Anthony J; Schwab, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    A wide range of neuromuscular diseases, including Parkinson disease, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and myopathy, are associated with spinal deformities. The most common postural deformities include anterocollis, Pisa syndrome (pleurothotonus), scoliosis, and camptocormia. Nonsurgical management of spinal deformity in patients with neuromuscular disease centers on maximizing the medical management of the underlying neurodegenerative pathology before surgical intervention is contemplated. Surgical management can include decompression alone, or decompression and fusion with short or long fusion constructs. Patients with neuromuscular disease are susceptible to postoperative medical complications, such as delirium, epidural hematomas, pulmonary emboli, and cardiac events. Compared with outcomes in the typical patient with spinal deformity, postoperative outcomes in patients with neuromuscular disease have higher rates of surgical complications, such as instrumentation failure, proximal junctional kyphosis, loss of correction, and the need for revision surgery, regardless of the magnitude of surgical treatment. PMID:27471900

  20. Transfusions for anemia in adult and pediatric patients with malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neil; Andrews, Jennifer; Goodnough, Lawrence Tim

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is present in over two-thirds of patients with malignant hematological disorders. The etiology of anemia predominates from ineffective erythropoiesis from marrow infiltration, cytokine related suppression, erythropoietin suppression, and vitamin deficiency; ineffective erythropoiesis is further exacerbated by accelerated clearance due to antibody mediated hemolysis and thrombotic microangiopathy. As the anemia is chronic in nature, symptoms are generally well tolerated and often non-specific. Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a balance between providing benefit for patients while avoiding risks of transfusion. Conservative/restrictive RBC transfusion practices have shown equivalent patient outcomes compared to liberal transfusion practices, and meta-analysis has shown improved in-hospital mortality, reduced cardiac events, re-bleeding, and bacterial infections. The implications for a lower threshold for transfusion in patients with malignancies are therefore increasingly being scrutinized. Alternative management strategies for anemia with IV iron and erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) should be considered in the appropriate settings. PMID:25796130

  1. Use of Patient Portals for Personal Health Information Management: The Older Adult Perspective.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anne M; Osterhage, Katie; Hartzler, Andrea; Joe, Jonathan; Lin, Lorelei; Kanagat, Natasha; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    The personal health information management (PHIM) practices and needs of older adults are poorly understood. We describe initial results from the UW SOARING project (Studying Older Adults & Researching Information Needs and Goals), a participatory design investigation of PHIM in older adults (60 years and older). We conducted in-depth interviews with older adults (n=74) living in a variety of residential settings about their management of personal health information. A surprising 20% of participants report using patient portals and another 16% reported prior use or anticipated use of portals in the future. Participants cite ease of access to health information and direct communication with providers as valuable portal features. Barriers to the use of patient portals include a general lack of computer proficiency, high internet costs and security concerns. Design features based on consideration of needs and practices of older adults will facilitate appeal and maximize usability; both are elements critical to adoption of tools such as patient portals that can support older adults and PHIM. PMID:26958263

  2. Use of Patient Portals for Personal Health Information Management: The Older Adult Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Anne M.; Osterhage, Katie; Hartzler, Andrea; Joe, Jonathan; Lin, Lorelei; Kanagat, Natasha; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    The personal health information management (PHIM) practices and needs of older adults are poorly understood. We describe initial results from the UW SOARING project (Studying Older Adults & Researching Information Needs and Goals), a participatory design investigation of PHIM in older adults (60 years and older). We conducted in-depth interviews with older adults (n=74) living in a variety of residential settings about their management of personal health information. A surprising 20% of participants report using patient portals and another 16% reported prior use or anticipated use of portals in the future. Participants cite ease of access to health information and direct communication with providers as valuable portal features. Barriers to the use of patient portals include a general lack of computer proficiency, high internet costs and security concerns. Design features based on consideration of needs and practices of older adults will facilitate appeal and maximize usability; both are elements critical to adoption of tools such as patient portals that can support older adults and PHIM. PMID:26958263

  3. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Maratovich, Mussin Nadiar; Lee, Kyoung-Bun

    2016-06-01

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is rare primary hepatic sarcoma and is known to occur in pediatric patients. This case is the UESL occurred in a 51-year old male patient. Multilocular cystic lesion was composed of primitive spindle cells without specific differentiation. This rare case would help to review differential diagnosis of primary sarcoma in liver and cystic neoplasm of the liver. PMID:27377912

  4. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  5. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Maratovich, Mussin Nadiar; Lee, Kyoung-Bun

    2016-01-01

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is rare primary hepatic sarcoma and is known to occur in pediatric patients. This case is the UESL occurred in a 51-year old male patient. Multilocular cystic lesion was composed of primitive spindle cells without specific differentiation. This rare case would help to review differential diagnosis of primary sarcoma in liver and cystic neoplasm of the liver. PMID:27377912

  6. Transition of pediatric patients to adult care: an analysis of provider perceptions across discipline and role.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan-Oliveira, Joanne; Fernandes, Susan M; Borges, Lawrence F; Fishman, Laurie N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of successfully transitioning pediatric patients to adult care is increasingly recognized as more children with chronic diseases are living to adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the current state of provider perceptions across disciplines regarding transition of pediatric patients to adult care. Focus groups made up of providers of various roles and experience levels were conducted. A total of six major themes were identified. We conclude that pediatric providers share common concerns about transitioning pediatric patients to adult care. We reinforce many of the issues raised in the literature and also discuss a sense of professional ego that was identified as a barrier to successful transition, which is not widely reported in other studies. PMID:25134224

  7. Antiretroviral adherence and treatment outcomes among adult Ethiopian patients.

    PubMed

    Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R; Gee, Peter; Peterson, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Developing appropriate strategies to sustain optimal medication adherence among the increasing number of HIV-positive patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa is a major challenge. The objective of this study was to determine patient, regimen, disease, patient-provider, and healthcare-related factors associated with adherence with ART over a one-year period, and assess the impact of adherence on treatment outcomes. We performed a prospective, observational study among 246 patients who were initiated on ART in Ethiopia. Of 172 who completed follow-up, 130 (75.6%) had ≥95% adherence. In the multivariate analyses, a higher baseline BMI (OR, 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.4) and use of reminder devices (OR, 9.1; 95% CI 2.0, 41.6) remained positively associated with adherence, while a higher HIV symptom and adverse drug reaction distress score was an independent negative predictor of adherence (OR, 0.90; 95% CI 0.9, 1.0) CD4 count increase was significantly higher in the adherent patients compared to non-adherent patients at 12 months (159 cells/µL [interquartile range (IQR), 72-324 cells/µL] vs. 132 cells/µL [IQR, 43-190 cells/µL]; p = 0.026). Our findings indicate that interventions aimed at improving adherence and thereby treatment outcomes in patients initiated on ART should promote the use of reminder devices, and monitor HIV symptoms and adverse reaction distress and nutritional status. PMID:26829232

  8. Percutaneous Endovascular Treatment of Hepatic Artery Stenosis in Adult and Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Maruzzelli, Luigi; Miraglia, Roberto Caruso, Settimo; Milazzo, Mariapina; Mamone, Giuseppe; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous endovascular techniques for the treatment of hepatic artery stenosis (HAS) occurring after liver transplantation (LT) in adult and pediatrics patients. From February 2003 to March 2009, 25 patients (15 adults and 10 children) whose developed HAS after LT were referred to our interventional radiology unit. Technical success was achieved in 96% (24 of 25) of patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed in 13 patients (7 children), and stenting was performed in 11 patients (2 children). After the procedure, all patients were followed-up with liver function tests, Doppler ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. Mean follow-up was 15.8 months (range 5 days to 58 months). Acute hepatic artery thrombosis occurred immediately after stent deployment in 2 patients and was successfully treated with local thrombolysis. One patient developed severe HA spasm, which reverted after 24 h. After the procedure, mean trans-stenotic pressure gradient decreased from 30.5 to 6.2 mmHg. Kaplan-Meyer curve of HA primary patency was 77% at 1 and 2 years. During the follow-up period, 5 patients (20%) had recurrent stenosis, and 2 patients (8.3%) had late thrombosis. Two of 7 patients with stenosis/thrombosis underwent surgical revascularization (n = 1) and liver retransplantation (n = 1). Six (25%) patients died during follow-up, but overall mortality was not significantly different when comparing patients having patent hepatic arteries with those having recurrent stenosis/thrombosis. There were no significant differences in recurrent stenosis/thrombosis and mortality comparing patients treated by PTA versus stenting and comparing adult versus pediatric status. Percutaneous interventional treatment of HAS in LT recipients is safe and effective and decreases the need for surgical revascularization and liver retransplantation. However, the beneficial effects for survival are not clear, probably because

  9. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  10. Imaging assessment and clinical significance of pneumatosis in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Francesco; Valente, Tullio; Rea, Gaetano; Lassandro, Giulia; Golia, Erica; Brunese, Luca; Laghi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Gas detection in the bowel wall and in portomesenteric venous vessels in adults has long been related to intestinal infarction and poor outcome; many case reports have shown that pneumatosis may be associated with a large variety of pathological situations, ranging from absolutely benign and asymptomatic forms to abdominal catastrophes. Several studies have been conducted on this topic with different conclusions, probably due to differences in population so that the clinical value of these signs is still questioned. Intestinal pneumatosis, especially if presenting with a band-like pattern and if associated with portomesenteric vein gas, when observed in an acute abdominal setting should raise the suspicion of mesenteric infarct and prompt a careful search for other signs of intestinal involvement, so as not to miss cases of life-threatening intestinal infarct or allow them to further evolve into extensive necrosis with worse prognosis. In this review we illustrate the most relevant aspects of these debated but significant radiological signs. PMID:25297049

  11. Factors Associated with Prevalent Tuberculosis Among Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iroezindu, MO; Ofondu, EO; Mbata, GC; van Wyk, B; Hausler, HP; DH, Au; Lynen, L; Hopewell, PC

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity/mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Africa. Reducing TB burden in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a public health priority. Aim: We determined the factors associated with prevalent TB among patients receiving HAART. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients who had received HAART for ≥12 weeks in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Patients whose TB diagnosis predated HAART were excluded from the study. Pre-HAART data were collected from the clinic records, whereas post-HAART data were obtained through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Standard TB screening/diagnostic algorithms as applicable in Nigeria were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently associated with prevalent TB. Results: about 65.8% (222/339) were women. The mean age was 41.1 (10.0) years and 23.6% (73/339) had past history of TB. The prevalence of active TB was 7.7% (26/339). Among these patients, 42.3% (11/26) had pulmonary TB, 34.6% (9/26) had disseminated TB, whereas 23.1% (6/26) had only extra-pulmonary disease. Only 45% (9/20) of patients with pulmonary involvement had positive sputum smear. Factors independently associated with prevalent TB were lower social class (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 31.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–1417.3), HAART non-adherence (aOR125.5; 95% CI: 9.6–1636.3), baseline CD4 <200cells/μl (aOR31.0; 95%CI: 1.6–590.6), previous TB (aOR13.8; 95% CI: 2.0–94.1), and current hemoglobin <10 g/dl (aOR10.3; 95% CI: 1.1–99.2). Conclusion: Factors associated with prevalent TB were a lower social class, HAART non-adherence, severe immunosuppression before HAART initiation, previous TB, and anemia post-HAART. TB case finding should be intensified in these high-risk groups. PMID:27213096

  12. Kidney transplantation in an adult patient with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Cimen, Sertac; Nantais, Jordan; Guler, Sanem; Lawen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb birth defects (VACTERL) association is a rare, non-random constellation of congenital abnormalities among which urinary tract anomalies can be included. In the presence of these anomalies, patients are suspected to have a higher rate of renal failure than average. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with VACTERL association and consequent end stage renal failure. A live-related kidney transplant was carried out successfully and the postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient had immediate graft function. Risk factors that may complicate kidney transplant surgery in this patient population as well as considerations relevant to peritransplant management are discussed. PMID:26106170

  13. Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Javier; Anand, Ernie; Casillas, Marta; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an underdiagnosed, undertreated, often comorbid, and debilitating condition in adults. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using combinations of keywords, including ADHD, adult, diagnosis, identify, prevalence, and comorbid, to find articles published between 1976 and 2013. Study Selection: In total, 99 articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of their relevance to the objective and importance to and representation of ADHD research, including international guidelines for adults with ADHD. Results: In a large proportion of children with ADHD, symptoms persist into adulthood. However, although adults with ADHD often experience chaotic lifestyles, with impaired educational and vocational achievement and higher risks of substance abuse and imprisonment, many remain undiagnosed and/or untreated. ADHD is usually accompanied by other psychiatric comorbidities (such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse). Indeed, adults with ADHD are more likely to present to a psychiatric clinic for treatment of their comorbid disorders than for ADHD, and their ADHD symptoms are often mistaken for those of their comorbidities. Untreated ADHD in adults with psychiatric comorbidities leads to poor clinical and functional outcomes for the patient even if comorbidities are treated. Effective treatment of adults’ ADHD improves symptoms, emotional lability, and patient functioning, often leading to favorable outcomes (eg, safer driving, reduced criminality). A few medications have now been approved for use in adults with ADHD, while a multimodal approach involving psychotherapy has also shown promising results. Conclusions General psychiatrists should familiarize themselves with the symptoms of ADHD in adults in order to diagnose and manage ADHD and comorbidities appropriately in these patients. PMID:25317367

  14. A snapshot of the adult spina bifida patient – high incidence of urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Greiman, Alyssa; Casey, Jessica T.; Mukherjee, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To describe the urologic outcomes of contemporary adult spina bifida patients managed in a multidisciplinary clinic. Material and methods A retrospective chart review of patients seen in our adult spina bifida clinic from January 2004 to November 2011 was performed to identify urologic management, urologic surgeries, and co-morbidities. Results 225 patients were identified (57.8% female, 42.2% male). Current median age was 30 years (IQR 27, 36) with a median age at first visit of 25 years (IQR 22, 30). The majority (70.7%) utilized clean intermittent catheterization, and 111 patients (49.3%) were prescribed anticholinergic medications. 65.8% had urodynamics performed at least once, and 56% obtained appropriate upper tract imaging at least every other year while under our care. 101 patients (44.9%) underwent at least one urologic surgical procedure during their lifetime, with a total of 191 procedures being performed, of which stone procedures (n = 51, 26.7%) were the most common. Other common procedures included continence procedures (n = 35, 18.3%) and augmentation cystoplasty (n = 29, 15.2%). Only 3.6% had a documented diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and 0.9% with end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Most adult spina bifida patient continue on anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. A large percentage of patients required urologic procedures in adulthood. Patients should be encouraged to utilize conservative and effective bladder management strategies to reduce their risk of renal compromise. PMID:27123330

  15. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Pattern of Imaging Defined Post-TB Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meghji, Jamilah; Simpson, Hope; Squire, S. Bertel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is an important risk factor for chronic respiratory disease in resource poor settings. The persistence of abnormal spirometry and symptoms after treatment are well described, but the structural abnormalities underlying these changes remain poorly defined, limiting our ability to phenotype post-TB lung disease in to meaningful categories for clinical management, prognostication, and ongoing research. The relationship between post-TB lung damage and patient-centred outcomes including functional impairment, respiratory symptoms, and health related quality of life also remains unclear. Methods We performed a systematic literature review to determine the prevalence and pattern of imaging-defined lung pathology in adults after medical treatment for pleural, miliary, or pulmonary TB disease. Data were collected on study characteristics, and the modality, timing, and findings of thoracic imaging. The proportion of studies relating imaging findings to spirometry results and patient morbidity was recorded. Study quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottowa score. (Prospero Registration number CRD42015027958) Results We identified 37 eligible studies. The principle features seen on CXR were cavitation (8.3–83.7%), bronchiectasis (4.3–11.2%), and fibrosis (25.0–70.4%), but prevalence was highly variable. CT imaging identified a wider range of residual abnormalities than CXR, including nodules (25.0–55.8%), consolidation (3.7–19.2%), and emphysema (15.0–45.0%). The prevalence of cavitation was generally lower (7.4–34.6%) and bronchiectasis higher (35.0–86.0%) on CT vs. CXR imaging. A paucity of prospective data, and data from HIV-infected adults and sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) was noted. Few studies related structural damage to physiological impairment, respiratory symptoms, or patient morbidity. Conclusions Post-TB structural lung pathology is common. Prospective data are required to determine the evolution of this lung damage and

  16. Perioperative Hemoglobin Trajectory in Adult Cardiac Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Tung, Hon-Ming Andrew; Slater, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Preoperative anemia and nadir hemoglobin (Hb) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been identified as significant risk factors for blood transfusion during cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to confirm the association between preoperative anemia, perioperative fluid management, and blood transfusion. In addition, the proportion of elective cardiac surgery patients presenting for surgery with anemia was identified to examine whether the opportunity exists for timely diagnosis and intervention. Data from referral until hospital discharge were comprehensively reviewed over a 12-month period for all nonemergency cardiac surgical patients operated on in our institution. Of the 342 patients identified, elective cases were referred a median of 35 days before preoperative clinic and operated on a median of 14 days subsequently. Subacute cases had a median of 3 days from referral to surgery. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for anemia, 24.2% of elective and 29.6% of subacute patients were anemic. Blood transfusion was administered to 46.2% of patients during their admission. Transfusion was more likely in patients who were female (odds ratio [OR]: 2.45, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–4.70), had a low body mass index (BMI) (OR: .89, 95% CI: .84–.94), preoperative anemia (OR: 5.15, 95% CI: 2.59–10.24), or renal impairment (OR: 5.44, 95% CI: 2.42–12.22). Hemodilution minimization strategies reduced the Hb fall during CPB, but not transfusion rates. This study identifies a high prevalence of preoperative anemia with sufficient time for elective referrals to undergo appropriate diagnosis and interventions. It also confirms that low red cell mass (anemia and low BMI) and renal impairment are predictors of perioperative blood transfusion. Perfusion strategies to reduce hemodilution are effective at minimizing the intraoperative fall in Hb concentration but did not influence transfusion rate. PMID:26543251

  17. A patient - centered approach to addressing physical activity in older adults: motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Katherine; Goodman, Janice H

    2014-11-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the burden of chronic diseases in older adults, but the majority of this population is relatively sedentary. Individuals considering a change in behavior, such as increasing exercise, often experience a mental state of ambivalence, which can lead to inaction. Ambivalence is resistant to traditional counseling methods used in medical settings, such as patient education. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a conversational style that has been shown to help overcome ambivalence by guiding patients to voice their personal reasons for change. Nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to use MI with older adults to address ambivalence toward increasing physical activity. PMID:25199152

  18. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Marks, David I; Alonso, Laura; Radia, Rohini

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the use of prognostic factors, patient and donor selection, choice of conditioning regimens, and timing of transplant. It also describes the management of Philadelphia-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and central nervous system disease. All aggressively treated adults with ALL should be considered for allogeneic transplantation and tissue typed at diagnosis. We further suggest that eligible patients be entered into clinical trials (that incorporate transplantation); these unselected prospective outcome data are essential to evaluate the true value of allogeneic transplantation in adults with ALL. PMID:25459175

  19. [Perioperative management of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Rösslein, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep related breathing disorder with an increasing prevalence. Most surgical patients with OSA have not been diagnosed prior to surgery and are at an increased risk of developing perioperative complications. Preoperative identification of these patients is important in order to take appropriate measures concerning a safe perioperative management. While the level of scientific evidence for single measures is still low, several steps seem prudent: Preoperatively, sedating medications should only be applied with extreme caution. Anesthetic management should focus on regional anesthetic techniques and reduction of systemic opioids. In the case of general anesthesia, an increased risk of a patient presenting with a difficult airway should be appreciated. The extent and duration of postoperative continuous monitoring has to be determined on an individual basis. A preoperatively existing therapy with continuous positive airway pressure should be continued postoperatively as soon as possible. Patients with OSA may be managed on an outpatient basis if certain requirements are met. PMID:25850644

  20. Use of caries preventive agents on adult patients compared to pediatric patients by general practitioners: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Williams, O. Dale; Ritchie, Lloyd K.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that caries prevention reduces caries in adults. This study tested the frequency of recommended caries prevention agents for children compared to adult patients. Methods This study surveyed 467 Dental Practice-Based Research Network general dentists who practice within the United States and treat both pediatric and adult patients. Dentists were asked the percentage of their patients who are administered or recommended dental sealants, in-office and at-home fluoride, chlorhexidine rinse, and xylitol gum. Results Adults were less likely to receive in-office caries preventive agents compared to pediatric patients. However, the rate of recommendation for at-home preventive regimens was very similar. Dentists with a conservative approach to caries treatment were the most likely to use caries prevention at similar rates in adults as in children. In addition, practices with a greater number of patients with dental insurance were significantly less likely to provide in-office fluoride or sealants to adult patients than to their pediatric patients. Conclusion In-office caries prevention agents are more commonly used by general dentists for their pediatric patients compared to their adult patients. Practice Implications Some general dentists should consider providing additional in-office prevention agents for their adult patients who are at increased risk for dental caries. PMID:20516100

  1. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality in Young Adult Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Michelle M.; Crews, Deidra C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18–30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in US Census zip codes with ≥20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods. PMID:24925723

  2. Clinical and histopathological results of the adult patients with unilateral cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Okçelik, Sezgin; Çırakoğlu, Abdullah; Yılmaz, İsmail; Malkoç, Ercan; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and histopathological results of adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients. Material and methods Data from adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients that underwent orchiectomy in our clinic between between January 2004 and March 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups as intra-abdominal, inguinal canal and superficial inguinal region according to the location of the undescended testes. Patients were also grouped according to their testicular volume (<4 cc, 4.1–12 cc, and >12 cc). Histopathology results of orchiectomy specimens were classified as follows: 1. Sertoli cells only, testicular atrophy and vanished testis (anorchia) 2. Hypospermatogenesis, and 3. Maturation arrest. Patients were grouped as normospermia, azoospermia and oligo/astheno/teratospermia groups according to semen analysis results. Correlations between testicular localization, testicular size, semen analysis and pathology results were evaluated. Incidental tumor detection rates were also calculated. Results Two hundred and forty-four adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients underwent orchiectomy in our clinic. There was no a significant relationship between location of the testis and testicular pathology results (p=0.707). Most common semen analysis results was normospermia in patients with high testicular volume group however azoospermia and oligoasthenospermia observed commonly in patients with low testicular volume group. There was a significant relationship between testicular volume and semen analysis results (p=0.023). No significant relationship was observed between semen analysis and pathological results (p=0.929). After an evaluation of all factors with possible effects on the semen analysis results, only testicular volume (p=0.036) was found to have a significant impact. Only one case (0.4%) was incidentally diagnosed seminoma after a review of 233 patients with available histopathological results on record

  3. Adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with palmitoyl-protein thioesterase deficiency: first adult-onset patients of a childhood disease.

