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Sample records for adult ticks collected

  1. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in adult Dermacentor spp. ticks from nine collection sites in France.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, S; de la Fuente, J; Nicollet, P; Liu, X; Madani, N; Blanchard, B; Maingourd, C; Alongi, A; Torina, A; Fernández de Mera, I G; Vicente, J; George, J-C; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Joncour, G

    2013-04-01

    The importance of Dermacentor spp. in the transmission of tick-borne pathogens is not well recognized in Europe. To investigate the role of Dermacentor spp. in the transmission of tick-borne pathogens, questing ticks were collected in 9 sites from southern to northwestern France (Camargue Delta to Eastern Brittany) where Dermacentor spp. exist and tick-borne diseases had occurred previously. Three tick species were collected during the spring and autumn of 2009. Collected ticks (both males and females) included D. marginatus (n=377), D. reticulatus (n=74), and I. ricinus (n=45). All ticks were analyzed by PCR or reverse line blot for the presence of pathogens' DNA. Pathogens analyzed were based on veterinarian reports and included Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma marginale, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Francisella sp. Francisella tularensis was not detected in any of the analyzed ticks. In D. marginatus, infection prevalence for A. phagocytophilum (3%) was similar to that found in I. ricinus in Europe. Other pathogens present in D. marginatus included A. marginale (0.5%), Bartonella spp. (9%), C. burnetii (12%), F. philomiragia (1.3%), and Theileria annulata/Babesia bovis (0.3%), which were detected for the first time in France. Pathogens detected in D. reticulatus included A. marginale (1%), Bartonella spp. (12%), C. burnetii (16%), Borrelia spp. (1.5%), and F. philomiragia (19%). Pathogens detected in I. ricinus included A. phagocytophilum (41%), Bartonella spp. (9%), C. burnetii (18%), A. marginale (1%), Borrelia spp. (4.5%), and Babesia sp. (7%). This study represents the first epidemiological approach to characterize tick-borne pathogens infecting Dermacentor spp. in France and that may be transmitted by ticks from this genus. Further experiments using experimental infections and transmission may be now conducted to analyze vector competency of Dermacentor spp. for these pathogens and to

  2. [Tick-borne encephalitis viral titers of engorged adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks].

    PubMed

    Korenberg, E I; Pchelkina, A A

    1984-01-01

    The results of titration of adult virus infected ticks of Ixodes persulcatus are given. The ticks were collected in various natural nidi of tick-borne encephalitis and individually fed on laboratory animals. The results of titration of ticks of the same species primarily infected on laboratory animals during virusemia are given as well. Changes of the virus titer in engorged ticks were observed till the egg production. A role of the presence of virus in engorged ticks for the process of the agent circulation in natural nidi is discussed.

  3. Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I

  4. Ticks collected from wild and domestic animals and natural habitats in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Hyewon; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Seo, Hong-Yul; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Ticks were collected from 35 animals from 5 provinces and 3 metropolitan cities during 2012. Ticks also were collected by tick drag from 4 sites in Gyeonggi-do (2) and Jeollabuk-do (2) Provinces. A total of 612 ticks belonging to 6 species and 3 genera were collected from mammals and a bird (n=573) and by tick drag (n=39). Haemaphyalis longicornis (n=434) was the most commonly collected tick, followed by H. flava (158), Ixodes nipponensis (11), Amblyomma testudinarium (7), H. japonica (1), and H. formosensis (1). H. longicornis and H. flava were collected from all animal hosts examined. For animal hosts (n>1), the highest Tick Index (TI) was observed for domestic dogs (29.6), followed by Siberian roe deer (17.4), water deer (14.4), and raccoon dogs (1.3). A total of 402 H. longicornis (adults 86, 21.4%; nymphs 160, 39.8%; larvae 156, 38.9%) were collected from wild and domestic animals. A total of 158 H. flava (n=158) were collected from wild and domestic animals and 1 ring-necked pheasant, with a higher proportion of adults (103, 65.2%), while nymphs and larvae only accounted for 12.7% (20) and 22.2% (35), respectively. Only 7 A. testudinarium were collected from the wild boar (6 adults) and Eurasian badger (1 nymph), while only 5 I. nipponensis were collected from the water deer (4 adults) and a raccoon dog (1 adult). One adult female H. formosensis was first collected from vegetation by tick drag from Mara Island, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do Province. PMID:25031468

  5. Ticks and tick-borne novel bunyavirus collected from the natural environment and domestic animals in Jinan city, East China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Yongming; Yang, Guoliang; Liu, Huiyuan; Xin, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Since 2011, 73 cases of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, a novel tick-borne disease, have been reported in Jinan city through information system for disease control and prevention. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the species, distribution, host animals of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. A total of 722 ticks were collected from two types of natural environment and six kinds of domestic animal in Jinan city. All the sampled ticks belonged to the same species, namely Haemaphysalis longicornis, and 94.7% of them were adult. The density of free-living ticks in grassland was nearly six times that in shrub. The prevalence of the goat (53.3%) was highest among the domestic animals. The host body region most frequently parasitized by H. longicornis was the head (77.8%), especially ears and periocular region. Novel bunyavirus was detected on the free-ranging goats in Jinan city. Acaricide treatment with a higher concentration on the ears, periocular region and the groin of domestic animals should be recommended to control the ticks effectively.

  6. No detection of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus from ixodid ticks collected in seoul.

    PubMed

    Ham, Heejin; Jo, Sukju; Jang, Jungim; Choi, Sungmin

    2014-04-01

    Larvae, nymphs, and adult stages of 3 species of ixodid ticks were collected by tick drag methods in Seoul during June-October 2013, and their infection status with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus was examined using RT-PCR. During the period, 732 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 62 Haemaphysalis flava, and 2 Ixodes nipponensis specimens were collected. Among the specimens of H. longicornis, the number of female adults, male adults, nymphs, and larvae were 53, 11, 240, and 446, respectively. Ticks were grouped into 63 pools according to the collection site, species, and developmental stage, and assayed for SFTS virus. None of the pools of ticks were found to be positive for SFTS virus gene.

  7. The first detection of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from the lowland European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus L.).

    PubMed

    Biernat, Beata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Stańczak, Joanna; Masny, Aleksander; Werszko, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a potentially fatal neurological infection. The disease is endemic in a large region in Eurasia, where is transmitted mainly by hard ticks: Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus. It is known that also Dermacentor reticulatus is involved in a circulation of TBEV, but the knowledge of its importance in the TBE epidemiology is still insufficient. The Białowieża Primeval Forest is located in eastern Poland and it is a well-known endemic focus of tick-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus), an important host of hard ticks in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. In the years 2008-2009, a total of 114 adult D. reticulatus ticks were collected from 7 European bison and examined individually for the presence of TBEV RNA using nested RT-PCR assay. Positive results were noted in 18.42% of ticks. This is the first record of TBEV infection in ticks collected from European bison. PMID:26751883

  8. The first detection of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from the lowland European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus L.).

    PubMed

    Biernat, Beata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Stańczak, Joanna; Masny, Aleksander; Werszko, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a potentially fatal neurological infection. The disease is endemic in a large region in Eurasia, where is transmitted mainly by hard ticks: Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus. It is known that also Dermacentor reticulatus is involved in a circulation of TBEV, but the knowledge of its importance in the TBE epidemiology is still insufficient. The Białowieża Primeval Forest is located in eastern Poland and it is a well-known endemic focus of tick-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected from European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus), an important host of hard ticks in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. In the years 2008-2009, a total of 114 adult D. reticulatus ticks were collected from 7 European bison and examined individually for the presence of TBEV RNA using nested RT-PCR assay. Positive results were noted in 18.42% of ticks. This is the first record of TBEV infection in ticks collected from European bison.

  9. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed. PMID:27048511

  10. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed.

