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Sample records for adult testosterone treatment

  1. Analysis of testosterone effects on sonic hedgehog signaling in juvenile, adolescent and adult sprague dawley rat penis.

    PubMed

    Bond, Christopher W; Angeloni, Nicholas L; Podlasek, Carol A

    2010-03-01

    Smooth muscle apoptosis is a major contributing factor to erectile dysfunction (ED) development in prostatectomy and diabetic patients and animal models. A critical regulator of penile smooth muscle and apoptosis is Sonic hedgehog (SHH). The SHH protein is decreased in ED models and SHH treatment of cavernous nerve (CN) injured rats prevents smooth muscle apoptosis. A close association between androgen deficiency and ED has been suggested in the literature, but few studies have examined the molecular effects on penile smooth muscle and on known signaling mechanisms that regulate morphology. Aim. Examine testosterone and SHH interaction in eugonadal adult, adolescent and juvenile rats by performing castration studies and treatment with supraphysiological testosterone. The eugonadal adult Sprague Dawley rats were either treated with testosterone for 7 or 14 days (N = 14) or were castrated for 4 or 7 days (N = 12). The juvenile rats were treated with testosterone for 8 days (N = 7). The adolescent rats were castrated and sacrificed at P88 (N = 8). The control rats had empty vehicle (N = 22) or sham surgery (N = 20). The active form of SHH protein and mRNA were quantified by semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Testosterone treatment did not alter SHH signaling in juvenile rats. Shh mRNA increased 3.2-fold and SHH protein increased 1.2-fold in rats castrated during puberty. In adult rats, castration decreased Shh mRNA 3.2-fold but did not alter SHH protein. Testosterone supplement in adult rats increased Shh mRNA 2.3-fold and decreased SHH protein 1.3-fold. SHH signaling is independent of testosterone in normal juvenile rats and is sensitive to testosterone during adolescence, while testosterone supplement in the adult adversely impacts SHH signaling in a very similar manner to that observed with CN injury.

  2. Management of testosterone therapy in adolescents and young men with hypogonadism: are we following adult clinical practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Nahata, Leena; Yu, Richard N; Bhasin, Shalender; Cohen, Laurie E

    2015-05-01

    Male hypogonadism is a common disorder that is associated with low bone density, poor muscle mass, anemia, and sexual dysfunction. The Endocrine Society recently published a Clinical Practice Guideline for testosterone therapy in androgen-deficient men. Because treatment is frequently initiated in adolescence, the goal of this quality improvement initiative was to assess whether pediatric endocrinologists at a large tertiary care center follow these guidelines and to identify opportunities for improvement. We performed a retrospective chart review at Boston Children's Hospital. Inclusion criteria were as follows: current age ≥16 years, diagnosis of hypogonadism, and testosterone replacement therapy. Data were collected about current age, age at treatment initiation, diagnoses, pre- and on-treatment testosterone levels, route of testosterone administration and dose, bone density, hematocrit levels, and adherence with therapy. Fifty-nine patients were included. Fourteen (24%) were prescribed lower testosterone doses than those recommended in the Clinical Practice Guideline. Seven (12%) had no pre-treatment testosterone levels, and 10 (17%) had no on-treatment levels. In 49 patients with on-treatment testosterone levels, 36 had at least one value that was lower than the adult reference range. Ten (28%) of the 36 men with low testosterone levels had no dose adjustments. Thirty-seven (63%) of the 59 patients had no dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and 18 (31%) did not have hematocrit levels. Pediatric endocrinologists in this review did not consistently follow the Clinical Practice Guideline for testosterone therapy in hypogonadal adult males. Strategies that improve adherence to guidelines could help maximize the benefits of therapy and minimize treatment-associated risks.

  3. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  5. Testosterone treatment and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men with low testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Thomas J; Shores, Molly M; Krakauer, Chloe A; Forsberg, Christopher W; Fox, Alexandra E; Moore, Kathryn P; Korpak, Anna; Heckbert, Susan R; Zeliadt, Steven B; Kinsey, Chloe E; Thompson, Mary Lou; Smith, Nicholas L; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone treatment of men with low testosterone is common and, although relatively short-term, has raised concern regarding an increased risk of prostate cancer (CaP). We investigated the association between modest-duration testosterone treatment and incident aggressive CaP. Retrospective inception cohort study of male Veterans aged 40 to 89 years with a laboratory-defined low testosterone measurement from 2002 to 2011 and recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing; excluding those with recent testosterone treatment, prostate or breast cancer, high PSA or prior prostate biopsy. Histologically-confirmed incident aggressive prostate cancer or any prostate cancer were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Of the 147,593 men included, 58,617 were treated with testosterone. 313 aggressive CaPs were diagnosed, 190 among untreated men (incidence rate (IR) 0.57 per 1000 person years, 95% CI 0.49-0.65) and 123 among treated men (IR 0.58 per 1000 person years; 95% CI 0.48-0.69). After adjusting for age, race, hospitalization during year prior to cohort entry, geography, BMI, medical comorbidities, repeated testosterone and PSA testing, testosterone treatment was not associated with incident aggressive CaP (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.70-1.13) or any CaP (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.81-1.01). No association between cumulative testosterone dose or formulation and CaP was observed. Among men with low testosterone levels and normal PSA, testosterone treatment was not associated with an increased risk of aggressive or any CaP. The clinical risks and benefits of testosterone treatment can only be fully addressed by large, longer-term randomized controlled trials.

  6. The marketing of testosterone treatments for age-related low testosterone or 'Low T'.

    PubMed

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    To summarize the research evidence on promotion of testosterone for 'Low T', or age-related hypogonadism. Marketing of testosterone for 'Low T' has relied on strategies that are inadequately regulated to prevent off-label promotion, such as unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising campaigns targeting the general public, sponsored continuing medical education (CME) and ghostwriting. A recent US analysis of television advertising exposure levels versus insurance claims found that both unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising and branded ads were associated with increased rates of testosterone testing, treatment initiation, and treatment without prior testing. Exposés of sponsored CME and ghostwriting indicate misrepresentation of the research evidence on the sequelae of untreated low testosterone and on treatment efficacy. In the United States, advertising to the general public ceased in 2014 after the Food and Drug Administration changed product labeling to clarify that testosterone is only indicated for pathological hypogonadism. Unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising to the general public and 'Low T' messages for health professionals have continued elsewhere. The review of the experience of promotion of testosterone for 'Low T' and research evidence on effects of advertising targeting the public highlights the need for improved regulation of unbranded 'disease awareness' advertising to ensure adequate protection of public.

  7. Leptin inhibits testosterone secretion from adult rat testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Pinilla, L; González, L C; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Aguilar, E

    1999-05-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, has emerged recently as a pivotal signal in the regulation of fertility. Although the actions of leptin in the control of reproductive function are thought to be exerted mainly at the hypothalamic level, the potential direct effects of leptin at the pituitary and gonadal level have been poorly characterised. In the present study, we first assessed the ability of leptin to regulate testicular testosterone secretion in vitro. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate whether leptin can modulate basal gonadotrophin and prolactin (PRL) release by incubated hemi-pituitaries from fasted male rats. To attain the first goal, testicular slices from prepubertal and adult rats were incubated with increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Assuming that in vitro testicular responsiveness to leptin may be dependent on the background leptin levels, testicular tissue from both food-deprived and normally-fed animals was used. Furthermore, leptin modulation of stimulated testosterone secretion was evaluated by incubation of testicular samples with different doses of leptin in the presence of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). In addition, analysis of leptin actions on pituitary function was carried out using hemi-pituitaries from fasted adult male rats incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) of recombinant leptin. Serum testosterone levels, and basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by incubated testicular tissue were significantly decreased by fasting in prepubertal and adult male rats. However, a significant reduction in circulating LH levels was only evident in adult fasted rats. Doses of 10(-9)-10(-7) M leptin had no effect on basal or hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion by testes from prepubertal rats, regardless of the nutritional state of the donor animal. In contrast, leptin significantly decreased basal and hCG-induced testosterone secretion by testes from fasted and fed

  8. THE TESTOSTERONE TRIALS: THE DESIGN OF SEVEN COORDINATED TRIALS TO DETERMINE IF TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT BENEFITS ELDERLY MEN

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Peter J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Cunningham, Glenn R; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bhasin, Shalender; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Gill, Thomas M; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Rosen, Raymond C; Resnick, Susan M; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Fluharty, Laura; Pahor, Marco; Ensrud, Kristine E; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Crandall, Jill P; Wang, Christina; Budoff, Matthew J; Wenger, Nanette K; Mohler, Emile R; Bild, Diane E; Cook, Nakela L; Keaveny, Tony M; Kopperdahl, David L; Lee, David; Schwartz, Ann V; Storer, Thomas W; Ershler, William B; Roy, Cindy N; Raffel, Leslie J; Romashkan, Sergei; Hadley, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of low testosterone levels in men increases with age, as does the prevalence of decreased mobility, sexual function, self-perceived vitality, cognitive abilities, bone mineral density, and glucose tolerance, and of increased anemia and coronary artery disease. Similar changes occur in men who have low serum testosterone concentrations due to known pituitary or testicular disease, and testosterone treatment improves the abnormalities. Prior studies of the effect of testosterone treatment in elderly men, however, have produced equivocal results. Purpose To describe a coordinated set of clinical trials designed to avoid the pitfalls of prior studies and determine definitively if testosterone treatment of elderly men with low testosterone is efficacious in improving symptoms and objective measures of age-associated conditions. Methods We present the scientific and clinical rationale for the decisions made in the design of this trial. Results We designed The Testosterone Trials as a coordinated set of seven trials to determine if testosterone treatment of elderly men with low serum testosterone concentrations and also symptoms and objective evidence of impaired mobility and/or diminished libido and/or reduced vitality would be efficacious in improving mobility (Physical Function Trial), sexual function (Sexual Function Trial), fatigue (Vitality Trial), cognitive function (Cognitive Function Trial), hemoglobin (Anemia Trial), bone density (Bone Trial), and coronary artery plaque volume (Cardiovascular Trial). The scientific advantages of this coordination were common eligibility criteria, treatment and monitoring and the ability to pool safety data. The logistical advantages were a single steering committee, data coordinating center and data safety monitoring board (DSMB), the same clinical trial sites, and the possibility of men participating in multiple trials. The major consideration in subject selection was setting the eligibility criterion

  9. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  10. Effects of testosterone treatment on bone mineral density in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Tolrà, J; Torremadé, J; di Gregorio, S; Del Rio, L; Franco, E

    2013-07-01

    The decline in testosterone levels found in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is associated with a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). To study the safety profile and efficacy of testosterone treatment on BMD in patients with TDS. In this 2-year prospective open-label study, patients were administered 50 mg of testosterone gel daily (adjustable after 3 months up to 75-100 mg or down to 25 mg) for 12 months, followed by treatment with 1000 mg of testosterone undecanoate every 2-3 months from months 12-24. Outcome measures were as follows: (i) Changes in clinical chemistry safety parameters and total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone (cFT) levels; (ii) Changes in Aging Males' Symptoms Scale (AMS) and International Prostate Symptom Score scores; and (iii) Changes in lumbar spine and hip BMD. A total of 50 men aged 50-65 years with TDS (AMS >26 and cFT <0.250 nmol/mL) took part in the study. There was no significant impact of testosterone on safety. Prostate-specific antigen and haematopoietic parameters increased significantly, although the changes were not clinically significant. Total and cFT increased significantly after 3 months (p < 0.001) and there were significant improvements after 3 months in AMS scores (p < 0.001). BMD improved significantly in L2-L4 (2.90 and 4.5%), total femur (0.74 and 3%) and trochanter (1.09 and 3.2%) at 12 and 24 months respectively. Testosterone treatment in men with TDS has a good safety profile, leads to significant improvement in lumbar spine and hip BMD, and improves symptoms, as assessed by the AMS questionnaire. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Adult-onset hypogonadism: evaluation and role of testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Davidiuk, Andrew J; Broderick, Gregory A

    2016-12-01

    Testosterone deficiency (TD) has become a growing concern in the field of men's sexual health, with an increasing number of men presenting for evaluation of this condition. Given the increasing demand for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), a panel of experts met in August of 2015 to discuss the treatment of men who present for evaluation in the setting of low or normal gonadotropin levels and the associated signs and symptoms of hypogonadism. This constellation of factors can be associated with elements of both primary and secondary hypogonadism. Because this syndrome commonly occurs in men who are middle-aged and older, it was termed adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH). AOH can be defined by the following elements: low levels of testosterone, associated signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, and low or normal gonadotropin levels. Although there are significant benefits of TRT for patients with AOH, candidates also need to understand the potential risks. Patients undergoing TRT will need to be monitored regularly because there are potential complications that can develop with long-term use. This review is aimed at providing a deeper understanding of AOH, discussing the benefits and risks of TRT, and outlining each modality of TRT in use for AOH.

  12. Influence of testosterone gel treatment on spermatogenesis in men with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    George, Mskhalaya; Yulia, Tishova; Svetlana, Kalinchenko

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of androgen deficiency in reproductive-aged men is increasing and needs new approach to long-term hypogonadism treatment that can preserve fertility. An open non-controlled pilot study included 18 men with eugonadotropic hypogonadism, who received transdermal testosterone gel treatment for 3 months. Sperm analysis was made before treatment and after 3 month of testosterone therapy. Testosterone level was normalized in all patients, but no negative effect was observed on spermatogenesis. Testosterone gel therapy may be a therapy of choice in hypogonadal men of reproductive age but further studies are needed.

  13. Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Shalender; Cunningham, Glenn R; Hayes, Frances J; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Snyder, Peter J; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Montori, Victor M

    2006-06-01

    The objective was to provide guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of androgen deficiency syndromes in adult men. The Task Force was composed of a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of The Endocrine Society, five additional experts, a methodologist, and a professional writer. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. The Task Force used systematic reviews of available evidence to inform its key recommendations. The Task Force used consistent language and graphical descriptions of both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence, using the recommendations of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation group. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during three group meetings, several conference calls, and e-mail communications. The drafts prepared by the panelists with the help of a professional writer were reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Committee, and Council. The version approved by the Council was placed on The Endocrine Society's web site for comments by members. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. We recommend making a diagnosis of androgen deficiency only in men with consistent symptoms and signs and unequivocally low serum testosterone levels. We suggest the measurement of morning total testosterone level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test. We recommend confirmation of the diagnosis by repeating the measurement of morning total testosterone and in some patients by measurement of free or bioavailable testosterone level, using accurate assays. We recommend testosterone therapy for symptomatic men with androgen deficiency, who have low testosterone levels, to induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics and to improve their sexual function, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, and

  14. Recent trends in the treatment of testosterone deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bum Sik; Ahn, Tai Young

    2007-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is defined as a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age and is characterized by typical symptoms and deficiency in serum testosterone levels. TDS is a result of the interaction of hypothalamo-pituitary and testicular factors. Now, treatment of TDS with testosterone is still controversial due to a lack of large, controlled clinical trials on efficacy. The risks of treatment with testosterone appear to be minimal, although long-term studies on the safety of testosterone therapy are lacking. The aim of the therapy is to establish a physiological concentration of serum testosterone in order to correct the androgen deficiency, relieve its symptoms and prevent long-term sequelae. All of the available products, despite their varying pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles, are able to reach this goal. Newer testosterone patches seem not to cause severe skin irritation. Testosterone gels minimize the skin irritation while providing flexibility in dosing and a low discontinuation rate. Oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) is free of liver toxicity. Recent formulation of oral TU markedly increased shelf-live, a major drawback in the older preparation. Producing swings in testosterone levels rising rapidly to the supraphysiological range is not the case with the new injectable long-acting preparation of TU. To be able to rapidly react and stop treatment in cases where side-effects and contraindications are detected, the short-acting transdermal and oral delivery modes have certain advantages. However, there is no evidence that the use of an injectable long-acting TU in men with TDS has limitations in clinical application for this reason. The use of dehydroepiandrosterone is still controversial because of a lack of well designed long-term trials, although some recent studies suggest positive effects on various body systems. Only a few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of hCG (human

  15. Quantitative measurement of salivary testosterone in Korean adults by stable isotope-dilution liquid chromatographyelectrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoo; Kwon, Soonho; Shin, Hye-Jin; Park, Jimyeong; Lim, Hwan-Sub; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Jin

    2010-11-01

    Salivary testosterone levels in Korean adults were quantitatively measured for the first time by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS). Salivary testosterone was separated on a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatogram within 7 min. The LC ESI MS/MS assay was validated over the linearity range of 0.01-2.00 ng/ml (r=0.99987) using testosterone-d(3) as an internal standard. The lower limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were 1.54% to 4.09% and 0.96% to 4.29%, respectively. The mean recovery was 93.32% (range 88.43-98.05%). The validated assay was then applied to measure the salivary testosterone levels of Korean adults. In men, the salivary testosterone level collected between 9:00-11:00 am was approximately 2.8 times higher than that in women (P < 0.0001). Salivary testosterone levels in both sexes negatively correlated with age. The present assay would also be useful in measuring salivary testosterone levels in clinical laboratories.

  16. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  17. Transplantation of CD51+ Stem Leydig Cells: A New Strategy for the Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Wang, Jiancheng; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Yong; Su, Zhijian; Tuo, Ying; Liao, Yan; Zhang, Min; Yuan, Qunfang; Deng, Chunhua; Jiang, Mei Hua; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2017-05-01

    Stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation could provide a new strategy for treating the testosterone deficiency. Our previous study demonstrated that CD51 (also called integrin αv) might be a putative cell surface marker for SLCs, but the physiological function and efficacy of CD51 + SLCs treatment remain unclear. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic benefits of CD51 + SLCs transplantation and whether these transplanted cells can be regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. CD51 + cells were isolated from the testes of 12-weeks-old C57BL/6 mice, and we showed that such cells expressed SLC markers and that they were capable of self-renewal, extensive proliferation, and differentiation into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages and LCs in vitro. As a specific cytotoxin that eliminates Leydig cells (LCs) in adult rats, ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) was used to ablate LCs before the SLC transplantation. After being transplanted into the testes of EDS-treated rats, the CD51 + cells differentiated into mature LCs, and the recipient rats showed a partial recovery of testosterone production and spermatogenesis. Notably, a testosterone analysis revealed a circadian rhythm of testosterone secretion in cell-transplanted rats, and these testosterone secretions could be suppressed by decapeptyl (a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist), suggesting that the transplanted cells might be regulated by the HPG axis. This study is the first to demonstrate that CD51 + SLCs can restore the neuroendocrine regulation of testicular function by physiologically recovering the expected episodic changes in diurnal testosterone serum levels and that SLC transplantation may provide a new tool for the studies of testosterone deficiency treatment. Stem Cells 2017;35:1222-1232. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  18. The effects of testosterone on body composition in obese men are not sustained after cessation of testosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Hoermann, Rudolf; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone treatment in obese dieting men augments the diet-associated loss of fat mass, but protects against loss of lean mass. We assessed whether body composition changes are maintained following withdrawal of testosterone treatment. We conducted a prespecified double-blind randomized placebo-controlled observational follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants were men with baseline obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ) and a repeated total testosterone level <12 nmol/L, previously enrolled in a 56-week testosterone treatment trial combined with a weight loss programme. Main outcome measures were mean adjusted differences (MAD) (95% confidence interval), in body composition between testosterone- and placebo-treated men at the end of the observation period. Of the 100 randomized men, 82 completed the RCT and 64 the subsequent observational study. Median [IQR] observation time after completion of the RCT was 82 weeks [74; 90] in men previously receiving testosterone (cases) and 81 weeks [67;91] in men previously receiving placebo (controls), P=.51. At the end of the RCT, while losing similar amounts of weight, cases had, compared to controls, lost more fat mass, MAD -2.9 kg (-5.7, -0.2), P=.04, but had lost less lean mass MAD 3.4 kg (1.3, 5.5), P=.002. At the end of the observation period, the former between-group differences in fat mass, MAD -0.8 kg (-3.6, 2.0), P=1.0, in lean mass, MAD -1.3 kg (-3.0, 0.5), P=.39, and in appendicular lean mass, MAD -0.1 kg/m 2 (-0.3, 0.1), P=.45, were no longer apparent. During observation, cases lost more lean mass, MAD -3.7 kg (-5.5, -1.9), P=.0005, and appendicular lean mass, MAD -0.5 kg/m 2 (-0.8, -0.3), P<.0001 compared to controls. The favourable effects of testosterone on body composition in men subjected to a concomitant weight loss programme were not maintained at 82 weeks after testosterone treatment cessation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Testosterone Therapy on Active Surveillance and Following Definitive Treatment for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Golla, Vishnukamal; Kaplan, Alan L

    2017-07-01

    Previously considered an absolute contraindication, the use of testosterone therapy in men with prostate cancer has undergone an important paradigm shift. Recent data has changed the way we approach the treatment of testosterone deficiency in men with prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize and analyze the literature surrounding effects of testosterone therapy on patients being treated in an active surveillance protocol as well as following definitive treatment for prostate cancer. The conventional notion that defined the relationship between increasing testosterone and prostate cancer growth was based on limited studies and anecdotal case reports. Contemporary evidence suggests testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency does not increase prostate cancer risk or the chances of more aggressive disease at prostate cancer diagnosis. Although the studies are limited, men who received testosterone therapy for localized disease did not have higher rates of recurrences or worse clinical outcomes. Current review of the literature has not identified adverse progression events for patients receiving testosterone therapy while on active surveillance/watchful waiting or definitive therapies. The importance of negative effects of testosterone deficiency on health and health-related quality of life measures has pushed urologists to re-evaluate the role testosterone plays in prostate cancer. This led to a paradigm shift that testosterone therapy might in fact be a viable option for a select group of men with testosterone deficiency and a concurrent diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  20. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Decreases Aldosterone Production but Maintains Normal Plasma Volume and Increases Blood Pressure in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-08-01

    Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin. The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. Accordingly, plasma aldosterone levels were lower in testosterone females. Plasma volume and serum and urine Na(+) and K(+) levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone females; however, prenatal testosterone exposure significantly increased plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II levels and arterial pressure in adult females. In testosterone females, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, while contractile responses to vasopressin were unaffected. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression was increased, while angiotensin II type-2 receptor was decreased in testosterone arteries. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. Elevated angiotensin II and vasopressin levels along with enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II may serve as an underlying mechanism to maintain plasma volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels and mediate hypertension in adult testosterone females. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. ESTROGEN LEVELS DO NOT RISE WITH TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT FOR TRANSGENDER MEN.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelly J; Jolly, Divya; Liang, Jennifer J; Weinand, Jamie D; Safer, Joshua D

    2018-04-01

    Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transmasculine treatment, there is a possible need for estrogen-lowering strategies adjunct to testosterone therapy. Further, guidelines advocate consideration of prophylactic female reproductive tissue surgeries for transgender men to avoid the possibility of estrogen-related health risks. Despite the paucity of objective data, some transgender men seek conversion inhibitors. We sought to determine estradiol levels in transgender men treated with testosterone therapy and the change in those levels with treatment, if any. Estradiol levels were extracted from the electronic medical records of 34 anonymized transgender men treated with testosterone therapy at the Endocrinology Clinic at Boston Medical Center. Data were sufficient to observe 6 years of follow-up. With increased testosterone levels in trans-gender men, a significant decrease in estradiol levels was noted. There was a significant negative correlation between testosterone levels and body mass index, which may serve to explain part of the mechanism for the fall in estradiol levels. Even though the fall in estradiol levels was significant statistically, the actual levels remained within the normal male range, even with 6 years of follow-up. These data suggest that when exogenous testosterone is used to achieve normal serum male testosterone levels for transgender men, it is converted to normal male levels of estradiol, with some decline in those estradiol levels that might be attributable to a fall in fat mass. There appears to be no role for aromatase conversion inhibitors or other estrogen-reducing strategies in trans-gender men. Abbreviation: BMI = body mass index.

  2. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  3. Use of Exogenous Testosterone for the Treatment of Male Factor Infertility: A Survey of Nigerian Doctors.

    PubMed

    Omisanjo, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin; Ikuerowo, Stephen Odunayo; Abdulsalam, Moruf Adekunle; Ajenifuja, Sheriff Olabode; Shittu, Khadijah Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Though exogenous testosterone is known for its contraceptive effects in men, it is sometimes prescribed by medical practitioners for the treatment of male factor infertility in the mistaken belief that exogenous testosterone improves sperm count. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope of testosterone use in the treatment of male factor infertility by medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey using a structured questionnaire was carried out amongst doctors attending a regular Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme in Lagos, Nigeria. There were 225 respondents. Most of the respondents (69.8%, n = 157) indicated that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. Only 22 respondents (9.8%) indicated (correctly) that exogenous testosterone decreases sperm count. Seventy-seven respondents (34.2%) had prescribed some form of exogenous testosterone in the treatment of male factor infertility. The vast majority of respondents who had prescribed testosterone (81.8%, n = 63) thought exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. There was no statistically significant difference in the pattern of prescription across the respondents' specialty ( p = 0.859) or practice type ( p = 0.747). The misuse of exogenous testosterone for the treatment of male infertility was common amongst the respondents, with most of them wrongly believing that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count.

  4. The Effect of Testosterone on Cardiovascular Biomarkers in the Testosterone Trials.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Emile R; Ellenberg, Susan S; Lewis, Cora E; Wenger, Nanette K; Budoff, Matthew J; Lewis, Michael R; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Gill, Thomas M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Preston, Peter E; Hou, Xiaoling; Cifelli, Denise; Snyder, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    Studies of the possible cardiovascular risk of testosterone treatment are inconclusive. To determine the effect of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular biomarkers in older men with low testosterone. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twelve academic medical centers in the United States. In all, 788 men ≥65 years old with an average of two serum testosterone levels <275 ng/dL who were enrolled in The Testosterone Trials. Testosterone gel, the dose adjusted to maintain the testosterone level in the normal range for young men, or placebo gel for 12 months. Serum markers of cardiovascular risk, including lipids and markers of glucose metabolism, fibrinolysis, inflammation, and myocardial damage. Compared with placebo, testosterone treatment significantly decreased total cholesterol (adjusted mean difference, -6.1 mg/dL; P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted mean difference, -2.0 mg/dL; P < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted mean difference, -2.3 mg/dL; P = 0.051) from baseline to month 12. Testosterone also slightly but significantly decreased fasting insulin (adjusted mean difference, -1.7 µIU/mL; P = 0.02) and homeostatic model assessment‒insulin resistance (adjusted mean difference, -0.6; P = 0.03). Testosterone did not change triglycerides, d-dimer, C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, troponin, glucose, or hemoglobin A1c levels more than placebo. Testosterone treatment of 1 year in older men with low testosterone was associated with small reductions in cholesterol and insulin but not with other glucose markers, markers of inflammation or fibrinolysis, or troponin. The clinical importance of these findings is unclear and requires a larger trial of clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  5. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ∼147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64–66, 87–90, and 139–140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

  6. Effects of testosterone on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Daviau, Emily D.; Coneeny, Meagan K.; Engelman, Shannon M.; Prince, W. Tyler; Rodriguez-Wisdom, Karlye N.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage over females for spatial tasks has been well documented in both humans and rodents, but it remains unclear how the activational effects of testosterone influence spatial ability in males. In a series of experiments, we tested how injections of testosterone influenced the spatial working and reference memory of castrated male rats. In the eight-arm radial maze, testosterone injections (0.500 mg/rat) reduced the number of working memory errors during the early blocks of testing but had no effect on the number of reference memory errors relative to the castrated control group. In a reference memory version of the Morris water maze, injections of a wide range of testosterone doses (0.0625-1.000 mg/rat) reduced path lengths to the hidden platform, indicative of improved spatial learning. This improved learning was independent of testosterone dose, with all treatment groups showing better performance than the castrated control males. Furthermore, this effect was only observed when rats were given testosterone injections starting seven days prior to water maze testing and not when injections were given only on the testing days. We also observed that certain doses of testosterone (0.250 and 1.000 mg/rat) increased perseverative behavior in a reversal-learning task. Finally, testosterone did not have a clear effect on spatial working memory in the Morris water maze, although intermediate doses seemed to optimize performance. Overall, the results indicate that testosterone can have positive activational effects on spatial learning and memory, but the duration of testosterone replacement and the nature of the spatial task modify these effects. PMID:21295035

  7. [The importance of testosterone in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in men].

    PubMed

    Kempisty-Zdebik, Ewa; Zdebik, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome is being seen in increasing percentage of men with middle and old age. Besides the typical deterioration of sexual function there is predisposition to metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The similarity of the effects of testosterone substitution and the dietary treatment led the authors to a retrospective analysis of patient data treated for testosterone deficiency syndrome. Data on 341 patients aged over 45 years with metabolic syndrome and diabetes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency syndrome were divided into 5 groups: T--testosterone substitution without additional diet, T-Low-Carb--testosterone and low carbohydrate diet, T-Fat-Low--testosterone and low fat diet, Carb-Low--only low carbohydrate diet, Fat-Low--only low fat diet. We analyzed change in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbAlc, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels within 6 months from the start of observation. The best results of all investigated parameters were obtained in patients treated with testosterone and low-carbohydrate diet and in the group treated with testosterone and low-fat diet. Slightly worse results in the group received the same diets and the worst in the group treated only with testosterone. The improvement obtained in the total testosterone therapy and diet was much greater than the simple sum of the effects of both methods witch suggests the existence of synergies.

  8. Histological and histochemical studies on the female reproductive system of rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) after testosterone propionate treatment.

    PubMed

    Sarker, A K; Seth, T N

    1975-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of testosterone propionate (Perandren, CIBA) at a dose level of 2.5 mg per day for 10 days into adult female parakeet caused an increment of differentiated follicles in the ovary. The histological study of the testosterone treated oviduct of the bird showed well developed villi with a significant number of tubular glands particularly in the middle and distal parts of the oviduct. The high level of alkaline phosphatase activity and ascorbic acid concentration in the distal part of the oviduct in treated birds probably increase the power of hatchable eggs which has a close relationship with the enzyme and vitamin C concentration in the uterus. The testosterone treatment causes a marked depletion of granulosal vitamins from ovary but augments the ascorbate mobilization in the thecal region to a very great extent probably due to more LH secretion from the pituitary.

  9. Testosterone regulates bone response to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Steffens, J P; Herrera, B S; Coimbra, L S; Stephens, D N; Rossa, C; Spolidorio, L C; Kantarci, A; Van Dyke, T E

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the alveolar bone response to testosterone and the impact of Resolvin D2 (RvD2) on testosterone-induced osteoblast function. For the in vivo characterization, 60 male adult rats were used. Treatments established sub-physiologic (L), normal (N), or supra-physiologic (H) concentrations of testosterone. Forty rats were subjected to orchiectomy; 20 rats received periodical testosterone injections while 20 rats received testicular sham-operation. Four weeks after the surgeries, 10 rats in each group received a subgingival ligature around the lower first molars to induce experimental periodontal inflammation and bone loss. In parallel, osteoblasts were differentiated from neonatal mice calvariae and treated with various doses of testosterone for 48 h. Cell lysates and conditioned media were used for the determination of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. Micro-computed tomography linear analysis demonstrated that bone loss was significantly increased for both L and H groups compared to animals with normal levels of testosterone. Gingival IL-1β expression was increased in the L group (p<0.05). Ten nM testosterone significantly decreased osteocalcin, RANKL, and OPG levels in osteoblasts; 100 nM significantly increased the RANKL:OPG ratio. RvD2 partially reversed the impact of 10 nM testosterone on osteocalcin, RANKL, and OPG. These findings suggest that both L and H testosterone levels increase inflammatory bone loss in male rats. While low testosterone predominantly increases the inflammatory response, high testosterone promotes a higher osteoblast-derived RANKL:OPG ratio. The proresolving mediator RvD2 ameliorates testosterone-derived downregulation of osteocalcin, RANKL, and OPG in primary murine osteoblasts suggesting a direct role of inflammation in osteoblast function. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Effects of gonadectomy and testosterone treatment on aquaporin expression in the kidney of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Loh, Su Yi; Giribabu, Nelli; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that testosterone-induced increase in blood pressure was due to changes in aquaporin (AQP) expression in kidneys. In this study, expression level of kidney AQPs was investigated under testosterone influence. Adult normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive SHR male and female rats underwent gonadectomy. For female rats, testosterone was given for six weeks duration, two weeks following ovariectomy via subcutaneous silastic implant. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured in all the rats after eight weeks via carotid artery cannulation and the rats were then sacrificed and kidneys were harvested for analyses of AQP-1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 mRNA and protein expressions by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Distribution of AQP subunits' protein in kidneys was observed by immunofluorescence. In male WKY rats, MAP, AQP-1, 2, 4, and 7 protein; and mRNA expression decreased however AQP-3 protein and mRNA expression increased following orchidectomy. The vice versa effects were observed in testosterone-treated ovariectomized female WKY rats. However, no changes in AQP-6 expression were observed. Meanwhile, in adult male SHR rats, MAP and expression level of all AQP subunits decreased following orchidectomy. The opposite effects were seen in ovariectomized female SHR rats following testosterone treatment. Immunofluorescence study showed AQP-1 and AQP-7 were distributed in the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) while AQP-2, AQP-4, and AQP-6 were distributed in the collecting ducts (CDs). AQP-3 was distributed in the PCT and CD. In conclusion, changes in AQP subunit expression in kidneys could explain changes in blood pressure under testosterone influence. Impact statement This study provides fundamental understanding on the mechanisms underlying testosterone-induced increase in blood pressure which involve regulation of aquaporin channel subunits in the kidneys. A better understanding of this issue can help to explain

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Dose Titration and Serum Testosterone Level Assessments in Patients Treated With Topical Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Muram, David; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Boytsov, Natalie; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard G; Swindle, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of care following topical testosterone agent (TTA) initiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize care following TTA initiation and compare results between patients with and without a serum testosterone (T) assay within 30 days before and including TTA initiation. Adult men (N=4,146) initiating TTAs from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, were identified from a commercially insured database. Patients were included if they initiated at recommended starting dose (RSD) and had ≥12 and ≥6 months of continuous eligibility preinitiation (baseline) and postinitiation (study period), respectively. Patients were stratified by preinitiation T assay. Maintenance dose attainment month was determined using unadjusted generalized estimating equations regression to compare dose relative to RSD month by month. Outcomes included maintenance dose attainment month, time to stopping of index TTA refills or a claim for nonindex testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), and proportion of patients with study period T assay or diagnosis of hypogonadism (HG) or another low testosterone condition, and were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Maintenance dose was attained in Month 4 postinitiation, at 115.2% of RSD. Approximately 46% of patients had a preinitiation T assay; these men were more likely to receive a diagnosis of HG or another low testosterone condition, to have a follow-up T assay, to continue treatment by filling a nonindex TRT, and less likely to stop refilling treatment with their index TTA. Differences in care following TTA initiation suggest that preinitiation T assays (i.e., guideline-based care) may be helpful in ensuring treatment benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Can treatment of nocturia increase testosterone level in men with late onset hypogonadism?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Wook; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-04-01

    To assess the effect of desmopressin on serum testosterone level in men with nocturia and late onset hypogonadism. We prospectively enrolled men with nocturia and symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Desmopressin (0.1 mg) was administered once daily to patients for 12 weeks, and we then compared serum testosterone levels, electrolytes, frequency volume chart indices, and changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function, and Aging Male's Symptom scales before and after treatment. Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or hyponatremia, those using hypnotics, and those who had primary hypogonadism or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Sixty-two men (mean age, 68.4 years) completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and underwent laboratory testing. At the end of the study, the testosterone levels in men with low testosterone levels (<3.5 ng/mL) increased after the 12-week desmopressin treatment (2.85 ± 0.58 to 3.97 ± 1.44 ng/mL; P = .001). Mean scores had decreased from 17.7 to 13.9 (IPSS), 3.8 to 3.2 (IPSS-Quality of Life), and 33.7 to 31.1 (Aging Male's Symptom). On the frequency volume chart, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, actual number of nocturia events, nocturia index, and nocturnal bladder capacity index were significantly decreased. Desmopressin improved nocturia and other urinary symptoms. Moreover, serum testosterone levels increased significantly in men with low testosterone levels after 12-week desmopressin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Is Not Associated With Post-Treatment Testosterone Suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R. Charles, E-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org; University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL; Morris, Christopher G.

    Purpose: Three independent studies of photon (x-ray) radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer have demonstrated evidence of testosterone suppression after treatment. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this would also be the case with conformal protons. Methods and Materials: Between August 2006 and October 2007, 171 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled and underwent treatment according to University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute institutional review board-approved PR01 and PR02 protocols. Of the 171 patients, 18 were excluded because they had received androgen deprivation therapy either before (n = 17) or after (n = 1) RT. Themore » pretreatment serum testosterone level was available for 150 of the remaining 153 patients. These 150 patients were included in the present study. The post-treatment levels were compared with the pretreatment levels. Results: The median baseline pretreatment serum testosterone level was 357.9 ng/dL. The median post-treatment testosterone value was 375.5 ng/dL at treatment completion (p = .1935) and 369.9 ng/dL (p = .1336), 348.7 ng/dL (p = .7317), 353.4 ng/dL (p = .6996), and 340.9 ng/dL (p = .1669) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after proton therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Conformal proton therapy to the prostate, as delivered using University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute PR01 and PR02 protocols, did not appear to significantly affect the serum testosterone levels within 24 months after RT.« less

  14. Effect of Testosterone Treatment on Adipokines and Gut Hormones in Obese Men on a Hypocaloric Diet.

    PubMed

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Hoermann, Rudolf; Grossmann, Mathis

    2017-04-01

    In obese men with lowered testosterone levels, testosterone treatment augments diet-associated loss of body fat. We hypothesized that testosterone treatment modulates circulating concentrations of hormonal mediators of fat mass and energy homeostasis in obese men undergoing a weight loss program. Prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Tertiary referral center. Obese men (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ) with a repeated total testosterone level ≤12 nmol/L. One hundred participants mean age 53 years (interquartile range 47 to 60 years) receiving 10 weeks of a very low-energy diet followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (cases, n = 49) or matching placebo (controls, n = 51). Eighty-two men completed the study. Between-group differences in leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin levels. At study end, compared with controls, cases had greater reductions in leptin [mean adjusted difference (MAD), -3.6 ng/mL (95% CI, -5.3 to -1.9); P < 0.001]. The change in leptin levels between cases and controls was dependent on baseline fat mass, as the between-group difference progressively increased with increasing fat mass [MAD, -0.26 ng/mL (95% CI, -0.31 to -0.26); P = 0.001 per 1 kg of baseline fat mass]. Weight loss-associated changes in other hormones persisted during the weight maintenance phase but were not modified by testosterone treatment. Testosterone treatment led to reductions in leptin beyond those achieved by diet-associated weight loss. Testosterone treatment may reduce leptin resistance in obese men.

  15. Testosterone as a treatment for fatigue in HIV+ men.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G J; Rabkin, J G; Rabkin, R

    1998-07-01

    This study assessed correlates of fatigue and the efficacy of testosterone therapy as a treatment for fatigue in men with symptomatic HIV and clinical hypogonadism. We conducted a 12-week open trial of testosterone for HIV+ men with clinical hypogonadism (low libido plus at least one of the associated symptoms of depressed mood, fatigue, and weight loss), CD4 count below 400 cells/cu.mm, and serum testosterone level below 500 ng/dl. 108 men entered the trial; 50% were nonwhite and 72% had an AIDS diagnosis. Baseline correlates of fatigue, as measured by the self-report Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS), included elevated laboratory values (hematocrit, hemoglobin), lower overall physical functioning, greater psychological distress, and reduced quality of life. Sixty-six of 72 men who presented with fatigue completed the trial, with 52 (79%) rated as responders (much improved energy level) by the study doctor. Fatigue declined significantly among responders, but not nonresponders.

  16. Diversity of pubertal testosterone changes in boys with constitutional delay in growth and/or adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kulin, H E; Finkelstein, J W; D'Arcangelo, M R; Susman, E J; Chinchilli, V; Kunselman, S; Schwab, J; Demers, L; Lookingbill, G

    1997-01-01

    In a group of 22 boys with constitutional delay in growth and/or adolescence, intermittent testosterone enanthate treatment was employed in a randomized clinical trial at multiple doses ranging from 25-100 mg every two weeks for three month periods extending over 15-21 months. Twelve of the patients displayed a prompt increase in endogenous testosterone levels during the study period, reaching levels in the adult male range (> 250 ng/dl). The remaining 10 boys showed sluggish changes in endogenous testosterone during the investigation, ranging from 35-177 ng/dl. The bone ages and testicular sizes of the two groups at study initiation did not differ though urine LH was significantly less at study entry in the slowly maturing group. The data reveal a great diversity in the pace and pattern of endogenous testosterone changes in the study population. The results also suggest that exogenous sex steroid treatment of such patients does not speed up the central nervous system processes controlling the onset and progression of puberty. Boys with delayed puberty should be followed until endogenous testosterone levels reach the adult male range in order to rule out mild gonadotropin deficits.

  17. Accuracy of testosterone concentrations in compounded testosterone products.

    PubMed

    Grober, Ethan D; Garbens, Alaina; Božović, Andrea; Kulasingam, Vathany; Fanipour, Majid; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of the testosterone concentrations within testosterone gels and creams manufactured by compounding pharmacies. Ten compounding pharmacies within Toronto area were included. Pharmacies were blinded as to the nature of the study. A standardized prescription for 50 mg of compounded testosterone gel/cream applied once daily was presented to each pharmacy. Two independently compounded batches were analyzed from each pharmacy 1 month apart. Testosterone concentrations in a 5-g sachet of Androgel® 1% (Abbott) and 5-g tube of Testim®1% (Auxilium) were evaluated as controls. Samples were analyzed independently and in a blinded fashion by the Laboratory Medicine Program at the University Health Network. Measurement of testosterone concentration was performed using a modified liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry validated for serum testosterone. Compounded formulations included seven gels and three creams with a volume/daily dose ranging from 0.2 mL to 1.25 mL. Product cost ranged from $57.32 to $160.71 for a 30-day supply. There was significant variability both within and between pharmacies with respect to the measured concentration of testosterone in the compounded products. In contrast, the concentration of testosterone within Androgel and Testim was consistent and accurate. Collectively, only 50% (batch 1) and 30% (batch 2) of the compounding pharmacies provided a product with a testosterone concentration within ± 20% of the prescribed dose. Two pharmacies compounded products with >20% of the prescribed dose. One pharmacy compounded a product with essentially no testosterone. Testosterone concentrations in compounded testosterone products can be variable and potentially compromise the efficacy and safety of treatment. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL TESTIS
    Chad R. Blystone1, 2, David J. Dix2, and John C. Rockett2
    1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Box 7633, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and 2U.S. Envi...

  19. Organizational influence of the postnatal testosterone surge on the circadian rhythm of core body temperature of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Damian G; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms such as activity, body temperature, and hormone secretion. Circadian rhythms coordinated by the SCN often show sex differences arising from both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. In males, little is known about the organizational role of testosterone on the circadian regulation of core body temperature (CBT) in adulthood. To explore this, we castrated or sham-operated male rats on the day of birth, and at 4 months of age, implanted them with transmitters that measured CBT rhythms under a 12:12 light/dark cycle. This study revealed a significantly earlier rise in CBT during the light phase in neonatally castrated males. Subsequently, we found that treating neonatally castrated males with testosterone propionate (TP) in adulthood did not reverse the effect of neonatal castration, thus indicating an organizational role for testosterone. In contrast, a single injection of TP at the time of neonatal surgery, to mimic the postnatal surge of testosterone, coupled with TP treatment in adulthood, normalized the circadian rise in CBT. In a final study we examined CBT circadian rhythms in intact adult male and female rats and detected no differences in the rise of CBT during the light phase, although there was a greater overall elevation in female CBT. Together, results of these studies reveal an early organizational role of testosterone in males on the timing of the circadian rise of CBT, a difference that does not appear to reflect "defeminization".

  20. Testosterone treatment and MMPI-2 improvement in transgender men: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Keo-Meier, Colton L; Herman, Levi I; Reisner, Sari L; Pardo, Seth T; Sharp, Carla; Babcock, Julia C

    2015-02-01

    Most transgender men desire to receive testosterone treatment in order to masculinize their bodies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the short-term effects of testosterone treatment on psychological functioning in transgender men. This is the 1st controlled prospective follow-up study to examine such effects. We examined a sample of transgender men (n = 48) and nontransgender male (n = 53) and female (n = 62) matched controls (mean age = 26.6 years; 74% White). We asked participants to complete the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2nd ed., or MMPI-2; Butcher, Graham, Tellegen, Dahlstrom, & Kaemmer, 2001) to assess psychological functioning at baseline and at the acute posttreatment follow-up (3 months after testosterone initiation). Regression models tested (a) Gender × Time interaction effects comparing divergent mean response profiles across measurements by gender identity; (b) changes in psychological functioning scores for acute postintervention measurements, adjusting for baseline measures, comparing transgender men with their matched nontransgender male and female controls and adjusting for baseline scores; and (c) changes in meeting clinical psychopathological thresholds. Statistically significant changes in MMPI-2 scale scores were found at 3-month follow-up after initiating testosterone treatment relative to baseline for transgender men compared with female controls (female template): reductions in Hypochondria (p < .05), Depression (p < .05), Hysteria (p < .05), and Paranoia (p < .01); and increases in Masculinity-Femininity scores (p < .01). Gender × Time interaction effects were found for Hysteria (p < .05) and Paranoia (p < .01) relative to female controls (female template) and for Hypochondria (p < .05), Depression (p < .01), Hysteria (p < .01), Psychopathic Deviate (p < .05), Paranoia (p < .01), Psychasthenia (p < .01), and Schizophrenia (p < .01) compared with male controls (male template). In addition, the proportion of

  1. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Engi, Sheila A.; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038

  2. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Surampudi, Prasanth N.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men. PMID:22505891

  3. Dopamine mediates testosterone-induced social reward in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margaret R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2013-03-01

    Adolescent maturation of responses to social stimuli is essential for adult-typical sociosexual behavior. Naturally occurring developmental changes in male Syrian hamster responses to a salient social cue, female hamster vaginal secretions (VS), provide a good model system for investigating neuroendocrine mechanisms of adolescent change in social reward. Sexually naïve adult, but not juvenile, males show a conditioned place preference (CPP) to VS, indicating that VS is not rewarding before puberty. In this series of experiments, the authors examined the roles of testosterone and dopamine receptor activation in mediating the adolescent gain in positive valence of VS. Experiment 1 showed that testosterone replacement is necessary for gonadectomized adult hamsters to form a CPP to VS. Experiment 2 showed that testosterone treatment is sufficient for juvenile hamsters to form a CPP to VS, and that the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol blocks formation of a CPP to VS in these animals. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that the disruption of VS CPP with low doses of haloperidol is the result of a reduction in the attractive properties of VS and not attributable to aversive properties of haloperidol. Together, these studies demonstrate that the unconditioned rewarding properties of a social cue necessary for successful adult sociosexual interactions come about as the result of the pubertal increase in circulating testosterone in male hamsters. Furthermore, this social reward can be prevented by dopamine receptor antagonism, indicating that hypothalamic and/or mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic circuits are targets for hormonal activation of social reward.

  4. British Society for Sexual Medicine Guidelines on Adult Testosterone Deficiency, With Statements for UK Practice.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Geoff; Kirby, Michael; Edwards, David; Jones, Thomas Hugh; Wylie, Kevan; Ossei-Gerning, Nick; David, Janine; Muneer, Asif

    2017-12-01

    Testosterone deficiency (TD) is an increasingly common problem with significant health implications, but its diagnosis and management can be challenging. To review the available literature on TD and provide evidence-based statements for UK clinical practice. Evidence was derived from Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane searches on hypogonadism, testosterone (T) therapy, and cardiovascular safety from May 2005 to May 2015. Further searches continued until May 2017. To provide a guideline on diagnosing and managing TD, with levels of evidence and grades of recommendation, based on a critical review of the literature and consensus of the British Society of Sexual Medicine panel. 25 statements are provided, relating to 5 key areas: screening, diagnosis, initiating T therapy, benefits and risks of T therapy, and follow-up. 7 statements are supported by level 1, 8 by level 2, 5 by level 3, and 5 by level 4 evidence. To help guide UK practitioners on effectively diagnosing and managing primary and age-related TD. A large amount of literature was carefully sourced and reviewed, presenting the best evidence available at the time. However, some statements provided are based on poor-quality evidence. This is a rapidly evolving area of research and recommendations are subject to change. Guidelines can never replace clinical expertise when making treatment decisions for individual patients, but rather help to focus decisions and take personal values and preferences and individual circumstances into account. Many issues remain controversial, but in the meantime, clinicians need to manage patient needs and clinical expectations armed with the best clinical evidence and the multidisciplinary expert opinion available. Improving the diagnosis and management of TD in adult men should provide somatic, sexual, and psychological benefits and subsequent improvements in quality of life. Hackett G, Kirby M, Edwards D, et al. British Society for Sexual Medicine Guidelines on Adult Testosterone

  5. Parallel-group placebo-controlled trial of testosterone gel in men with major depressive disorder displaying an incomplete response to standard antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Pope, Harrison G; Amiaz, Revital; Brennan, Brian P; Orr, Guy; Weiser, Mark; Kelly, John F; Kanayama, Gen; Siegel, Arthur; Hudson, James I; Seidman, Stuart N

    2010-04-01

    Exogenous testosterone therapy has psychotropic effects and has been proposed as an antidepressant augmentation strategy for depressed men. We sought to assess the antidepressant effects of testosterone augmentation of a serotonergic antidepressant in depressed, hypogonadal men. For this study, we recruited 100 medically healthy adult men with major depressive disorder showing partial response or no response to an adequate serotonergic antidepressant trial during the current episode and a screening total testosterone level of 350 ng/dL or lower. We randomized these men to receive testosterone gel or placebo gel in addition to their existing antidepressant regimen. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score. Secondary measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the Quality of Life Scale. Our primary analysis, using a mixed effects linear regression model to compare rate of change of scores between groups on the outcome measures, failed to show a significant difference between groups (mean [95% confidence interval] 6-week change in HDRS for testosterone vs placebo, -0.4 [-2.6 to 1.8]). However, in one exploratory analysis of treatment responders, we found a possible trend in favor of testosterone on the HDRS. Our findings, combined with the conflicting data from earlier smaller studies, suggest that testosterone is not generally effective for depressed men. The possibility remains that testosterone might benefit a particular subgroup of depressed men, but if so, the characteristics of this subgroup would still need to be established.

  6. Treatment of pain in fibromyalgia patients with testosterone gel: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response.