    PubMed

    van Diggelen, O P; Thobois, S; Tilikete, C; Zabot, M T; Keulemans, J L; van Bunderen, P A; Taschner, P E; Losekoot, M; Voznyi, Y V

    2001-08-01

    The fluorogenic enzyme assay for palmitoyl-protein thioesterase (PPT) has greatly facilitated the diagnosis of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Santavuori-Haltia disease) and the search for possible new variants with atypical clinical presentation. Here, we present the first cases of adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with onset in the fourth decade of life due to a profound deficiency of PPT. The causative mutations in the CLN1 gene were the known, deleterious mutation R151X and the novel missense mutation G108R. Patients presented at onset (31 and 38 years), with psychiatric symptoms only. At present (ages 56 and 54 years), visual, verbal, and cognitive losses have progressed and both patients have cerebellar ataxia and cannot walk without support. PMID:11506414

  4. [Neurological presentations of lysosomal diseases in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Sedel, F; Turpin, J-C; Baumann, N

    2007-10-01

    Lysosomal diseases represent a large group of genetic storage disorders characterized by a defect in the catabolism of complex molecules within the lysosome. Effective treatments are now possible for some of them given progresses in bone-marrow transplantation, enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction therapy. Neurologists and psychiatrists are concerned by these diseases because they can present in adolescence or adulthood with progressive neuropsychiatric signs. Here we focus on late-onset clinical forms which can be met in an adult neurology or psychiatric department. Lysosomal diseases were classified into 3 groups: (1) leukodystrophies (metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe's disease and Salla's disease); (2) Neurodegenerative or psychiatric-like diseases (GM1 and GM2 gangliosidoses, Niemann Pick type C disease, sialidosis type I, ceroid-lipofuscinosis, mucopolysaccharidosis type III); (3) multisystemic diseases (Gaucher's disease, Fabry's disease, alpha and B mannosidosis, Niemann Pick disease type B, fucosidosis, Schindler/Kanzaki disease, and mucopolysaccharidosis type I and II. We propose a diagnostic approach guided by clinical examination, brain MRI, electrodiagnostic studies and abdominal echography. PMID:18033028

  5. Comparison of the Phenotype and Approach to Pediatric vs Adult Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main chronic noncommunicable diseases in Westernized societies; its worldwide prevalence has doubled during the last 20 years. NAFLD has serious health implications not only for adults, but also for children. However, pediatric NAFLD is not only an important global problem in itself, but it is likely to be associated with increases in comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. There are several differences between NAFLD in children and adults, and it is not clear whether the disease observed in children is the initial phase of a process that progresses with age. The increasing prevalence of pediatric NAFLD has serious implications for the future adult population requiring appropriate action. Studies of NAFLD progression, pathogenesis, and management should evaluate disease phenotypes in children and follow these over the patient's lifetime. We review the similarities and differences of NAFLD between children and adults. PMID:27003600

  6. Innovative Strategies Designed to Improve Adult Pneumococcal Immunizations in Safety Net Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Park, Nina J; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Hoang, Khathy; Tran, Helen; Campa, David; Scheib, Geoffrey; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a principal cause of serious illness, including bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia, worldwide. Pneumococcal immunization is proven to reduce morbidity and mortality in high-risk adult and elderly populations. Current pneumococcal vaccination practices are suboptimal in part because of recommendation complexity, the high cost of provider-driven immunization interventions, and outreach methods that are not patient-centric. These barriers are amplified within the safety net. This paper identifies efforts by the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services to increase pneumococcal immunization rates for adult indigent patient populations. A 4-part approach will be used to increase vaccination rates: (1) protocol driven care, (2) staff education, (3) electronic identification of eligible patients, and (4) automated patient outreach and scheduling. The proposed analytics plan and potential for scalability are described. (Population Health Management 2016;19:240-247). PMID:26824148

  7. Characteristics of acute care utilization of a Delaware adult sickle cell disease patient population.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nina; Bellot, Jennifer; Senu-Oke, Oluseyi; Ballas, Samir K

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that is chronic in nature and manifests itself through many facets of the patient's life. Comprehensive specialty centers have the potential to reduce health care costs and improve the quality of care for patients who have chronic medical conditions such as heart failure and SCD. The purpose of this practice inquiry was to analyze de-identified data for acute care episodes involving SCD in order to create a detailed picture of acute care utilization for adult patients in Delaware with SCD from 2007 to 2009. Gaining a better understanding of acute care utilization for adults with SCD may provide evidence to improve access to high-quality health care services for this vulnerable patient population in the state of Delaware. PMID:23965046

  8. Design Considerations for Patient Portal Adoption by Low-Income, Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Latulipe, Celine; Gatto, Amy; Nguyen, Ha T.; Miller, David P.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Smith, Alden; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an interview study investigating facilitators and barriers to adoption of patient portals among low-income, older adults in rural and urban populations in the southeastern United States. We describe attitudes of this population of older adults and their current level of technology use and patient portal use. From qualitative analysis of 36 patient interviews and 16 caregiver interviews within these communities, we derive themes related to benefits of portals, barriers to use, concerns and desired features. Based on our initial findings, we present a set of considerations for designing the patient portal user experience, aimed at helping healthcare clinics to meet U.S. federally-mandated ‘meaningful use’ requirements. PMID:27077140

  9. Clinical next generation sequencing of pediatric-type malignancies in adult patients identifies novel somatic aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jorge Galvez; Corrales-Medina, Fernando F.; Maher, Ossama M.; Tannir, Nizar; Huh, Winston W.; Rytting, Michael E.; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric malignancies in adults, in contrast to the same diseases in children are clinically more aggressive, resistant to chemotherapeutics, and carry a higher risk of relapse. Molecular profiling of tumor sample using next generation sequencing (NGS) has recently become clinically available. We report the results of targeted exome sequencing of six adult patients with pediatric-type malignancies : Wilms tumor(n=2), medulloblastoma(n=2), Ewing's sarcoma( n=1) and desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n=1) with a median age of 28.8 years. Detection of druggable somatic aberrations in tumors is feasible. However, identification of actionable target therapies in these rare adult patients with pediatric-type malignancies is challenging. Continuous efforts to establish a rare disease registry are warranted. PMID:25859559

  10. Clinical next generation sequencing of pediatric-type malignancies in adult patients identifies novel somatic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge Galvez; Corrales-Medina, Fernando F; Maher, Ossama M; Tannir, Nizar; Huh, Winston W; Rytting, Michael E; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric malignancies in adults, in contrast to the same diseases in children are clinically more aggressive, resistant to chemotherapeutics, and carry a higher risk of relapse. Molecular profiling of tumor sample using next generation sequencing (NGS) has recently become clinically available. We report the results of targeted exome sequencing of six adult patients with pediatric-type malignancies : Wilms tumor(n=2), medulloblastoma(n=2), Ewing's sarcoma( n=1) and desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n=1) with a median age of 28.8 years. Detection of druggable somatic aberrations in tumors is feasible. However, identification of actionable target therapies in these rare adult patients with pediatric-type malignancies is challenging. Continuous efforts to establish a rare disease registry are warranted. PMID:25859559

  11. Clinical Trials of Adult Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is considered a potential regenerative strategy for patients with neurologic deficits. Studies involving animal models of ischemic stroke have shown that stem cells transplanted into the brain can lead to functional improvement. With current advances in the understanding regarding the effects of introducing stem cells and their mechanisms of action, several clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been conducted in patients with stroke since 2005, including studies using mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, several clinical trials of the use of adult stem cells to treat ischemic stroke are ongoing. This review presents the status of our understanding of adult stem cells and results from clinical trials, and introduces ongoing clinical studies of adult stem cell therapy in the field of stroke. PMID:26610894

  12. Multidimensional Clinical Phenotyping of an Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas J.; Bailey, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multi-systemic disease resulting from mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene and has major manifestations in the sino-pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal tracts. Clinical phenotypes were generated using 26 common clinical variables to generate classes that overlapped quantiles of lung function and were based on multiple aspects of CF systemic disease. Methods The variables included age, gender, CFTR mutations, FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted, height, weight, Brasfield chest xray score, pancreatic sufficiency status and clinical microbiology results. Complete datasets were compiled on 211 subjects. Phenotypes were identified using a proximity matrix generated by the unsupervised Random Forests algorithm and subsequent clustering by the Partitioning around Medoids (PAM) algorithm. The final phenotypic classes were then characterized and compared to a similar dataset obtained three years earlier. Findings Clinical phenotypes were identified using a clustering strategy that generated four and five phenotypes. Each strategy identified 1) a low lung health scores phenotype, 2) a younger, well-nourished, male-dominated class, 3) various high lung health score phenotypes that varied in terms of age, gender and nutritional status. This multidimensional clinical phenotyping strategy identified classes with expected microbiology results and low risk clinical phenotypes with pancreatic sufficiency. Interpretation This study demonstrated regional adult CF clinical phenotypes using non-parametric, continuous, ordinal and categorical data with a minimal amount of subjective data to identify clinically relevant phenotypes. These studies identified the relative stability of the phenotypes, demonstrated specific phenotypes consistent with published findings and identified others needing further study. PMID:25822311

  13. Immunoendocrine Interactions during HIV-TB Coinfection: Implications for the Design of New Adjuvant Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Guadalupe Veronica; Vecchione, Maria Belen; Angerami, Matias Tomas; Sued, Omar; Bruttomesso, Andrea Claudia; Bottasso, Oscar Adelmo

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, around 14 million individuals are coinfected with both tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In coinfected individuals, both pathogens weaken immunological system synergistically through mechanisms that are not fully understood. During both HIV and TB infections, there is a chronic state of inflammation associated to dramatic changes in immune cytokine and endocrine hormone levels. Despite this, the relevance of immunoendocrine interaction on both the orchestration of an effective immune response against both pathogens and the control of the chronic inflammation induced during HIV, TB, or both infections is still controversial. The present study reviews immunoendocrine interactions occurring during HIV and TB infections. We also expose our own findings on immunoendocrine cross talk in HIV-TB coinfection. Finally, we evaluate the use of adrenal hormones and their derivatives in immune-therapy and discuss the use of some of these compounds like the adjuvant for the prevention and treatment of TB in HIV patients. PMID:26075241

  14. Home management of the adult patient with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J E; Held, D M

    1982-12-01

    The many changes that have occurred within the medical profession and among the public are taking long-term care out of the hospital and placing it back into the home. Attitudes toward cancer have altered, as seen by the rapid growth of the oncology specialty as well as the willingness of the community to allow those with cancer to return to a viable status. Even the individual who must face end-stage disease can now rest comfortably in the privacy of his or her own home, surrounded by loved ones. Improved nutritional efforts during periods of active therapy are reducing the side effects and improving the tolerance of highly cytotoxic drugs. Thus, acute episodes of treatment are shortened, allowing for earlier discharge. Individuals are demanding accurate information regarding their disease and its treatment. Patients are catalysts for their own recovery as they become more active participants in their care. Some are even choosing not to undergo suggested therapies and are returning home to put their lives in order and let disease processes take their natural course, even until death. As for leukemia, more supportive measures such as blood component therapy and evaluative work-ups are being offered on an outpatient basis. Patients are learning self-care measures to counteract or minimize side effects to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Thus, overwhelming infection is of less risk and hospitalization is shortened. Infection, especially from Staphylococcus aureus, still remains a major cause of death of patients with leukemia. However, one must consider how prevalent this organism is in the hospital environment. Home care management is improving; care can be as comprehensive as one might need or receive in the hospital setting. PMID:6924785

  15. Complications and benefits of intrahospital transport of adult Intensive Care Unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Harish, M. M.; Janarthanan, S.; Siddiqui, Suhail Sarwar; Chaudhary, Harish K.; Prabu, Natesh R.; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Kulkarni, Atul Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The transport of critically ill patients for procedures or tests outside the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is potentially hazardous; hence, the transport process must be organized and efficient. Plenty of data is available on pre- and inter-hospital transport of patients; the data on intrahospital transport of patients are limited. We audited the complications and benefits of intrahospital transport of critically ill patients in our tertiary care center over 6 months. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty adult critically ill cancer patients transported from the ICU for either diagnostic or therapeutic procedure over 6 months were included. The data collected include the destination, the accompanying person, total time spent outside the ICU, and any adverse events and adverse change in vitals. Results: Among the 120 adult patients, 5 (4.1%) required endotracheal intubation, 5 (4.1%) required intercostal drain placement, and 20 (16.7%) required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Dislodgement of central venous catheter occurred in 2 (1.6%) patients, drain came out in 3 (2.5%) patients, orogastric tube came out in 1 (0.8%) patient, 2 (1.6%) patients self-extubated, and in one patient, tracheostomy tube was dislodged. The adverse events were more in patients who spent more than 60 min outside the ICU, particularly requirement of CPR (18 [25%] vs. 2 [4.2%], ≤60 min vs. >60 min, respectively) with P < 0.05. Transport led to change in therapy in 32 (26.7%) patients. Conclusion: Transport in critically ill cancer patients is more hazardous and needs adequate pretransport preparations. Transport in spite being hazardous may lead to a beneficial change in therapy in a significant number of patients.

  16. Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: how do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. PMID:25284990

  17. Orthodontic Treatment in Adult Patient with Reduced Periodontium: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Knop, Luegya Amorim Henriques; Pinto, Ary Santos; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting reduced periodontium represent a major concern for orthodontists. The purpose of this article is to present the clinical case of an adult patient who presented sequel of periodontal disease (diastemas) compromising her dental aesthetics. She was subjected to an orthodontic treatment with the application of light forces distant from the teeth with reduced periodontium. A periodontal support therapy was successfully implemented. The final stage of the treatment indicated satisfactory occlusal and periodontal characteristics. PMID:27029099

  18. Are daily routine chest radiographs necessary after pulmonary surgery in adult patients?

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Jeremie; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Olland, Anne; Massard, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether daily routine (DR) chest radiographs (CXRs) are necessary after pulmonary surgery in adult patients. Of the 66 papers found using a report search, seven presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Four of these seven studies specifically addressed post-cardiothoracic adult patients. Three of these seven studies addressed intensive care unit (ICU) patients and included post-cardiothoracic adult patients in well-designed studies. Six of these seven studies compared the DR CXRs strategy to the clinically indicated, on-demand (OD) CXRs strategy. Another study analysed the clinical impact of ceasing to perform the DR, postoperative, post-chest tubes removal CXRs. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, group studied, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are given. We conclude that, on the whole, the seven studies are unanimously in favour of forgoing DR CXRs after lung resection and advocate OD CXRs. One study suggested that hypoxic patients could benefit from a DR CXRs strategy, while other studies failed to identify any subgroup for whom performing DR CXRs was beneficial. Indeed, DR CXRs, commonly taken after thoracic surgery, have poor diagnostic and therapeutic value. Eliminating them for adult patients having undergone thoracic surgery significantly decreases the number of CXRs per patient without increasing mortality rates, length of hospital stays (LOSs), readmission rates and adverse events. Hence, current evidence shows that DR CXRs could be forgone after lung resection because OD CXRs, recommended by clinical monitoring, have a better impact on management and have not been proved to negatively affect patient outcomes. Moreover, an OD CXRs strategy lowers the cost of care. Nevertheless, an OD CXRs strategy requires close clinical monitoring by experienced surgeons and dedicated intensivists. However

  19. Higher Rates of Misdiagnosis in Pediatric Patients versus Adults Hospitalized with Imported Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Arguin, Paul M.; Daily, Johanna P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the availability of effective anti-malarial prophylaxis, imported adult and pediatric malaria occurs in the United States and this can pose diagnostic issues. We examined the clinical characteristics and diagnostic challenges of imported malaria requiring adult or pediatric inpatient admission at Montefiore Medical Center (MMC) in the Bronx which provides care for a large population of immigrants from malaria endemic areas. Study Design We conducted a retrospective single center review of patients admitted with a diagnosis of malaria at MMC from 2005 through 2012. We extracted historical, clinical, and laboratory values from the electronic medical record and patient charts. Results We identified 95 patients who were diagnosed and hospitalized with malaria from 2005–2012, 33 (35%) of them children and 17 (18%) with severe malaria. Most patients contracted malaria while visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in West Africa. Only 38% of travelers took prophylaxis, and fewer than half reported taking it as prescribed. Misdiagnosis by emergency room or primary care doctors was observed in almost one quarter of all of the patients. Misdiagnosis occurred significantly more frequently in children (43%) compared to adults (13%) (p=0.002). Pediatric patients were more likely to present with abdominal pain (42% vs 15%, p=0.005). Conclusions Pediatric patients admitted for imported malaria at MMC had a higher rate of misdiagnosis and presented with more gastrointestinal symptoms than hospitalized adults. By describing the clinical characteristics of patients with imported malaria, we hope to improve diagnostic accuracy by healthcare workers and raise awareness that VFRs may require more intensive pre-travel counseling. PMID:25322145

  20. Adult Patient with Novel H1N1 Infection Presented with Encephalitis, Rhabdomyolysis, Pneumonia and Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Atul K; Shah, Shalin; Ranjan, Rajiv; Shah, Sudhir V

    2012-07-01

    Neurological complications of influenza are well known. Influenza A is commonly associated with neurological complications. Neurological complications especially encephalitis is described in the pediatric age group of patients with current pandemic novel H1N1 infection. We are describing a case of novel H1N1 infection presenting with multi-system involvement (encephalitis, bilateral pneumonia, severe rhabdomyolysis leading to renal failure and polyneuropathy) in adult patient. PMID:23055650

  1. Adult Patient with Novel H1N1 Infection Presented with Encephalitis, Rhabdomyolysis, Pneumonia and Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Atul K; Shah, Shalin; Ranjan, Rajiv; Shah, Sudhir V

    2012-01-01

    Neurological complications of influenza are well known. Influenza A is commonly associated with neurological complications. Neurological complications especially encephalitis is described in the pediatric age group of patients with current pandemic novel H1N1 infection. We are describing a case of novel H1N1 infection presenting with multi-system involvement (encephalitis, bilateral pneumonia, severe rhabdomyolysis leading to renal failure and polyneuropathy) in adult patient. PMID:23055650

  2. Risk Factors for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis among Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis at the Central Chest Institute of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chuchottaworn, Charoen; Thanachartwet, Vipa; Sangsayunh, Piamlarp; Than, Thu Zar Myint; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Surabotsophon, Manoon; Desakorn, Varunee

    2015-01-01

    There are limited data available on the risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Therefore, we here conducted a retrospective matched case−control study among adults with pulmonary TB who received treatment at the Central Chest Institute of Thailand (CCIT) between January 2007 and December 2013, in order to determine the risk factors associated with MDR-TB among patients with pulmonary TB. We identified 145 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB (cases) and 145 patients with drug-sensitive pulmonary TB (controls). Multivariate analysis identified the independent risk factors for MDR-TB as follows: (1) ≥ 2 episodes of prior pulmonary TB (odds ratio [OR] 39.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 7.86−200.66), (2) duration of illness > 60 days (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.52−6.22), (3) sputum acid fast bacilli smear 3+ (OR 13.09, 95% CI 4.64−36.91), (4) presence of lung cavities (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.89−7.73), and (5) presence of pleural effusion (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.06−7.16). Prior pulmonary TB management with a non-category I regimen (P = 0.012) and having treatment failure or default as treatment outcomes (P = 0.036) were observed in a higher proportion among patients with MDR-TB. Particular characteristics of lung cavities, including the maximum diameter ≥ 30 mm (P < 0.001), the number of cavities ≥ 3 (P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (P < 0.001), and ≥ 2 lung zones involved (P = 0.001) were more commonly observed in patients with MDR-TB. In conclusion, these clinical factors and chest radiographic findings associated with MDR-TB among patients with pulmonary TB may help physicians to provide proper management of cases for prevention of the development and spread of MDR-TB in future. PMID:26444421

  3. First-Line Treatment for Tuberculosis (TB), Drug Resistant TB -- A Visual Tour

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis Drugs First-Line Treatment of TB for Drug- ... ago. See how these drugs work . Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) and Second-Line Treatments MDR TB ...

  4. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database. PMID:27581317

  5. An Examination of Intimate Partner Violence and Psychological Stressors in Adult Abortion Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…

  6. Bladder augmentation in a young adult female exstrophy patient with associated omphalocele: an extremely unusual case.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Guerrero, Javier; Badillo, Marco; Muñoz, Norberto; Anaya, Jorge; Rico, Gazpar; Maldonado-Valadez, Rafael

    2009-08-01

    We present the case of a 20-year-old woman with uncorrected bladder exstrophy and omphalocele treated with ileocystoplasty and continent urinary stoma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a young adult patient presenting with both congenital anomalies. The treatment result suggests that bladder preservation is a safe and feasible therapeutic option in bladder exstrophy. PMID:19375388

  7. Adults Living with Limited Literacy and Chronic Illness: Patient Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judy; Taylor, Maurice C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patient education experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…

  8. [Auricular perichondritis in adults. An evaluation-study of 12 hospitalized patients].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; Marcos García, M; Trinidad Ruiz, G; Pardo Romero, G; González Palomino, A; Guerra Camacho, M; Barrantes Celaya, G; Blasco Huelva, A

    2005-01-01

    Perichondritis of the auricle in adults can be secondary to traumatic agents, external otitis or surgery being Pseudomona aeruginosa the bacteria more often isolated. We have performed a retrospective study of 12 hospitalized patients with that diagnosis and these following variables have been evaluated: Age, sex, personal antecedents, clinical symptoms, affected auricle, complementary explorations, treatment, evolution and stay. PMID:15803915

  9. Lessons Learned While Providing Group Counseling for Adult Patients with Metastatic Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Jack A.; Cumbia, Gilbert G.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of lessons learned in dealing with unique problems encountered while providing group counseling for adult patients with metastatic cancer. Discusses problems, institutional policies, personal biases, and logistics associated with forming, establishing, maintaining, conducting and assessing the outcomes of group counseling with…

  10. Micronutrient deficiencies in pediatric and young adult intestinal transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Ubesie, Agozie C; Cole, Conrad R; Nathan, Jaimie D; Tiao, Greg M; Alonso, Maria H; Mezoff, Adam G; Henderson, Carol J; Kocoshis, Samuel A

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal transplant recipients are at risk for micronutrient deficiency due to the slow process of post-transplant adaptation. Another contributing factor is calcineurin inhibitor-induced renal tubular dysfunction. Patients are typically supplemented with micronutrients during parenteral nutrition; however the risk of deficiency may persist even after a successful transition to full enteral nutrition. Objective To determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, iron, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, copper, folate, vitamins A, D, E and B12 deficiency in pediatric intestinal transplant recipients after successful transition to full enteral nutrition. Method A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from children who underwent intestinal transplantation at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Deficiencies of various micronutrients were defined using the hospital reference values. Results Twenty-one intestinal transplant recipients, aged one to 23 years that were successfully transitioned to full enteral nutrition were included in the study. The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency was 95.2%. The common deficient micronutrients were iron (94.7%) and magnesium (90.5%). Age ≤10 years (P=0.002) and tube feeding (P= 0.02) were significant risk factors for micronutrient deficiencies. Conclusion Pediatric intestinal transplant recipients have a high risk of micronutrient and mineral deficiencies. These deficiencies were more common among younger patients and those who received jejunal feeding. PMID:23919810

  11. Best Practices in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Focus on Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Boissel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of asparaginase in chemotherapy regimens to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has had a positive impact on survival in pediatric patients. Historically, asparaginase has been excluded from most treatment protocols for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients because of perceived toxicity in this population, and this is believed to have contributed to poorer outcomes in these patients. However, retrospective analyses over the past 12 years have shown that 2-, 5-, and 7-year overall survival of AYA patients is significantly improved with pediatric versus adult protocols. The addition of asparaginase to adult protocols yielded high rates of first remission and improved survival. However, long-term survival remains lower compared with what has been seen in pediatrics. The notion that asparaginase is poorly tolerated by AYA patients has been challenged in multiple studies. In some, but not all, studies, the incidences of hepatic and pancreatic toxicities were higher in AYA patients, whereas the rates of hypersensitivity reactions did not appear to differ with age. There is an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, and management with anti-coagulation therapy is recommended. Overall, the risk of therapy-related mortality is low. Together, this suggests that high-intensity pediatric protocols offer an effective and tolerable approach to treating ALL in the AYA population. PMID:26421220

  12. Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia secondary to stroke in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Berman, Casey Melissa; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is often recommended for children with spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. SDR reduces spasticity in the lower extremities for these children with spastic paraplegia. However, SDR is infrequently recommended for adults with spasticity. Spastic diplegia in adult patients can be due to stroke, brain or spinal cord injury from trauma, infection, toxic-metabolic disorders, and other causes. Although rarely considered, SDR is an option for adult patients with spastic diplegia as well. Case Description: The authors describe a patient who underwent a SDR with a successful postoperative outcome. This man suffered a hypertensive and hemorrhagic stroke secondary to intravenous drug abuse at age 46. A SDR was performed after two failed intrathecal baclofen pump placements due to recurrent infections, likely resulting from his immunocompromised status. The patient underwent lumbar laminectomies and dorsal rhizotomies at levels L1-S1 bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity was significantly reduced. His Ashworth spasticity score decreased from 4/5 to 1/5, and the reduction in tone has been durable over 3 years. Conclusion: SDR in older patients with spastic paraparesis may be considered as a treatment option. PMID:26167363

  13. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  14. Digital health for the End TB Strategy: developing priority products and making them work.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Dennis; Timimi, Hazim; Kurosinski, Pascal; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; Denkinger, Claudia; Isaacs, Chris; Story, Alistair; Garfein, Richard S; do Valle Bastos, Luis Gustavo; Yassin, Mohammed A; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Skrahina, Alena; Van Hoi, Le; Broger, Tobias; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew; Thomas, Bruce V; Temesgen, Zelalem; Quraishi, Subhi; von Delft, Dalene; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities.In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. PMID:27230443

  15. Digital health for the End TB Strategy: developing priority products and making them work

    PubMed Central

    Timimi, Hazim; Kurosinski, Pascal; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; Denkinger, Claudia; Isaacs, Chris; Story, Alistair; Garfein, Richard S.; do Valle Bastos, Luis Gustavo; Yassin, Mohammed A.; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Skrahina, Alena; Van Hoi, Le; Broger, Tobias; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew; Thomas, Bruce V.; Temesgen, Zelalem; Quraishi, Subhi; von Delft, Dalene; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities. In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. PMID:27230443