  11. Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Southwestern Finland and from Vormsi Island in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Johanna; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Oksi, Jarmo; Peltomaa, Miikka; He, Qiushui; Marjamäki, Merja; Viljanen, Matti K

    2003-02-01

    Altogether, 343 adult and 111 nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from parks in Turku and suburban and rural islands of the Turku archipelago, Finland, and 100 adult I. ricinus ticks collected from Vormsi Island, Estonia, were included in this study. Using the polymerase chain reaction the ticks were examined for 16S rDNA of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup and for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato recA and flagellin genes. None of the Finnish ticks was found to be infected with E. phagocytophila, whereas 3% of the Estonian ticks were positive for this organism. The rate of Finnish ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato varied from 0% to 11.6% (mean 5%; 9% for adult and 4% for nymphal ticks). The corresponding rate for Estonian ticks was 15%. Borrelia afzelii was the most common genospecies in both Finnish (2.6%) and Estonian (12%) ticks. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 2.0% of the Finnish ticks, but in none of the Estonian ticks. These results suggest that the E. phagocytophila genogroup is very rare in Finnish ticks, although the ticks were collected from an area endemic for Lyme borreliosis. In Estonia, E. phagocytophila is found in ticks and may cause disease.

  12. Identification of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks collected in southeastern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Pintér, Réka; Madai, Mónika; Vadkerti, Edit; Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Kiss, Gábor; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an arthropod-borne viral pathogen causing infections in Europe and is responsible for most arbovirus central nervous system infections in Hungary. Assessing the TBEV prevalence in ticks through detection of genomic RNA is a broadly accepted approach to estimate the transmission risk from a tick bite. For this purpose, 2731 ticks were collected from the neighboring area of the town of Dévaványa, located in southeastern Hungary, which is considered a low-risk-transmission area for TBEV. Altogether, 2300 ticks were collected from the vegetation, while 431 were collected from rodents. Samples were pooled and then screened for TBEV with a newly designed semi-nested RT-PCR (RT-snPCR) targeting the NS1 genomic region. PCR results were confirmed by direct sequencing of the second round amplicons. Among the 3 different collected tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor marginatus), I. ricinus was the only species that tested positive for TBEV. TBEV-positive ticks were collected from small mammals or from the vegetation. One nymphal pool and 4 larval pools tested positive for TBEV. The only positive nymphal pool was unfed and came from vegetation, while ticks of the 4 positive larval pools were collected from rodents. Minimal TBEV prevalence in ticks was 0.08% for unfed nymphs and 0.78% for feeding larvae. Our results indicate that further long-term investigations on the occurrence of TBEV are needed to better describe the geographic distribution and the prevalence of infected ticks in Hungary.

  13. Detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum RNA in fleas and ticks collected from naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Fabio A; Odorizzi, Rosa M F N; Laurenti, Marcia D; Galati, Eunice A B; Canavez, Flavio; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2011-08-01

    The occurrence of the insect vector (sand flies) with low rates of Leishmania infection, as well as autochthonous transmission in the absence of the natural vector in dogs, have been reported. These unexpected data suggest a hypothesis of other arthropods as a possible way of Leishmania transmission. The prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in fleas and ticks collected from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), as well as parasite viability, were evaluated herein. The presence of L. (L.) infantum was assayed by PCR and ELISA in ectoparasites and biological samples from 73 dogs living in a Brazilian endemic area. As the occurrence of Leishmania DNA in ticks and fleas is expected given their blood-feeding habits, we next investigated whether parasites can remain viable inside ticks. PCR and ELISA confirmed that 83% of the dogs had CVL. Fleas and ticks (nymphs, male and female adults) were collected in 55% and 63% of the 73 dogs, respectively. Out of the 60 dogs with CVL, 80% harbored ectoparasites infected with L. (L.) infantum. The infection rates of the ectoparasites were 23% and 50% for fleas and ticks, respectively. The RNA analysis of the extract from ticks left in laboratory conditions during 7 to 10 days after removal from CVL dogs showed that parasites were alive. In addition, live parasites were also detected inside adult ticks recently molted in laboratory conditions. These findings indicate a higher infection rate of L. (L.) infantum in ticks and fleas, but they do not conclusively demonstrate whether these ticks can act as vectors of CVL, despite the fact that their rates were higher than those previously described in Lutzomyia longipalpis. The presence of viable L. (L.) infantum in ticks suggests the possible importance of dog ectoparasites in CVL dissemination. PMID:21221638

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  15. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  16. First survey on hard ticks (Ixodidae) collected from humans in Romania: possible risks for tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Briciu, V T; Titilincu, A; Tăţulescu, D F; Cârstina, D; Lefkaditis, M; Mihalca, A D

    2011-06-01

    The importance of studies on the diversity of ticks attacking humans resides mostly in the relatively highly-specific tick-pathogen associations. Human tick bites are commonly reported worldwide but removal of ticks from patients is rarely followed by specific identification of the ticks, leaving to some degree of hazard the preventive treatment of possible associated diseases. A total number of 308 ticks were collected between April and June 2010 from 275 human patients who voluntarily presented to a hospital from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The mean intensity of infection was 1.12 ± 0.46. Four species of ticks were identified Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis concinna and H. punctata. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species feeding on humans in the study area. A brief review of possible associated pathogen is provided. PMID:21161719

  17. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Khethiwe; Khumalo, Zth; Nakao, Ryo; Grab, Dennis J; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Thekisoe, Omm

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected.

  18. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    MTSHALI, Khethiwe; KHUMALO, Zamantungwa T. H.; NAKAO, Ryo; GRAB, Dennis J.; SUGIMOTO, Chihiro; THEKISOE, Oriel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected. PMID:26227797

  19. Ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Faulde, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The most common vector-borne diseases in both Europe and North America are transmitted by ticks. Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne bacterial zoonosis, is the most highly prevalent. Other important tick-borne diseases include TBE (tick-borne encephalitis) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Europe, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in North America, and numerous less common tick-borne bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases on both continents. The major etiological agent of LB is Borrelia burgdorferi in North America, while in Europe several related species of Borrelia can also cause human illness. These Borrelia genospecies differ in clinical manifestations, ecology (for example, some have primarily avian and others primarily mammalian reservoirs), and transmission cycles, so the epizootiology of LB is more complex in Europe than in North America. Ticks dwell predominantly in woodlands and meadows, and in association with animal hosts, with only limited colonization of human dwellings by a few species. Therefore, suburbanization has contributed substantially to the increase in tick-borne disease transmission in North America by fostering increased exposure of humans to tick habitat. The current trend toward suburbanization in Europe could potentially result in similar increases in transmission of tick-borne diseases. Incidence of tick-borne diseases can be lowered by active public education campaigns, targeted at the times and places of greatest potential for encounter between humans and infected ticks. Similarly, vaccines (e.g., against TBE) are most effective when made available to people at greatest risk, and for high-prevalence diseases such as LB. Consultation with vector-borne disease experts during the planning stages of new human developments can minimize the potential for residents to encounter infected ticks (e.g., by appropriate dwelling and landscape design). Furthermore, research on tick vectors, pathogens, transmission ecology, and on

  20. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois in France.

    PubMed

    Davoust, Bernard; Socolovschi, Cristina; Revelli, Paul; Gibert, Philippe; Marié, Jean-Lou; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Seventy-one Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the French Pyrenees were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella. Four ticks (6%) were positive for R. helvetica. The chamois carries infected ticks, and this enables the dissemination throughout the environment with this bacterium, a potential human pathogen.

  1. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction–positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study. PMID:21976578

  2. Infection prevalences of common tick-borne pathogens in adult lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Fritzen, Charissa M; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2011-10-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007-2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction-positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study.

  3. Collections of adult Ixodes dammini in Indiana, 1987-1990, and the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Holycross, J; Ryder, J; Mummert, M

    1991-09-01

    The collection records for Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin in Indiana are summarized for the period 1987-1990. In 1990, 13 of 729 deer examined were found to harbor adult I. dammini ticks. Eleven of these ticks were collected from 10 deer at a site in Newton County in northwestern Indiana. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were isolated from a single female I. dammini tick collected from this site.