    PubMed

    White, Hillary D; Brown, Lin A J; Gyurik, Robert J; Manganiello, Paul D; Robinson, Thomas D; Hallock, Linda S; Lewis, Lionel D; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2015-08-01

    To test our hypothesis that testosterone deficiency plays an important role in chronic pain, a Phase I/II pilot study was initiated with 12 fibromyalgia patients to verify that a daily dose for 28days with transdermal testosterone gel would 1) significantly and safely increase mean serum testosterone concentrations from low baseline levels to mid/high-normal levels, and 2) effectively treat the pain and fatigue symptoms of fibromyalgia. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that serum free testosterone concentrations were raised significantly above baseline levels, by assessment of maximum hormone concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters: free testosterone Cmax was significantly raised from a mean of 2.64pg/mL to 3.91pg/mL (p<0.05), and 24hour free testosterone AUC was significantly raised from a mean of 35.0pg-hr/mL to 53.89pg-hr/mL. Assessment of the typical symptoms of fibromyalgia by patient questionnaire and tender point exam demonstrated significant change in: decreased muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue, and increased libido during study treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesized ability of testosterone to relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptoms not tightly related to fibromyalgia were not improved. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The renal effects of prenatal testosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Bábíčková, Janka; Borbélyová, Veronika; Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kubišová, Katarína; Janega, Pavol; Hodosy, Július; Celec, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that prenatal testosterone affects the development of not only reproductive organs but also the brain and even glucose metabolism. Whether prenatal testosterone influences the kidney development is largely unknown. We analyzed whether testosterone modulation during prenatal development would affect renal function and the number of nephrons in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with olive oil, testosterone (2 mg/kg), the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (5 mg/kg) or testosterone plus flutamide via daily intramuscular injections from gestation day 14 until delivery. Renal histology and functional parameters were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Macerated kidneys were used for nephron counting. Prenatal testosterone administration increased proteinuria in male rats by 256%. A similar 134% effect in female rats was not statistically significant. This effect was prevented when flutamide was co-administered. In male rats prenatal testosterone increased blood urea nitrogen. In female rats flutamide increased creatinine clearance. In male rats prenatal testosterone and flutamide led to higher and lower, respectively, interstitial collagen deposition in adulthood. Prenatal testosterone induces proteinuria in adulthood. This effect is mediated via androgen receptor. Additional effects seem to be sex specific. Further studies should focus on the timing and dosing of testosterone as well as the applicability to human development. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Alternatives to Testosterone Therapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lo, Eric M; Rodriguez, Katherine M; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Khera, Mohit

    2018-01-01

    Although testosterone therapy (TTh) is an effective treatment for hypogonadism, recent concerns regarding its safety have been raised. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about potential cardiovascular risks resulting from TTh. Fertility preservation is another reason to search for viable alternative therapies to conventional TTh, and in this review we evaluate the literature examining these alternatives. To review the role and limitations of non-testosterone treatments for hypogonadism. A literature search was conducted using PubMed to identify relevant studies examining medical and non-medical alternatives to TTh. Search terms included hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, testosterone therapy, testosterone replacement alternatives, diet and exercise and testosterone, varicocele repair and testosterone, stress reduction and testosterone, and sleep apnea and testosterone. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Medical therapies examined include human chorionic gonadotropins, aromatase inhibitors, and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Non-drug therapies that are reviewed include lifestyle modifications including diet and exercise, improvements in sleep, decreasing stress, and varicocele repair. The high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the United States suggests that disease modification could represent a viable treatment approach for affected men with hypogonadism. These alternatives to TTh can increase testosterone levels and should be considered before TTh. Lo EM, Rodriguez KM, Pastuszak AW, Khera M. Alternatives to Testosterone Therapy: A Review. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:106-113. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Salivary testosterone measurement by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in adult males and females.

    PubMed

    Keevil, B G; MacDonald, P; Macdowall, W; Lee, D M; Wu, F C W

    2014-05-01

    Salivary testosterone (Sal-T) may be a useful surrogate of serum free testosterone. The study aims were to use a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to determine whether Sal-T concentrations accurately reflect Sal-T concentrations in both sexes and to investigate practical aspects of sample collection. Saliva and serum samples were collected in 104 male and 91 female subjects. A more sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed to enable Sal-T quantitation in the low concentrations found in females. Saliva (200 µL) was extracted with 1 mL of methyl-tert-butyl ether following the addition of D5-testosterone. Quantitation was performed using a Waters TQ-S mass spectrometer. The assay achieved a lower limit of quantification of 5 pmol/L, sufficiently sensitive to measure testosterone in female saliva. Sal-T showed a diurnal variation but samples taken at weekly and monthly intervals showed no significant differences. Sal-T was stable at ambient temperature for up to 5 days, after freeze-thawing and 3 years frozen storage. Reference intervals for Sal-T were 93-378 pmol/L in males and 5-46 pmol/L in females. Sal-T correlated significantly with serum calculated free-T in males (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) and in females (r = 0.39, P < 0.001). These results confirm that testosterone can be reliably and accurately measured by LC-MS/MS in both adult male and female saliva samples. These results lay the foundation for further exploration of the clinical application of Sal- T as a reliable alternative to serum testosterone in the diagnosis and management of androgen disorders and assessment of androgen status in clinical research.

  11. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Fox, Elliott C.; Larsen, Gregory D.; Batson, Christopher G.; Wagner, Benjamin A.; Maher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats’ strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. PMID:23597827

  12. Effects of embryonic and adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on hepatic microsomal testosterone hydroxylase activities in great blue herons (Ardea herodias)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Janz, D.M.

    In a continuing effort to evaluate biomarkers of exposure of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the authors examined the effect of TCDD on hepatic microsomal testosterone hydroxylase activities. Heron embryos were exposed in ovo to 2 {micro}g TCDD/kg egg (or corn oil vehicle) and sacrificed at hatch or 7 d posthatch. Adult herons were exposed intraperitoneally to 20 {micro}g TCDD/kg and sacrificed 2 weeks later. The sex of the birds was known for the adults only. Hepatic microsomes of herons of each age group were able to hydroxylate testosterone at the 2{beta},more » 6{beta}, 15{alpha}, 16{alpha}, or 16{beta} positions. In 7-d-old chicks, an additional unidentified compound was formed. The age of the untreated herons had a strong influence on the activities of the five hydroxylases, with changes of up to 17-fold. The TCDD significantly induced 2{beta}-, 6{beta}, and 15{alpha}-testosterone hydroxylase activities in the adult females, 15{alpha} in the adult males, and 6{beta}-testosterone hydroxylase activity in the hatchlings. In the 7-d-old chicks, induction was no longer apparent. A significant correlation existed between hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and 6{beta}-testosterone hydroxylase activity in hatchlings and adult female herons. The TCDD-induced changes in testosterone hydroxylase activities occurred at doses that resulted in tissue concentrations and levels of EROD induction that were environmentally relevant, but did not result in overt toxicities.« less

  13. Neonatal testosterone partially organizes sex differences in stress-induced emotionality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Walsh, Christopher; Stolakis, Ryan; Sibille, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder of altered mood regulation. Despite well established sex differences in MDD prevalence, the mechanism underlying the increased female vulnerability remains unknown. Although evidence suggests an influence of adult circulating hormone levels on mood (i.e. activational effects of hormones), MDD prevalence is consistently higher in women across life stages (and therefore hormonal states), suggesting that additional underlying structural or biological differences place women at higher risk. Studies in human subjects and in rodent models suggest a developmental origin for mood disorders, and interestingly, a developmental process also establishes sex differences in the brain. Hence, based on these parallel developmental trajectories, we hypothesized that a proportion of the female higher vulnerability to MDD may originate from the differential organization of mood regulatory neural networks early in life (i.e. organizational effects of hormones). To test this hypothesis in a rodent system, we took advantage of a well-established technique used in the field of sexual differentiation (neonatal injection with testosterone) to masculinize sexually dimorphic brain regions in female mice. We then investigated adult behavioral consequences relating to emotionality by comparing neonatal testosterone-treated females to normal males and females. Under baseline/trait conditions, neonatal testosterone treatment of female mice did not influence adult emotionality, but masculinized adult locomotor activity, as revealed by the activational actions of hormones. Conversely, the increased vulnerability of female mice to develop high emotionality following unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) was partially masculinized by neonatal testosterone exposure, with no effect on post-UCMS locomotion. The elevated female UCMS-induced vulnerability did not differ between adult hormone treated groups. These results demonstrate that sex

  14. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Testosterone Topical Solution in Hypogonadal Men With Suboptimal Response to a Topical Testosterone Gel.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patrick R; Kim, Edward D; Ruff, Dustin D; Seftel, Allen D

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of axillary administration of a 2% testosterone solution (Axiron ® ) in hypogonadal (HGN) men who had had a suboptimal response to treatment with a commercially available topical testosterone gel. HGN men averaging 57 years old, with a mean body mass index of 31.9 kg/m 2 and median baseline testosterone level (T-level) of 185.2 ng/dL, who had failed to reach normal T-levels with a topical testosterone gel (Androgel 1.62%, Androgel, Testim, or Fortesta) were treated with a 2% testosterone solution until T-levels reached a normal range (from ≥300 to ≤1,050 ng/dL) or for up to 9 weeks. Outcomes included the cumulative percentage of men with a serum T-level in the normal range during treatment with Axiron and improvement in symptoms of low energy level and low sexual drive. During the study, 95% of HGN men (72/78) attained a T-level in the normal range. The median T-level at endpoint was 495.7 ng/dL, a threefold increase over baseline, p < .001, 70% achieving normal T-levels within the first 2 weeks of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, all subjects with baseline body mass indexes >35 kg/m 2 ( n = 19) achieved T-levels in the normal range. Prior to treatment, over 61% of subjects (48/78) reported impairment in either energy level or sexual drive. After treatment (or testosterone normalization), energy level improved in 75% of subjects and sexual drive improved in 70%. Topical 2% testosterone solution is a safe and effective treatment for HGN men who have had a suboptimal response to previous treatment with topical testosterone gels.

  16. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A NEW TOPICAL TESTOSTERONE REPLACEMENT GEL THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MALE HYPOGONADISM.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Glenn; Belkoff, Laurence; Brock, Gerald; Efros, Mitchell; Gittelman, Marc; Carrara, Dario; Neijber, Anders; Ando, Masakazu; Mitchel, Jules

    2017-05-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is indicated for male hypogonadism. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of testosterone gel 2% (Tgel) over 90 days. This phase 3, open-label, noncomparator study was conducted in adult hypogonadal men (2 consecutive fasting serum testosterone values <300 ng/dL and >86% subjects with symptoms consistent with testosterone deficiency). Subjects applied Tgel 23 mg/day (single pump-actuation using a hands-free cap applicator). The dose was uptitrated to 46 mg/day after 2 weeks if the 4-hour serum total testosterone level was <500 ng/dL. The dose could be further up- or downtitrated to 23, 46, and 69 mg on Days 21, 42, and 63. The primary endpoint included the percentage of subjects with average testosterone concentration (C ave (0-24) ) between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL on Day 90. Safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs), laboratory parameters, and vital signs. Of the 159 who enrolled, 139 men completed the study. Approximately three-quarters (76.1%) of subjects met C ave criteria on Day 90. Most AEs were mild to moderate. There were 5 serious AEs, and 1 (myocardial infarction) was judged as possibly related to Tgel. Confirmed excessive increases in prostate-specific antigen or hematocrit levels were rare. Tgel had a favorable local skin tolerability profile. Overall, 76% of subjects achieved C ave between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL with Tgel. Symptoms of testosterone deficiency improved with few safety concerns. AE = adverse event C ave(0-24) = average testosterone concentration CI = confidence interval C max = maximum concentration IIEF = International Index of Erectile Function MAF = Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue PK = pharmacokinetic PSA = prostate-specific antigen SAE = serious adverse event SF-12 = Short Form 12 Health Survey Tgel = testosterone gel 2% T max = time to achieve maximum concentration TRT = testosterone replacement therapy.

  17. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Houdek, Devon

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testosterone decline in men on bone health are less well known. Much of our knowledge comes from observational studies and retrospective analysis on small groups of men with variable causes of primary or secondary hypogonadism and mild to overt testosterone deficiencies. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of adult male hypogonadism on bone metabolism. The direct and indirect effects of testosterone on bone cells will be explored as well as the important differences in male osteoporosis and assessment as compared to that in females. The clinical consequence of both primary and secondary hypogonadism, as well as testosterone decline in older males, on bone density and fracture risk in men will be summarized. Finally, the therapeutic options and their efficacy in male osteoporosis and hypogonadism will be discussed. PMID:28408926

  18. Neonatal testosterone partially organizes sex differences in stress-induced emotionality in mice.

    PubMed

    Seney, Marianne L; Walsh, Christopher; Stolakis, Ryan; Sibille, Etienne

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder of altered mood regulation. Despite well established sex differences in MDD prevalence, the mechanism underlying the increased female vulnerability remains unknown. Although evidence suggests an influence of adult circulating hormone levels on mood (i.e. activational effects of hormones), MDD prevalence is consistently higher in women across life stages (and therefore hormonal states), suggesting that additional underlying structural or biological differences place women at higher risk. Studies in human subjects and in rodent models suggest a developmental origin for mood disorders, and interestingly, a developmental process also establishes sex differences in the brain. Hence, based on these parallel developmental trajectories, we hypothesized that a proportion of the female higher vulnerability to MDD may originate from the differential organization of mood regulatory neural networks early in life (i.e. organizational effects of hormones). To test this hypothesis in a rodent system, we took advantage of a well-established technique used in the field of sexual differentiation (neonatal injection with testosterone) to masculinize sexually dimorphic brain regions in female mice. We then investigated adult behavioral consequences relating to emotionality by comparing neonatal testosterone-treated females to normal males and females. Under baseline/trait conditions, neonatal testosterone treatment of female mice did not influence adult emotionality, but masculinized adult locomotor activity, as revealed by the activational actions of hormones. Conversely, the increased vulnerability of female mice to develop high emotionality following unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) was partially masculinized by neonatal testosterone exposure, with no effect on post-UCMS locomotion. The elevated female UCMS-induced vulnerability did not differ between adult hormone treated groups. These results demonstrate that sex

  19. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  20. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    De Lorme, Kayla C; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2016-10-15

    Social proficiency requires making appropriate behavioral adaptations as a result of social experience. For example, male rodents become sexually proficient with experience as demonstrated by a reduction in ectopic (misdirected) mounts, mount-to-intromission ratio, and latency to ejaculation. We previously found that over a series of timed tests with a receptive female, male hamsters deprived of testosterone specifically during puberty (NoT@P) have overall lower levels of sexual behavior and continue to display high levels of ectopic mounts, compared with males that experienced endogenous testosterone during puberty (T@P). These results suggested that pubertal testosterone programs sexual proficiency in adulthood, but because NoT@P males engaged in less sexual behavior than T@P males in these tests, the amount of sexual experience may have been insufficient to improve sexual proficiency. To more rigorously test the hypothesis that pubertal testosterone is necessary for social proficiency in adulthood, the present study compared the behavior of NoT@P and T@P males in a series of 4 trials with a 48-h interval between each trial. Sexual experience was equated by limiting each trial to 5 intromissions. Sexually-naïve males were either gonadectomized prepubertally (NoT@P) or in adulthood (T@P) and received subcutaneous testosterone capsules four weeks later. Two weeks after testosterone replacement, these groups and a group of adult gonad-intact controls began sexual behavior testing. We found that NoT@P males had more ectopic mounts/min across all four tests compared to gonad-intact and T@P males. Moreover, both gonad-intact and T@P males, but not NoT@P males, showed an increase in the number of mounts and intromissions/min between trials 1 and 3. Unexpectedly, both gonad-intact and T@P, but not NoT@P, males showed a decrease in sexual behaviors during trial 4. Thus, T@P males display multiple behavioral adaptations to sexual experience that are not observed in No

  1. Foetal exposure to Panax ginseng extract reverts the effects of prenatal dexamethasone in the synthesis of testosterone by Leydig cells of the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Wanderley, Maria I; Saraiva, Karina L A; César Vieira, Juliany S B; Peixoto, Christina A; Udrisar, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of maternal exposure to Panax ginseng extract (GE) on the prenatal dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced increase in testosterone production by isolated Leydig cells in adult rats. Pregnant rats were treated with (i) GE (200 mg/kg) or vehicle on days 10-21; (ii) DEXA (100 μg/kg) or vehicle on days 14-21; or (iii) a combination of GE plus DEXA at the same doses and with the same regimen. Testosterone production was induced either by the activator of protein kinase A (dbcAMP) or substrates of steroidogenesis [22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22(R)-OH-C)] and pregnenolone. The capacity of rat Leydig cells exposed to DEXA to synthesize testosterone induced by dbcAMP, 22(R)-OH-C or pregnenolone was increased in comparison with the control group. Combined exposure to DEXA + GE prevented the effect of DEXA on the responsiveness of Leydig cells to all inductors of testosterone synthesis, whereas GE alone did not modify the response to inductors. No modifications in testosterone production were observed under basal conditions. StAR immunoexpression in Leydig cells was not modified by prenatal exposure to DEXA, GE or DEXA + GE. P450scc and glucocorticoid receptor immunoexpression was higher in offspring exposed to DEXA in comparison with the control group. This increased expression was prevented by combined treatment with DEXA + GE. The present findings demonstrate that GE is capable of reversing the effect of DEXA on testosterone synthesis by rat Leydig cells. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  2. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statisticallymore » significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.« less

  3. Nestling immunocompetence and testosterone covary with brood size in a songbird.

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Marc; Riebel, Katharina; Marzal, Alfonso; Gil, Diego

    2004-01-01

    The social and ecological conditions that individuals experience during early development have marked effects on their developmental trajectory. In songbirds, brood size is a key environmental factor affecting development, and experimental increases in brood size have been shown to have negative effects on growth, condition and fitness. Possible causes of decreased growth in chicks from enlarged broods are nutritional stress, crowding and increased social competition, i.e. environmental factors known to affect adult steroid levels (especially of testosterone and corticosteroids) in mammals and birds. Little, however, is known about environmental effects on steroid synthesis in nestlings. We addressed this question by following the development of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) chicks that were cross-fostered and raised in different brood sizes. In line with previous findings, nestling growth and cell-mediated immunocompetence were negatively affected by brood size. Moreover, nestling testosterone levels covaried with treatment: plasma testosterone increased with experimental brood size. This result provides experimental evidence that levels of circulating testosterone in nestlings can be influenced by their physiological response to environmental conditions. PMID:15255102

  4. Effects of nandrolone decanoate compared with placebo or testosterone on HIV-associated wasting.

    PubMed

    Gold, J; Batterham, M J; Rekers, H; Harms, M K; Geurts, T B P; Helmyr, P M E; Silva de Mendonça, J; Falleiros Carvalho, L H; Panos, G; Pinchera, A; Aiuti, F; Lee, C; Horban, A; Gatell, J; Phanuphak, P; Prasithsirikul, W; Gazzard, B; Bloch, M; Danner, S A

    2006-04-01

    Objectives Current research is unclear about the most effective pharmacological agents for managing the loss of weight and fat-free mass common in HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to compare nandrolone decanoate with placebo and testosterone. Methods The study was a multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Three hundred and three adult HIV-positive male patients with a weight loss of 5-15% in the last 12 months, or a body mass index of 17-19 kg/m(2), or a body cell mass/height ratio lower than 13.5 kg/m, were randomly assigned to receive nandrolone decanoate (150 mg), testosterone (250 mg) or placebo intramuscularly every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Fat-free mass, weight, immune markers and perception of treatment were the main outcome measures. Results Treatment with nandrolone resulted in significantly greater increases in fat-free mass [mean increase 1.34 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60; 2.08 kg] and in weight (mean increase 1.48 kg; 95% CI 0.82; 2.14 kg) compared with placebo. The mean increase in weight with nandrolone of 1.00 kg (95% CI 0.27; 1.74 kg) when compared with testosterone was significant, although the difference in fat free mass did not reach significance (mean increase 0.69 kg; 95% CI-0.13; 1.51 kg). Patient perception of benefit was significantly greater in the nandrolone group when compared with both the placebo and the testosterone groups. Conclusions Treatment with nandrolone decanoate increased body weight when compared with placebo and testosterone. Nandrolone decanoate treatment resulted in greater increases in fat-free mass than placebo and demonstrated a trend for a significant increase when compared with testosterone.

  5. Effects of co-administration of clenbuterol and testosterone propionate on skeletal muscle in paraplegic mice.

    PubMed

    Ung, Roth-Visal; Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A

    2010-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally associated with a rapid and significant decrease in muscle mass and corresponding changes in skeletal muscle properties. Although beta(2)-adrenergic and androgen receptor agonists are anabolic substances clearly shown to prevent or reverse muscle wasting in some pathological conditions, their effects in SCI patients remain largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of clenbuterol and testosterone propionate administered separately or in combination on skeletal muscle properties and adipose tissue in adult CD1 mice spinal-cord-transected (Tx) at the low-thoracic level (i.e., induced complete paraplegia). Administered shortly post-Tx, these substances were found to differentially reduce loss in body weight, muscle mass, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) values. Although all three treatments induced significant effects, testosterone-treated animals were generally less protected against Tx-related changes. However, none of the treatments prevented fat tissue loss or muscle fiber type conversion and functional loss generally found in Tx animals. These results provide evidence suggesting that clenbuterol alone or combined with testosterone may constitute better clinically-relevant treatments than testosterone alone to decrease muscle atrophy (mass and fiber CSA) in SCI subjects.

  6. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Galbreath, Robert W.

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an associationmore » between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA

  7. Clomiphene citrate and testosterone gel replacement therapy for male hypogonadism: efficacy and treatment cost.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frederick; Levine, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of oral clomiphene citrate (CC) in the treatment of male hypogonadism and male infertility (MI) with low serum testosterone and normal gonadotropin levels has been reported. The aim of this article is to evaluate CC and testosterone gel replacement therapy (TGRT) with regard to biochemical and clinical efficacy and cost. The main outcome measures were change in serum testosterone with CC and TGRT therapy, and change in the androgen deficiency in aging male (ADAM) questionnaire scores with CC therapy. Men receiving CC or TGRT with either Androgel 1% or Testim 1% for hypogonadism (defined as testosterone < 300 ng/mL) or MI were included. Serum values were collected 1-2 months after treatment initiation and semi-annually thereafter. Retrospective data collection was performed via chart review. Subjective follow up of patients receiving CC was performed via telephone interview using the ADAM questionnaire. A hundred and four men (65 CC and 39 TGRT) were identified who began CC (50 mg every other day) or TGRT (5 g). Average age (years) was 42(CC) vs. 57 (TGRT). Average follow up was 23 months (CC, range 8-40 months) vs. 46 months (TGRT, range 6-149 months). Average posttreatment testosterone was 573 ng/dL in the CC group and 553 ng/dL in the TGRT group (P value < 0.001). The monthly cost of Testim 1% (5 gm daily) is $270, Androgel 1% (5 gm daily) is $265, and CC (50 mg every other day) is $83. Among CC patients, the average pretreatment ADAM score was 4.9 vs. 2.1 at follow up (P < 0.05). Average pretreatment ADAM sexual function domain score was 0.76 vs. 0.23 at follow up (P < 0.05). There were no adverse events reported. CC represents a treatment option for men with hypogonadism, demonstrating biochemical and clinical efficacy with few side effects and lower cost as compared with TGRT.

  8. Long-term testosterone treatment during pregnancy does not alter insulin or glucose profile in a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Monica; Carrasco, Albert; Sandoval, Daniel; Diaz, Felipe; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2017-09-07

    The administration of testosterone to pregnant sheep to resemble fetal programming of the polycystic ovary syndrome could alter other hormones/factors of maternal origin with known effects on fetal growth. Hence, we studied the weekly profile of insulin, progesterone and glucose during a treatment with testosterone propionate given biweekly from weeks 5 to 17 of pregnancy (term at 21 weeks) and checked the outcome of their fetuses at 17 weeks of gestation after C-section. Control dams were only exposed to the vehicle of the hormone. The testosterone administration did not cause any significant change in the maternal weekly profile of insulin, progesterone or glucose concentration, although the plasma levels of testosterone in the treated dams were inversely correlated to the levels of progesterone. Testosterone treatment also induced an inverse correlation between mean maternal insulin levels and fetal insulin levels; however, the fetal zoometric parameters, body weight, or insulin levels did not differ between exposed and not exposed fetuses. Therefore, treatment with testosterone during pregnancy does not cause significant impact on insulin levels in the mother, leading to less effect on the programming of fetal growth.

  9. Oral enclomiphene citrate stimulates the endogenous production of testosterone and sperm counts in men with low testosterone: comparison with testosterone gel.

    PubMed

    Kaminetsky, Jed; Werner, Michael; Fontenot, Greg; Wiehle, Ronald D

    2013-06-01

    Clomiphene citrate is employed off-label in men who have low testosterone and for the restoration of sperm counts in men who have used exogenous testosterone. Clomiphene is a mixture of two diastereoisomers: zuclomiphene and enclomiphene. We evaluated enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Our aim was to compare oral enclomiphene citrate as an alternative to topical testosterone. Blood levels of total testosterone (TT), estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin, thyroid stimulation hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 were measured at certain times after treatment with each agent. Sperm parameters were determined at the same visits. Free testosterone (FT) was calculated. This was a proof-of-principle, randomized, open-label, fixed dose, active-control, two-center phase IIB study in 12 men with secondary hypogonadism treated previously with topical testosterone. After discontinuation of topical testosterone, morning TT values averaged 165 ± 66 pg/dL. After 3 months, there was a significant rise in men receiving enclomiphene citrate and gel that was sustained for 3 months. At 6 months, TT levels were 545 ± 268 and 525 ± 256 pg/dL for groups receiving the gel and enclomiphene citrate, respectively. Only men in the enclomiphene citrate group demonstrated increased LH and FSH. TT decreased one month posttreatment to pretreatment values. Enclomiphene citrate elevated sperm counts in seven out of seven men at 3 months and six out of six men at 6 months with sperm concentrations in the 75-334 × 10(6) /mL range. The gel was ineffective in raising sperm counts above 20 × 10(6) /mL for all five men at 3 months and raised counts in only two or five men at 6 months. At follow-up, only enclomiphene citrate treatment was associated with elevated sperm counts. Enclomiphene citrate increased testosterone and sperm counts. Concomitant changes in LH and FSH suggest normalization

  10. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  11. The contribution of hepatic inactivation of testosterone to the lowering of serum testosterone levels by ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Wilson, V S; LeBlanc, G A

    2000-03-01

    Hepatic biotransformation processes can be modulated by chemical exposure and these alterations can impact the biotransformation of endogenous substrates. Furthermore, chemically mediated alterations in the biotransformation of endogenous steroid hormones have been implicated as a mechanism by which steroid hormone homeostasis can be disrupted. The fungicide ketoconazole has been shown to lower serum testosterone levels and alter both gonadal synthesis and hepatic inactivation of testosterone. The present study examined whether the effects of ketoconazole on the hepatic biotransformation of testosterone contribute to its lowering of serum testosterone levels. Results also were used to validate further the use of the androgen-regulated hepatic testosterone 6alpha/15alpha-hydroxylase ratio as an indicator of androgen status. Male CD-1 mice were fed from 0 to 160 mg/kg ketoconazole in honey. Four h after the initial treatment, serum testosterone levels, gonadal testosterone secretion, and hepatic testosterone hydroxylase activity decreased, and the hepatic testosterone 6alpha/15alpha-hydroxylase ratio increased in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the transient decline in hepatic biotransformation was not due to reduced P450 protein levels. Rather, hepatic testosterone biotransformation activities were found to be differentially susceptible to direct inhibition by ketoconazole. Differential inhibition was also responsible for the increase seen in the 6alpha/15alpha-hydroxylase ratio. The changes in serum testosterone levels could be explained by decreased gonadal synthesis of testosterone and were not impacted by decreased hepatic biotransformation of testosterone. These results demonstrate that changes in the hepatic hydroxylation of testosterone by ketoconazole, and perhaps other chemicals, have little or no influence serum testosterone levels.

  12. Sexual experience and testosterone during adolescence alter adult neuronal morphology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Morris, John S; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    Steroid hormones released immediately before and after birth provoke sexual differentiation of neural circuits. Further, steroid hormones secreted during adolescence also exert long lasting effects on the nervous system. Hormones secreted during development may act through two distinct pathways: (1) hormones can directly affect neuron and synapse elimination and (2) endocrine changes in the nervous system may occur secondary to changes in social behaviors. Therefore, a critical period for organization of the nervous system by steroid hormones during adolescence may also be a sensitive period for the effects of social experience. The overall goal of this experiment was to determine whether the opportunity to mate with a sexually receptive female during this adolescent critical period would have enduring effects on behavior and neuronal morphology into adulthood. A second question was to determine the extent to which testosterone mediated the effects of these social interactions on adult outcomes. Compared to sexually inexperienced hamsters and those that experienced sex for the first time in adulthood, hamsters that experienced adolescent sexual experience displayed increased anxiety- and depressive-like behavioral responses. Adolescent sexual experiences decreased the complexity and length of dendrites on prefrontal cortical neurons and increased the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in the PFC. In a second experiment, administration of testosterone during the adolescent period largely recapitulated the effects of adolescent sexual experience. These data support the overall hypothesis that a sensitive period extends into adolescence and that salient social stimuli during this time can significantly and persistently alter adult phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone treatment increases androgen receptor and aromatase gene expression in myotubes from patients with PCOS and controls, but does not induce insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Glintborg, Dorte; Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Brusgaard, Klaus; Tan, Qihua; Gaster, Michael

    2014-09-05

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin mediated glucose disposal and the skeletal muscle tissue is capable to synthesize, convert and degrade androgens. Insulin sensitivity is conserved in cultured myotubes (in vitro) from patients with PCOS, but the effect of testosterone on this insulin sensitivity is unknown. We investigated the effect of 7days testosterone treatment (100nmol/l) on glucose transport and gene expression levels of hormone receptors and enzymes involved in the synthesis and conversion of testosterone (HSD17B1, HSD17B2, CYP19A1, SRD5A1-2, AR, ER-α, HSD17B6 and AKR1-3) in myotubes from ten patients with PCOS and ten matched controls. Testosterone treatment significantly increased aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression levels in patients and controls. Glucose transport in myotubes was comparable in patients with PCOS vs. controls and was unchanged by testosterone treatment (p=0.21 PCOS vs. controls). These results suggest that testosterone treatment of myotubes increases the aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression without affecting insulin sensitivity and if testosterone is implicated in muscular insulin resistance in PCOS, this is by and indirect mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Testosterone Therapy in Men With Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Alan L.; Hu, Jim C.; Morgentaler, Abraham; Mulhall, John P.; Schulman, Claude C.; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Context The use of testosterone therapy in men with prostate cancer was previously contraindicated, although recent data challenge this axiom. Over the past 2 decades, there has been a dramatic paradigm shift in beliefs, attitude, and treatment of testosterone deficiency in men with prostate cancer. Objective To summarize and analyze current literature regarding the effect of testosterone replacement in men with prostate cancer. Evidence acquisition We conducted a Medline search to identify all publications related to testosterone therapy in both treated and untreated prostate cancer. Evidence synthesis The historical notion that increasing testosterone was responsible for prostate cancer growth was based on elegant yet limited studies from the 1940s and anecdotal case reports. Current evidence reveals that high endogenous androgen levels do not increase the risk of a prostate cancer diagnosis. Similarly, testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency does not appear to increase prostate cancer risk or the likelihood of a more aggressive disease at prostate cancer diagnosis. Androgen receptor saturation (the saturation model) appears to account for this phenomenon. Men who received testosterone therapy after treatment for localized prostate cancer do not appear to suffer higher rates of recurrence or worse outcomes; although studies to date are limited. Early reports of men on active surveillance/watchful waiting treated with testosterone have not identified adverse progression events. Conclusions An improved understanding of the negative effects of testosterone deficiency on health and health-related quality of life—and the ability of testosterone therapy to mitigate these effects—has triggered a re-evaluation of the role testosterone plays in prostate cancer. An important paradigm shift has occurred within the field, in which testosterone therapy may now be regarded as a viable option for selected men with prostate cancer suffering from testosterone

  15. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens), including...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens), including...

  17. Experimental increase of testosterone increases boldness and decreases anxiety in male African striped mouse helpers.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Julien; Schradin, Carsten

    2014-04-22

    Males of many species can adjust their behaviors to environmental conditions by changing reproductive tactics. Testosterone surges in adult breeding males typically inhibit the expression of paternal care while facilitating the expression of aggression during environmental changes. Similarly, in non-breeding philopatric males of cooperatively breeding species, up-regulation of testosterone may inhibit alloparental care while facilitating dispersal, i.e. males might become bolder and more explorative. We tested this hypothesis in philopatric male African striped mice, Rhabdomys pumilio. Striped mouse males can either remain in their natal groups providing alloparental care or they can disperse seeking mating opportunities. Compared to philopatric males, dispersed males typically show higher testosterone levels and lower corticosterone levels, and more aggression toward pups and same sex conspecifics. We experimentally increased the testosterone levels of the philopatric males kept in their family groups when pups were present. Testosterone-treated males did not differ significantly from control males in alloparental care and in aggression toward same-sex conspecifics. Compared to the control males, testosterone treated males were bolder, more active, and less anxious; they also showed lower corticosterone levels. The philopatric males were sensitive to our testosterone treatment for dispersal- and anxiety-like behavior but insensitive for social behaviors. Our results suggest a role of testosterone in dispersal. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    Serum testosterone ... In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of abnormal testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) ...

  19. Total testosterone quantitative measurement in serum by LC-MS/MS☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuesong; Gay, Gabrielle D.; Botelho, Julianne Cook; Caudill, Samuel P.; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable measurement of total testosterone is essential for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of a number of hormone-related diseases affecting adults and children. A mass spectrometric method for testosterone determination in human serum was carefully developed and thoroughly validated. Total testosterone from 100 μL serum is released from proteins with acidic buffer and isolated by two serial liquid–liquid extraction steps. The first extraction step isolates the lipid fractions from an acidic buffer solution using ethyl acetate and hexane. The organic phase is dried down and reconstituted in a basic buffer solution. The second extraction step removes the phospholipids and other components by hexane extraction. Liquid chromatography–isotopic dilution tandem mass spectrometry is used to quantify the total testosterone. The sample preparation is automatically conducted in a liquid-handling system with 96-deepwell plates. The method limit of detection is 9.71 pmol/L (0.280 ng/dL) and the method average percent bias is not significantly different from reference methods. The performance of this method has proven to be consistent with the method precision over a 2-year period ranging from 3.7 to 4.8% for quality control pools at the concentrations 0.527, 7.90 and 30.7 nmol/L (15.2, 228, and 886 ng/dL), respectively. This method provides consistently high accuracy and excellent precision for testosterone determination in human serum across all clinical relevant concentrations. PMID:24960363

  20. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Héroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  1. Prenatal programming by testosterone of hypothalamic metabolic control neurones in the ewe.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, K M; Padmanabhan, V; Coolen, L M; Lehman, M N

    2011-05-01

    Ewes treated prenatally with testosterone develop metabolic deficits, including insulin resistance, in addition to reproductive dysfunctions that collectively mimic polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disease in women. We hypothesised that metabolic deficits associated with prenatal testosterone excess involve alterations in arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones that contain either agouti-related peptide (AgRP) or pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Characterisation of these neurones in the ewe showed that immunoreactive AgRP and POMC neurones were present in separate populations in the ARC, that AgRP and POMC neurones co-expressed either neuropeptide Y or cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, respectively, and that each population had a high degree of co-localisation with androgen receptors. Examination of the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on the number of AgRP and POMC neurones in adult ewes showed that prenatal testosterone excess significantly increased the number of AgRP but not POMC neurones compared to controls; this increase was restricted to the middle division of the ARC, was mimicked by prenatal treatment with dihydrotestosterone, a non-aromatisable androgen, and was blocked by co-treatment of prenatal testosterone with the anti-androgen, flutamide. The density of AgRP fibre immunoreactivity in the preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamus and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus was also increased by prenatal testosterone exposure. Thus, ewes that were exposed to androgens during foetal life showed alterations in the number of AgRP-immunoreactive neurones and the density of fibre immunoreactivity in their projection areas, suggestive of permanent prenatal programming of metabolic circuitry that may, in turn, contribute to insulin resistance and an increased risk of obesity in this model of PCOS. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Hepatocellular adenoma in a woman who was undergoing testosterone treatment for gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kato, Keizo; Abe, Hiroshi; Hanawa, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Junya; Matsuo, Ryota; Yonezawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Sadahiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Ika, Makiko; Shimizu, Shohei; Endo, Shinji; Hano, Hiroshi; Izu, Asami; Sugitani, Masahiko; Tsubota, Akihito

    2018-03-27

    A 32-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for the diagnosis and treatment of multiple liver tumors. She had been receiving 125 mg testosterone enanthate every 2 weeks following female-to-male gender identity disorder (GID) diagnosis at 20 years of age. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed 11 hepatic nodular tumors with a maximum diameter of 28 mm. Liver tumors with hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) were diagnosed with needle biopsy. Segmentectomy of the left lateral lobe including two lesions, subsegmentectomy of S6 including two lesions, enucleation of each tumor in S5 and S7, and open surgical radiofrequency ablation for each tumor in S4 and S7 were performed. Immunohistochemical specimens showed that the tumor cells were diffusely and strongly positive for glutamine synthetase and that the nuclei were ectopically positive for β-catenin. Thus, the tumors were diagnosed as β-catenin-activated HCA (b-HCA). Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization plus subsequent radiofrequency ablation was performed for the 3 residual lesions in S4 and S8. Although testosterone enanthate was being continued for GID, no recurrence was observed until at least 22 months after the intensive treatments. HCA development in such patients receiving testosterone should be closely monitored using image inspection.

  4. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Thomas R; Chughtai, Bilal; Kaplan, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone) should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients. PMID:25337845

  5. Continuous light after a long-day treatment is equivalent to melatonin implants to stimulate testosterone secretion in Alpine male goats.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, J A; Vélez, L I; Flores, J A

    2016-04-01

    In rams, artificial long days followed by continuous light stimulate testosterone secretion during the non-breeding season. The objective of this study was to determine whether artificial long days followed by continuous light could stimulate testosterone secretion in Alpine bucks as well as in those exposed to long days followed by a melatonin treatment. All bucks were kept in shaded open pens. Control males were exposed to natural photoperiod conditions (n=5). Males of the two experimental groups were exposed to 2.5 months of long days from 1 December (n=5 each). On 16 February, one group of males was exposed to 24 h of light per day until 30 June; the other group was exposed to natural variations of photoperiod and received two s.c. melatonin implants. Testicular weight was determined every 2 weeks, and the plasma testosterone concentrations once a week. In the control and the two photoperiodic-treated groups, a treatment×time interaction was detected for testicular weight and plasma testosterone concentrations (P<0.001). In control bucks, testicular weight increased from January and peaked in June, whereas in both photoperiodic-treated groups, this variable increased from January, but peaked in April, when the values were higher than in controls (P<0.05). In the control group, plasma testosterone concentrations remained low from January to June, whereas in both photoperiodic-treated groups, this variable remained low from January to March; thereafter, these levels increased in both photoperiodic-treated groups, and were higher than controls in April and May (P<0.05). We conclude that continuous light after a long-day treatment stimulate testosterone secretion in Alpine male goats during the non-breeding season as well as the long days followed by a melatonin treatment. Therefore, continuous light could replace the implants of melatonin.

  6. Association of Testosterone Levels With Anemia in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Cindy N.; Snyder, Peter J.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Artz, Andrew S.; Bhasin, Shalender; Cohen, Harvey J.; Farrar, John T.; Gill, Thomas M.; Zeldow, Bret; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A.; Crandall, Jill P.; Cunningham, Glenn R.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Lewis, Cora E.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Molitch, Mark E.; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Cifelli, Denise; Hou, Xiaoling; Resnick, Susan M.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J.; Wang, Christina; Schrier, Stanley L.; Ellenberg, Susan S.

    2017-01-01

    Importance In one-third of older men with anemia, no recognized cause can be found. Objective To determine if testosterone treatment of men 65 years or older with unequivocally low testosterone levels and unexplained anemia would increase their hemoglobin concentration. Design, Setting, and Participants A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with treatment allocation by minimization using 788 men 65 years or older who have average testosterone levels of less than 275 ng/dL. Of 788 participants, 126 were anemic (hemoglobin Š12.7 g/dL), 62 of whom had no known cause. The trial was conducted in 12 academic medical centers in the United States from June 2010 to June 2014. Interventions Testosterone gel, the dose adjusted to maintain the testosterone levels normal for young men, or placebo gel for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures The percent of men with unexplained anemia whose hemoglobin levels increased by 1.0 g/dL or more in response to testosterone compared with placebo. The statistical analysis was intent-to-treat by a logistic mixed effects model adjusted for balancing factors. Results The men had a mean age of 74.8 years and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30.7; 84.9% were white. Testosterone treatment resulted in a greater percentage of men with unexplained anemia whose month 12 hemoglobin levels had increased by 1.0 g/dL or more over baseline (54%) than did placebo (15%) (adjusted OR, 31.5; 95% CI, 3.7-277.8; P = .002) and a greater percentage of men who at month 12 were no longer anemic (58.3%) compared with placebo (22.2%) (adjusted OR, 17.0; 95% CI, 2.8-104.0; P = .002). Testosterone treatment also resulted in a greater percentage of men with anemia of known cause whose month 12 hemoglobin levels had increased by 1.0 g/dL or more (52%) than did placebo (19%) (adjusted OR, 8.2; 95% CI, 2.1-31.9; P = .003). Testosterone treatment resulted in a hemoglobin concentration of more than 17

  7. The relationship of the oestrogen and progestin receptors in the abnormal uterus of the adult anovulatory rat. Effects of neonatal treatment with testosterone propionate or clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed Central

    White, J O; Moore, P A; Elder, M G; Lim, L

    1981-01-01

    The neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to Wistar rats resulted in anovulatory adults in persistent vaginal oestrus. Clomiphene citrate had a similar effect. In both groups of adults, hyperplasia of the uterine epithelium and occasional metaplasia was observed. The uterine nuclear and cytosol oestrogen and progestin receptors of these anovulatory rats were found to have affinities for their respective ligands similar to those of normal females. The nuclear oestrogen receptor comprised occupied and unoccupied components, as in normal females. The content of the nuclear oestrogen receptor was comparable with that of females in the late dioestrous or pro-oestrous phase. This content was higher in the clomiphene-treated group. Despite the relatively high nuclear oestrogen receptor content the content of progestin receptors, a putative index of the oestrogenic response, was lower in the treated rats than in normal adult females throughout the cycle. Administration of oestradiol to both treatment groups resulted in depletion of cytosol oestrogen receptor content 1 h later, which, however, was not reflected by an increase in the content of nuclear oestrogen receptors. There was no measurable increase in progesterone receptor content in treated rats after daily administration of oestrogen (5 microgram/rat) for 3 days. These changes in sex-hormone-receptor interactions involving an impairment of the normal oestrogenic response may be associated with the abnormal differentiation of the uterus in these sterile, anovulatory animals. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7316994

  8. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  9. A comparison of a novel testosterone bioadhesive buccal system, striant, with a testosterone adhesive patch in hypogonadal males.

    PubMed

    Korbonits, Márta; Slawik, Marc; Cullen, Derek; Ross, Richard J; Stalla, Günter; Schneider, Harald; Reincke, Martin; Bouloux, Pierre M; Grossman, Ashley B

    2004-05-01

    A novel delivery system has been developed for testosterone replacement. This formulation, COL-1621 (Striant), a testosterone-containing buccal mucoadhesive system, has been shown in preliminary studies to replace testosterone at physiological levels when used twice daily. Therefore, the current study compared the steady-state pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the buccal system with a testosterone-containing skin patch (Andropatch or Androderm) in an international multicenter study of a group of hypogonadal men. Sixty-six patients were randomized into two groups; one applied the buccal system twice daily, whereas the other applied the transdermal patch daily, in each case for 7 d. Serum total testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were measured at d 1, 3 or 4, and 6, and serially over the last 24 h of the study. Pharmacokinetic parameters for each formulation were calculated, and the two groups were compared. The tolerability of both formulations was also evaluated. Thirty-three patients were treated with the buccal preparation, and 34 were treated with the transdermal patch. The average serum testosterone concentration over 24 h showed a mean of 18.74 nmol/liter (SD =; 5.90) in the buccal system group and 12.15 nmol/liter (SD =; 5.55) in the transdermal patch group (P < 0.01). Of the patients treated with the buccal system, 97% had average steady-state testosterone concentrations within the physiological range (10.41-36.44 nmol/liter), whereas only 56% of the transdermal patch patients achieved physiological total testosterone concentrations (P < 0.001 between groups). Testosterone concentrations were within the physiological range in the buccal system group for a significantly greater portion of the 24-h treatment period than in the transdermal patch group (mean, 84.9% vs. 54.9%; P < 0.001). Testosterone/dihydrotestosterone ratios were physiological and similar in both groups. Few patients experienced major adverse effects from either treatment

  10. Effects of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca on the Histochemistry of the Testis and Testosterone Levels in Adult Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Alabi, A S; Omotosho, G O; Tagoe, C N B; Akinola, O B; Enaibe, B U

    2017-06-30

    This study was aimed at determining the effects of the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca on the testis andtestosterone levels in male Wistar rats. The animals were grouped into three, comprising a control, and 2 treatment groupsadministered with different doses (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) daily of the fruit flour over 28 days. Histochemical evaluationof the testes was done using Haematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) and Feulgen staining techniques, whilethe serum and homogenised testicular tissue were evaluated for testosterone levels using Accu-Bind ELISA Kit. The testisof the treated groups showed more rapidly dividing cells and more population of sperm cells compared to the control group,and also showed more positivity for Feulgen staining and PAS reaction. Both serum and testicular testosterone levels werehowever reduced. Serum testosterone was significantly lowered in the animals given the low dose (0.67 ± 0.03 ng/ml),compared to those given high dose (0.85 ± 0.02 ng/ml) and the control animals (1.88 ± 0.15 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). Changes intesticular testosterone were not statistically significant. The study suggests that M. paradisiaca fruit has reproductiveenhancing potential when consumed moderately, but this benefit may not be related to testosterone levels.

  11. Pharmacoepidemiology of testosterone: Curbing off-label prescribing.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, David J

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the impact of the first year of new Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) prescribing criteria that dictate eligibility for national health scheme subsidy of testosterone prescribing. Analysis of cumulative PBS data. Retrospective analysis of testosterone prescribing from PBS data. Nil MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PBS expenditure analysed by total expenditure, by state, and by product type as well as the age, indication, and prescriber type for new testosterone treatment. Total PBS expenditure continued to exceed $20 million in 2014 before declining from 2015 with changes that were uniform by state and product type. Prior to 2015, over 80% were for men aged over 40 years of age for low circulating testosterone in the absence of reproductive system disorders ("Low T") initiated by GPs. From 2015, these features were markedly reduced without changing the numbers of new prescriptions for pathological reproductive disorders or specialist initiations. The short-term impact of 2015 PBS criteria showed highly effective and well-targeted curbing of off-label testosterone prescribing. The findings indicate that the main driver for the recent upsurge in testosterone prescribing was treatment of middle-aged men for "Low T" initiated by GPs. © 2017 Government of New South Wales. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Strategies to Circumvent Testosterone Surge and Disease Flare in Advanced Prostate Cancer: Emerging Treatment Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Pokuri, Venkata K; Nourkeyhani, Houman; Betsy, Bodie; Herbst, Laurie; Sikorski, Marcus; Spangenthal, Edward; Fabiano, Andrew; George, Saby

    2015-07-01

    The testosterone surge and disease flare is a feared complication from initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma. It is a common practice to start an average 7-day pretreatment regimen with an antiandrogen agent before initiating GnRH agonist therapy, to circumvent disease flare from testosterone surge. However, this might not be the best strategy and can be harmful, especially in patients at high risk of imminent organ damage from minimal testosterone surge. Surgical castration is a simple and cost-effective method that should be considered in these scenarios. But most patients refuse this procedure because of the permanent and psychologic impact of surgery. Novel GnRH antagonists, such as degarelix, and cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, achieve castrate-equivalent serum testosterone levels much faster than traditional GnRH agonists without the need for coadministration of antiandrogens. This article reports on 3 cases of impending oncologic emergencies in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma treated promptly with degarelix and ketoconazole without any disease flare related to testosterone surge. In the setting of symptomatic hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, the authors suggest clinical trials using abiraterone, orteronel, and other newer agents that target the CYP17 axis (eg, ketoconazole) for fine-tuning the emergent medical castration methods and avoiding the dangers from the flare phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  13. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  14. Effects of testosterone administration on liver structure and function in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Ricardo Aparecido Baptista; Teodoro, Ana Caroline de Souza; Krause Neto, Walter; Silva, Wellington de Assis; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Anaruma, Carlos Alberto; Gama, Eliane Florencio

    2017-06-01

    Aging males have a decrease in testosterone levels, by which the testosterone treatment may influence in a negatively fashion the liver. This study aimed to analyze the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on the liver components of animals. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 20 months' group (G20), 24 months' group (G24), group treated with testosterone for 16 weeks (GT). All groups were sacrificed at 24 months except for G20 that was sacrificed at 20 months. Aging and testosterone treatment alters the body weight (BW), liver weight (LW) and relative liver weight. Besides, testosterone increased the mitogen capacity of hepatocytes. Nonetheless, we reinforce the negative effects of testosterone on old animals' liver as chronic hepatic congestion and/or cholestasis. In addition, we observed that testosterone plays an important role on hepatic glycogen stores. Our study showed many implications for the knowledge about the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on old animals' liver.

  15. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    PubMed Central

    Wittert, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture. PMID:24435056

  16. Testosterone replacement therapy and voiding dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Baas, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) represents an increasing popular treatment option for men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Because of unsubstantiated beliefs of testosterone’s effect on the prostate, the FDA has recently placed a warning on testosterone products, stating that TRT may worsen benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Within this review article we have demonstrated the current understanding of the physiology of testosterone and its relationship with prostatic and lower urinary tract physiology. The current evidence suggests that not only does TRT not worsen lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but that hypogonadism itself is an important risk factor for LUTS/BPH. PMID:28078221

  17. IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS THROUGH THE INHIBITION OF CYP17 ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS THROUGH THE INHIBITION OF CYP17 ACTIVITY

    Chad R. Blystone1, David J. Dix2, and John C. Rockett2
    1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, NC State University, R...

  18. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-04-15

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth. Bulls were administered 80 μg of a GnRH agonist, and blood was collected before and after injection to monitor serum hormone concentrations. The same bulls were injected with saline 2 weeks before each GnRH challenge and monitored using the same blood collection protocol. All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH (1.76 ± 0.19 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and testosterone (6.71 ± 1.62 ng/mL; P = 0.019) concentrations after GnRH were higher than the respective baselines (0.57 ± 0.07 ng/mL, 3.05 ± 0.60 ng/mL). Although basal- and GnRH-induced LH secretion were similar across the stages, evaluation of the area under the curve in GnRH-treated bulls indicated that the testosterone response was greatest during premusth (2.84 ± 0.76 area units; P = 0.019) compared to postmusth (2.02 ± 0.63 area units), and nonmusth (2.01 ± 0.46 area units). This confirms earlier reports that GnRH stimulates LH release and subsequent testosterone production in bull elephants. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal

  19. Efficacy of Testosterone Suppression with Sustained-Release Triptorelin in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Breul, Jürgen; Lundström, Eija; Purcea, Daniela; Venetz, Werner P; Cabri, Patrick; Dutailly, Pascale; Goldfischer, Evan R

    2017-02-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay of treatment against advanced prostate cancer (PC). As a treatment goal, suppression of plasma testosterone levels to <50 ng/dl has been established over decades. Evidence is growing though that suppression to even lower levels may add further clinical benefit. Therefore, we undertook a pooled retrospective analysis on the efficacy of 1-, 3-, and 6-month sustained-release (SR) formulations of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin to suppress serum testosterone concentrations beyond current standards. Data of 920 male patients with PC enrolled in 9 prospective studies using testosterone serum concentrations as primary endpoint were pooled. Patients aged 42-96 years had to be eligible for ADT and to be either naïve to hormonal treatment or have undergone appropriate washout prior to enrolment. Patients were treated with triptorelin SR formulations for 2-12 months. Primary endpoints of this analysis were serum testosterone concentrations under treatment and success rates overall and per formulation, based on a testosterone target threshold of 20 ng/dl. After 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment, 79%, 92%, 93%, 90%, and 91% of patients reached testosterone levels <20 ng/dl, respectively. For the 1-, 3-, and 6-month formulations success rates ranged from 80-92%, from 83-93%, and from 65-97% with median (interquartile range) serum testosterone values of 2.9 (2.9-6.5), 5.0 (2.9-8.7), and 8.7 (5.8-14.1) ng/dl at study end, respectively. In the large majority of patients, triptorelin SR formulations suppressed serum testosterone concentrations to even <20 ng/dl. Testosterone should be routinely monitored in PC patients on ADT although further studies on the clinical benefit of very low testosterone levels and the target concentrations are still warranted.