  16. Clinical next-generation sequencing reveals aggressive cancer biology in adolescent and young adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Bupathi, Manojkumar; Kato, Shumei; Livingston, Andrew; Slopis, John; Anderson, Pete M.; Hong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aggressive biology of cancers arising in adolescent and young adult (AYA; ages 15–39 years) patients is thought to contribute to poor survival outcomes. Methods We used clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) results to examine the molecular alterations and diverse biology of cancer in AYA patients referred to the Phase 1 program at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results Among the 28 patients analyzed (14 female and 14 male), 12 had pediatric-type cancers, six had adult-type cancers, and ten had orphan cancers. Unique, hitherto unreported aberrations were identified in all types of cancers. Aberrations in TP53, NKX2-1, KRAS, CDKN2A, MDM4, MCL1, MYC, BCL2L2, and RB1 were demonstrated across all tumor types. Five patients harbored TP53 aberrations; three patients harbored MYC, MCL1, and CDKN2A aberrations; and two patients harbored NKX2-1, KRAS, MDM4, BCL2L2, and RB1 alterations. Several patients had multiple aberrations; a patient with wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor harbored five alterations (MDM4, MCL1, KIT, AKT3, and PDGRFA). Conclusions This preliminary report of NGS of cancer in AYA patients reveals diverse and unique aberrations. Further molecular profiling and a deeper understanding of the biology of these unique aberrations are warranted and may lead to targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:26328274

  17. Interventions That Affect Gastrointestinal Motility in Hospitalized Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asrani, Varsha M.; Yoon, Harry D.; Megill, Robin D.; Windsor, John A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is a common complication in acute, critically ill, postoperative, and chronic patients that may lead to impaired nutrient delivery, poor clinical, and patient-reported outcomes. Several pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to treat GI dysmotility were investigated in dozens of clinical studies. However, they often yielded conflicting results, at least in part, because various (nonstandardized) definitions of GI dysmotility were used and methodological quality of studies was poor. While a universally accepted definition of GI dysmotility is yet to be developed, a systematic analysis of data derived from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials may provide robust data on absolute and relative effectiveness of various interventions as the study outcome (GI motility) was assessed in the least biased manner. To systematically review data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials to determine and compare the effectiveness of interventions that affect GI motility. Three electronic databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE) were searched. A random effects model was used for meta-analysis. The summary estimates were reported as mean difference (MD) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 38 double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials involving 2371 patients were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. These studies investigated a total of 20 different interventions, of which 6 interventions were meta-analyzed. Of them, the use of dopamine receptor antagonists (MD, −8.99; 95% CI, −17.72 to −0.27; P = 0.04) and macrolides (MD, −26.04; 95% CI, −51.25 to −0.82; P = 0.04) significantly improved GI motility compared with the placebo group. The use of botulism toxin significantly impaired GI motility compared with the placebo group (MD, 5.31; 95% CI, −0.04 to 10.67; P = 0.05). Other interventions (dietary factors, probiotics, hormones) did

  18. Hospital utilization patterns and costs for adult sickle cell patients in Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, K; Karrison, T; Koshy, M; Patel, A; Friedmann, P; Cassel, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine population size, demographic characteristics, hospital utilization patterns, the specialties of physicians providing care, and costs for hospitalized adult sickle cell patients in Illinois. METHODS: A statewide, administrative dataset for the two-year period from january 1992 through December 1993 was analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: There were 8403 admissions among 1189 individual sickle cell patients for the two-year period. Eighty-five percent of patients resided in the Chicago metropolitan area. The median age of the 1189 patients was 29; two-thirds had Medicaid or Medicare coverage. Emergency departments were the primary source of admissions (85.7%). The most common admitting diagnosis was painful crisis (97.4%), and average length of stay was four days. The median number of admissions per patient was three; most patients (85%) used only one or two hospitals. A small group used more than four hospitals and accounted for 23% of statewide admissions. Primary care physicians cared for most patients, and total hospitalization charges were more than $59 million. CONCLUSIONS: In Illinois the adult sickle cell population is concentrated in major urban centers, primarily the Chicago metropolitan area. These patients accounted for approximately 8400 admissions and more than $59 million in hospital charges during the two-year study period. A small group of patients used multiple hospitals and accounted for more than 23% of total hospitalization charges. This study shows the necessity of and provides a useful framework for developing targeted programs for adult sickle cell patients as well as for training physicians to efficiently provide comprehensive health care services for this population. PMID:9018288

  19. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  20. Molecular Diagnostic Experience of Whole-Exome Sequencing in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Jennifer E.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; James, Regis A.; Bainbridge, Matthew; Niu, Zhiyv; Wang, Xia; Dhar, Shweta; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Akdemir, Zeynep H.C.; Gambin, Tomasz; Xia, Fan; Person, Richard E.; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Shaw, Chad A.; Sutton, V. Reid; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Muzny, Donna; Eng, Christine M.; Yang, Yaping; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Plon, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Whole exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, but prior reports focus on predominantly pediatric cohorts with neurologic or developmental disorders. We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of whole exome sequencing in adults. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive WES reports for adults from a diagnostic laboratory. Phenotype composition was determined using Human Phenotype Ontology terms. Results Molecular diagnoses were reported for 17.5% (85/486) of adults, lower than a primarily pediatric population (25.2%; p=0.0003); the diagnostic rate was higher (23.9%) in those 18–30 years of age compared to patients over 30 years (10.4%; p=0.0001). Dual Mendelian diagnoses contributed to 7% of diagnoses, revealing blended phenotypes. Diagnoses were more frequent among individuals with abnormalities of the nervous system, skeletal system, head/neck, and growth. Diagnostic rate was independent of family history information, and de novo mutations contributed to 61.4% of autosomal dominant diagnoses. Conclusion Early WES experience in adults demonstrates molecular diagnoses in a substantial proportion of patients, informing clinical management, recurrence risk and recommendations for relatives. A positive family history was not predictive, consistent with molecular diagnoses often revealed by de novo events, informing the Mendelian basis of genetic disease in adults. PMID:26633545

  1. Identifying locations of recent TB transmission in rural Uganda: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Chamie, Gabriel; Wandera, Bonnie; Marquez, Carina; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Kamya, Moses R.; Havlir, Diane V.; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Targeting high TB transmission sites may offer a novel approach to TB prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to characterize TB transmission sites in a rural Ugandan township. Methods We recruited adults starting TB treatment in Tororo, Uganda over one year. 54 TB cases provided names of frequent contacts, sites of residence, health care, work and social activities, and two sputum samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture-positive specimens underwent spoligotyping to identify strains with shared genotypes. We visualized TB case social networks, and obtained, mapped and geo-coded global positioning system measures for every location that cases reported frequenting one month before treatment. Locations of spatial overlap among genotype-clustered cases were considered potential transmission sites. Results Six distinct genotypic clusters were identified involving 21/33(64%) MTB culture-positive, genotyped cases; none shared a home. Although 18/54(33%) TB cases shared social network ties, none of the genotype-clustered cases shared social ties. Using spatial analysis, we identified potential sites of within-cluster TB transmission for five of six genotypic clusters. All sites but one were health care and social venues, including sites of drinking, worship and marketplaces. Cases reported spending the largest proportion of pre-treatment person-time (22.4%) at drinking venues. Conclusions Using molecular epidemiology, geospatial and social network data from adult TB cases identified at clinics, we quantified person-time spent at high-risk locations across a rural Ugandan community, and determined the most likely sites of recent TB transmission to be health care and social venues. These sites may not have been identified using contact investigation alone. PMID:25583212

  2. Glutamine-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition and Probiotics in Four Adult Autoimmune Enteropathy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Ying; Zhou, Yi-Quan; Lu, Li-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Qi; Wu, Ying-Jie; Cai, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition (PN) and probiotics in adult autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) patients. Four adult AIE patients were identified from April 2006 to January 2012. Clinical and nutritional data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Glutamine-supplemented PN started immediately when the AIE diagnosis was confirmed. The total PN duration was 351 days. According to the PN prescription, the average caloric intake ranged from 20 to 25 kcal/kg/day, and the protein intake ranged from 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg/day. Alanyl-glutamine (20 g/day) was administered to AIE patients for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week break, and this treatment schedule was repeated when PN lasted for more than 6 weeks. Body weight gain and an increased serum albumin level were achieved after PN, and defecation frequency and quality also improved. Each patient received oral supplements, 250 mL of Ensure and two probiotics capsules (each capsule containing 0.5×108 colonies) three times a day when enteral nutrition started. Three AIE patients were successfully weaned off PN, and one patient died of pneumonia. Glutamine-supplemented PN and probiotics show promise in managing patients with AIE and related malnutrition. PMID:24827631

  3. Bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in adults: experience with 62 patients from 1974-1998.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, A; Sorli, J; Music, E; Kecelj, P

    1999-10-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with therapeutic bronchoscopy for removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in the adult. Bronchoscopy records and collection of foreign bodies in the endoscopic department were retrospectively examined. Among 37,466 bronchoscopies performed between 1974-1998, 62 (0.2%) were performed for the removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Medical history was suggestive of foreign body aspiration in 33 patients and the chest radiograph was suggestive in 10 patients. The procedure was performed with the flexible bronchoscope in 42 patients (68%), rigid bronchoscope in 4 (6%), and with both in 16 (26%) patients. Foreign bodies were found in the right bronchial tree on 42 occasions, in the left on 20 and in the trachea once. In 39 patients, inflammatory granulations were found around the foreign body. The origins of the foreign bodies included: bone fragments (n=31), vegetable (n=10), broncholith (n=8), a part of dental prosthesis (n=7), endodontic needle (n=2), a metallic (n=2), or plastic (n=1) particle, a tracheostomy tube (n=1) and a match (n=1). In one patient, 2 foreign bodies were found. The foreign bodies were successfully removed in all but 2 patients (3%). The most useful instruments for removal were alligator forceps and the wire basket. Foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial system are rare in adults. They can be successfully removed in the majority of patients under either flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:10573222

  4. Urinary tract infections in adult general practice patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kochen, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are symptomatic infections of the urinary tract, mainly caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. One in two women suffers from a UTI at least once in her life. The young and sexually active are particulaly affected, but it is also seen in elderly, postmenopausal women. The likelihood of recurrence is high. Diagnosis is made with regard to typical complaints and the presence of leucocytes and nitrites in the urine. A culture is unnecessary in most cases. Uncomplicated UTI should be distinguished from complicated UTI, which has a risk of severe illness. The treatment of choice--short-term therapy with trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin--is successful in over 80% of the cases. Co-trimoxazol fluoroquinolones or cephalsporins are not considered first-choice drugs. There are indications that general practitioners' (GPs') management of UTI is not always optimal, specifically concerning diagnostic tests, the application of second-choice antibiotics, and the length of prescribed treatment courses. Many points relevant to GPs requirefurther research, such as epidemiology and resistance of urinary pathogens in the community and natural history of UTI, as well as optimal management in elderly or complicated patients and men. PMID:12236281

  5. Giardia Assemblages A and B in Diarrheic Patients: A Comparative Study in Egyptian Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    El Basha, Noussa R; Zaki, Mayssa M; Hassanin, Omayma M; Rehan, Mohamed K; Omran, Dalia

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. Children are especially affected, with more severe consequences than adults. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of assemblages A and B Giardia infection in children and adults, with the use of light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) as diagnostic procedures, and to investigate its associations with clinical and epidemiological data collected from children and adult groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to October 2013 by collecting fecal samples from 200 children and 200 adults complaining of diarrhea. Samples were subjected to parasitological examination by direct wet smear and formol-ether methods. Genotyping of G. doudenalis samples was conducted by PCR-RFLP analysis. Giardia duodenalis infection caused by assemblages A and B was identified in 60 samples, 34 from children and 26 from adults. Assemblage B was detected in 38 patients (63.34%), and assemblage A was detected in 22 patients (36.66%). Assemblage A was significantly more frequent in children with age range 2-8 yr, and assemblage B was higher in children with age range 6-16 yr old. Diarrhea frequency/day and recurrences per month affected patients infected with assemblage A (P value < 0.001) more frequently. Children infected with assemblage A presented significantly more severe diarrhea and dehydration than those infected with assemblage B (P value < 0.001). Although both Giardia assemblages A and B were identified in children and adults, assemblage A infected younger children more frequently and was more closely related to severe clinical manifestations than assemblage B. PMID:26509291

  6. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert

    2015-04-16

    Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678. PMID:25587040

  7. Novel management options for adult patients with progressive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: introduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eunice S

    2015-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy characterized by highly proliferative immature lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. In adults, ALL accounts for approximately 20% of all adult leukemias. ALL carries a poor prognosis in adults. The 5-year overall survival is 24% in patients ages 40 to 59 years and 18% in patients ages 60 to 69 years. ALL can be grouped into different categories according to its cell lineage (B cell or T cell), the presence or absence of the Philadelphia chromosome, and various cytogenetic and molecular classifications. A main goal of treatment is to allow the patient to achieve a complete remission and to consolidate this remission with either a maintenance regimen or an allogeneic stem cell transplant. Although the overall rate of complete remission following frontline therapy for newly diagnosed ALL is high, the majority of patients experience a disease relapse. In general, the duration of initial complete remission impacts the patient’s prognosis and response to further therapies. Subsequent treatments must balance the goal of achieving a remission with the need for the patient to maintain or improve quality of life. Recently approved agents, such as blinatumomab and vincristine sulfate liposome injection, offer the promise of a second remission that can serve as a bridge to allogeneic stem cell transplant while still maintaining quality of life. A novel approach using adoptive cellular immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells is associated with extremely robust responses. PMID:26431322

  8. Comorbidities and inhibitors in adult patients with haemophilia: issues, costs and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, Erik; Mauser-Bunschoten, Evelien; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; Spears, Jeffrey B

    2015-11-01

    Along with greater life expectancy in patients with haemophilia has been an increase in associated haemophilia-related (arthropathy, osteoporosis, viral infections) and age-related (cardiovascular disease, renal disease, cancer and others) comorbidities, many of which are only just emerging as the population ages. At present, experience in managing these comorbidities is limited. As the demographic shift continues, haemophilia care centres can expect to encounter more patients with greater levels of complexity. In the absence of evidence-based information to guide the management of adult patients with haemophilia, it is important that the scientific position be reviewed on a regular basis. To this end, several topics relevant to the clinical management of adult patients with haemophilia were examined in a symposium entitled Comorbidities and inhibitors in adult patients with haemophilia: issues, costs and management strategies held on 11 February 2015 in Helsinki, Finland, in conjunction with the 8th Annual Congress of the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders. This article is a summary of that event. PMID:26492487

  9. Combined treatment with sitagliptin and vitamin D in a patient with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rapti, E; Karras, S; Grammatiki, M; Mousiolis, A; Tsekmekidou, X; Potolidis, E; Zebekakis, P; Daniilidis, M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a relatively new type of diabetes with a clinical phenotype of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an immunological milieu characterized by high titers of islet autoantibodies, resembling the immunological profile of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we report a case of a young male, diagnosed with LADA based on both clinical presentation and positive anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-abs), which were normalized after combined treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4) (sitagliptin) and cholecalciferol. Learning points Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-abs) titers in young patients being previously diagnosed as type 2 diabetes (T2D) may help establish the diagnosis of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Sitagliptin administration in patients with LADA might prolong the insulin-free period. Vitamin D administration in patients with LADA might have a protective effect on the progression of the disease. PMID:27252860

  10. Clinical and MRI findings of cerebellar agenesis in two living adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl Mustafa; Kalaycı, Tuğçe Özlem; Çelebisoy, Mehmet; Karakaş, Levent; Akkurt, Hülya Erdoğan; Koç, Feray

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar agenesis (CA) is an extremely rare entity. We present two adult patients with CA. The 61-year-old man had ataxia, dysarthria, abnormalities in cerebellar tests, severe cognitive impairment, and moderate mental retardation. The 26-year-old woman had dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysarthria as well as mild cognitive impairment and mild mental retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed complete absence of the cerebellum with small residual vermis. Brainstem was hypoplastic and structures above tentorium were normal. Supratentorial white matter bundles were unaffected in diffusion tensor tractography. Only few adult patients with CA have so far been published. These cases show that patients with CA present with a variety of developmental, clinical, and mental abnormalities; and emphasize the role of the cerebellum in normal motor, language, and mental development. PMID:27293341

  11. Two Patients Diagnosed with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy by First-Ever Status Epilepticus in Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hye Seon; Moon, Jeong Soo; Oh, Eung Seok; Kim, Jae Moon

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is an idiopathic, age-related generalized epileptic syndrome. Status epilepticus (SE) in JME is very rare, and little is known about its etiology. We report 2 cases of adult patients, retrospectively diagnosed as JME by non convulsive status epilepticus which occurred for the first time. One patient was a 52-year-old woman who was presented with confusion and brief generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) for the first time. The other patient, a 39 year-old woman, visited the ER with transient LOC following confused mental state. Electroencephalograms of both patients repetitively showed generalized polyspikes and slow waves which were disappeared after IV injection of lorazepam. With careful history taking, both of them the patients were diagnosed as JME, and the seizures stopped just after sodium valproate medication. NCSE in patients with JME is rare but detailed history taking and suspicion of the disorder is helpful for diagnosis. PMID:24649443

  12. Voice Onset Time for Turkish Stop Consonants in Adult Cochlear Implanted Patients.

    PubMed

    Dalgic, Abdullah; Kandogan, Tolga; Aksoy, Gokce

    2015-09-01

    The voice onset time is a temporal acoustic parameter defined as the time between the release of the oral constriction for plosive production and the onset of vocal fold vibrations. Hearing impairment is one of the factors that can effect the magnitude of voice onset time. Since voice onset time is a useful, noninvasive method for documenting the articulatory-phonatory aspects of vocal training during speech, we investigated voice onset time values for Turkish stop consonants in adult cochlear implanted patients in order to clarify the effect of CI and sequential hearing rehabilitation over voice onset time values. The CI patients were divided into two groups according to duration of CI usage. We looked for relations between results of the study and average voice onset time values in Turkish language for adults. Mean VOT values for for both males and females in the first and second group are shown in Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4. Most syllables both in males and females statistically significant differ from average VOT values, e.g. They did not reach to normal hearing adults level. These acoustic results indicated that VOT may be an effective measure for examining the effect of cochlear implantation over the articulatory accuracy. As far as we know, this is the first publication using voice onset time values for the efficiency of cochlear implantation in adult patients. [Table: see text] [Table: see text] [Table: see text] [Table: see text]. PMID:26405669

  13. Management of subcondylar mandible fractures in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Berit; Lee, Cameron; Caterson, E J

    2014-01-01

    the patient with multiple injuries who cannot tolerate closed reduction. PMID:24406572

  14. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in an adult patient with a myelodysplastic disorder.

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Cini, G; Meola, N; Ferrannini, E

    1983-01-01

    A 58-year-old man was diagnosed to have refractory anaemia with excessive blasts. After 3 1/2 years of relative control on periodic blood transfusions, the patient developed an acute leukaemia. Although the blastic crisis was not extreme (WBC counts less than 100 X 10(9)/l), a severe, intractable respiratory distress syndrome set in and brought the patient to the exitus in a few days. Overt signs of septic shock were absent, as was evidence of any other known cause of adult respiratory distress. Acute pulmonary failure can be the cause of death in leukaemic patients even in the absence of overwhelming sepsis or hyperleucocytosis. PMID:6404107

  15. The safe practice of CT coronary angiography in adult patients in UK imaging departments.

    PubMed

    Harden, S P; Bull, R K; Bury, R W; Castellano, E A; Clayton, B; Hamilton, M C K; Morgan-Hughes, G J; O'Regan, D; Padley, S P G; Roditi, G H; Roobottom, C A; Stirrup, J; Nicol, E D

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography is increasingly used in imaging departments in the investigation of patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease. Due to the routine use of heart rate controlling medication and the potential for very high radiation doses during these scans, there is a need for guidance on best practice for departments performing this examination, so the patient can be assured of a good quality scan and outcome in a safe environment. This article is a summary of the document on 'Standards of practice of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) in adult patients' published by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in December 2014. PMID:27207375

  16. Rasch Analysis of the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) among Chinese Adult Patients with Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zonghua; Zhou, Juan; Luo, Xingli; Xu, Yan; She, Xi; Chen, Ling; Yin, Honghua; Wang, Xianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of strabismus on visual function, self-image, self-esteem, and social interactions decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL).The purpose of this study was to evaluate and refine the adult strabismus quality of life questionnaire (AS-20) by using Rasch analysis among Chinese adult patients with strabismus. Methods We evaluated the fitness of the AS-20 with Rasch model in Chinese population by assessing unidimensionality, infit and outfit, person and item separation index and reliability, response ordering, targeting and differential item functioning (DIF). Results The overall AS-20 did not demonstrate unidimensional; however, it was achieved separately in the two Rasch-revised subscales: the psychosocial subscale (11 items) and the function subscale (9 items). The features of good targeting, optimal item infit and outfit, and no notable local dependence were found for each of the subscales. The rating scale was appropriate for the psychosocial subscale but a reduction to four response categories was required for the function subscale. No significant DIF were revealed for any demographic and clinical factors (e.g., age, gender, and strabismus types). Conclusion The AS-20 was demonstrated by Rasch analysis to be a rigorous instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in Chinese strabismus patents if some revisions were made regarding the subscale construct and response options. PMID:26544048

  17. Severe chronic primary neutropenia in adults: report on a series of 108 patients.

    PubMed

    Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Moignet, Aline; Beaupain, Blandine; Suarez, Felipe; Galicier, Lionel; Socié, Gérard; Varet, Bruno; Coppo, Paul; Michel, Marc; Pautas, Cécile; Oksenhendler, Eric; Lengline, Etienne; Terriou, Louis; Moreau, Philippe; Chantepie, Sylvain; Casadevall, Nicole; Michot, Jean Marie; Gardembas, Martine; Michallet, Mauricette; Croisille, Laure; Audrain, Marie; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Donadieu, Jean; Lamy, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Severe chronic primary neutropenia (CPN) is a rare entity, and long-term outcome and risk factors for infections in severe CPN adults have not been described to date. We report the characteristics and outcomes of 108 severe adult CPN patients enrolled in a multi-institutional observational study. Severe CPN adults were mostly female (78%), and median age at diagnosis was 28.3 years. Diagnosis was fortuitous in 62% of cases. The median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at diagnosis was 0.4 × 10(9)/L, and median ANC without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) during follow-up was 0.5 × 10(9)/L. Twenty-three of 66 (34.8%) evaluable patients had neutrophil autoantibodies, and 6 of 47 (12.8%) a T-cell clone. The presence of neutrophil autoantibodies or T-cell clone was not associated with any specific clinical or biological characteristics. No death or hematologic malignancies occurred, and 44 severe bacterial infections were reported in 27 patients with a median follow-up of 8.3 years. Fifty patients received G-CSF either sporadically (n = 24) or continuously (n = 26) and responded (96%). Nineteen patients received immunosuppressive therapies: overall response (OR) was 41%, and median duration of response was 3 months. At diagnosis, the only predictive factor for the occurrence of severe bacterial infections was an ANC count below 0.2 × 10(9)/L (OR, 0.76). Severe CPN in adults is characterized by a female predominance and a benign outcome with a low rate of severe bacterial infections and no secondary malignancies. G-CSF is efficient and well tolerated but is not required in a majority of patients. PMID:26261239

  18. Brain morphological changes in adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Seitz, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Konrad, K

    2016-08-01

    Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume loss occur in the brains of patients with acute anorexia nervosa (AN) and improve again upon weight restoration. Adolescence is an important time period for AN to begin. However, little is known about the differences between brain changes in adolescents vs adults. We used a meta-analysis and a qualitative review of all MRI studies regarding acute structural brain volume changes and their recovery in adolescents and adults with AN. 29 studies with 473 acute, 121 short-term weight-recovered and 255 long-term recovered patients with AN were included in the meta-analysis. In acute AN, GM and WM were reduced compared to healthy controls. Acute adolescent patients showed a significantly greater GM reduction than adults (-8.4 vs -3.1 %), the difference in WM (-4.0 vs -2.1 %) did not reach significance. Short-term weight-recovered patients showed a remaining GM deficit of 3.6 % and a non-significant WM reduction of 0.9 % with no age differences. Following 1.5-8 years of remission, GM and WM were no longer significantly reduced in adults (GM -0.4 %, WM -0.7 %); long-term studies for adolescents were scarce. The qualitative review showed that GM volume loss was correlated with cognitive deficits and three studies found GM regions, cerebellar deficits and WM to be predictive of outcome. GM and WM are strongly reduced in acute AN and even more pronounced in adolescence. Long-term recovery appears to be complete for adults while no conclusions can be drawn for adolescents, thus caution remains. PMID:27188331