  4. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger survey, ears from 18 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 52 moose (Alces alces) shot in the 2 southernmost counties in Norway were collected and examined for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Seventy-two adult ticks, 595 nymphs, and 267 larvae from the roe deer, and 182 adult ticks, 433 nymphs, and 70 larvae from the moose were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). The results showed the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in 2.9% of the nymphs collected from roe deer and in 4.4% of the nymphs and 6.0% of the adults collected from moose. The spirochetes were not detected in adult ticks from roe deer, or in larvae feeding on roe deer or moose. In comparison, the mean infection prevalences in questing I. ricinus collected from the same geographical area were 0.5% infection in larvae, 24.5% in nymphs, and 26.9% in adults. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in ticks collected from roe deer was B. afzelii (76.5%), followed by B. garinii (17.6%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5.9%). Only B. afzelii (76.7%) and B. garinii (23.3%) were detected in ticks collected from moose. The present study indicates a lower prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in I. ricinus ticks feeding on roe deer and moose compared to questing ticks. This is the first study to report B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in ticks removed from cervids in Norway.

  5. Ticks collected from migratory birds, including a new record of Haemaphysalis formosensis, on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Kang, Chang-Wan; Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sang; Moon, Kyoung-Ha; Oh, Mi-Rae; Yamauchi, Takeo; Yun, Young-Min

    2014-04-01

    Migratory birds may disperse parasites across ecological barriers, and recent climate change may alter the pattern of ectoparasite dispersal via changed patterns of bird migration. In order to document the parasitization of migratory birds by Ixodidae ticks on Jeju Island in Korea, we examined 934 migratory birds comprising 75 species for ticks from 2010 to 2012. In total, 313 ticks were collected from 74 migratory birds across 17 avian species and identified based on morphological keys. These ticks represented six species: Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. longicornis, H. concinna, Ixodes turdus and I. nipponensis. Of particular note was the presence of H. formosensis, a species not previously reported to have been found in Korea, and H. concinna, which had not been previously reported on Jeju Island. The dominant tick species found were H. flava (226 ticks, 72.2 %) and I. turdus (54 ticks, 17.3 %), and ground-dwelling thrushes such as Pale thrushes (Turdus pallidus; 39 birds, 52.7 %) were the most important hosts. Although H. longicornis is the most abundant and prevalent terrestrial tick on Jeju Island, the species accounted for only 3.8 % of the total ticks collected in this study, suggesting that ticks on migratory birds may differ from the local tick fauna and that exotic ticks may be introduced via migratory birds. Therefore, long-term programs for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance are recommended to understand the role of migratory animals in the introduction of exotic species and associated pathogens and in life cycles of ticks at different stages in this region. PMID:24141529

  6. Ticks collected from migratory birds, including a new record of Haemaphysalis formosensis, on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Kang, Chang-Wan; Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sang; Moon, Kyoung-Ha; Oh, Mi-Rae; Yamauchi, Takeo; Yun, Young-Min

    2014-04-01

    Migratory birds may disperse parasites across ecological barriers, and recent climate change may alter the pattern of ectoparasite dispersal via changed patterns of bird migration. In order to document the parasitization of migratory birds by Ixodidae ticks on Jeju Island in Korea, we examined 934 migratory birds comprising 75 species for ticks from 2010 to 2012. In total, 313 ticks were collected from 74 migratory birds across 17 avian species and identified based on morphological keys. These ticks represented six species: Haemaphysalis flava, H. formosensis, H. longicornis, H. concinna, Ixodes turdus and I. nipponensis. Of particular note was the presence of H. formosensis, a species not previously reported to have been found in Korea, and H. concinna, which had not been previously reported on Jeju Island. The dominant tick species found were H. flava (226 ticks, 72.2 %) and I. turdus (54 ticks, 17.3 %), and ground-dwelling thrushes such as Pale thrushes (Turdus pallidus; 39 birds, 52.7 %) were the most important hosts. Although H. longicornis is the most abundant and prevalent terrestrial tick on Jeju Island, the species accounted for only 3.8 % of the total ticks collected in this study, suggesting that ticks on migratory birds may differ from the local tick fauna and that exotic ticks may be introduced via migratory birds. Therefore, long-term programs for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance are recommended to understand the role of migratory animals in the introduction of exotic species and associated pathogens and in life cycles of ticks at different stages in this region.

  7. Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in adult and nymphal stage lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixson, T.R.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.; Sumner, J.W.; Paddock, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), has increased in abundance in several regions of the northeastern United States, including areas of Long Island, NY. Adult and nymphal stage A. americanum collected from several sites on Long Island were evaluated for infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), by using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty-nine (12.5%) of ,17.3 adults and eight of 11.3 pools of five nymphs each (estimated minimum prevalence of infection 1.4%) contained DNA of E. chaffeensis. These data, coupled with the documented expansion of lone star tick populations in the northeastern United States, confirm that E. chaffeensis is endemic to many areas of Long Island and that HME should be considered among the differential diagnoses of the many distinct tick-borne diseases that occur in this region.

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in adult and nymphal Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Long Island, New York.

    PubMed

    Mixson, Tonya R; Ginsberg, Howard S; Campbell, Scott R; Sumner, John W; Paddock, Christopher D

    2004-11-01

    The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), has increased in abundance in several regions of the northeastern United States, including areas of Long Island, NY. Adult and nymphal stage A. americanum collected from several sites on Long Island were evaluated for infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), by using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty-nine (12.5%) of 473 adults and eight of 113 pools of five nymphs each (estimated minimum prevalence of infection 1.4%) contained DNA of E. chaffeensis. These data, coupled with the documented expansion of lone star tick populations in the northeastern United States, confirm that E. chaffeensis is endemic to many areas of Long Island and that HME should be considered among the differential diagnoses of the many distinct tick-borne diseases that occur in this region. PMID:15605650

  9. Comparison of dragging and sweeping methods for collecting ticks and determining their seasonal distributions for various habitats, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M; Sancho, Alfredo R; Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A

    2013-05-01

    As part of the 65th Medical Brigade tick-borne disease surveillance program to determine the abundance, geographical and seasonal distributions, and tick-borne pathogens present in the Republic of Korea, dragging and sweeping methods were compared to determine their efficiency for collecting ticks in grass and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forest habitats at military training sites and privately owned lands in northern Gyeonggi Province near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004-2005. Three species of Ixodid ticks, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis flava, and Ixodes nipponensis, were collected. Overall, H. longicornis adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from grass and deciduous forest habitats, accounting for 98.2 and 66.2%, respectively, of all ticks collected. H. flava adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from conifer and mixed forests, accounting for 81.6, and 77.8%, respectively, of all ticks collected. I. nipponensis adults and nymphs accounted for 9.3% of all ticks collected from mixed forests, were less commonly collected from deciduous (4.1%) and conifer (4.1%) forests, and infrequently collected from grass habitats (0.9%). Overall, there were no significant differences between dragging and sweeping methods for the three species when the areas sampled were similar (sweeping = 2 x the area over the same transect). Adults and nymphs of H. longicornis were most commonly collected from April-August, while those of H. flava and I. nipponensis were most commonly collected during April-July and again during October. Larvae of all three species were most frequently observed from July-September.

  10. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Francisella bacteria in ticks collected from Artiodactyla in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-07-01

    A total of 79 ticks collected from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were examined by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Francisella bacteria. Of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for Rickettsia, 15% tested positive for Anaplasma, 4% tested positive for Coxiella, and 3% tested positive for Francisella. Interestingly, triple infection with Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Francisella was determined in a Dermacentor auratus tick. Moreover, another triple infection with Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella was found in a Haemaphysalis lagrangei tick. Double infection of Rickettsia with Coxiella was also detected in another H. lagrangei tick. From the phylogenetic analyses, we found a Rickettsia sp. with a close evolutionary relationship to Rickettsia bellii in the H. lagrangei tick. We also found the first evidence of a Rickettsia sp. that is closely related to Rickettsia tamurae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks from Thailand. H. lagrangei and Haemaphysalis obesa ticks collected from Sambar deer tested positive for Anaplasma species form the same clade with Anaplasma bovis. In contrast, other H. lagrangei ticks collected from Sambar deer and D. auratus ticks collected from Wild boar were also reported for the first time to be infected with an Anaplasma species that is closely related to Anaplasma platys. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Coxiella bacteria revealed that Coxiella symbionts from H. lagrangei formed a distinctly different lineage from Coxiella burnetii (a human pathogen). Additionally, Francisella bacteria identified in D. auratus ticks were found to be distantly related to a group of pathogenic Francisella species. The identification of these bacteria in several feeding ticks suggests the risk of various emerging tick-borne diseases and endosymbionts in humans, wildlife, and domestic animals in Thailand. PMID:26934997

  11. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  12. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungeun; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  13. [Studies of the biological age in adult taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus (Ixodinae)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The history of studies of the biological age in ixodid ticks is discussed. A method of estimation of the biological age in adult ticks of the genus Ixodes by the degree of fat inclusions in midgut cells and in the fat body is developed. An "age scale" for the determination of the calendar age was assumed.