  20. Safety aspects of 36 months of administration of long-acting intramuscular testosterone undecanoate for treatment of female-to-male transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Jacobeit, J W; Gooren, L J; Schulte, H M

    2009-11-01

    Testosterone treatment is essential for the induction and maintenance of virilization of female-to-male (FTM) transsexuals. Aim To test the safety of a novel testosterone preparation for this purpose. Parenteral long-acting testosterone undecanoate (TU) was administered to 17 FTM transsexuals over 36 months. Observations were made while subjects received treatment. Serum testosterone rose from 0.50+/-0.25 to 6.2+/-1.3 ng/ml at 6 months and remained stable thereafter. The testosterone profiles were largely identical with those in hypogonadal receiving TU. There were no side effects. Over the 36 months of the study, there was a small but significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (from 218+/-47 to 188+/-42 mg/dl) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (from 139+/-48 to 139+/-48 mg/dl), while plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides did not change significantly. Liver enzymes did not change during treatment. There was an increase of both levels in hemoglobin (from 13.6+/-1.2 to 16.0+/-1.5 g/dl) and hematocrit (from 41+/-4 to 46+/-4) upon administration but they remained almost without exception within the physiological range. No special measures were needed. Breast and gonads/internal genitalia did not show pathological changes over the observation period. This study reports that TU is suited for induction of virilization in FTM transsexuals without significant side effects over a longer term.

  1. Growth, sexual and bone development in a boy with bilateral anorchia under testosterone treatment guided by the development of his monozygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Sara; Van Caenegem, Eva; Craen, Margarita; Taes, Youri; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2018-03-28

    Sex steroids are essential for sexual maturation, linear growth and bone development. However, there is no consensus on the optimal timing, dosage and dosage interval of testosterone therapy to induce pubertal development and achieve a normal adult height and bone mass in children with hypogonadism. A monozygotic monochorial male twin pair, of which one boy was diagnosed with anorchia at birth due to testicular regression syndrome was followed from the age of 3 until the age of 18 years. Low dose testosterone substitution (testosterone esters 25 mg/2 weeks) was initiated in the affected twin based on the start of pubertal development in the healthy twin and then gradually increased accordingly. Both boys were followed until age 18 and were compared as regards to linear growth, sexual maturation, bone maturation and bone development. Before puberty induction both boys had a similar weight and height. During puberty, a slightly faster weight and height gain was observed in the affected twin. Both boys ended up however, with a similar and normal (near) adult height and weight and experienced a normal development of secondary sex characteristics. At the age of 17 and 18 years, bone mineral density, body composition and volumetric bone parameters at the forearm and calf were evaluated in both boys. The affected boy had a higher lean mass and muscle cross-sectional area. The bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and whole body was similar. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone parameters were comparable. At one cortical site (proximal radius), however, the affected twin had a smaller periosteal and endosteal circumference with a thicker cortex. In conclusion, a low dose testosterone substitution in bilateral anorchia led to a normal onset of pubertal development and (near) adult height. Furthermore, there was no difference in bone mineral density at the age of 17 and 18 years.

  2. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  3. Testosterone Attenuates Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Mediated Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cephus, Jacqueline-Yvonne; Stier, Matthew T; Fuseini, Hubaida; Yung, Jeffrey A; Toki, Shinji; Bloodworth, Melissa H; Zhou, Weisong; Goleniewska, Kasia; Zhang, Jian; Garon, Sarah L; Hamilton, Robert G; Poloshukin, Vasiliy V; Boyd, Kelli L; Peebles, R Stokes; Newcomb, Dawn C

    2017-11-28

    Sex hormones regulate many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma. As adults, asthma prevalence is 2-fold greater in women compared to men. The number of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is increased in patients with asthma, and we investigate how testosterone attenuates ILC2 function. In patients with moderate to severe asthma, we determine that women have an increased number of circulating ILC2 compared to men. ILC2 from adult female mice have increased IL-2-mediated ILC2 proliferation versus ILC2 from adult male mice, as well as pre-pubescent females and males. Further, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, a hormone downstream of testosterone, decreases lung ILC2 numbers and IL-5 and IL-13 expression from ILC2. In vivo, testosterone attenuated Alternaria-extract-induced IL-5+ and IL-13+ ILC2 numbers and lung eosinophils by intrinsically decreasing lung ILC2 numbers, as well as by decreasing expression of IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), ILC2-stimulating cytokines. Collectively, these findings provide a foundational understanding of sexual dimorphism in ILC2 function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long acting testosterone undecanoate therapy in men with hypogonadism: results of a pharmacokinetic clinical study.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Dobs, Adrian S; Kaufman, Joel M; Miner, Martin M; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Wang, Christina

    2008-12-01

    We determined the pharmacokinetics and safety of 750 mg long acting testosterone undecanoate given intramuscularly at 0, 4 and 14 weeks to men with hypogonadism. A 24-week, single arm, open label, multicenter trial in 130 hypogonadal men 18 years or older who were screened for serum total testosterone less than 300 ng/dl was performed at 31 research sites in the United States between March and November 2007. Testosterone undecanoate (750 mg) was administered at baseline, and at weeks 4 and 14. Serum testosterone samples were collected on days 4, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56 and 70 following injection 3. Safety was assessed, eg biochemical markers and adverse events, secondary to testosterone undecanoate treatment. Of the 130 patients 116 with a mean +/- SE age of 54.2 +/- 0.90 years completed the 24-week trial. Following the week 14 injection mean +/- SD average serum testosterone was 494.9 +/- 141.46 ng/dl during the 70-day dosing interval and mean +/- SD maximum serum testosterone was 890.6 +/- 345.11 ng/dl with a mean concentration within the young healthy adult male range (300 to 1,000 ng/dl) in 94% of patients and a mean maximum concentration of below 1,500 ng/dl in 92%. Mean +/- SE hematocrit and hemoglobin increased from baseline to week 24 (43.3% +/- 0.32% to 45.7% +/- 0.35% and 14.6 +/- 0.11 to 15.5 +/- 0.13 gm/dl, respectively). Mean +/- SE prostate specific antigen increased from baseline to 24 weeks (1.0 +/- 0.08 to 1.3 +/- 0.10 ng/ml). No prostate cancer or gynecomastia was observed during this 24-week study. This 24-week clinical study demonstrated that 750 mg testosterone undecanoate depot injection administered intramuscularly at 0, 4 and 14 weeks achieves serum testosterone levels in the normal range during a 10-week dosing interval.

  5. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  6. Activation of GPER-1 estradiol receptor downregulates production of testosterone in isolated rat Leydig cells and adult human testis.

    PubMed

    Vaucher, Laurent; Funaro, Michael G; Mehta, Akanksha; Mielnik, Anna; Bolyakov, Alexander; Prossnitz, Eric R; Schlegel, Peter N; Paduch, Darius A

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) modulates testicular functions including steroidogenesis, but the mechanisms of E2 signaling in human testis are poorly understood. GPER-1 (GPR30), a G protein-coupled membrane receptor, mediates rapid genomic and non-genomic response to estrogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPER-1 expression in the testis, and its role in estradiol dependent regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated rat Leydig cells and human testis. Isolated Leydig cells (LC) from adult rats and human testicular tissue were used in this study. Expression and localization studies of GPER-1 were performed with qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) -stimulated, isolated LC were incubated with estradiol, G-1 (GPER-1-selective agonist), and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Testosterone production was measured with radioimmunoassay. LC viability after incubation with G-1 was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. GPER-1 mRNA is abundantly expressed in rat LC and human testis. Co-localization experiments showed high expression levels of GPER-1 protein in LC. E2-dependent activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone production in isolated rats LCs and in human testis, with statistically and clinically significant drops in testosterone production by 20-30% as compared to estradiol-naïve LC. The exposure to G-1 does not affect viability of isolated LCs. Our results indicate that activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone levels in the rat and human testis. The expression of GPER-1 in human testis, which lack ERα, makes it an exciting target for developing new agents affecting testosterone production in men.

  7. Delivering enhanced testosterone replacement therapy through nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Ferrati, Silvia; Nicolov, Eugenia; Bansal, Shyam; Zabre, Erika; Geninatti, Thomas; Ziemys, Arturas; Hudson, Lee; Ferrari, Mauro; Goodall, Randal; Khera, Mohit; Palapattu, Ganesh; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2015-02-18

    Primary or secondary hypogonadism results in a range of signs and symptoms that compromise quality of life and requires life-long testosterone replacement therapy. In this study, an implantable nanochannel system is investigated as an alternative delivery strategy for the long-term sustained and constant release of testosterone. In vitro release tests are performed using a dissolution set up, with testosterone and testosterone:2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TES:HPCD) 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratio complexes release from the implantable nanochannel system and quantify by HPLC. 1:2 TES:HPCD complex stably achieve 10-15 times higher testosterone solubility with 25-30 times higher in vitro release. Bioactivity of delivered testosterone is verified by LNCaP/LUC cell luminescence. In vivo evaluation of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and multiplex assay is performed in castrated Sprague-Dawley rats over 30 d. Animals are treated with the nanochannel implants or degradable testosterone pellets. The 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implant exhibits sustained and clinically relevant in vivo release kinetics and attains physiologically stable plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that by providing long-term steady release 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implants may represent a major breakthrough for the treatment of male hypogonadism. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Developmental programming: gestational testosterone treatment alters fetal ovarian gene expression.

    PubMed

    Luense, Lacey J; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Christenson, Lane K

    2011-12-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment leads to polycystic ovarian morphology, enhanced follicular recruitment/depletion, and increased estradiol secretion. This study addresses whether expression of key ovarian genes and microRNA are altered by prenatal T excess and whether changes are mediated by androgenic or estrogenic actions of T. Pregnant Suffolk ewes were treated with T or T plus the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (T+F) from d 30 to 90 of gestation. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes, steroid/gonadotropin receptors, and key ovarian regulators were measured by RT-PCR using RNA obtained from fetal ovaries collected on d 65 [n = 4, 5, and 5 for T, T+F, and control groups, respectively] and d 90 (n = 5, 7, 4) of gestation. Additionally, fetal d 90 RNA were hybridized to multispecies microRNA microarrays. Prenatal T decreased (P < 0.05) Cyp11a1 expression (3.7-fold) in d 90 ovaries and increased Cyp19 (3.9-fold) and 5α-reductase (1.8-fold) expression in d 65 ovaries. Flutamide prevented the T-induced decrease in Cyp11a1 mRNA at d 90 but not the Cyp19 and 5α-reductase increase in d 65 ovaries. Cotreatment with T+F increased Cyp11a1 (3.0-fold) expression in d 65 ovaries, relative to control and T-treated ovaries. Prenatal T altered fetal ovarian microRNA expression, including miR-497 and miR-15b, members of the same family that have been implicated in insulin signaling. These studies demonstrate that maternal T treatment alters fetal ovarian steroidogenic gene and microRNA expression and implicate direct actions of estrogens in addition to androgens in the reprogramming of ovarian developmental trajectory leading up to adult reproductive pathologies.

  9. Electrical stimulation and testosterone enhance recovery from recurrent laryngeal nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Gina N; Brown, Todd J; Burgette, Ryan C; Fargo, Keith N; Akst, Lee M; Jones, Kathryn J; Foecking, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a combinatorial treatment, consisting of a brief period of nerve electrical stimulation (ES) and systemic supraphysiologic testosterone, on functional recovery following a crush of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Prospective, controlled animal study. After a crush of the left RLN, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four treatment groups: 1) no treatment, 2) ES, 3) testosterone propionate (TP), and 4) ES + TP. Each group was subdivided into 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks post-operative survival time points. Groups had an n of 4- 9. Recovery of vocal fold mobility (VFM) was assessed. Brief ES of the proximal nerve alone or in combination with TP accelerated the initiation of functional recovery. TP administration by itself also produced increased VFM scores compared to controls, but there were no statistical differences between the ES-treated and TP-treated animals. Treatment with brief ES alone was sufficient to decrease the time required to recover complete VFM. Animals with complete VFM were seen in treatment groups as early as 1 week following injury; in the untreated group, this was not observed until at least 3 weeks post-injury, translating into a 66% decrease in time to complete recovery. Brief ES, alone or in combination with TP, promise to be effective therapeutic interventions for promoting regeneration following RLN injury.

  10. Recommendations for the Use of Testosterone in Male Transgender.

    PubMed

    Costa, Laura Bregieiro Fernandes; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas de; Nacul, Andrea Prestes; Carvalho, Bruno Ramalho de; Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa; Soares Júnior, José Maria; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira

    2018-05-01

    Gender incongruence is defined as a condition in which an individual self-identifies and desires to have physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. Gender dysphoria is when an individual displays the anxiety and/or depression disorders that result from the incongruity between the gender identity and the biological sex. The gender affirmation process must be performed by a multidisciplinary team. The main goal of the hormone treatment is to start the development of male physical characteristics by means of testosterone administration that may be offered to transgender men who are 18 years old or over. The use of testosterone is usually well tolerated and improves the quality of life. However, there is still lack of evidence regarding the effects and risks of the long-term use of this hormone. Many different pharmacological formulations have been used in the transsexualization process. The most commonly used formulation is the intramuscular testosterone esters in a short-term release injection, followed by testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthate. In the majority of testosterone therapy protocols, the male physical characteristics can be seen in almost all users after 6 months of therapy, and the maximum virilization effects are usually achieved after 3 to 5 years of regular use of the hormone. To minimize risks, plasmatic testosterone levels should be kept within male physiological ranges (300 to 1,000 ng/dl) during hormonal treatment. It is recommended that transgender men under androgen therapy be monitored every 3 months during the 1st year of treatment and then, every 6 to 12 months. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  11. Circulating testosterone and feather-gene expression of receptors and metabolic enzymes in relation to melanin-based colouration in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Béziers, Paul; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of how and why secondary sexual characters are associated with sex hormones is important to understand their signalling function. Such a link can occur if i) testosterone participates in the elaboration of sex-traits, ii) the display of an ornament triggers behavioural response in conspecifics that induce a rise in testosterone, or iii) genes implicated in the elaboration of a sex-trait pleiotropically regulate testosterone physiology. To evaluate the origin of the co-variation between melanism and testosterone, we measured this hormone and the expression of enzymes involved in its metabolism in feathers of barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings at the time of melanogenesis and in adults outside the period of melanogenesis. Male nestlings displaying smaller black feather spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, potentially suggesting that testosterone could block the production of eumelanin pigments, or that genes involved in the production of small spots pleiotropically regulate testosterone production. In contrast, the enzyme 5α-reductase, that metabolizes testosterone to DHT, was more expressed in feathers of reddish-brown than light-reddish nestlings. This is consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone might be involved in the expression of reddish-brown pheomelanic pigments. In breeding adults, male barn owls displaying smaller black spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, whereas in females the opposite result was detected during the rearing period, but not during incubation. The observed sex- and age-specific co-variations between black spottiness and testosterone in nestling and adult barn owls may not result from testosterone-dependent melanogenesis, but from melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulating testosterone, or from colour-specific life history strategies that influence testosterone levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gonadectomy reduces the density of androgen receptor-immunoreactive neurons in male rat's hippocampus: testosterone replacement compensates it.

    PubMed

    Moghadami, Sajjad; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Sepehri, Hamid; Amini, Hossein

    2016-01-28

    In the present study, the role of gonadectomy on memory impairment and the density of androgen receptor-immunoreactive neurons in rats' hippocampus as well as the ability of testosterone to compensate of memory and the density of androgen receptors in the hippocampus was evaluated. Adult male rats (except intact-no testosterone group) were bilaterally castrated, and behavioral tests performed 2 weeks later. Animals bilaterally cannulated into lateral ventricles and then received testosterone (10, 40 and 120 µg/0.5 µl DMSO) or vehicle (DMSO; 0.5 µl) for gonadectomized-vehicle group, 30 min before training in water maze test. The androgen receptor-immunoreactive neurons were detected by immunohistochemical technique in the hippocampal areas. In the gonadectomized male rats, a memory deficit was found in Morris water maze test on test day (5th day) after DMSO administration. Gonadectomy decreased density of androgen receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the rats' hippocampus. The treatment with testosterone daily for 5 days attenuated memory deficits induced by gonadectomy. Testosterone also significantly increased the density of androgen receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampal areas. The intermediate dose of this hormone (40 µg) appeared to have a significant effect on spatial memory and the density of androgen receptor-immunoreactive neurons in gonadectomized rats' hippocampus. The present study suggests that testosterone can compensate memory failure in gonadectomized rats. Also testosterone replacement can compensate the reduction of androgen receptor-immunoreactive neurons density in the rats' hippocampus after gonadectomy.

  13. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management

    PubMed Central

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen deficiency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:24407187

  14. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lower serum testosterone associated with elevated polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Native American men.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexey; Rej, Robert; Negoita, Serban; Schymura, Maria; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; Carpenter, David O

    2009-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides are endocrine disruptors, altering both thyroid and estrogen hormonal systems. Less is known of action on androgenic systems. We studied the relationship between serum concentrations of testosterone in relation to levels of PCBs and three chlorinated pesticides in an adult Native American (Mohawk) population. We collected fasting serum samples from 703 adult Mohawks (257 men and 436 women) and analyzed samples for 101 PCB congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and mirex, as well as testosterone, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The associations between testosterone and tertiles of serum organochlorine levels (both wet weight and lipid adjusted) were assessed using a logistic regression model while controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and other analytes, with the lowest tertile being considered the referent. Males and females were considered separately. Testosterone concentrations in males were inversely correlated with total PCB concentration, whether using wet-weight or lipid-adjusted values. The odds ratio (OR) of having a testosterone concentration above the median was 0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05-0.69] for total wet-weight PCBs (highest vs. lowest tertile) after adjustment for age, BMI, total serum lipids, and three pesticides. The OR for lipid-adjusted total PCB concentration was 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06-0.78) after adjustment for other analytes. Testosterone levels were significantly and inversely related to concentrations of PCBs 74, 99, 153, and 206, but not PCBs 52, 105, 118, 138, 170, 180, 201, or 203. Testosterone concentrations in females are much lower than in males, and not significantly related to serum PCBs. HCB, DDE, and mirex were not associated with testosterone concentration in either men or women. Elevation in serum PCB levels is associated with a lower concentration of serum testosterone in Native American men.

  16. Lower Serum Testosterone Associated with Elevated Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Native American Men

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Rej, Robert; Negoita, Serban; Schymura, Maria; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; Carpenter, David O.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides are endocrine disruptors, altering both thyroid and estrogen hormonal systems. Less is known of action on androgenic systems. Objective We studied the relationship between serum concentrations of testosterone in relation to levels of PCBs and three chlorinated pesticides in an adult Native American (Mohawk) population. Methods We collected fasting serum samples from 703 adult Mohawks (257 men and 436 women) and analyzed samples for 101 PCB congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and mirex, as well as testosterone, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The associations between testosterone and tertiles of serum organochlorine levels (both wet weight and lipid adjusted) were assessed using a logistic regression model while controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and other analytes, with the lowest tertile being considered the referent. Males and females were considered separately. Results Testosterone concentrations in males were inversely correlated with total PCB concentration, whether using wet-weight or lipid-adjusted values. The odds ratio (OR) of having a testosterone concentration above the median was 0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.05–0.69] for total wet-weight PCBs (highest vs. lowest tertile) after adjustment for age, BMI, total serum lipids, and three pesticides. The OR for lipid-adjusted total PCB concentration was 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06–0.78) after adjustment for other analytes. Testosterone levels were significantly and inversely related to concentrations of PCBs 74, 99, 153, and 206, but not PCBs 52, 105, 118, 138, 170, 180, 201, or 203. Testosterone concentrations in females are much lower than in males, and not significantly related to serum PCBs. HCB, DDE, and mirex were not associated with testosterone concentration in either men or women. Conclusions Elevation in serum PCB levels is associated with a lower concentration of serum

  17. Testosterone and estradiol treatments differently affect pituitary-thyroid axis and liver deiodinase 1 activity in orchidectomized middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Šošić-Jurjević, B; Filipović, B; Renko, K; Miler, M; Trifunović, S; Ajdžanovič, V; Kӧhrle, J; Milošević, V

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that orchidectomy (Orx) of middle-aged rats (15-16-month-old; MA) slightly affected pituitary-thyroid axis, but decreased liver deiodinase (Dio) type 1 and pituitary Dio2 enzyme activities. At present, we examined the effects of subsequent testosterone-propionate treatment (5mg/kg; Orx+T), and compared the effects of testosterone with the effects of estradiol-dipropionate (0.06mg/kg; Orx+E) treatment. Hormones were subcutaneously administered, daily, for three weeks, while Orx and sham-operated (SO) controls received only the vehicle. The applied dose of T did not alter serum TSH, T4 and T3 concentrations in Orx- MA, though it increased TSH when administrated to Orx young adults (2.5-month-old; Orx-YA). However, pituitaries of Orx-MA+T rats had higher relative intensity of immunofluorescence (RIF) for TSHβ; in their thyroids we found increased volume and height of follicular epithelium, decreased volume of the colloid and higher RIF for T4-bound to thyroglobulin (Tg-T4). Liver Dio1 activity was increased. E-treatment did not affect serum hormone levels, pituitary RIF for TSHβ, or liver Dio1 activity in Orx-MA rats. Thyroids had decreased relative volume and height of follicular epithelium, increased relative volume of the colloid, decreased volume of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositive epithelium and lower RIF for Tg-T4. Detected changes were statistically significant. In conclusion, androgenization enhanced pituitary TSHβ RIF, thyroid activation and liver Dio1 enzyme activity in Orx-MA, without elevating serum TSH as in Orx-YA rats. Estrogenization induced pituitary enlargement with no effect on pituitary TSHβ RIF, serum TSH or liver Dio1 activity. E also induced alterations in thyroid histology that indicate mild suppression of its functioning, and contributed to thyroid blood vessel enlargement in Orx-MA rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Testosterone Treatment and Sexual Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Glenn R; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Rosen, Raymond C; Wang, Christina; Bhasin, Shalender; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Parsons, J Kellogg; Gill, Thomas M; Molitch, Mark E; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P; Ensrud, Kristine E; Gallagher, Laura; Zeldow, Bret; Lewis, Cora E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Hou, Xiaoling; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Ellenberg, Susan S; Snyder, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    The Testosterone Trials are a coordinated set of seven trials to determine the efficacy of T in symptomatic men ≥65 years old with unequivocally low T levels. Initial results of the Sexual Function Trial showed that T improved sexual activity, sexual desire, and erectile function. To assess the responsiveness of specific sexual activities to T treatment; to relate hormone changes to changes in sexual function; and to determine predictive baseline characteristics and T threshold for sexual outcomes. A placebo-controlled trial. Twelve academic medical centers in the United States. A total of 470 men ≥65 years of age with low libido, average T <275 ng/dL, and a partner willing to have sexual intercourse at least twice a month. Men were assigned to take T gel or placebo for 1 year. Sexual function was assessed by three questionnaires every 3 months: the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire, the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function, and the International Index of Erectile Function. Compared with placebo, T administration significantly improved 10 of 12 measures of sexual activity. Incremental increases in total and free T and estradiol levels were associated with improvements in sexual activity and desire, but not erectile function. No threshold T level was observed for any outcome, and none of the 27 baseline characteristics predicted responsiveness to T. In older men with low libido and low T levels, improvements in sexual desire and activity in response to T treatment were related to the magnitude of increases in T and estradiol levels, but there was no clear evidence of a threshold effect.

  20. Effectiveness of testosterone therapy in obese men with low testosterone levels, for losing weight, controlling obesity complications, and preventing cardiovascular events: Protocol of a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Mangolim, Amanda S; Brito, Leonardo A R; Nunes-Nogueira, Vania S

    2018-04-01

    The use of testosterone replacement therapy in obese men with low testosterone levels has been controversial. This review aims to analyze the effectiveness of testosterone therapy for weight loss and preventing cardiovascular complications in obese men with low testosterone levels. We will perform a systematic review according to Cochrane Methodology of randomized studies, including crossover studies, wherein patients are allocated into one of the two groups: testosterone therapy and control (no treatment or placebo). The primary outcomes analyzed will be: weight loss, adverse events, quality of life, improvement of libido, control of obesity complications, frequency of cardiovascular events, and deaths. Four general and adaptive search strategies have been created for the following electronic health databases: Embase, Medline, LILACS, and CENTRAL. Two reviewers will independently select the eligible studies, assess the risk of bias, and extract the data from included studies. Similar outcomes measured in at least two trials will be plotted in the meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.3. The quality of evidence of the effect estimate of the intervention for the outcomes that could be plotted in the meta-analysis will be generated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. Although testosterone replacement seems to be an attractive treatment modality for obese men with low testosterone, its potential benefits has been refuted by some studies, whose results have not shown significant differences between treated and untreated patients. For obese men with low testosterone concentrations, the proposed systematic review aims to answer the following questions: When compared with no treatment or placebo: Is testosterone therapy safe? Is testosterone therapy effective in promoting weight loss, a sustained reduction in body weight and changes in body composition? Is testosterone effective in improving quality of

  1. Marijuana use and serum testosterone concentrations among U.S. males.

    PubMed

    Thistle, J E; Graubard, B I; Braunlin, M; Vesper, H; Trabert, B; Cook, M B; McGlynn, K A

    2017-07-01

    Marijuana has been reported to have several effects on the male reproductive system. Marijuana has previously been linked to reduced adult testosterone, however, a study in Denmark reported increased testosterone concentrations among marijuana users. This study was performed to estimate the effect of marijuana use on testosterone in U.S. males. Data on serum testosterone, marijuana use, and covariates for 1577 men from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Information on marijuana use was collected by a self-administered computer-assisted questionnaire. Serum testosterone was determined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of marijuana use on serum testosterone concentrations were examined by frequency, duration, and recency of use. Adjusted means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of serum testosterone across levels of marijuana use were estimated using multiple linear regression weighted by the survey weights. The majority (66.2%) of the weighted study population reported ever using marijuana with 26.6% reporting current marijuana use. There was no difference in serum testosterone between ever users (adjusted mean = 3.69 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.46, 3.93) and never users (adjusted mean = 3.70 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.45, 3.98) upon multivariable analysis. However, serum testosterone was inversely associated with time since last regular use of marijuana (p-value for trend = 0.02). When restricted to men aged 18-29 years, this relationship strengthened (p-value for trend <0.01), and serum testosterone was also inversely associated with time since last use (p-value for trend <0.01), indicating that recency of use, and not duration or frequency, had the strongest relationship with testosterone levels. Serum testosterone concentrations were higher in men with more recent marijuana use. Studies are needed to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone concentrations

  2. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hypogonadism in adult male patients--2002 update.

    PubMed

    Petak, Steven M; Nankin, Howard R; Spark, Richard F; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Rodriguez-Rigau, Luis J

    2002-01-01

    In these clinical practice guidelines, specific recommendations are made for determining the most effective methods of diagnosing and treating hypogonadism in adult male patients. The target populations for these guidelines include the following: (1) men with primary testicular failure requiring testosterone replacement (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism); (2) male patients with gonadotropin deficiency or dysfunction who may have received testosterone replacement therapy or treatment for infertility (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); and (3) aging men with symptoms relating to testosterone deficiency who could benefit from testosterone replacement therapy. Initial hormonal evaluation generally consists of a testosterone determination, in conjunction with a free testosterone or sex hormone-binding globulin level, inpatients with clear symptoms and signs but normal-range total testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels. Other possible tests include semen analysis, pituitary imaging studies, genetic studies, bone densitometry, testicular ultrasonography,testicular biopsy, and specialized hormonal dynamic testing. Therapeutic options generally consist of testosterone replacement by injections, patches, or topically applied gel in hypergonadotropic patients and in hypogonadotropic patients not interested in fertility. In hypogonadotropic patients interested in fertility, gonadal stimulation option scan be considered, including human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation therapy with or without human menopausal gonadotropin (or follicle-stimulating hormone) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone pump therapy. These therapies may be combined with assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which may allow pregnancy to occur with very low numbers of sperm.

  3. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males

    PubMed Central

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status–seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants’ choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se. In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone. PMID:29551966

  4. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males.

    PubMed

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants' choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se . In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  5. Effect of testosterone replacement on the alteration of steroid metabolism in the hypothalamic-preoptic area of male hamsters treated with melatonin.

    PubMed

    Petterborg, L J; West, D A; Rudeen, P K; Ganjam, V K

    1991-11-01

    Adult male hamsters were maintained under 14 hours of light per day and randomly assigned to groups that received daily afternoon melatonin (25 micrograms) or vehicle injections. Animals from both groups were killed following 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. By 12 weeks, the melatonin-treated hamsters had significant reductions in the weights of the testes and seminal vesicles, serum testosterone levels, and activities did not differ between groups. In a second experiment, hamsters were hypothalamic-preoptic area (HPOA) aromatase activities. Hypothalamic-preoptic area 5 alpha-reductase activities did not differ between groups. In a second experiment, hamsters were again treated with melatonin or vehicle for 12 weeks prior to being killed. After 10 weeks of treatment, groups of melatonin-treated animals received subcutaneous silastic capsules (5, 10, or 20 mm) filled with testosterone. Animals in two other groups were given blank implants or no implants at all. Two weeks later, at autopsy, reproductive organ weights, serum testosterone levels, and HPOA aromatase activities were significantly suppressed by melatonin administration. 5 alpha-Reductase activity in the HPOA was not affected. Hamsters that had been given the 10- and 20-mm testosterone implants exhibited normal seminal vesicle weights and HPOA aromatase activities. These results suggest that melatonin-induced reduction of HPOA aromatase activity is mediated by decreased circulating levels of testosterone.

  6. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration

    PubMed Central

    Rouver, Wender Nascimento; Delgado, Nathalie Tristão Banhos; Menezes, Jussara Bezerra; Santos, Roger Lyrio; Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium–dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM), castrated (CAST), castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group) or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group) of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose–response curve for bradykinin (BK) was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO), L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT). We observed significant endothelium–dependent, BK–induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium–dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP. PMID:26322637

  7. Partial androgen deficiency, depression and testosterone treatment in aging men.

    PubMed

    Amore, Mario; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Quarta, Antonio Lucio; Tagariello, Pietro

    2009-02-01

    This study provides a critical review of the literature on depressive symptoms of partial androgen deficiency (PADAM) and their treatment with Testosterone (T). PADAM in aging males is responsible for a variety of behavioral symptoms, such as weakness, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction, lower psychological vitality, depressive mood, anxiety, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating, and memory impairment. The psychological and behavioural aspects of PADAM may overlap with signs and symptoms of major depression. Evidence of the relationship between androgen deficiency and male depression comes from studies that have assessed depression in hypogonadal subjects, the association between low T level and male depressive illness, and the antidepressant action of androgen replacement. The etiology of depressive symptoms of PADAM is multifactorial, and results from the interaction of the biological and psychosocial changes that take place during the mid-life transition. Although data derived from androgen treatment trials and androgen replacement do not support T treatment or replacement as more efficacious than placebo for major depressive disorder (MDD), the clinical impression is that, in some sub-threshold depressive syndromes, T may lead to antidepressant benefits.

  8. Long-term treatment patterns of testosterone replacement medications.

    PubMed

    Donatucci, Craig; Cui, Zhanglin; Fang, Yun; Muram, David

    2014-08-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is prescribed to men diagnosed with hypogonadism to alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and improve overall health. However, most men use TRT for only a short duration. To evaluate the long-term treatment patterns in hypogonadal men using topical TRT or short-lasting TRT injections. Using the Truven MarketScan(®) Database, 15,435 men who received their first (index) topical TRT prescription and 517 men who received their short-lasting TRT injection index prescription in 2009 were followed from 12 to 30 months after treatment initiation. Treatment interruption was defined as a medication gap of >30 days. Patients who remained off treatment were classified as having discontinued treatment. Patients who restarted therapy after 30 days were classified as cyclic users. Patients were required to have continuous insurance coverage during 1 year prior to treatment initiation and at least 1 year afterward. Main outcome measures were length of therapy, discontinuation, and restarts of topical TRT or short-lasting TRT injections. The patient characteristics were similar for patients who received topical TRT or short-lasting TRT injections. Of the patients who discontinued therapy during the follow-up period, the percentages of patients who were still on therapy after 3 months were 52% and 31% for topical TRT and short-lasting TRT users, respectively. For cyclic users, there was an attrition rate of approximately 40% to 50% of patients in each cycle. For both topical TRT and short-lasting TRT injections, the gap between stopping and restarting therapy tended to decrease over time. In this analysis, high discontinuation rates were observed. The treatment pattern of TRT may be related to the disease state rather than dosing, daily use, or mode of administration. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-12-16

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  10. Testosterone Administration Decreases Generosity in the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Paul J.; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-01-01

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially. PMID:20016825

  11. Effects of prolonged physical exercise and fasting upon plasma testosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Ferre, P; Serrurier, B; Merino, D; Pesquies, P C

    1982-01-01

    Prolonged physical exercise and fasting in male rats were studied to determine the effect of these two treatments on plasma testosterone level. Blood and tissue samples were drawn after 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, and 7 h treadmill running, and after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of fasting. Both treatments resulted in a significant fall in plasma testosterone, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), plasma Insulin (IRI) and in liver and muscle glycogen stores. In the course of these two treatments the injection of a supra maximal dose of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) produced a rise in plasma testosterone similar to that in control rats. This indicates that the decrease of plasma LH may be responsible for the decrease in plasma testosterone, which is time-related with the decrease in glycogen stores. The possible metabolic role of the decrease in plasma testosterone is discussed.

  12. Testosterone and mortality.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Jones, T Hugh

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that men with low or low normal endogenous testosterone are at an increased risk of mortality than those with higher levels. Cardiovascular disease accounts for the greater proportion of deaths in those with low testosterone. Cancer and respiratory deaths in some of the studies are also significantly more prevalent. Disease-specific studies have identified that there are higher mortality rates in men with cardiovascular, respiratory and renal diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer with low testosterone. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and inflammatory disorders are all associated with an increased prevalence of testosterone deficiency. Two major questions that arise from these findings are (1) is testosterone deficiency directly involved in the pathogenesis of these conditions and/or a contributory factor impairing the body's natural defences or is it merely a biomarker of ill health and the severity of underlying disease process? (2) Does testosterone replacement therapy retard disease progression and ultimately enhance the clinical prognosis and survival? This review will discuss the current state of knowledge and discuss whether or not there are any answers to either of these questions. There is convincing evidence that low testosterone is a biomarker for disease severity and mortality. Testosterone deficiency is associated with adverse effects on certain cardiovascular risk factors that when combined could potentially promote atherosclerosis. The issue of whether or not testosterone replacement therapy improves outcomes is controversial. Two retrospective studies in men with diagnosed hypogonadism with or without type 2 diabetes have reported significantly improved survival. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental) courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the ‘vital principle’ as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889), which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by Kallmann, Del

  14. The endocrine pharmacology of testosterone therapy in men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettel, Michael

    The review starts off by outlining the history of the discovery of the male sex hormone testosterone and the historical background to the various, often dubious, approaches to the treatment of age-related endocrine disorders in older men. A discussion of congenital androgen deficiency in young men is followed by methods of diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Among therapeutic options, the alternatives to direct testosterone replacement are discussed, although none of them have proved to be particularly successful in clinical practice. For testosterone replacement itself, various routes of administration and pharmaceutical formulations are now available, facilitating good monitoring and individualized therapy.

  15. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  16. [Testosterone and psyche].

    PubMed

    Leiber, C; Wetterauer, U; Berner, M

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone, like other steroid hormones, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the androgen receptor is present in most parts of the human brain. Therefore, testosterone has many effects on the psyche, mainly in men but also in women. Most often discussed is its influence on sexuality, especially on desire and sexual fantasies, spontaneous nighttime erections, sexual activity, and the number of orgasms and ejaculations. Mood and energy are also testosterone related. Testosterone deficiency in male patients can lead to depressive disorders. In the past, elevated testosterone levels were seen as responsible for strongly aggressive behaviour. Some cognitive functions (spatial and mathematical sense, verbal skills) are, at least to a certain point, testosterone related. Due to the extremely complex functioning of the human brain, a scientifically exact statement regarding the true relationship between testosterone and human behaviour is not possible. On the one hand, the cause is definitively multifactorial, but on the other, testosterone is metabolised in the brain, and the metabolites act by themselves. Furthermore, a bidirectional relationship exists between hormones and human behaviour: Human behaviour is influenced by hormones, and human behaviour also has a direct influence on the levels of many hormones in the human body. Finally, much data in this field are derived from animal studies; studies on humans cannot be conducted because of ethical reasons or scientific and technical problems.

  17. The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue are changed by estrogen treatment in female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-07-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excess body weight (BW) gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgens in female BW, appetite, and energy metabolism have not been fully examined. We hypothesized that androgens' effects on food intake (FI) and BW regulation change according to the estrogens' levels. To evaluate this hypothesis, the effects of chronic testosterone administration in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol supplementation were examined in this study. Chronic testosterone administration decreased BW, FI, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, and adipocyte size in OVX rats, whereas it increased BW, WAT weight, and adipocyte size in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. In addition, chronic testosterone administration increased hypothalamic CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it did not alter CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats, indicating that conversion of testosterone to estrogens in the hypothalamus may be activated in testosterone-administered OVX rats. Furthermore, chronic testosterone administration decreased hypothalamic TNF-α mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it increased hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. On the other hand, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels in visceral and subcutaneous WAT and liver were not changed by chronic testosterone administration in both groups. These data indicate that the effects of chronic testosterone administration on BW, FI, WAT weight, and adipocyte size were changed by estradiol treatment in female rats. Testosterone has facilitative effects on BW gain, FI, and adiposity under the estradiol-supplemented condition, whereas it has inhibitory effects in the non-supplemented condition. Differences in the responses of hypothalamic factors, such as aromatase and inflammatory cytokines, to testosterone might underlie these opposite effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pubertal testosterone influences threat-related amygdala–orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Worthman, Carol M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that normative pubertal maturation is associated with increased threat reactivity, and this developmental shift has been implicated in the increased rates of adolescent affective disorders. However, the neural mechanisms involved in this pubertal increase in threat reactivity remain unknown. Research in adults indicates that testosterone transiently decreases amygdala–orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) coupling. Consequently, we hypothesized that increased pubertal testosterone disrupts amygdala–OFC coupling, which may contribute to developmental increases in threat reactivity in some adolescents. Hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal study by examining the impact of testosterone on functional connectivity. Findings were consistent with hypotheses and advance our understanding of normative pubertal changes in neural systems instantiating affect/motivation. Finally, potential novel insights into the neurodevelopmental pathways that may contribute to adolescent vulnerability to behavioral and emotional problems are discussed. PMID:24795438

  19. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone.

    PubMed

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility.

  1. Pharmacokinetics, Clinical Efficacy, Safety Profile, and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients Receiving Subcutaneous Testosterone Pellets 900 mg for Treatment of Symptoms Associated With Androgen Deficiency.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Shusterman, Neil; Cohen, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Implantation of testosterone doses of at least 150 to 450 mg (ie, two to six pellets) is common clinical practice despite a lack of prospective data. To evaluate pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes in men with androgen deficiency who received implantation of testosterone pellets (900 mg) in an open-label study. Men with androgen deficiency (serum testosterone < 300 ng/dL [10.4 nmol/L]) were screened and received 12 testosterone pellets (900 mg). Serum hormone measurements (total and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol) were obtained on days 1, 5, 8, 15, 29, 57, 85, and 113. All hormones were assayed using validated liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetics of selected hormones was determined. The patient-reported International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), and Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (qADAM) questionnaires also were performed. Patients rated their satisfaction on a scale from 1 (very satisfied) to 5 (very dissatisfied). Adverse events were monitored throughout. Fifteen patients were included (mean age = 54.5 years, SD = 8.6 years). Mean baseline total testosterone concentration was 241.6 ng/dL (SD = 88.8 ng/dL; mean = 8.4 nmol/L, SD = 3.1 nmol/L). Mean testosterone serum concentrations fluctuated during the first 2 weeks (range = 300-1,000 ng/dL, 10.4-34.7 nmol/L) but remained higher than or equal to 300 ng/dL (10.4 nmol/L) through day 113. Concentrations of free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol mirrored that of total testosterone. Male functioning (IIEF score), depression (CES-D total score), and androgen-deficiency symptoms (qADAM total score) improved from baseline. Most patients were "very satisfied" (40.0%) or "quite satisfied" (26.7%) with treatment. Testosterone pellets were well tolerated. Pellet extrusion and polycythemia occurred in one patient each. Implantation of high doses

  2. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral testosterone undecanoate with concomitant inhibition of 5α-reductase by finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Roth, M. Y.; Dudley, R. E.; Hull, L.; Leung, A.; Christenson, P.; Wang, C.; Swerdloff, R.; Amory, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) is used to treat testosterone deficiency; however, oral TU treatment elevates dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which may be associated with an increased risk of acne, male pattern baldness and prostate hyperplasia. Co-administration of 5α-reductase inhibitors with other formulations of oral testosterone suppresses DHT production and increases serum testosterone. We hypothesized that finasteride would increase serum testosterone and lower DHT during treatment with oral TU. Therefore, we studied the steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral TU, 200 mg equivalents of testosterone twice daily for 7 days, alone and with finasteride 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily in an open-label, three-way crossover study in 11 young men with experimentally induced hypogonadism. On the seventh day of each dosing period, serum testosterone, DHT and oestradiol were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20 and 24 h after the morning dose. Serum testosterone and DHT were significantly increased into and above their normal ranges similarly by all three treatments. Co-administration of finasteride at 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily had no significant effect on either serum testosterone or DHT. Oral TU differs from other formulations of oral testosterone in its response to concomitant inhibition of 5α-reductase, perhaps because of its unique lymphatic route of absorption. PMID:20969601

  3. Pubertal testosterone influences threat-related amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Forbes, Erika E; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Worthman, Carol M; Olino, Thomas M; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2015-03-01

    Growing evidence indicates that normative pubertal maturation is associated with increased threat reactivity, and this developmental shift has been implicated in the increased rates of adolescent affective disorders. However, the neural mechanisms involved in this pubertal increase in threat reactivity remain unknown. Research in adults indicates that testosterone transiently decreases amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) coupling. Consequently, we hypothesized that increased pubertal testosterone disrupts amygdala-OFC coupling, which may contribute to developmental increases in threat reactivity in some adolescents. Hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal study by examining the impact of testosterone on functional connectivity. Findings were consistent with hypotheses and advance our understanding of normative pubertal changes in neural systems instantiating affect/motivation. Finally, potential novel insights into the neurodevelopmental pathways that may contribute to adolescent vulnerability to behavioral and emotional problems are discussed. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. EFFECTS OF TRANSDERMAL TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN ELDERLY MEN

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Snyder, Peter J.; De Vita, Francesca; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Milaneschi, Yuri; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Cattabiani, Chiara; Peachey, Helen; Valenti, Giorgio; Cappola, Anne R; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Objective During the aging process in men testosterone (T) levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. Although a relationship between these two phenomena has been tested in previous clinical trials, there is inconclusive evidence about the potential anti-inflammatory action of T. Methods A total of 108 healthy men >65 years with serum T concentration <475 ng/dL were recruited by direct mailings to alumni of the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University, and randomized to 60-cm2 T or placebo patch for 36-months. Ninety-six subjects completed the trial. Information and stored serum specimens from this trial were used to test the hypothesis of T inhibitory effect on inflammation. 70 men (42 in the T group) who had banked specimens available for assays of T, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, soluble TNF-alpha receptor-1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptors (sIL6r and sgp130) at multiple time points, were evaluated. Results The mean age ± SD at baseline was 71.8 ± 4.9 years. Testosterone replacement therapy for 36 months did not induce a significant decrease in inflammatory markers. A trend toward a significant increase was observed in the placebo group for TNF-alpha (p=0.03) and sgp130 (p=0.01). Significant differences, in estimated means of TNFR1 (but not of other inflammatory markers), with lower levels in T group, were observed at 36 month-time point. In T-treated subjects we found an almost significant treatment-time interaction term TNFR1 (p=0.02) independent of total body fat content assessed by DXA. No serious adverse effect was observed. Conclusions Transdermal T treatment of older men for 36 months is not associated with significant changes in inflammatory markers. PMID:25100359

  5. Effects of transdermal testosterone treatment on inflammatory markers in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Snyder, Peter J; De Vita, Francesca; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Milaneschi, Yuri; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Cattabiani, Chiara; Peachey, Helen; Valenti, Giorgio; Cappola, Anne R; Longo, Dan L; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    During the male aging process, testosterone (T) levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. Although a relationship between these 2 phenomena has been tested in previous clinical trials, there is inconclusive evidence about the potential anti-inflammatory action of T. A total of 108 healthy males >65 years with serum T concentration <475 ng/dL were recruited by direct mailings to alumni of the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University and randomized to 60-cm2 T or a placebo patch for 36 months. Ninety-six subjects completed the trial. Information and stored serum specimens from this trial were used to test the hypothesis of the inhibitory effect of T on inflammation. We evaluated 70 males (42 in the T group) who had banked specimens from multiple time points available for assays of T, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF-α receptor-1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble IL-6 receptors (sIL6r and sgp130). The mean age ± SD at baseline was 71.8 ± 4.9 years. Testosterone replacement therapy for 36 months did not induce significant decreases in inflammatory markers. A trend toward a significant increase was observed in the placebo group for TNF-α (P = .03) and sgp130 (P = .01). Significant differences in estimated means of TNFR1 (but not other inflammatory markers), with lower levels in the T group, were observed at the 36-month time point. In T-treated subjects we found an almost significant treatment x time interaction term TNFR1 (P = .02) independent of total body fat content as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). No serious adverse effect was observed. Transdermal T treatment of older males for 36 months is not associated with significant changes in inflammatory markers.

  6. From prenatal life into senescence, testosterone is essential requirement for manhood.

    PubMed

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Showpittapornchai, Udomsri

    2009-04-01

    Prenatally, organisms have the bipotentiality to differentiate along either male or female lines, a process with different stages, each with a narrow window of time, during which testosterone plays a pivotal role in the case of male sexual differentiation. During puberty, the body directs the masculinization process with growth of the genitalia and prostate. Body contours become male, with an average height of 10-15 centimeters greater than that of females, a greater bone and muscle mass, a male hair pattern and a male-type fat distribution. These pubertal developments, largely reversible in case of severe androgen deficiency, require adult levels of testosterone throughout life. A new area of interest is in exploring how far age-related body changes (loss of bone and muscle mass, a shift into a higher ratio of body fat/lean body mass) are part of an age-related decline of testicular testosterone production. Therefore, throughout life, testosterone is essential for a normal male life.

  7. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in single use tubes, packets, and a multiple-use pump. The pump releases a specific amount of testosterone each time the top is ... have been reports of serious side effects in people who use testosterone at higher doses, along with other male ...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Modified Slow-Release Oral Testosterone Over 9 Days in Normal Men With Experimental Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ada; Rubinow, Katya; Clark, Richard V.; Caricofe, Ralph B.; Bush, Mark A.; Zhi, Hui; Roth, Mara Y; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Amory, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone has potential use for the treatment of hypogonadism. We have recently demonstrated that a novel formulation of oral testosterone transiently normalized serum testosterone in a single-dose pharmacokinetic study. In this report, we present the steady-state pharmacokinetics of this formulation. Twelve healthy young men were rendered hypogonadal with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline (300 µg/kg subcutaneously) and administered 300 mg of oral testosterone 3 times daily for 9 days. Serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were measured before and 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, and 24 hours on the first and ninth day of dosing. Before testosterone administration, all men had serum testosterone under 75 ng/dL. Over day 1, the 24-hour average (geometric mean [%CV]) serum total testosterone was 378 (45) ng/dL. This decreased to 315 (41) ng/dL after 9 days of continuous treatment (P = .1 compared with day 1). The 24-hour average serum SHBG was 27 (46) nmol/L on day 1 and was significantly reduced to 19 (47) nmol/L by day 9 (P > .01). As a result, the calculated free testosterone values were similar between day 1 and day 9: 8.7 (43) and 8.3 (37) ng/dL, respectively. DHT was in the reference range and estradiol was slightly below on day 9. Oral testosterone (300 mg) dosed 3 times daily normalized serum testosterone in men with experimentally induced hypogonadism after 9 days of dosing and significantly suppressed SHBG. This formulation of oral testosterone may have efficacy for the treatment of testosterone deficiency. PMID:21868746

  9. Addition of Estradiol to Cross-Sex Testosterone Therapy Reduces Atherosclerosis Plaque Formation in Female ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Laura G; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Sahin, Cagdas; Majidi-Zolbin, Masoumeh; Ge, Guanghao; Mani, Arya; Taylor, Hugh S

    2018-02-01

    The contributions of estradiol and testosterone to atherosclerotic lesion progression are not entirely understood. Cross-sex hormone therapy (XHT) for transgender individuals dramatically alters estrogen and testosterone levels and consequently could have widespread consequences for cardiovascular health. Yet, no preclinical research has assessed atherosclerosis risk after XHT. We examined the effects of testosterone XHT after ovariectomy on atherosclerosis plaque formation in female mice and evaluated whether adding low-dose estradiol to cross-sex testosterone treatments after ovariectomy reduced lesion formation. Six-week-old female ApoE-/- C57BL/6 mice underwent ovariectomy and began treatments with testosterone, estradiol, testosterone with low-dose estradiol, or vehicle alone until euthanized at 23 weeks of age. Atherosclerosis lesion progression was measured by Oil Red O stain and confirmed histologically. We found reduced atherosclerosis in the estradiol- and combined testosterone/estradiol-treated mice compared with those treated with testosterone or vehicle only in the whole aorta (-75%), aortic arch (-80%), and thoracic aorta (-80%). Plaque size was similarly reduced in the aortic sinus. These reductions in lesion size after combined testosterone/estradiol treatment were comparable to those obtained with estrogen alone. Testosterone/estradiol combined therapy resulted in less atherosclerosis plaque formation than either vehicle or testosterone alone after ovariectomy. Testosterone/estradiol therapy was comparable to estradiol replacement alone, whereas mice treated with testosterone only fared no better than untreated controls after ovariectomy. Adding low-dose estrogen to cross-sex testosterone therapy after oophorectomy could improve cardiovascular outcomes for transgender patients. Additionally, these results contribute to understanding of the effects of estrogen and testosterone on atherosclerosis progression. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  10. Clinical practice patterns in the assessment and management of low testosterone in men: an international survey of endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Mathis; Anawalt, Bradley D; Wu, Frederick C W

    2015-02-01

    To document current practices in the approach to low testosterone in older men. Given that recommendations are based on low-level evidence, we hypothesized that there would be a wide variability in clinical practice patterns. Members of all major endocrine and andrological societies were invited to participate in a Web-based survey of the diagnostic work-up and management of a hypothetical index case of a 61-year old overweight man presenting with symptoms suggestive of androgen deficiency, without evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPT) axis disease. Nine hundred and forty-three respondents (91·2% adult endocrinologists) from Northern America (63·7%), Europe (12·7%), Oceania (8·2%), Latin America and Caribbean (7·6%), and the Middle East, Asia, or Africa (7·8%) completed the survey. Response rates among participating societies ranged from 4·1-20·0%. There was a wide variability in clinical practice patterns, especially regarding biochemical diagnosis of androgen deficiency, exclusion of HPT axis pathology, and monitoring for prostate cancer. In a man with suggestive symptoms, 42·4% of participants would offer testosterone treatment below a serum total testosterone of 10·4 nmol/l (300 ng/dl). A total of 46·0% of participants were, over the last five years, 'less inclined' to prescribe testosterone to men with nonspecific symptoms and borderline testosterone levels, compared to 'no change' (29·3%) or 'more inclined' (24·7%), P < 0·001. This large-scale international survey shows a wide variability in the management of lowered testosterone in older men, with deviations from current clinical practice guidelines, and a temporal trend towards increasing reluctance to prescribe testosterone to men without classical hypogonadism. These findings highlight the need for better evidence to guide clinicians regarding testosterone therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effects of nandrolone, testosterone and their decanoate esters on murine lupus.