  19. Adjuvant chemotherapy in adult medulloblastoma: is it an option for average-risk patients?

    PubMed

    Franceschi, E; Bartolotti, M; Paccapelo, A; Marucci, G; Agati, R; Volpin, L; Danieli, D; Ghimenton, C; Gardiman, M P; Sturiale, C; Poggi, R; Mascarin, M; Balestrini, D; Masotto, B; Brandes, A A

    2016-06-01

    The standard treatment in children with average-risk medulloblastoma (MB) is reduced-dose radiotherapy (RT) followed by chemotherapy. However, in adults, there is no agreement on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of adult MB patients with average-risk disease, defined as no postsurgical residual (or ≤1.5 cm(2)) and no metastatic disease (M0). Main inclusion criteria were: age >16 years, post-surgical treatment with craniospinal irradiation with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide ± cyclophosphamide). From 1988 to 2012 were accrued 43 average-risk MB patients treated with surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifteen (34.9 %) patients received also chemotherapy: 7 before RT, 5 after RT, and 3 before and after RT. Reasons to administer chemotherapy were presence of residual disease (even if ≤1.5 cm) and delay in RT. After a median follow up time of 10 years (range: 8-13), median survival was 18 years (95 % CI 9-28) in patients who receive RT alone, and was not reached in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years were 100 %, 78.6 % (95 % CI 60.0-97.2 %) and 60.2 % (95 % CI 36.9-83.5 %), in patients treated with RT alone, and 100, 100 and 100 %, in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy (p = 0.079). Our findings suggest a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of average-risk MB adult patients. Further improvements might drive to add chemotherapy in average-risk setting with less favourable biological signatures (i.e., non-WNT group). PMID:26940908

  20. Nutritional Status and Nosocomial Infections among Adult Elective Surgery Patients in a Mexican Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-García, Judith; Gamiño-Iriarte, Astrid; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy exists as to whether obesity constitutes a risk-factor or a protective-factor for the development of nosocomial Infection (NI). According to the obesity-paradox, there is evidence that moderate obesity is a protective-factor. In Mexico few studies have focused on the nutritional status (NS) distribution in the hospital setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of NS and the prevalence of nosocomial infection NI among adult elective surgery (ES) patients and to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics and length of stays (LOS) between obese and non-obese patients and between patients with and without NI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 82) adult ES patients (21–59 years old) who were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital. The prevalences of each NS category and NI were estimated, the assessments were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney, Chi-squared or the Fisher's-exact-test), and the association between preoperative risk-factors and NI was evaluated using odds ratios. Results The distribution of subjects by NS category was: underweight (3.66%), normal-weight (28.05%), overweight (35.36%), and obese (32.93%). The prevalence of NI was 14.63%. The LOS was longer (p<0.001) for the patients who developed NI. The percentages of NI were: 33.3% in underweight, 18.52% in obese, 17.39% in normal-weight, and 6.90% in overweight patients. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult ES patients is high. The highest prevalence of NI occurred in the underweight and obese patients. The presence of NI considerably increased the LOS, resulting in higher medical care costs. PMID:25803860

  1. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult type 1 patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Burcu; Oner, Can; Bayramicli, Oya Uygur; Yorulmaz, Elif; Feyizoglu, Guneş; Oguz, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Celiac disease, an autoimmune disease, is related to immune mediated intolerance to gluten. Some studies suggest that Celiac Disease was 20 times more frequent in type 1 patients with diabetes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in hospital based type 1 diabetic adults. Methods: Our study was carried out retrospectively in Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Educational Hospital in Istanbul between 2012–2013. The cohort comprised 482 type 1 patients with diabetes attending the diabetes outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.5 package program. Student’s t tests is used for comparative analyses. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The cohort included 482 type 1 patients with diabetes. Fifty seven of them were not evaluated for Endomysium antibody positivity. Fifteen of the remaining 425 patients were positive for anti endomysial antibody (3.5%). The prevalence of biopsy proven celiac disease was 2.3% (10/425). There was no significant difference between Endomysial antibody positive and negative groups in regard of age, sex, or duration of the disease. Conclusion: This study confirms that the celiac disease is common in type 1 diabetic patients. Since a small proportion of celiac patients are symptomatic this disorder should be screened in all adult type 1 patients with diabetes by antiendomysium antibody. PMID:26430419

  2. Staphylococcal superantigens and toxins are detectable in the serum of adult burn patients.

    PubMed

    Prindeze, Nicholas J; Amundsen, Bethany M; Pavlovich, Anna R; Paul, Dereck W; Carney, Bonnie C; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial infection in burn patients is still a devastating contributor to morbidity and mortality. Little is known regarding the presence of staphylococcal toxins in the burn-injured patient. The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence of several of these toxins and their relationship to clinical metrics and mortality in burn patients. Levels of exotoxins staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), staphylococcal enterotoxin B, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), and α-hemolysin were assayed from the serum of 207 adult burn patients aged 16-92 years. Clinical, demographic, and microbiological data from these patients were then compared to toxin levels. Staphylococcal exotoxins α-hemolysin and SEA were present in 45% and 25% of the population, respectively. Bacterial cultures concomitantly showed a high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in 48% of patients, of which 59% were methicillin resistant. Several metrics may be predictive of high toxin concentrations of α-hemolysin and TSST-1 and SEA including burn size, length of stay, and bacteremia. Mortality associations indicated that burn size, bacteremia, age, and the presence of α-hemolysin and SEA may be predictors of mortality. A high prevalence of staphylococcal toxin α-hemolysin and superantigens TSST-1 and SEA can be found in the circulation of the adult burn population. The presence of these toxins may contribute to the morbidity and mortality of the burn patient. PMID:24809857

  3. A Toolbox for Tuberculosis (TB) Diagnosis: An Indian Multi-Centric Study (2006-2008); Evaluation of Serological Assays Based on PGL-Tb1 and ESAT-6/CFP10 Antigens for TB Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lagrange, Philippe H.; Thangaraj, Satheesh K.; Dayal, Rajeshwar; Deshpande, Alaka; Ganguly, Nirmal K.; Girardi, Enrico; Joshi, Beenu; Katoch, Kiran; Katoch, Vishwa M.; Kumar, Manoj; Lakshmi, Vemu; Leportier, Marc; Longuet, Christophe; Malladi, Subbalaxmi V. S.; Mukerjee, Deepali; Nair, Deepthi; Raja, Alamelu; Raman, Balambal; Rodrigues, Camilla; Sharma, Pratibha; Singh, Amit; Singh, Sarman; Sodha, Archana; Kabeer, Basirudeen Syed Ahamed; Vernet, Guy; Goletti, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this multi-centric prospective study in India was to assess the accuracy of a serological test as an additional tool for diagnosing active tuberculosis (ATB). In particular, an assay based on ELISA using a phenolic glycolipid (PGL-Tb1) or a fusion protein (ESAT-6/CFP10) was compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the microbiological results according to HIV status. Methods Individuals with and without ATB and HIV infection were enrolled. Serology and TST results were analyzed per se and in combination with the microbiological data. Results Among the 778 ATB patients, 102 were HIV-infected, 316 HIV-uninfected and 360 had an HIV-unknown status. Of the 945 non-ATB subjects, 559 were at low risk (community adults) and 386 at high risk of M. tuberculosis exposure. Among those with ATB, the sensitivity of ELISA-PGL-Tb1 for ATB was higher than that of ELISA-ESAT-6/CFP10, both in HIV-infected (72.3% versus 63.7%, p = 0.29) and HIV-uninfected/HIV-unknown groups (40.5% versus 28.6%; p<0.0001), whereas the specificity was around 91% for both tests. Sensitivity for ATB increased when the results of the two ELISA were combined, reaching 75.5% in the HIV-infected and 50.9% in the group of HIV-uninfected/HIV-unknown ATB, with a significant decrease of the global specificity (83.9%). Analyzing the ELISA results with the microbiological results, we observed that the sensitivity of both serology tests was independent of the ATB patients' smear microscopy (SM) status and grade. Combining the results of SM with both ELISA, the detection of ATB patients significantly increased (p<0.0001), particularly in those with extrapulmonary TB (up to 45.1%) or HIV infection (up to 83.3%). No significant association was observed between TST and serology results. Conclusions In this prospective multi-centric study, the combination of two rapid tests, such as SM and serology, might be useful in detecting ATB, especially in HIV-infected patients. PMID:24797271

  4. Clinical Profiles and Short-Term Outcomes of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Adult Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong-Qi; Zhao, Wen-Cong; Yang, Wei-Min; Li, Yong-Li; Sun, Zhi-Kun; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that predominantly affects children. Previous studies have mostly involved children in Western developed countries. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical profiles of ADEM in adult Chinese patients. Results ADEM occurred during summer and autumn in about two-thirds of the 42 included patients. Prior infection was found in five patients and no preimmunization was recorded. The most frequent clinical presentations were alterations in consciousness (79%) and behavior changes (69%), followed by motor deficits (64%) and fever (50%). About one-quarter (26%) of the patients showed positive results for oligoclonal bands, and about half of them exhibited increases in the IgG index and 24-hour IgG synthesis rate. Magnetic resonance imaging showed white- and gray-matter lesions in 83% and 23% of the patients, respectively. Steroids were the main treatment, and full recovery occurred in 62% of the patients, with residual focal neurological deficits recorded in a few patients. After a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years, two patients exhibited recurrence and one patient exhibited a multiphasic course. One patient was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). Conclusions With the exception of the seasonal distribution pattern and prior vaccine rate, the clinical profiles of ADEM in adult Chinese patients are similar to those in pediatric populations. No specific markers are available for distinguishing ADEM from MS at the initial presentation. Careful clinical evaluations, cerebrospinal fluid measurements, and neuroradiological examinations with long-term follow-up will aid the correct diagnosis of ADEM. PMID:27449911

  5. Congenital intestinal malrotation in adolescent and adult patients: a 12-year clinical and radiological survey.

    PubMed

    Husberg, Britt; Salehi, Karin; Peters, Trevor; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Michanek, Margareta; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Strigård, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital intestinal malrotation is mainly detected in childhood and caused by incomplete rotation and fixation of the intestines providing the prerequisites for life-threatening volvulus of the midgut. The objective of this study was to evaluate a large cohort of adult patients with intestinal malrotation. Thirty-nine patients, 15-67 years, were diagnosed and admitted to a university setting with congenital intestinal malrotation 2002-2013. The patients were divided into three age groups for stratified evaluation. Medical charts were scrutinized, and clinical outcome of surgery was reviewed. Twelve patients presented as emergency cases, whereas 27 were admitted as elective cases. Diagnosis was established in 33 patients who underwent radiological investigation and in the remaining 6 during surgery. A Ladd's operation was performed in 31 symptomatic patients; a conservative strategy was chosen in eight cases. Volvulus was more common in the younger age group. Twenty-six surgically treated patients were available for telephone interview, 1-12 years after surgery. All patients, except one, regarded their general condition improved to a high degree (n = 18) or with some reservation (n = 7). Twelve patients suffered remaining abdominal pain of a chronic and diffuse character. Due to recurrence of malrotation six patients were reoperated. Symptomatic malrotation occurs in both children and the adult population. Improved awareness and an accurately performed CT scan can reveal the malformation and enable surgical treatment. A Ladd's procedure relieved most patients from their severe complaints even when a history of several years of suffering existed. PMID:27026938

  6. Assessing Quality of Life in Older Adult Patients with Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Sherman, Susan N.; Tsevat, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Significance for Public Health The global population is aging. In the industrial world, adults over 65 outnumber children and comprise almost 20% of the population in some countries. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect their quality of life. Opportunity exists for developing and validating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect quality of life. In the last two decades, a number of instruments have been developed for use among general dermatology patients to assess the effects of treatment and disease progression, perceptions of well-being, and the value that patients place on their dermatologic state of health. This chapter reviews some health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (HRQoL) measures developed and validated specifically for dermatological conditions. However, opportunity exists for developing and validating HRQoL measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. PMID:22980159

  7. Lipids for intravenous nutrition in hospitalised adult patients: a multiple choice of options.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    Lipids used in parenteral nutrition provide energy, building blocks and essential fatty acids. Traditionally, these lipids have been based on n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils particularly soyabean oil. This may not be optimal because soyabean oil may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. Alternatives to use of soyabean oil include its partial replacement by medium-chain TAG, olive oil or fish oil, either alone or in combination. Lipid emulsions containing these alternatives are well tolerated without adverse effects in a wide range of hospitalised adult patients. Lipid emulsions that include fish oil have been used in parenteral nutrition in adult patients' post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal). This has been associated with alterations in patterns of inflammatory mediators and in immune function and, in some studies, a reduction in length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. These benefits are emphasised through recent meta-analyses. Perioperative administration of fish oil may be superior to post-operative administration. Parenteral fish oil has been used in critically ill adults. Here, the influence on inflammatory processes, immune function and clinical endpoints is not clear, since there are too few studies and those that are available report contradictory findings. However, some studies found reduced inflammation, improved gas exchange and shorter length of hospital stay in critically ill patients if they receive fish oil. More and better trials are needed in patient groups in which parenteral nutrition is used and where fish oil may offer benefits. PMID:23663322

  8. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with

  9. A scoring system for assessing the severity of acute diarrhea of adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong-li; Ma, Su-xia; Qi, Hai-yu; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Yin, Cheng-hong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is frequently seen in developed and developing countries, and severe diarrhea is characterized by the high risk of death. Thus, it is very important to assess the severity of diarrhea early. We conducted a multi-center study to identify risk factors for the severity of diarrhea in adult patients and formulate an adult diarrhea state score (ADSS) for out-patient clinicians. METHODS: A total of 219 adult patients with acute diarrhea were divided into two groups: 132 patients with mild diarrhea and 87 with severe diarrhea. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for the severity of diarrhea. The risk factors were assessed and an ADSS was formulated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was made to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ADSS, and the Kappa test was used to confirm the diagnostic reliability. RESULTS: Five risk factors for evaluating the severity of diarrhea in adults included age (P<0.05), axillary temperature (P<0.01), mean arterial pressure (P<0.01), white blood cell count (WBC; P<0.01), and WBC in stool (P<0.01). The area under the ROC curve for ADSS was 0.958 when the cut off value was 4 (a sensitivity of 0.909; a specificity of 0.874), and the Kappa value was 0.781 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The risk factors associated with the pathogenic condition of diarrhea were identified, quantified and formulated into an ADSS, which has high diagnostic accuracy and reliability for the early identification of patients with severe acute diarrhea. PMID:27313808

  10. Review of policy and status of implementation of collaborative HIV-TB activities in 23 high-burden countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Granich, R; Date, A; Lepere, P; Hersh, B; Gouws, E; Samb, B

    2014-10-01

    Issuance of national policy guidance is a critical step to ensure quality HIV-TB (human immunodeficiency virus-tuberculosis) coordination and programme implementation. From the database of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), we reviewed 62 national HIV and TB guidelines from 23 high-burden countries for recommendations on HIV testing for TB patients, criteria for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the Three I's for HIV/TB (isoniazid preventive treatment [IPT], intensified TB case finding and TB infection control). We used UNAIDS country-level programme data to determine the status of implementation of existing guidance. Of the 23 countries representing 89% of the global HIV-TB burden, Brazil recommends ART irrespective of CD4 count for all people living with HIV, and four (17%) countries recommend ART at the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 guidelines level of CD4 count ⩿500 cells/mm(3) for asymptomatic persons. Nineteen (83%) countries are consistent with WHO 2013 guidelines and recommend ART for HIV-positive TB patients irrespective of CD4 count. IPT is recommended by 16 (70%) countries, representing 67% of the HIV-TB burden; 12 recommend symptom-based screening alone for IPT initiation. Guidelines from 15 (65%) countries with 79% of the world's HIV-TB burden include recommendations on HIV testing and counselling for TB patients. Although uptake of ART, HIV testing for TB patients, TB screening for people living with HIV and IPT have increased significantly, progress is still limited in many countries. There is considerable variance in the timing and content of national policies compared with WHO guidelines. Missed opportunities to implement new scientific evidence and delayed adaptation of existing WHO guidance remains a key challenge for many countries. PMID:25216827

  11. Dysphagia among adult patients who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth

    PubMed Central

    Huynh-Trudeau, Valérie; Maynard, Stéphanie; Terzic, Tatjana; Soucy, Geneviève; Bouin, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and/or anatomical anomalies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the motor and anatomical causes of dysphagia. METHODS: A total of 41 adults, followed at the Esophageal Atresia Clinic at Hôpital Saint-Luc (Montreal, Quebec), were approached to particpate in the present prospective study. Evaluation was completed using upper endoscopy, manometry and barium swallow for the participants who consented. The medical charts of respondents were systematically reviewed from the neonatal period to 18 years of age to assess medical and surgical history. RESULTS: All 41 patients followed at the clinic consented and were included in the study. Dysphagia was present in 73% of patients. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in 32 patients: hiatal hernia was present in 62% (n=20); esophageal diverticulum in 13% (n=4); macroscopic Barrett esophagus in 31% (n=10); and esophagitis in 19% (n=6). Histological esophagitis was present in 20% and intestinal metaplasia in 10%. There were no cases of dysplagia or adenocarcinoma. Esophageal manometry was performed on 56% of the patients (n=23). Manometry revealed hypomotility in 100% of patients and included an insufficient number of peristaltic waves in 96%, non-propagating peristalsis in 78% and low-wave amplitude in 95%. Complete aperistalsis was present in 78%. The lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in 12 (52%) patients, with incomplete relaxation the most common anomaly. Of the 41 patients, 29 (71%) consented to a barium swallow, which was abnormal in 13 (45%). The anomalies found were short esophageal dilation in 28%, delay in esophageal emptying in 14

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and prevalence of TB infection among dentists in the western Cape.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S; Mahommed, A

    2002-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most important communicable disease in the world and in South Africa it accounts for 80% of all notifiable diseases. The impact of HIV on the TB epidemic is potentially catastrophic. HIV increases the susceptibility of the HIV-positive person to TB. The resurgence of TB as a public health problem has rekindled interest in this disease among oral health workers. The major concern is the risk of transmission in the dental setting. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of TB among dental practitioners and to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to TB. A cross-sectional survey was carried out. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, infection control, TB status, behaviour, knowledge and perceived risk. In addition, Mantoux and multipuncture tests were performed to assess prevalence. The response rate was 78%. The sample consisted of 78 dentists, 80% male, with a mean age of 40 years. Ninety-two per cent reported always using gloves, 78% masks (68% surgical masks and 18% paper masks) and 50% glasses when treating patients. Two-thirds reported that they sterilise suction and three-in-one tips. Only 11% reported use of a rubber dam. No practitioner reported the use of high-volume externally vented aspirators or ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. Five per cent reported ever being diagnosed with TB, all after having qualified as a dentist. Half of the sample reported having being vaccinated against TB. The prevalence of those who developed a positive reaction was 33%. Thirty-one per cent reported having referred a patient suspected of having TB for further diagnosis and management. Dentists have a duty to take appropriate precautions to protect themselves, their staff and their patients from the risk of cross-infection. The implementation of infection control policies is critical to the provision of such protection. In addition, a dental health facility provides the

  13. Efficacy and Safety of ‘Fixed Dose’ versus ‘Loose’ Drug Regimens for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Two High TB-Burden African Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the performance of the use of fixed-dose combination (FDC) TB drugs when used under programmatic settings in high TB-endemic countries. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of FDC versus loose formulation (LF) TB treatment regimens for treatment of pulmonary TB (PTB) in the context of actual medical practice in prevailing conditions within programmatic settings in five sites in two high TB-burden African countries. Methods A two-arm, single-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing FDCs with separate LFs involving 1000 adults newly diagnosed with culture positive PTB was conducted at five sites in two African countries between 2007 and 2011. Participants were randomized to receive daily treatment with anti-TB drugs given as either FDC or separate LFs for 24 weeks (intensive phase– 8 weeks of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide; continuation phase– 16 weeks of rifampicin and isoniazid). Primary outcome measures were microbiological cure and safety at the end of six months’ treatment; pre-specified non-inferiority margin for difference in cure rate was 4%. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the modified intent to treat (mITT) cohort comprising all randomized patients with a positive baseline culture result for TB and who received at least one dose of study treatment. Patients missing end of treatment culture results were considered failures. Further analyses were done in which mITT patients without an end of treatment (EOT) culture were excluded in a complete case analysis (mITTcc) and a per protocol cohort analysis defined as mITTcc patients who received at least 95% of their intended doses and had an EOT culture result. Results In the mITT analysis, the cure rate in the FDC group was 86.7% (398/459) and in the LF group 85.2% (396/465) (difference 1.5-% (90% confidence interval (CI) (-2.2%– 5.3%)). Per Protocol analysis showed similar results: FDC 98.9% (359/363) versus LF 96.9% (345

  14. Development of a POC Test for TB Based on Multiple Immunodominant Epitopes of M. tuberculosis Specific Cell-Wall Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jesus M.; Francis, Bryan; Burda, Sherri; Hess, Kaitlyn; Behera, Digamber; Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Verma, Indu; Verma, Ajoy; Myneedu, Vithal Prasad; Niedbala, Sam; Laal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    The need for an accurate, rapid, simple and affordable point-of-care (POC) test for Tuberculosis (TB) that can be implemented in microscopy centers and other peripheral health-care settings in the TB-endemic countries remains unmet. This manuscript describes preliminary results of a new prototype rapid lateral flow TB test based on detection of antibodies to immunodominant epitopes (peptides) derived from carefully selected, highly immunogenic M. tuberculosis cell-wall proteins. Peptide selection was initially based on recognition by antibodies in sera from TB patients but not in PPD-/PPD+/BCG-vaccinated individuals from TB-endemic settings. The peptides were conjugated to BSA; the purified peptide-BSA conjugates striped onto nitrocellulose membrane and adsorbed onto colloidal gold particles to devise the prototype test, and evaluated for reactivity with sera from 3 PPD-, 29 PPD+, 15 PPD-unknown healthy subjects, 10 patients with non-TB lung disease and 124 smear-positive TB patients. The assay parameters were adjusted to determine positive/negative status within 15 minutes via visual or instrumented assessment. There was minimal or no reactivity of sera from non-TB subjects with the striped BSA-peptides demonstrating the lack of anti-peptide antibodies in subjects with latent TB and/or BCG vaccination. Sera from most TB patients demonstrated reactivity with one or more peptides. The sensitivity of antibody detection ranged from 28–85% with the 9 BSA-peptides. Three peptides were further evaluated with sera from 400 subjects, including additional PPD-/PPD+/PPD-unknown healthy contacts, close hospital contacts and household contacts of untreated TB patients, patients with non-TB lung disease, and HIV+TB- patients. Combination of the 3 peptides provided sensitivity and specificity>90%. While the final fully optimized lateral flow POC test for TB is under development, these preliminary results demonstrate that an antibody-detection based rapid POC lateral flow test

  15. Autoantibody profile and clinical characteristics in a cohort of Chinese adult myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Li, Hai-Feng; Skeie, Geir Olve; Romi, Fredrik; Hao, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Xiang; Owe, Jone Furlund; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder with heterogeneity. Antibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), titin and ryanodine receptor (RyR) were examined in 437 adult Chinese MG patients. The AChR, MuSK, titin and RyR antibodies were found in 82.2%, 2.3%, 28.4% and 23.8% of all patients. Autoantibody profiles vary among different MG subgroups. Thymoma MG patients had high frequencies of AChR (99.2%), titin (50.8%) and RyR antibodies (46.9%). The titin and RyR antibodies also showed high frequencies in late onset patients (54.4% and 33.3%, respectively). These two antibodies may indicate an underlying thymoma when combined. The patients with titin and RyR antibodies tend to have more severe disease and worse outcome, and may need more active immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:27609275

  16. Retrosigmoid Craniotomy for Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Adult Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2.