  14. Babesia spp. Identified by PCR in Ticks Collected from Domestic and Wild Ruminants in Southern Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Hilpertshauser, Heidi; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela; Gern, Lise; Mathis, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens affected a cattle herd in Switzerland, and one of the pathogens was identified as Babesia bigemina, which had never been observed in this country before. Therefore, a survey of the occurrence of ruminant Babesia spp. and their tick vectors in Switzerland was conducted. A total of 2,017 ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and wild ruminants (deer, roe deer, and chamois) in southern parts of Switzerland and identified morphologically. The vast majority of the ticks (99.2%) were Ixodes ricinus, but 14 ticks from sheep and goats were identified as Dermacentor marginatus and two ticks from wild ruminants were identified as Hemaphysalis punctata. PCR analyses of 700 ticks revealed the presence of Babesia divergens (n = 6), Babesia sp. genotype EU1 (n = 14), and B. major (n = 2), whose suggested occurrence was confirmed in this study by molecular analysis, and the presence of novel Babesia sp. genotype CH1 (n = 4), which is closely related to B. odocoilei and to Babesia sp. genotype RD61 reported from North America. The identification of B. divergens and B. major in ticks collected from wild ruminants cast doubt on the postulated strict host specificity of these bovine Babesia species. Furthermore, the zoonotic Babesia sp. genotype EU1 was detected in ticks collected from domestic animals but was obtained predominantly from ticks collected from wild ruminants. More than one tick containing DNA of different Babesia spp. were collected from two red deer. Hence, the role of these game animals as reservoir hosts of Babesia spp. seems to be important but requires further investigation. PMID:17021198

  15. Babesia spp. identified by PCR in ticks collected from domestic and wild ruminants in southern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hilpertshauser, Heidi; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela; Gern, Lise; Mathis, Alexander

    2006-10-01

    Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens affected a cattle herd in Switzerland, and one of the pathogens was identified as Babesia bigemina, which had never been observed in this country before. Therefore, a survey of the occurrence of ruminant Babesia spp. and their tick vectors in Switzerland was conducted. A total of 2,017 ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and wild ruminants (deer, roe deer, and chamois) in southern parts of Switzerland and identified morphologically. The vast majority of the ticks (99.2%) were Ixodes ricinus, but 14 ticks from sheep and goats were identified as Dermacentor marginatus and two ticks from wild ruminants were identified as Hemaphysalis punctata. PCR analyses of 700 ticks revealed the presence of Babesia divergens (n = 6), Babesia sp. genotype EU1 (n = 14), and B. major (n = 2), whose suggested occurrence was confirmed in this study by molecular analysis, and the presence of novel Babesia sp. genotype CH1 (n = 4), which is closely related to B. odocoilei and to Babesia sp. genotype RD61 reported from North America. The identification of B. divergens and B. major in ticks collected from wild ruminants cast doubt on the postulated strict host specificity of these bovine Babesia species. Furthermore, the zoonotic Babesia sp. genotype EU1 was detected in ticks collected from domestic animals but was obtained predominantly from ticks collected from wild ruminants. More than one tick containing DNA of different Babesia spp. were collected from two red deer. Hence, the role of these game animals as reservoir hosts of Babesia spp. seems to be important but requires further investigation.

  16. Adult tick burdens and habitat use of sympatric wild and domestic ungulates in a mixed ranch in Zimbabwe: no evidence of a direct relationship.

    PubMed

    De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    Ticks do not usually infest sympatric hosts species according to their availability in a given environment, and it has been suggested that habitat use by hosts is a major determinant of tick burdens. The knowledge of such infestation patterns and their relationship with host habitat use is important for the control of the vectors of some major stock diseases in Africa, particularly in the context of mixed game/cattle ranching. In a ranch of Zimbabwe, we monitored the number of adult ticks found on cattle and wild ungulates. Tick burdens were measured weekly during one year on 12 heifers of an experimental herd (no acaricide used), and on wild ungulates occasionally shot for meat. Adult ticks were not evenly distributed among wild hosts, and infestation patterns corresponded to observations made by several authors in similar conditions. However, these infestation patterns could not be related to habitat use by ungulates, which had been previously monitored by road transect at the scale of the ranch, as these authors found a high niche overlap and no habitat segregation between ungulate species. In an attempt to relate habitat use by Brahman and Simmental heifers with the number of adult ticks collected during one day of grazing, we followed the heifers and recorded their position and activity (one or two days per week; each recording session was 7 h 30 min on average, for a total of 940 hours of survey). No correlation was found between the number of ticks collected and the distance (or time spent) traveled in each vegetation type or the number of grooming episodes. The possible role of other behavioral and physiological parameters is discussed, and the results are compared with those found for other tick-host associations. PMID:12381610

  17. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    PubMed

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies.

  18. Lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Coetzer, J A W; Bell-Sakyi, L

    2015-03-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28°C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals.

  19. Toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) against the larvae and adult ticks of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius a three-host tick in cattle.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Manash Kumar; Shiferaw, Yoseph; Hussen, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) was tested against the larvae adult male and female of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (family: Ixodidae or hard tick), known as 'tropical bont tick' parasitic mainly to cattle found in Ethiopia and other equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % concentrations of the seed oil extracted with petroleum ether were found to kill all (100 % mortality) larvae after 12, 9, 6, 3 and 1.5 h respectively. The results summarized in the Table 1 was found to be statistically significant at the probability level of p = 0.05. The 100 % concentration of the oil caused 100 % mortality of adult male, adult female and fully engorged female tick after 5, 7 and 12 h respectively. The root and root bark showed less toxicity. The leaves did not show any toxicity. [Table: see text].

  20. Hepatozoon and Theileria species detected in ticks collected from mammals and snakes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand. PMID:25736475

  1. Hepatozoon and Theileria species detected in ticks collected from mammals and snakes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand.

  2. The dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the Kruger National Park (1988-2002). Part III. The less commonly collected species.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Gordon J; Spickett, Andrea; Heyne, Heloise; Spickett, Arthur M; Horak, Ivan G

    2011-04-19

    Despite many studies regarding tick ecology, limited information on long-term changes in tick populations exist. This study assessed the long-term population dynamics of the less frequently collected questing ixodid ticks in the Kruger National Park (KNP). From 1988 to 2002, monthly dragging of the vegetation was performed in three habitats (grassland, woodland and gully) at two sites in the KNP (Nhlowa Road, Landscape Zone 17, and Skukuza, Landscape Zone 4). Amblyomma marmoreum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected as larvae most commonly. Most A. marmoreum larvae were collected at Skukuza and numbers peaked from March to July. More R. evertsi evertsi larvae were collected at Nhlowa Road and numbers peaked in summer and in winter, while at Skukuza there was a single peak in spring. Haemaphysalis elliptica, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus turanicus were collected as adults most commonly. More Ha. elliptica and R. turanicus were collected at Nhlowa Road than at Skukuza, while R. simus numbers from the two sites were approximately equal. Ha. elliptica were collected most often between February and June, and R. simus and R. turanicus during February and March. All three species were collected more frequently in gullies than in grassland or woodland. Their numbers increased in 1994/1995 following an eruption of rodents, the preferred hosts of the immature stages. The different host-seeking strategies of ticks largely determine the development stage at which they are likely to be collected during vegetation dragging and reflect a complex interaction between ticks, their hosts and the environment.

  3. Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in I. ricinus ticks collected from autumn migratory birds in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kazarina, Alisa; Japiņa, Kristīne; Keišs, Oskars; Salmane, Ineta; Bandere, Dace; Capligina, Valentina; Ranka, Renāte

    2015-03-01

    Birds have a potential of spreading ticks via bird migration routes. In this study, we screened 170 ticks removed during autumn 2010 from 55 birds belonging to 10 species for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In total, TBEV RNA was detected in 14% of I. ricinus tick samples obtained from different birds species. The results of this study indicate the possible role of migrating birds in the dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks along the southward migration route.