    PubMed Central

    Verheul, H A; Stimson, W H; den Hollander, F C; Schuurs, A H

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of NZB/NZW F1 (B/W) female and castrated male mice with testosterone or 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone), either by implantation in silastic tubing or by subcutaneous injections of their decanoate esters, reduced in a dose-dependent manner symptoms associated with murine lupus (proteinuria, IgG antibodies to DNA) and prolonged survival. These phenomena were observed under both prophylactic (start at 3-4 weeks) and therapeutic treatments (start 27-29 weeks). Nandrolone and its decanoate ester were at least as potent as testosterone and testosterone decanoate. As the unwanted androgenic properties of nandrolone and its ester are significantly less pronounced than those of testosterone and its ester, also in these NZB/NZW mice, the beneficial effect on murine lupus does not seem to be associated with these properties. PMID:6973425

  12. Diurnal Coupling between Testosterone and Cortisol from Adolescence to Older Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Wrzus, Cornelia; Luong, Gloria; Grotzinger, Andrew; Bajbouj, Malek; Rauers, Antje; Wagner, Gert G.; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes are typically conceptualized as mutually inhibitory systems; however, previous studies have found evidence for positive within-person associations (i.e., coupling) between cortisol and testosterone. One developmental hypothesis is that positive testosterone-cortisol coupling is unique to the adolescent period and that coupling becomes attenuated, or even switches direction, in adulthood. This study used a lifespan sample (N = 292, ages 11 to 88) to test for age-related differences in coupling between cortisol and testosterone in daily life. Participants provided salivary hormone samples at waking, 30 minutes after waking, and during the evening for two days. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the within-person and between-person associations between testosterone and cortisol. Within-person associations were further decomposed into associations due to coupled diurnal change versus coupled variability around diurnal change. Results indicated positive associations between cortisol and testosterone at all levels of analysis. Additionally, positive coupling was evident across the lifespan, even in older adults who are no longer expected to reproduce, but further investigation of developmental differences with a larger sample is necessary. Potential mechanisms and functions for positive coupling are discussed. PMID:27474909

  13. Early testosterone replacement attenuates intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis in the heart of testosterone-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Weerateerangkul, Punate; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Palee, Siripong; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency in elderly men increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In bilateral orchiectomized (ORX) animals, impaired cardiac Ca 2+ regulation was observed, and this impairment could be improved by testosterone replacement, indicating the important role of testosterone in cardiac Ca 2+ regulation. However, the temporal changes of Ca 2+ dyshomeostasis in testosterone-deprived conditions are unclear. Moreover, the effects of early vs. late testosterone replacement are unknown. We hypothesized that the longer the deprivation of testosterone, the greater the impairment of cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis, and that early testosterone replacement can effectively reduce this adverse effect. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into twelve groups, four sets of three. The first set were ORX for 2, 4 and 8 weeks, the second set were sham-operated groups of the same periods, the third set were ORX for 8 weeks coupled with a subcutaneous injection of vehicle (control), testosterone during weeks 1-8 (early replacement) or testosterone during weeks 5-8 (late replacement), and finally the 12-week sham-operated, ORX and ORX treated with testosterone groups. Cardiac Ca 2+ transients (n=4-5/group), L-type calcium current (I Ca-L ) (n=4/group), Ca 2+ regulatory proteins (n=6/group) and cardiac function (n=5/group) were determined. In the ORX rats, impaired cardiac Ca 2+ transients and reduced I Ca-L were observed initially 4 weeks after ORX as shown by decreased Ca 2+ transient amplitude, rising rate and maximum and average decay rates. No alteration of Ca 2+ regulatory proteins such as the L-type Ca 2+ channels, ryanodine receptor type 2, Na + -Ca 2+ exchangers and SERCA2a were observed. Early testosterone replacement markedly improved cardiac Ca 2+ transients, whereas late testosterone replacement did not. The cardiac contractility was also improved after early testosterone replacement. Impaired cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis is time-dependent after testosterone

  14. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate associated with insulin resistance and lower testosterone levels in a young population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Ying; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung; Su, Ta-Chen

    2017-06-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and are reported to associate with testicular dysfunction or insulin resistance in different studies, but the concurrent relationship between phthalate exposure, testosterone levels, and insulin resistance in the young population is not well understood. We recruited 786 subjects aged 12-30 years from a population-based sample of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults from 2006 to 2008. Generalized additive models were used to evaluate glucose homeostasis and testicular function in relation to seven urinary phthalate metabolites among adolescents (aged 12-20) and young adults (aged 20-30) in Taiwan. We observed a trend toward a decrease in male testosterone and an increase in urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) levels across four quartiles of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After adjusting for potential covariates, generalized additive models further showed that log-transformed insulin and HOMA-IR were raised by 0.055 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.027-0.082] and 0.056 (95% CI, 0.027-0.084), respectively, with a one-unit increase in log-transformed MEHP in young adults. In male adults (aged 22-30), the log-testosterone levels were reduced by 0.018 (95% CI, 0.001-0.036), with a one-unit of increase in log-transformed MEHP. Such relationships were not observed in adolescents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated age-related associations of urinary MEHP metabolites with impaired metabolic homeostasis of glucose that were only observed in young adults. In addition, MEHP exposure was concurrently associated with lower testosterone levels in young, male adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  16. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ≥ 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level. PMID:26101490

  17. Exogenous testosterone decreases men's personal distance in a social threat context.

    PubMed

    Wagels, Lisa; Radke, Sina; Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Testosterone can motivate human approach and avoidance behavior. Specifically, the conscious recognition of and implicit reaction to angry facial expressions is influenced by testosterone. The study tested whether exogenous testosterone modulates the personal distance (PD) humans prefer in a social threat context. 82 healthy male participants underwent either transdermal testosterone (testosterone group) or placebo application (placebo group). Each participant performed a computerized stop-distance task before (T1) and 3.5h after (T2) treatment, during which they indicated how closely they would approach a human, animal or virtual character with varying emotional expression. Men's PD towards humans and animals varied as a function of their emotional expression. In the testosterone group, a pre-post comparison indicated that the administration of 50mg testosterone was associated with a small but significant reduction of men's PD towards aggressive individuals. Men in the placebo group did not change the initially chosen PD after placebo application independent of the condition. However comparing the testosterone and placebo group after testosterone administration did not reveal significant differences. While the behavioral effect was small and only observed as within-group effect it was repeatedly and selectively shown for men's PD choices towards an angry woman, angry man and angry dog in the testosterone group. In line with the literature, our findings in young men support the influential role of exogenous testosterone on male's approach behavior during social confrontations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone-dependency of male solo song in a duetting songbird--evidence from females.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Cornelia; Leitner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For male songbirds of the temperate zone there is a tight link between seasonal song behaviour and circulating testosterone levels. Such a relationship does not seem to hold for tropical species where singing can occur year-round and breeding seasons are often extended. White-browed sparrow weavers (Plocepasser mahali) are cooperatively breeding songbirds with a dominant breeding pair and male and female subordinates found in eastern and southern Africa. Each group defends an all-purpose territory year-round. While all group members sing duets and choruses, the most dominant male additionally sings a solo song that comprises a distinct and large syllable repertoire. Previous studies suggested this type of song being associated with reproduction but failed to support a relationship with males' circulating testosterone levels. The present study aimed to investigate the steroid hormone sensitivity of the solo song in more detail. We found that dominant males had significantly higher circulating testosterone levels than subordinates during the early and late breeding seasons. No changes in solo song characteristics were found between both time points. Further, experimental implantation of captive adult females with exogenous testosterone induced solo singing within one week of treatment. Such females produced male-typical song regarding overall structure and syllable composition. Sex differences existed, however, concerning singing activity, repertoire size and temporal organisation of song. These results suggest that solo singing in white-browed sparrow weavers is under the control of gonadal steroid hormones. Moreover, the behaviour is not male-specific but can be activated in females under certain conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testosterone levels and cognition in elderly men: a review.

    PubMed

    Holland, J; Bandelow, S; Hogervorst, E

    2011-08-01

    testosterone treatment in protecting against cognitive decline and/or dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of an enzyme-immunoassay for the non-invasive monitoring of faecal testosterone metabolites in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Ludwig, Carsten; Weigold, Annika; Dehnhard, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In mammals, the sex hormone testosterone is the major endocrine variable to objectify testicular activity and thus reproductive function in males. Testosterone is involved in the development and function of male reproductive physiology and sex-related behaviour. The development of a reliable androgen enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) to monitor faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) is a powerful tool to non-invasively assess the gonadal status of males. We validated an epiandrosterone EIA for male cheetahs by performing a testosterone radiometabolism study followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and excluding possible cross-reactivities with androgenic metabolites not derived from testosterone metabolism. The physiological and biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a testosterone injection, (2) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection, which failed following a placebo injection, and (3) significant differences in fTM concentrations between adult male and adult female cheetahs and between adult and juvenile male cheetahs of a free-ranging population. Finally, we demonstrated stability of fTM concentrations measured in faecal samples exposed to ambient temperatures up to 72h. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor testicular activity in male cheetahs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of testosterone prescription overuse.

    PubMed

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Rose, Adam J

    2017-06-01

    There has been an increase in the prescribing of testosterone therapy in the past decade. There is concern that at least part of this increase is driven by advertising rather than sound medical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent trends in testosterone prescribing, and to examine whether testosterone is being appropriately prescribed as per guidelines. Both global and U.S. data reflect an overall increase in the use of testosterone in the last decade, although there are early signs of a decline in testosterone sales since 2014. This increased prescribing has been accompanied with an overall increase in testing for testosterone levels, prescription of testosterone without the appropriate diagnostic evaluation recommended by clinical practice guidelines, and apparent use of this therapy for unproven medical conditions. Research to date suggests that there is room to improve our prescribing of testosterone. Greater understanding of the potential provider-level and system-level factors that contribute to the current prescribing practices may help accomplish such improvement.

  2. Testosterone replacement therapy: role of pituitary and thyroid in diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Crosstalk among hormones characterizes endocrine function, and assessment of the hypogonadal man should take that into consideration. In men for whom testosterone deficiency is a concern, initial evaluation should include a thorough history and physical exam in which other endocrinopathies are being considered. Hypogonadism can be associated with both pituitary and thyroid dysfunction, for which appropriate biochemical evaluation should be undertaken in certain clinical scenarios. If low serum testosterone is confirmed measurement of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones (LH and FSH respectively) is essential to establish whether the hypogonadism is primary or secondary. In secondary hypogonadism measurement of prolactin is always necessary, and measurement of other pituitary hormones, along with pituitary imaging, may be indicated. Checking thyroid function may also be enlightening, and can raise additional therapeutic considerations. Correction of other pituitary axes may attenuate the need for testosterone replacement therapy in some cases. PMID:28078216

  3. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    PubMed

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  4. Testosterone and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Jones, T Hugh

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men are closely Linked. Epidemiological studies have shown that Low testosterone Levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse Lipid profile in men. Conversely in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of hypogonadism. Metabolic syndrome and Low testosterone status are both independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Observational and experimental data suggest that physiological replacement of testosterone produces improvement in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidae-mia and sexual dysfunction along with improved quality of Life. However, there are no Long-term interventional studies to assess the effect of testosterone replacement on mortality in men with Low testosterone Levels. This article reviews the observational and interventional clinical data in relation to testosterone and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Testosterone and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Jones, T. Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men are closely Linked. Epidemiological studies have shown that Low testosterone Levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse Lipid profile in men. Conversely in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of hypogonadism. Metabolic syndrome and Low testosterone status are both independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Observational and experimental data suggest that physiological replacement of testosterone produces improvement in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidae-mia and sexual dysfunction along with improved quality of Life. However, there are no Long-term interventional studies to assess the effect of testosterone replacement on mortality in men with Low testosterone Levels. This article reviews the observational and interventional clinical data in relation to testosterone and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23148165

  6. Serum testosterone levels in non-dosed females after secondary exposure to 1.62% testosterone gel: effects of clothing barrier on testosterone absorption.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Jodi; Britto, Margaret; Fitzpatrick, Sherahe; McWhirter, Cecilia; Testino, Samuel A; Brennan, John J; Zumbrunnen, Troy L

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate secondary exposure of testosterone transferred to females from a male partner, dosed with 1.62% testosterone gel after direct skin-to-skin contact with the application site, and to investigate the effect of wearing a t-shirt on testosterone transfer. Across three studies, a total of 72 healthy males applied 5.0 g 1.62% testosterone gel to their abdomen alone, upper arms/shoulders alone, or a combination of their upper arms/shoulders and abdomen (single dose or once daily for 7 days). Male-female contact occurred 2 or 12 hours after testosterone gel application, with males either wearing or not wearing a t-shirt. There were 15 minutes of supervised contact with the application site between the male and his female partner. Blood samples were collected over a 24 hour period in females for assessment of serum testosterone levels at baseline and after contact. Pharmacokinetic parameters included C(max) (maximum serum concentration), AUC(0-24) (area under the serum concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours), and C(av) (time-averaged concentration over the 24-hour period post-contact). Subjects were monitored for adverse events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT NUMBERS: Study 1 was not registered (first subject enrolled 8 March 2007); Study 2: 00998933; Study 3, 01130298. Testosterone levels (C(av) and C(max)) in females increased 86-185% from baseline after direct abdominal skin contact, although C(av) levels remained within female eugonadal range. Testosterone concentrations returned to baseline within 48 hours after last skin contact. A t-shirt barrier reduced testosterone transfer by approximately 40-48% when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the abdomen alone. A t-shirt barrier prevented transfer when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the upper arms and shoulders or to a combination of the upper arms and shoulders and the abdomen (C(max) and C(av) increased by approximately 5-11%). No major safety events were observed during the studies

  7. Late-Onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Replacement in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rajib K; Bhattacharya, Shelley B

    2015-11-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism is an underdiagnosed and easily treated condition defined by low serum testosterone levels in men older than 65 years. When treated, a significant improvement in quality of life may be reached in this rapidly rising sector of the population. During the evaluation, laboratory tests and a full medication review should be performed to exclude other illnesses or adverse effects from medications. The major goal of treatment in this population is treating the symptoms related to hypogonadism. There has not been clear evidence supporting universally giving older men with low serum testosterone levels and hypogonadal symptoms testosterone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A quantitative and qualitative review of the effects of testosterone on the function and structure of the human social-emotional brain.

    PubMed

    Heany, Sarah J; van Honk, Jack; Stein, Dan J; Brooks, Samantha J

    2016-02-01

    Social and affective research in humans is increasingly using functional and structural neuroimaging techniques to aid the understanding of how hormones, such as testosterone, modulate a wide range of psychological processes. We conducted a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of testosterone administration, and of fMRI studies that measured endogenous levels of the hormone, in relation to social and affective stimuli. Furthermore, we conducted a review of structural MRI i.e. voxel based morphometry (VBM) studies which considered brain volume in relation to testosterone levels in adults and in children. In the included testosterone administration fMRI studies, which consisted of female samples only, bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions as well as the right caudate were significantly activated by social-affective stimuli in the testosterone condition. In the studies considering endogenous levels of testosterone, stimuli-invoked activations relating to testosterone levels were noted in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions and the brainstem. When the endogenous testosterone studies were split by sex, the significant activation of the brain stem was seen in the female samples only. Significant stimuli-invoked deactivations relating to endogenous testosterone levels were also seen in the right and left amygdala/parahippocampal regions studies. The findings of the VBM studies were less consistent. In adults larger volumes in the limbic and temporal regions were associated with higher endogenous testosterone. In children, boys showed a positive correlation between testosterone and brain volume in many regions, including the amygdala, as well as global grey matter volume, while girls showed a neutral or negative association between testosterone levels and many brain volumes. In conclusion, amygdalar and parahippocampal regions appear to be key target regions for the acute actions of testosterone in response to social and

  9. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  10. Elderly men over 65 years of age with late-onset hypogonadism benefit as much from testosterone treatment as do younger men.

    PubMed

    Saad, Farid; Yassin, Aksam; Haider, Ahmad; Doros, Gheorghe; Gooren, Louis

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the potential benefits of testosterone administration to elderly men (>65 years) with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in comparison with younger men and to assess the safety of testosterone administration to elderly men. A total of 561 hypogonadal men from two registry studies were divided into age groups of ≤65 years (group Y, n=450; range, 32-65 years) and >65 years (group O, n=111; range, 66-84 years). Following an initial 6-week interval, all men were treated with 3-month injections of parenteral testosterone undecanoate for up to 6 years. Over the 6 years, there was a progressive decrease of body weight and waist circumference. Beneficial effects on lipids and other metabolic factors and on psychological and sexual functioning progressed over the first 24 to 42 months and were sustained. Rather than a deterioration, there was an improvement of urinary parameters. Prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen increased moderately. Hematocrit levels increased but remained within safe margins. The benefits of restoring serum testosterone in men with LOH were not significantly different between men older than 65 years of age and younger men. There were no indications that side effects were more severe in elderly men. The effects on prostate and urinary function and hematocrit were within safe margins. Age itself need not be a contraindication to testosterone treatment of elderly men with LOH.

  11. Potential for sexual conflict assessed via testosterone-mediated transcriptional changes in liver and muscle of a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Taylor, Charlene A.; Lopez, Jacqueline Ann; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2014-01-01

    Males and females can be highly dimorphic in metabolism and physiology despite sharing nearly identical genomes, and both sexes respond phenotypically to elevated testosterone, a steroid hormone that alters gene expression. Only recently has it become possible to learn how a hormone such as testosterone affects global gene expression in non-model systems, and whether it affects the same genes in males and females. To investigate the transcriptional mechanisms by which testosterone exerts its metabolic and physiological effects on the periphery, we compared gene expression by sex and in response to experimentally elevated testosterone in a well-studied bird species, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We identified 291 genes in the liver and 658 in the pectoralis muscle that were differentially expressed between males and females. In addition, we identified 1727 genes that were differentially expressed between testosterone-treated and control individuals in at least one tissue and sex. Testosterone treatment altered the expression of only 128 genes in both males and females in the same tissue, and 847 genes were affected significantly differently by testosterone treatment in the two sexes. These substantial differences in transcriptional response to testosterone suggest that males and females may employ different pathways when responding to elevated testosterone, despite the fact that many phenotypic effects of experimentally elevated testosterone are similar in both sexes. In contrast, of the 121 genes that were affected by testosterone treatment in both sexes, 78% were regulated in the same direction (e.g. either higher or lower in testosterone-treated than control individuals) in both males and females. Thus, it appears that testosterone acts through both unique and shared transcriptional pathways in males and females, suggesting multiple mechanisms by which sexual conflict can be mediated. PMID:24198265

  12. The testosterone conundrum: The putative relationship between testosterone levels and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Kevin R

    2016-11-01

    The controversy surrounding the relationship between testosterone and prostate cancer has existed for decades. The literature surrounding this topic is confusing and at times contradictory. There is no level-one quality evidence that confirms or refutes the relationship between either high or low serum testosterone levels and the subsequent development of prostate cancer. This commentary aims to review the issues involved and to provide an interpretation as to the causes of the confusion and to provide a framework for ongoing discussion and investigation. A Medline and PubMed search was conducted using search terms: testosterone levels and prostate cancer to identify pertinent literature. There is no consistent evidence that a single testosterone level is predictive of prostate cancer risk. The development of prostate cancer is a complex biologic process potentially involving genetics,dietary, life style and hormonal factors. Serum testosterone levels do not accurately reflect the internal prostatic milieu. Finally, if testosterone levels are to be considered in the etiology of prostate cancer they should be measured and interpreted on a chronic basis with multiple measurements over a period of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ronny B W; Guay, Andre T; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the treatment of late-onset hypogonadism, another name for the study of testosterone deficiency in an older age group. Initial attempts at testosterone replacement have also brought attention to the possible adverse effects on the patients' cardiovascular risk factors and their prostate health. The "female" hormone estradiol is no longer considered as the feminizing hormone, as it has been identified to have an effect on the sexual and general well-being of adult males. Urologists and endocrinologists alike have started to pay attention to the serum T/E 2 (testosterone : estradiol) ratio that appears to be more important than the respective individual hormonal levels. Therein lies the possible role of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in restoring the normal balance of serum testosterone and estradiol levels for the adequate treatment of late-onset hypogonadism, while limiting the potential adverse effects. Currently, other established clinical indications of AIs include the treatment of breast cancer in female patients and developmental growth problems in pediatric patients. This review evaluates the role of AIs as a treatment option for late-onset hypogonadism and the evidence for its other clinical uses in men, including its possible adverse effects. A literature review was performed with regards to the use of aromatase inhibitors in adult males, the role of estrogens in adult males, as well as adverse effect of AIs on bone health in adult males. To evaluate the evidence for the use of AIs in adult males to treat late-onset hypogonadism, obesity-related hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and male subfertility. To evaluate the evidence for the possible adverse effects on the bone health of adult males with the use of AIs. Currently there is no literature to recommend the use of AIs in adult males to treat late-onset hypogonadism, obesity-related hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, or male subfertility, although some

  14. Reversing song behavior phenotype: testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Farrah N.; Rouse, Melvin L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-01-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels a suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

  15. Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Prendergast, Luke A; Dupuis, Philippe; Raval, Manjri; Strauss, Boyd J; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-10-07

    Whether testosterone treatment has benefits on body composition over and above caloric restriction in men is unknown. We hypothesised that testosterone treatment augments diet-induced loss of fat mass and prevents loss of muscle mass. We conducted a randomised double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. A total of 100 obese men (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) with a total testosterone level of or below 12 nmol/L and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very low energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of 10-weekly intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n = 49, cases) or matching placebo (n = 51, controls). The main outcome measures were the between-group difference in fat and lean mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and visceral fat area (computed tomography). A total of 82 men completed the study. At study end, compared to controls, cases had greater reductions in fat mass, with a mean adjusted between-group difference (MAD) of -2.9 kg (-5.7 to -0.2; P = 0.04), and in visceral fat (MAD -2678 mm 2 ; -5180 to -176; P = 0.04). Although both groups lost the same lean mass following VLED (cases -3.9 kg (-5.3 to -2.6); controls -4.8 kg (-6.2 to -3.5), P = 0.36), cases regained lean mass (3.3 kg (1.9 to 4.7), P < 0.001) during weight maintenance, in contrast to controls (0.8 kg (-0.7 to 2.3), P = 0.29) so that, at study end, cases had an attenuated reduction in lean mass compared to controls (MAD 3.4 kg (1.3 to 5.5), P = 0.002). While dieting men receiving placebo lost both fat and lean mass, the weight loss with testosterone treatment was almost exclusively due to loss of body fat. clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT01616732 , registration date: June 8, 2012.

  16. Blood Test: Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... test measures the blood level of the male sex hormone testosterone. Testosterone, which plays an important role in sexual development, is produced mainly by the testes in boys and in much smaller amounts by the ovaries ...

  17. Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: implications for testosterone therapy.

    PubMed

    Makhsida, Nawras; Shah, Jay; Yan, Grace; Fisch, Harry; Shabsigh, Ridwan

    2005-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome, characterized by central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is highly prevalent in the United States. When left untreated, it significantly increases the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that hypogonadism may be an additional component of metabolic syndrome. This has potential implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome with testosterone. We reviewed the available literature on metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism with a particular focus on testosterone therapy. A comprehensive MEDLINE review of the world literature from 1988 to 2004 on hypogonadism, testosterone and metabolic syndrome was performed. Observational data suggest that metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with hypogonadism in men. Multiple interventional studies have shown that exogenous testosterone has a favorable impact on body mass, insulin secretion and sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure, which are the parameters most often disturbed in metabolic syndrome. Hypogonadism is likely a fundamental component of metabolic syndrome. Testosterone therapy may not only treat hypogonadism, but may also have tremendous potential to slow or halt the progression from metabolic syndrome to overt diabetes or cardiovascular disease via beneficial effects on insulin regulation, lipid profile and blood pressure. Furthermore, the use of testosterone to treat metabolic syndrome may also lead to the prevention of urological complications commonly associated with these chronic disease states, such as neurogenic bladder and erectile dysfunction. Physicians must be mindful to evaluate hypogonadism in all men diagnosed with metabolic syndrome as well as metabolic syndrome in all men diagnosed with hypogonadism. Future research in the form of randomized clinical trials should focus on further defining the role of testosterone for metabolic syndrome.

  18. Clinical evaluation of purified Shilajit on testosterone levels in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Biswas, S; Jana, U; De, R K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Biswas, T K

    2016-06-01

    Purified Shilajit, an Ayurvedic rasayana, was evaluated in healthy volunteers of age between 45 and 55 years for its effect on male androgenic hormone viz. testosterone in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study at a dose of 250 mg twice a day. Treatment with Shilajit for consecutive 90 days revealed that it has significantly (P < 0.05) increased total testosterone, free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) compared with placebo. Gonadotropic hormones (LH and FSH) levels were well maintained. © 2015 The Authors. Andrologia Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Testosterone in women--the clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Davis, Susan R; Wahlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded the widespread use of testosterone by women--either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality, particularly in older women, are yet to be established. Adverse cardiovascular effects have not been seen in studies of transdermal testosterone therapy in women. Clinical trials suggest that exogenous testosterone enhances cognitive performance and improves musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women. Unmet needs include the availability of approved testosterone formulations for women and studies to elucidate the contribution of testosterone to cardiovascular, cognitive, and musculoskeletal health and the risk of cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of the Multiple Hormonal Dysregulation in the Onset of "Anemia of Aging": Focus on Testosterone, IGF-1, and Thyroid Hormones.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Fisichella, Alberto; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Cappola, Anne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a multifactorial condition whose prevalence increases in both sexes after the fifth decade of life. It is a highly represented phenomenon in older adults and in one-third of cases is "unexplained." Ageing process is also characterized by a "multiple hormonal dysregulation" with disruption in gonadal, adrenal, and somatotropic axes. Experimental studies suggest that anabolic hormones such as testosterone, IGF-1, and thyroid hormones are able to increase erythroid mass, erythropoietin synthesis, and iron bioavailability, underlining a potential role of multiple hormonal changes in the anemia of aging. Epidemiological data more consistently support an association between lower testosterone and anemia in adult-older individuals. Low IGF-1 has been especially associated with anemia in the pediatric population and in a wide range of disorders. There is also evidence of an association between thyroid hormones and abnormalities in hematological parameters under overt thyroid and euthyroid conditions, with limited data on subclinical statuses. Although RCTs have shown beneficial effects, stronger for testosterone and the GH-IGF-1 axis and less evident for thyroid hormones, in improving different hematological parameters, there is no clear evidence for the usefulness of hormonal treatment in improving anemia in older subjects. Thus, more clinical and research efforts are needed to investigate the hormonal contribution to anemia in the older individuals.

  1. Amount of Testosterone on Laundered Clothing After Use of Testosterone Topical 2% Solution by Healthy Male Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Satonin, Darlene K; Ni, Xiao; Mitchell, Malcolm I; Joly, Hellen; Muram, David; Small, David S

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone 2% solution (Axiron) applied to armpit(s) is used for replacement therapy in men with a deficiency of endogenous testosterone. To determine the amount of testosterone on subjects' T-shirts 12 hours after applying testosterone solution, the residual testosterone on subjects' T-shirts after laundering, and the testosterone transferred to unworn textile items during laundering with worn T-shirts. Healthy males ≥18 years old applied 2 × 1.5 mL of testosterone 2% solution to both axillae (total testosterone dose: 120 mg) and dressed in cotton long-sleeved T-shirts after a ≥3-minute waiting period. T-shirts were worn 12 hours before being removed and cut into halves, after which a 10 × 10 cm sample of each armpit area was excised for testosterone quantification before or after laundering with samples of unworn textiles. Testosterone on worn T-shirts before and after laundering, and on unworn textiles laundered with the worn T-shirts. Twelve subjects enrolled and completed, with only minor adverse events. Mean testosterone in unwashed worn T-shirts was 7603 μg, with high between-subject variability (3359 μg to 13,069 μg), representing 13% of the dose to 1 armpit. Mean testosterone in worn, laundered T-shirts was 260 μg (7.55 μg to 1343 μg), representing 3% of the dose to 1 armpit. Mean transferred testosterone to other textiles during laundering ranged from 69 μg on texturized Dacron 56T Double to 10,402 μg on 87/13 nylon/Lycra knit, representing 0.0382% to 5.78% of the dose to 1 armpit. Thirteen percent of the testosterone applied to axillae was transferred to T-shirts during wear. Ninety-seven percent of the transferred testosterone was removed from the T-shirts during washing, some of which was then absorbed to various degrees by other textiles. Clinical implications of these findings and biological activity of the remaining/transferred testosterone are unknown. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  2. Low Testosterone and Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Low Testosterone Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Glenn R. Cunningham, ... Association Mayo Clinic What is the role of testosterone in men’s health? Testosterone is the most important ...

  3. Reduction of calprotectin and phosphate during testosterone therapy in aging men: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L; Christensen, L L; Pedersen, S M; Andersen, M

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of testosterone treatment on biomarkers calprotectin, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), soluble Klotho, phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Odense Androgen Study-the effect of Testim and training in hypogonadal men. Men aged 60-78 years old with a low normal concentration of free of bioavailable testosterone <7.3 nmol/L and waist circumference >94 cm recruited from 2008 to 2009 (N = 48) by advertisement. Participants were randomized to receive 5-10 g gel/50-100 mg testosterone (Testim ® , Ipsen, France) or 5-10 g gel/placebo. The plasma levels of calprotectin and phosphate were significantly reduced in the group receiving testosterone therapy (gel) compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Testosterone treatment did not have any significant effect on plasma levels of FGF23 or soluble Klotho. The reduction in phosphate levels was inversely associated with bioavailable testosterone. Compared to the placebo group, 6 months of testosterone therapy (gel) reduced calprotectin and phosphate levels suggesting decreased inflammation and decreased cardiovascular risk.

  4. Effect of deodorant and antiperspirant use and presence or absence of axillary hair on absorption of testosterone 2% solution applied to men's axillae.

    PubMed

    Small, David S; Ni, Xiao; Polzer, Paula; Vart, Richard; Satonin, Darlene K; Mitchell, Malcolm I

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone 2% solution is applied to axillae and is indicated for testosterone replacement therapy in males deficient in endogenous testosterone. This open-label crossover study evaluated the effect of deodorant/antiperspirant use and presence or absence of axillary hair on absorption of testosterone solution. Healthy males (N = 30; ≥50 years of age with baseline testosterone <400 ng/dL) were randomized to one of four treatment sequences involving six treatments. Each treatment consisted of one 1.5-mL dose of testosterone 2% solution (30 mg of testosterone) applied to each axilla. Axillae were unshaved or shaved, and were untreated or pretreated with deodorant/antiperspirant. Blood samples were taken over 72 hours after each dose for measuring serum testosterone concentrations. Profiles of mean testosterone concentrations were similar across treatments. For all treatments, area under the concentration-time curve through 24 hours (AUC[0-24] ) and 72 hours (AUC[0-72] ), and maximum total testosterone concentration (Cmax ) were similar except for 15% lower Cmax when treatment was applied after deodorant/antiperspirant to shaved vs. unshaved axillae (least squares mean, 531 ng/dL vs. 626 ng/dL, respectively; P = 0.011). This difference is not considered clinically significant. The 95% confidence intervals for AUC(0-24) , AUC(0-72) , and Cmax fell within the traditional bioequivalence limits of 0.8 to 1.25. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was low (<15%) in each treatment arm, and most TEAEs were mild. Absorption of testosterone 2% solution was unaffected by use of deodorant/antiperspirant or by the presence or absence of axillary hair. Testosterone solution was generally well tolerated. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Novel Formulations of Modified-Release Oral Testosterone Alone and With Finasteride in Normal Men With Experimental Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Christin N.; Clark, Richard V.; Caricofe, Ralph B.; Bush, Mark A.; Roth, Mara Y.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Amory, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone might be useful for the treatment of testosterone deficiency. However, current “immediate-release” formulations of oral testosterone exhibit suboptimal pharmacokinetics, with supraphysiologic peaks of testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), immediately after dosing. To dampen these peaks, we have developed 2 novel modified-release formulations of oral testosterone designed to slow absorption from the gut and improve hormone delivery. We studied these testosterone formulations in 16 normal young men enrolled in a 2-arm, open-label clinical trial. Three hundred-mg and 600-mg doses of immediate-release and modified fast-release or slow-release formulations were administered sequentially to 8 normal men rendered hypogonadal by the administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline. Blood for measurement of serum testosterone, DHT, and estradiol was obtained before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after each dose. A second group of 8 men was studied with the coadministration of 1 mg of the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride daily throughout the treatment period. Serum testosterone was increased with all formulations of oral testosterone. The modified slow-release formulation significantly delayed the postdose peaks of serum testosterone and reduced peak concentrations of serum DHT compared with the immediate-release formulation. The addition of finasteride further increased serum testosterone and decreased serum DHT. We conclude that the oral modified slow-release testosterone formulation exhibits superior pharmacokinetics compared with immediate-release oral testosterone both alone and in combination with finasteride. This formulation might have efficacy for the treatment of testosterone deficiency. PMID:20378927

  6. The Effect of Special Operations Training on Testosterone, Lean Body Mass, and Strength and the Potential for Therapeutic Testosterone Replacement: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Effects of Testosterone or Anabolic Androgenic Steroid on Body Mass, Lean Body Mass, and Strength in Patients with Disease or Muscle Wasting...of Ranger training reportedly decreased body mass, fat mass, and lean body mass (LBM), with reductions in field measures of strength and power of...Table 3. Effects of Testosterone or Anabolic Androgenic Steroid with Resistance Training on Lean Body Mass and Strength Source Subjects Treatment

  7. Neuropeptide Y in the forebrain of the adult male cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus: distribution, effects of castration and testosterone replacement.

    PubMed

    Sakharkar, Amul J; Singru, Praful S; Sarkar, Koustav; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2005-08-22

    We studied the organization of the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive system in the forebrain of adult male cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus and its response to castration and testosterone replacement by using morphometric methods. Immunoreactivity for NPY was widely distributed in the forebrain, and the pattern generally resembled that in other teleosts. Whereas immunoreactivity was conspicuous in the ganglia of nervus terminalis (NT; or nucleus olfactoretinalis), a weak reaction was detected in some granule cells in the olfactory bulb and in the cells of area ventralis telencephali pars lateralis (Vl). Moderately to intensely immunoreactive cells were distinctly seen in the nucleus entopeduncularis (NE), nucleus preopticus (NPO), nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT), paraventricular organ (PVO), and midbrain tegmentum (MT). NPY fibers were widely distributed in the forebrain. Castration for 10/15 days resulted in a drastic loss of immunoreactivity in the cells of NE (P<0.001) and a significant decrease (P<0.01) in their cell nuclear size. However, cell nuclei of the NT neurons showed a significant increase in size. A highly significant reduction in the NPY-immunoreactive fiber density (P<0.001) was observed in several areas of the forebrain. Although testosterone replacement reversed these changes, fibers in some areas showed supranormal responses. Immunoreactive cells in Vl, NPO, NLT, PVO, and MT and fiber density in some other areas did not respond to castration. We suggest that the NPY-immunoreactive elements that respond to castration and testosterone replacement may serve as the substrate for processing the positive feedback action of the steroid hormone. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Low Testosterone Correlates with Delayed Development in Male Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Zhou, Amy; Knott, Cheryl D.

    2012-01-01

    Male orangutans (Pongo spp.) display an unusual characteristic for mammals in that some adult males advance quickly to full secondary sexual development while others can remain in an adolescent-like form for a decade or more past the age of sexual maturity. Remarkably little is understood about how and why differences in developmental timing occur. While fully-developed males are known to produce higher androgen levels than arrested males, the longer-term role of steroid hormones in male life history variation has not been examined. We examined variation in testosterone and cortisol production among 18 fully-developed (“flanged”) male orangutans in U.S. captive facilities. Our study revealed that while testosterone levels did not vary significantly according to current age, housing condition, and species origin, males that had undergone precocious development had higher testosterone levels than males that had experienced developmental arrest. While androgen variation had previously been viewed as a state-dependent characteristic of male developmental status, our study reveals that differences in the physiology of early and late developing males are detectable long past the developmental transition and may instead be trait-level characteristics associated with a male’s life history strategy. Further studies are needed to determine how early in life differences in testosterone levels emerge and what consequences this variation may have for male behavioral strategies. PMID:23077585

  9. Accuracy-based proficiency testing for testosterone measurements with immunoassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhimin Tim; Botelho, Julianne Cook; Rej, Robert; Vesper, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate testosterone measurements are needed to correctly diagnose and treat patients. Proficiency Testing (PT) programs using modified specimens for testing can be limited because of matrix effects and usage of non-reference measurement procedure (RMP)-defined targets for evaluation. Accuracy-based PT can overcome such limitations; however, there is a lack of information on accuracy-based PT and feasibility of its implementation in evaluation for testosterone measurements. Unaltered, single-donor human serum from 2 male and 2 female adult donors were analyzed for testosterone by 142 NYSDH-certified clinical laboratories using 16 immunoassays and LC-MS/MS methods. Testosterone target values were determined using an RMP. The testosterone target concentrations for the 4 specimens were 15.5, 30.0, 402 and 498ng/dl. The biases ranged from -17.8% to 73.1%, 3.1% to 21.3%, -24.8% to 8.6%, and -22.1% to 6.8% for the 4 specimens, respectively. Using a total error target of ±25.1%, which was calculated using the minimum allowable bias and imprecision, 73% of participating laboratories had ≥3 of the 4 results within these limits. The variability in total testosterone measurements can affect clinical decisions. Accuracy-based PT can significantly contribute to improving testosterone testing by providing reliable data on accuracy in patient care to laboratories, assay manufacturers, and standardization programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  11. Are testosterone levels and depression risk linked based on partnering and parenting? Evidence from a large population-representative study of U.S. men and women.

    PubMed

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-08-01

    Partnered adults tend to have lower risks of depression than do single individuals, while parents are more commonly depressed than non-parents. Low testosterone men, and possibly women, are also at greater risk of depression. A large body of research has shown that partnered parents have lower testosterone than single non-parents in some cultural settings, including the U.S. Here, we drew on a large (n = 2438), U.S.-population representative cohort of reproductive aged adults (age: 38.1 years ± 11.1 SD) to test hypotheses regarding the intersections between partnering and parenting, testosterone, socio-demographic characteristics, and depression outcomes. Men and women's depression prevalence did not vary based on testosterone. Partnered fathers had lower testosterone than single (never married, divorced) non-fathers, but were less commonly depressed than those single non-fathers. Partnered mothers had reduced testosterone compared to never married and partnered non-mothers. Never married mothers had higher depression prevalence and elevated depressive symptomology compared to partnered mothers; these differences were largely accounted for by key health-related covariates (e.g. cigarette smoking, BMI). We found significant three-way-interactions between socioeconomic status (SES), testosterone, and parenting for adults' depression risks. High testosterone, high SES fathers had the lowest prevalence of mild depression, whereas low testosterone, low SES non-fathers had the highest. Compared to other mothers, low SES, low testosterone mothers had elevated prevalence of mild depression. Overall, low SES, high testosterone non-mothers had substantially elevated depression risks compared to other women. We suggest that psychobiological profiles (e.g. a male with low testosterone) can emerge through variable psychosomatic and psychosocial pathways and the net effect of those profiles for depression are influenced by the social (e.g. partnering and parenting status

  12. Testosterone therapy for men at risk for or with history of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2006-09-01

    Since the early 1940s when Huggins showed that severe reductions in serum testosterone by castration or estrogen therapy caused regression of prostate cancer (PCa), it has been assumed that higher testosterone levels cause enhanced growth of PCa. For this reason, it has been considered taboo to offer testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) to any man with a prior history of PCa, even if all objective evidence suggests he has been cured. The fear has been that higher testosterone levels would "awaken" dormant cells and cause a recurrence. Thus, US Food and Drug Administration-mandated language in all testosterone package inserts states that testosterone is contraindicated in men with a history of, or suspected of having, PCa. Although there is little modern experience with administration of testosterone in men with known history of PCa, there is a varied and extensive literature indicating that TRT does not pose any increased risk of PCa growth in men with or without prior treatment. For instance, the cancer rate in TRT trials is only approximately 1%, similar to detection rates in screening programs, yet biopsy-detectable PCa is found in one of seven hypogonadal men. Moreover, PCa is almost never seen in the peak testosterone years of the early 20s, despite autopsy evidence that men in this age group already harbor microfoci of PCa in substantial numbers. The growing number of PCa survivors who happen to be hypogonadal and request treatment has spurred a change in attitude toward this topic, with increasing numbers of physicians now offering TRT to men who appear cured of their disease. Publications have now reported no prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence with TRT in small numbers of men who had undetectable PSA values after radical prostatectomy. Although still controversial, there appears to be little reason to withhold TRT from men with favorable outcomes after definitive treatment for PCa. Monitoring with PSA and digital rectal examination at regular

  13. Cross-sex testosterone therapy in ovariectomized mice: addition of low-dose estrogen preserves bone architecture.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Laura G; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Devlin, Maureen J; Robbins, Amy E; Majidi-Zolbin, Masoumeh; Taylor, Hugh S

    2017-11-01

    Cross-sex hormone therapy (XHT) is widely used by transgender people to alter secondary sex characteristics to match their desired gender presentation. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of XHT on bone health using a murine model. Female mice underwent ovariectomy at either 6 or 10 wk and began weekly testosterone or vehicle injections. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed (20 wk) to measure bone mineral density (BMD), and microcomputed tomography was performed to compare femoral cortical and trabecular bone architecture. The 6-wk testosterone group had comparable BMD with controls by DXA but reduced bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and cortical area fraction and increased trabecular separation by microcomputed tomography. Ten-week ovariectomy/XHT maintained microarchitecture, suggesting that estrogen is critical for bone acquisition during adolescence and that late, but not early, estrogen loss can be sufficiently replaced by testosterone alone. Given these findings, we then compared effects of testosterone with effects of weekly estrogen or combined testosterone/low-dose estrogen treatment after a 6-wk ovariectomy. Estrogen treatment increased spine BMD and microarchitecture, including bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and connectivity density, and decreased trabecular separation. Combined testosterone-estrogen therapy caused similar increases in femur and spine BMD and improved architecture (increased bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and connectivity density) to estrogen therapy and were superior compared with mice treated with testosterone only. These results demonstrate estradiol is critical for bone acquisition and suggest a new cross-sex hormone therapy adding estrogens to testosterone treatments with potential future clinical implications for treating transgender youth or men with estrogen deficiency. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Relationships among Musical Aptitude, Digit Ratio and Testosterone in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Borniger, Jeremy C.; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger), and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61), including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A) those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016) and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040) scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B) those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels) were more highly ranked (p = 0.007) in the orchestra, C) female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082) towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D) female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003) than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males. PMID:23520475

  15. Changes in blood testosterone concentrations after surgical and chemical sterilization of male free-roaming dogs in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, R; Forzán, M J; Pérez, G E; Serpell, J A; Garde, E

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing interest in chemical sterilization as an alternative to surgical castration in large-scale sterilization campaigns to control canine populations. An important step toward understanding the short-term and long-term effects of chemical sterilants is to determine their impact on blood testosterone concentrations, particularly as these could influence dog behavior after treatment. A field trial was conducted with 118 free-roaming male dogs in the Chilean Patagonia, where 36 dogs were chemically sterilized using EsterilSol, 39 dogs were surgically castrated, and 43 dogs remained intact as controls. Blood testosterone levels were determined at four time periods: on enrollment 6 months before treatment (t-6m), at the time of treatment (t0, within one hour after surgical castration or chemical sterilization and during a concurrent 2-week period for the control group), four (t+4m), and six (t+6m) months after treatment. Intrinsic and temporal factors were evaluated; age was significantly associated with testosterone, where dogs 2- to 4-year-old had the highest testosterone concentrations (P = 0.036), whereas body weight and body condition scores were not associated with testosterone; testosterone concentration was not influenced by time of day, month, or season. After treatment (t+4m and t+6m), all of the surgically castrated dogs had testosterone concentrations below 1.0 ng/mL. On the basis of this cut point (<1 ng/mL), testosterone remained unchanged in 66% of the chemically sterilized dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it remained low for 22% of dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it was unchanged at t+4m but low at t+6m in 9% of dogs; and, it was low at t+4m but reverted back to unchanged at t+6m in one dog (3%). Incidentally, testosterone in chemically sterilized dogs increased dramatically within 1 hour of treatment (t0), more than doubling (131%) the concentration of control dogs at the time of treatment (t0), likely because of severe necrosis of

  16. Daily testosterone and gonadotropin levels are similar in azoospermic and nonazoospermic normal men administered weekly testosterone: implications for male contraceptive development.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K; Anawalt, B D; Bremner, W J; Matsumoto, A M

    2001-01-01

    Weekly intramuscular administration of testosterone esters such as testosterone enanthate (TE) suppresses gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and has been studied as a male contraceptive. For unknown reasons, however, some men fail to achieve azoospermia with such regimens. We hypothesized that either 1) daily circulating serum fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropins were higher or testosterone levels were lower during the weekly injection interval, or 2) monthly circulating bioactive gonadotropin levels were higher in nonazoospermic men. We therefore analyzed daily testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels as well as pooled monthly bioactive and fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels in normal men receiving chronic TE injections and correlated these levels with sperm production. After a 3-month control period, 51 normal men were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular TE at 25 mg (n = 10), 50 mg (n = 9), 100 mg (n = 10), 300 mg (n = 10), or placebo (n = 12) weekly for 6 months. After 5 months of testosterone administration, morning testosterone and fluoroimmunoreactive follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured daily for a 1-week period between TE injections. In addition, fluoroimmunoreactive and bioactive FSH and LH levels were measured in pooled monthly blood samples drawn just before the next TE injection. In the 100-mg and 300-mg TE groups, mean monthly fluoroimmunoreactive FSH and LH levels were suppressed by 86%-97%, bioactive FSH and LH levels by 62%-80%, and roughly half the subjects became azoospermic. In the 1-week period of month 6, daily testosterone levels between TE injections were within the normal range in men receiving placebo, or 25 or 50 mg of weekly TE, but were significantly elevated in men receiving 100 or 300 mg of weekly TE. At no point during treatment, however, were there significant differences in daily testosterone or fluoroimmunoreactive gonadotropin levels, or monthly bioactive

  17. A multicentre study investigating subcutaneous etonogestrel implants with injectable testosterone decanoate as a potential long-acting male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Brady, B M; Amory, J K; Perheentupa, A; Zitzmann, M; Hay, C J; Apter, D; Anderson, R A; Bremner, W J; Pollanen, P; Nieschlag, E; Wu, F C W; Kersemaekers, W M

    2006-01-01

    The combination of etonogestrel implants with injectable testosterone decanoate was investigated as a potential male contraceptive. One hundred and thirty subjects were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, all receiving two etonogestrel rods (204 mg etonogestrel) and 400 mg testosterone decanoate either every 4 weeks (group I, n = 42), or every 6 weeks (group II, n = 51) or 600 mg testosterone decanoate every 6 weeks (group III, n = 37) for a treatment period of 48 weeks. One hundred and ten men completed 48 weeks of treatment. Sperm concentrations of <1 x 10(6)/ml were achieved in 90% (group I), 82% (group II) and 89% (group III) of subjects by week 24. Suppression was slower in group II, which also demonstrated more frequent escape from gonadotrophin suppression than groups I and III. Peak testosterone concentrations remained in the normal range throughout in all groups. Mean trough testosterone concentrations were initially subphysiological but increased into the normal range during treatment. Mean haemoglobin levels increased in group I, and a non-significant increase in weight and decline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in all groups. Fourteen subjects discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Subcutaneous etonogestrel implants in combination with injectable testosterone decanoate resulted in profound suppression of spermatogenesis that could be maintained for up to 1 year. Efficacy of suppression was less in group II, probably due to inadequate testosterone dosage. This combination has potential as a long-acting male hormonal contraceptive.

  18. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  19. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  20. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  1. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  2. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  3. Near-adult height in male kidney transplant recipients started on growth hormone treatment in late puberty.

    PubMed

    Gil, Silvia; Aziz, Mariana; Adragna, Marta; Monteverde, Marta; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Growth retardation and its impact on adult height is considered to be one of the most common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been effective in improving growth in kidney transplantation (KTx) patients, but little data are available on adult height in patients who began rhGh treatment in late puberty. Near-adult height was evaluated in 13 KTx patients treated with rhGH [growth hormone group (GHGr); dose 9.33 mg/m 2 per week] for a period of at least 18 months. At initiation of rhGH treatment, testicular volume was >8 ml and serum testosterone was >1 ng/ml compared with the control group (CGr) of ten KTx patients who did not receive rHGH. All subjects were of similar chronological age and bone age and had similar creatinine clearance (CrCl) levels, cumulative corticoid dose, height standard deviation score (SDS), target height SDS, and target height:initial height at the beginning of the study. Near-adult height was significantly greater in the GHGr than in the CGr (-1.8 ± 0.8 vs. -2.9 ± 1.1; p = 0.018). The difference between initial height and near-adult height in the GHGr revealed a significant height gain (initial height -3.1 ± 1.1; near-adult height -1.8 ± 0.8 SDS, respectively; delta 1.2 ± 0.3; p = 0.021). The CrCl level was not significantly different between the GHGr and CGr at either at study initiation or when attaining near-adult height (p = 0.74 and p = 0.23, respectively). Treatment with rhGH was effective in improving adult height in KTx patients who began treatment in late puberty, without any effect on renal function.

  4. Improvement in scalp hair growth in androgen-deficient women treated with testosterone: a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, RL; Dimitrakakis, C; Messenger, AG

    2012-01-01

    Background Androgens are thought to have an adverse effect on female scalp hair growth. However, our clinical experience of androgen replacement therapy in women with androgen deficiency, in which hair loss was seldom reported, led us to question this concept. Objectives To evaluate the effect of subcutaneous testosterone therapy on scalp hair growth in female patients. Methods A total of 285 women, treated for a minimum of 1 year with subcutaneous testosterone implants for symptoms of androgen deficiency, were asked to complete a survey that included questions on scalp and facial hair. Age, body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone levels were examined. Results Out of the 285 patients, 76 (27%) reported hair thinning prior to treatment; 48 of these patients (63%) reported hair regrowth on testosterone therapy (responders). Nonresponders (i.e. no reported hair regrowth on therapy) had significantly higher BMIs than responders (P = 0·05). Baseline serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in women reporting hair loss prior to therapy than in those who did not (P = 0·0001). There was no significant difference in serum testosterone levels, measured 4 weeks after testosterone implantation, between responders and nonresponders. No patient in this cohort reported scalp hair loss on testosterone therapy. A total of 262 women (92%) reported some increase in facial hair growth. Conclusions Subcutaneous testosterone therapy was found to have a beneficial effect on scalp hair growth in female patients treated for symptoms of androgen deficiency. We propose this is due to an anabolic effect of testosterone on hair growth. The fact that no subject complained of hair loss as a result of treatment casts doubt on the presumed role of testosterone in driving female scalp hair loss. These results need to be confirmed by formal measurements of hair growth. PMID:21967243

  5. Spurious testosterone laboratory results in a patient taking synthetic alkaline phosphatase (asfotase alfa).

    PubMed

    Sofronescu, Alina G; Ross, Meredith; Rush, Eric; Goldner, Whitney

    2018-04-27

    We report a case of discordant total and free testosterone values in a patient with hypogonadism and juvenile hypophosphatasia after he initiated treatment with asfotase alfa, recombinant tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase. Total testosterone was evaluated using immunoassay pre and post initiation of therapy with asfotase alfa, and free testosterone was evaluated using radioimmunoassay and LC-MS/MS while on asfotase alfa therapy. Total testosterone measured by immunoassay was normal prior to therapy with asfotase alfa, and was low post initiation of therapy. During the same time frame, free testosterone measured using RAI and total testosterone measured using LC-MS/MS were normal on asfotase alfa therapy. This suggests assay interference with the total testosterone immunoassay. When laboratory results are discordant or do not match the clinical impression, the possibility of assay interference should be considered. Alternative laboratory methods free of the interference should be selected to evaluate these patients. ALPL gene, Approved name: Alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney, Synonym: Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSAP). Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862....1680 Testosterone test system. (a) Identification. A testosterone test system is a device intended to measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862....1680 Testosterone test system. (a) Identification. A testosterone test system is a device intended to measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862....1680 Testosterone test system. (a) Identification. A testosterone test system is a device intended to measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are...