    PubMed

    Puram, Sidharth V; Herrmann, Barbara; Barker, Fred G; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Objective To report our technique and experience using a retrosigmoid craniotomy approach for auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) placement in adult neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Single-center study, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Participants All NF2 patients who underwent evaluation at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Six cases of retrosigmoid craniotomy for ABI surgery in five adult NF2 patients were identified. The clinical history, operative course, and outcomes in these patients were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative complications and audiological outcomes. Results Indications for ABI surgery were profound hearing loss associated with growth or treatment of bilateral vestibular schwannomas. In all cases, a retrosigmoid craniotomy was performed for tumor resection and ABI placement without complication. Electrode placement was confirmed intraoperatively using electrical-evoked auditory brainstem responses. The ABI was activated in the awake patient 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Audiological testing was used to evaluate sound detection and speech perception with the ABI. There were no cases of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Conclusion Retrosigmoid craniotomy is a safe and effective means to provide access to the cochlear nucleus for ABI placement following tumor resection in the adult NF2 patient. Preliminary data indicate that this approach has few complications while offering benefits for hearing. The retrosigmoid craniotomy should be considered a reasonable alternative to the traditional translabyrinthine approach for placement of the ABI in deaf patients who are not candidates for the cochlear implant. PMID:27054058

  17. Diagnostic value of symptoms and laboratory data for pertussis in adolescent and adult patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several symptoms are classically thought to be suggestive of pertussis in children, but the diagnostic value of these symptoms in adolescent and adult patients is unclear. We evaluated the accuracy of the clinical findings for the early presumptive diagnosis of pertussis in adolescent and adult patients. Furthermore, we measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with regard to whether we could distinguish eosinophilic inflammation of the airway and pertussis. FeNO is not expected to be associated with pertussis. Methods We compared 183 cases with laboratory-confirmed pertussis using serology and polymerase chain reaction and 1,132 cases without laboratory-confirmed pertussis. Results Among pertussis patients, paroxysmal cough was common with 90% sensitivity, but the specificity was low (25%). Posttussive vomiting and whoop were less common (sensitivity 25% and 19%, respectively), but both showed greater specificity for pertussis (80% and 86%, respectively). Posttussive gagging was observed with intermediate frequency and provided greater specificity (49% and 77%, respectively). Pertussis cases were most frequent between May and August with a peak in June. The mean FeNO value for the pertussis patients was 18.2 ± 9.2 ppb, which was significantly lower than that in asthma patients (56.9 ± 20.3 ppb, p <0.001). The most useful definition was posttussive vomiting and/or gagging, and a plus normal FeNO value, which had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 70%. Conclusions Clinical symptoms and laboratory data are of limited value in making the diagnosis of pertussis, and it was clinically difficult to differentiate adolescent and adult patients with or without pertussis. However, pertussis should be considered if patients have posttussive vomiting and/or gagging and a normal FeNO concentration. PMID:23496900

  18. Quality of life related to urinary continence in adult spina bifida patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Caroline; Casey, Jessica T.; Greiman, Alyssa; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Kielb, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlations of bladder management technique, ambulatory status and urologic reconstruction on quality of life (QOL) as affected by urinary symptoms in adult spina bifida (SB) patients. Material and methods Sixty–six adult SB patients completed the RAND 36–Item Health Survey (mSF–36) and Incontinence Quality of Life (I–QOL). Demographic information, history of urinary reconstruction, and bladder management techniques were reviewed and analyzed with respect to survey scores. Results Mean age of patients was 32.3 (SD ±7.2) years and 44 patients (66.7%) were female. Forty–five patients (68.2%) were mainly ambulatory, 21 (31.8%) use a wheelchair and 10 (15.2%) had urologic reconstruction, while 56 (83.3%) did not. Twelve patients (18.2%) void, 42 (63.6%) perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), 4 (6.1%) use an indwelling catheter, 3 (4.5%) have an ileal conduit (IC) and 5 (7.6%) mainly use diapers. Mean mSF–36 General Health score was 56.5 (SD ±22.9) and mean I–QOL Sum score was 50.9 (SD ±21.7), where lower scores reflect lower QOL. mSF–36 and I–QOL scores did not significantly correlate with bladder management technique, ambulatory status or urologic reconstruction. A correlation was noted between I–QOL scales and most mSF–36 scales (all p <0.02). Conclusions In our cohort study of adult SB patients, bladder management technique and urologic reconstruction did not correlate with urinary (I–QOL) or general health (mSF–36) domains, although I–QOL and mSF–36 scores correlated closely, suggesting urinary continence is significantly related to general QOL. However, we are unable to identify a single factor that improves either urinary or general QOL. PMID:25914840

  19. Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 μg/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 μg/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

  20. Hematogones: a sensitive prognostic factor for Chinese adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.; Fu, R.; Zhang, T.; Xie, X.; Liu, J.; Tao, J.; Song, J.; Liu, H.; Zhang, W.; Lu, W.; Shao, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hematogones (hgs) are normal B-lymphocyte precursors that increase in some hematologic diseases. Many studies indicate that hgs might be a favourable prognostic factor. We thus considered it important to determine whether hgs are also a prognostic factor for Chinese adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (aml) and whether the hg-positive and hg-negative groups show any serologic or phenotypic differences. Methods Chinese adult aml patients (n = 177) who were all initially hg-negative underwent standard chemotherapy and were thereafter divided into hg-positive and hg-negative groups according to hg levels in bone marrow during their first remission. Results The follow-up study confirmed that survival duration (both leukemia-free and overall) was significantly greater in the hg-positive group than in the hg-negative group and was accompanied by a lower relapse rate. A retrospective study of patient characteristics at the time of first diagnosis revealed some differences between the hg-positive and the hg-negative groups, including elevations in white blood cells, lactate dehydrogenase, and β2-microglobulin in the hg-negative group. Retrospective phenotypic analysis revealed a significantly lower proportion of abnormal chromosome karyotype and CD34 expression in hg-positive patients. Finally, we evaluated whether additional intensive chemotherapy after standard chemotherapy could further increase hgs. Conclusions The present work verified the validity of hgs as a prognostic factor for Chinese adult patients with aml. Compared with hg-negative patients, hg-positive patients not only experienced longer survival and a lower relapse rate, but they also had some serologic and phenotypic characteristics that are all considered indicators of better outcome. Additional intensive chemotherapy could further increase the level of hgs, which might imply better clinical results. PMID:27122980

  1. A Systematic Review of Music Therapy Practice and Outcomes with Acute Adult Psychiatric In-Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to

  2. Prognostic impact of persistent cytogenetic abnormalities at complete remission in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Short, Nicholas J; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Jabbour, Elias J; O'Brien, Susan M; Faderl, Stefan; Burger, Jan A; Garris, Rebecca; Qiao, Wei; Huang, Xuelin; Jain, Nitin; Konopleva, Marina; Kadia, Tapan M; Daver, Naval; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge E; Ravandi, Farhad

    2016-06-01

    In acute myelogenous leukemia, the persistent detection of abnormal cytogenetics at complete remission (ACCR) is associated with inferior outcomes. However, the prognostic significance of ACCR in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unknown. We evaluated 272 adult patients with ALL and abnormal cytogenetics at baseline who were treated with frontline induction chemotherapy, achieved complete remission (CR) and had cytogenetic analysis performed at the time of CR. ACCR was observed in 26 patients (9.6%). Median relapse-free survival was 22 months (95% CI, 12 months to not reached) for patients with ACCR vs. 48 months (range, 30-125 months) in patients with normal cytogenetics at CR (NCCR; P = 0.31). Median overall survival also did not differ significantly between the ACCR (99 months [range, 17 months to not reached]) and NCCR groups (67 months [range, 47 months to not reached], P = 0.86). The specificity of ACCR for minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) was 43%, and there was overall poor correlation between these two methods for the detection of residual disease. When patients were stratified by MRD status, the presence or absence of persistent cytogenetic abnormalities at CR did not add additional prognostic information. This study suggests that there is poor association between MRD assessment by MFC and the presence or absence of cytogenetic abnormalities at CR in adult patients with ALL. ACCR was not associated with adverse outcomes in ALL and did not add additional prognostic information when MRD status by MFC was known. PMID:26800008

  3. The complexity of ADHD: diagnosis and treatment of the adult patient with comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Weiss, Margaret; Stein, Mark A

    2007-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an impairing but usually treatable condition. Popular culture propagates the myth that ADHD recedes with age; this is not the case. Although it is common, <20% of adults with ADHD are diagnosed or treated. Adults with ADHD show significant comorbidities with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use, oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorders, sleep problems, and learning disabilities. However, symptoms that result from ADHD, such as mood symptoms or lability, are often mistaken for comorbid disorders. Comorbidity with ADHD impacts treatment compliance, treatment response, and patient insight. Insufficient data on the interaction between ADHD and comorbidities impedes proper diagnosis and treatment. Better clinical tools for assessing these conditions are needed. Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatments for adult ADHD include stimulants, dexmethylphenidate, and the nonstimulant atomoxetine. Effect sizes of approved medicines at approved doses are half those seen in children. Adults may also need longer duration of medication effects than children. Short-acting stimulants are likely to result in poorer adherence and have a higher risk for diversion or abuse. Risk of abuse is a major concern; stimulant treatments are controlled substances, and children with ADHD show increased risk of substance abuse. Psychosocial interventions may be beneficial in treating both ADHD and comorbidities.In this expert roundtable supplement, Margaret Weiss, MD, PhD, presents a comprehensive overview of complications surrounding differential diagnosis in adults with ADHD. Next, Mark A. Stein, PhD, reviews evaluation, comorbidity, and development of a treatment plan in this population. Finally, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MD, provides a discussion on the pharmacologic options available for adults with ADHD, considering dosages specific to adults and common comorbidities. PMID:17667893

  4. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other federal agencies and international partners to raise awareness and enhance strategies for TB prevention worldwide by: Strengthening TB services for people living with HIV/AIDS; Guiding preparedness and outbreak investigation responses; Improving ...

  5. TB in Children in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under 15 years ... BCG vaccine is not generally used in the United States, because of the low risk of infection ...

  6. Molecular detection and characterization of Aichivirus A in adult patients with diarrhea in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Suantai, Boonpa; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2014-06-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is a common public health problem that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, new viruses causing gastroenteritis have been identified. Among these, Aichivirus has also been proposed as a causative agent of gastroenteritis in human. Most studies have been conducted in infants and children, the information in adults is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and molecular characterization of Aichivirus in adult patients with diarrhea. A total of 332 fecal specimens collected from January to December 2008 were screened for the presence of Aichivirus by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method. Out of 332 fecal specimens tested, Aichivirus was detected with the prevalence of 0.9% (3/332). The data indicate that the prevalence of Aichivirus in adults was as low as those reported in children in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 sequence revealed that one Aichivirus belonged to genotype A, while other two Aichiviruses were genotype B. In conclusion, this study provided the molecular epidemiological data of Aichivirus circulating in adult patients with diarrhea at low prevalence and the viruses were genetically variable as both genotypes A and B were found in this population. PMID:24536026

  7. Adult life with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: observations among an emerging and unforeseen patient population.

    PubMed

    Rahbek, Jes; Werge, Birgit; Madsen, Anny; Marquardt, John; Steffensen, Birgit Fynbo; Jeppesen, Joergen

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of adult life with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is sparse. The purpose of this study was to review existing information and describe body functional, social participatory and quality of life profiles of the ordinary adult Danish DMD patient. Sixty-five study subjects aged 18-42 years were included in a cross-sectional survey based on data from a semi-structured questionnaire comprising 197 items. The ordinary adult DMD patient states his quality of life as excellent; he is worried neither about his disease nor about the future. His assessment of income, hours of personal assistance, housing, years spent in school and ability to participate in desired activities are positive. Despite heavy immobilization, he is still capable of functioning in a variety of activities that are associated with normal life. He lacks qualifying education and he is in painful need of a love life. The frequency of pains is surprisingly high; nearly 40% has pains daily. The nature, magnitude, consequence and possible cure of these reported pains must be scrutinized. Parents and professionals, paediatricians not the least, must anticipate in all measures taken that the DMD boy grows up to manhood and will need competences for adult social life in all respects. PMID:15799132

  8. Peripheral blood lymphocyte to monocyte ratio identifies high-risk adult patients with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Hua; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Lin, Tong-Yu; Lu, Yue

    2015-10-01

    Adult sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) in a cohort of 62 patients. Using LMR <2.6 as the optimal cutoff point, 24 patients (38.7 %) had LMR <2.6. The complete response rates in high-LMR group and low-LMR group were 90.9 and 65.0 %, respectively (P = 0.019). At a median follow-up time of 41 months, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rates were 76 and 80 %, respectively. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was found that the presence of bone marrow infiltration and low LMR were independently adverse prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. In the whole group, the addition of rituximab to treatment did not benefit patients significantly in PFS and OS. In subgroup analysis, in patients with high LMR, addition of rituximab can significantly improve survival outcomes (P = 0.046). In conclusion, we firstly found that low LMR (<2.60) was an independently adverse prognostic factor in adult patients with sporadic BL. Intensive chemotherapy could cure the majority of patients in our study, and the pretreatment LMR might predict the value of rituximab in this age population. PMID:26082333

  9. Prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Verbraak, F; Schreinemachers, M; Tiller, A; van Deventer, S J H; de Smet, M D

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
METHODS—In 179 consecutive patients (96 with Crohn's disease, 55 with ulcerative colitis, and 28 with inflammatory bowel disease of undetermined nature) without previous or concurrent ocular complaints, quantitative flare measurements were obtained with the Kowa FC laser flare to detect the presence of subclinical uveitis.
RESULTS—The mean flare value was 3.9 (SD 1.1) ph/ms in patients younger than 30 years of age, rising to 5.8 (2.5) ph/ms in those over 60 years of age. No measurement performed in this patient population fell outside the mean observed value plus or minus SD of the normal controls within the same age category.
CONCLUSION—In an adult population of 179 consecutive patients with inflammatory bowel disease the presence of a form of subclinical uveitis, as described by Hofley et al in a group of juvenile patients, is highly unlikely.

 PMID:11159490

  10. The views of patients, mentors and adult field nursing students on patients' participation in student nurse assessment in practice.

    PubMed

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate; Chapman, Linda; James, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, changes to undergraduate nursing curricula in the United Kingdom have been coupled with increasing expectations that service users be involved in assessment of student nurses. These factors lead to the development of a tool to facilitate gathering of feedback from patients/carers on the competency of adult field student nurses in practice. This study evaluated experiences of those involved in the process of using the feedback tool. Using an exploratory qualitative research design, four patients, four mentors and five pre-registration adult field nursing students were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the data identified three interconnecting themes; value of the patient's voice, caring and protection, and authenticity of feedback. A sub-theme of timing of giving feedback was also identified. Patients felt they should be involved in giving feedback, were comfortable in doing so, and felt best placed to judge students' performance in several aspects of care. Students and mentors shared these opinions. Additionally they felt service user feedback potentially helped improve students' competence and confidence, and facilitated mentors in their assessment of students' professional values, communication and interpersonal skills. However, mentors were more reticent about the possibility of receiving feedback from service users on their own practice. PMID:26347448

  11. Estimated mortality of adult HIV-infected patients starting treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yiannoutsos, Constantin Theodore; Johnson, Leigh Francis; Boulle, Andrew; Musick, Beverly Sue; Gsponer, Thomas; Balestre, Eric; Law, Matthew; Shepherd, Bryan E; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide estimates of mortality among HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy. Methods We report on the death rates from 122 925 adult HIV-infected patients aged 15 years or older from East, Southern and West Africa, Asia Pacific and Latin America. We use two methods to adjust for biases in mortality estimation resulting from loss from follow-up, based on double-sampling methods applied to patient outreach (Kenya) and linkage with vital registries (South Africa), and apply these to mortality estimates in the other three regions. Age, gender and CD4 count at the initiation of therapy were the factors considered as predictors of mortality at 6, 12, 24 and >24 months after the start of treatment. Results Patient mortality was high during the first 6 months after therapy for all patient subgroups and exceeded 40 per 100 patient years among patients who started treatment at low CD4 count. This trend was seen regardless of region, demographic or disease-related risk factor. Mortality was under-reported by up to or exceeding 100% when comparing estimates obtained from passive monitoring of patient vital status. Conclusions Despite advances in antiretroviral treatment coverage many patients start treatment at very low CD4 counts and experience significant mortality during the first 6 months after treatment initiation. Active patient tracing and linkage with vital registries are critical in adjusting estimates of mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. PMID:23172344

  12. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Case-Control study in a TB Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Tsai-Ling; Lin, Chin-Fu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chen, Der-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the risk factors and outcomes for NTM disease among RA patients remain unclear. We conducted a case-control study and estimated odds ratios (ORs) for RA patients with NTM disease according to comorbidities and anti-rheumatic medications by using conditional logistic regression. Prior tuberculosis history (adjusted OR (aOR) =5.58, p < 0.001), hypertension (aOR = 2.55, p = 0.013), diabetes mellitus (aOR = 3.31, p = 0.005), interstitial lung disease (aOR = 8.22, p < 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aOR = 8.59, p < 0.001) and exposure to oral corticosteroids in a dose-dependent manner (5− < 10 mg/day aOR = 2.51, Ptrend = 0.007) were associated with a significantly increased risk of NTM disease in RA patients. The predominant species causing NTM disease in RA patients was Mycobacterium intracellulare (46.0%). Most NTM isolates were resistant to the majority of the antibiotics that are currently available, which maybe caused treatment failure; hospitalization and mortality are increased. To prevent and treat NTM disease efficiently, we suggested that it is important to monitor the development of NTM disease in RA patients receiving therapy with corticosteroids, particularly in those with predisposing factors. PMID:27404002

  13. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Case-Control study in a TB Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tsai-Ling; Lin, Chin-Fu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chen, Der-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the risk of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the risk factors and outcomes for NTM disease among RA patients remain unclear. We conducted a case-control study and estimated odds ratios (ORs) for RA patients with NTM disease according to comorbidities and anti-rheumatic medications by using conditional logistic regression. Prior tuberculosis history (adjusted OR (aOR) =5.58, p < 0.001), hypertension (aOR = 2.55, p = 0.013), diabetes mellitus (aOR = 3.31, p = 0.005), interstitial lung disease (aOR = 8.22, p < 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aOR = 8.59, p < 0.001) and exposure to oral corticosteroids in a dose-dependent manner (5- < 10 mg/day aOR = 2.51, Ptrend = 0.007) were associated with a significantly increased risk of NTM disease in RA patients. The predominant species causing NTM disease in RA patients was Mycobacterium intracellulare (46.0%). Most NTM isolates were resistant to the majority of the antibiotics that are currently available, which maybe caused treatment failure; hospitalization and mortality are increased. To prevent and treat NTM disease efficiently, we suggested that it is important to monitor the development of NTM disease in RA patients receiving therapy with corticosteroids, particularly in those with predisposing factors. PMID:27404002

  14. Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, C.T.; Suto, P.A.

    1983-03-01

    The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

  15. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Minako; Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  16. Wandering spleen with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in an adult male patient

    PubMed Central

    Kohda, Eiichi; Iizuka, Yuo; Nagamoto, Masashi; Ishii, Tomotaka; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Norikazu; Gomi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of wandering spleen (WS) complicated with gastric volvulus and intestinal non-rotation in a male adult. A 22-year-old man who had been previously treated for Wilson disease was admitted with severe abdominal pain. Radiological findings showed WS in the midline of the pelvic area. The stomach was mesenteroaxially twisted and intestinal non-rotation was observed. Radiology results did not show any evidence of splenic or gastrointestinal (GI) infarction. Elective emergency laparoscopy confirmed WS and intestinal non-rotation; however, gastric volvulus was not observed. It was suspected that the stomach had untwisted when gastric and laparoscopic tubes were inserted. Surgery is strongly recommended for WS because of the high risk of serious complications; however, some asymptomatic adult patients are still treated conservatively, such as the patient in this study. The present case is reported with reference to the literature. PMID:24349711

  17. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  18. Nonmetastatic Ewing's Sarcoma of the Lumbar Spine in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Dobran, Mauro; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Moriconi, Elisa; Nocchi, Niccolò; Gladi, Maurizio; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Although the spine is frequently involved in metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, primary involvement of the spine, beside sacrum, is much less frequent, especially in adult patients. Because of the low incidence of these tumors, there are currently no clinical guidelines outlining their management and a multitude of therapeutic strategies have been employed with varying success. The definitive management of Ewing's sarcoma of the spine, as in other locations, could include the combination of three main modalities: aggressive surgery, radiotherapy, and combined chemotherapy. Whenever possible, en bloc spondylectomy or extralesional resection is preferable, providing a better oncological result with a longer survival and a better preservation of the spine biomechanics. This is the lesson we learned about the case, we present here, of nonmetastatic lumbar localization by Ewing's sarcoma in as adult patient. PMID:23133768

  19. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  20. IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kolla, Nathan J; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated whether the previously observed association of pedophilia with lower IQs is an artifact of heterogeneity in referral source. The subjects were 832 adult male patients referred to a specialty clinic for evaluation of their sexual behavior. The patients' erotic preferences for prepubescent, pubescent, or adult partners were assessed with phallometric testing. Full scale IQ was estimated using six subtests from the WAIS-R. The results showed that the relations between pedophilia and lower IQ, lesser education, and increased rates of non-right-handedness were the same in homogeneous groups referred by lawyers or parole and probation officers as they were in a heterogeneous group referred by a miscellany of other sources. Those results, along with secondary analyses in the study, supported the conclusion that the relation between pedophilia and cognitive function is genuine and not artifactual. The findings were interpreted as evidence for the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations increase the risk of pedophilia in males. PMID:17634757

  1. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient

    PubMed Central

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention. PMID:25140164

  2. Variability of ICU Use in Adult Patients With Minor Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Daniel K.; Haukoos, Jason S.; Newgard, Craig D.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; White, Nathan; Slattery, David; Maxim, Preston C.; Gee, Christopher A.; Hsia, Renee Y.; Melnikow, Joy A.; Holmes, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Study objective Patients with minor traumatic intracranial hemorrhage are frequently admitted to the ICU, although many never require critical care interventions. To describe ICU resource use in minor traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, we assess (1) the variability of ICU use in a cohort of patients with minor traumatic intracranial hemorrhage across multiple trauma centers, and (2) the proportion of adult patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage who are admitted to the ICU and never receive a critical care intervention during hospitalization. In addition, we evaluate the association between ICU admission and key independent variables. Methods A structured, historical cohort study of adult patients (aged 18 years and older) with minor traumatic intracranial hemorrhage was conducted within a consortium of 8 Level I trauma centers in the western United States from January 2005 to June 2010. The study population included patients with minor traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, defined as an emergency department (ED) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 15 (normal mental status) and an Injury Severity Score less than 16 (no other major organ injury). The primary outcome measure was initial ICU admission. The secondary outcome measure was a critical care intervention during hospitalization. Critical care interventions included mechanical ventilation, neurosurgical intervention, transfusion of blood products, vasopressor or inotrope administration, and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. ED disposition and the proportion of ICU patients not receiving a critical care intervention were compared across sites with descriptive statistics. The association between ICU admission and predetermined independent variables was analyzed with multivariable regression. Results Among 11,240 adult patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, 1,412 (13%) had minor traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and complete ED disposition data (mean age 48 years; SD 20 years). ICU use within this

  3. Urticaria and dermographism in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Ayabe, Liliane Akemi; Brandt, Hebert Roberto Clivati; Romiti, Ricardo; Maruta, Celina W

    2012-08-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients typically present with arthralgia, fever, lymphadenopathy and a transient salmon maculopapular rash. Only approximately 25 cases of AOSD with urticaria were described in the literature. In this article, the authors report three additional cases of AOSD with urticarial and dermographic lesions who had a good clinical response to glucocorticoid and antihistamines. A review of the literature concerning this issue is also herein written. PMID:21785958

  4. A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Aljadhey, Hisham; Aslanpour, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Aims Medicine-related problems (MRPs) represent a major issue leading to hospitalization, especially in adult and elderly patients. The aims of this review are to investigate the prevalence, causes and major risk factors for MRPs leading to hospitalization in adult patients and to identify the main medicine classes involved. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Scopus and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between January 2000 and May 2013. A systematic review was conducted of both retrospective and prospective studies. Studies included were those involving hospitalization resulting from MRPs in adults (≥18 years old), whereas studies excluded were those investigating drug misuse and abuse and studies investigating MRPs in hospitalized patients. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results Forty-five studies were identified, including 21 that investigated hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, six studies that investigated hospitalization due to adverse drug events and 18 studies that investigated hospitalization due to MRPs. The median prevalence rates of hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, adverse drug events and MRPs were 7% (interquartile range, 2.4–14.9%), 4.6% (interquartile range, 2.85–16.6%) and 12.1% (interquartile range, 6.43–22.2%), respectively. The major causes contributing to MRPs were adverse drug reactions and noncompliance. In addition, the major risk factors associated with MRPs were old age, polypharmacy and comorbidities. Moreover, the main classes of medicines implicated were medicines used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Conclusions Hospitalization due to MRPs had a high prevalence, in the range of 4.6–12.1%. Most MRPs encountered were prevalent among adult patients taking medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:24283967