  4. Effect of burning on the numbers of questing ticks collected by dragging.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Gallivan, G J; Spickett, A M; Potgieter, A L F

    2006-09-01

    Sixteen experimental burn plot replicates, in groups of four, in four landscape zones of the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and from which wildlife are not excluded, have been subjected to fixed, regular burning regimens since 1954. In 1999, a study to determine the effect of burning on ixodid ticks questing for hosts from the vegetation of the plots was initiated, and six sub-plots, with identical histories, within each of two of the burn plot replicates in Combretum collinum/Combretum zeyheyri woodland on granite, were selected. With few exceptions these 12 sub-plots, as well as unburned vegetation adjacent to each of the replicates, were sampled for ticks at monthly intervals for a period of 39 months by dragging with flannel strips. The existing regimen of burning during August or during October on individual sub-plots was continued during this time. A total of 14 tick species was recovered from the plots of which nine could be considered major species. Sufficient numbers for statistical analysis of only eight species were, however, collected. Burning appeared to have little short-term effect on the number of ticks recovered. In the longer term, the response varied from no change, an increase, or a decrease in the numbers of ticks collected each year after burning. Tick species, life cycle, seasonality, questing strategy, host preference and host utilization of the habitat were important determinants of the effect of burning.

  5. The dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the Kruger National Park (1988-2002). Part I. Total ticks, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus decoloratus.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Gallivan, Gordon J; Spickett, Arthur M

    2011-02-23

    Despite a large number of studies on tick biology, there is limited information on long- term changes in tick populations. This study thus aimed to assess the long-term population dynamics of questing ixodid ticks in two landscape zones of the Kruger National Park (KNP). Questing ixodid ticks were collected in the KNP from August 1988 to March 2002 by monthly dragging of the vegetation in three habitats (grassland, woodland and gully) at two sites (Nhlowa Road and Skukuza). Findings pertaining to total tick numbers and Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus decoloratus specifically are presented here. Fourteen tick species were collected, as well as four others that could be identified only to generic level. More ticks (211 569 vs 125 810) were collected at Nhlowa Road than at Skukuza. Larvae were the most commonly collected stage of all the major tick species. A. hebraeum was the most commonly collected tick (63.6%) at Nhlowa Road, whereas R. decoloratus accounted for 15.3% of the ticks collected there. At Skukuza, 31.6% and 27.1% of the collected ticks were R. decoloratus and A. hebraeum respectively. Most A. hebraeum larvae were collected in summer and the fewest in winter and early spring, mostly in woodland and least often in grassland habitats. Most R. decoloratus larvae were collected in spring and the fewest in autumn and winter, and were more frequently collected in woodland and grassland than in gullies. The largest collections of most tick species were made during the early 1990 s, while numbers were lowest in the mid-1990 s after a drought during 1991 and 1992 and then increased towards the late 1990 s, followed by a final decrease. The changes in tick numbers over time probably reflect differences in their host communities at the two sites and the effect of climatic conditions on both hosts and free-living ticks. The population dynamics of questing ticks reflect a complex interaction between ticks, their hosts and the environment.

  6. Detection of Microbial Agents in Ticks Collected from Migratory Birds in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Luciano; Mancini, Fabiola; Di Luca, Marco; Cecere, Jacopo G.; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Manzia, Francesca; Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tick species characterization and molecular studies were performed within ornithological surveys conducted during 2010 and 2011 in the Lazio Region of central Italy. A total of 137 ticks were collected from 41 migratory birds belonging to 17 species (four partial migrants and 13 long-distance migrants). Most ticks were nymphs, with a predominance of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and H. m. rufipes, and a small portion of Ixodes and Amblyomma species. All tick species analyzed were infected, and the molecular pathogen recognition revealed the presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii, Rickettsia africae, Erlichia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, and Babesia microti, whereas no genomic DNA of Bartonella spp. or Francisella tularensis was detected. The results of the survey show that H. marginatum ticks appear to be a vector of microbial agents that may affect human and animal health and that migratory birds may be an important carrier of these ticks. Additional studies are needed to better investigate the role of migratory birds in the epidemiology of these pathogens. PMID:24576218

  7. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus from Moldova collected in 1960.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Toderas, Ion; Uspenskaia, Inga; Conovalov, Jurii

    2013-06-01

    This study is the first report about the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens, as well as their (co-)infection rates, in the museum-archived I. ricinus female ticks collected in Moldova in 1960. A total of 16.7% (21/126) ticks was mono-infected. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was revealed as the most abundant species (4.8%) followed by B. garinii (1.6%), B. afzelii (0.8%), B. valaisiana (0.8%), and B. lusitaniae (0.8%). DNA of Rickettsia helvetica (2.4%), R. monacensis (2.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4%), 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' (0.8%), and Babesia microti (0.8%) were also detected, indicating the occurrence of these emerging tick-borne microorganisms in Moldova since 1960 at least. In this study, we detected a co-infection (0.8%; 1/126 tested ticks) between B. microti and R. helvetica. Additional investigations are warranted to further characterize a historical snapshot of the distribution of tick-borne pathogens in Europe.

  8. Structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Bullard, Rebekah; Allen, Paige; Chao, Chien-Chung; Douglas, Jessica; Das, Pradipta; Morgan, Sarah E; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern United States and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. To remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. Cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with host skin and hair making analysis of the cone difficult. To reduce the contamination found in the cement cone, we have adapted an artificial membrane feeding system used to feed long mouthpart ticks. Cones collected from in vivo and membrane fed ticks are analyzed to determine changes in the cone morphology. Comparisons of the cement cones using light microscopy shows similar structures and color however using scanning electron microscopy the cones have drastically different structures. The in vivo cones contain fibrils, sheets, and are heavily textured whereas cones from membrane fed ticks are remarkably smooth with no distinct structures. Analysis of the secondary protein structures using FTIR-ATR show both in vivo and membrane fed cement cones contain β sheets but only in vivo cement cones contain helical protein structures. Additionally, proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS identifies many proteins including glycine rich proteins, metalloproteases, and protease inhibitors. Proteomic analysis of the cones identified both secreted and non-secreted tick proteins. Artificial membrane feeding is a suitable model for increased collection of cement cones for proteomic analysis however, structurally there are significant differences.

  9. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study. PMID:25547077

  10. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was <90 % against fleas at day 64 and against ticks at day 30 of the first post-treatment. No flea eggs were laid in the treated groups until infestation was carried out >60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  11. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    PubMed

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.

  12. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    PubMed

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases. PMID:26334827

  13. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  14. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed.

  15. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from Wild Animals in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  16. Real-time PCR-based identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in ticks collected from humans in Romania.

    PubMed

    Briciu, Violeta T; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Tăţulescu, Doina F; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Carstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Klier, Christiane; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-09-01

    The aims of our study were to determine (i) which tick species bite humans in Romania and (ii) the prevalence of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi genospecies in these ticks. All ticks collected from patients who presented to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases Cluj Napoca in spring/summer 2010 were morphologically identified by an entomologist and tested for B. burgdorferi genospecies prevalence by a real-time PCR assay targeting the hbb gene and melting curve analysis. Out of 532 ticks, 518 were Ixodes ricinus, 10 Dermacentor marginatus, and 3 Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and one unidentified tick due to destruction. Since evaluation of the hbb PCR revealed that it was not possible to differentiate between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. garinii/B. bavariensis, sequencing of an 800-bp fragment of the ospA gene was performed in these cases. Out of 389 investigated ticks, 43 were positive by hbb PCR for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The positive samples were 42 Ixodes ricinus (11.1% B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence) and the one unidentified tick. Species identification revealed the presence of mainly B. afzelii, but also of B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, and B. lusitaniae. In 4 samples, differentiation between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana was impossible. Our study shows that the most relevant human pathogenic B. burgdorferi genospecies - predominantly B. afzelii - are present in ticks collected from Romanian patients.