  9. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization.

    PubMed

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    2018-02-01

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in puberty. We performed a longitudinal study, investigating the relationship between prenatal testosterone concentrations in amniotic fluid, pubertal testosterone concentrations in saliva, and brain lateralization (measured with functional Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD)) of the Mental Rotation, Chimeric Faces and Word Generation tasks. Thirty boys and 30 girls participated in this study at the age of 15 years. For boys, we found a significant interaction effect between prenatal and pubertal testosterone on lateralization of Mental Rotation and Chimeric Faces. In the boys with low prenatal testosterone levels, pubertal testosterone was positively related to the strength of lateralization in the right hemisphere, while in the boys with high prenatal testosterone levels, pubertal testosterone was negatively related to the strength of lateralization. For Word Generation, pubertal testosterone was negatively related to the strength of lateralization in the left hemisphere in boys. For girls, we did not find any significant effects, possibly because their pubertal testosterone levels were in many cases below quantification limit. To conclude, prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect lateralization in a task-specific way. Our findings cannot be explained by simple models of prenatal testosterone affecting brain lateralization in a similar way for all tasks. We discuss alternative models involving age dependent effects of testosterone, with a role for androgen receptor distribution and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia rat and dog as facile models to assess drugs targeting lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Tian, Yanxin; Guo, Shimeng; Gu, Haifeng; Yuan, Qianting; Xie, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease, affecting a majority of elderly men worldwide. Medical management of BPH is an alternative to surgical treatment of this disease. Currently, α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) antagonists are among the first line drugs to treat BPH by reducing the tension of urinary track and thus the obstructive symptoms in voiding. In drug development, old male dogs with spontaneous BPH are considered the golden standard of the animal models. However, old dogs (>6 years) are expensive and not all old dogs develop BPH. So it is necessary to develop more accessible animal models for drug efficacy evaluation. Here we describe the development of testosterone-induced BPH models in both rats and young adult dogs and their applications in the in vivo evaluation of α1-AR antagonist. The BPH rats and dogs induced by chronic testosterone treatment have significantly increased micturition frequency and reduced mean voided volume, very similar to the clinical symptoms of BPH patients. Silodosin, an α1-AR antagonist, significantly reduces the urinary frequency and increases the voided volume in BPH model animals in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that testosterone-induced BPH rat and dog models might provide a more efficient way to evaluate micturition behavior in anti-BPH drug studies. PMID:29351556

  11. Testosterone in the brain: neuroimaging findings and the potential role for neuropsychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Peter; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kasper, Siegfried

    2013-02-01

    Testosterone plays a substantial role in a number of physiological processes in the brain. It is able to modulate the expression of certain genes by binding to androgen receptors. Acting via neurotransmitter receptors, testosterone shows the potential to mediate a non-genomic so-called "neuroactive effect". Various neurotransmitter systems are also influenced by the aromatized form of testosterone, estradiol. The following article summarizes the findings of preclinical and clinical neuroimaging studies including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), as well as pharmacological fMRI (phfMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) regarding the effects of testosterone on the human brain. The impact of testosterone on the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and on sex-related prevalence differences have been supported by a wide range of clinical studies. An antidepressant effect of testosterone can be implicitly explained by its effects on the limbic system--especially amygdala, a major target in the treatment of depression--solidly demonstrated by a large body of neuroimaging findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Testosterone Production is Better Preserved After 16 than 20 Gray Irradiation Treatment Against Testicular Carcinoma In Situ Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Anne K.; Petersen, Jorgen H.; Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen

    Purpose: To study the effect of 16 Gy radiotherapy (RT) vs. 20 Gy RT on Leydig cell function in men treated with radiotherapy against carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one men who were treated between 1985 and 2005 were included. Fourteen men had been treated with 20 Gy and 37 with 16 Gy RT. Measurements of sex hormone-binding globulin and basic and stimulated testosterone, as well as luteinizing hormone levels were performed. Results: The follow-up periods for the patients treated without additional chemotherapy were for the 20 Gy and 16 Gy group mean/median/min-max: 9.0/10.0/1.0-20.3 yearsmore » and 4.0/3.1/0.4-14.1 years, respectively. During the follow-up period, men treated with 16 Gy RT had stable testosterone levels (-1.1%/year, p = 0.4), whereas men treated with 20 Gy had an annual decrease of 2.4% (p = 0.008). For the latter group, the testosterone decrease was most pronounced in the first 5 years, leveling off during the following 5 years. Additionally, more men treated with 20 Gy needed androgen substitution treatment. Our study showed an increased luteinizing hormone level for the men treated with 16 Gy, although this was not significant (p = 0.5). We anticipated a similar increase in the patients treated with 20 Gy but instead observed a decrease (-3.1%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT at 16 and 20 Gy seem to affect Leydig cell function differently, with 16 Gy RT better preserving testosterone levels and thus being preferred from an endocrinological point of view.« less

  13. A randomized trial of adjunct testosterone for cancer-related muscle loss in men and women.

    PubMed

    Wright, Traver J; Dillon, E Lichar; Durham, William J; Chamberlain, Albert; Randolph, Kathleen M; Danesi, Christopher; Horstman, Astrid M; Gilkison, Charles R; Willis, Maurice; Richardson, Gwyn; Hatch, Sandra S; Jupiter, Daniel C; McCammon, Susan; Urban, Randall J; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda

    2018-06-01

    Cancer cachexia negatively impacts cancer-related treatment options, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality, yet no established therapies exist. We investigated the anabolic properties of testosterone to limit the loss of body mass in late stage cancer patients undergoing standard of care cancer treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial was undertaken to assess the potential therapeutic role of adjunct testosterone to limit loss of body mass in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix or head and neck undergoing standard of care treatment including chemotherapy and chemoradiation. Patients were randomly assigned in blocks to receive weekly injections of either 100 mg testosterone enanthate or placebo for 7 weeks. The primary outcome was per cent change in lean body mass, and secondary outcomes included assessment of quality of life, tests of physical performance, muscle strength, daily activity levels, resting energy expenditure, nutritional intake, and overall survival. A total of 28 patients were enrolled, 22 patients were studied to completion, and 21 patients were included in the final analysis (12 placebo, nine testosterone). Adjunct testosterone increased lean body mass by 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-7%) whereas those receiving placebo lost 3.3% (95% CI, -7% to 1%, P = 0.015). Although testosterone patients maintained more favourable body condition, sustained daily activity levels, and showed meaningful improvements in quality of life and physical performance, overall survival was similar in both treatment groups. In patients with advanced cancer undergoing the early phase of standard of care therapy, adjunct testosterone improved lean body mass and was also associated with increased quality of life, and physical activity compared with placebo. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia

  14. A randomized trial of adjunct testosterone for cancer‐related muscle loss in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Traver J.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Durham, William J.; Chamberlain, Albert; Randolph, Kathleen M.; Danesi, Christopher; Horstman, Astrid M.; Gilkison, Charles R.; Willis, Maurice; Richardson, Gwyn; Hatch, Sandra S.; Jupiter, Daniel C.; McCammon, Susan; Urban, Randall J.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer cachexia negatively impacts cancer‐related treatment options, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality, yet no established therapies exist. We investigated the anabolic properties of testosterone to limit the loss of body mass in late stage cancer patients undergoing standard of care cancer treatment. Methods A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled phase II clinical trial was undertaken to assess the potential therapeutic role of adjunct testosterone to limit loss of body mass in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix or head and neck undergoing standard of care treatment including chemotherapy and chemoradiation. Patients were randomly assigned in blocks to receive weekly injections of either 100 mg testosterone enanthate or placebo for 7 weeks. The primary outcome was per cent change in lean body mass, and secondary outcomes included assessment of quality of life, tests of physical performance, muscle strength, daily activity levels, resting energy expenditure, nutritional intake, and overall survival. Results A total of 28 patients were enrolled, 22 patients were studied to completion, and 21 patients were included in the final analysis (12 placebo, nine testosterone). Adjunct testosterone increased lean body mass by 3.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0–7%) whereas those receiving placebo lost 3.3% (95% CI, −7% to 1%, P = 0.015). Although testosterone patients maintained more favourable body condition, sustained daily activity levels, and showed meaningful improvements in quality of life and physical performance, overall survival was similar in both treatment groups. Conclusions In patients with advanced cancer undergoing the early phase of standard of care therapy, adjunct testosterone improved lean body mass and was also associated with increased quality of life, and physical activity compared with placebo. PMID:29654645

  15. Age Differences in Prenatal Testosterone's Protective Effects on Disordered Eating Symptoms: Developmental Windows of Expression?

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, Kristen M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present series of studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: 1) lower finger-length ratios [index (2D)/ring (4D) finger] (Study 1), and 2) lower disordered eating in females from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples. PMID:25621790

  16. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and salivary testosterone, oestradiol and cortisol levels under challenge: Evidence for prenatal effects on adult endocrine responses.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair; Cook, Christian; Kilduff, Liam; Manning, John

    2015-08-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a marker for prenatal sex steroids and a correlate of sporting performance. This association may exist because low 2D:4D is linked to high prenatal levels of testosterone (T) and low oestrogens (E). It was recently suggested that low 2D:4D, and particularly low right-left 2D:4D (or Dr-l), is a marker for T changes in response to physical and aggressive challenges. If correct, this link may in part explain the association between 2D:4D and sports performance. We tested this hypothesis in adults. Three experimental treatments were completed using a randomised, cross-over design; (i) cycle sprints plus an aggressive video (S+V), (ii) aggressive video plus cycle sprints (V+S), and (iii) a control session. 24 healthy adults (12 men and 12 women). Salivary T, oestradiol (E2) and cortisol (C) levels were measured on six occasions across each session and pooled for analysis. The S+V treatment was associated with a rise in T and C levels, and Dr-l was significantly and negatively correlated with T and E2 with these effects confined to men. The right 2D:4D and Dr-l were also negatively correlated with the T/C ratio and Dr-l negatively related to the E2/C ratio in men during the S+V treatment. We suggest that the hormonal responses to a challenge are programmed by prenatal levels of T and E with possible links to sporting performance in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testosterone treatment and arginine-induced growth hormone stimulation in male delayed puberty: effects on serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hyldstrup, L; Christiansen, C; Nielsen, M D; Transbøl, I

    1984-06-01

    Hormonal changes after arginine-induced growth hormone stimulation and subsequent testosterone treatment were examined in 5 patients classified as having male delayed puberty. All the patients responded well to growth hormone stimulation and a significant negative correlation was found between the delay in height age and the maximal growth hormone response, r = 0.80, P less than 0.05. The testosterone treatment did not alter this pattern. Changes in PTH, 25OHD, 24.25(OH)2D, and 1.25(OH)2D were examined at 24 h after the infusion. The results showed significant reductions in PTH (P less than 0.05) and 24.25 (OH)2D (P less than 0.05) and a possible increase in 1.25(OH)2D, whereas 25OHD remained unchanged. These results may support the conception of growth hormone as a common denominator of growth and bone metabolism.

  18. Developmental Programming: Reproductive Endocrinopathies in the Adult Female Sheep After Prenatal Testosterone Treatment Are Reflected in Altered Ontogeny of GnRH Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, John; Mytinger, Andrea; Foster, Douglas L.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    The GnRH system represents a useful model of long-term neural plasticity. An unexplored facet of this plasticity relates to the ontogeny of GnRH neural afferents during critical periods when the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is highly susceptible to perturbation by sex steroids. Sheep treated with testosterone (T) in utero exhibit profound reproductive neuroendocrine dysfunctions during their lifespan. The current study tested the hypothesis that these changes are associated with alterations in the normal ontogeny of GnRH afferents and glial associations. Adult pregnant sheep (n = 50) were treated with vehicle [control (CONT)] or T daily from gestational day (GD)30 to GD90. CONT and T fetuses (n = 4–6/treatment per age group) were removed by cesarean section on GD90 and GD140 and the brains frozen at −80°C. Brains were also collected from CONT and T females at 20–23 wk (prepubertal), 10 months (normal onset of puberty and oligo-anovulation), and 21 months (oligo-anovulation in T females). Tissue was analyzed for GnRH immunoreactivity (ir), total GnRH afferents (Synapsin-I ir), glutamate [vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGLUT2)-ir], and γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA, vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-ir] afferents and glial associations (glial fibrillary acidic protein-ir) with GnRH neurons using optical sectioning techniques. The results revealed that: 1) GnRH soma size was slightly reduced by T, 2) the total (Synapsin-I) GnRH afferents onto both somas and dendrites increased significantly with age and was reduced by T, 3) numbers of both VGAT and VGLUT inputs increased significantly with age and were also reduced by T, and 4) glial associations with GnRH neurons were reduced (<10%) by T. Together, these findings reveal a previously unknown developmental plasticity in the GnRH system of the sheep. The altered developmental trajectory of GnRH afferents after T reinforces the notion that prenatal programming plays an important role in the normal

  19. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predominant Suppression of FSHβ-immunoreactivity after Long-Term Treatment of Intact and Castrate Adult Male Rats with the GnRH Agonist Deslorelin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Arik W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Edwards, Brian S.; Murdoch, William J.; Skinner, Donal C.

    2017-01-01

    GnRH agonists are used to treat gonadal steroid-dependent disorders in humans and contracept animals. These agonists are thought to work by desensitizing gonadotropes to GnRH, thereby suppressing FSH and LH secretion. It is not known whether changes occur in the cellular composition of the pituitary gland following chronic GnRH agonist exposure. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a sham, deslorelin, or deslorelin plus testosterone implant for 41.0±0.6 days. In a second experiment, rats were castrated and treated with deslorelin and/or testosterone. Pituitary sections were labeled immunocytochemically for FSHβ and LHβ, or αGSU. Deslorelin suppressed testis weight by two thirds and reduced plasma FSH and LH in intact rats. Deslorelin decreased the percentage of gonadotropes but the effect was specific to the FSHβ-ir cells. Testosterone did not reverse the deslorelin-induced reduction in the overall gonadotrope population. However, in the presence of testosterone, the proportion of gonadotropes that was FSHβ-ir increased in the remaining gonadotropes. There was no effect of treatment on the total LHβ-ir cell population although the loss of FSHβ in bi-hormonal cells increased the proportion of mono-hormonal LHβ-ir gonadotropes. The castration-induced plasma LH and FSH increases were suppressed by deslorelin, testosterone or both. Castration increased both LH-ir and FSH-ir without increasing the overall gonadotrope population; thus increasing the proportion of bi-hormonal cells. Deslorelin suppressed these increases. Testosterone increased FSH-ir in deslorelin-treated castrate rats. Deslorelin did not affect αGSU immunoreactivity, suggesting that the gonadotrope population per se is not eliminated by deslorelin but the ability of gonadotropes to synthesize FSHβ is compromised. We hypothesize that the FSH dominant suppression may be central to the long-term contraceptive efficacy of deslorelin in the male. PMID:22172059

  1. Testosterone prevents protein loss via the hepatic urea cycle in human.

    PubMed

    Lam, Teresa; Poljak, Anne; McLean, Mark; Bahl, Neha; Ho, Ken K Y; Birzniece, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The urea cycle is a rate-limiting step for amino acid nitrogen elimination. The rate of urea synthesis is a true indicator of whole-body protein catabolism. Testosterone reduces protein and nitrogen loss. The effect of testosterone on hepatic urea synthesis in humans has not been studied. To determine whether testosterone reduces hepatic urea production. An open-label study. Eight hypogonadal men were studied at baseline, and after two weeks of transdermal testosterone replacement (Testogel, 100 mg/day). The rate of hepatic urea synthesis was measured by the urea turnover technique using stable isotope methodology, with 15 N 2 -urea as tracer. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were calculated. Testosterone administration significantly reduced the rate of hepatic urea production (from 544.4 ± 71.8 to 431.7 ± 68.3 µmol/min; P  < 0.01), which was paralleled by a significant reduction in serum urea concentration. Testosterone treatment significantly reduced net protein loss, as measured by percent Lox/LRa, by 19.3 ± 5.8% ( P  < 0.05). There was a positive association between Lox and hepatic urea production at baseline ( r 2  = 0.60, P  < 0.05) and after testosterone administration ( r 2  = 0.59, P  < 0.05). Testosterone replacement reduces protein loss and hepatic urea synthesis. We conclude that testosterone regulates whole-body protein metabolism by suppressing the urea cycle. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Testosterone may increase selective attention to threat in young male macaques.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; King, Hanna M; Kurdziel, Laura B; Partan, Sarah R; Caldwell, Kaelyn M; Chiavetta, Margaret R; Millette, Matthew M; Meyer, Jerrold S; Grow, Daniel R

    2010-11-01

    Animal studies indicate that sex hormones have widespread effects on the brain, cognition and emotion, but findings in humans are inconsistent. Well-controlled studies in nonhuman primates are crucial to resolve these discrepancies. In this study, we examined the effects of testosterone (T) on emotion in male rhesus monkeys. Six young adult males were tested on two emotional tasks during three hormonal conditions in a crossover design: when intact at baseline and when pharmacologically hypogonadal with add-back of T or placebo. The emotional tasks were the Approach-Avoidance task, which tested behavioral responses to three categories of objects (familiar, novel, and negative) and a Social Playback task which tested behavioral responses to scenes of unfamiliar conspecifics engaged in three types of social activities (neutral, positive, or negative). Following a 4-week baseline period, monkeys were treated with Depot Lupron, 200μg/kg before being randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Depot Lupron+Testosterone Enanthate (TE, 20mg/kg) or Depot Lupron+oil vehicle. In each treatment group, monkeys received one injection of Lupron and one injection of TE or one injection of Lupron and one injection of oil at the onset of a 4-week testing period, before crossing over to the alternate treatment for an additional 4weeks of testing. TE treatment had no effect on behavioral measures in the Approach-Avoidance task. For the Social Playback task, however, TE significantly increased watching time of video clips which depicted fights between unfamiliar conspecifics. The enhancing effect of T on watching time for negative social scenes is consistent with human data suggesting that T decreases aversion or facilitates approach to threatening social stimuli. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which T may mediate responsiveness to social threat in male primates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... or if it is due to a disease (hypogonadism). Hypogonadism is a disease in which the body is ... Testosterone therapy can help reverse the effects of hypogonadism, but it's unclear whether testosterone therapy would have ...

  4. Testosterone Attenuates Age-Related Fall in Aerobic Function in Mobility Limited Older Men With Low Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Travison, Thomas G.; Pencina, Karol; Miciek, Renee; McKinnon, Jennifer; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Context: Testosterone increases skeletal muscle mass and strength, but the effects of testosterone on aerobic performance in mobility-limited older men have not been evaluated. Objective: To determine the effects of testosterone supplementation on aerobic performance, assessed as peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) and gas exchange lactate threshold (V̇O2θ), during symptom-limited incremental cycle ergometer exercise. Design: Subgroup analysis of the Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations Trial. Setting: Exercise physiology laboratory in an academic medical center. Participants: Sixty-four mobility-limited men 65 years or older with low total (100–350 ng/dL) or free (<50 pg/dL) testosterone. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 100-mg testosterone gel or placebo gel daily for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: V̇O2peak and V̇O2θ from a symptom-limited cycle exercise test. Results: Mean (SD) baseline V̇O2peak was 20.5 (4.3) and 19.9 (4.7) mL/kg/min for testosterone and placebo, respectively. V̇O2peak increased by 0.83 (2.4) mL/kg/min in testosterone but decreased by −0.89 (2.5) mL/kg/min in placebo (P = .035); between group difference in change in V̇O2peak was significant (P = .006). This 6-month reduction in placebo was greater than the expected −0.4-mL/kg/min/y rate of decline in the general population. V̇O2θ did not change significantly in testosterone but decreased by 1.1 (1.8) mL/kg/min in placebo, P = .011 for between-group comparisons. Hemoglobin increased by 1.0 ± 3.5 and 0.1 ± 0.8 g/dL in testosterone and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: Testosterone supplementation in mobility-limited older men increased hemoglobin and attenuated the age-related declines in V̇O2peak and V̇O2θ. Long-term intervention studies are needed to determine the durability of this effect. PMID:27050869

  5. Testosterone Attenuates Age-Related Fall in Aerobic Function in Mobility Limited Older Men With Low Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Bhasin, Shalender; Travison, Thomas G; Pencina, Karol; Miciek, Renee; McKinnon, Jennifer; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone increases skeletal muscle mass and strength, but the effects of testosterone on aerobic performance in mobility-limited older men have not been evaluated. To determine the effects of testosterone supplementation on aerobic performance, assessed as peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) and gas exchange lactate threshold (V̇O2θ), during symptom-limited incremental cycle ergometer exercise. Subgroup analysis of the Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations Trial. Exercise physiology laboratory in an academic medical center. Sixty-four mobility-limited men 65 years or older with low total (100-350 ng/dL) or free (<50 pg/dL) testosterone. Participants were randomized to receive 100-mg testosterone gel or placebo gel daily for 6 months. V̇O2peak and V̇O2θ from a symptom-limited cycle exercise test. Mean (SD) baseline V̇O2peak was 20.5 (4.3) and 19.9 (4.7) mL/kg/min for testosterone and placebo, respectively. V̇O2peak increased by 0.83 (2.4) mL/kg/min in testosterone but decreased by -0.89 (2.5) mL/kg/min in placebo (P = .035); between group difference in change in V̇O2peak was significant (P = .006). This 6-month reduction in placebo was greater than the expected -0.4-mL/kg/min/y rate of decline in the general population. V̇O2θ did not change significantly in testosterone but decreased by 1.1 (1.8) mL/kg/min in placebo, P = .011 for between-group comparisons. Hemoglobin increased by 1.0 ± 3.5 and 0.1 ± 0.8 g/dL in testosterone and placebo groups, respectively. Testosterone supplementation in mobility-limited older men increased hemoglobin and attenuated the age-related declines in V̇O2peak and V̇O2θ. Long-term intervention studies are needed to determine the durability of this effect.

  6. Protective role of testosterone in ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Soljancic, Andrea; Ruiz, Arnaldo Lopez; Chandrashekar, Kiran; Maranon, Rodrigo; Liu, Ruisheng; Juncos, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Men are at greater risk for renal injury and dysfunction after acute ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) than are women. Studies in animals suggest that the reason for the sex difference in renal injury and dysfunction after I/R is the protective effect of estrogens in females. However, a reduction in testosterone in men is thought to play an important role in mediating cardiovascular and renal disease, in general. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that I/R of the kidney reduces serum testosterone, and that contributes to renal dysfunction and injury. Male rats that were subjected to renal ischemia of 40 min followed by reperfusion had a 90% reduction in serum testosterone by 3 h after reperfusion that remained at 24 h. Acute infusion of testosterone 3 h after reperfusion attenuated the increase in plasma creatinine and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) at 24 h, prevented the reduction in outer medullary blood flow, and attenuated the increase in intrarenal TNF-α and the decrease in intrarenal VEGF at 48 h. Castration of males caused greater increases in plasma creatinine and KIM-1 at 24 h than in intact males with renal I/R, and treatment with anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, plus testosterone almost normalized plasma creatinine and KIM-1 in rats with renal I/R. These data show that renal I/R is associated with sustained reductions in testosterone, that testosterone repletion protects the kidney, whereas castration promotes renal dysfunction and injury, and that the testosterone-mediated protection is not conferred by conversion to estradiol. PMID:23552495

  7. Testosterone supplementation improves glucose homeostasis despite increasing hepatic insulin resistance in male mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pal, M; Gupta, S

    2016-12-12

    Clinical studies have revealed that testosterone supplementation had a positive effect on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but did not address how testosterone supplementation affected insulin responsiveness in the liver, a key glucose homeostatic organ. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of testosterone supplementation on hepatic insulin responsiveness and glucose homeostasis through liver in male high-fat diet-induced T2DM mice. Testosterone treatment to T2DM animals showed reduced hepatic glucose output. Testosterone inhibited the insulin signaling in liver, thus increased insulin resistance. However, testosterone treatment inactivated GSK3α independent of PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibited FOXO1 By interaction of androgen receptor to FOXO1 and downregulated PEPCK, causing repression of gluconeogenic pathway, which is otherwise upregulated in T2DM, resulted in better glucose homeostasis.

  8. Protection of male reproductive toxicity in rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate during embryonic development by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Reddy, Pamanji Sreenivasula

    2017-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely spread industrial chemical that made drastic alteration in male reproductive system. The present study elucidates the protective role of testosterone on reproductive toxicity in prenatal DBP exposed adult male rats. Pregnant rats were injected with corn oil or 100 and 500mg/kg body weight of DBP on gestation day (GD) 1, 7 and 14. F1 male rats were weaned, injected with either testosterone or vehicle. On postnatal day (PND) 100 F1 adult male rats were cohabited with untreated female rats. Then rats were sacrificed and analyzed for other reproductive end points. Prenatal DBP exposed male rat testes, seminal vesicle weight, sperm count, motility, viability and HOS tail coiled sperm were significantly decreased with increased sperm morphological abnormalities. The levels of testicular 3β, 17βHSD, serum testosterone were significantly decreased with increased FSH, LH levels in experimental rats. The fertility studies revealed that increased pre, post-implantation losses and resorptions in normal females cohabited with experimental rats. Higher testicular LPO with lower SOD, CAT and GPx activity levels in experimental rats. Administration of testosterone to prenatal DBP treated male rats showed significant protection in above all parameters. In conclusions, testosterone deteriorates prenatal DBP induced reproductive and fertility toxicity by decreased oxidative stress and increased testicular antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ACHIEVED BY MEDICALLY TREATED TRANSGENDER WOMEN IN A UNITED STATES ENDOCRINOLOGY CLINIC COHORT.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jennifer J; Jolly, Divya; Chan, Kelly J; Safer, Joshua D

    2018-02-01

    Most transgender women depend on medical treatment alone to lower testosterone levels in order to align physical appearance with gender identity. The medical regimen in the United States typically includes spironolactone and estrogens. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the testosterone suppression achieved among transgender women treated with spironolactone and estrogens. Testosterone and estradiol levels were extracted from the electronic medical records of 98 anonymized transgender women treated with oral spironolactone and oral estrogen therapy at the Endocrinology Clinic at Boston Medical Center. Patients starting therapy required about 9 months to reach a steady-state testosterone, with significant heterogeneity of levels achieved among patients. Patients with normal body mass index (BMI) had higher testosterone levels, whereas patients with obese BMI had lower testosterone levels throughout treatment. Stratification of patients by age or spironolactone dosage revealed no significant difference in testosterone levels achieved. At steady state, patients in the highest suppressing quartile were able to achieve testosterone levels of 27 ng/dL, with a standard deviation of 21 ng/dL. Measured serum estradiol levels did not change over time and did not correlate with dosage of estradiol administered. Among a cohort of transgender women treated with spironolactone and estrogen, the highest suppressing quartile could reliably achieve testosterone levels in the female range at virtually all times. The second highest suppressing quartile could not achieve female levels but remained below the male range virtually all of the time. One quartile was unable to achieve any significant suppression. BMC = Boston Medical Center BMI = body mass index CPY = cyproterone acetate LC-MS/MS = liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Q = quartile.

  10. Testosterone-mineralizing culture enriched from swine manure: characterization of degradation pathways and microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Pereyra, Luciana P; Young, Robert B; Reardon, Kenneth F; Borch, Thomas

    2011-08-15

    Environmental releases and fate of steroid sex hormones from livestock and wastewater treatment plants are of increasing regulatory concern. Despite the detection of these hormones in manures, biosolids, and the environment, little attention has been paid to characterization of fecal bacteria capable of hormone degradation. The enrichments of (swine) manure-borne bacteria capable of aerobic testosterone degradation were prepared and the testosterone mineralization pathway was elucidated. Six DNA sequences of bacteria from the Proteobacteria phylum distributed among the genera Acinetobacter, Brevundimonas, Comamonas, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodobacter were identified in a testosterone-degrading enriched culture with testosterone as the sole carbon source. Three degradation products of testosterone were identified as androstenedione, androstadienedione, and dehydrotestosterone using commercially available reference standards, liquid chromatography-UV diode array detection, and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS). Three additional degradation products of testosterone were tentatively identified as 9α-hydroxytestosterone, 9α-hydroxyandrostadienedione or 3-hydroxy-9,10-secoandrosta-1,3,5(10)-triene-9,17-dione, and 9α-hydroxydehydrotestosterone or 9α-hydroxyandrostenedione using LC-TOF/MS. When (14)C-testosterone was introduced to the enriched culture, 49-68% of the added (14)C-testosterone was mineralized to (14)CO(2) within 8 days of incubation. The mineralization of (14)C-testosterone followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics in the enriched culture with half-lives (t(1/2)) of 10-143 h. This work suggests that Proteobacteria play an important environmental role in degradation of steroid sex hormones and that androgens have the potential to be mineralized during aerobic manure treatment or after land application to agricultural fields by manure-borne bacteria.

  11. Testosterone and the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ronny B W; Silberstein, Jonathan L; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2014-10-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), and prostate cancer commonly coexist in the aging male. Due to a better understanding of the physiology and impact of testosterone on benign and malignant diseases of the prostate, the view toward testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in these individuals has changed dramatically over time. This communication evaluates the effects of testosterone on benign prostatic growth and prostate cancer and reviews the evidence for TRT for men with BPE and prostate cancer. A literature review was performed with regards to TRT in men with prostate cancer as well as the effect of testosterone on the growth of benign prostate tissue and prostate cancer carcinogenesis. To evaluate the evidence for an effect of testosterone on the growth of benign prostate tissue and the development of prostate cancer and TRT in men with prostate cancer. TRT does not exacerbate LUTS. Current evidence is lacking but suggests that TRT may not increase the risk of subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer, and is unlikely to impact recurrence or progression for men with treated prostate cancer, but longer follow-up is needed. There is no evidence to suggest that TRT is contraindicated in men with BPE or effectively treated prostate cancer. Tan RBW, Silberstein JL, and Hellstrom WJG. Testosterone and the prostate. Sex Med Rev 2014;2:112-120. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  13. Association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Onasanya, Oluwadamilola; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Given the conflicting evidence regarding the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, we systematically assessed published systematic reviews for evidence of the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Clinical Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the US Food and Drug Administration website for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials published up to July 19, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened 954 full texts from 29 335 abstracts to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in which the cardiovascular effects of exogenous testosterone on men aged 18 years or older were examined. We extracted data for study characteristics, analytic methods, and key findings, and applied the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist to assess methodological quality of each review. Our primary outcome measure was the direction and magnitude of association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We identified seven reviews and meta-analyses, which had substantial clinical heterogeneity, differing statistical methods, and variable methodological quality and quality of data abstraction. AMSTAR scores ranged from 3 to 9 out of 11. Six systematic reviews that each included a meta-analysis showed no significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, with summary estimates ranging from 1·07 to 1·82 and imprecise confidence intervals. Two of these six meta-analyses showed increased risk in subgroup analyses of oral testosterone and men aged 65 years or older during their first treatment year. One meta-analysis showed a significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, in men aged 18 years or older generally, with a summary estimate of 1·54 (95% CI 1·09-2·18). Our optimal information size analysis showed that any randomised controlled

  14. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria - organizational and activational effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sarah M; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys ( p FWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls ( p FWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning.

  15. Reduction in 24-hour plasma testosterone levels in subjects who showered 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel.

    PubMed

    de Ronde, Willem; Vogel, Syarda; Bui, Hong N; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2011-03-01

    To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Prospective 3-way crossover trial. University hospital in the Netherlands. Ten agonadal female-to-male transsexuals who had sex-reassignment surgery at least 3 months earlier. Subjects were randomized to one of three application regimens for testosterone gel 50 mg/day, each lasting 7 days: testosterone application after showering (standard regimen), shower was taken 30 minutes after testosterone application, or shower was taken 15 minutes after testosterone application. Subjects then crossed over to each of the other two application regimens for a total of 21 days of study participation. On day 7 of each application regimen, mean plasma testosterone levels were determined before testosterone application and at 1, 4, 7, and 10 hours after application. With the standard regimen, mean plasma testosterone levels at all time points after application were in the normal range: mean ± SD average concentration 994 ± 1026 ng/dl. When a shower was taken 30 or 15 minutes after application, plasma testosterone levels at 1, 4, 7, and 10 hours were significantly lower: mean ± SD average concentration 401 ± 231 ng/dl for 30 minutes after application (p<0.01) and 320 ± 248 ng/dl for 15 minutes after application (p<0.01). Showering within 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel 50 mg/day reduces absorption of testosterone and results in unacceptably low plasma testosterone levels in most users. Therefore, this strategy cannot be recommended to prevent involuntary transfer of testosterone.

  16. High levels of testosterone inhibit ovarian follicle development by repressing the FSH signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Cui, Yu-qian; Zhao, Han; Liu, Hong-bin; Zhao, Shi-dou; Gao, Yuan; Mu, Xiao-li; Gao, Fei; Chen, Zi-jiang

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high concentrations of testosterone on ovarian follicle development was investigated. Primary follicles and granulosa cells were cultured in vitro in media supplemented with a testosterone concentration gradient. The combined effects of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on follicular growth and granulosa cell gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression were also investigated. Follicle growth in the presence of high testosterone concentrations was promoted at early stages (days 1-7), but inhibited at later stage (days 7-14) of in vitro culture. Interestingly, testosterone-induced follicle development arrest was rescued by treatment with high concentrations of FSH (400 mIU/mL). In addition, in cultured granulosa cells, high testosterone concentrations induced cell proliferation, and increased the mRNA expression level of FSH receptor (FSHR), and luteinized hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. It was concluded that high concentrations of testosterone inhibited follicle development, most likely through regulation of the FSH signaling pathway, although independently from FSHR downregulation. These findings are an important step in further understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. Effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual functioning in aging men: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J; Nakhai-Pour, H R; Grobbee, D E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Serum testosterone levels decline significantly with aging and this has been associated with reduced sexual function. We have conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual function in 237 elderly men with a testosterone level <13.7 nmol l(-1). Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral testosterone undecanoate or a placebo for 6 months. A total of 207 men completed the study. After treatment, there were no differences in scores on sexual function between the groups. Subanalysis showed that although a baseline testosterone level in the lowest tertile was associated with significantly lower scores for sexual fantasies, desire of sexual contact and frequency of sexual contact, supplementation of testosterone did not result in improvement on any of these items in this group. In conclusion, the findings do not support the view that testosterone undecanoate supplementation for 6 months to elderly men with low-normal testosterone concentrations favorably affects sexual function.

  18. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This ‘Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the ‘cause' versus ‘effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

  19. Effects of combined treatment of α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, selenium and zinc on bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin-induced alterations in testosterone synthesis pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Kilarkaje, Narayana

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of therapeutically relevant dose levels of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) on testicular steroidogenic enzymes, and possible protective effects of an antioxidant cocktail (AC). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received BEP with or without the AC (α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, selenium and zinc) for either (a) 4 days (short term; 1.5, 15 and 3 mg/kg), or (b) three cycles of 21 days each (0.75, 7.5 and 1.5 mg/kg), or (c) the three cycles with a 63-day recovery period. The expression of steroidogenic enzymes were measured in the testes by Western blotting and immunofluorescent labeling. The short-term BEP exposure resulted in a decrease in scavenger receptor class-B1 and an increase in luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). The AC with or without BEP has increased the levels of LHR, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD, but without significant changes in testosterone levels. The three cycles of BEP up-regulated the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and down-regulated that of cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), cytochrome p450 17A1 (Cyp17A1, recovered by the AC) and 17β-HSD, associated with significant reduction in testosterone levels. The three cycles with the recovery time led to decreases in LHR, StAR, P450scc and Cyp17A1 and increases in 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD. The AC did not enhance the recovery of the enzyme levels. The three cycles of BEP treatment inhibit the testosterone synthesis pathway even after the recovery time. The AC recovers the effects of BEP chemotherapy on a few steroidogenic enzymes.

  20. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b. PMID:24994782

  1. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  2. The Role of the Multiple Hormonal Dysregulation in the Onset of “Anemia of Aging”: Focus on Testosterone, IGF-1, and Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Fisichella, Alberto; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Cappola, Anne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a multifactorial condition whose prevalence increases in both sexes after the fifth decade of life. It is a highly represented phenomenon in older adults and in one-third of cases is “unexplained.” Ageing process is also characterized by a “multiple hormonal dysregulation” with disruption in gonadal, adrenal, and somatotropic axes. Experimental studies suggest that anabolic hormones such as testosterone, IGF-1, and thyroid hormones are able to increase erythroid mass, erythropoietin synthesis, and iron bioavailability, underlining a potential role of multiple hormonal changes in the anemia of aging. Epidemiological data more consistently support an association between lower testosterone and anemia in adult-older individuals. Low IGF-1 has been especially associated with anemia in the pediatric population and in a wide range of disorders. There is also evidence of an association between thyroid hormones and abnormalities in hematological parameters under overt thyroid and euthyroid conditions, with limited data on subclinical statuses. Although RCTs have shown beneficial effects, stronger for testosterone and the GH-IGF-1 axis and less evident for thyroid hormones, in improving different hematological parameters, there is no clear evidence for the usefulness of hormonal treatment in improving anemia in older subjects. Thus, more clinical and research efforts are needed to investigate the hormonal contribution to anemia in the older individuals. PMID:26779261

  3. Testosterone administration does not affect men's rejections of low ultimatum game offers or aggressive mood.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom J; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Correlative evidence suggests that testosterone promotes dominance and aggression. However, causal evidence is scarce and offers mixed results. To investigate this relationship, we administered testosterone for 48h to 41 healthy young adult men in a within-subjects, double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. Subjects played the role of responders in an ultimatum game, where rejecting a low offer is costly, but serves to destroy the proposer's profit. Such action can hence be interpreted as non-physical aggression in response to social provocation. In addition, subjects completed a self-assessed mood questionnaire. As expected, self-reported aggressiveness was a key predictor of ultimatum game rejections. However, while testosterone affected subjective ratings of feeling energetic and interested, our evidence strongly suggests that testosterone had no effect on ultimatum game rejections or on aggressive mood. Our findings illustrate the importance of using causal interventions to assess correlative evidence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A Testosterone-Related Structural Brain Phenotype Predicts Aggressive Behavior From Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N.; Hudziak, James J; Ducharme, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone represents a compelling mechanism through which this structural covariance may be developmentally regulated in humans. Although steroid hormone receptors can be found throughout the central nervous system, the amygdala represents a key target for testosterone-specific effects, given its high density of androgen receptors. In addition, testosterone has been found to impact cortical thickness (CTh) across the whole brain, suggesting that it may also regulate the structural relationship, or covariance, between the amygdala and CTh. Here we examined testosterone-related covariance between amygdala volumes and whole-brain CTh, as well as its relationship to aggression levels, in a longitudinal sample of children, adolescents, and young adults 6 to 22 years old. We found: (1) testosterone-specific modulation of the covariance between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); (2) a significant relationship between amygdala-mPFC covariance and levels of aggression; and (3) mediation effects of amygdala-mPFC covariance on the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These effects were independent of sex, age, pubertal stage, estradiol levels and anxious-depressed symptoms. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that testosterone targets the neural circuits regulating affect and impulse regulation, and show, for the first time in humans, how androgen-dependent organizational effects may regulate a very specific, aggression-related structural brain phenotype from childhood to young adulthood. PMID:26431805

  5. A testosterone-related structural brain phenotype predicts aggressive behavior from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Ducharme, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone represents a compelling mechanism through which this structural covariance may be developmentally regulated in humans. Although steroid hormone receptors can be found throughout the central nervous system, the amygdala represents a key target for testosterone-specific effects, given its high density of androgen receptors. In addition, testosterone has been found to impact cortical thickness (CTh) across the whole brain, suggesting that it may also regulate the structural relationship, or covariance, between the amygdala and CTh. Here, we examined testosterone-related covariance between amygdala volumes and whole-brain CTh, as well as its relationship to aggression levels, in a longitudinal sample of children, adolescents, and young adults 6-22 years old. We found: (1) testosterone-specific modulation of the covariance between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); (2) a significant relationship between amygdala-mPFC covariance and levels of aggression; and (3) mediation effects of amygdala-mPFC covariance on the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These effects were independent of sex, age, pubertal stage, estradiol levels and anxious-depressed symptoms. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that testosterone targets the neural circuits regulating affect and impulse regulation, and show, for the first time in humans, how androgen-dependent organizational effects may regulate a very specific, aggression-related structural brain phenotype from childhood to young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Testosterone and progesterone concentrations in blow samples are biologically relevant in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Richard, Justin T; Robeck, Todd R; Osborn, Steven D; Naples, Lisa; McDermott, Alexa; LaForge, Robert; Romano, Tracy A; Sartini, Becky L

    2017-05-15

    Steroid hormone analysis in blow (respiratory vapor) may provide a minimally invasive way to assess the reproductive status of wild cetaceans. Biological validation of the method is needed to allow for the interpretation of hormone measurements in blow samples. Utilizing samples collected from trained belugas (Delphinapterus leucas, n=20), enzyme immunoassays for testosterone and progesterone were validated for use with beluga blow samples. Testosterone concentrations in 40 matched blood and blow samples collected from 4 male belugas demonstrated a positive correlation (R 2 =0.52, p<0.0001). Progesterone concentrations in 64 matching blood and blow samples from 11 females were also positively correlated (R 2 =0.60, p<0.0001). Testosterone concentrations (mean±SD) in blow samples collected from adult males (119.3±14.2pg/ml) were higher (p<0.01) than that of a juvenile male (<8years) (59.4±6.5pg/ml) or female belugas (54.1±25.7pg/ml). Among adult males, testosterone concentrations in blow demonstrated a seasonal pattern of secretion, with peak secretion occurring during the breeding season (February-April, 136.95±33.8pg/ml). Progesterone concentrations in blow varied by reproductive status; pregnant females (410.6±87.8pg/ml) and females in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle (339.5±51.0pg/ml) had higher (p<0.0001) blow progesterone concentrations than non-pregnant females without a corpus luteum (242.5±27.3pg/ml). Results indicate that blow sample analysis can be used to detect variation in reproductive states associated with large differences in circulating testosterone or progesterone in belugas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risk of mortality and testosterone replacement improves survival in men with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Marsh, Hazel; Kapoor, Dheeraj; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2013-12-01

    Men with type 2 diabetes are known to have a high prevalence of testosterone deficiency. No long-term data are available regarding testosterone and mortality in men with type 2 diabetes or any effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). We report a 6-year follow-up study to examine the effect of baseline testosterone and TRT on all-cause mortality in men with type 2 diabetes and low testosterone. A total of 581 men with type 2 diabetes who had testosterone levels performed between 2002 and 2005 were followed up for a mean period of 5.81.3 S.D. years. mortality rates were compared between total testosterone 10.4nmol/l (300ng/dl; n=343) and testosterone 10.4nmol/l (n=238). the effect of TRT (as per normal clinical practise: 85.9% testosterone gel and 14.1% intramuscular testosterone undecanoate) was assessed retrospectively within the low testosterone group. Mortality was increased in the low testosterone group (17.2%) compared with the normal testosterone group (9%; P=0.003) when controlled for covariates. In the Cox regression model, multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for decreased survival was 2.02 (P=0.009, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). TRT (mean duration 41.6±20.7 months; n=64) was associated with a reduced mortality of 8.4% compared with 19.2% (P=0.002) in the untreated group (n=174). The multivariate-adjusted HR for decreased survival in the untreated group was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-3.9, P=0.004). Low testosterone levels predict an increase in all-cause mortality during long-term follow-up. Testosterone replacement may improve survival in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Prevention of dementia with sex hormones: a focus on testosterone and cognition in women.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, E

    2012-10-01

    Many perimenopausal women and their medical service providers have turned away from estrogens to treat their complaints. This mini-review investigated whether women could be prescribed androgens to promote cognitive function and to prevent dementia. Using PubMed and Google Scholar we identified several treatment studies but the majority had included insufficient controls. Tentatively some studies suggested that adding a testosterone to estrogen treatment promoted complex information processing over that of estrogens alone, but methodology of studies limited firm conclusions. While a larger study showed no effects in naturally menopausal women over that of placebo, some studies including only oophorectomized women showed positive effects of testosterone but these had only been carried out up to two months. Safety profiles of long-term androgen treatment, mode and type of treatment require more research. Observational data suggest that in older women who were not selected for optimal health, endogenous testosterone has a negative association with verbal memory, usually one of the first functions to decline in dementia.

  9. Preliminary Study of Testosterone and Empathy in Determining Recidivism and Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    House, Samuel J; Laan, Jacob M; Molden, Raymond K; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N

    2017-09-01

    Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism. Subjects underwent criminal history, Empathy Quotient, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and salivary testosterone assays. Bivariate analyses indicated multiple correlations between variables. Multivariate modeling analyses found a significant relationship between self-reported conviction number and psychopathy scale score (p = 0.013). These preliminary results suggest avenues of investigation of factors contributing to recidivism risk. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required.

  11. Digit ratio (2D:4D) as an indicator of body size, testosterone concentration and number of children in human males.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Magdalena; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Nenko, Ilona; Alvarado, Louis Calistro; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) is thought to reflect exposure to androgens during foetal development. This study examined the relationship between low (more masculine) and high (more feminine) 2D:4D and body size at different stages of the life course, adult testosterone levels and number of children among males. Five hundred and fifty-eight men from rural Poland at the Mogielica Human Ecology Study Site participated in this study. Life history data and anthropometric measurements were collected. Salivary morning and evening testosterone levels among 110 men from the same population were measured. Low 2D:4D was related to higher birth weight (p = 0.04), higher birth length (p = 0.01), higher body mass during childhood and adolescence (p = 0.01), higher BMI (borderline significance, p = 0.06), higher number of children among fathers (p = 0.04) and higher testosterone levels during adulthood (p = 0.04). This study shows, for the first time in a single population, that digit ratio is related to sub-adult body size at different stages of the life course, adult testosterone levels and number of children. The observed results suggest that digit ratio might be a valuable predictor of male body size and reproductive characteristics.

  12. TESTOSTERONE AND SPORT: CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.; Stanton, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids enhance athletic performance in men and women. As a result, exogenous androgen is banned from most competitive sports. However, due to variability in endogenous secretion, and similarities with exogenous testosterone, it has been challenging to establish allowable limits for testosterone in competition. Endogenous androgen production is dynamically regulated by both exercise and winning in competition. Furthermore, testosterone may promote athletic performance, not only through its long-term anabolic actions, but also through rapid effects on behavior. In women, excess production of endogenous testosterone due to inborn disorders of sexual development (DSD) may convey a competitive advantage. For many years, female competitors have been subject to tests of sexual genotype and phenotype known as gender verification. Although gender verification has not identified any normal man competing as a woman, this process has identified women athletes with DSD. As understanding of DSD has expanded in recent years, women with DSD are increasingly able to continue athletic competition. PMID:21983229

  13. Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Levels during Acute Phase of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Prognostic Implications for Adult Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Alexandre; Zanela, Fernando Areas; Ghisi, Gabriela; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Reddi, Benjamin; Lin, Kátia; Pizzol, Felipe Dal; Walz, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide core public health problem affecting mostly young male subjects. An alarming increase in incidence has turned TBI into a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults as well as a tremendous resource burden on the health and welfare sector. Hormone dysfunction is highly prevalent during the acute phase of severe TBI. In particular, investigation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels during the acute phase of severe TBI in male has identified a high incidence of low testosterone levels in male patients (36.5–100%) but the prognostic significance of which remains controversial. Two independent studies showed that normal or elevated levels of LH levels earlier during hospitalization are significantly associated with higher mortality/morbidity. The association between LH levels and prognosis was independent of other predictive variables such as neuroimaging, admission Glasgow coma scale, and pupillary reaction. The possible mechanisms underlying this association and further research directions in this field are discussed. Overall, current data suggest that LH levels during the acute phase of TBI might contribute to accurate prognostication and further prospective multicentric studies are required to develop more sophisticated predictive models incorporating biomarkers such as LH in the quest for accurate outcome prediction following TBI. Moreover, the potential therapeutic benefits of modulating LH during the acute phase of TBI warrant investigation. PMID:29487565

  14. Cardiovascular issues in hypogonadism and testosterone therapy.

    PubMed

    Shabsigh, Ridwan; Katz, Mark; Yan, Grace; Makhsida, Nawras

    2005-12-26

    A systematic literature search was conducted to investigate the cardiovascular issues related to hypogonadism and testosterone therapy. Vascular cells contain sex steroid hormone receptors. Testosterone can exert effects on the vascular wall, either by itself or through aromatization as estrogen. Hypogonadism is associated with central obesity; insulin resistance; low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL); high cholesterol levels; and high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator-1. Some observational studies show a correlation between low testosterone and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and others show no correlation. Interventional studies do not reveal a direct long-term relation between testosterone therapy and CVD. Short-term data suggest cardiovascular benefits of testosterone. Testosterone therapy has beneficial and deleterious effects on cardiovascular risk factors. It improves insulin sensitivity, central obesity, and lowers total cholesterol and LDL. In some studies, testosterone therapy has an HDL-lowering effect, and in other studies this effect is insignificant. This should not be assumed to be atherogenic because it might be related to reverse cholesterol transport and effects on the HDL(3) subfraction. The cardiovascular effects of testosterone therapy may be neutral to beneficial. There is no contraindication for testosterone therapy in men with CVD and diagnosed hypogonadism with or without erectile dysfunction. Caution should be exercised regarding occasional increases in hematocrit levels, especially in patients with congestive heart failure. Conversely, evidence does not support testosterone therapy in aging men for the purpose of cardiovascular benefit, despite claims to this effect. Further research on the cardiovascular benefits and risks of testosterone is strongly recommended.