  5. TB incidence and characteristics in the remote gulf province of Papua New Guinea: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in remote areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG) are largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of TB in the Gulf Province of PNG and describe disease characteristics, co-morbidities and drug resistance profiles that could impact on disease outcomes and transmission. Methods Between March 2012 and June 2012, we prospectively collected data on 274 patients presenting to Kikori Hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of TB, and on hospital inpatients receiving TB treatment during the study period. Sputum was collected for microscopy, GeneXpert analysis, culture and genotyping of isolates. Results We estimate the incidence of TB in Kikori to be 1290 per 100,000 people (95% CI 1140 to 1460) in 2012. The proportion of TB patients co-infected with HIV was 1.9%. Three of 32 TB cases tested were rifampicin resistant. Typing of nine isolates demonstrated allelic diversity and most were related to Beijing strains. Conclusions The incidence of TB in Kikori is one of the highest in the world and it is not driven by HIV co-infection. The high incidence and the presence of rifampicin resistant warrant urgent attention to mitigate substantial morbidity in the region. PMID:24555577

  6. Clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients in Hyderabad: Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Naila; Ali Shaikh, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To see the various clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients of Hyderabad Sindh. Methods: A total 60 suspected cases of adult celiac disease, both males and females were screened out from Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital and private clinics at Sadar Hyderabad Sind by non probability purposive sampling during a period from July 2011 to December 2012.Age ranged between 18 to 55 Years. A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Patients already on gluten free diet, age <12years, tuberculosis or cancer of intestine/colon and patients of diabetes and thyroid disorder were excluded, while patients having positive ant tTG (value >15 iu/ml detected by ELISA) were included. The biochemical profile including serum albumin, calcium ,ferritin, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase and Haemoglobin were estimated in central Diagnostic laboratory LUMHS by taking 10 cc centrifuged blood sample. The data was plotted on SPSS 16, mean and percentages were calculated. Results: All patients were divided in to three groups according to age. The most common group was 18-30 years; (mean, 23.5±5.6) comprised 56.6%. The commonest clinical presentation was diarrhoea in 50%, menstrual irregularity in 21%, walking problems 21%, undue fatigue in 15% and edema in 15%. P values calculated in quantitative variable of males and females. The p value was significant in between serum calcium (p 0.004), haemoglobin (p 0,004), serum ferritin (<0.005) and alkaline phosphatise (<0.005). Conclusion: This study showed that Adult celiac disease was present with entirely different clinical and biochemical profile in patients in this region. PMID:24772128

  7. Differences of Sagittal Lumbosacral Parameters between Patients with Lumbar Spondylolysis and Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jin; Peng, Bao-Gan; Li, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Nai-Yang; Yang, Liang; Li, Duan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested an association between elevated pelvic incidence (PI) and the development of lumbar spondylolysis. However, there is still lack of investigation for Han Chinese people concerning the normal range of spinopelvic parameters and relationship between abnormal sagittal parameters and lumbar diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate sagittal lumbosacral parameters of adult lumbar spondylolysis patients in Han Chinese population. Methods: A total of 52 adult patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis treated in the General Hospital of Armed Police Force (Beijing, China) were identified as the spondylolysis group. All the 52 patients were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup A: 36 patients with simple lumbar spondylolysis, and Subgroup B: 16 patients with lumbar spondylolysis accompanying with mild lumbar spondylolisthesis (slip percentage <30%). Altogether 207 healthy adults were chosen as the control group. All patients and the control group took lumbosacral lateral radiographs. Seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters, including PI, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), L5 incidence, L5 slope, and sacral table angle (STA), were measured in the lateral radiographs. All the parameters aforementioned were compared between the two subgroups and between the spondylolysis group and the control group with independent-sample t-test. Results: There were no statistically significant differences of all seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters between Subgroup A and Subgroup B. PI, PT, SS, and LL were higher (P < 0.05) in the spondylolysis group than those in the control group, but STA was lower (P < 0.001) in the spondylolysis group. Conclusions: Current study results suggest that increased PI and decreased STA may play important roles in the pathology of lumbar spondylolysis in Han Chinese population. PMID:27174324

  8. Reduced transcription of TCOF1 in adult cells of Treacher Collins syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder caused by frameshift deletions or duplications in the TCOF1 gene. These mutations cause premature termination codons, which are predicted to lead to mRNA degradation by nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Haploinsufficiency of the gene product (treacle) during embryonic development is the proposed molecular mechanism underlying TCS. However, it is still unknown if TCOF1 expression levels are decreased in post-embryonic human cells. Methods We have estimated TCOF1 transcript levels through real time PCR in mRNA obtained from leucocytes and mesenchymal cells of TCS patients (n = 23) and controls (n = 18). Mutational screening and analysis of NMD were performed by direct sequencing of gDNA and cDNA, respectively. Results All the 23 patients had typical clinical features of the syndrome and pathogenic mutations were detected in 19 of them. We demonstrated that the expression level of TCOF1 is 18-31% lower in patients than in controls (p < 0.05), even if we exclude the patients in whom we did not detect the pathogenic mutation. We also observed that the mutant allele is usually less abundant than the wild type one in mesenchymal cells. Conclusions This is the first study to report decreased expression levels of TCOF1 in TCS adult human cells, but it is still unknown if this finding is associated to any phenotype in adulthood. In addition, as we demonstrated that alleles harboring the pathogenic mutations have lower expression, we herein corroborate the current hypothesis of NMD of the mutant transcript as the explanation for diminished levels of TCOF1 expression. Further, considering that TCOF1 deficiency in adult cells could be associated to pathologic clinical findings, it will be important to verify if TCS patients have an impairment in adult stem cell properties, as this can reduce the efficiency of plastic surgery results during rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:20003452

  9. Marital Status and Fertility in Adult Iranian Patients with β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Miri-Aliabad, Ghasem; Fadaee, Mahsoumeh; Khajeh, Ali; Naderi, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Expecting a family is an important component and a great goal for better quality of life for most of adults with β-thalassemia major. The aim of the present study was to examine the marital status of adults with β-thalassemia major. This cross-sectional study examined the marital status of patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia aged over 15 years. Patients' demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, duration of marriage, divorce, having or not having children and spouse's health status were recorded. Information about the disease including cardiac and endocrine complications, ferritin level, splenectomy and viral hepatitis were also recorded. Of 228 patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major aged over 15 years who were treated at this medical center, 32 (14 %) were married. The mean age of married patients was 25.18 ± 4.74 years. Among the married patients, 8 (25 %) were females and 24 (75 %) patients were males. The mean age of marriage was 22.76 ± 4.16 years. The minimum and maximum marriage age was 15 and 33 years, respectively. The median duration of marriage was one year with the range from 3 months to 11 years. Only 8 (25 %) patients (one female and seven males) had children. Therapeutic advances have led to significantly increased survival and improved quality of life and fertility of patients with β-thalassemia major. According to the results, 14 % of patients over 15 years were married which was slightly higher as compared with other similar studies. PMID:26855517

  10. Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trotti, Lynn Marie; Goldstein, Cathy A.; Harrod, Christopher G.; Koo, Brian B.; Sharon, Denise; Zak, Rochelle; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned several Workgroups to develop quality measures for the care of patients with common sleep disorders, including adults with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Using the AASM process for quality measure development, the RLS Work-group developed three target outcomes for RLS management, including improving the accuracy of diagnosis, reducing symptom severity, and minimizing treatment complications. Seven processes were developed to support these outcomes. To achieve the outcome of improving accuracy of diagnosis, the use of accepted diagnostic criteria and assessment of iron stores are recommended. To realize the outcome of decreasing symptom severity, routine assessment of severity and provision of evidence-based treatment are recommended. To support the outcome of minimizing treatment complications, counseling about potential side effects and assessing for augmentation and impulse control disorders, when indicated, are recommended. Further research is needed to validate optimal practice processes to achieve best outcomes in adult patients with RLS. Citation: Trotti LM, Goldstein CA, Harrod CG, Koo BB, Sharon D, Zak R, Chervin RD. Quality measures for the care of adult patients with restless legs syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):293–310. PMID:25700882

  11. Adolescents and adults affected by Cornelia de Lange syndrome: A report of 73 Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Milena; Decimi, Valentina; Bettini, Laura Rachele; Maitz, Silvia; Gervasini, Cristina; Masciadri, Maura; Ajmone, Paola; Kullman, Gaia; Dinelli, Marco; Panceri, Roberto; Cereda, Anna; Selicorni, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutation of various cohesion complex related genes. Its natural history is quite well characterized as regard pediatric age. Relatively little information is available regarding the evolution of the disease in young-adult age. In medical literature, only one specific study has been published on this topic. We report on our experience on 73 Italian CdLS patients (40 males and 33 females) with and age range from 15 to 49 years. Our results confirm the previous study indicating that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the main medical problem of these patients in childhood and young-adult age. Other medical features that should be considered in the medical follow-up are tendency to overweight/frank obesity, constipation, discrepancy of limbs' length, epilepsy, hearing, and visual problems. Behavioral problems are particularly frequent as well. For this reason, every source of hidden pain should be actively searched for in evaluating a patient showing such a disorder. Finally, recommendations for medical follow-up in adult age are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27164219

  12. Is TB in Your Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Joanne; Elwell, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Points out the importance of effective health education to fight against tuberculosis (TB) which is the number one fatal infectious disease around the world. Describes a science curriculum on tuberculosis that includes information on the facts about tuberculosis, a forum on tuberculosis, and evaluation. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  13. Congenital Intratympanic Cholesteatoma in an Adult Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pedruzzi, Barbara; Mion, Marta; Comacchio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Congenital cholesteatoma within the tympanic membrane is an uncommon entity, with only few cases being documented. The aetiopathogenesis of this lesion is still unknown; however, when cholesteatoma develops in subjects without any history of previous ear inflammation, as in the case we report here, an embryologic origin is deeply suspected. An acquired origin is hypothesized in patients with a previous history of an inflammatory process of the external or middle ear because of the proliferation of the basal cell layer of the tympanic membrane epithelium. We report a rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the tympanic membrane in an adult patient and review the literature. PMID:27340998

  14. Role of preoperative screening for adult patients for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Selim, Bernardo J; Surani, Salim R; Ramar, Kannan

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence. Underdiagnosed in the surgical population, OSA can reach a prevalence of up to 70% in bariatric surgery, and be associated with difficult airways and postoperative cardiopulmonary adverse events. Despite its association with escalation of care, increased health care resource utilization, and length of hospital stay, < 25% of health care institutions in the United States have OSA perioperative protocols to improve patient safety. This is explained in part by a lack of studies that support a widely accepted systematic approach to preoperative screening and risk stratification. This review evaluates the role of preoperative screening tools for adult patients with suspected OSA. PMID:25485922

  15. Contemporary Concepts in the Young Adult Hip Patient: Periacetabular Osteotomy for Hip Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Coobs, Benjamin R; Xiong, Ao; Clohisy, John C

    2015-07-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy, as originally described by Dr. Reinhold Ganz, is an effective treatment for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia in the pre-arthritic young adult hip. This technique has experienced several recent modifications in an attempt to optimize the clinical outcomes of these patients. We will review the clinical presentation of acetabular dysplasia, indications for surgery, contemporary refinements in technique and clinical results following periacetabular osteotomy. In well-selected patients, this reconstructive osteotomy should be considered safe and effective in alleviating pain and improving hip function. PMID:25865812

  16. Evaluation and Surgical Management of the Overcorrected Clubfoot Deformity in the Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Burger, Dawid; Aiyer, Amiethab; Myerson, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Adult patients presenting with an overcorrected clubfoot often have had a posteromedial release. They present later in life and have compensated quite well despite the development of deformity. Minor trauma may lead to the onset of acute symptoms. A spectrum of deformity exists. Key features include a dorsally subluxated navicular, a dorsal bunion from overpull of the tibialis anterior tendon, valgus of the ankle or hindfoot or both, and a flattop talus. This article details the diagnostic approach to the overcorrected clubfoot patient and options for management of the various components of the deformity. PMID:26589080

  17. Epidemiological features of influenza in Canadian adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G; Abdesselam, K; Pelude, L; Fernandes, R; Mitchell, R; McGeer, A; Frenette, C; Suh, K N; Wong, A; Katz, K; Wilkinson, K; Mersereau, T; Gravel, D

    2016-03-01

    To identify predictive factors and mortality of patients with influenza admitted to intensive care units (ICU) we carried out a prospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza in adult ICUs in a network of Canadian hospitals between 2006 and 2012. There were 626 influenza-positive patients admitted to ICUs over the six influenza seasons, representing 17·9% of hospitalized influenza patients, 3·1/10,000 hospital admissions. Variability occurred in admission rate and proportion of hospital influenza patients who were admitted to ICUs (proportion range by year: 11·7-29·4%; 21·3% in the 2009-2010 pandemic). In logistic regression models ICU patients were younger during the pandemic and post-pandemic period, and more likely to be obese than hospital non-ICU patients. Influenza B accounted for 14·2% of all ICU cases and had a similar ICU admission rate as influenza A. Influenza-related mortality was 17·8% in ICU patients compared to 2·0% in non-ICU patients. PMID:26384310

  18. Extracorporeal life support for 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure.

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, S; Awad, S S; Rich, P B; Schreiner, R J; Hirschl, R B; Bartlett, R H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors retrospectively reviewed their experience with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure (ARF) to define techniques, characterize its efficacy and utilization, and determine predictors of outcome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Extracorporeal life support maintains gas exchange during ARF, providing diseased lungs an optimal environment in which to heal. Extracorporeal life support has been successful in the treatment of respiratory failure in infants and children. In 1990, the authors instituted a standardized protocol for treatment of severe ARF in adults, which included ECLS when less invasive methods failed. METHODS: From January 1990 to July 1996, the authors used ECLS for 100 adults with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (n = 94): paO2/FiO2 ratio of 55.7+/-15.9, transpulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) of 52+/-22%, or acute hypercarbic respiratory failure (n = 6): paCO2 84.0+/-31.5 mmHg, despite and after maximal conventional ventilation. The technique included venovenous percutaneous access, lung "rest," transport on ECLS, minimal anticoagulation, hemofiltration, and optimal systemic oxygen delivery. RESULTS: Overall hospital survival was 54%. The duration of ECLS was 271.9+/-248.6 hours. Primary diagnoses included pneumonia (49 cases, 53% survived), adult respiratory distress syndrome (45 cases, 51 % survived), and airway support (6 cases, 83% survived). Multivariate logistic regression modeling identified the following pre-ECLS variables significant independent predictors of outcome: 1) pre-ECLS days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0003), 2) pre-ECLS paO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.002), and 3) age (years) (p = 0.005). Modeling of variables during ECLS showed that no mechanical complications were independent predictors of outcome, and the only patient-related complications associated with outcome were the presence of renal failure (p < 0.0001) and significant surgical site bleeding (p = 0

  19. Sensitivity of C-Tb: a novel RD-1-specific skin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Soren T; Peter, Jonathan G; Theron, Grant; Pascoe, Mellissa; Tingskov, Pernille N; Aggerbeck, Henrik; Kolbus, Daniel; Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Peter; Dheda, Keertan

    2016-03-01

    C-Tb, a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target/10-kDa culture filtrate protein (ESAT-6/CFP-10)-specific skin test, has high specificity in bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated healthy controls. However, the sensitivity of C-Tb has hitherto not been determined. The objective was to determine the sensitivity of C-Tb in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in comparison with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT).C-Tb and TST were randomly administered in a double-blinded fashion to one or the other forearm in 253 patients with active TB with or without HIV co-infection. QFT-GIT testing was performed prior to skin testing.Using a receiver operating characteristic curve-derived cut-point of 5 mm, C-Tb sensitivity was similar to QFT-GIT (73.9 (95% CI 67.8-79.3) versus 75.1 (95% CI 69.3-80.2)), and similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients (76.7 (95% CI 69.0-83.3) versus 69.5 (95% CI 59.2-78.5)). However, sensitivity was significantly diminished in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts <100 cells·mm(-3). C-Tb and QFT-GIT combined had significantly higher sensitivity than C-Tb alone (p<0.0001). C-Tb was safe with no significant adverse events. The 5 mm cut-point corresponded to that found in the previously published specificity study (TESEC-04).C-Tb has similar sensitivity compared with QFT-GIT for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. Sensitivity was reduced only in HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. Further studies in different settings are required to validate the proposed 5 mm cut-point. PMID:26677940

  20. Blueprint for Implementing New Processes in Acute Care: Rescuing Adult Patients With Intraosseous Access.

    PubMed

    Chreiman, Kristen M; Kim, Patrick K; Garbovsky, Lyudmila A; Schweickert, William D

    2015-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) access initiative at an urban university adult level 1 trauma center began from the need for a more expeditious vascular access route to rescue patients in extremis. The goal of this project was a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving to increase access of IO catheters to rescue patients in all care areas. The initiative became a collaborative effort between nursing, physicians, and pharmacy to embark on an acute care endeavor to standardize IO access. This is a descriptive analysis of processes to effectively develop collaborative strategies to navigate hospital systems and successfully implement multilayered initiatives. Administration should empower nurse to advance their practice to include IO for patient rescue. Intraosseous access may expedite resuscitative efforts in patients in extremis who lack venous access or where additional venous access is required for life-saving therapies. Limiting IO dwell time may facilitate timely definitive venous access. Continued education and training by offering IO skill laboratory refreshers and annual e-learning didactic is optimal for maintaining proficiency and knowledge. More research opportunities exist to determine medication safety and efficacy in adult patients in the acute care setting. PMID:26352658

  1. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  2. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  3. The use of arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of the adult burn patient.

    PubMed

    Sanford, S L; Cash, S H; Nelson, C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into one small aspect of occupational therapy: the use of arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of the adult burn patient. While burn care literature is plentiful, that related specifically to occupational therapy treatment of burn patients is scarce. A survey was mailed to occupational therapists in 165 burn units across the United States. Responses to survey questions indicate that a majority of respondents (73%%) do not use arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of adult burn patients, while 26%% do use these modalities. Those respondents who do use arts and crafts stated that they use leatherwork, painting, and woodworking most frequently. Therapists who do not use arts and crafts indicated that their primary reasons for not doing so were the acutely ill status of the patients and wound drainage/sterility issues. The entire scope of occupational therapy treatment of burn patients deserves greater attention as it is a challenging and rapidly-evolving area of practice. PMID:23947587

  4. [Nursing diagnoses for family members of adult burned patients near hospital discharge].

    PubMed

    Goyatá, Sueli Leiko Takamatsu; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida; Dalri, Maria Célia Barcellos

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the nursing diagnoses for family members of adult burned patients in the period near hospital discharge. We evaluated 10 family members of burned patients through interviews and observation. The nursing diagnoses were established on the basis of the NANDA International Taxonomy II and on Carpenito's interpretation of the NANDA Taxonomy I. We identified 11 different diagnosis categories, all of which were real. The most frequent diagnoses among the family members under analysis were knowledge deficit and anxiety. The former was characterized by the family members' need for information about care for the burned areas and infection prevention. The feeling of anxiety was mainly related to the changes in the appearance, structure or function of the burned patient's body and to the family members' expectations with respect to the patient's return to the family and work environment, accompanied by some physical, psycho-emotional or social consequence. PMID:16532246

  5. Atypical course of Henoch-Schonlein purpura in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Górnikiewicz-Brzezicka, Bożena; Brzezicki, Jan; Rymko, Marcin; Jeka, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura is vasculitis of small blood vessels characterized by deposits of IgA immune complexes and also non-thrombocytopenic purpura, abdominal pain, arthritis and renal involvement. It affects people of all ages, but most cases occur in children between 2 and 11 years old, more frequently in boys. The disease is much less common in adults, who often have a more severe course of the disease. The paper presents the case of a 38-year-old female patient with insidious course of the disease, initially dominant skin symptoms and joint pain without signs of inflammation. Symptoms of the disease were initially uncharacteristic and mild, and did not suggest severe and rapid course of the disease. The patient required hospitalization in several departments before final diagnosis of Henoch-Schonlein purpura. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppression. Despite the rapid course of the disease, treatment was effective. The patient was discharged in good condition. PMID:27407252

  6. Increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability in patients at risk for adult respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tennenberg, S.D.; Jacobs, M.P.; Solomkin, J.S.; Ehlers, N.A.; Hurst, J.M.

    1987-04-01

    Two methods for predicting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated prospectively in a group of 81 multitrauma and sepsis patients considered at clinical high risk. A popular ARDS risk-scoring method, employing discriminant analysis equations (weighted risk criteria and oxygenation characteristics), yielded a predictive accuracy of 59% and a false-negative rate of 22%. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was determined with a radioaerosol lung-scan technique in 23 of these 81 patients, representing a statistically similar subgroup. Lung scanning achieved a predictive accuracy of 71% (after excluding patients with unilateral pulmonary contusion) and gave no false-negatives. We propose a combination of clinical risk identification and functional determination of PACP to assess a patient's risk of developing ARDS.