  17. CO2 flagging - an improved method for the collection of questing ticks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most epidemiological studies on tick-borne pathogens involve collection of ticks from the environment. An efficient collection method is essential for large sample pools. Our main aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a new method, where traditional flagging was enhanced by the use of CO2 dispersed into the white flannel. The CO2 was spread through a rubber hose network inserted into the flag blanket. The research was conducted in spring, in March-April 2011 in two locations from Cluj County, Romania. Methods The research was conducted in March-April 2011 in two locations from Cluj County, Romania. The flag to be tested contained a fine silicone rubber hose network which dispersed the CO2 in the shaft. On each collection site n=30 samplings were performed. Each sampling consisted in the simultaneous use of both flags (with and without CO2) by two persons. The CO2 concentration level on the flag canvas surface was measured. The efficacy of the method was determined by counting comparatively the total number of ticks and separate developmental stage count. Results Using the CO2 improved flag, 2411 (59%) Ixodes ricinus and 100 (53.8%) Dermacentor marginatus ticks were captured, while the CO2-free flag accounted for the collection of 1670 I. ricinus (41%) and 86 (46.2%) D. marginatus ticks. The addition of CO2 prompted a concentration difference on the surface of the flag ranging between 756.5 and 1135.0 ppm with a mean value of 848.9 ppm. Conclusion The study showed that the CO2 enhanced sweep flag increased the ability of I. ricinus (p < 0001) but not of D. marginatus to be attracted to the flag blanket. PMID:22720872

  18. Gene expression profiling of adult female tissues in feeding Rhipicephalus microplus cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Stutzer, Christian; van Zyl, Willem A; Olivier, Nicholas A; Richards, Sabine; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an economically important pest, especially for resource-poor countries, both as a highly adaptive invasive species and prominent vector of disease. The increasing prevalence of resistance to chemical acaricides and variable efficacy of current tick vaccine candidates highlight the need for more effective control methods. In the absence of a fully annotated genome, the wealth of available expressed sequence tag sequence data for this species presents a unique opportunity to study the genes that are expressed in tissues involved in blood meal acquisition, digestion and reproduction during feeding. Utilising a custom oligonucleotide microarray designed from available singletons (BmiGI Version 2.1) and expressed sequence tag sequences of R. microplus, the expression profiles in feeding adult female midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues were compared. From 13,456 assembled transcripts, 588 genes expressed in all three tissues were identified from fed adult females 20 days post infestation. The greatest complement of genes relate to translation and protein turnover. Additionally, a number of unique transcripts were identified for each tissue that relate well to their respective physiological/biological function/role(s). These transcripts include secreted anti-hemostatics and defense proteins from the salivary glands for acquisition of a blood meal, proteases as well as enzymes and transporters for digestion and nutrient acquisition from ingested blood in the midgut, and finally proteins and associated factors involved in DNA replication and cell-cycle control for oogenesis in the ovaries. Comparative analyses of adult female tissues during feeding enabled the identification of a catalogue of transcripts that may be essential for successful feeding and reproduction in the cattle tick, R. microplus. Future studies will increase our understanding of basic tick biology, allowing the identification of shared proteins

  19. Studies on survival and water balance of unfed adult Dermacentor marginatus and D. reticulatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Meyer-König, A; Zahler, M; Gothe, R

    2001-01-01

    The water content, the survival time at various relative humidities (r.h.) and the critical equilibrium activity of unfed adult Dermacentor marginatus and D. reticulatus ticks were investigated at a constant temperature of 20 degrees C. It was also examined whether these ticks use liquid water to compensate water loss. Both Dermacentor spp. showed no significant differences in water content in relation to body mass. The mean water content of D. marginatus and D. reticulatus was 54.6% and 54.7%, respectively, in females and 56.3% and 57.0%, respectively, in males. The survival time of unfed adults prolonged with decreasing saturation deficits. On average, males survived longer than females and D. marginatus ticks survived mostly longer than D. reticulatus ticks. The 50% mortality period ranged between 40 d at 33% r.h. and 420 d at 95% r.h. in D. marginatus, and between 43 d at 33 r.h. and 366 d at 95% r.h. in D. reticulatus. The critical equilibrium activity of unfed adults was estimated to be 0.84 for both species and was independent of sex. When dehydrated adult D. marginatus and D. reticulatus ticks were offered liquid water, only a few slightly gained weight while most further lost weight. Liquid water was not attractive for dehydrated or non-dehydrated ticks and drinking was not observed. After submerging in water for 2 d, most of the dehydrated ticks had gained weight.

  20. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Azmi, Kifaya; Harrus, Shimon; Mumcuoglu, Kosta; Apanaskevich, Dimtry; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum) were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17%) tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii. Significance The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R

  1. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, L T; Badra, S J; Pereira, L E; Szabó, M P

    1999-01-01

    Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi), the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man. PMID:10881097

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia species in Amblyomma ticks collected from snakes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Doornbos, Kathryn; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Baimai, Visut; Grubhoffer, Libor; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    Some reptile ticks are potential vectors of pathogens such as spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Here, we report for the first time in detail the molecular evidence, DNA sequences and phylogenetic studies, for the presence of Rickettsia spp. in Amblyomma ticks (Amblyomma helvolum and Amblyomma varanense) from snakes in Thailand. A total of 24 tick samples was collected from 4 snake species and identified. A phylogenetic analysis inferred from the partial sequences of the gltA gene indicated that the Rickettsia spp. from 2 Amblyomma helvolum and 1 Amblyomma varanense belong to the same group as the SFG rickettsiae, which are closely related to Rickettsia raoultii strains. In contrast, there was 1 Rickettsia sp. from Amblyomma helvolum grouped into the same clade with other SFG rickettsiae (Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and a Rickettsia endosymbiont of Amblyomma dubitatum from Brazil). However, another Rickettsia sp. from Amblyomma varanense was closely related to Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia sp. strain RDa420 from Thailand. In addition, from phylogenetic results based on the 16S rRNA gene and a concatenated tree of the 3 genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB), we found what may be a novel SFG rickettsia species closely related to Rickettsia raoultii (from both Amblyomma varanense and Amblyomma helvolum). In conclusion, our findings are the first report on the presence of novel SFG rickettsiae in 2 snake tick species, Amblyomma varanense and Amblyomma helvolum in Thailand and in south-eastern Asia.

  3. Toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) against the larvae and adult ticks of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius a three-host tick in cattle.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Manash Kumar; Shiferaw, Yoseph; Hussen, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) was tested against the larvae adult male and female of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (family: Ixodidae or hard tick), known as 'tropical bont tick' parasitic mainly to cattle found in Ethiopia and other equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % concentrations of the seed oil extracted with petroleum ether were found to kill all (100 % mortality) larvae after 12, 9, 6, 3 and 1.5 h respectively. The results summarized in the Table 1 was found to be statistically significant at the probability level of p = 0.05. The 100 % concentration of the oil caused 100 % mortality of adult male, adult female and fully engorged female tick after 5, 7 and 12 h respectively. The root and root bark showed less toxicity. The leaves did not show any toxicity. [Table: see text]. PMID:26064022

  4. Occurrence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in ticks collected from humans in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mietze, A; Strube, C; Beyerbach, M; Schnieder, T; Goethe, R

    2011-06-01

    Bartonella (B.) henselae is the zoonotic agent of cat scratch disease. B. henselae has been associated with therapy-resistant Lyme disease in humans suggesting that B. henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato might be transmitted concurrently by ticks. In the present study we found that 16 (6.9%) of 230 Ixodes ricinus collected from humans harboured DNA of Bartonella spp. Fifteen positive ticks were infected with B. henselae and one tick with B. clarridgeiae. Twenty-five percent of the 16 Bartonella positive ticks were co-infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Our data show that B. henselae is present in Ixodes ricinus and that ticks may serve as source of infection for humans.