  15. Diminished androgen and estrogen receptors and aromatase levels in hypogonadal diabetic men: reversal with testosterone.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Husam; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Abuaysheh, Sanaa; Batra, Manav; Kuhadiya, Nitesh D; Makdissi, Antoine; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Dandona, Paresh

    2018-03-01

    One-third of males with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have hypogonadism, characterized by low total and free testosterone concentrations. We hypothesized that this condition is associated with a compensatory increase in the expression of androgen receptors (AR) and that testosterone replacement reverses these changes. We also measured estrogen receptor and aromatase expression. This is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-two hypogonadal and 32 eugonadal men with T2DM were recruited. Hypogonadal men were randomized to receive intramuscular testosterone or saline every 2 weeks for 22 weeks. We measured AR, ERα and aromatase expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC), adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in hypogonadal and eugonadal males with T2DM at baseline and after 22 weeks of treatment in those with hypogonadism. The mRNA expression of AR, ERα (ESR1) and aromatase in adipose tissue from hypogonadal men was significantly lower as compared to eugonadal men, and it increased significantly to levels comparable to those in eugonadal patients with T2DM following testosterone treatment. AR mRNA expression was also significantly lower in MNC from hypogonadal patients compared to eugonadal T2DM patients. Testosterone administration in hypogonadal patients also restored AR mRNA and nuclear extract protein levels from MNC to that in eugonadal patients. In the skeletal muscle, AR mRNA and protein expression are lower in men with hypogonadism. Testosterone treatment restored AR expression levels to that comparable to levels in eugonadal men. We conclude that, contrary to our hypothesis, the expression of AR, ERα and aromatase is significantly diminished in hypogonadal men as compared to eugonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Following testosterone replacement, there is a reversal of these deficits. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Who Gets Testosterone? Patient Characteristics Associated with Testosterone Prescribing in the Veteran Affairs System: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Berlowitz, Dan R; Rose, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    There has been concern about the growing off-label use of testosterone. Understanding the context within which testosterone is prescribed may contribute to interventions to improve prescribing. To evaluate patient characteristics associated with receipt of testosterone. Cross-sectional. A national cohort of male patients, who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the Veterans Affairs (VA) system during Fiscal Year 2008- Fiscal Year 2012. The study sample consisted of 682,915 non-HIV male patients, of whom 132,764 had received testosterone and a random 10% sample, 550,151, had not. Conditions and medications associated with testosterone prescription. Only 6.3% of men who received testosterone from the VA during the study period had a disorder of the testis, pituitary or hypothalamus associated with male hypogonadism. Among patients without a diagnosed disorder of hypogonadism, the use of opioids and obesity were the strongest predictors of testosterone prescription. Patients receiving >100 mg/equivalents of oral morphine daily (adjusted odds ratio = 5.75, p < 0.001) and those with body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m 2 (adjusted odds ratio = 3.01, p < 0.001) were more likely to receive testosterone than non-opioid users and men with BMI <25 kg/m 2 . Certain demographics (age 40-54, White race), comorbid conditions (sleep apnea, depression, and diabetes), and medications (antidepressants, systemic corticosteroids) also predicted a higher likelihood of testosterone receipt, all with an adjusted odds ratio less than 2 (p < 0.001). In the VA, 93.7% of men receiving testosterone did not have a diagnosed condition of the testes, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The strongest predictors of testosterone receipt (e.g., obesity, receipt of opioids), which though are associated with unapproved, off-label use, may be valid reasons for therapy. Interventions should aim to increase the proportion of testosterone recipients who have a valid

  17. Endocrine Society of Australia position statement on male hypogonadism (part 1): assessment and indications for testosterone therapy.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Bu B; Grossmann, Mathis; McLachlan, Robert I; Handelsman, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Conway, Ann J; Stuckey, Bronwyn Ga; Lording, Douglas W; Allan, Carolyn A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Burger, Henry G

    2016-08-15

    This article, Part 1 of the Endocrine Society of Australia's position statement on male hypogonadism, focuses on assessment of male hypogonadism, including the indications for testosterone therapy. (Part 2 will deal with treatment and therapeutic considerations.) Key points and recommendations are:Pathological hypogonadism arises due to diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or testes (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). It is a clinical diagnosis with a pathological basis, confirmed by hormone assays.Hormonal assessment is based on measurement of circulating testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. Measurement of sex hormone-binding globulin levels can be informative, but use of calculated free testosterone is not recommended for clinical decision making.Testosterone replacement therapy is warranted in men with pathological hypogonadism, regardless of age.Currently, there are limited data from high-quality randomised controlled trials with clinically meaningful outcomes to justify testosterone treatment in older men, usually with chronic disease, who have low circulating testosterone levels but without hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disease.Obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with lowering of circulating testosterone level, but without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Whether these are non-specific consequences of non-reproductive disorders or a correctable deficiency state is unknown, but clear evidence for efficacy and safety of testosterone therapy in this setting is lacking.Glucocorticoid and opioid use is associated with possibly reversible reductions in circulating testosterone level, without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Where continuation of glucocorticoid or opioid therapy is necessary, review by an endocrinologist may be warranted.Changes in management as result of the position statement: Men with pathological hypogonadism should

  18. EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE DOES NOT INDUCE OR EXACERBATE THE METABOLIC FEATURES ASSOCIATED WITH PCOS AMONG TRANSGENDER MEN.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kelly J; Liang, Jennifer J; Jolly, Divya; Weinand, Jamie D; Safer, Joshua D

    2018-04-06

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition which can include menstrual irregularity, metabolic derangement, and increased androgen levels. The mechanism of PCOS is unknown. Some suggest that excess production of androgens by the ovaries may cause or exacerbate the metabolic findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased testosterone on metabolic parameters on individuals presumed to be chromosomally female by examination of these parameters in hormone-treated transgender men. In 2015 and 2016, we asked all transgender men who visited the Endocrinology Clinic at Boston Medical Center treated with testosterone for consent for a retrospective anonymous chart review. Of the 36 men, 34 agreed (94%). Serum metabolic factors and body mass index levels for each patient were graphed over time, from initiation of therapy through 6 years of treatment. Bivariate analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of added testosterone. Regressions measuring the impact of testosterone demonstrated no significant change in levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was a statistically significant decrease in BMI with increasing testosterone. There was also a statistically significant decrease in high density lipoprotein levels upon initiation of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy in transgender men across a wide range of doses and over many years did not result in the abnormalities in HbA1c or dyslipidemia seen with PCOS. Instead, treatment of transgender men with testosterone resulted only in a shift of metabolic biomarkers toward the average physiologic male body. This retrospective chart review of 34 transgender men found that testosterone therapy does not induce or exacerbate the metabolic features associated with PCOS.

  19. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria — organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sarah M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J.; Klink, Daniel T.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Methods Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. Results We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys (pFWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls (pFWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Limitations Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Conclusion Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning. PMID:27070350

  20. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  1. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2016-12-01

    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exogenous testosterone enhances cortisol and affective responses to social-evaluative stress in dominant men.

    PubMed

    Knight, Erik L; Christian, Colton B; Morales, Pablo J; Harbaugh, William T; Mayr, Ulrich; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2017-11-01

    Stress often precedes the onset of mental health disorders and is linked to negative impacts on physical health as well. Prior research indicates that testosterone levels are related to reduced stress reactivity in some cases but correlate with increased stress responses in other cases. To resolve these inconsistencies, we tested the causal influence of testosterone on stress reactivity to a social-evaluative stressor. Further, prior work has failed to consider status-relevant individual differences such as trait dominance that may modulate the influence of testosterone on responses to stressors. Participants (n=120 males) were randomly assigned to receive exogenous testosterone or placebo (n=60 testosterone treatment group) via topical gel prior to a well-validated social-evaluative stressor. Compared to placebo, testosterone significantly increased cortisol and negative affect in response to the stressor, especially for men high in trait dominance (95% confidence intervals did not contain zero). The findings suggest that the combination of high testosterone and exposure to status-relevant social stress may confer increased risk for stress-mediated disorders, particularly for individuals high in trait dominance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-dose spironolactone ameliorates insulin resistance and suppresses elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 during gestational testosterone exposure.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Lawrence A; Usman, Taofeek O; Akinade, Aminat I; Adeyanju, Oluwaseun A; Kim, InKyeom; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2017-12-01

    Elevated gestational circulating testosterone has been associated with pathological pregnancies that increase the risk of development of cardiometabolic disorder in later life. We hypothesised that gestational testosterone exposure, in late pregnancy, causes glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia that would be accompanied by high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The study also hypothesise that low-dose spironolactone treatment would ameliorate these effects. Pregnant Wistar rats received vehicle, testosterone (0.5 mg/kg; sc), spironolactone (0.5 mg/kg, po) or testosterone and spironolactone daily between gestational days 15 and 19. Gestational testosterone exposure led to increased HOMA-IR, circulating insulin, testosterone, 1-h post-load glucose, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, PLR, PAI-1 and MDA. However, all these effects, except that of circulating testosterone, were ameliorated by spironolactone. These results demonstrate that low-dose spironolactone ameliorates glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia during elevated gestational testosterone exposure, at least in part, by suppressing elevated PAI-1.

  4. Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa

    2006-11-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mammalian brain development. In neural regions with appropriate receptors testosterone, or its metabolites, influences patterns of cell death and survival, neural connectivity and neurochemical characterization. Consequently, testosterone exposure during critical periods of early development produces permanent behavioural changes. In humans, affected behaviours include childhood play behaviour, sexual orientation, core gender identity and other characteristics that show sex differences (i.e. differ on average between males and females). These influences have been demonstrated primarily in individuals who experienced marked prenatal hormone abnormalities and associated ambiguities of genital development (e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia). However, there is also evidence that testosterone works within the normal range to make some individuals within each sex more sex-typical than others. The size of testosterone-related influences, and perhaps even their existence, varies from one sex-typed characteristic to another. For instance: prenatal exposure to high levels of testosterone has a substantial influence on sex-typical play behaviour, including sex-typed toy preferences, whereas influences on core gender identify and sexual orientation are less dramatic. In addition: there appears to be little or no influence of prenatal testosterone on mental rotations ability, although mental rotations ability shows a marked sex difference. These findings have implications for basic understanding of the role of testosterone in normative gender development, as well as for the clinical management of individuals with disorders of sex development (formerly called intersex syndromes).

  5. Fathers' decline in testosterone and synchrony with partner testosterone during pregnancy predicts greater postpartum relationship investment.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Edelstein, Robin S; Lyden, Hannah M; Wardecker, Britney M; Chopik, William J; Moors, Amy C

    2017-04-01

    The transition to parenthood has been associated with declines in testosterone among partnered fathers, which may reflect males' motivation to invest in the family. Moreover, preliminary evidence has found that couples show correlations in hormone levels across pregnancy that may also be linked to fathers' preparation for parenthood. The current study used repeated-measures sampling of testosterone across pregnancy to explore whether fathers' change in T, and correlations with mothers' T, were associated with fathers' and mothers' postpartum investment. In a sample of 27 couples (54 individuals) expecting their first child, both parents' salivary testosterone was measured multiple times across pregnancy. At approximately 3.5months postpartum, participants rated their investment, commitment, and satisfaction with their partner. A multilevel model was used to measure change in testosterone over time and associations between mother and father testosterone. Fathers who showed stronger declines in T across pregnancy, and stronger correlations with mothers' testosterone, reported higher postpartum investment, commitment, and satisfaction. Mothers reported more postpartum investment and satisfaction if fathers showed greater prenatal declines in T. These results held even after controlling for paternal investment, commitment, and satisfaction measured prenatally at study entry. Our results suggest that changes in paternal testosterone across pregnancy, and hormonal linkage with the pregnant partner, may underlie fathers' dedication to the partner relationship across the transition to parenthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Voluntary running, skeletal muscle gene expression, and signaling inversely regulated by orchidectomy and testosterone replacement.

    PubMed

    Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Eash, John K; Li, Christine; Ma, QiCheng; Glass, David J

    2011-02-01

    Declines in skeletal muscle size and strength, often seen with chronic wasting diseases, prolonged or high-dose glucocorticoid therapy, and the natural aging process in mammals, are usually associated with reduced physical activity and testosterone levels. However, it is not clear whether the decline in testosterone and activity are causally related. Using a mouse model, we found that removal of endogenous testosterone by orchidectomy results in an almost complete cessation in voluntary wheel running but only a small decline in muscle mass. Testosterone replacement restored running behavior and muscle mass to normal levels. Orchidectomy also suppressed the IGF-I/Akt pathway, activated the atrophy-inducing E3 ligases MuRF1 and MAFBx, and suppressed several energy metabolism pathways, and all of these effects were reversed by testosterone replacement. The study also delineated a distinct, previously unidentified set of genes that is inversely regulated by orchidectomy and testosterone treatment. These data demonstrate the necessity of testosterone for both speed and endurance of voluntary wheel running in mice and suggest a potential mechanism for declined activity in humans where androgens are deficient.

  7. The effects of perinatal testosterone exposure on the DNA methylome of the mouse brain are late-emerging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The biological basis for sex differences in brain function and disease susceptibility is poorly understood. Examining the role of gonadal hormones in brain sexual differentiation may provide important information about sex differences in neural health and development. Permanent masculinization of brain structure, function, and disease is induced by testosterone prenatally in males, but the possible mediation of these effects by long-term changes in the epigenome is poorly understood. Methods We investigated the organizational effects of testosterone on the DNA methylome and transcriptome in two sexually dimorphic forebrain regions—the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/preoptic area and the striatum. To study the contribution of testosterone to both the establishment and persistence of sex differences in DNA methylation, we performed genome-wide surveys in male, female, and female mice given testosterone on the day of birth. Methylation was assessed during the perinatal window for testosterone's organizational effects and in adulthood. Results The short-term effect of testosterone exposure was relatively modest. However, in adult animals the number of genes whose methylation was altered had increased by 20-fold. Furthermore, we found that in adulthood, methylation at a substantial number of sexually dimorphic CpG sites was masculinized in response to neonatal testosterone exposure. Consistent with this, testosterone's effect on gene expression in the striatum was more apparent in adulthood. Conclusion Taken together, our data imply that the organizational effects of testosterone on the brain methylome and transcriptome are dramatic and late-emerging. Our findings offer important insights into the long-term molecular effects of early-life hormonal exposure. PMID:24976947

  8. Normalization of Testosterone Levels After Testosterone Replacement Therapy Is Associated With Decreased Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rishi; Oni, Olurinde A; Gupta, Kamal; Sharma, Mukut; Sharma, Ram; Singh, Vikas; Parashara, Deepak; Kamalakar, Surineni; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Chen, Guoqing; Ambrose, John A; Barua, Rajat S

    2017-05-09

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac dysrhythmia associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several small studies have reported that low serum total testosterone (TT) levels were associated with a higher incidence of AF. In contrast, it is also reported that anabolic steroid use is associated with an increase in the risk of AF. To date, no study has explored the effect of testosterone normalization on new incidence of AF after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in patients with low testosterone. Using data from the Veterans Administrations Corporate Data Warehouse, we identified a national cohort of 76 639 veterans with low TT levels and divided them into 3 groups. Group 1 had TRT resulting in normalization of TT levels (normalized TRT), group 2 had TRT without normalization of TT levels (nonnormalized TRT), and group 3 did not receive TRT (no TRT). Propensity score-weighted stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting Cox proportional hazard methods were used for analysis of the data from these groups to determine the association between post-TRT levels of TT and the incidence of AF. Group 1 (40 856 patients, median age 66 years) had significantly lower risk of AF than group 2 (23 939 patients, median age 65 years; hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, P =0.0255) and group 3 (11 853 patients, median age 67 years; hazard ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.89, P =0.0001). There was no statistical difference between groups 2 and 3 (hazard ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.78- 1.0009, P =0.0675) in incidence of AF. These novel results suggest that normalization of TT levels after TRT is associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of AF. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Testosterone-related cortical maturation across childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James; Ducharme, Simon; Botteron, Kelly N; Mahabir, Megan; Johnson, Wendy; Israel, Mimi; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine theories of brain development hold testosterone as the predominant factor mediating sex-specific cortical growth and the ensuing lateralization of hemispheric function. However, studies to date have focussed on prenatal testosterone rather than pubertal changes in testosterone. Yet, animal studies have shown a high density of androgen-sensitive receptors in multiple key cortical areas, and puberty is known to coincide with both a significant rise in testosterone and the emergence of behavioral sex differences, suggesting peripubertal influences of testosterone on brain development. Here, we used linear mixed models to examine sex-specific cortical maturation associated with changes in testosterone levels in a longitudinal sample of developmentally healthy children and adolescents. A significant "sex by age by testosterone" interaction on cortical thickness (CTh) involving widespread areas of the developing brain was found. Testosterone levels were associated with CTh changes in regions of the left hemisphere in males and of the right hemisphere in females. In both sexes, the relationship between testosterone and CTh varied across the age span. These findings show the association between testosterone and CTh to be complex, highly dynamic, and to vary, depending on sex and age; they also suggest sex-related hemispheric lateralization effects of testosterone in humans.

  10. Testosterone and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Mazur, Allan; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2006-01-01

    Popular perceptions of the effect of testosterone on "manly" behavior are inaccurate. We need to move away from such simplistic notions by treating testosterone as one component along with other physiological, psychological and sociological variables in interactive and reciprocal models of behavior. Several hormones can now be measured in saliva,…

  11. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  12. Difficulties in measuring the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle function in older men.

    PubMed

    Clague, J E; Wu, F C; Horan, M A

    1999-08-01

    Muscle wasting in older men may be related to androgen deficiency. We have assessed the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle function in the upper and lower limbs of older (age > 60 years) men with blood testosterone levels < 14 nmol/L. Subjects (n = 7 per group) received testosterone enanthate 200 mg i.m. or placebo every 2 weeks in a double blind study over a 12-week period and underwent muscle testing every 4 weeks. A significant increase in blood levels of testosterone and a reduction in levels of sex hormone binding globulin occurred in the treatment group. Total body mass, haemoglobin and packed cell volume also increased significantly (p < 0.05). No improvements in handgrip strength, isometric strength of knee flexors and extensors or leg extensor power were seen in either group. Wide variability in all measures of muscle function were observed in these elderly men suggesting that very large study groups would be required to determine potential treatment benefits on muscle function.

  13. CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN RECEIVING EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE.

    PubMed

    Conway, Mandi D; Noble, Jason A; Peyman, Gholam A

    2017-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) is a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina commonly associated with male sex, Type-A personality and corticosteroid use. Exogenous administration of androgens and development of CSR in men has been reported. Only one case of CSR in a postmenopausal woman receiving exogenous androgen therapy has been reported. The authors describe three cases of chronic CSR in postmenopausal women receiving exogenous testosterone therapy. Diagnosis was based on characteristic clinical, fluorescein angiographic, and optical coherence tomography findings. The three women were being treated with exogenous testosterone and progesterone therapy for symptoms of menopause and libido loss. Average age at presentation was 54.7 years (53-56 years), average duration of exogenous androgen use was 61 months (36-87 months), with average 19.7-month follow-up. Resolution of symptoms seemed correlated with cessation of androgen use despite treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy and intravitreal pharmacotherapy with antivascular endothelial growth factor agents. Exogenous testosterone is increasingly prescribed for menopausal symptoms and libido loss. Treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy, supplemental bevacizumab intravitreal pharmacotherapy, and cessation of exogenous androgen therapy was successful in three cases of chronic, therapy-resistant CSR. Ophthalmologists should inquire about androgen usage in patients who present with CSR, especially in the setting of therapy resistance.

  14. Testosterone reactivity to provocation mediates the effect of early intervention on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Welker, Keith M; Hariri, Ahmad R; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-05-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Fast Track intervention program for high-risk children would reduce adult aggressive behavior and that this effect would be mediated by decreased testosterone responses to social provocation. Participants were a subsample of males from the full trial sample, who during kindergarten had been randomly assigned to the 10-year Fast Track intervention or to a control group. The Fast Track program attempted to develop children's social competencies through child social-cognitive and emotional-coping skills training, peer-relations coaching, academic tutoring, and classroom management, as well as training for parents to manage their child's behavior. At a mean age of 26 years, participants responded to laboratory provocations. Results indicated that, relative to control participants, men assigned to the intervention demonstrated reduced aggression and testosterone reactivity to social provocations. Moreover, reduced testosterone reactivity mediated the effect of intervention on aggressive behavior, which provides evidence for an enduring biological mechanism underlying the effect of early psychosocial intervention on aggressive behavior in adulthood.

  15. The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: II. Functional evidence for an ionotropic effect of testosterone on TRPM8.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-30

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Preliminary evidence that acute stress moderates basal testosterone's association with retaliatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Smrithi; Narayanan, Jayanth; Lim, Vivien K G; Koh, Gerald C H; Koh, David S Q; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Testosterone is theorized to increase retaliation after social provocation. However, empirical evidence in support of these theories is mixed. The present research investigated whether acute stress causally suppresses testosterone's association with retaliation. We also explored sex differences in behavioral responses to acute stress. Thirty-nine participants (51.28% male) were randomly assigned to a high- or low-stress condition. Then participants engaged in 20 one-shot rounds of the ultimatum game, which was used to assess retaliatory behavioral responses to unfair treatment. Participants provided two saliva samples to measure testosterone and cortisol concentrations - one sample before the stress manipulation, and the second after the ultimatum game (20minutes post-stressor). Results revealed a positive association between basal testosterone and retaliation in the low-stress condition, but not in the high-stress condition. Further, cortisol concentrations increased in the high- compared to the low-stress condition, and these cortisol changes moderated the association between basal testosterone and retaliation. The associations between basal testosterone and retaliation under varying levels of stress were similar in men and women. However, there was a sex difference in behavioral responses to the stress manipulation that was independent of testosterone. In women, the high-stress condition reduced retaliation compared to the low-stress condition, whereas in men the opposite pattern emerged. Collectively, this study (i) provides preliminary evidence that experimentally manipulated stress blocks basal testosterone's association with retaliation, and (ii) reveals a sex difference in retaliation under varying levels of stress. Discussion focuses on mechanisms, limitations, and the need for follow-up studies with larger sample sizes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetics of removal of intravenous testosterone pulses in normal men.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Keenan, Daniel M; Liu, Peter Y; Takahashi, Paul Y

    2010-04-01

    Testosterone is secreted into the bloodstream episodically, putatively distributing into total, bioavailable (bio) nonsex hormone-binding globulin (nonSHBG-bound), and free testosterone moieties. The kinetics of total, bio, and free testosterone pulses are unknown. Design Adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis was blocked pharmacologically, glucocorticoid was replaced, and testosterone was infused in pulses in four distinct doses in 14 healthy men under two different paradigms (a total of 220 testosterone pulses). Testosterone kinetics were assessed by deconvolution analysis of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone concentration-time profiles. Independently of testosterone dose or paradigm, rapid-phase half-lives (min) of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone were comparable at 1.4+/-0.22 min (grand mean+/-S.E.M. of geometric means). Slow-phase testosterone half-lives were highest for SHBG-bound testosterone (32 min) and total testosterone (27 min) with the former exceeding that of free testosterone (18 min), bioavailable testosterone (14 min), and albumin-bound testosterone (18 min; P<0.001). Collective outcomes indicate that i) the rapid phase of testosterone disappearance from point sampling in the circulation is not explained by testosterone dose; ii) SHBG-bound testosterone and total testosterone kinetics are prolonged; and iii) the half-lives of bioavailable, albumin-bound, and free testosterone are short. A frequent-sampling strategy comprising an experimental hormone clamp, estimation of hormone concentrations as bound and free moieties, mimicry of physiological pulses, and deconvolution analysis may have utility in estimating the in vivo kinetics of other hormones, substrates, and metabolites.

  18. Endogenous testosterone and exogenous oxytocin influence the response to baby schema in the female brain.

    PubMed

    Holtfrerich, Sarah K C; Pfister, Roland; El Gammal, Alexander T; Bellon, Eugen; Diekhof, Esther K

    2018-05-16

    Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS). 57 nulliparous women performed a target detection task with human faces with varying degree of BS following double-blinded placebo-controlled oxytocin administration in a between-subjects design. Our results support the idea that oxytocin enhances attention to the BS. Oxytocin had a positive effect on activation of the inferior frontal junction during identification of infant targets with a high degree of BS that were presented among adult distractors. Further, activation of the putamen was positively correlated with selective attention to the BS, but only in women with high endogenous testosterone who received oxytocin. These findings provide initial evidence for the neural mechanism by which oxytocin may counteract the negative effects of testosterone in the modulation of nurturing behavior.

  19. Plasma testosterone levels in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    PubMed

    Okun, M S; DeLong, M R; Hanfelt, J; Gearing, M; Levey, A

    2004-02-10

    Testosterone deficiency, a treatable condition commonly seen in aging men, has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). In normal subjects, low testosterone levels are associated with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, yet the relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive function in PD and AD remains unclear. To examine the relationship of testosterone levels to age and cognitive function in PD and AD. Plasma testosterone levels were determined in men enrolled in a clinical registry of subjects with PD and AD, and neuropsychological testing was performed on subjects who consented. Testosterone levels in men with PD were compared with those in men with AD. In both groups, the relationship between testosterone levels and neuropsychological test scores was analyzed, adjusting for age and education. Linear regression analysis revealed that testosterone levels decreased with age in male PD patients (p < 0.03) and male AD patients (p < 0.07). The rate of decline was similar for the two groups. In PD patients, lower testosterone levels were associated with poorer performance on Trails B Seconds (p < 0.02). There is a similar age-related decline in plasma testosterone levels in men with either PD or AD. Previously described associations between low testosterone levels and frontal lobe dysfunction in normal aged men, together with these results, suggest that the hormonal deficiency may act as a "second hit" to impair cognitive function in neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BI-CHENG; JIN, LI-LI; YANG, YI-FANG; LI, KUN; PENG, DAN-MING

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment. PMID:24944593

  1. Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bi-Cheng; Jin, Li-Li; Yang, Yi-Fang; Li, Kun; Peng, Dan-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO 2 fluid extract (SFE-CO 2 ) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO 2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO 2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO 2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO 2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO 2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment.

  2. Exploring the role of testosterone in the cerebellum link to neuroticism: From adolescence to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Meuwese, Rosa; Bos, Marieke G N; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has found an association between a smaller cerebellar volume and higher levels of neuroticism. The steroid hormone testosterone reduces stress responses and the susceptibility to negative mood. Together with in vitro studies showing a positive effect of testosterone on cerebellar gray matter volumes, we set out to explore the role of testosterone in the relation between cerebellar gray matter and neuroticism. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and indices of neurotic personality traits were assessed by administering the depression and anxiety scale of the revised NEO personality inventory and Gray's behavioural avoidance in one hundred and forty-nine healthy volunteers between 12 and 27 years of age. Results demonstrated an inverse relation between total brain corrected cerebellar volumes and neurotic personality traits in adolescents and young adults. In males, higher endogenous testosterone levels were associated with lower scores on neurotic personality traits and larger cerebellar gray matter volumes. No such relations were observed in the female participants. Analyses showed that testosterone significantly mediated the relation between male cerebellar gray matter and measures of neuroticism. Our findings on the interrelations between endogenous testosterone, neuroticism and cerebellar morphology provide a cerebellum-oriented framework for the susceptibility to experience negative emotions and mood in adolescence and early adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Testosterone Regulates NUCB2 mRNA Expression in Male Mouse Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Seon, Sojeong; Jeon, Daun; Kim, Heejeong; Chung, Yiwa; Choi, Narae; Yang, Hyunwon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is known to take part in the control of the appetite and energy metabolism. Recently, many reports have shown nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression and function in various organs. We previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression level is higher in the pituitary gland compared to other organs and its expression is regulated by 17β-estradiol and progesterone secreted from the ovary. However, currently no data exist on the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and its regulation mechanism in the pituitary of male mouse. Therefore, we examined whether nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is expressed in the male mouse pituitary and if its expression is regulated by testosterone. As a result of PCR and western blotting, we found that a large amount of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. The NUCB2 mRNA expression level in the pituitary was decreased after castration, but not in the hypothalamus. In addition, its mRNA expression level in the pituitary was increased after testosterone treatment in the castrated mice, whereas, the expression level in the hypothalamus was significantly decreased after the treatment with testosterone. The in vitro experiment to elucidate the direct effect of testosterone on NUCB2 mRNA expression showed that NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased with testosterone in cultured hypothalamus tissue, but increased with testosterone in cultured pituitary gland. The present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was highly expressed in the male mouse pituitary and was regulated by testosterone. This data suggests that reproductive-endocrine regulation through hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis may contribute to NUCB2 mRNA expression in the mouse hypothalamus and pituitary gland. PMID:28484746

  4. Prenatal Testosterone Programming of Insulin Resistance in the Female Sheep.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance. This chapter summarizes the ontogeny of insulin resistance, the tissue-specific changes in insulin sensitivity, and the various factors that are involved in the programming and maintenance of the insulin resistance in adult female sheep that were developmentally exposed to fetal male levels of testosterone during the sexual-differentiation window.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R; Mok, S F; Savkovic, S; Turner, L; Fraser, G; Desai, R; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J; Handelsman, D J

    2017-07-01

    Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9-2.8 h), dose-dependent (p < 0.0001) increase in serum testosterone with the 25 mg dose maintaining physiological levels for 16 h. Serum DHT displayed a time- (p < 0.0001), but not dose-dependent, increase in concentration reaching a peak concentration of 1.2 ng/mL (4.1 nm) at 4.9 h which was delayed by 2 h after peak serum testosterone. There were no significant changes in serum estradiol over time after testosterone administration. We conclude that testosterone administration to scrotal skin is well tolerated and produces dose-dependent peak serum testosterone concentration with a much lower dose relative to the non-scrotal transdermal route. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. AB19. Testosterone replacement therapy: how safe is it?

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone has a ubiquitous role in the male body and the importance of a decline in testosterone levels has wide ranging impact on: regulation of gonadal function, prostate development and growth, libido, cerebral function, behavior, mood, muscle mass, liver function, lipid regulation, bone formation, atherogenesis, erythropoiesis, hair growth and immune function. What the minimum required level of serum testosterone for the optimal health of each of these areas, nor whether each organ system’s biological response to increasing or decreasing testosterone levels follows a ‘dose-response’, ‘threshold’ or other behaviour is unclear. Late-onset hypogonadism (also known as age-associated testosterone deficiency syndrome) is a syndrome associated with advancing age and characterized by a spectrum of symptoms and a biochemical deficiency in serum testosterone levels below the young healthy adult male reference range (280-300 ng/dL; 9.8-10.4 nmol/L- Note: this level may vary in different laboratories). The decrease in serum testosterone levels seems to be a gradual, age-related process resulting in an approximate 1-2% annual decline after age 30 years, with a steep decline in bioavailable and free testosterone levels. The findings Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging demonstrated that 30% of men in their eighth have total testosterone values in the hypogonadal range (that is between 200 and 400 ng/dL), and 50% have low free testosterone values (5-9 ng/dL; 0.17-0.31 nmol/L). An estimated 500,000 new cases of late-onset hypogonadism occur annually in the USA, with similar levels reported worldwide. Testosterone deficiency has marked physiological and clinical effects on men in middle age and beyond. With subnormal testosterone levels, the potential positive benefits of TRT on factors such as muscle mass, libido or erectile function are likely a dose-response phenomena, and should be considered differently than the threshold impact on the prostate. The

  7. The TRPM8 Protein Is a Testosterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A.; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. PMID:25480785

  8. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Richard A.; Johnston, Zoe C.; Chetty, Tarini; Smith, Lee B.; Mckinnell, Chris; Dean, Afshan; Homer, Natalie Z.; Jorgensen, Anne; Camacho-Moll, Maria-Elena; Sharpe, Richard M.; Mitchell, Rod T.

    2016-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45% reduction; p=0.025) and seminal vesicle weight (a biomarker of androgen exposure; 18% reduction; p=0.005) in castrate host mice bearing human fetal testis xenografts, whereas acetaminophen exposure for just 1 day did not alter either parameter. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations (at 1 hour after the final dose) in exposed host mice were substantially below those reported in humans after a therapeutic oral dose. Subsequent in utero exposure studies in rats indicated that the acetaminophen-induced reduction in testosterone likely results from reduced expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1). Our results suggest that protracted use of acetaminophen (1 week) may suppress fetal testosterone production, which could have adverse consequences. Further studies are required to establish the dose-response and treatment-duration relationships to delineate the maximum dose and treatment period without this adverse effect. PMID:25995226

  9. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  10. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael M; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-04-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required.

  11. Testosterone metabolism revisited: discovery of new metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Ventura, Rosa; Fabregat, Andreu; Segura, Jordi

    2010-10-01

    The metabolism of testosterone is revisited. Four previously unreported metabolites were detected in urine after hydrolysis with KOH using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method and precursor ion scan mode. The metabolites were characterized by a product ion scan obtained with accurate mass measurements. Androsta-4,6-dien-3,17-dione, androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione, 17-hydroxy-androsta-4,6-dien-3-one and 15-androsten-3,17-dione were proposed as feasible structures for these metabolites on the basis of the mass spectrometry data. The proposed structures were confirmed by analysis of synthetic reference compounds. Only 15-androsten-3,17-dione could not be confirmed, owing to the lack of a commercially available standard. That all four compounds are testosterone metabolites was confirmed by the qualitative analysis of several urine samples collected before and after administration of testosterone undecanoate. The metabolite androsta-1,4-dien-3,17-dione has a structure analogous to that of the exogenous anabolic steroid boldenone. Specific transitions for boldenone and its metabolite 17β-hydroxy-5β-androst-1-en-3-one were also monitored. Both compounds were also detected after KOH treatment, suggesting that this metabolic pathway is involved in the endogenous detection of boldenone previously reported by several authors.

  12. Effect of application site, clothing barrier, and application site washing on testosterone transfer with a 1.62% testosterone gel.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Jodi; Britto, Margaret; Fitzpatrick, Sherahe; McWhirter, Cecilia; Testino, Samuel A; Brennan, John J; Zumbrunnen, Troy L

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of application site location, clothing barrier, and application site washing on testosterone transfer from males dosed with 1.62% testosterone gel to female partners. Open-label, randomized, parallel group, crossover study performed in 24 healthy male/female couples. 2.5 or 5.0 g of gel was applied to upper arms and shoulders or abdomens of male subjects. Skin contact occurred 2 hours after gel application between male and female subjects to compare the effect of wearing or not wearing a t-shirt, washing or not washing before contact, and the effect of differing application sites. Treatments were separated by a 1-week washout period. On each dosing day, 15 minutes of supervised skin contact occurred between the dosed male and female partner. Contact was either abdomen to abdomen (male to female), or upper arms/shoulders (male) to upper arms/shoulders, wrists and hands (female), depending on the male application site. Serum samples were collected from females at baseline and after contact to assess secondary testosterone exposure. C(max) (maximum serum concentration), AUC(0-24) (area under serum concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours), and C(av) (time-averaged concentration over 24-hour post-contact period) were assessed. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Testosterone exposure (C(av) and C(max)) in females increased by up to 27% (2.5 g) or up to 280% (5.0 g) from baseline after direct skin contact at 2 hours after gel application, although C(av) remained within the female eugonadal range. Transfer from the abdomen was prevented when a t-shirt was worn (2.5-g dose). When the application site was washed before contact, mean C(av) was comparable to baseline, and C(max) was slightly higher (14%). Transfer was higher after direct skin-to-skin contact when the application and contact sites were upper arms/shoulders versus the abdomen. Testosterone concentrations returned to baseline within 48 hours after last skin contact. There is

  13. Dominance and testosterone in women.

    PubMed

    Grant, V J; France, J T

    2001-09-01

    Fifty-two young women completed the Simple Adjective Test (a questionnaire designed to measure dominance) and at the same time provided 5 ml blood for testosterone assay. Higher dominance scores were associated with higher serum testosterone levels (t-test P<0.008).

  14. Testosterone, territoriality, and the 'home advantage'.

    PubMed

    Neave, Nick; Wolfson, Sandy

    2003-02-01

    The consistently better performance seen by teams in various sporting contexts when playing at home is referred to as the 'home advantage'. Various explanations have been put forward to account for this robust phenomenon, though none has yet focussed on possible hormonal factors. In an initial study, we showed that salivary testosterone levels in soccer players were significantly higher before a home game than an away game.In a second study involving a different group of soccer players, this finding was replicated over two home games, two away games, and three training sessions. Perceived rivalry of the opposing team was important as testosterone levels were higher before playing an 'extreme' rival than a 'moderate' rival. Self-reported measures of mood in both studies were not linked to testosterone level. The present results corroborate and extend earlier findings on the relationships between testosterone, territoriality, and dominance in human competitive encounters and further suggest an important role for testosterone in the home advantage seen in various team sports.

  15. Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural function.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Lent-Schochet, Daniella; Pike, Christian J

    2014-09-16

    Low testosterone and obesity are independent risk factors for dysfunction of the nervous system including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigate the independent and cooperative interactions of testosterone and diet-induced obesity on metabolic, inflammatory, and neural health indices in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Male C57B6/J mice were maintained on normal or high-fat diet under varying testosterone conditions for a four-month treatment period, after which metabolic indices were measured and RNA isolated from cerebral cortex and sciatic nerve. Cortices were used to generate mixed glial cultures, upon which embryonic cerebrocortical neurons were co-cultured for assessment of neuron survival and neurite outgrowth. Peripheral nerve damage was determined using paw-withdrawal assay, myelin sheath protein expression levels, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity levels. Our results demonstrate that detrimental effects on both metabolic (blood glucose, insulin sensitivity) and proinflammatory (cytokine expression) responses caused by diet-induced obesity are exacerbated by testosterone depletion. Mixed glial cultures generated from obese mice retain elevated cytokine expression, although low testosterone effects do not persist ex vivo. Primary neurons co-cultured with glial cultures generated from high-fat fed animals exhibit reduced survival and poorer neurite outgrowth. In addition, low testosterone and diet-induced obesity combine to increase inflammation and evidence of nerve damage in the peripheral nervous system. Testosterone and diet-induced obesity independently and cooperatively regulate neuroinflammation in central and peripheral nervous systems, which may contribute to observed impairments in neural health. Together, our findings suggest that low testosterone and obesity are interactive regulators of neuroinflammation that, in combination with adipose-derived inflammatory pathways and other factors

  16. Testosterone suppresses the expression of regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and protects against hepatic steatosis in cholesterol-fed androgen deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel M; Nettleship, Joanne E; Akhtar, Samia; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Sellers, Donna J; Brooke, Jonathan C; McLaren, David S; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2014-07-30

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its precursor hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and type-2 diabetes and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Men with type-2 diabetes and/or CVD have a high prevalence of testosterone deficiency. Testosterone replacement improves key cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of testosterone on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. Testicular feminised (Tfm) mice, which have a non-functional androgen receptor (AR) and very low serum testosterone levels, were used to investigate testosterone effects on high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic lipid deposition was increased in Tfm mice and orchidectomised wild-type littermates versus intact wild-type littermate controls with normal androgen physiology. Lipid deposition was reduced in Tfm mice receiving testosterone treatment compared to placebo. Oestrogen receptor blockade significantly, but only partially, reduced the beneficial effects of testosterone treatment on hepatic lipid accumulation. Expression of key regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were elevated in placebo-treated Tfm mice versus placebo-treated littermates and Tfm mice receiving testosterone treatment. Tfm mice on normal diet had increased lipid accumulation compared to littermates but significantly less than cholesterol-fed Tfm mice and demonstrated increased gene expression of hormone sensitive lipase, stearyl-CoA desaturase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma but FASN and ACACA were not altered. An action of testosterone on hepatic lipid deposition which is independent of the classic AR is implicated. Testosterone may act in part via an effect on the key regulatory lipogenic enzymes to protect against hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Banana peel extract suppressed prostate gland enlargement in testosterone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Akamine, Kiichiro; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2009-09-01

    A methanol extract of banana peel (BPEx, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the regrowth of ventral prostates and seminal vesicles induced by testosterone in castrated mice. Further studies in the androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line showed that BPEx inhibited dose-dependently testosterone-induced cell growth, while the inhibitory activities of BPEx did not appear against dehydrotestosterone-induced cell growth. These results indicate that methanol extract of banana peel can inhibit 5alpha-reductase and might be useful in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.

  18. Testosterone therapy in microphallic hypospadias: topical or parenteral?

    PubMed

    Chalapathi, G; Rao, K L N; Chowdhary, S K; Narasimhan, K L; Samujh, Ram; Mahajan, J K

    2003-02-01

    Local or systemic application of testosterone is reported to stimulate penile growth. Intramuscular testosterone has been found to be effective in 50% of patients; however, variable results have been reported with topical testosterone. The current study is an attempt to compare the efficacy of intramuscular versus topical testosterone application. A total of 26 consecutive patients with hypospadias and small penis (<2SD for given age) were studied prospectively. These patients were recruited alternately into group A or group B. Each group consisted of 13 patients. In group A, penile growth was accomplished by topical application of testosterone (Testoviron, oily solution containing testosterone propionate, 25 mg, and testosterone enanthate, 110 mg, equivalent to about 100 mg of testosterone, Schering, Germany) with a dose of 2 mg/kg/wk, for 3 weeks. While in group B, testosterone (same preparation as above) was administered by intramuscular injection weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. Penile length, diameter, and secondary effects were recorded before, during, and 3 weeks after the therapy by a single observer. Significant penile growth (P <.01) was noticed in both the groups of patients when compared with pretherapy with maximum response observed during the third week of therapy (reaching from an average pretherapy length of 2.0 cm and 1.8 cm to 3.18 cm and 3.11 cm posttherapy in group A and B patients, respectively). Seven patients in each group had growth of at least 50% compared with the initial size. The basal serum testosterone was within the normal range in both the groups. During therapy the serum testosterone was elevated above the basal level in all patients, but within the normal range except in 2 patients of group A. In these 2 children the serum testosterone level crossed the normal range. Linear growth did not alter significantly for the chronological age. Two patients of group A went on to have pubic hair, one of them had elevated testosterone level

  19. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  20. The effect of testosterone on cardiometabolic risk factors in atorvastatin-treated men with late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Gilowski, Wojciech; Okopień, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    By reducing LDL cholesterol levels, statins may decrease androgen production. This study was aimed at investigating whether testosterone treatment has an impact on cardiometabolic risk factors in statin-treated men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). The study included 31 men with LOH who had been treated for at least 6 months with atorvastatin (20-40mg daily). On the basis of patient preference, atorvastatin-treated patients were divided into two matched groups of patients: receiving intramuscular testosterone enanthate (100mg weekly, n=16) and not treated with this hormone (n=15). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, as well as plasma levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine, and fibrinogen were assessed before and after 4 months of therapy. Compared with the control age-, weight, and lipid-matched statin-naïve subjects with LOH (n=12), atorvastatin-treated patients were characterized by decreased levels of testosterone, hsCRP, and homocysteine. In patients not receiving testosterone therapy, plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, as well as plasma levels of the investigated risk factors remained at the similar levels throughout the whole period of atorvastatin treatment. In atorvastatin-naïve patients, testosterone increased its plasma levels and decreased HDL cholesterol. Apart from an increase in testosterone levels, if administered to atorvastatin-treated subjects with LOH, testosterone reduced plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine, and fibrinogen, as well as improved insulin sensitivity. Our study may suggest the clinical benefits associated with combination therapy with a statin and testosterone in elderly men with LOH. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular Risks of Exogenous Testosterone Use Among Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G Caleb; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal

    2017-03-01

    We sought to evaluate whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with increased risk of serious cardiovascular events as compared with other treatments or placebo. Study selection included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that enrolled men aged 18 years or older receiving exogenous testosterone for 3 or more days. The primary outcomes were death due to all causes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Secondary outcomes were other hard clinical outcomes such as heart failure, arrhythmia, and cardiac procedures. Peto odds ratio was used to pool data from RCTs. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration tool and Newcastle and Ottawa scale, respectively. The strength of evidence was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group approach. A total of 39 RCTs and 10 observational studies were included. Meta-analysis was done using data from 30 RCTs. Compared with placebo, exogenous testosterone treatment did not show any significant increase in risk of myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] 0.87; 95% CI, 0.39-1.93; 16 RCTs), stroke (OR 2.17; 95% CI, 0.63-7.54; 9 RCTs), or mortality (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.55-1.41; 20 RCTs). Observational studies showed marked clinical and methodological heterogeneity. The evidence was rated as very low quality due to the high risk of bias, imprecision, and inconsistency. We did not find any significant association between exogenous testosterone treatment and myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality in randomized controlled trials. The very low quality of the evidence precludes definitive conclusion on the cardiovascular effects of testosterone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term maintenance of luteinizing hormone-responsive testosterone formation by primary rat Leydig cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiyan; Huang, Shengsong; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Fenfen; Chen, Panpan; Zhao, Xingxing; Lin, Han; Ge, Renshan; Zirkin, Barry; Chen, Haolin

    2018-04-24

    The inability of cultured primary Leydig cells to maintain luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive testosterone formation in vitro for more than 3-5 days has presented a major challenge in testing trophic effects of regulatory factors or environmental toxicants. Our primary objective was to establish culture conditions sufficient to maintain LH-responsive testosterone formation by Leydig cells for at least a month. When isolated rat adult Leydig cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 and M199 culture medium containing insulin (10μg/ml), PDGFAA (10 ng/ml), lipoprotein (0.25 mg/ml), horse serum (1%) and a submaximal concentration of LH (0.2 ng/ml), the cells retained the ability to produce testosterone in vitro for at least 4 weeks. By using the longer-term culture conditions of this system, we were able to detect suppressive effects on testosterone production by low levels of the toxicant MEHP (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), an active metabolite of the plasticizer DEHP, that were not detected by short-term culture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A randomized double-blind study of testosterone replacement therapy or placebo in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency (Einstein-intervention).

    PubMed

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders; Lauritsen, Jakob; Kreiberg, Michael; Oturai, Peter Sandor; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Daugaard, Gedske

    2017-07-03

    Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated with low grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, so far, no studies have evaluated whether testosterone substitution improves metabolic dysfunction in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, designed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Seventy subjects will be randomized to receive either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo. The subjects will be invited for an information meeting where informed consent will be obtained. Afterwards, a 52-weeks treatment period begins in which study participants will receive a daily dose of transdermal testosterone or placebo. Dose adjustment will be made three times during the initial 8 weeks of the study to a maximal daily dose of 40 mg of testosterone in the intervention arm. Evaluation of primary and secondary endpoints will be performed at baseline, 26 weeks post-randomization, at the end of treatment (52 weeks) and 3 months after completion of treatment (week 64). This study is the first to investigate the effect of testosterone substitution in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. If positive, it may change the clinical handling of testicular cancer survivors with borderline low levels of testosterone. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02991209 (November 25, 2016).

  4. Chronic depletion of gonadal testosterone leads to blood-brain barrier dysfunction and inflammation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Afnan; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina; Grange-Messent, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    A dysfunction in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is associated with many neurological and metabolic disorders. Although sex steroid hormones have been shown to impact vascular tone, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses, there are still no data on the role of testosterone in the regulation of BBB structure and function. In this context, we investigated the effects of gonadal testosterone depletion on the integrity of capillary BBB and the surrounding parenchyma in male mice. Our results show increased BBB permeability for different tracers and endogenous immunoglobulins in chronically testosterone-depleted male mice. These results were associated with disorganization of tight junction structures shown by electron tomography and a lower amount of tight junction proteins such as claudin-5 and ZO-1. BBB leakage was also accompanied by activation of astrocytes and microglia, and up-regulation of inflammatory molecules such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Supplementation of castrated male mice with testosterone restored BBB selective permeability, tight junction integrity, and almost completely abrogated the inflammatory features. The present demonstration that testosterone transiently impacts cerebrovascular physiology in adult male mice should help gain new insights into neurological and metabolic diseases linked to hypogonadism in men of all ages.

  5. Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Their Reduction After Testosterone Replacement in Men With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dhindsa, Sandeep; Ghanim, Husam; Batra, Manav; Kuhadiya, Nitesh D.; Abuaysheh, Sanaa; Sandhu, Sartaj; Green, Kelly; Makdissi, Antoine; Hejna, Jeanne; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Punyanitya, Mark

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE One-third of men with type 2 diabetes have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement on insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes and HH. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 94 men with type 2 diabetes were recruited into the study; 50 men were eugonadal, while 44 men had HH. Insulin sensitivity was calculated from the glucose infusion rate (GIR) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Lean body mass and fat mass were measured by DEXA and MRI. Subcutaneous fat samples were taken to assess insulin signaling genes. Men with HH were randomized to receive intramuscular testosterone (250 mg) or placebo (1 mL saline) every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. RESULTS Men with HH had higher subcutaneous and visceral fat mass than eugonadal men. GIR was 36% lower in men with HH. GIR increased by 32% after 24 weeks of testosterone therapy but did not change after placebo (P = 0.03 for comparison). There was a decrease in subcutaneous fat mass (−3.3 kg) and increase in lean mass (3.4 kg) after testosterone treatment (P < 0.01) compared with placebo. Visceral and hepatic fat did not change. The expression of insulin signaling genes (IR-β, IRS-1, AKT-2, and GLUT4) in adipose tissue was significantly lower in men with HH and was upregulated after testosterone treatment. Testosterone treatment also caused a significant fall in circulating concentrations of free fatty acids, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin (P < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS Testosterone treatment in men with type 2 diabetes and HH increases insulin sensitivity, increases lean mass, and decreases subcutaneous fat. PMID:26622051

  6. A neutral effect of testosterone therapy on macroprolactin content in men with macroprolactinemia and late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kowalska, Beata; Szkróbka, Witold; Okopień, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    In the light of recent studies, macroprolactinemia seems to occur much more frequently than previously thought. In women, oral contraceptive pills exhibit a stimulatory effect on macroprolactin production. No previous study has investigated macroprolactin levels in androgen-treated hypogonadal men. We studied 10 men with isolated macroprolactinemia and 14 men with normal prolactin levels who because of late-onset hypogonadism were treated with intramuscular testosterone enanthate. Serum prolactin, macroprolactin content, serum testosterone and gonadotropin levels were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of therapy. Although baseline levels of testosterone and gonadotropins were similar in men with and without macroprolactinemia, clinical symptoms were more severe in patients with elevated big-big prolactin levels. As expected, testosterone treatment increased serum testosterone, slightly reduced serum gonadotropins, as well as improved clinical condition in both patients with and without macroprolactinemia, with no difference between the groups. However, testosterone therapy did not affect serum prolactin and macroprolactin content, even after replacing intramuscular testosterone enanthate with oral testosterone undecanoate. Our results suggest a negligible effect of testosterone replacement on macroprolactin levels in macroprolactinemic men with late-onset hypogonadism. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal salivary testosterone in pregnancy and fetal neuromaturation.

    PubMed

    Voegtline, Kristin M; Costigan, Kathleen A; DiPietro, Janet A

    2017-11-01

    Testosterone exposure during pregnancy has been hypothesized as a mechanism for sex differences in brain and behavioral development observed in the postnatal period. The current study documents the natural history of maternal salivary testosterone from 18 weeks gestation of pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and investigates associations with fetal heart rate, motor activity, and their integration. Findings indicate maternal salivary testosterone increases with advancing gestation though no differences by fetal sex were detected. High intra-individual stability in prenatal testosterone levels extend into the postnatal period, particularly for pregnancies with male fetuses. With respect to fetal development, by 36 weeks gestation higher maternal prenatal salivary testosterone was significantly associated with faster fetal heart rate and less optimal somatic-cardiac integration. Measurement of testosterone in saliva is a useful tool for repeated-measures studies of hormonal concomitants of pregnancy. Moreover, higher maternal testosterone levels are associated with modest interference to fetal neurobehavioral development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Maternal testosterone exposure increases anxiety-like behavior and impacts the limbic system in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Richard, Jennifer Elise; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Jansson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Claes; Wu, Xiaoke; Skibicka, Karolina Patrycja; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-11-17

    During pregnancy, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. This study investigated whether maternal androgen excess causes anxiety-like behavior in offspring mimicking anxiety disorders in PCOS. The PCOS phenotype was induced in rats following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. PNA offspring displayed anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, which was reversed by flutamide [androgen receptor (AR) blocker] and tamoxifen [selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator]. Circulating sex steroids did not differ between groups at adult age. The expression of serotonergic and GABAergic genes associated with emotional regulation in the amygdala was consistent with anxiety-like behavior in female, and partly in male PNA offspring. Furthermore, AR expression in amygdala was reduced in female PNA offspring and also in females exposed to testosterone in adult age. To determine whether AR activation in amygdala affects anxiety-like behavior, female rats were given testosterone microinjections into amygdala, which resulted in anxiety-like behavior. Together, these data describe the anxiety-like behavior in PNA offspring and adult females with androgen excess, an impact that seems to occur during fetal life, and is mediated via AR in amygdala, together with changes in ERα, serotonergic, and GABAergic genes in amygdala and hippocampus. The anxiety-like behavior following testosterone microinjections into amygdala demonstrates a key role for AR activation in this brain area. These results suggest that maternal androgen excess may underpin the risk of developing anxiety disorders in daughters and sons of PCOS mothers.