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Coles, Theresa; Coon, Cheryl; DeMuro, Carla; McLeod, Lori; Gnanasakthy, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability), its validity (construct and known-groups validity), and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1-3) and total score (sum of items 1-3) in an ADHD population. In addition, the evaluation provides evidence for a three-point preliminary responder definition for the SDS and further evidence of its responsiveness in adults with ADHD. Altogether, the results indicate that the SDS is a

  8. Kinetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific IFN-γ responses and sputum bacillary clearance in HIV-infected adults during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mzinza, David T; Sloan, Derek J; Jambo, Kondwani C; Shani, Doris; Kamdolozi, Mercy; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Wilkinson, Robert J; Davies, Geraint R; Heyderman, Robert S; Mwandumba, Henry C

    2015-07-01

    In HIV-uninfected adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), anti-TB treatment is associated with changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific immune responses, which correlate with sputum bacillary load. It is unclear if this occurs in HIV-infected TB patients. We investigated changes in Mtb-specific immune responses and sputum bacillary clearance during anti-TB treatment in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults with pulmonary TB. Sputum bacillary load was assessed by smear microscopy and culture. Mtb-specific IFN-γ secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells were enumerated using an ELISPOT assay following stimulation with PPD, ESAT-6 and CFP-10. The baseline frequency of Mtb-specific IFN-γ secreting cells was lower in HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected patients (median PPD 32 vs. 104 Spot Forming Units (SFU), p = 0.05; CFP-10 19 vs. 74 SFU, p = 0.01). ESAT-6-specific IFN-γ secreting cells and sputum bacillary load declined progressively during treatment in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients. HIV infection did not influence the 2-month sputum culture conversion rate (Odds Ratio 0.89, p = 0.95). These findings suggest that changes in ESAT-6-specific immune responses during anti-TB treatment correspond with changes in sputum bacillary load irrespective of host HIV infection status. The utility of Mtb-specific IFN-γ responses as a proxy measure of treatment response in HIV-infected TB patients warrants further evaluation in other settings. PMID:26051653

  9. Long-Term Outcome of Critically Ill Adult Patients with Acute Epiglottitis

    PubMed Central

    Hernu, Romain; Baudry, Thomas; Bohé, Julien; Piriou, Vincent; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Disant, François; Argaud, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute epiglottitis is a potentially life threatening disease, with a growing incidence in the adult population. Its long-term outcome after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) hospitalization has rarely been studied. Methodology and Principal Findings Thirty-four adult patients admitted for acute epiglottitis were included in this retrospective multicentric study. The mean age was 44±12 years (sex ratio: 5.8). Sixteen patients (47%) had a history of smoking while 8 (24%) had no previous medical history. The average time of disease progression before ICU was 2.6±3.6 days. The main reasons for hospitalization were continuous monitoring (17 cases, 50%) and acute respiratory distress (10 cases, 29%). Microbiological documentation could be made in 9 cases (26%), with Streptococcus spp. present in 7 cases (21%). Organ failure at ICU admission occurred in 8 cases (24%). Thirteen patients (38%) required respiratory assistance during ICU stay; 9 (26%) required surgery. Two patients (6%) died following hypoxemic cardiac arrest. Five patients (15%) had sequelae at 1 year. Patients requiring respiratory assistance had a longer duration of symptoms and more frequent anti inflammatory use before ICU admission and sequelae at 1 year (p<0.05 versus non-ventilated patients). After logistic regression analysis, only exposure to anti-inflammatory drugs before admission was independently associated with airway intervention (OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.06-23.16). Conclusions and Significance The profile of the cases consisted of young smoking men with little comorbidity. Streptococcus spp. infection represented the main etiology. Outcome was favorable if early respiratory tract protection could be performed in good conditions. Morbidity and sequelae were greater in patients requiring airway intervention. PMID:25945804

  10. Novel Munc13–4 mutations in children and young adult patients with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, A; Cannella, S; Bossi, G; Gallo, F; Trizzino, A; Pende, D; Dieli, F; Bruno, G; Stinchcombe, J C; Micalizzi, C; De Fusco, C; Danesino, C; Moretta, L; Notarangelo, L D; Griffiths, G M; Aricò, M

    2006-01-01

    Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterised by constitutive defects in cellular cytotoxicity resulting in fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenia, and the outcome is fatal unless treated by chemoimmunotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem‐cell transplantation. Since 1999, mutations in the perforin gene giving rise to this disease have been identified; however, these account only for 40% of cases. Lack of a genetic marker hampers the diagnosis, suitability for transplantation, selection of familial donors, identification of carriers, genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Mutations in the Munc13–4 gene have recently been described in patients with FHL. We sequenced the Munc13–4 gene in all patients with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis not due to PRF1 mutations. In 15 of the 30 families studied, 12 novel and 4 known Munc13–4 mutations were found, spread throughout the gene. Among novel mutations, 2650C→T introduced a stop codon; 441del A, 532del C, 3082del C and 3226ins G caused a frameshift, and seven were mis sense mutations. Median age of diagnosis was 4 months, but six patients developed the disease after 5 years of age and one as a young adult of 18 years. Involvement of central nervous system was present in 9 of 15 patients, activity of natural killer cells was markedly reduced or absent in 13 of 13 tested patients. Chemo‐immunotherapy was effective in all patients. Munc13–4 mutations were found in 15 of 30 patients with FHL without PRF1 mutations. Because these patients may develop the disease during adolescence or even later, haematologists should include FHL2 and FHL3 in the differential diagnosis of young adults with fever, cytopenia, splenomegaly and hypercytokinaemia. PMID:16825436

  11. Clinical trials of an intravenous oxygenator in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    High, K M; Snider, M T; Richard, R; Russell, G B; Stene, J K; Campbell, D B; Aufiero, T X; Thieme, G A

    1992-11-01

    In patients with severe adult respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation may not be able to ensure gas exchange sufficient to sustain life. We report the use of an intravenous oxygenator (IVOX) in five patients who were suffering from severe adult respiratory distress syndrome as a result of aspiration, fat embolism, or pneumonia. IVOX was used in an attempt to provide supplemental transfer of CO2 and O2 and thereby reduce O2 toxicity and barotrauma. All patients were tracheally intubated, sedated, and chemically paralyzed and had a PaO2 < 60 mmHg when the lungs were ventilated with an FIO2 = 1.0 and a positive end expiratory pressure of > or = 5 cmH2O. The right common femoral vein was located surgically, and the patient was systemically anticoagulated with heparin. A hollow introducer tube was inserted into the right common femoral vein, and the furled IVOX was passed into the inferior vena cava and advanced until the tip was in the lower portion of the superior vena cava. IVOX use ranged from 2 h to 4 days. In this group of patients, IVOX gas exchange ranged from 21 to 87 ml x min-1 of CO2 and from 28 to 85 ml x min-1 of O2. One of the five patients survived and was discharged from the hospital. The IVOX transferred up to 28% of metabolic gas-exchange requirements. One patient with a small vena cava showed signs of caval obstruction. Three other patients demonstrated signs of a septic syndrome after the device was inserted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1443737

  12. Subtalar Arthroereisis Implant Removal in Adults: A Prospective Study of 100 Patients.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; Via, Alessio Giai; Maffulli, Nicola; Chiu, Haywan

    2016-01-01

    Subtalar joint arthroereisis (STA) can be used in the management of adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD), including posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. The procedure is quick and normally causes little morbidity; however, the implant used for STA often needs to be removed because of sinus tarsi pain. The present study evaluated the rate and risk factors for removal of the implant used for STA in adults treated for AAFD/posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, including patient age, implant size, and the use of endoscopic gastrocnemius recession. Patients undergoing STA for adult acquired flatfoot were prospectively studied from 1996 to 2012. The inclusion criteria were an arthroereisis procedure for AAFD/posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, age >18 years, and a follow-up period of ≥2 years. The exclusion criteria were hindfoot arthritis, age <18 years, and a follow-up period of <2 years. A total of 100 patients (average age 53 years) underwent 104 STA procedures. The mean follow-up period was 6.5 (range 2 to 17) years. The overall incidence of implant removal was 22.1%. Patient age was not a risk factor for implant removal (p = .09). However, implant size was a factor for removal, with 11-mm implants removed significantly more frequently (p = .02). Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession did not exert any influence on the rate of implant removal (p = .19). After STA for AAFD, 22% of the implants were removed. No significant difference was found in the incidence of removal according to patient age or endoscopic gastrocnemius recession. However, a significant difference was found for implant size, with 11-mm implants explanted most frequently. PMID:26874830

  13. Physician, Patient and Contextual Factors Affecting Treatment Decisions in Older Adults with Cancer: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tariman, J. D.; Berry, D. L.; Cochrane, B.; Doorenbos, A.; Schepp, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To review physician, patient, and contextual factors that affect treatment decision-making in older adults diagnosed with cancer and relate these factors to theoretical models of decision-making. Data Sources PubMed (1966-April 2010), PsycINFO (1967-April 2010) and CINAHL (1982-April 2010) databases were searched to access relevant medical, psychological and nursing literature. Data Synthesis Physician factors in treatment decisions include physician personal beliefs and values, expertise, practice type, perception of lowered life expectancy, medical factors, power, and communication style. Patient factors include personal beliefs and values, ethnicity, decisional control preferences, previous health-related experience, perception of the decision-making process, and personal factors. Contextual factors include availability of caregiver, lack of insurance, poor financial status, and geographical barrier. The interplay of physician, patient, and contextual factors are not well understood. Existing models of decision-making are not sufficient to explicate TDM process in older adults diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions Clinical studies in older adult patient population using a longitudinal and prospective design are needed to examine real-time interplay of patient, physician, and contextual factors and to better understand how these divergent factors influenced actual treatment decisions. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses can advocate for a patient’s autonomy during TDM by coaching them to seek evidence-based discussion of various treatment options, benefits and risks assessments, and truthful discussion of the probability of success for each treatment option from their physicians. Oncology nurses must promote an informed treatment decisions that are consistent with a patient’s personal preference and values within the limits of the patient’s personal contexts. PMID:22201670

  14. Clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of adult patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Otrock, Zaher K; Eby, Charles S

    2015-03-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system. The diagnosis of HLH in adults is challenging not only because the majority of the reported data are from pediatric patients, but also because HLH occurs in many disease entities. This study reports the clinical and laboratory findings and prognostic factors of adult HLH in a large cohort managed at a single medical center from 2003 to 2014. Seventy-three patients met the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. The median age was 51 years (range, 18-82 years); 41 (56.2%) were male. Patients manifested fever, cytopenias, and elevated ferritin in >85% of cases. Likely causes of HLH were as follows: 30 (41.1%) infections, 21 (28.8%) malignancies, 5 (6.8%) attributed to autoimmune disorders, 1 (1.4%) primary immunodeficiency, 2 (2.7%) post solid organ transplantation, and 13 (17.8%) idiopathic. The median overall survival was 7.67 months. Patients with malignancy-associated HLH had a markedly worse survival compared with patients with non-malignancy-associated HLH (median overall survival 1.13 vs. 46.53 months, respectively; P < 0.0001). In a multivariable analysis, malignancy (hazard ratio = 12.22; 95% CI: 2.53-59.02; P = 0.002) correlated with poor survival. Ferritin >50,000 µg/L correlated with 30-day mortality. Survival after a diagnosis of HLH is dismal, especially among those with malignancy-associated HLH. The development of a registry for adults with HLH would improve our understanding of this syndrome, validate diagnostic criteria, and help develop effective treatment strategies. PMID:25469675

  15. Localized Resectable Genitourinary Sarcoma in Adult Korean Patients: Experiences at a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Yong; Moon, Kyung Chul; Cheong, Min Su; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of localized resectable genitourinary sarcomas in adults. Materials and Methods Between September, 1996 and November, 2008, 18 consecutive cases of adults (12 men and 6 women; median age 48.8 years) who were treated for primary genitourinary sarcomas were identified. The following variables were analyzed: patient age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, primary organ, tumor histology, size, necrosis, Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) grade, and surgical margin positivity. Recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival were the study end-points. Results The most common presenting symptom was a palpable mass (six cases, 33.3%), the most common site was the kidney (six cases, 33.3%), and the most common histological subtype was leiomyosarcoma (eight patients, 44.4%). Complete resection with negative surgical margins was achieved in 13 patients (72.2%). The median follow-up period was 49.9 months (range 6.4 to 147.6). The recurrence-free survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81.6%, 66.5%, and 66.5%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival only associated significantly with ASA score (p=0.018). The disease-specific survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 88.9%, 76.2%, and 67.7%, respectively. Disease-specific survival was associated significantly only with FNCLCC grade (p=0.042). Conclusion Although genitourinary sarcomas in adults are a rare group of tumors with a poor prognosis, some patients may have a favorable prognosis. Our findings suggest that FNCLCC grade is the most important prognostic factor for these patients. PMID:21786440

  16. Antiretroviral Treatment Scale-Up and Tuberculosis Mortality in High TB/HIV Burden Countries: An Econometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Isabel; Bendavid, Eran; Korenromp, Eline L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. Methods We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates. National coverage with ART, as proportion of HIV-infected people in need, was obtained from UNAIDS. We applied panel linear regressions controlling for HIV prevalence (5-year lagged), coverage of TB interventions (estimated by WHO and UNAIDS), gross domestic product per capita, health spending from domestic sources, urbanization, and country fixed effects. Results Models suggest that that increasing ART coverage was followed by reduced TB mortality, across multiple specifications. For death notifications at 2 to 5 years following a given ART scale-up, a 1% increase in ART coverage predicted 0.95% faster mortality rate decline (p = 0.002); resulting in 27% fewer TB deaths in 2011 alone than would have occurred without ART. Based on WHO death estimates, a 1% increase in ART predicted a 1.0% reduced TB death rate (p<0.001), and 31% fewer deaths in 2011. TB mortality was higher at higher HIV prevalence (p<0.001), but not related to coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy, cotrimoxazole preventive therapy, or other covariates. Conclusion This econometric analysis supports a substantial impact of ART on population-level TB mortality realized already within the first decade of ART scale-up, that is apparent despite variable-quality mortality data. PMID:27536864

  17. Translating personality psychology to help personalize preventive medicine for young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-03-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the present study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults' personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the cohort of 1,000 individuals from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Moffitt, Caspi, Rutter, & Silva, 2001), we show that very brief measures of young adults' personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for health care professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing health care electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient

  18. A Combined Treatment Approach for Adults with ADHD--Results of an Open Study of 43 Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostain, Anthony L.; Ramsay, J. Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Increasing numbers of adults are seeking treatment for ADHD. Pharmacotherapy is well established as the first line treatment for adult ADHD, although medications alone may be insufficient treatment for the myriad problems experienced by these patients. Few studies have examined the clinical outcomes of a combination of pharmacotherapy…

  19. Activity limitation and exertional dyspnea in adult asthmatic patients: What do we know?

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, François; Garcia, Gilles; Ninane, Vincent; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2016-08-01

    Limitation of activity is the most cited symptom described by uncontrolled asthma patients. Assessment of activity limitation can be undertaken through several ways, more or less complex, subjective or objective. Yet little is known about the link between patients sensations and objective measurements. The present review reports the current knowledge regarding activity limitation and symptom perception (i.e., exertional dyspnea) in adult patients with asthma. This work is based on references indexed by PubMed, irrespective of the year of publication. Overall, patients with stable asthma do not have a more sedentary lifestyle than healthy subjects. However, during a cycle ergometric test, the maximal load is reduced when FEV1, FVC and muscle strengths are decreased. Additionally, during the six-minute walking test, mild asthma patients walk less than healthy subjects even if the minimal clinically important difference is not reached. The major complaint of asthma patients when exercising is dyspnea that is mainly related to the inspiratory effort and also to dynamic hyperinflation in some circumstances. Finally, the administration of bronchodilator does not improve the ventilatory pattern and the exercise capacity of asthma patients and little is known on its effect on exertional dyspnea. The present review allows to conclude that until now there is no gold standard test allowing the objective assessment of "activity limitation and exertional dyspnea" in asthma patients. PMID:27492522

  20. Long-Term Effects of Exercise Training and Hyperalimentation in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Severe Pulmonary Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijerman, Harry G. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study, with 10 adult patients with cystic fibrosis, found that the improvement in lung function and ergometry parameters obtained by a short in-patient training program could be maintained on an out-patient basis through a voluntary self-treatment program. (DB)

  1. Patient Vertical Centering and Correlation with Radiation Output in Adult Abdominopelvic CT.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Phillip M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant effect, independent of patient size, of patient vertical centering on the current-modulated CT scanner radiation output in adult abdominopelvic CT. A phantom was used to evaluate calculation of vertical positioning and effective diameter at five different table heights. In addition, 656 consecutive contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic scans using the same protocol and automatic tube current modulation settings on a Philips Brilliance 64 MDCT scanner were retrospectively evaluated. The vertical position of the patient center of mass and the average effective diameter of the scanned patient were computed using the reconstructed images. The average volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) for each scan was recorded. The mean patient center of mass y coordinate ranged from -3.7 to 6.7 cm (mean ± SD, 2.8 ± 1.2 cm), indicating that patients were on average positioned slightly below the scanner isocenter. There was a slight tendency for smaller patients to be mis-centered lower than larger patients. Average CTDIvol closely fit a quadratic regression curve with respect to mean effective diameter. However, the value of the regression coefficient relating CTDIvol to the patient's vertical position was nearly zero, indicating only a very slight increase in CTDIvol with patient mis-centering for the scanner used in this study. The techniques used here may be useful both for automated evaluation of proper patient positioning in CT and for estimating the radiation dose effects of patient mis-centering for any CT scanner. PMID:26810981

  2. Participation in clinical research: perspectives of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Keusch, Florian; Rao, Rohini; Chang, Lawrence; Lepkowski, James; Reddy, Pavan; Choi, Sung Won

    2014-10-01

    Despite major improvements over the past several decades, many patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) continue to suffer from significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Clinical research studies (trials) have been integral to advancing the standard of care in HSCT. However, 1 of the biggest challenges with clinical trials is the low participation rate. Although barriers to participation in cancer clinical trials have been previously explored, studies specific to HSCT are lacking. The current study was undertaken to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of HSCT patients regarding clinical trials. As members of focus groups, participants responded to open-ended questions that assessed factors influencing decision-making about HSCT clinical trials. Suggestions for improvements in the recruitment process were also solicited among participants. Seventeen adult HSCT patients and 6 parents of pediatric HSCT patients participated in the study. The median age was 56 years (range, 18 to 70) and 44 years (range, 28 to 54) for adult patients and parents, respectively. Participants universally indicated that too much information was provided within the informed consents and they were intimidated by the medical and legal language. Despite the large amount of information provided to them at the time of study enrollment, the participants had limited knowledge retention and recall of study details. Nevertheless, participants reported overall positive experiences with clinical trial participation and many would readily choose to participate again. A common concern among participants was the uncertainty of study outcome and general lack of feedback about results at the end of the study. Participants suggested that investigators provide more condensed and easier to understand informed consents and follow-up of study findings. These findings could be used to help guide the development of improved consent documents and enhanced

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Novel Plant Cell-Expressed Taliglucerase Alfa in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Richat; Park, Glen; Damle, Bharat; Chertkoff, Raul; Alon, Sari

    2015-01-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is a beta-glucocerebrosidase enzyme replacement therapy approved in the United States, Israel, and other countries for treatment of Type 1 Gaucher disease in adults, and is the first approved plant cell—expressed recombinant protein. In this report, taliglucerase alfa pharmacokinetics were assessed in adult and pediatric patients with Gaucher disease from separate multicenter trials of 30 Units/kg and 60 Units/kg doses infused every 2 weeks. Serial blood samples were obtained from adult patients following single-dose administration on day 1 (n = 26) and multiple doses at week 38 (n = 29), and from pediatric patients following administration of multiple doses of taliglucerase alfa for 10–27 months (n = 10). In both adult and pediatric patients, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to last measureable concentration (AUC0-t), and from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) were higher after 60 Units/kg dose than 30 Units/kg dose. No tendency for accumulation or change in taliglucerase alfa pharmacokinetic parameters over time from day 1 to week 38 was observed with repeated doses of 30 or 60 Units/kg in adults. After multiple doses, mean (range) dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for adult versus pediatric patients receiving 60 Units/kg: Cmax expressed in ng/mL/mg was 42.4 (14.5–95.4) in adults and 46.6 (34.4–68.4) in pediatric patients, AUC0 t expressed in ng•h/mL/mg was 63.4 (26.3–156) in adults and 63.9 (39.8–85.1) in pediatric patients, t1/2 expressed in minutes was 34.8 (11.3–104) in adults and 31.5 (18.0–42.9) in pediatric patients and total body clearance expressed in L/h was 19.9 (6.25–37.9) in adults and 17.0 (11.7–24.9) in pediatric patients. These pharmacokinetic data extend the findings of taliglucerase alfa in adult and pediatric patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT00376168 (in adults); NCT01411228 (in children) PMID

  4. Levomilnacipran extended-release: a review of its use in adult patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2014-11-01

    Oral levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) [Fetzima™], the more active enantiomer of milnacipran, is the most recent serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor to be approved in the USA for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD is characterized by depression and impairment of cognitive, social and work functioning. Once-daily levomilnacipran ER 40-120 mg was an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment in adults with MDD participating in 8-week phase III trials and a 1-year extension study. After 8 weeks, levomilnacipran ER treatment was associated with significantly greater and clinically meaningful improvements in depressive symptoms than placebo treatment and, in general, higher Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale responder rates and greater improvements in functional outcomes than placebo. The efficacy of levomilnacipran ER was maintained during the extension study, with no new safety signals detected; ongoing postmarketing evidence should more fully define the long-term safety of levomilnacipran ER. In the absence of head-to-head clinical trials, the relative position of levomilnacipran ER to that of other antidepressants remains to be determined. In the meantime, it is a useful addition to pharmacological options for the treatment of adult patients with MDD. This article summarizes the clinical use of oral levomilnacipran ER in adults with MDD, and briefly reviews the pharmacological properties of levomilnacipran. PMID:25270036

  5. Psychometric testing of the Revised Humane Caring Scale for adult patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mien Li; Ang, Emily N K; Chan, Yiong-Huak; He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of the Revised Humane Caring Scale as used by adult patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A three-phase descriptive quantitative study was conducted. In phase I, an expert panel of nurses and inpatients examined the content validity of the scale; phase II comprised a pilot study on 20 patients; and in phase III, a large-scale study on 235 patients was implemented to test the internal consistency of the scale. The results revealed that the content validity index of the scale ranged from 0.856 to 1, and the scale had a high inter-rater agreement kappa value of 0.940. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.798 to 0.877 in phase II, and from 0.579 to 0.760 in phase III, respectively. The Revised Humane Caring Scale revealed good content validity and an acceptable level of internal consistency. The scale is an acceptable measurement tool for evaluating adult patients' satisfaction during hospitalization. PMID:25783792

  6. Follicular lymphoma in young adults: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 200 patients.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ivison X; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Wludarski, Sheila C L; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Follicular lymphoma is clinically heterogenous, and therefore necessitates the identification of prognostic markers to stratify risk groups and optimize clinical management. It is relatively rare in patients younger than 40 years, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and biological behavior in this age group are poorly understood. In the current study, samples from a cohort of 200 patients between 19 and 40 years were evaluated retrospectively with respect to clinical, histologic, and genetic features. These were then correlated with clinical outcome. The median age at presentation was 35 years with a slight female prepoderance (56%). Most of the cases are presented with nodal disease (90%). Concomitant follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed in 7 (4%) patients. Immunohistologic studies showed the expression of CD10 (91%), BCL6 (97%), BCL2 (95%), MUM1/IRF4 (12%), MDM2 (17%), and CD23 (25%). BCL2 rearrangement was present in 74%, and BCL6 in 20%. The estimated overall survival of patients was 13 years (mean). The presence of anemia, elevated lactose dehydrogenase, bone marrow involvement, and high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index correlated with adverse overall survival. Our findings revealed that follicular lymphoma in young adults demonstrate similarities with that of older adults, including the frequency of presentation at various anatomic sites, grade, and adverse prognostic factors. PMID:23599146

  7. Mutations in the TLR3 signaling pathway and beyond in adult patients with herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Mørk, N; Kofod-Olsen, E; Sørensen, K B; Bach, E; Ørntoft, T F; Østergaard, L; Paludan, S R; Christiansen, M; Mogensen, T H

    2015-12-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in children has previously been linked to defects in type I interferon production downstream of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3. In the present study, we used whole-exome sequencing to investigate the genetic profile of 16 adult patients with a history of HSE. We identified novel mutations in IRF3, TYK2 and MAVS, molecules involved in generating innate antiviral immune responses, which have not previously been associated with HSE. Moreover, data revealed mutations in TLR3, TRIF, TBK1 and STAT1 known to be associated with HSE in children but not previously described in adults. All discovered mutations were heterozygous missense mutations, the majority of which were associated with significantly decreased antiviral responses to HSV-1 infection and/or the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) in patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with controls. Altogether, this study demonstrates novel mutations in the TLR3 signaling pathway in molecules previously identified in children, suggesting that impaired innate immunity to HSV-1 may also increase susceptibility to HSE in adults. Importantly, the identification of mutations in innate signaling molecules not directly involved in TLR3 signaling suggests the existence of innate immunodeficiencies predisposing to HSE beyond the TLR3 pathway. PMID:26513235

  8. Management of acne vulgaris with hormonal therapies in adult female patients.

    PubMed

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common condition affecting up of 93% of adolescents. Although rare, this disease may persist in adulthood. In adult women with acne (those older than 25 years old), this condition is particularly relevant because of the refractory to conventional therapies, which makes acne a challenge for dermatologists in this group of patients. In order to its potential risk for chronicity and the involvement of visible anatomical sites such as face and upper torso, acne has been associated with a wide spectrum of psychological and social dysfunction such as depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and social inhibition. In particular, adult women with acne have been shown to be adversely impacted by the effect of acne on their quality of life. For the last four decades, dermatologists have used hormonal therapies for the management of acne vulgaris in adult women, which are considered a rational choice given the severity and chronicity of this condition in this group of patients. The aim of this work is to review the hormonal drugs for management of acne. PMID:25845307

  9. The five key things you need to know to manage adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lanzkron, Sophie; Haywood, Carlton

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a strong evidence base to guide the management of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) makes it difficult for patients to receive high quality care outside of specialty centers. As there is a dearth of providers with sickle cell expertise, the purpose of this article is to identify some of the key things every provider who manages the care of adults with SCD should know. Managing adults with SCD requires excellent clinical skills, as it can affect every organ and cause life-threatening complications but it also requires a willingness to manage patients who often have psychosocial issues that are complex and impact care and care delivery in very significant ways. We have chosen topics for which there is a limited evidence base but which have significant clinical consequences if left unrecognized or poorly managed. The topics that will be addressed include chronic pain, neurocognitive dysfunction, renal disease, venous thromboembolism, and avoiding the inappropriate use of red cell transfusions. PMID:26637752

  10. HAG regimen improves survival in adult patients with hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Libing; Gao, Lei; Lü, Shuqin; Xi, Hao; Qiu, Huiying; Chen, Li; Chen, Jie; Ni, Xiong; Xu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Jianmin; Song, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia (Hypo-AML) is a rare disease entity. Studies investigating the biological characteristics of hypo-AML have been largely lacking. We examined the clinical and biological characteristics, as well as treatment outcomes of hypo-AML in our institutes over a seven years period. Design and Methods We retrospectively analyzed data on 631 adult AML patients diagnosed according to the French-American-British (FAB) classification and WHO classification of tumors of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue, including 43 patients with hypo-AML. Biological variables, treatment outcomes and follow-up data on hypo-AML patients were analyzed. Results Out of 631 AML patients, 47 (7.4%) were diagnosed as hypo-AML, out of which 43 patients were evaluable. Compared with non-hypocellular AML, hypo-AML patients tended to be older (P = 0.05), more likely to present with leukocytopenia (P < 0.01) and anterior hematological diseases (P = 0.02). The overall complete remission (CR) rate, disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in hypo-AML patients were comparable to those in non-hypo AML patients. Twenty-seven (62.8%) patients with hypocellular AML were treated with the standard regimen of anthracyclines and cytarabine (XA) (associated CR rate: 51.9%; median OS: 7 months; median DFS: 6.5 months). Sixteen (37.2%) patients were treated with a priming regimen containing homoharringtonine, cytarabine and G-CSF (HAG) (associated CR rate: 81.25%; median OS: 16 months; median DFS: 16 months). Conclusions The overall prognosis of hypo-AML was not inferior to that of non-hypo AML. HAG regimen might increase response rates and improve survival in hypo-AML patients. PMID:26497216