  5. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area. PMID:27308296

  6. Effects of pyriproxyfen on off-host water-balance and survival of adult lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Strey, O F; Teel, P D; Longnecker, M T

    2001-07-01

    Newly engorged nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyoma americanum (L.), were continuously exposed to 4 microg/cm2 of pyriproxyfen residues in glass vials. Treatment of engorged nymphs (n = 285) resulted in significant molting inhibition, with more than one-fourth (26.7%, n = 76) of nymphs dying before or during ecdysis. Treatment effects were evident among ticks that molted to the adult stage, with 26.7% (n = 76) of females, and 17.9% (n = 51) of males exhibiting moribund physical characteristics (i.e., lethargy; dull, discolored and desiccated cuticles; lacking full locomotor competency). A few molted adult ticks (10 males, four females) were dead upon inspection. Only 11.2% of pyriproxyfen treated, emergent females (n = 32), and 11.5% of treated emergent males (n = 25) from 285 ticks treated as engorged nymphs, exhibited normal physical appearance and possessed a full range of locomotor activity. Treated adult ticks maintained within a desiccating environmental chamber at 0% RH and 23 degrees C, had significantly accelerated whole-body water loss rates in comparison to untreated males and females maintained under the same environmental conditions. Additionally, treated adult ticks maintained under optimal environmental conditions (23 degrees C and >95% RH) sustained 100% mortality within 32 d following assignment to these conditions (or 79 d posttreatment as engorged nymphs), whereas untreated ticks had 0% mortality for the same duration of time. Results demonstrate that continuous exposure of nymphs to pyriproxyfen disrupted molting, and accelerated both whole-body water loss and subsequent mortality among emergent adult ticks.

  7. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  8. SFTS virus in ticks in an endemic area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Jiandong; Niu, Guoyu; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Liang, Mifang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Li, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    In total, 3,145 ticks of the species Haemaphysalis longicornis (3,048; 96.9%), R. microplus (82; 2.6%), H. campanulata (9; 0.3%), and Dermacentor sinicus (5; 0.2%) were collected from animals and vegetation at Yantai in Shandong Province. Both adult and immature ticks were obtained, and all ticks collected from vegetation were unfed. Eggs were obtained from 22 blood-fed female ticks through maintenance at room temperature after collection. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) viral RNA was identified in H. longicornis and R. microplus, with a prevalence of 4.75 per 100 ticks (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.87-5.63) for ticks collected from animals and 2.24 per 100 ticks (95% CI = 1.27-3.21) for ticks collected from vegetation. The possibility that SFTSV transmission may occur by both the transstadial and transovarial routes was suggested by the fact that viral RNA was detected in H. longicornis at all developmental stages. Tick-derived sequences shared over 95.6% identity with human- and animal-derived isolates. This study provides evidence that implicates ticks as not only vectors but also, reservoirs of SFTSV. PMID:25711611

  9. Nymphs of the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) collected from tree trunks in woodland-grass habitat.

    PubMed

    Slowik, T J; Lane, R S

    2001-12-01

    Nymphs of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, were found on the trunks of trees during spring and summer in northwestern California. In a woodland-grass habitat, large- and medium-sized (> 130 cm and 80-130 cm in circumference, respectively), moss-covered oak (Quercus spp.) trees supported ticks significantly more often than trees without these characteristics. Additionally, trees with basal leaf-litter and lacking shade (at time of sampling) were significantly associated with the presence of ticks. Mean tick-burdens were > 1 for all oaks (1.06), all trees with basal leaf-litter (1.05), and all trees of large-circumference (1.19); 0.79 ticks per tree were collected over the entire study. Moss reduced the surface temperature of trees by a mean of 1.9 degrees C (range of 1.6-5.0 degrees C) and increased relative humidity by up to 2.5% from the ambient. These microclimatic changes, along with the presence of refugia in bark and western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) hosts on the lower-most surface of trees, likely accounted for ticks questing on the trunks. Although of undetermined epidemiological significance, the presence of host-seeking I. pacificus nymphs on tree trunks may shed light on the relation of abiotic and biotic factors to the life history of this important vector of disease. PMID:11813653

  10. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    PubMed

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections.

  11. Attachment-site patterns of adult blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on white-tailed deer and horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, E T; Carroll, J F; Watson, D W

    1998-01-01

    The attachment site pattern of adult Ixodes scapularis Say on white-tailed deer and horses in Maryland was determined by whole-body examinations during fall and spring periods of tick host-seeking activity. On deer in the fall, both female and male I. scapularis attached largely to anterior dorsal body regions, with attachment to the ears (outside), head, neck, and brisket accounting for 87.9% of females and 86.6% of males. The attachment pattern of females differed between bucks and does during fall, but not in spring, and both females and males were more abundant on bucks than does during fall, but not in spring. Neither female nor male attachment patterns on deer differed between fall and spring seasons. In contrast to deer, the ears and neck of horses were largely devoid of blacklegged ticks, and 84% of the females were attached either on the chest, in the axillae of the fore and rear legs, or under the jawbone. The restricted attachment of female blacklegged ticks to ventral body regions of horses may reflect avoidance of light. An understanding of the attachment patterns of adult I. scapularis, an increasingly abundant and economically important species, enhances sampling of feeding ticks, deticking to limit host irritation or exposure to tick-borne pathogens, and identifies body areas that should be targeted for delivery of repellents or acaricides. PMID:9542346

  12. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  13. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management.

  14. Seasonal Activity, Density, and Collection Efficiency of the Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes scapularis) (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mid-Western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Simmons, T W; Shea, J; Myers-Claypole, M A; Kruise, R; Hutchinson, M L

    2015-11-01

    Although Pennsylvania has recently reported the greatest number of Lyme disease cases in the United States, with the largest increase for PA occurring in its western region, the population biology of the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) has not been adequately characterized in western PA. We studied the seasonal activity of host-seeking I. scapularis larvae, nymphs, and adults in mid-western PA over the course of a year, including a severe winter, and determined their absolute densities and collection efficiencies using replicated mark-release-recapture or removal methods. Our results are compared to those from similar studies conducted in the highly Lyme disease endemic Hudson Valley region of southeastern New York State. The seasonal activity of I. scapularis was intermediate between patterns observed in the coastal northeastern and upper Midwestern United States. Only one peak of larval activity was observed, which was later than the major peak in the Midwest, but earlier than in the northeast. Seasonal synchrony of larvae and nymphs was similar to the northeast, but the activity peaks were much closer together, although not completely overlapping as in the Midwest. Pre- and postwinter relative densities of questing adult I. scapularis were not significantly different from one another. The absolute densities and collection efficiencies of larvae, nymphs, and adults were comparable to results from classic research conducted at the Louis Calder Center in Westchester County, NY. We conclude that the population biology of I. scapularis in mid-western PA is similar to southeastern NYS contributing to a high acarological Lyme disease risk. PMID:26336271

  15. Physiological age of field-collected female taiga ticks, Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae), and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor; Kovalevskii, Yuri V; Korenberg, Edward I

    2006-01-01

    In some studies the prevalence of tick infection (infection rate) and the intensity of infection are negatively correlated with unfed tick age (in the broad sense of this term). However, no special research has been carried out to consider the phenomenon thoroughly. The infection indices of the female taiga ticks, Ixodes persulcatus, infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were related to tick physiological age, an index that more precisely reflects tick physiological state than the time of tick collection in the field or the duration of tick survival under laboratory conditions. A novel quantitative technique of physiological age determination based on the evaluation of the ratios between sizes of the stable (scutum) and the changing (alloscutum) structures of the tick body was used. The age was estimated in accordance with the classical age-grade scale introduced by Balashov and a more fractional scale determined by the new technique. In total, 131 female ticks were examined for their infection and physiological age, 46 of which were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. (mean infection rate 35.1%). The minimal intensity of infection was 0.4 bacterial cells per 100 fields of view whereas the maximal infection was 172 cells. There was no difference between the prevalence of infection in ticks of different physiological age. The intensity of infection obviously differed between ticks of different age groups in the scale introduced by Balashov but did not significantly differ between ticks of different age groups according to the fractional age-grade scale. The data concerning the relationships between Borrelia burgdorferi and unfed Ixodes ticks are considered.

  16. Adult Education Collection at Syracuse University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N., Comp.

    Intended to give adult educators and adult education researchers greater and easier access to the Syracuse University adult education collection, the guide inventories, describes the resources, and names a contact person for each of 18 parts of the diverse collection. The following are the holdings attended to, which also reflect the guide's…

  17. Tests on ticks from wild birds collected in the eastern United States for rickettsiae and viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, C.M.; Sonenshine, D.E.; Atwood, E.L.; Robbins, C.S.; Hughes, L.E.