  9. Maternal testosterone exposure increases anxiety-like behavior and impacts the limbic system in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Min; Richard, Jennifer Elise; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Jansson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Claes; Wu, Xiaoke; Skibicka, Karolina Patrycja; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. This study investigated whether maternal androgen excess causes anxiety-like behavior in offspring mimicking anxiety disorders in PCOS. The PCOS phenotype was induced in rats following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. PNA offspring displayed anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, which was reversed by flutamide [androgen receptor (AR) blocker] and tamoxifen [selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator]. Circulating sex steroids did not differ between groups at adult age. The expression of serotonergic and GABAergic genes associated with emotional regulation in the amygdala was consistent with anxiety-like behavior in female, and partly in male PNA offspring. Furthermore, AR expression in amygdala was reduced in female PNA offspring and also in females exposed to testosterone in adult age. To determine whether AR activation in amygdala affects anxiety-like behavior, female rats were given testosterone microinjections into amygdala, which resulted in anxiety-like behavior. Together, these data describe the anxiety-like behavior in PNA offspring and adult females with androgen excess, an impact that seems to occur during fetal life, and is mediated via AR in amygdala, together with changes in ERα, serotonergic, and GABAergic genes in amygdala and hippocampus. The anxiety-like behavior following testosterone microinjections into amygdala demonstrates a key role for AR activation in this brain area. These results suggest that maternal androgen excess may underpin the risk of developing anxiety disorders in daughters and sons of PCOS mothers. PMID:26578781

  10. ROS generation and MAPKs activation contribute to the Ni-induced testosterone synthesis disturbance in rat Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Aijie; Zou, Lingyue; Gan, Xiaoqin; Li, Yu; Liu, Fangfang; Chang, Xuhong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Tian, Minmin; Li, Sheng; Su, Li; Sun, Yingbiao

    2018-06-15

    Nickel (Ni) can disorder testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells, whereas the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in Ni-induced disturbance of testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells. The testosterone production and ROS levels were detected in Leydig cells. The mRNA and protein levels of testosterone synthetase, including StAR, CYP11A1, 3β-HSD, CYP17A1 and 17β-HSD, were determined. Effects of Ni on the ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPKs were also investigated. The results showed that Ni triggered ROS generation, consequently resulted in the decrease of testosterone synthetase expression and testosterone production in Leydig cells, which were then attenuated by ROS scavengers of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO), indicating that ROS are involved in the Ni-induced testosterone biosynthesis disturbance. Meanwhile Ni activated the ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPKs. Furthermore, Ni-inhibited testosterone synthetase expression levels and testosterone secretion were all alleviated by co-treatment with MAPK specific inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580, respectively), implying that Ni inhibited testosterone synthesis through activating ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signal pathways in Leydig cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that Ni causes testosterone synthesis disorder, partly, via ROS and MAPK signal pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone metabolites and dependency on receptor action on the morphology of somatic motoneurons following the death of neighboring motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi; Chew, Cory; Muñoz, Fernando; Sengelaub, Dale R

    2017-06-01

    Partial depletion of spinal motoneuron populations induces dendritic atrophy in neighboring motoneurons, and treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, attenuating induced dendritic atrophy. In this study we examined whether the protective effects of testosterone could be mediated via its androgenic or estrogenic metabolites. Furthermore, to assess whether these neuroprotective effects were mediated through steroid hormone receptors, we used receptor antagonists to attempt to prevent the neuroprotective effects of hormones after partial motoneuron depletion. Motoneurons innervating the vastus medialis muscles of adult male rats were selectively killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin. Simultaneously, some saporin-injected rats were treated with either dihydrotestosterone or estradiol, alone or in combination with their respective receptor antagonists, or left untreated. Four weeks later, motoneurons innervating the ipsilateral vastus lateralis muscle were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in three dimensions. Compared with intact normal animals, partial motoneuron depletion resulted in decreased dendritic length in remaining quadriceps motoneurons. Dendritic atrophy was attenuated with both dihydrotestosterone and estradiol treatment to a degree similar to that seen with testosterone, and attenuation of atrophy was prevented by receptor blockade. Together, these findings suggest that neuroprotective effects on motoneurons can be mediated by either androgenic or estrogenic hormones and require action via steroid hormone receptors, further supporting a role for hormones as neurotherapeutic agents in the injured nervous system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 691-707, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Benefits and risks of testosterone treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women: a critical review of studies published in the decades preceding and succeeding the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Sandra Léa Bonfim; Abdo, Carmita H. N.

    2014-01-01

    With advancing age, there is an increase in the complaints of a lack of a libido in women and erectile dysfunction in men. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, together with their minimal side effects and ease of administration, revolutionized the treatment of erectile dysfunction. For women, testosterone administration is the principal treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. We sought to evaluate the use of androgens in the treatment of a lack of libido in women, comparing two periods, i.e., before and after the advent of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. We also analyzed the risks and benefits of androgen administration. We searched the Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and Medline (PubMed) databases using the search terms disfunção sexual feminina/female sexual dysfunction, desejo sexual hipoativo/female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, testosterona/testosterone, terapia androgênica em mulheres/androgen therapy in women, and sexualidade/sexuality as well as combinations thereof. We selected articles written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish. After the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, there was a significant increase in the number of studies aimed at evaluating the use of testosterone in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. However, the risks and benefits of testosterone administration have yet to be clarified. PMID:24714838

  13. Testosterone levels in suicide attempters with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The best known neurobehavioral effects of testosterone are on sexual function and aggression. However, testosterone and other androgens may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior. This is the first study to examine whether there is a relation between testosterone levels and clinical parameters in bipolar suicide attempters. Methods Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a bipolar disorder (16 males and 51 females), in a depressive or mixed episode with at least one past suicide attempt were enrolled. Demographic and clinical parameters, including lifetime suicidal behavior, were assessed and recorded. Plasma testosterone was assayed using a double antibody radioimmunoassay procedure. Results The number of major depressive episodes, the maximum lethality of suicide attempts, and the testosterone levels were higher in men compared to women. Current suicidal ideation scores were higher in women compared to men. Controlling for sex, we found that testosterone levels positively correlated with the number of manic episodes and the number of suicide attempts. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with previous observations of the association between testosterone levels and parameters of mood and behavior. This study suggests that testosterone levels may be related to the course of bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior. Further studies of the role of testosterone in the neurobiology of mood disorders and suicidal behavior are merited. PMID:22858352

  14. The effect of hypogonadism and testosterone-enhancing therapy on alkaline phosphatase and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Dabaja, Ali A; Bryson, Campbell F; Schlegel, Peter N; Paduch, Darius A

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship of testosterone-enhancing therapy on alkaline phosphatase (AP) in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in hypogonadal men. Retrospective review of 140 men with testosterone levels of <350 ng/dL undergoing testosterone-enhancing therapy and followed for 2 years. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, free testosterone, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, calcium, AP, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were analysed. A subgroup of 36 men with one DEXA scan before and one DEXA 2 years after initiating treatment was performed. Analysis of the relationship between testosterone and AP at initiation of therapy using stiff linear splines suggested that bone turnover occurs at total testosterone levels of <250 ng/dL. In men with testosterone levels of <250 ng/dL, there was a negative correlation between testosterone and AP (R(2) = -0.347, P < 0.001), and no correlation when testosterone levels were between 250 and 350 ng/dL. In the subgroup analysis, the mean (sd) testosterone level was 264 (103) ng/dL initially and 701 (245), 539 (292), and 338 (189) ng/dL at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. AP decreased from a mean (sd) of 87 (38) U/L to 57 (12) U/L (P = 0.015), 60 (17) U/L (P < 0.001), and 55 (10) U/L (P = 0.03) at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The BMD increased by a mean (sd) of 20 (39)% (P = 0.003) on DEXA. In hypogonadal men, the decrease in AP is associated with an increase in BMD on DEXA testing. This result suggests the use of AP as a marker of response to therapy. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  15. Testosterone and estrogen in multiple sclerosis: from pathophysiology to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Collongues, Nicolas; Patte-Mensah, Christine; De Seze, Jérôme; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe-Guy; Derfuss, Tobias

    2018-06-01

    Neuroprotection and remyelination are two unmet needs in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Therapeutic potential has been identified with sexual hormones, supported in women by a decrease in MS activity during the pregnancy, in men by a greater severity of symptoms and a faster progression than in women. Areas covered: The therapeutic effect of testosterone and estrogens is reviewed. Both hormones have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. Testosterone has an effect in protecting neurons in culture against glutamate-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, and stimulates myelin formation and regeneration mediated through the neural androgen receptor. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, estrogens significantly decrease inflammation in the central nervous system via ERα, while its action on ERβ leads to myelin and axon reparation. Estriol therapy in two phase 2 trials showed a decrease in clinical disease activity and inflammatory parameters in MRI. However, evidence of a therapeutic effect of testosterone is scarce. Expert commentary: Phase 3 trials with estriol as an add-on supplementation are now mandatory. Testosterone is another candidate to be tested in phase 2 trials. These hormones should be considered as an adjunctive therapy. New validated tools are needed to assess their effect on neuroprotection and remyelination.

  16. Testosterone and androstanediol glucuronide among men in NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chuan Wei; Xu, Lin

    2018-03-09

    Most of the androgen replacement therapies were based on serum testosterone and without measurements of total androgen activities. Whether those with low testosterone also have low levels of androgen activity is largely unknown. We hence examined the association between testosterone and androstanediol glucuronide (AG), a reliable measure of androgen activity, in a nationally representative sample of US men. Cross-sectional analysis was based on 1493 men from the Third National Health and Nutrition examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted from 1988 to 1991. Serum testosterone and AG were measured by immunoassay. Kernel density was used to estimate the average density of serum AG concentrations by quartiles of testosterone. Testosterone was weakly and positively correlated with AG (correlation coefficient = 0.18). The kernel density estimates show that the distributions are quite similar between the quartiles of testosterone. After adjustment for age, the distributions of AG in quartiles of testosterone did not change. The correlation between testosterone and AG was stronger in men with younger age, lower body mass index, non-smoking and good self-rated health and health status. Serum testosterone is weakly correlated with total androgen activities, and the correlation is even weaker for those with poor self-rated health. Our results suggest that measurement of total androgen activity in addition to testosterone is necessary in clinical practice, especially before administration of androgen replacement therapy.

  17. Testosterone facilitates the sense of agency.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, Donné; Moore, James; Solms, Mark; van Honk, Jack

    2017-11-01

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to feelings of being in control of one's actions. Evidence suggests that SoA might contribute towards higher-order feelings of personal control - a key attribute of powerful individuals. Whether testosterone, a steroid hormone linked to power in dominance hierarchies, also influences the SoA is not yet established. In a repeated-measures design, 26 females participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the effects of 0.5 mg testosterone on SoA, using an implicit measure based upon perceived shifts in time between a voluntary action and its outcome. Illusions of control, as operationalized by optimism in affective forecasting, were also assessed. Testosterone increased action binding but there was no significant effect on tone binding. Affective forecasting was found to be significantly more positive on testosterone. SoA and optimistic expectations are basic manifestations of power which may contribute to feelings of infallibility often associated with dominance and testosterone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone Administration Reduces Lying in Men

    PubMed Central

    Wibral, Matthias; Dohmen, Thomas; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone testosterone, which has been shown to play an important role in social behavior. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 91 healthy men (24.32±2.73 years) received a transdermal administration of 50 mg of testosterone (n = 46) or a placebo (n = 45). Subsequently, subjects participated in a simple task, in which their payoff depended on the self-reported outcome of a die-roll. Subjects could increase their payoff by lying without fear of being caught. Our results show that testosterone administration substantially decreases lying in men. Self-serving lying occurred in both groups, however, reported payoffs were significantly lower in the testosterone group (p<0.01). Our results contribute to the recent debate on the effect of testosterone on prosocial behavior and its underlying channels. PMID:23071635

  19. On the association between nandrolone-mediated testosterone reduction during alcohol intoxication and attenuated voluntary alcohol intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2013-11-01

    Human studies have indicated that the use of anabolic androgenic steroids may be associated with the abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Also, experimental animal research has indicated that chronic nandrolone administration subsequently increases voluntary alcohol drinking. The aim of our study was to test our hypothesis that alcohol-induced testosterone elevation, especially associated with stress conditions derived by nandrolone treatment, could be the underlying factor in causing increased alcohol drinking. Male alcohol-preferring AA and low drinking Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and nandrolone decanoate treated (15 mg/kg for 14 days) groups. Basal serum testosterone and corticosterone were determined before the first nandrolone treatment, after 7 days of treatment, and after an additional (7-day) washout period, during which also the acute effect of alcohol (1.5 g/kg) on steroid hormones was determined. Hereafter followed a (5-week) voluntary alcohol consumption period, during the last 2 weeks of which the rats were treated again with nandrolone. Both normal and reversed dark- vs. light-cycle experimental designs were used. Contrary to our hypothesis, nandrolone treatment decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in both AA and Wistar rats. Also, instead of stress causation, elevated basal testosterone and lowered basal corticosterone levels were observed after nandrolone treatment in both AA rats and Wistars. During acute alcohol intoxication the frequency of testosterone decreases was higher in the nandrolone-treated groups compared with control AA and Wistar rats. Present data support the hypothesis that nandrolone-treatment mediated attenuation of alcohol intake in both AA and Wistar rats may be the result of negative reinforcement caused by alcohol-mediated testosterone reduction. © 2013.

  20. Maintaining physiological testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to combined oral contraceptives: I. Endocrine effects.

    PubMed

    Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T; Zimmerman, Yvette; Laan, Ellen; Termeer, Hanneke M M; Appels, Nicole; Albert, Adelin; Fauser, Bart C J M; Thijssen, Jos H H; van Lunsen, Rik H W

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether adding dehydroepiandrosterone to combined oral contraceptives (COCs) maintains physiological levels of free testosterone. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study conducted in 81 healthy women (age range: 20-35 years; Body mass index (BMI) range: 18-35 kg/m 2 ) using oral contraceptives. Androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were measured, and free testosterone and the free testosterone index were calculated. Subjects discontinued oral contraceptive use for at least one menstrual cycle before being randomized to receive five cycles of ethinyl estradiol (EE) combined with either levonorgestrel (EE/LNG group) or drospirenone (EE/DRSP group) together with either dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (50 mg/day orally) or placebo. Subsequently, all subjects crossed over to the other treatment arm for an additional five cycles. Both COCs decreased the levels of all androgens measured. Significant decreases (p<.05) were found with EE/LNG and EE/DRSP for total testosterone (54.5% and 11.3%, respectively) and for free testosterone (66.8% and 75.6%, respectively). Adding DHEA to the COCs significantly increased all androgens compared to placebo. Moreover, including DHEA restored free testosterone levels to baseline values in both COC groups and total testosterone levels to baseline in the EE/LNG group and above baseline in the EE/DRSP group. SHBG concentrations were significantly higher with EE/DRSP compared to EE/LNG (p<.0001). The addition of DHEA did not affect the levels of SHBG. Taking COCs reduces total and free testosterone levels and increases SHBG concentrations. By coadministration with DHEA, physiological levels of total and free testosterone are restored while using EE/LNG. With EE/DRSP, only the free testosterone level is normalized by DHEA coadministration. A daily oral dose of 50-mg DHEA maintains physiological free and total testosterone levels in women who are using an EE

  1. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    PubMed

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Consequences of Testosterone Supplements in Young and Old Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Implications for Testosterone Supplements in Men.

    PubMed

    Dalmasso, Carolina; Patil, Chetan N; Yanes Cardozo, Licy L; Romero, Damian G; Maranon, Rodrigo O

    2017-10-17

    The safety of testosterone supplements in men remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in young and old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), long-term testosterone supplements increase blood pressure and that the mechanism is mediated in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. In untreated males, serum testosterone exhibited a sustained decrease after 5 months of age, reaching a nadir by 18 to 22 months of age. The reductions in serum testosterone were accompanied by an increase in body weight until very old age (18 months). Testosterone supplements were given for 6 weeks to young (12 weeks-YMSHR) and old (21-22 months-OMSHR) male SHR that increased serum testosterone by 2-fold in young males and by 4-fold in old males. Testosterone supplements decreased body weight, fat mass, lean mass, and plasma leptin, and increased plasma estradiol in YMSHR but had no effect in OMSHR. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in OMSHR than in YMSHR and testosterone supplements decreased MAP in OMSHR, but significantly increased MAP in YMSHR. Enalapril, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduced MAP in both control and testosterone-supplemented YMSHR, but had a greater effect on MAP in testosterone-treated rats, suggesting the mechanism responsible for the increase in MAP in YMSHR is mediated at least in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Taken together with previous studies, these data suggest that testosterone supplements may have differential effects on men depending on age, cardiovascular and metabolic status, and dose and whether given long-term or short-term. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Single-Dose Testosterone Administration Impairs Cognitive Reflection in Men.

    PubMed

    Nave, Gideon; Nadler, Amos; Zava, David; Camerer, Colin

    2017-10-01

    In nonhumans, the sex steroid testosterone regulates reproductive behaviors such as fighting between males and mating. In humans, correlational studies have linked testosterone with aggression and disorders associated with poor impulse control, but the neuropsychological processes at work are poorly understood. Building on a dual-process framework, we propose a mechanism underlying testosterone's behavioral effects in humans: reduction in cognitive reflection. In the largest study of behavioral effects of testosterone administration to date, 243 men received either testosterone or placebo and took the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), which estimates the capacity to override incorrect intuitive judgments with deliberate correct responses. Testosterone administration reduced CRT scores. The effect remained after we controlled for age, mood, math skills, whether participants believed they had received the placebo or testosterone, and the effects of 14 additional hormones, and it held for each of the CRT questions in isolation. Our findings suggest a mechanism underlying testosterone's diverse effects on humans' judgments and decision making and provide novel, clear, and testable predictions.

  4. Factors influencing patient decisions to initiate and discontinue subcutaneous testosterone pellets (Testopel) for treatment of hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan P; Khanna, Abhinav; Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Gonzales, Marshall A; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-09-01

    A variety of modalities for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are available, including topical gels, injections, and Testopel subcutaneous testosterone pellets (STP). STP are becoming more commonly utilized in the United States; however, patient preferences, expectations, and usage patterns regarding this therapy remain poorly characterized. To identify factors influencing patients' decisions to initiate or discontinue STP. A total of 175 men from an academic urology clinic who were currently using or who had previously used STP for hypogonadism received a 32-item electronic survey. Assessment of the impact of convenience, efficacy, side effects, cost, and symptom relief on initiation and discontinuation of STP. One hundred and thirteen men (64.6% response rate) of mean age 51.4 years who previously underwent a mean of 2.8 STP implant procedures completed the survey. Fifty-nine (52.2%) and 40 (35.4%) men had switched to STP from topical gel and injection therapy, respectively, whereas 14 (12.4%) men initially started TRT with STP. Convenience (68.8%) was the most important factor in patients' decision to start STP, while cost of the previous form of TRT (14.7%) was least important. At the time of the survey, 32 men (28.3%) had discontinued STP therapy. Cost of therapy (50%) was the primary factor in discontinuing STP. There was no difference in serum testosterone levels between men who continued STP and those who discontinued therapy (642.8 vs. 629.0 ng/dL, P = 0.83). Overall, 68.1% of patients continued STP therapy at the time of survey completion. Convenience is the most important factor in a patient's decision to initiate STP; however, physician recommendation also plays a substantial role. Cost was the primary reason for discontinuation. Upon survey completion, greater than two-thirds of respondents elected to continue STP therapy. STP are a viable treatment option for hypogonadal men seeking a convenient and efficacious alternative modality of TRT

  5. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    ... left and right of the two front teeth). Alternate sides at every dose so that you never ... thoughts or beliefs that have no basis in reality). People who use higher doses of testosterone than ...

  6. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not ... hypothalamus (a part of the brain) that cause hypogonadism. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to ...

  7. Subcutaneous testosterone-letrozole therapy before and concurrent with neoadjuvant breast chemotherapy: clinical response and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Rebecca L; York, Anne E; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2017-07-01

    Hormone receptor-positive breast cancers respond favorably to subcutaneous testosterone combined with an aromatase inhibitor. However, the effect of testosterone combined with an aromatase inhibitor on tumor response to chemotherapy was unknown. This study investigated the effect of testosterone-letrozole implants on breast cancer tumor response before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A 51-year-old woman on testosterone replacement therapy was diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer. Six weeks before starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patient was treated with subcutaneous testosterone-letrozole implants and instructed to follow a low-glycemic diet. Clinical status was followed. Tumor response to "testosterone-letrozole" and subsequently, "testosterone-letrozole with chemotherapy" was monitored using serial ultrasounds and calculating tumor volume. Response to therapy was determined by change in tumor volume. Cost of therapy was evaluated. There was a 43% reduction in tumor volume 41 days after the insertion of testosterone-letrozole implants, before starting chemotherapy. After the initiation of concurrent chemotherapy, the tumor responded at an increased rate, resulting in a complete pathologic response. Chemotherapy was tolerated. Blood counts and weight remained stable. There were no neurologic or cardiac complications from the chemotherapy. Cost of therapy is reported. Subcutaneous testosterone-letrozole was an effective treatment for this patient's breast cancer and did not interfere with chemotherapy. This novel combination implant has the potential to prevent side effects from chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and warrants further investigation.

  8. Testosterone Delivered with a Scaffold Is as Effective as Bone Morphologic Protein-2 in Promoting the Repair of Critical-Size Segmental Defect of Femoral Bone in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bi-Hua; Chu, Tien-Min G.; Chang, Chawnshang; Kang, Hong-Yo; Huang, Ko-En

    2013-01-01

    Loss of large bone segments due to fracture resulting from trauma or tumor removal is a common clinical problem. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of scaffolds containing testosterone, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or a combination of both for treatment of critical-size segmental bone defects in mice. A 2.5-mm wide osteotomy was created on the left femur of wildtype and androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Testosterone, BMP-2, or both were delivered locally using a scaffold that bridged the fracture. Results of X-ray imaging showed that in both wildtype and ARKO mice, BMP-2 treatment induced callus formation within 14 days after initiation of the treatment. Testosterone treatment also induced callus formation within 14 days in wildtype but not in ARKO mice. Micro-computed tomography and histological examinations revealed that testosterone treatment caused similar degrees of callus formation as BMP-2 treatment in wildtype mice, but had no such effect in ARKO mice, suggesting that the androgen receptor is required for testosterone to initiate fracture healing. These results demonstrate that testosterone is as effective as BMP-2 in promoting the healing of critical-size segmental defects and that combination therapy with testosterone and BMP-2 is superior to single therapy. Results of this study may provide a foundation to develop a cost effective and efficient therapeutic modality for treatment of bone fractures with segmental defects. PMID:23940550

  9. Opposing effects of D-aspartic acid and nitric oxide on tuning of testosterone production in mallard testis during the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Maria M; Lamanna, Claudia; Assisi, Loredana; Botte, Virgilio

    2008-07-04

    D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) and nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in tuning testosterone production in the gonads of male vertebrates. In particular, D-Asp promotes either the synthesis or the release of testosterone, whereas NO inhibits it. In this study, we have investigated for the first time in birds the putative effects of D-Asp and NO on testicular testosterone production in relation to two phases of the reproductive cycle of the adult captive wild-strain mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drake. It is a typical seasonal breeder and its cycle consists of a short reproductive period (RP) in the spring (April-May) and a non reproductive period (NRP) in the summer (July), a time when the gonads are quiescent. The presence and the localization of D-Asp and NO in the testis and the trends of D-Asp, NO and testosterone levels were assessed during the main phases of the bird's reproductive cycle. Furthermore, in vitro experiments revealed the direct effect of exogenously administered D-Asp and NO on testosterone steroidogenesis. By using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques, we studied the presence and the distributional pattern of D-Asp and NO in the testes of RP and NRP drakes. D-Asp levels were evaluated by an enzymatic method, whereas NO content, via nitrite, was assessed using biochemical measurements. Finally, immunoenzymatic techniques determined testicular testosterone levels. IHC analyses revealed the presence of D-Asp and NO in Leydig cells. The distributional pattern of both molecules was in some way correlated to the steroidogenic pathway, which is involved in autocrine testosterone production. Indeed, whereas NO was present only during the NRP, D-Asp was almost exclusively present during the RP. Consistently, the high testosterone testicular content occurring during RP was coupled to a high D-Asp level and a low NO content in the gonad. By contrast, in sexually inactive drakes (NRP), the low testosterone content in the gonad was coupled to a low D

  10. Inhibition of 5α-Reductase in Rat Prostate Reveals Differential Regulation of Androgen-Response Gene Expression by Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone

    PubMed Central

    Dadras, Soheil S.; Cai, Xiaoyan; Abasolo, Ibane; Wang, Zhou

    2001-01-01

    The growth and development of some of the male sex accessory organs such as the prostate requires the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase. To provide insights into the role of testosterone versus DHT in the prostate, we studied the impact of finasteride, a potent and specific inhibitor of 5α-reductase, on the expression of prostatic androgen-response genes in testis-intact rats and in 7-day castrated rats. Finasteride inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to DHT was confirmed by measuring serum and intraprostatic androgens. As expected, finasteride treatment caused a reduction in the wet weight of the prostate in the testis-intact rats and inhibited the testosterone-stimulated prostatic regrowth in the 7-day castrated rats. Although finasteride treatment had little or no effect on the expression of the surveyed androgen-response genes in testis-intact rats, its administration enhanced the expression of many androgen-response genes during the testosterone-stimulated regrowth of the regressed prostate in castrated rats. These observations suggest that testosterone is more potent than DHT in stimulating the expression of many androgen-response genes in the regressed prostate. The expression of androgen-response genes is mainly prostate specific and thus is likely to be associated with androgen-dependent prostatic differentiation. Therefore, testosterone is more potent than DHT in inducing differentiation and weaker in stimulating proliferation during prostate regrowth. The fact that testosterone is a strong inducer of prostatic differentiation has potential clinical implications. PMID:11444528

  11. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency.

    PubMed

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD.

  12. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD. PMID:25532575

  13. Prospective Analysis on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Semen Parameters in Males with Unexplained Infertility.

    PubMed

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; Elkhayat, Yasser Ibrahim; Saleh, Sameh Fayek GamalEl Din; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the role of Tribulus terrestris in males with unexplained infertility and its effect on serum testosterone and semen parameters. Thirty randomized male patients presenting to Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of idiopathic infertility were selected. They were given Tribulus terrestris (750 mg) in three divided doses for three months. The effect of Tribulus terrestris on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on semen parameters in those patients, was studied. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of testosterone (total and free) and LH and semen parameters (sperm concentration or motility, or abnormal forms) before and after the treatment. In addition, no statistically significant correlations were observed between testosterone (free and total) and LH and semen parameters before and after the treatment. Tribulus terrestris was ineffective in the treatment of idiopathic infertility.

  14. The use of testosterone as a male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K; Bremner, W J

    1998-10-01

    Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. Low levels of these hormones decrease endogenous testosterone secretion from the testis and deprive developing sperm of the signals required for normal maturation. Interference with sperm maturation causes a decline in sperm production and can lead to reversible infertility in men, raising the possibility that testosterone could be utilized in a commercially available contraceptive. To this end, testosterone has been studied alone and in combination with either gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues or progestins in efforts to improve its contraceptive efficacy. In this chapter, we will review efforts to use testosterone to create a safe, convenient, efficacious contraceptive method for men.

  15. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Main, Katharina Maria; Jørgensen, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-11-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798 serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes and generally higher in males than in females except for Adione. The pubertal rise in T in males was more pronounced compared to females, reflecting contribution from the testes. Ratios between steroid metabolites varied and depended on sex and age. All ratios were lower during infancy compared to later in life. Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Martin N.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the “Challenge Hypothesis,” which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. PMID:27616559

  17. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Change in cytokine levels after administration of saikokaryuukotsuboreito or testosterone in patients with symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Jiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma cytokine levels after treatment with saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), which is a herbal medicine, or androgen replacement treatment (ART), for patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH)-related symptoms. Thirty-one patients over 40 years of age with LOH-related symptoms were included in this study. SKRBT was given orally three times daily to a total of 7.5 g/day for 15 eugonadal patients and ART was give to 16 hypogonadal patients by intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate at 125 mg each time every 2 weeks. Plasma levels of testosterone and 18 cytokines, as well as LOH-related symptoms scored according to the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale, were compared before and more than 2 months after treatment. In the ART group, the total AMS score was decreased and testosterone was increased significantly after treatment. No cytokine variables were altered significantly after the treatment. In the SKRBT group, although the total AMS score was significantly decreased, testosterone did not change. From the evaluation of cytokines, a significant increase was found in interleukin (IL)- 8, IL-13, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. We conclude that SKRBT might improve LOH-related symptoms in eugonadal patients through the beneficial effect of cytokines, a mechanism that is quite different from ART.

  19. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on pre- and postnatal gonadotropin regulation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Thompson, Robert C; Herkimer, Carol; Welch, Kathleen B; Flak, Jonathan; Karsch, Fred J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms that mediate hypersecretion of LH and progressive loss of cyclicity in female sheep exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone. Our working hypothesis was that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH (but not FSH) secretion and, thus, hypersecretion of LH in adulthood, and that this results from altered developmental gene expression of GnRH and estradiol (E2) receptors, gonadotropin subunits, and paracrine factors that differentially regulate LH and FSH synthesis. We observed that, relative to controls, females exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone, as well as the nor-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, exhibited enhanced LH but not FSH responses to intermittent delivery of GnRH boluses under conditions in which endogenous LH (GnRH) pulses were suppressed. Luteinizing hormone hypersecretion was more evident in adults than in prepubertal females, and it was associated with development of acyclicity. Measurement of pituitary mRNA concentrations revealed that prenatal testosterone excess induced developmental changes in gene expression of pituitary GnRH and E2 receptors and paracrine modulators of LH and FSH synthesis in a manner consistent with subsequent amplification of LH release. Together, this series of studies suggests that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH response, leading to LH hypersecretion and acyclicity in adulthood, and that this programming involves developmental changes in expression of pituitary genes involved in LH and FSH release.

  20. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men

    PubMed Central

    van Anders, Sari M.; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to “sex differences” in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology. PMID:26504229

  1. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  2. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.

  3. Dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Aya; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Sako, Tomoko; Mahmood, Sabina; Kaku, Haruki; Nasu, Yasutomo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a conflict between a person's actual physical gender and the one they identify him or herself with. Testosterone is the key agent in the medical treatment of female to male GID patients. We conducted a dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in 138 patients to determine the onset of the therapeutic effects. The TRT consisted of intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate and patients were divided into three groups; 250 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 125 mg every two weeks. The onset of deepening of voice, increase in facial hair and cessation of menses was evaluated in each group. At one month after the start of TRT, the onset of these physical changes was more prevalent in the group receiving the higher dose of testosterone, and there were dose-dependent effects observed between the three treatment groups. On the other hand, at six months after the start of TRT, most of the patients had achieved treatment responses and there were no dose-dependent effects with regard to the percentage of patients with therapeutic effects. No significant side effects were observed in any of the treatment groups. We demonstrated that the early onset of the treatment effects of TRT is dose-dependent, but within six months of starting TRT, all three doses were highly effective. Current study provides useful information to determine the initial dose of TRT and to suggest possible changes that should be made in the continuous dosage for long term TRT.

  4. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  5. Excess Testosterone Exposure Alters Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Axis Dynamics and Gene Expression in Sheep Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Amodei, Rebecka; Gribbin, Kyle P.; Corder, Keely; Stormshak, Fred; Estill, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess androgen may result in impaired adult fertility in a variety of mammalian species. However, little is known about what feedback mechanisms regulate gonadotropin secretion during early gestation and how they respond to excess T exposure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous exposure to T on key genes that regulate gonadotropin and GnRH secretion in fetal male lambs as compared with female cohorts. We found that biweekly maternal testosterone propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from day 30 to day 58 of gestation acutely decreased (P < .05) serum LH concentrations and reduced the expression of gonadotropin subunit mRNA in both sexes and the levels of GnRH receptor mRNA in males. These results are consistent with enhanced negative feedback at the level of the pituitary and were accompanied by reduced mRNA levels for testicular steroidogenic enzymes, suggesting that Leydig cell function was also suppressed. The expression of kisspeptin 1 mRNA, a key regulator of GnRH neurons, was significantly greater (P < .01) in control females than in males and reduced (P < .001) in females by T exposure, indicating that hypothalamic regulation of gonadotropin secretion was also affected by androgen exposure. Although endocrine homeostasis was reestablished 2 weeks after maternal testosterone propionate treatment ceased, additional differences in the gene expression of GnRH, estrogen receptor-β, and kisspeptin receptor (G protein coupled receptor 54) emerged between the treatment cohorts. These changes suggest the normal trajectory of hypothalamic-pituitary axis development was disrupted, which may, in turn, contribute to negative effects on fertility later in life. PMID:27673555

  6. Short- and long-term clinical skin effects of testosterone treatment in trans men.

    PubMed

    Wierckx, Katrien; Van de Peer, Fleur; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Dedecker, David; Van Caenegem, Eva; Toye, Kaatje; Kaufman, Jean Marc; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the effects of testosterone (T) therapy on the skin of trans men (female-to-male transsexuals) is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term clinical effects of T treatment on the skin of trans men. We conducted a prospective intervention study in 20 hormone naive trans men and a cross-sectional study in 50 trans men with an average of 10 years on T therapy. Acne lesions were assessed using the Gradual Acne Grading Scale, hair patterns using the Ferriman and Gallwey classification (F&G), and androgenetic alopecia using the Norwood Hamilton Scale. T treatment increased facial and body hair growth. The F&G score increased progressively from a median value of 0.5 at baseline to a value of 12 after 12 months of T administration. After long-term T treatment, all but one trans man achieved an F&G score indicative of hirsutism in women, with a median value of 24. Only one trans man acquired mild frontotemporal hair loss during the first year of T treatment, whereas 32.7% of trans men had mild frontotemporal hair loss and 31% had moderate to severe androgenetic alopecia after long-term T therapy. The presence and severity of acne increased during the first year of T therapy, and peaked at 6 months. After long-term T treatment, most participants had no or mild acne lesions (93.9%). Dermatological outcome was not demonstrably related to individual serum T or dihydrotestosterone levels. T treatment increased facial and body hair in a time-dependent manner. The prevalence and severity of acne in the majority of trans men peaked 6 months after beginning T therapy. Severe skin problems were absent after short- and long-term T treatment. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Testosterone replacement therapy with long-acting testosterone undecanoate improves sexual function and quality-of-life parameters vs. placebo in a population of men with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Geoffrey; Cole, Nigel; Bhartia, Mithun; Kennedy, David; Raju, Jessie; Wilkinson, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction, particularly erectile dysfunction (ED), is common in men with type 2 diabetes, occurring in up to 75% of cases. The prevalence of hypogonadism is also high in men with diabetes and low testosterone is associated with both sexual dysfunction and a reduced response to oral therapy for ED. This study aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement with long-acting Testosterone Undecanoate (TU) on sexual function, mood and quality of life vs. placebo over a treatment period of 30 weeks followed by 52 weeks of open-label medication. The study was conducted in a primary care population of men with type 2 diabetes attending their primary care physician for routine visits. The male diabetic populations of seven general practices were screened at routine diabetes visits to detect symptomatic men with total testosterone levels of 12 nmol/L or less or with free testosterones of 250 pmol/L or less. Two hundred eleven men were screened. A double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in 199 men with type 2 diabetes and hypogonadism treated for 30 weeks with either 1,000 mg of TU or matching placebo followed by 52-week open-label follow on. The primary outcome measure, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), was used to evaluate sexual dysfunction, and the Ageing Male Symptom (AMS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Global Efficacy Question were used as secondary outcome measures to assess mood and self-reported quality of life. Testosterone replacement therapy with long-acting TU improved all domains of sexual function at 30 weeks (erectile function [EF], P = 0.005; intercourse satisfaction, P = 0.015; sexual desire, P = 0.001; overall satisfaction, P = 0.05; and orgasm, P = 0.04), with benefit as early as 6 weeks. Improvements in AMS score were significant in men without depression (P = 0.02) and the presence of depression at baseline was associated with marked reduction in response to both sexual function and psychological

  8. The Effect of Testosterone Administration and Digit Ratio (2D:4D) on Implicit Preference for Status Goods in Healthy Males

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin; Zilioli, Samuele; Eisenegger, Christoph; Clark, Luke; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone has been linked to social status seeking in humans. The present study investigated the effects of testosterone administration on implicit and explicit preferences for status goods in healthy male participants (n = 64), using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. We also investigated the interactive effect between second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D; i.e., a proximal index of prenatal testosterone) and testosterone treatment on status preferences. Results showed that testosterone administration has no discernable influence on self-reported willingness-to-pay (i.e., the explicit measure) or implicit attitudes towards status goods. Individuals with lower 2D:4D (i.e., more masculine) had more positive attitudes for high-status goods on an Implicit Association Task, and this association was abolished with testosterone administration. These data suggest interactive effects of acute testosterone administration and prenatal testosterone exposure on human social status seeking, and highlight the utility of implicit methods for measuring status-related behavior. PMID:29085287

  9. Integrity of the blood-testis barrier in healthy men after suppression of spermatogenesis with testosterone and levonorgestrel.

    PubMed

    Ilani, Niloufar; Armanious, Nancy; Lue, Yan-He; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Baravarian, Sima; Adler, Alex; Tsang, Christina; Jia, Yue; Cui, Yu-Gui; Wang, Xing-Hai; Zhou, Zuo-Min; Sha, Jia-Hao; Wang, Christina

    2012-12-01

    Do exogenous male hormonal contraceptives that suppress intratesticular testosterone and spermatogenesis interfere with the blood-testis barrier integrity in men? When spermatogenesis was suppressed by testosterone alone or combined with levonorgestrel (LNG) treatment in men, the structural appearance of Sertoli cell tight junctions remained intact in the human testis. Testosterone promotes the integrity of the blood-testis barrier. Intratesticular androgen deprivation induced by exogenous testosterone plus a progestin to suppress spermatogenesis in a contraceptive regimen may disturb the structural and functional integrity of the blood-testis barrier. Testicular biopsies were obtained from a sub-study of a randomized clinical trial of 36 healthy Chinese men who were treated for 18 weeks and followed for at least a 12-week recovery period. Healthy Chinese male volunteers (27-48 years) were randomized to two treatment groups (n = 18/group) for 18 weeks: (1) testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg i.m. injection followed by a 500 mg injection every 6 weeks and (2) TU + LNG 250 μg orally daily. Blood samples were obtained from all participants before and during treatment and at the end of the recovery phase. Open testicular biopsies for this study were obtained from four men before treatment and from four men in each of the TU and TU + LNG groups at 2 and 9 weeks of treatment. The presence of antisperm antibodies was checked in the archived serum samples of the subjects at baseline, during treatment and at the end of the recovery period. Stored testicular biopsy samples from cynomolgus monkeys treated with either sub-cutaneous testosterone or placebo for 12 weeks were used for additional protein expression studies. Expression of blood-testis barrier associated proteins quantified by immunohistochemistry (claudin 3, claudin 11, junctional adhesion molecule-A, zonula occludens-1) remained unchanged despite a significant decrease in the numbers of pachytene spermatocytes

  10. Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men.

    PubMed

    Lunenfeld, Bruno; Mskhalaya, George; Zitzmann, Michael; Arver, Stefan; Kalinchenko, Svetlana; Tishova, Yuliya; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Hypogonadism or Testosterone Deficiency (TD) in adult men as defined by low levels of serum testosterone accompanied by characteristic symptoms and/or signs as detailed further on can be found in long-recognized clinical entities such as Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, pituitary or testicular disorders, as well as in men with idiopathic, metabolic or iatrogenic conditions that result in testosterone deficiency. These recommendations do not encompass the full range of pathologies leading to hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency), but instead focus on the clinical spectrum of hypogonadism related to metabolic and idiopathic disorders that contribute to the majority of cases that occur in adult men.

  11. The herbicide linuron reduces testosterone production from the fetal rat testis both in utero and in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to linuron, an urea-based herbicide, results in a pattern of malformations of androgen-dependent tissues in adult male rat offspring resembling that produced by some phthalate esters which are known to decrease fetal testosterone production. This study investiga...

  12. Yolk testosterone reduces oxidative damages during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, José Carlos; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Kim, Sin-Yeon; Morales, Judith; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can influence the development of an organism and several physiological traits, even in adulthood. An important factor is the level of oxidative stress experienced during early life. In birds, extra-genomic egg substances, such as the testosterone hormone, may exert a widespread influence over the offspring phenotype. Interestingly, testosterone can also upregulate the bioavailability of certain antioxidants but simultaneously increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress in adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of maternally derived yolk testosterone on oxidative stress in developing birds. Here, we investigated the role of yolk testosterone on oxidative stress of yellow-legged gull chicks during their early development by experimentally increasing yolk testosterone levels. Levels of antioxidants, reactive oxygen species and lipid oxidative damage were determined in plasma during nestlings' growth. Our results revealed that, contrary to control chicks, birds hatched from testosterone-treated eggs did not show an increase in the levels of oxidative damage during postnatal development. Moreover, the same birds showed a transient increase in plasma antioxidant levels. Our results suggest that yolk testosterone may shape the oxidative stress-resistance phenotype of the chicks during early development owing to an increase in antioxidant defences and repair processes. PMID:20659922

  13. Testosterone Deficiency Accelerates Neuronal and Vascular Aging of SAMP8 Mice: Protective Role of eNOS and SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Hidetaka; Akishita, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Takuyu; Kahyo, Tomoaki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and atherosclerosis-related vascular disorders are risk factors for cognitive decline with aging. In a small clinical study in men, testosterone improved cognitive function; however, it is unknown how testosterone ameliorates the pathogenesis of cognitive decline with aging. Here, we investigated whether the cognitive decline in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), which exhibits cognitive impairment and hypogonadism, could be reversed by testosterone, and the mechanism by which testosterone inhibits cognitive decline. We found that treatment with testosterone ameliorated cognitive function and inhibited senescence of hippocampal vascular endothelial cells of SAMP8. Notably, SAMP8 showed enhancement of oxidative stress in the hippocampus. We observed that an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, SIRT1, played an important role in the protective effect of testosterone against oxidative stress-induced endothelial senescence. Testosterone increased eNOS activity and subsequently induced SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 inhibited endothelial senescence via up-regulation of eNOS. Finally, we showed, using co-culture system, that senescent endothelial cells promoted neuronal senescence through humoral factors. Our results suggest a critical role of testosterone and SIRT1 in the prevention of vascular and neuronal aging. PMID:22238626

  14. Two organizational effects of pubertal testosterone in male rats: transient social memory and a shift away from long-term potentiation following a tetanus in hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    Hebbard, Pamela C; King, Rebecca R; Malsbury, Charles W; Harley, Carolyn W

    2003-08-01

    The organizational role of pubertal androgen receptor (AR) activation in synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 and in social memory was assessed. Earlier data suggest pubertal testosterone reduces adult hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Four groups were created following gonadectomy at the onset of puberty: rats given testosterone; rats given testosterone but with the AR antagonist flutamide, present during puberty; rats given testosterone at the end of puberty; and rats given cholesterol at the end of puberty. A tetanus normally inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to stimulate CA1 in the urethane-anesthetized adults during the dark phase of their cycle. Social memory was assessed prior to electrophysiology. Social memory for a juvenile rat at 120 min was seen only in rats not exposed to AR activation during puberty. Pubertal AR activation may induce the reduced social memory of male rats. Early CA1 LTP occurred following tetanus in rats with no pubertal testosterone. Short-term potentiation occurred in rats exposed to pubertal testosterone. Unexpectedly, rats with pubertal AR activation developed long-term depression (LTD). The same pattern was seen in normal male rats. Lack of LTP during the dark phase is consistent with other data on circadian modulation of CA1 LTP. No correlations were seen among social memory scores and CA1 plasticity measures. These data argue for two organizational effects of pubertal testosterone: (1) CA1 synaptic plasticity shifts away from potentiation toward depression; (2) social memory is reduced. Enduring effects of pubertal androgen on limbic circuits may contribute to reorganized behaviors in the postpubertal period.

  15. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-09-22

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of 'free' money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game offers are interpreted as challenges, then high-testosterone men may be more likely to reject such offers. In this experiment, men who reject low offers ($5 out of $40) have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept. In addition, high testosterone levels are associated with higher ultimatum game offers, but this second finding is not statistically significant.

  16. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Svartberg, Johan; Department of Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone bindingmore » globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.« less

  17. What does testosterone do for red deer males?

    PubMed Central

    Malo, A.F.; Roldan, E.R.S.; Garde, J.J.; Soler, A.J.; Vicente, J.; Gortazar, C.; Gomendio, M.

    2008-01-01

    Testosterone has been proposed to have a dual effect, enhancing sexual traits while depressing parasite resistance in males. Here, we test this hypothesis in red deer, examining males from captive populations during the whole annual cycle and males from natural populations during the breeding season. We first explored the effects of body size, age and sampling date on testosterone to avoid confounding effects. Our results show that in captive populations seasonal changes in testosterone levels were mirrored by changes in testes size, and that during the rut there was a strong correlation between both. In natural populations, males with higher testosterone levels had larger testes, improved sperm quality, smaller burr diameter, stronger antlers, higher haematocrit levels, and increased nematode parasite load. By contrast, no significant relationship was found between testosterone and spleen size or tick parasite load. We conclude that testosterone (i) improves males' reproductive investment and physical stamina, (ii) improves antler strength but reduces burr diameter, and (iii) imposes a cost in terms of depressed parasite resistance. PMID:19129132

  18. Gestational exposure to elevated testosterone levels induces hypertension via heightened vascular angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder whose pathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and polycystic ovary syndrome, who often develop gestational hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that increased gestational testosterone levels induce hypertension via heightened angiotensin II signaling. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate from Gestational Day 15 to 19 to induce a 2-fold increase in plasma testosterone levels, similar to levels observed in clinical conditions like pre-eclampsia. A subset of rats in these two groups was given losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist by gavage during the course of testosterone exposure. Blood pressure levels were assessed through a carotid arterial catheter and endothelium-independent vascular reactivity through wire myography. Angiotensin II levels in plasma and angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in mesenteric arteries were also examined. Blood pressure levels were significantly higher on Gestational Day 20 in testosterone-treated dams than in controls. Treatment with losartan during the course of testosterone exposure significantly attenuated testosterone-induced hypertension. Plasma angiotensin II levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone-treated rats; however, elevated testosterone levels significantly increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein levels in the mesenteric arteries. In testosterone-treated rats, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, whereas contractile responses to K(+) depolarization and phenylephrine were unaffected. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces hypertension in pregnant rats via heightened angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking elevated maternal testosterone levels with gestational

  19. Retrospective investigation of testosterone undecanoate depot for the long-term treatment of male hypogonadism in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Conaglen, Helen M; Paul, Ryan G; Yarndley, Tania; Kamp, Jozef; Elston, Marianne S; Conaglen, John V

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone undecanoate depot (TUD) administered intramuscularly is an effective form of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism. Because of the ease of administration, TUD therapy may be preferable to subcutaneously implanted extended release T pellet implants (TI). The primary objective was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of long-term (≥ 2 years therapy) TUD therapy in the clinical setting. The secondary objective was to retrospectively compare TUD with TI therapy. Retrospective data were collected from the Waikato Hospital Endocrine Database for 179 hypogonadal men treated with TUD for ≥ 2 years from 1998-2011, with 124 of these men receiving previous TI therapy. The main outcome measure for efficacy was serum trough total testosterone (TT), and for safety an increase in hemoglobin (Hb) and/or hematocrit (Hct), rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or prostatic biopsy and alteration in body mass index and lipid profile. Additional outcome measures were changes in the dosing and/or interval regimens for TUD therapy. Overall, 72% of trough TT levels were in the normal range for TUD therapy compared with 53% of trough TT levels during TI therapy. TUD therapy was well tolerated with 162 men (90.5%) completing 2 years of treatment, and only seven men (3.9%) stopping TUD because of adverse effects. A rise in Hb and/or Hct occurred in 25 men (14%), and a significant rise in PSA in 20 men (13%) at some stage during TUD therapy. At 2 years, 91% of men received the standard 1,000 mg TUD dose with 66% at the standard dosing interval of 10-14 weekly. TUD is an efficacious, safe, and well tolerated form of TRT, and individual optimisation of the dose and/or interval is only required in the minority of men. Particularly given the ease of administration, TUD was the preferred TRT for both patients and clinicians. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Liver Fat in Older Men With Mobility Limitation: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Androgen receptor (AR) knockout male mice display hepatic steatosis, suggesting that AR signaling may regulate hepatic fat. However, the effects of testosterone replacement on hepatic fat in men are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone administration on hepatic fat in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels who were participating in a randomized trial (the Testosterone in Older Men trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine men with mobility limitation and low total or free testosterone were randomized in the parent trial to either placebo or 10-g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Hepatic fat was determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 73 men (36 in placebo and 37 in testosterone group) using the volumetric method. Insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) was derived from fasting glucose and insulin. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including liver volumes (1583±363 in the testosterone group vs 1522±271mL in the placebo group, p = .42). Testosterone concentrations increased from 250±72 to 632±363ng/dL in testosterone group but did not change in placebo group. Changes in liver volume during intervention did not differ significantly between groups (p = .5) and were not related to on-treatment testosterone concentrations. The change in homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance also did not differ significantly between groups and was not related to either baseline or change in liver fat. Conclusion. Testosterone administration in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels was not associated with a reduction in hepatic fat. Larger trials are needed to determine whether testosterone replacement improves liver fat in men with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292288

  1. The History of Testosterone and the Evolution of its Therapeutic Potential.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Traish, Abdulmaged

    2018-04-13

    Testosterone therapy has been controversial since its synthesis in the 1930s to the present day. Testosterone's history provides depth and context for current controversies. To review the history of testosterone therapy from its initial synthesis in the 1930s to the modern day. Expert review of the literature. Impactful events in the history of testosterone. By the 1940s there was already a fascinating literature that described the many symptomatic benefits of testosterone therapy that are recognized today. Numerous early reports suggested testosterone therapy improved angina pectoris and peripheral vascular disease. The assertion by Huggins and Hodges (Cancer Res 1941;1:293-297) in 1941 that testosterone activated prostate cancer (PCa) cast a pall for the next 70 years. The introduction of the radioimmunoassay in the 1970s shifted the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency from signs and symptoms to an undue emphasis on blood test results. The fear of PCa was the primary obstacle to the adoption of testosterone therapy for decades. Prescription rates increased as accumulated evidence showed testosterone therapy was not associated with increased PCa risks. The observation that androgenic stimulation of PCa reaches a maximum at relatively low testosterone concentrations-the saturation model-provided the theoretical framework for understanding the relation between androgens and PCa and led to multiple case series documenting reassuring results of testosterone therapy in men with PCa. Recent concerns regarding cardiovascular risks also have diminished because new evidence suggests testosterone therapy might actually be cardioprotective. In 2016 the Testosterone Trials provided high-quality evidence of multiple benefits of testosterone therapy, nearly all of which had been recognized by clinicians by 1940. If the past has any lessons for the future, it is likely that research will continue to demonstrate health benefits of testosterone therapy, while it remains one of

  2. Functional significance of men's testosterone reactivity to social stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Bird, Brian M

    2017-10-01

    Rapid testosterone fluctuations in response to social stimuli are observed across a wide range of species, and the highly conserved nature of these fluctuations suggests an adaptive function. This paper reviews the current literature on testosterone reactivity, primarily in human males, and illustrates how life-history theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to interpret findings. The review is structured around supporting evidence suggesting that situations implicated in mating effort either directly (e.g., interactions with a mate) or indirectly (e.g., intrasexual competition) are generally associated with a brief elevation of testosterone, while situations implicated in parenting effort (e.g., nurturant interactions with offspring) are generally associated with a decline in testosterone. Further, we discuss how these fluctuations in testosterone have been linked to future behaviors, and how situational, motivational, and physiological variables moderate the interplay between social stimuli, testosterone reactivity, and behavior. Supporting the notion that testosterone can play a causal role in modulating behavior in response to social stimuli, we also summarize recent single administration studies examining the effects of testosterone on physiology, neurobiology, and behavior. A conceptual model provides links between supported findings, and hypothesized pathways requiring future testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic effects of nandrolone and testosterone in adult male HIV patients with AIDS wasting syndrome (AWS): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Partha; Jha, Ayan; Roy, Deeptarka; Majumdar, Uddalak; Guha, Pradipta; Roy, Sabyasachi; Banerjee, Ramtanu; Banerjee, Amit Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipanjan

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to compare therapeutic effects of intramuscular (IM) nandrolone decanoate and IM testosterone enanthate in male HIV patients with AIDS wasting syndrome (AWS) with placebo control. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial, 104 patients with AWS who satisfied our inclusion criteria were randomly allotted in a 2:2:1 ratio to the 3 intervention groups: nandrolone, testosterone, and placebo. We administered 150 mg nandrolone and 250 mg testosterone (both IM, biweekly). The primary outcome measure was a comparison of absolute change in weight at 12 weeks between the nandrolone decanoate, testosterone, and placebo groups. Intent-to-treat analysis was done. The nandrolone group recorded maximum mean increase in weight (3.20 kg; post hoc P < .01 compared to placebo). Body mass index (BMI) of subjects in the nandrolone group had a significantly greater increase (mean = 1.28) compared to both testosterone (post hoc P < .05) and placebo (post hoc P < .01). Waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness of patients on nandrolone showed similar results. Nandrolone also ensured a better quality of life. Patients with low testosterone level (<3 ng/mL) benefited immensely from nandrolone therapy, which increased their weight and BMI significantly compared to placebo (P < .05). Our trial demonstrates the superior therapeutic effects of nandrolone in male AWS patients, including the androgen deficient.