  11. Reversible Ceftriaxone-Induced Pseudolithiasis in an Adult Patient with Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Aya; Suehiro, Takaichi; Takii, Misaki; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Hirakawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone (CTRX) is a third-generation cephalosporin widely used for the treatment of bacterial infections in patients with renal disease because of its excretion by both renal and hepatic mechanisms. Biliary pseudolithiasis is a known CTRX-associated complication; however, there have been no studies of this adverse event in adult patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Here we report the case of a 79-year-old Japanese woman with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance hemodialysis who developed CTRX-induced pseudolithiasis. The patient received CTRX for bronchial pneumonia. Fifteen days following CTRX initiation, the patient presented with stomachache. Because of the presence of one gallstone and increased gallbladder wall thickness on computed tomography scans, not detected at the onset of pneumonia, the patient was diagnosed with CTRX-induced gallbladder pseudolithiasis. CTRX was discontinued immediately. At 48 days following CTRX withdrawal, the gallstone and thickening of the gallbladder wall had completely resolved. ESRD may be a risk factor for CTRX-induced pseudolithiasis as hepatic excretion of CTRX is the predominant clearance mechanism in patients with ESRD. More attention should be paid to CTRX-induced pseudolithiasis following the use of CTRX in ESRD patients. PMID:26558252

  12. Management and outcomes of small bowel obstruction in older adult patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Jeremy E.; Bailey, Jonathan G.; Davis, Philip J.B.; Johnson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was to examine the morbidity, mortality and rate of recurrent bowel obstruction associated with the treatment of small bowel obstruction (SBO) in older adults. Methods We prospectively enrolled all patients 70 years or older with an SBO who were admitted to a tertiary care teaching centre between Jul. 1, 2011, and Sept. 30, 2012. Data regarding presentation, investigations, treatment and outcomes were collected. Results Of the 104 patients admitted with an SBO, 49% were managed nonoperatively and 51% underwent surgery. Patients who underwent surgery experienced more complications (64% v. 27%, p = 0.002) and stayed in hospital longer (10 v. 3 d, p < 0.001) than patients managed nonoperatively. Nonoperative management was associated with a high rate of recurrent SBO: 31% after a median follow-up of 17 months. Of the patients managed operatively, 60% underwent immediate surgery and 40% underwent surgery after attempted nonoperative management. Patients in whom nonoperative management failed underwent surgery after a median of 2 days, and 89% underwent surgery within 5 days. The rate of bowel resection was high (29%) among those who underwent delayed surgery. Surgery after failed nonoperative management was associated with a mortality of 14% versus 3% for those who underwent immediate surgery; however, this difference was not significant. Conclusion These data suggest that some elderly patients with SBO may be waiting too long for surgery. PMID:25421079

  13. B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Presenting as a Tumor of the Nasopharynx in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Teresa; Lopes, Alexandra; Santos, Susana; Mafra, Manuela; Rodrigues, António Silva; Botelho de Sousa, Aida

    2010-01-01

    In adults, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common neoplasm found in the head and neck region after squamous cell carcinoma. Within this region, primary NHL of the nasopharynx is rare. We report the case of a 28-year-old male diagnosed with a B lymphoblastic lymphoma (CD20−; CD79a+; CD3−; CD10+; PAX5+, CyclinD1−; TdT+) of the nasopharynx extending to the deep and superficial structures of the right hemiface, to the skull base with an intracranial component and a small but detectable bone marrow involvement, who was started on chemotherapy with a complete response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a primary nasopharynx B-LBL in an adult patient with such aggressive regional spread to be reported in the literature. PMID:20730608

  14. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock due to myocarditis in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Matteo; Banfi, Carlo; Grinberg, Daniel; Koffel, Catherine; Bendjelid, Karim; Robin, Jacques; Giraud, Raphaël; Obadia, Jean François

    2016-07-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle with established histological, immunological and immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria. Different triggers could be advocated as possible etiologies of myocarditis such as viral and non-viral infections, medications, systemic autoimmune diseases and toxic reactions. The spectrum of clinical presentations of myocarditis is broad and varies from subclinical asymptomatic courses to refractory cardiogenic shock. The prognosis of patients with myocarditis depends mainly on the severity of clinical presentation. In particular, myocarditis patients developing cardiogenic shock refractory to optimal maximal medical treatment may benefit from the use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) as a temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS). The aim of the present report is to offer a review of the most important articles of the literature showing the results of VA-ECMO in the specific setting of cardiogenic shock due to myocarditis in adult patients. PMID:27499982

  15. Implementation of Patient-Centered Medical Homes in Adult Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Markovitz, Amanda R; Paustian, Michael L; Wise, Christopher G; El Reda, Darline K; Green, Lee A; Fetters, Michael D

    2015-08-01

    There has been relatively little empirical evidence about the effects of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) implementation on patient-related outcomes and costs. Using a longitudinal design and a large study group of 2,218 Michigan adult primary care practices, our study examined the following research questions: Is the level of, and change in, implementation of PCMH associated with medical surgical cost, preventive services utilization, and quality of care in the following year? Results indicated that both level and amount of change in practice implementation of PCMH are independently and positively associated with measures of quality of care and use of preventive services, after controlling for a variety of practice, patient cohort, and practice environmental characteristics. Results also indicate that lower overall medical and surgical costs are associated with higher levels of PCMH implementation, although change in PCMH implementation did not achieve statistical significance. PMID:25861803

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Posttraumatic Growth in Adult Patients Undergoing Treatment for Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Russell, Gregory B.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Jesse, Michelle T.; Vishnevsky, Tanya; Daley, Kristin; Carroll, Suzanne; Triplett, Kelli N.; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Cann, Arnie; Powell, Bayard L.

    2013-01-01

    An acute leukemia diagnosis can be an extremely stressful experience for most patients. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is positive psychological change experienced following a struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. The current study is the first longitudinal investigation of predictors of PTG and distress in adult acute leukemia patients undergoing induction chemotherapy. Findings suggest that these patients report PTG, and levels of PTG appear to increase over the weeks following leukemia diagnosis and induction chemotherapy. Variables associated with higher total PTG scores over time included greater number of days from baseline, younger age, and greater challenge to core beliefs. Variables associated with higher distress included greater number of days from baseline, greater perceived cancer threat, higher symptom severity, and lower spiritual well-being. Results underscore the critical role that examination of one’s core beliefs may play in the development of PTG over time. PMID:22739660

  17. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock due to myocarditis in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Matteo; Grinberg, Daniel; Koffel, Catherine; Bendjelid, Karim; Robin, Jacques; Giraud, Raphaël; Obadia, Jean François

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle with established histological, immunological and immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria. Different triggers could be advocated as possible etiologies of myocarditis such as viral and non-viral infections, medications, systemic autoimmune diseases and toxic reactions. The spectrum of clinical presentations of myocarditis is broad and varies from subclinical asymptomatic courses to refractory cardiogenic shock. The prognosis of patients with myocarditis depends mainly on the severity of clinical presentation. In particular, myocarditis patients developing cardiogenic shock refractory to optimal maximal medical treatment may benefit from the use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) as a temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS). The aim of the present report is to offer a review of the most important articles of the literature showing the results of VA-ECMO in the specific setting of cardiogenic shock due to myocarditis in adult patients. PMID:27499982

  18. Changes in thymus volume in adult HIV-infected patients under HAART: correlation with the T-cell repopulation

    PubMed Central

    RUBIO, A; MARTÍNEZ-MOYA, M; LEAL, M; FRANCO, J M; RUIZ-MATEOS, E; MERCHANTE, E; SÁNCHEZ-QUIJANO, A; LISSEN, E

    2002-01-01

    An important thymus role has been suggested in T-cell repopulation after HAART in adult HIV-1 infected patients. Thymus volume increase after treatment has been described in HIV-1 infected children but not in adult patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of HAART on the thymic volume of adult HIV-1 infected patients and its relation with the T-cell repopulation. Twenty-one adult patients following 24 weeks under HAART were included in the study. All patients underwent a thoracic computed tomography (CT) evaluation for the measurement of thymic volumes at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Baseline thymus volume showed a significant correlation with the patient's age. Thymic volume significantly increased after 24 weeks of HAART. Besides, a significant correlation between changes in the thymus volume and changes in both total and naïve CD4+ cell counts was found. Only patients with increases ≥100 CD4+ cell counts after treatment significantly increased the thymic volume. These data show the first evidence of an early change in thymic volume of adult HIV-1 infected patients under HAART. This increase was related to the rise of both total and naïve CD4+ cell counts suggesting a functional role of thymic volume increase. PMID:12296862

  19. Dose coefficients in pediatric and adult abdominopelvic CT based on 100 patient models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Frush, Donald P.; Paulson, Erik K.; Samei, Ehsan

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of estimating patient dose from a CT exam using CTDIvol-normalized-organ dose (denoted as h), DLP-normalized-effective dose (denoted as k), and DLP-normalized-risk index (denoted as q). However, previous studies were limited to a small number of phantom models. The purpose of this work was to provide dose coefficients (h, k, and q) across a large number of computational models covering a broad range of patient anatomy, age, size percentile, and gender. The study consisted of 100 patient computer models (age range, 0 to 78 y.o.; weight range, 2-180 kg) including 42 pediatric models (age range, 0 to 16 y.o.; weight range, 2-80 kg) and 58 adult models (age range, 18 to 78 y.o.; weight range, 57-180 kg). Multi-detector array CT scanners from two commercial manufacturers (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare; SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) were included. A previously-validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate organ dose for each patient model and each scanner, from which h, k, and q were derived. The relationships between h, k, and q and patient characteristics (size, age, and gender) were ascertained. The differences in conversion coefficients across the scanners were further characterized. CTDIvol-normalized-organ dose (h) showed an exponential decrease with increasing patient size. For organs within the image coverage, the average differences of h across scanners were less than 15%. That value increased to 29% for organs on the periphery or outside the image coverage, and to 8% for distributed organs, respectively. The DLP-normalized-effective dose (k) decreased exponentially with increasing patient size. For a given gender, the DLP-normalized-risk index (q) showed an exponential decrease with both increasing patient size and patient age. The average differences in k and q across scanners were 8% and 10%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the knowledge of patient information and CTDIvol/DLP values may

  20. Comparision of clinical and histopathological results of hyalomatrix usage in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Erbatur, Serkan; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Aydın, Engin Nasuhi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological results of the hyaluronic acid skin substitute treatment of the patients who admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery clinic between january 2011 and march 2012 were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. HA were used for treatment of Hypertrophic scar (HS) or Keloid (K) in 10 patients of the first group. Skin biopsies obtained at peroperative and postoperative 3rd month were subjected to histopathologic examination in this group. In the second group, 10 patients with full thickness soft tissue loss secondary to burns, trauma or excisional reasons were also treated with HA application. Vancouver scar scale were used to determine the scar quality in both groups. Mean age was 25. 2 ± 10.2 and mean follow-up duration was 6.3±3.6 months in group 1. Preoperative and postoperative VSS scores in group 1 were 10.7±1.16 and 6.2±0.91, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0,005). No HS or K development was seen in any patient in group 2 during the following period. Collagenisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly higher than postoperative scores (p<0,0001).Vascularisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly lower than postoperative scores (p<0,00001). The use of HA skin substitute in adults for treatment of HS or K provided the desired clinical healing in the 6 months' follow-up periods. At the same time, HA application as an alternative to other treatment modalities led to a durable skin coverage in full thickness tissue loss in adult patients. PMID:23071910

  1. Effect of Ambrisentan on Exercise Capacity in Adult Patients After the Fontan Procedure.

    PubMed

    Cedars, Ari M; Saef, Joshua; Peterson, Linda R; Coggan, Andrew R; Novak, Eric L; Kemp, Debra; Ludbrook, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The Fontan operation is a common end point for children born with a single functional ventricle. Fontan patients typically experience physiological deterioration leading to transplant or death in their third or fourth decades of life. This deterioration is partially attributable to progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and as such endothelin receptor antagonists, which are known to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance, have been proposed as potentially beneficial in this population. We conducted a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 12 weeks of ambrisentan therapy (10 mg per day) versus placebo to test the hypothesis that endothelin receptor antagonism will improve cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters and 36-item short form (SF-36) assessed quality of life in adult Fontan patients. Twenty-eight patients entered the trial, 19 patients completed the protocol. Ambrisentan therapy improved peak oxygen consumption by 1.7 ml/kg/min in patients who achieved a respiratory exchange ratio of >0.95 (p = 0.05) and decreased the slope of the ventilatory equivalent ratio for oxygen (-2.8, p = 0.019) in all completers. It did not change SF-36 physical function score compared with placebo (p = 0.28). Ambrisentan therapy resulted in a decrease in (-1.4 g/dl, p <0.001) with no change in liver or renal function. Therapy was generally well tolerated, with no greater rate of side effects than placebo. In conclusion, ambrisentan is well tolerated and improves exercise capacity in adult Fontan patients. PMID:27063478

  2. Exergaming in older adults: A scoping review and implementation potential for patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity can improve exercise capacity, quality of life and reduce mortality and hospitalization in patients with heart failure (HF). Adherence to exercise recommendations in patients with HF is low. The use of exercise games (exergames) might be a way to encourage patients with HF to exercise especially those who may be reluctant to more traditional forms of exercise. No studies have been conducted on patients with HF and exergames. Aim: This scoping review focuses on the feasibility and influence of exergames on physical activity in older adults, aiming to target certain characteristics that are important for patients with HF to become more physically active. Methods: A literature search was undertaken in August 2012 in the databases PsychInfo, PUBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL. Included studies evaluated the influence of exergaming on physical activity in older adults. Articles were excluded if they focused on rehabilitation of specific limbs, improving specific tasks or describing no intervention. Fifty articles were found, 11 were included in the analysis. Results: Exergaming was described as safe and feasible, and resulted in more energy expenditure compared to rest. Participants experienced improved balance and reported improved cognitive function after exergaming. Participants enjoyed playing the exergames, their depressive symptoms decreased, and they reported improved quality of life and empowerment. Exergames made them feel more connected with their family members, especially their grandchildren. Conclusion: Although this research field is small and under development, exergaming might be promising in order to enhance physical activity in patients with HF. However, further testing is needed. PMID:24198306

  3. Anxiety and depression in adult patients with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Janke, Karl-Heinz; Klump, Bodo; Gregor, Michael; Hinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls. METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age- and sex-matched patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in remission or with slight disease activity, and in 441 adult persons of a representative German general population sample (GP). Potential demographic (age, sex, social class, family status) and disease-related (latency to diagnosis, duration of GFD, compliance with GFD, thyroid disease) predictors of anxiety and depression in CD were tested for by regression analyses. RESULTS: The level of anxiety in CD patients was predicted (R2 = 0.07) by female gender (P = 0.01). Female sex (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-9.4, P = 0.01) was associated with a probable anxiety disorder. Living alone (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, P = 0.05) was associated with a reduced risk of an anxiety disorder. The level of depression and a probable depressive disorder were not predicted by any of the demographic and medical variables tested for. The levels of anxiety in patients with CD (6.6 ± 3.4) and with IBD (6.9 ± 3.7) were higher than those of persons in the GP (4.6 ± 3.3) (both P < 0.001). The levels of depression in persons with CD (4.2 ± 3.4), IBD (4.6 ± 3.4) and of the GP (4.2 ± 3.8) did not differ (P = 0.3). The prevalence of a probable anxiety disorder in persons with CD (16.8%) and IBD (14.0%) was higher than that of the GP (5.7%) (P < 0.001). The prevalence of a probable depressive disorder did not differ significantly between the three groups (P = 0.1). CONCLUSION: Anxiety in adult German female celiacs on a GFD is higher than in persons of the GP. Female celiacs on a GFD should be screened for anxiety. PMID:20533598

  4. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults: A French Nationwide Study Enrolling 41 Patients.

    PubMed

    Audemard-Verger, A; Descloux, E; Ponard, D; Deroux, A; Fantin, B; Fieschi, C; John, M; Bouldouyre, A; Karkowsi, L; Moulis, G; Auvinet, H; Valla, F; Lechiche, C; Davido, B; Martinot, M; Biron, C; Lucht, F; Asseray, N; Froissart, A; Buzelé, R; Perlat, A; Boutboul, D; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V; Isnard, S; Bienvenu, B

    2016-05-01

    Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies.A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis.Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15-67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1-10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35% (n = 14

  5. Impact of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate use on outcome of severe scorpion-envenomed adult patients.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chaari, Anis; Dammak, Hassen; Ben Algia, Najla; Medhioub, Fatma; Ben Hamida, Chokri; Chelly, Hedi; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze if the infusion of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate improve outcome in severe scorpion-envenomated adult patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Pairwise retrospective case-control study with 1:1 matching was designed. Patients were defined as cases when they received hydrocortisone hemisuccinate (as alone steroids) during hospitalization and as controls when they did not received any steroids. Patients were matched according to age, severity factors at admission represented by the presence of pulmonary edema and grades of severity of scorpion envenomation, and scorpion antivenom administration. Eighty-four patients were included as follows: 42 patients in the cases group and 42 patients in the control group. The mean age (±SD) was 40±21 years, ranging from 16 to 90 years. Moreover, 67 (80%) patients have a systemic inflammatory response syndrome on ICU admission. The comparison between cases group and control group showed that age is not significantly different. There were the same proportions of patients with pulmonary edema in 2 groups. Moreover, 23 (54%) patients in case group and 23 (54%) in the control group received scorpion antivenom (P>0.05). The mean temperature on admission was also not significantly different. The presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was again not significantly different between 2 groups. The comparison of outcome of the 2 groups showed that the use of mechanical ventilation and its duration, the ICU stay length, and ICU mortality was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Although our study has some limitations, it confirms that the use of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate in severe scorpion-envenomed patients did not improve their outcome. PMID:23584312

  6. Antipsychotic Medication Prescribing Practices Among Adult Patients Discharged From State Psychiatric Inpatient Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    HOLLEN, VERA; SCHACHT, LUCILLE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this study was to explore antipsychotic medication prescribing practices in a sample of 86,034 patients discharged from state psychiatric inpatient hospitals and to find the prevalence of patients discharged with no antipsychotic medications, on antipsychotic monotherapy, and on antipsychotic polypharmacy. For patients discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy, the study explored the adjusted rates of antipsychotic polypharmacy, the reasons patients were discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy, the proportion of antipsychotic polypharmacy by mental health disorder, and the characteristics associated with being discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed all discharges for adult patients (18 to 64 y of age) from state psychiatric inpatient hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2011. The relationship among variables was explored using χ2, t test, and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Results: The prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was 12%. Of the discharged patients receiving at least 1 antipsychotic medication (adjusted rate), 18% were on antipsychotic polypharmacy. The strongest predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy being prescribed were having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and a length of stay of 90 days or more. Patients were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy primarily to reduce their symptoms. Conclusions: Antipsychotic polypharmacy continues at a high enough rate to affect nearly 10,000 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia each year in state psychiatric inpatient hospitals. Further analysis of the clinical presentation of these patients may highlight particular aspects of the illness and its previous treatment that are contributing to practices outside the best-practice guideline. An increased understanding of trend data, patient characteristics, and national benchmarks provides an opportunity for

  7. Autistic-Like Traits in Adult Patients with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  8. Engaging private providers and Ayurvedic practitioners in Bilaspur, India: did it increase TB case detection?

    PubMed Central

    Oeltmann, J. E.; Ravichandra, C.; Chadda, V. K.; Das, M.; Kumar, A. M. V.

    2016-01-01

    To find ‘missing’ tuberculosis (TB) cases, in November 2014 we trained private practitioners (PPs) and Ayurvedic practitioners (APs; Indian system of medicine) in Bilaspur district, India, to identify patients with presumptive TB and refer them to sputum microscopy centres. To reinforce this training, we sent weekly text message reminders during January–March 2015. All 50 APs and 23 of 29 PPs participated. The number of patients with presumptive TB referred by the PPs and APs increased from 38 (January–March 2014) to 104 (January–March 2015), and the number of smear-positive TB patients diagnosed increased from 5 to 16, a 220% increase. While the intervention increased the number of referrals, it did not impact case detection at district level, due to the short duration of the intervention and the non-dominant private sector. PMID:27358811

  9. Engaging private providers and Ayurvedic practitioners in Bilaspur, India: did it increase TB case detection?

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R R; Oeltmann, J E; Ravichandra, C; Chadda, V K; Das, M; Kumar, A M V

    2016-06-21

    To find 'missing' tuberculosis (TB) cases, in November 2014 we trained private practitioners (PPs) and Ayurvedic practitioners (APs; Indian system of medicine) in Bilaspur district, India, to identify patients with presumptive TB and refer them to sputum microscopy centres. To reinforce this training, we sent weekly text message reminders during January-March 2015. All 50 APs and 23 of 29 PPs participated. The number of patients with presumptive TB referred by the PPs and APs increased from 38 (January-March 2014) to 104 (January-March 2015), and the number of smear-positive TB patients diagnosed increased from 5 to 16, a 220% increase. While the intervention increased the number of referrals, it did not impact case detection at district level, due to the short duration of the intervention and the non-dominant private sector. PMID:27358811

  10. Estimation of effective doses to adult and pediatric patients from multislice computed tomography: A method based on energy imparted

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Tzedakis, Antonis; Karantanas, Apostolos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (d{sub m}) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI{sub F}) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted ({epsilon}) to simulated pediatric and adult patients was calculated on the basis of measured CTDI{sub F} values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/{epsilon}) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/{epsilon} values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning

  11. Prolonged survival in adult neurofibromatosis type I patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Theeler, Brett J; Ellezam, Benjamin; Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Slopis, John M; Loghin, Monica E; de Groot, John F

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytic tumors, especially optic pathway pilocytic astrocytomas, are common in pediatric NF1 patients. High-grade gliomas (HGGs) appear to be rare in adult and pediatric NF1 patients. This is a series of five consecutive, adult NF1 patients with recurrent HGGs treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Four patients met consensus clinical criteria for NF1 and one patient had presumed segmental NF1. Three patients had glioblastomas, one gliosarcoma, and one progressive, enhancing optic pathway glioma which was not biopsied. Two tumors had molecular testing performed; both were IDH wild type and activating oncogene mutations (1 BRAFV600E and 1 PIK3CA mutation) were found in these tumors. All five patients received bevacizumab-containing regimens at tumor recurrence. The median number of 4-week cycles of bevacizumab was 20. All five patients experienced prolonged post-recurrence survival following bevacizumab treatment ranging from ten to 72 months. The median overall survival from HGG diagnosis was 72.6 months with three patients alive and progression free at last follow-up. Three out of five patients developed vascular complications leading to bevacizumab discontinuation. In this case series, adult NF1 patients with recurrent HGGs had prolonged, post-recurrence survival after treatment with bevacizumab-containing regimens. Based on these results, further study of antiangiogenic therapy in NF1 patients with HGGs and bevacizumab-response in sporadic HGG patients with NF1-mutated tumors is warranted. PMID:24859329

  12. A Case of Advanced Descending Colon Cancer in an Adult Patient with Intestinal Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Masaki; Sawatsubashi, Yusuke; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Hirata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    This report presents an operative case of advanced descending colon cancer in an adult patient with intestinal malrotation. A 63-year-old Japanese male was suffering from left side abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and constipation. An endoscopic examination revealed an advanced tumor in the descending colon. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed the thickening of the descending colon wall and superior mesenteric vein rotation. An opaque enema detected severe stenosis of the descending colon. An abdominal X-ray examination revealed the dilation of the colon and small intestine with niveau. At the insertion of an ileus tube, the C-loop of the duodenum was observed to be absent and the small intestine was located on the right side of the abdomen. After the decompression of the bowel contents, laparotomy was performed. Descending colon cancer was observed to have directly invaded the left side of the transverse colon. Left hemicolectomy, lymph node dissection, and appendectomy were performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital on the 16th day after surgery. This report presents a rare op