  4. Honest sexual signalling mediated by parasite and testosterone effects on oxidative balance.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Francois; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Webster, Lucy M I; Blount, Jonathan D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Piertney, Stuart B

    2009-03-22

    Extravagant ornaments evolved to advertise their bearers' quality, the honesty of the signal being ensured by the cost paid to produce or maintain it. The oxidation handicap hypothesis (OHH) proposes that a main cost of testosterone-dependent ornamentation is oxidative stress, a condition whereby the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) overwhelms the capacity of antioxidant defences. ROS/RNS are unstable, very reactive by-products of normal metabolic processes that can cause extensive damage to key biomolecules (cellular proteins, lipids and DNA). Oxidative stress has been implicated in the aetiology of many diseases and could link ornamentation and genetic variation in fitness-related traits. We tested the OHH in a free-living bird, the red grouse. We show that elevated testosterone enhanced ornamentation and increased circulating antioxidant levels, but caused oxidative damage. Males with smaller ornaments suffered more oxidative damage than those with larger ornaments when forced to increase testosterone levels, consistent with a handicap mechanism. Parasites depleted antioxidant defences, caused oxidative damage and reduced ornament expression. Oxidative damage extent and the ability of males to increase antioxidant defences also explained the impacts of testosterone and parasites on ornamentation within treatment groups. Because oxidative stress is intimately linked to immune function, parasite resistance and fitness, it provides a reliable currency in the trade-off between individual health and ornamentation. The costs induced by oxidative stress can apply to a wide range of signals, which are testosterone-dependent or coloured by pigments with antioxidant properties.

  5. Power increases the socially toxic component of narcissism among individuals with high baseline testosterone.

    PubMed

    Mead, Nicole L; Baumeister, Roy F; Stuppy, Anika; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2018-04-01

    The corrosive effects of power have been noted for centuries, but the self-related changes responsible for those effects have remained somewhat elusive. Narcissists tend to rise to-and abuse-positions of power, so we considered the possibility that positions of power may corrupt because they inflate narcissism. Two pathways were considered: Powerholders abuse their power because having power over others makes them feel superior (grandiosity pathway) or deserving of special treatment (entitlement pathway). Supporting the entitlement pathway, assigning participants to a position of power (vs. equal control) over a group task increased scores on the Exploitative/Entitlement component of narcissism among those with high baseline testosterone. What is more, heightened Exploitative/Entitlement scores among high-testosterone participants endowed with power (vs. equal control) statistically explained amplified self-reported willingness to misuse their power (e.g., taking fringe benefits as extra compensation). The grandiosity pathway was not well supported. The Superiority/Arrogance, Self-Absorption/Self-Admiration, and Leadership/Authority facets of narcissism did not change as a function of the power manipulation and testosterone levels. Taken together, these results suggest that people with high (but not low) testosterone may be inclined to misuse their power because having power over others makes them feel entitled to special treatment. This work identifies testosterone as a characteristic that contributes to the development of the socially toxic component of narcissism (Exploitative/Entitlement). It points to the possibility that structural positions of power and individual differences in narcissism may be mutually reinforcing, suggesting a vicious cycle with personal, relational, and societal implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Developmental programming: deficits in reproductive hormone dynamics and ovulatory outcomes in prenatal, testosterone-treated sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Ye, W; Phillips, D J; Herkimer, C; Knight, P G; Padmanabhan, V

    2008-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine, ovarian, and metabolic disruptions, culminating in reproductive phenotypes mimicking that of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to determine the consequences of prenatal testosterone treatment on periovulatory hormonal dynamics and ovulatory outcomes. To generate prenatal testosterone-treated females, pregnant sheep were injected intramuscularly (days 30-90 of gestation, term=147 days) with 100 mg of testosterone-propionate in cottonseed oil semi-weekly. Female offspring born to untreated control females and prenatal testosterone-treated females were then studied during their first two breeding seasons. Sheep were given two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha 11 days apart, and blood samples were collected at 2-h intervals for 120 h, 10-min intervals for 8 h during the luteal phase (first breeding season only), and daily for an additional 15 days to characterize changes in reproductive hormonal dynamics. During the first breeding season, prenatal testosterone-treated females manifested disruptions in the timing and magnitude of primary gonadotropin surges, luteal defects, and reduced responsiveness to progesterone negative feedback. Disruptions in the periovulatory sequence of events during the second breeding season included: 1) delayed but increased preovulatory estradiol rise, 2) delayed and severely reduced primary gonadotropin surge in prenatal testosterone-treated females having an LH surge, 3) tendency for an amplified secondary FSH surge and a shift in the relative balance of FSH regulatory proteins, and 4) luteal responses that ranged from normal to anovulatory. These outcomes are likely to be of relevance to developmental origin of infertility disorders and suggest that differences in fetal exposure or fetal susceptibility to testosterone may account for the variability in reproductive phenotypes.

  7. The effect of opiodergic system and testosterone on anxiety behavior in gonadectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Khakpai, Fatemeh

    2014-04-15

    Removal of the testes (gonadectomy; GDX), the primary source of androgens, increases anxiety behavior in several tasks. Opioids are known to play a role in mediating the effects of androgen. In the present study, the effect of testosterone and opioidergic system on anxiety behavior was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally castrated. The elevated plus maze which is a useful test to investigate the effects of anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs in rodents was used. The data indicated that there is a decrease, 10 days after castration, in the percentage of OAT (the ratio of time spent in the open arms to total times spent in any arms × 100) and OAE (the ratio of entries into open arms to total entries × 100) but not locomotor activity, showing anxiogenic-like effects of gonadectomy. Intraperitoneal injection of testosterone (200, 300 and 450 mg/kg) and morphine (2.5, 5 and 7.5mg/kg), before testing 10 days after castration, showed an increase in OAT and OAE. Furthermore, injection of naloxone (5 and 7.5mg/kg, i.p.), 5 min before testing 10 days after castration, decreased OAT and OAE. Also, injection of a significant dose of testosterone (300 mg/kg, i.p.), 1h before the injection of different doses of morphine (1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5mg/kg, i.p.), 10 days after castration, did not significantly alter OAT, OAE and locomotor activity. While, administration of a significant dose of testosterone (300 mg/kg, i.p.), 1h before the infusion of different doses of naloxone (1, 2.5, 5 and 7.5mg/kg, i.p.), 10 days after castration, decreased OAT and OAE. The results show the involvement of testosterone and opioidergic system in anxiogenic-like behaviors induced by gonadectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  9. Associations of cortisol/testosterone and cortisol/sex hormone-binding globulin ratios with atherosclerosis in middle-age women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Mi; Colangelo, Laura A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Yano, Yuichiro; Siscovick, David S; Seeman, Teresa; Schreiner, Pamela J; Liu, Kiang J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip

    2016-05-01

    The cortisol/testosterone (C/T) ratio has been hypothesized to be a better predictor of atherosclerosis than cortisol alone. No study has assessed whether the C/T and C/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ratios are associated with atherosclerosis in a U.S. population sample. This substudy included 367 women who had both cortisol from year 15 and testosterone and SHBG at year 16 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, an ongoing observational cohort in the United States. Of these, intima-media thickness (IMT) was available at follow-up year 20 in 339 (n = 332 with measurement at carotid bulb), and 303 were free of prevalent coronary artery calcium (CAC) at year 15. Area under the curve (AUC) of salivary cortisol was available in 302 individuals. Ratios of AUCs of cortisol to total testosterone, free testosterone, and SHBG were categorized into tertiles. Associations with CAC and IMT were assessed by regression models adjusted for age, race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, menopause, oral contraceptive use, diabetes, alcohol, and smoking. Only the highest tertile of the AUC/free testosterone ratio was positively associated with carotid bulb IMT (β = 0.088, P = 0.006). This tertile was also positively associated with new onset CAC between year 15 and 25 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.18-10.06). Tertiles of cortisol or testosterone alone were not associated with new onset CAC. AUC/Free testosterone ratio may be more associated with atherosclerosis in women than either indicator alone. The ratio may serve as a suitable biomarker of cortisol-linked stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of selenium on the proliferation, apoptosis and testosterone production of sheep Leydig cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Song, Ruigao; Yao, Xiaolei; Ren, Youshe

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on in vitro proliferation, apoptosis and testosterone production of sheep Leydig cells and its underlying mechanism. Leydig cells were collected from 8-month-old sheep and divided into four treatment groups (0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 μmol/L Se). After treatment with Se for 48 h, the MTT and flow cytometric assay were used to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. Testosterone level in the culture medium was determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of cell cycle, apoptosis and testosterone synthesis-related genes were detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The results showed that the highest percentage of live and apoptotic cells was obtained in the 2.0 and 8.0 μmol/L group, respectively. In the Se treatment groups, the proliferation rate of Leydig cells and the expression of cell cycle-related genes were decreased with the increasing Se supplementation in the culture medium. The percentage of apoptotic cells was increased with the increasing Se level, which was consistent with the expression of pro-apoptosis genes. The highest GSH-Px activity and lowest ROS content were also observed in the 2.0 μmol/L group. Appropriate Se level (2.0 μmol/L) can significantly increase the expression of p-ERK1/2, StAR and 3β-HSD, and improve the testosterone synthesis. Compared with the control group, PD0325901 could significantly inhibit the production of testosterone and the protein abundance of p-ERK1/2, StAR and 3β-HSD. Se treatment can mitigate the inhibition effect of PD0325901 and the testosterone secretion between the 2.0 μmol/L and control group was not significantly different. These results demonstrate that Se can affect the proliferation and apoptosis of Leydig cells by regulating cellular oxidative stress and the expressions of cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes. Se can also enhance the testosterone production of Leydig cells by activating the

  11. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T.; Thune, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes. PMID:23123222

  12. Effects of testosterone supplementation on clinical and rehabilitative outcomes in older men undergoing on-pump CABG.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Nicolini, Francesco; Cattabiani, Chiara; Beghi, Cesare; Gherli, Tiziano; Schwartz, Robert S; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Testosterone levels decrease with age. This decline is steeper during "critical illnesses". Cardiac surgery is a particular representative model of major clinical condition producing stress responses similar to those observed during severe nonsurgical illness. Cardiac revascularization with extracorporeal circulation is characterized by marked postoperative complications such as insulin resistance, a pro-inflammatory state, acute anemia and renal dysfunction. These phenomena are more evident in older subjects, who are particularly vulnerable in the post-operative state, a condition that has been recently termed as "acute postoperative frailty". We recently showed that in older men with low ejection fraction undergoing cardiac revascularization with extracorporeal circulation, there is a profound decline in anabolic hormones, including testosterone. After surgery testosterone concentration frequently declines to less than 200 ng/dl, a situation suggestive of overt hypogonadism. Since men with low testosterone levels have a high probability of developing mobility limitations, we considered this a rationale for the perioperative use of testosterone treatment in older men undergoing cardiac revasularization surgery. We hypothesized that testosterone supplementation at this time might attenuate the impressive post-surgical catabolic hormonal milieu. The aim of this manuscript is to elucidate an ongoing randomized clinical trial in older men (70+ years old) undergoing elective cardiovascular revascularization with extracorporeal circulation. This randomized clinical trial will evaluate the effects of intramuscular testosterone administration on clinical and functional outcomes in this population. The study will also address potential mechanisms underlying the expected beneficial effects of testosterone supplementation including improvement of insulin sensitivity, markers of inflammatory status and improved hemoglobin levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men

    PubMed Central

    Lunenfeld, Bruno; Zitzmann, Michael; Arver, Stefan; Kalinchenko, Svetlana; Tishova, Yuliya; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Hypogonadism or Testosterone Deficiency (TD) in adult men as defined by low levels of serum testosterone accompanied by characteristic symptoms and/or signs as detailed further on can be found in long-recognized clinical entities such as Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, pituitary or testicular disorders, as well as in men with idiopathic, metabolic or iatrogenic conditions that result in testosterone deficiency. These recommendations do not encompass the full range of pathologies leading to hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency), but instead focus on the clinical spectrum of hypogonadism related to metabolic and idiopathic disorders that contribute to the majority of cases that occur in adult men. PMID:25657080

  14. "Mitochondrial Eve", "Y Chromosome Adam", testosterone, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    I suggest primate evolution began as a consequence of increased testosterone in males which increased aggression and sexuality, therefore, reproduction and success. With time, negative effects of excessive testosterone reduced spermatogenesis and started a decline of the group. Approximately 30-40 million years ago, the gene DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) appeared on the Y chromosome, increased spermatogenesis, and rescued the early primates from extinction. (Note: DAZ is considered by some to specifically, positively affect spermatogenesis; others suggest it has no effect on spermatogenesis.) Hominid evolution continued with increasing testosterone. The advent of increased testosterone in females of Homo erectus (or Homo ergaster) increased the female-to-male body size ratio, and eventually produced another era of excessive testosterone. Excessive testosterone caused a reduction in population size (bottleneck) that produced the "Mitochondrial Eve" (ME) mechanism. (Only certain females continued during the bottleneck to transmit their mitochondrial DNA.) That is, the ME mechanism culminated, again, in excessive testosterone and reduced spermatogenesis in the hominid line. Approximately 50,000 to 200,000 years ago, a "doubling" of the DAZ gene occurred on the Y chromosome in hominid males which rescued the hominid line with increased spermatogenesis in certain males. This produced the "Y Chromosome Adam" event. The doubling of DAZ allowed further increases in testosterone in hominids that resulted in the increased size and development of the brain. Modern humans periodically fluctuate between the positive and negative consequences of increased levels of testosterone, currently identifiable as the secular trend, increased infections, and reduced spermatogenesis.

  15. A herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito, improves serum testosterone levels and affects sexual behavior in old male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Ji, Su Yun; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zhang, Er Hong; Bin, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical syndrome characterized with aging and declined serum testosterone levels. Sexual symptoms are also essential for the diagnosis of LOH. Testosterone replacement therapy is used widely to treat LOH. However, the side effects of it should not be ignored, such as fluid retention, hypertension and spermatogenic suppression. Therefore, alternate treatment modalities have been pursued. Herbal medicines used widely in China have achieved satisfying results with little side effects. Nonetheless, there are few pharmacological researches on them. In this study, 24-month-old mice were used as LOH animal models to explore the pharmacological effects of a herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), on serum testosterone levels and sexual functions. Furthermore, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a kind of rate-limiting enzyme of testosterone synthesis, was also examined. As a result, SKRBT improved the serum testosterone levels of these mice at a dose of 300 and 450 mg/kg. Multiple measures of sexual behavior were enhanced. The expression of StAR was also increased. Therefore, this study suggested that SKRBT can improve the serum testosterone levels by activating the expression of StAR and might be a viable option to treat sexual symptoms caused by LOH.

  16. Changes in the sexual behavior and testosterone levels of male rats in response to daily interactions with estrus females

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Leanne M.; Spritzer, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Male rat sexual behavior has been intensively studied over the past 100 years, but few studies have examined how sexual behavior changes over the course of several days of interactions. In this experiment, adult male rats (n = 12) were given daily access to estrus females for 30 min per day for 15 consecutive days and control males did not interact with females. Ovariectomized females were induced into estrus with hormonal injections, and males interacted with a different female each day. The amount of sexual activity (mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations) was found to cycle with a period of approximately 4 days in most male rats. Additionally, blood was collected every other day following sexual interactions to assess serum testosterone levels. Testosterone was found to peak on the first day of interaction and then fell back to near the level of control rats that did not interact with females. Following the initial peak, testosterone concentrations fluctuated less in males exposed to females than in controls. Sexual activity was not found to predict testosterone concentration. We conclude that when male rats have daily sexual interactions, sexual behavior tends to show cyclic changes and testosterone is significantly elevated only on the first day of interactions. PMID:24813700

  17. Characteristics associated with suppression of spermatogenesis in a male hormonal contraceptive trial using testosterone and Nestorone(®) gels.

    PubMed

    Roth, M Y; Ilani, N; Wang, C; Page, S T; Bremner, W J; Swerdloff, R S; Dart, C; Sitruk-Ware, R; Kumar, N; Blithe, D; Amory, J K

    2013-11-01

    Development of a male hormonal contraceptive has been challenging ascribable to the failure to adequately suppress spermatogenesis in 5-10% of men. Methods to identify incomplete suppressors early in treatment might identify men most responsive to male hormonal contraceptives. We hypothesized that serum hormone and gonadotropin concentrations after 4 weeks of transdermal treatment with testosterone and Nestorone in a contraceptive trial would be associated with suppression of sperm concentrations to <1 million/mL after 24 weeks. Indeed, luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations greater than 1 IU/L after 4 weeks of transdermal testosterone/nestorone treatment were 97% sensitive for predicting failure to suppress spermatogenesis after 24 weeks of treatment. Serum nestorone concentrations were significantly associated with suppression, but serum testosterone concentrations were not. Early suppression of gonadotropins is associated with, but does not ensure, adequate suppression of spermatogenesis. This information may allow for rapid identification of non-responders in male hormonal contraceptive trials. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Testosterone Increases Susceptibility to Amebic Liver Abscess in Mice and Mediates Inhibition of IFNγ Secretion in Natural Killer T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lotter, Hannelore; Helk, Elena; Bernin, Hannah; Jacobs, Thomas; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; González-Roldán, Nestor; Holst, Otto; Tannich, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Amebic liver abscess (ALA), a parasitic disease due to infection with the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, occurs age and gender dependent with strong preferences for adult males. Using a mouse model for ALA with a similar male bias for the disease, we have investigated the role of female and male sexual hormones and provide evidence for a strong contribution of testosterone. Removal of testosterone by orchiectomy significantly reduced sizes of abscesses in male mice, while substitution of testosterone increased development of ALA in female mice. Activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are known to be important for the control of ALA, is influenced by testosterone. Specifically activated NKT cells isolated from female mice produce more IFNγ compared to NKT cells derived from male mice. This high level production of IFNγ in female derived NKT cells was inhibited by testosterone substitution, while the IFNγ production in male derived NKT cells was increased by orchiectomy. Gender dependent differences were not a result of differences in the total number of NKT cells, but a result of a higher activation potential for the CD4− NKT cell subpopulation in female mice. Taken together, we conclude that the hormone status of the host, in particular the testosterone level, determines susceptibility to ALA at least in a mouse model of the disease. PMID:23424637

  19. Lipophagy Contributes to Testosterone Biosynthesis in Male Rat Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yin-Ci; Wang, Si-Qi; Ping, Ping; Chen, Xiang-Feng

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown. To investigate this, primary rat Leydig cells and varicocele rat models were administered to inhibit or promote autophagy, and testosterone, lipid droplets (LDs), total cholesterol (TC), and FC were evaluated. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy in primary rat Leydig cells reduced testosterone production. Further studies demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy increased the number and size of LDs and the level of TC, but decreased the level of FC. Furthermore, hypoxia promoted autophagy in Leydig cells. We found that short-term hypoxia stimulated testosterone secretion; however, the inhibition of autophagy abolished stimulated testosterone release. Hypoxia decreased the number and size of LDs in Leydig cells, but the changes could be largely rescued by blocking autophagy. In experimental varicocele rat models, the administration of autophagy inhibitors substantially reduced serum testosterone. These data demonstrate that autophagy contributes to testosterone biosynthesis at least partially through degrading intracellular LDs/TC. Our observations might reveal an autophagic regulatory mode regarding testosterone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  20. Neonatal programming with testosterone propionate reduces dopamine transporter expression in nucleus accumbens and methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Dib, Tatiana; Martínez-Pinto, Jonathan; Reyes-Parada, Miguel; Torres, Gonzalo E; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2018-07-02

    Research in programming is focused on the study of stimuli that alters sensitive periods in development, such as prenatal and neonatal stages, that can produce long-term deleterious effects. These effects can occur in various organs or tissues such as the brain, affecting brain circuits and related behaviors. Our laboratory has demonstrated that neonatal programming with sex hormones affects the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, increasing the synthesis and release of dopamine (DA) in striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the behavioral response to psychostimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and the possible mechanism(s) involved have not been studied in adult rats exposed to sex hormones during the first hours of life. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the locomotor activity induced by methylphenidate (5mg/kg i.p.) and the expression of the DA transporter (DAT) in NAcc of adult rats exposed to a single dose of testosterone propionate (TP: 1mg/50μLs.c.) or estradiol valerate (EV: 0.1mg/50μLs.c.) at postnatal day 1. Our results demonstrated that adult female rats treated with TP have a lower methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity compared to control and EV-treated adult female rats. This reduction in locomotor activity is related with a lower NAcc DAT expression. However, neither methylphenidate-induced locomotor activity nor NAcc DAT expression was affected in EV or TP-treated adult male rats. Our results suggest that early exposure to sex hormones affects long-term dopaminergic brain areas involved in the response to psychostimulants, which could be a vulnerability factor to favor the escalating doses of drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Switch to restoration therapy in a testosterone treated central hypogonadism with erythrocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cangiano, B; Cacciatore, C; Persani, L; Bonomi, M

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of severe erythrocytosis caused by testosterone replacement therapy in a 66-year-old man affected with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) determining osteoporosis, resolved by switching to restoration therapy with clomiphene citrate. The patient complained fatigue, loss of libido and defective erections and a spontaneous vertebral fracture despite bisphosphonate therapy and vitamin D supplementation. The examinations proved isolated HH and he was therefore treated with testosterone gel with regression of specific manifestations but elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Therefore, it was decided to switch to a restoration therapy with clomiphene citrate 25 mg/die, which resulted in the resolution of symptoms without evident side effects. In a couple of months, the patient showed normalization of testosterone levels and increment of testicular volume. Since secondary hypogonadism is the consequence of an insufficient stimulation of the gonads by hypothalamic-pituitary axis, therapeutic approaches aimed to restore endogenous testosterone production should be considered in alternative to testosterone replacement, particularly if side effects intervene. Among these strategies, clomiphene citrate seems to have a high efficacy and safety profile also in the elderly with isolated HH and no evident pituitary lesion. Hypogonadism should always be assessed in patients with severe loss in BMD and undergo appropriate medical treatment.In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, more approaches are available other than testosterone replacement therapy alone.In patients with severe late-onset central hypogonadism presenting with erythrocytosis even at low doses of replacement therapy, restoration therapy with clomiphene could prove to be an effective solution, particularly in patients with a reversible disruption of GNRH/gonadotropin functions.Clomiphene citrate increases gonadotropin levels and testicular volume and should therefore be considered in hypogonadal

  2. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  3. Stable isotope ratio profiling of testosterone preparations.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Adam; Collins, Michael; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Handelsman, David J; Heywood, Robert; Longworth, Mitchell; Arenas-Queralt, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is the preferred method of confirming the administration of exogenous testosterone by athletes. This relies on synthetic testosterone preparations being depleted in (13) C compared to natural testosterone. There is concern, however, about the existence of synthetic testosterone products that are unexpectedly (13) C-enriched and which may allow athletes to circumvent the current GC-C-IRMS test. Further to the reported studies of legitimate pharmaceutical-grade testosterone products, a detailed analysis of seized materials from border-level seizures was required to obtain intelligence concerning trends in 'black market' testosterone manufacture and distribution. The sample set collected for this study between 2006 and 2009 inclusive provided a δ(13) C range (n = 266) of -22.9‰ to -32.6‰ with mean and median values of -28.4‰ and -28.6‰, respectively. Within this distribution there were 24 samples (9%) confirmed to have δ(13) C values in the range reported for endogenous urinary steroid metabolites (≥ -25.8‰). The benefit of δ(13) C profiling for testosterone preparations was demonstrated by the ability to identify specific seized products that can be target tested for future intelligence purposes. In addition, the potential of stable hydrogen isotope ratio ((2) H/(1) H; δ(2) H) discrimination to complement δ(13) C analysis was investigated. Methodologies for the determination of δ(2) H values by gas chromatography-thermal conversion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-TC-IRMS) were developed to provide a δ(2) H range (n = 173) of -177‰ to -268‰ with mean and median values of -231‰ and -234‰, respectively. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Gestational Exposure to Elevated Testosterone Levels Induces Hypertension via Heightened Vascular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Signaling in Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; More, Amar S.; Hankins, Gary D.; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pre-eclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder whose pathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and polycystic ovary syndrome, who often develop gestational hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that increased gestational testosterone levels induce hypertension via heightened angiotensin II signaling. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate from Gestational Day 15 to 19 to induce a 2-fold increase in plasma testosterone levels, similar to levels observed in clinical conditions like pre-eclampsia. A subset of rats in these two groups was given losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist by gavage during the course of testosterone exposure. Blood pressure levels were assessed through a carotid arterial catheter and endothelium-independent vascular reactivity through wire myography. Angiotensin II levels in plasma and angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in mesenteric arteries were also examined. Blood pressure levels were significantly higher on Gestational Day 20 in testosterone-treated dams than in controls. Treatment with losartan during the course of testosterone exposure significantly attenuated testosterone-induced hypertension. Plasma angiotensin II levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone-treated rats; however, elevated testosterone levels significantly increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein levels in the mesenteric arteries. In testosterone-treated rats, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, whereas contractile responses to K+ depolarization and phenylephrine were unaffected. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces hypertension in pregnant rats via heightened angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking elevated maternal testosterone levels with

  5. Intra-sexual competition alters the relationship between testosterone and ornament expression in a wild territorial bird.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Padilla, J; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Mougeot, F; Ludwig, S; Redpath, S M

    2014-05-01

    In a reliable signalling system, individual quality is expected to mediate the costs associated with ornamental displays, with relatively lower costs being paid by individuals of higher quality. These relative costs should depend not only on individual quality, but also on levels of intra-sexual competition. We explored the current and delayed effects that testosterone implants have on bird ornamentation in populations with contrasted population densities, as a proxy for intra-sexual competition. In a replicated experiment, we manipulated testosterone in 196 yearling male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus in autumn in populations of high and low levels of intra-sexual competition. Males were assigned to one of three exogenous testosterone (T) treatments: empty implants (T0), small T implants (T1) or larger T implants (T2). We monitored subsequent changes in testosterone levels, ornament size and carotenoid-based colouration, carotenoid levels and body condition from autumn to spring. Testosterone implants increased testosterone levels, comb redness and comb size, and decreased body condition but these effects depended on levels of intra-sexual competition. Specifically, T2-implanted birds increased testosterone levels and comb size more, and reduced body condition more, in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. In the following spring, testosterone levels of T2-treated birds kept increasing in populations where intra-sexual competition was high but not in populations where intra-sexual competition was low. Our results highlight that levels of intra-sexual competition alter the relationship between testosterone levels and ornament expression, influencing their condition-dependence; they also indicate that the outcome of standard hormone manipulation conducted in free-living animals vary depending on the population context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between Use of Exogenous Testosterone Therapy and Risk of Venous Thrombotic Events among Exogenous Testosterone Treated and Untreated Men with Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Benoit, Karin; Wang, Wei; Motsko, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Limited information exists about whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with a risk of venous thrombotic events. We investigated via cohort and nested case-control analyses whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with the risk of venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. Databases were reviewed to identify men prescribed exogenous testosterone therapy and/or men with a hypogonadism diagnosis. Propensity score 1:1 matching was used to select patients for cohort analysis. Cases (men with venous thrombotic events) were matched 1:4 with controls (men without venous thrombotic events) for the nested case-control analysis. Primary outcome was defined as incident idiopathic venous thrombotic events. Cox regression and conditional logistic regression were used to assess HRs and ORs, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A total of 102,650 exogenous testosterone treated and 102,650 untreated patients were included in cohort analysis after matching, and 2,785 cases and 11,119 controls were included in case-control analysis. Cohort analysis revealed a HR of 1.08 for all testosterone treated patients (95% CI 0.91, 1.27, p = 0.378). Case-control analysis resulted in an OR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92, 1.13, p = 0.702) for current exogenous testosterone therapy exposure and an OR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.82, 1.03, p = 0.145) for past exogenous testosterone therapy exposure. These results remained nonstatistically significant after stratifying by exogenous testosterone therapy administration route and age category. Most sensitivity analyses yielded consistent results. No significant association was found between exogenous testosterone therapy and incidents of idiopathic or overall venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. However, some discrepant findings exist for the association between injectable formulations and the risk of overall venous thrombotic events. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  8. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  9. Association Between Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and Testosterone Testing and Initiation in the United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Layton, J Bradley; Kim, Yoonsang; Alexander, G Caleb; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-03-21

    Testosterone initiation increased substantially in the United States from 2000 to 2013, especially among men without clear indications. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) also increased during this time. To investigate associations between televised DTCA and testosterone testing and initiation in the United States. Ecologic study conducted in designated market areas (DMAs) in the United States. Monthly testosterone advertising ratings were linked to DMA-level testosterone use data from 2009-2013 derived from commercial insurance claims. Associations between DTCA and testosterone testing, initiation, and initiation without recent baseline tests were estimated using Poisson generalized estimating equations. Monthly Nielsen ratings for testosterone DTCA in the 75 largest DMAs. (1) Rates of new serum testosterone testing; (2) rates of testosterone initiation (in-office injection, surgical implant, or pharmacy dispensing) for all testosterone products combined and for specific brands; and (3) rates of testosterone initiation without recent serum testosterone testing. Of 17 228 599 commercially insured men in the 75 DMAs, 1 007 990 (mean age, 49.6 [SD, 11.5] years) had new serum testosterone tests and 283 317 (mean age, 51.8 [SD, 11.3] years) initiated testosterone treatment. Advertising intensity varied by geographic region and time, with the highest intensity seen in the southeastern United States and with months ranging from no ad exposures to a mean of 13.6 exposures per household. Nonbranded advertisements were common prior to 2012, with branded advertisements becoming more common during and after 2012. Each household advertisement exposure was associated with a monthly increase in rates of new testosterone testing (rate ratio [RR], 1.006; 95% CI, 1.004-1.008), initiation (RR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.004-1.010), and initiation without a recent test (RR, 1.008; 95% CI, 1.002-1.013). Mean absolute rate increases were 0.14 tests (95% CI, 0.09-0.19), 0.05 new

  10. Hair and Salivary Testosterone, Hair Cortisol, and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grotzinger, Andrew D; Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2018-05-01

    Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations. Salivary testosterone was not associated with aggression. Hair testosterone significantly predicted increased aggression, particularly at low levels of hair cortisol (i.e., Testosterone × Cortisol interaction). This study is the first to examine the relationship between hair hormones and externalizing behaviors and adds to the growing literature that indicates that androgenic effects on human behavior are contingent on aspects of the broader endocrine environment-in particular, levels of cortisol.

  11. Honest sexual signalling mediated by parasite and testosterone effects on oxidative balance

    PubMed Central

    Mougeot, Francois; Martínez-Padilla, Jesu´s; Webster, Lucy M.I.; Blount, Jonathan D.; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Piertney, Stuart B.

    2008-01-01

    Extravagant ornaments evolved to advertise their bearers' quality, the honesty of the signal being ensured by the cost paid to produce or maintain it. The oxidation handicap hypothesis (OHH) proposes that a main cost of testosterone-dependent ornamentation is oxidative stress, a condition whereby the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) overwhelms the capacity of antioxidant defences. ROS/RNS are unstable, very reactive by-products of normal metabolic processes that can cause extensive damage to key biomolecules (cellular proteins, lipids and DNA). Oxidative stress has been implicated in the aetiology of many diseases and could link ornamentation and genetic variation in fitness-related traits. We tested the OHH in a free-living bird, the red grouse. We show that elevated testosterone enhanced ornamentation and increased circulating antioxidant levels, but caused oxidative damage. Males with smaller ornaments suffered more oxidative damage than those with larger ornaments when forced to increase testosterone levels, consistent with a handicap mechanism. Parasites depleted antioxidant defences, caused oxidative damage and reduced ornament expression. Oxidative damage extent and the ability of males to increase antioxidant defences also explained the impacts of testosterone and parasites on ornamentation within treatment groups. Because oxidative stress is intimately linked to immune function, parasite resistance and fitness, it provides a reliable currency in the trade-off between individual health and ornamentation. The costs induced by oxidative stress can apply to a wide range of signals, which are testosterone-dependent or coloured by pigments with antioxidant properties. PMID:19129122

  12. Osteocalcin is not a strong determinant of serum testosterone and sperm count in men from infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Schwetz, V; Gumpold, R; Graupp, M; Hacker, N; Schweighofer, N; Trummer, O; Pieber, T R; Ballon, M; Lerchbaum, E; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

    2013-07-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) - released by osteoblasts and known as a marker of bone turnover - has been suggested to influence male fertility in murine models by enhancing testosterone production and sperm count. Results from clinical studies are scarce, however. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the proposed association of OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) or carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) with testosterone and sperm count in a cohort of 159 young male adults from infertile couples. Semen analysis was performed. Testosterone, free testosterone, LH, OC and ucOC were measured in serum samples after an overnight fast. cOC and OC correlated weakly but significantly with testosterone (OC: r = 0.165, p = 0.040, cOC: r = 0.193, p = 0.017), but not after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR). %ucOC (ucOC levels expressed as percentage of total OC) correlated inversely with LH (r = -0.184, p = 0.023) and remained significant after the same adjustment. No significant correlations were observed between OC, cOC, ucOC, %ucOC and sperm count, semen volume and number of vital spermatozoa. In binary logistic regression analyses, none of the parameters of OC were predictors of oligozoospermia after adjusting for age and BMI or WHR. The weak association between %ucOC and LH has marginal clinical importance because of the lack of associations of parameters of OC with testosterone and sperm count. The current data thus cannot support the notion that OC is associated with male fertility in young men from infertile couples. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Cardiovascular benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy in older men with low testosterone.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2018-04-01

    Many studies have shown that low testosterone (T) levels have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and strokes. In contrast, many other studies have demonstrated that normal T levels or the normalization of low T levels with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is associated with decreased incidence of CV events, T2DM, and strokes, besides improving sexual function and the quality of life. However, recent studies have indicated that TRT could lead to increased incidence of CV events and strokes. These latter studies have created a great controversy among physicians regarding these findings, who question the validity of their results. In order to get a better perspective on the current status of TRT in hypogonadal men, a focused Medline and EMBASE search of the English language literature was conducted between 2010 and 2017 using the terms hypogonadism, low Testosterone, cardiovascular disease, testosterone replacement therapy, benefits, risks, older men, mechanism of action, and 58 papers with pertinent information were selected and 48 papers were rejected. The selected papers will be discussed in this review. In conclusion, based on the current status of TRT, the majority of studies indicate that TRT is safe and is associated with prevention of CVD and strokes in hypogonadal men. However, the evidence is not uniform and the therefore, decision to administer TRT should be discussed with the patient till more definitive information becomes available.

  14. Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased aversion to economic risk.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Steven J; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; McLaurin, R Edward; Kuhn, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical aggression). However, the scant research linking testosterone to economic risk preferences presents inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship between endogenous testosterone and individuals' economic preferences (i.e., risk preference, ambiguity preference, and loss aversion) in a large sample (N = 298) of men and women. We found that endogenous testosterone levels have a significant U-shaped association with individuals' risk and ambiguity preferences, but not loss aversion. Specifically, individuals with low or high levels of testosterone (more than 1.5 SD from the mean for their gender) were risk and ambiguity neutral, whereas individuals with intermediate levels of testosterone were risk and ambiguity averse. This relationship was highly similar in men and women. In contrast to received wisdom regarding testosterone and risk, the present data provide the first robust evidence for a nonlinear association between economic preferences and levels of endogenous testosterone.

  15. "Low Testosterone Levels in Body Fluids Are Associated With Chronic Periodontitis".

    PubMed

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Malmstrom, Hans; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-03-01

    There is a debate over the association between low testosterone levels in body fluids and the occurrence of chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to assess whether low testosterone levels in body fluids reflect CP. In order to identify studies relevant to the focus question: "Is there a relationship between low testosterone levels in body fluids and CP?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to June 2016 in indexed databases using different keywords: periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, periodontal diseases, testosterone, and gonadal steroid hormones. A total of eight studies were included in the present systematic review. The number of study participants ranged from 24 to 1,838 male individuals with ages ranging from 15 to 95 years. Seven studies measured testosterone levels in serum, two studies in saliva, and one study in gingiva. Four studies reported a negative association between serum testosterone levels and CP. Two studies reported a positive association between decreased testosterone levels in serum and CP. Increased levels of salivary testosterone among patients with CP were reported in one study; whereas one study reported no significant difference in the concentration of salivary testosterone between patients with and without CP. One study identified significant increase in the metabolism of testosterone in the gingiva of patients with CP. Within the limits of the evidence available, the relationship between low testosterone levels and CP remains debatable and further longitudinal studies and control trials are needed.

  16. Salivary testosterone levels in men at a U.S. sex club.

    PubMed

    Escasa, Michelle J; Casey, Jacqueline F; Gray, Peter B

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate males commonly experience elevations in testosterone levels in response to sexual stimuli, such as presentation of a novel mating partner. Some previous human studies have shown that watching erotic movies increases testosterone levels in males although studies measuring testosterone changes during actual sexual intercourse or masturbation have yielded mixed results. Small sample sizes, "unnatural" lab-based settings, and invasive techniques may help account for mixed human findings. Here, we investigated salivary testosterone levels in men watching (n = 26) versus participating (n = 18) in sexual activity at a large U.S. sex club. The present study entailed minimally invasive sample collection (measuring testosterone in saliva), a naturalistic setting, and a larger number of subjects than previous work to test three hypotheses related to men's testosterone responses to sexual stimuli. Subjects averaged 40 years of age and participated between 11:00 pm and 2:10 am. Consistent with expectations, results revealed that testosterone levels increased 36% among men during a visit to the sex club, with the magnitude of testosterone change significantly greater among participants (72%) compared with observers (11%). Contrary to expectation, men's testosterone changes were unrelated to their age. These findings were generally consistent with vertebrate studies indicating elevated male testosterone in response to sexual stimuli, but also point out the importance of study context since participation in sexual behavior had a stronger effect on testosterone increases in this study but unlike some previous human lab-based studies.

  17. A Mendelian randomization study of testosterone and cognition in men

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie V.; Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cherny, Stacey S.; Liu, Bin; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone replacement for older men is increasingly common, with some observations suggesting a protective effect on cognitive function. We examined the association of endogenous testosterone with cognitive function among older men in a Mendelian randomization study using a separate-sample instrumental variable (SSIV) analysis estimator to minimize confounding and reverse causality. A genetic score predicting testosterone was developed in 289 young Chinese men from Hong Kong, based on selected testosterone-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10046, rs1008805 and rs1256031). The association of genetically predicted testosterone with delayed 10-word recall score and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was assessed at baseline and follow-up using generalized estimating equation among 4,212 older Chinese men from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Predicted testosterone was not associated with delayed 10-word recall score (−0.02 per nmol/L testosterone, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.06–0.02) or MMSE score (0.06, 95% CI −0.002–0.12). These estimates were similar after additional adjustment for age, education, smoking, use of alcohol, body mass index and the Framingham score. Our findings do not corroborate observed protective effects of testosterone on cognitive function among older men. PMID:26864717

  18. Testosterone replacement therapy to improve secondary sexual characteristics and body composition without adverse behavioral problems in adult male patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kido, Yasuhiro; Sakazume, Satoru; Abe, Yoshiko; Oto, Yuji; Itabashi, Hisashi; Shiraishi, Masahisa; Yoshino, Atsunori; Tanaka, Yuriko; Obata, Kazuo; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a complex genetic disorder, arises from suppressed expression of paternally inherited imprinted genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. Characteristics include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, hypogonadism, obesity, and reduced bone and muscle mass. Testosterone replacement (TR) remains controversial due to concerns regarding behavioral problems. To evaluate the effects of TR on secondary sexual characteristics, body composition, and behavior in adult males with PWS, 22 male PWS patients over the age of 16 with behavioral scores of less than grade 4 on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) underwent monthly intramuscular TR (125 mg). Pubertal change, body composition and behavior were evaluated before and after 24 months of therapy. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH did not change. Increased pubic hair was observed in 16 of 22 patients (72.7%). Percent body fat decreased from 47.55 ± 2.06% to 39.75 ± 1.60% (n = 18) (P = 0.018). Bone mineral density increased from 0.8505 ± 0.0426 g/cm(2) to 0.9035 ± 0.0465 g/cm(2) (n = 18) (P = 0.036), and lean body mass increased from 18093.4 ± 863.0 g to 20312.1 ± 1027.2 g (n = 18) (P = 0.009). The MOAS was unchanged, from 4.5 ± 2.0 at the beginning of the study to 3.0 ± 1.7 at the end of study indicating no increase in aggression. No behavioral problems were observed. Based on this pilot study, TR with 125 mg monthly is a potentially safe and useful intervention for adult males with PWS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anabolic effects of chrysin on the ventral male prostate and female prostate of adult gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Campos, Mônica S; Ribeiro, Naiara C S; de Lima, Rodrigo F; Santos, Mariana B; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Regasini, Luis O; Biancardi, Manoel F; Taboga, Sebastião R; Santos, Fernanda C A

    2018-03-07

    Chrysin is a bioflavonoid found in fruits, flowers, tea, honey and wine, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and anticarcinogenic properties. This flavone has also been considered as beneficial for reproduction due its testosterone-boosting potential. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chrysin on the prostate and gonads of male and female adult gerbils. In addition, a comparative analysis of the effects of testosterone on these same organs was conducted. Ninety-day-old male and female gerbils were treated with chrysin (50mgkg-1day-1) or testosterone cypionate (1mgkg-1week-1) for 21 days. The ventral male prostate and female prostate were dissected out for morphological, morphometric-stereological and ultrastructural assays. Testes and ovaries were submitted to morphological and morphometric---stereological analyses. Chrysin treatment caused epithelial hyperplasia and stromal remodelling of the ventral male and female prostate. Ultrastructurally, male and female prostatic epithelial cells in the chrysin group presented marked development of the organelles involved in the biosynthetic-secretory pathway, whereas cellular toxicity was observed only in female glands. Chrysin preserved normal testicular morphology and increased the number of growing ovarian follicles. Comparatively, testosterone treatment was detrimental to the prostate and gonads, since foci of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and gonadal degeneration were observed in both sexes. Thus, under the experimental conditions of this study, chrysin was better tolerated than testosterone in the prostate and gonads.

  20. In Utero Exposure to the Antiandrogen Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Decreases Adrenal Aldosterone Production in the Adult Rat1

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Guichard, Theodore; Culty, Martine; Zirkin, Barry R.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in utero exposure of the male fetus to the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) resulted in decreased circulating levels of testosterone in the adult without affecting Leydig cell numbers, luteinizing hormone levels, or steroidogenic enzyme expression. Fetal exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced mineralocorticoid receptor (MR; NR3C2) expression in adult Leydig cells. In the present studies, treatment of pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams from Gestational Day 14 until birth with 20, 50, 100, 300, or 750 mg kg−1 day−1 of DEHP resulted in significant sex-specific decreases in serum aldosterone but not corticosterone levels at Postnatal Day 60 (PND60) but not at PND21. There was no effect on circulating levels of potassium, angiotensin II or adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). However, there was reduced expression of AT receptor Agtr1a, Agtr1b, and Agtr2 mRNAs. The mRNA levels of proteins and enzymes implicated in aldosterone biosynthesis were not affected by in utero DEHP treatment except for Cyp11b2, which was decreased at high (≥500 mg kg−1 day−1) doses. The data presented herein, together with our previous observation that aldosterone stimulates testosterone production via an MR-mediated mechanism, suggest that in utero exposure to DEHP causes reduction in both adrenal aldosterone synthesis and MR expression in Leydig cells, leading to reduced testosterone production in the adult. Moreover, these results suggest the existence of a DEHP-sensitive adrenal-testis axis regulating androgen formation. PMID:21389346

  1. Effects of testosterone and nandrolone on cardiac function: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chung, T; Kelleher, S; Liu, P Y; Conway, A J; Kritharides, L; Handelsman, D J

    2007-02-01

    Androgens have striking effects on skeletal muscle, but the effects on human cardiac muscle function are not well defined, neither has the role of metabolic activation (aromatization, 5alpha reduction) of testosterone on cardiac muscle been directly studied. To assess the effects of testosterone and nandrolone, a non-amplifiable and non-aromatizable pure androgen, on cardiac muscle function in healthy young men. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-arm parallel group clinical trial. Ambulatory care research centre. Healthy young men randomized into three groups of 10 men. Weekly intramuscular injections of testosterone (200 mg mixed esters), nandrolone (200 mg nandrolone decanoate) or matching (2 ml arachis oil vehicle) placebo for 4 weeks. Comprehensive measures of cardiac muscle function involving transthoracic cardiac echocardiography measuring myocardial tissue velocity, peak systolic strain and strain rates, and bioimpedance measurement of cardiac output and systematic vascular resistance. Left ventricular (LV) function (LV ejection fraction, LV modified TEI index), right ventricular (RV) function (ejection area, tricuspid annular systolic planar motion, RV modified TEI index) as well as cardiac afterload (mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance) and overall cardiac contractility (stroke volume, cardiac output) were within age- and gender-specific reference ranges and were not significantly (P < 0.05) altered by either androgen or placebo over 4 weeks of treatment. Minor changes remaining within normal range were observed solely within the testosterone group for: increased LV end-systolic diameter (30 +/- 7 vs. 33 +/- 5 mm, P = 0.04) and RV end-systolic area (12.8 +/- 1.3 vs. 14.6 +/- 3.3 cm(2), P = 0.04), reduced LV diastolic septal velocity (Em, 9.5 +/- 2.6 vs. 8.7 +/- 2.0 cm/s, P = 0.006), increased LV filling pressure (E/Em ratio, 7.1 +/- 1.6 vs. 8.3 +/- 1.8, P = 0.02) and shortened PR interval on the electrocardiogram (167

  2. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Dusan; Keller, Amanda; Golfinopoulos, Maria; Cumyn, Lucy; Syer, Cassidy; Hechtman, Lily

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD. PMID:18728812

  3. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Dusan; Keller, Amanda; Golfinopoulos, Maria; Cumyn, Lucy; Syer, Cassidy; Hechtman, Lily

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD. PMID:18728745

  4. Occurrence and removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in three constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza; Koželuh, Milan

    2015-12-01

    Estrogenic hormones, progesterone and testosterone are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and their presence in aquatic environments represents a potentially adverse environmental and public health impact. There is a considerable amount of information about removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in conventional wastewater treatment plants, namely activated sludge systems. However, the information about removal of these compounds in constructed wetlands is very limited. Three constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow in the Czech Republic have been selected to evaluate removal of estrogens (estrone, estriol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol), testosterone and progesterone. Monitored constructed wetlands for 100, 150 and 200 PE have been in operation for more than 10 years and all systems exhibit very high treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids. The results indicate that removal of all estrogens, progesterone and testosterone was high and only estrone was found in the outflow from one constructed wetland in concentrations above the limit of quantification 1 ng l(-1). The limits of quantification for other estrogens, i.e., 10 ng l(-1) for estriol, 1 ng l(-1) for 17β-estradiol and 2 ng l(-1) for 17α-ethinylestradiol were not exceeded in the outflow of all monitored constructed wetlands. Also, for progesterone and testosterone, all outflow concentrations were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng l(-1). The results indicated that constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow are a promising technology for elimination of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone from municipal sewage but more information is needed to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association Between Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and Testosterone Testing and Initiation in the United States, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Layton, J. Bradley; Kim, Yoonsang; Alexander, G. Caleb; Emery, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Testosterone initiation increased substantially in the United States from 2000 to 2013, especially among men without clear indications. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) also increased during this time. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations between televised DTCA and testosterone testing and initiation in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND POPULATION Ecologic study conducted in designated market areas (DMAs) in the United States. Monthly testosterone advertising ratings were linked to DMA-level testosterone use data from 2009–2013 derived from commercial insurance claims. Associations between DTCA and testosterone testing, initiation, and initiation without recent baseline tests were estimated using Poisson generalized estimating equations. EXPOSURES Monthly Nielsen ratings for testosterone DTCA in the 75 largest DMAs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES (1) Rates of new serum testosterone testing; (2) rates of testosterone initiation (in-office injection, surgical implant, or pharmacy dispensing) for all testosterone products combined and for specific brands; and (3) rates of testosterone initiation without recent serum testosterone testing. RESULTS Of 17 228 599 commercially insured men in the 75 DMAs, 1 007 990 (mean age, 49.6 [SD, 11.5] years) had new serum testosterone tests and 283 317 (mean age, 51.8 [SD, 11.3] years) initiated testosterone treatment. Advertising intensity varied by geographic region and time, with the highest intensity seen in the southeastern United States and with months ranging from no ad exposures to a mean of 13.6 exposures per household. Nonbranded advertisements were common prior to 2012, with branded advertisements becoming more common during and after 2012. Each household advertisement exposure was associated with a monthly increase in rates of new testosterone testing (rate ratio [RR], 1.006; 95% CI, 1.004–1.008), initiation (RR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.004–1.010), and initiation without a recent test (RR, 1.008; 95% CI

  6. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone excess leads to fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth in sheep.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2004-02-01

    Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.

  7. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  8. [A case of locally advanced prostate cancer with low serum testosterone associated with intake of an androgenic medicine].

    PubMed

    Sakura, Mizuaki; Tsukamoto, Tetsurou; Yonese, Junji; Nakaishi, Masayuki; Maezawa, Takuya; Takimoto, Keita; Fukui, Iwao

    2003-05-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our clinic for the work-up of digitally hard and irregularly surfaced prostate and elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). His serum PSA was elevated to 41 ng/ml, but testosterone and LH level were decreased to 23.5 ng/dl and 0.5 mIU/ml, respectively. He had a history of taking an androgenic medicine containing methyl-testosterone 2 to 3 times a week for 2 year and 6 months. Transrectal sextant prostatic biopsy revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (Gleason score: 3 + 4) in 6 of 6 specimens and CT scan of the abdomen showed an enlarged obturator lymph-node (15 mm), resulting in the diagnosis of stage D1 (T3aN1M0) prostate cancer. Since serum testosterone level seemed to recover around the normal level after discontinuation of the exogenous androgen, we treated him with combination androgen blockade with LHRH agonist and bicaltamide, although his testosterone level was very low. Indeed, serum PSA decreased to 0.09 ng/ml and the right obturator node was markedly reduced by the hormone treatment. After the neoadjuvant therapy of 6 months duration, radical prostatectomy and limited pelvic lymph node dissection was carried out. Histologically, viable cancer cells were not found in any of resected lymph nodes, but they remained in bilateral lobes of the prostate (pT2bN0). The histological effect of the neoadjuvant hormone therapy according to General rule for Clinical and Pathological Studies on Prostate Cancer (3rd ed.) was grade 2. The patient has been well with undetectable PSA and no evidence of clinical failure for more than 12 months, though serum testosterone level recovered to near normal (288 ng/dl) 8 months after the cessation of the hormone treatment following the operation. Combination androgen blockade or non-steroidal anti-androgen agent appears to be effective for the treatment of prostatic cancer patients who takes exogenous androgenic medicine, even with a suppressed low serum testosterone level.

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