    1969-01-01

    Results of tests for rickettsiae and viruses on 4,266 ticks taken from more than 10,000 birds, comprising 150 species, in the eastern United States indicated the presence of two agents: Rickettsia rickettsii and an agent of the typhus group. Infection with R. rickettsii was indicated in 24 pools of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, five pools of Ixodes dentatus, one pool of Ixodes brunneus, and two pools that contained both I. dentatus and H. leporispalustris. The pools positive for R. rickettsii were from a variety of locations in the eastern U. S. The typhus-group agent was demonstrated only once, in a single pool of H. leporispalustris taken at Kent Point, Maryland. A strain of R. rickettsii was isolated from a pool of 21 larval H. leporispalustris collected at Ocean City, Maryland. This agent possessed several characteristics of other strains of low virulence isolated previously in this region by various authors.

  18. Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum ticks parasitizing Rhinella jimi from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horta, Mauricio C; Saraiva, Danilo G; Oliveira, Glauber M B; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma rotundatum ticks collected from toads (Rhinella jimi) in the Brazilian Caatinga biome, an unique semiarid region of South America. Tick infestations were observed in 57.8% toads (26/45); mean infestation: 1.6 ticks/toad. DNA extraction from 42 ticks (6 larvae, 22 nymphs and 11 female adults) was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Rickettsia organisms, which were detected in 100% of the ticks. Amplicons' DNA sequences were identical to each other and 99% identical to Rickettsia bellii from GenBank. DNA samples extracted from the blood of the 45 toads were negative by rickettsia-PCR protocols.

  19. Variation in the Microbiota of Ixodes Ticks with Regard to Geography, Species, and Sex.

    PubMed

    Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M; Juliano, Jonathan J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Falco, Richard C; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Roe, R Michael; Apperson, Charles S; Knight, Rob; Meshnick, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex.

  20. Variation in the Microbiota of Ixodes Ticks with Regard to Geography, Species, and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Falco, Richard C.; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Roe, R. Michael; Apperson, Charles S.; Knight, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex. PMID:26150449

  1. Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Apanaskevich, D A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martínez, I; Reyes-Novelo, E; Esteve-Gassent, M D; Pérez de León, A A

    2016-01-15

    Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle. This study was conducted to bridge that knowledge gap by inventorying tick species that infest humans, domestic animals and wildlife in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Amblyomma ticks were observed as euryxenous vertebrate parasites because they were found parasitizing 17 animal species and human. Amblyomma mixtum was the most eryxenous species found in 11 different animal species and humans. Both A. mixtum and A. parvum were found parasitizing humans. Ixodes near affinis was the second most abundant species parasitizing six animal species (dogs, cats, horses, white-nosed coati, white-tail deer and black vulture) and was found widely across the State of Yucatan. Ixodid tick populations may increase in the State of Yucatan with time due to animal production intensification, an increasing wildlife population near rural communities because of natural habitat reduction and fragmentation. The diversity of ticks across host taxa documented here highlights the relevance of ecological information to understand tick-host dynamics. This knowledge is critical to inform public health and veterinary programs for the sustainable control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  2. Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Apanaskevich, D A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martínez, I; Reyes-Novelo, E; Esteve-Gassent, M D; Pérez de León, A A

    2016-01-15

    Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle. This study was conducted to bridge that knowledge gap by inventorying tick species that infest humans, domestic animals and wildlife in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Amblyomma ticks were observed as euryxenous vertebrate parasites because they were found parasitizing 17 animal species and human. Amblyomma mixtum was the most eryxenous species found in 11 different animal species and humans. Both A. mixtum and A. parvum were found parasitizing humans. Ixodes near affinis was the second most abundant species parasitizing six animal species (dogs, cats, horses, white-nosed coati, white-tail deer and black vulture) and was found widely across the State of Yucatan. Ixodid tick populations may increase in the State of Yucatan with time due to animal production intensification, an increasing wildlife population near rural communities because of natural habitat reduction and fragmentation. The diversity of ticks across host taxa documented here highlights the relevance of ecological information to understand tick-host dynamics. This knowledge is critical to inform public health and veterinary programs for the sustainable control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. PMID:26790745

  3. Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their o...

  4. Tick Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Borrelia myamotoi Infections Colorado Tick Fever Ehrlichiosis Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness (STARI) ... Infections Colorado Tick Fever Ehrlichiosis Lyme Disease Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness (STARI) ...

  5. Avoiding Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoiding ticks On people On pets In the yard Removing a tick Symptoms of tickborne illness Geographic ... ticks on your pets Preventing ticks in the yard File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  6. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2015-01-01

    A molecular survey was undertaken in the Black Sea region of Turkey to determine the presence of Theileria and Babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. A total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 310 pools tested, 46 (14.83%) were found to be infected with Theileria or Babesia species, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.27% (CI 1.67-2.99). The MLE of the infection rates were calculated as 0.691% (CI 0.171-1.78) in Haemaphysalis parva, 1.47% (CI 0.081-6.37) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.84% (CI 0.101-7.87) in Ixodes ricinus, 2.86% (CI 1.68-4.48) in Rhipicephalus turanicus, 5.57% (CI 0.941-16.3) in Hyalomma marginatum, and 6.2% (CI 4.02-9.02) in Rhipicephalus bursa. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia microti. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, five pools displayed mixed infections with T. ovis and B. ovis. This study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of B. microti in ticks in Turkey.

  7. First Isolation of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks Collected in Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Outbreak Areas in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seok-Min; Song, Bong Gu; Choi, WooYoung; Roh, Jong Yul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Won Il; Han, Myung Guk; Ju, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease that is endemic to China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). In this study, 8313 ticks collected from SFTS outbreak areas in the ROK in 2013 were used to detect the SFTS virus (SFTSV). A single SFTSV was isolated in cell culture from one pool of Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks collected from Samcheok-si, Gangwon Province, in the ROK. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the SFTSV isolate was clustered with the SFTSV strain from Japan, which was isolated from humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation in the world of SFTSV in ticks collected from vegetation. PMID:26745758

  8. Molecular detection of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Ferreira, Andreia; Nunes, Mónica; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-06-01

    Ticks are important vector arthropods of human and animal pathogens. As information about agents of disease circulating in vectors in Portugal is limited, the aim of the present study was to detect bacteria and parasites with veterinary and zoonotic importance in ticks collected from dogs, cats, and field vegetation. A total of 925 ticks, comprising 888 (96.0%) adults, 8 (0.9%) nymphs, and 29 (3.1%) larvae, were collected in 4 geographic areas (districts) of Portugal. Among those, 620 (67.0%) were removed from naturally infested dogs, 42 (4.5%) from cats, and 263 (28.4%) were questing ticks obtained from field vegetation. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the predominant tick species, and the only one collected from dogs and vegetation, while all Ixodes ricinus specimens (n=6) were recovered from cats. Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii were identified in 35 ticks collected from cats and dogs and in 3 ticks collected from dogs. Among ticks collected from cats or dogs, 4 Rh. sanguineus specimens were detected with Hepatozoon felis, 3 with Anaplasma platys, 2 with Hepatozoon canis, one with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, one with Babesia vogeli, one with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and one with Cercopithifilaria spp. Rickettsia helvetica was detected in one I. ricinus tick collected from a cat. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that Cercopithifilaria spp., Ba. vogeli, H. canis, and H. felis have been detected in ticks from Portugal. The wide range of tick-borne pathogens identified, some of zoonotic concern, suggests a risk for the emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans in Portugal. Further studies on these and other tick-borne agents should be performed to better understand their epidemiological and clinical importance, and to support the implementation of effective control measures.

  9. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well. PMID:24861806

  10. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well.

  11. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time.

  12. A rickettsia-like organism from Ixodes uriae ticks collected on the Kerguelen Islands (French Subantarctic Territories).

    PubMed

    Chastel, C; Demazure, M; Chastel, O; Genevois, F; Legrand, M C; Grulet, O; Odermatt, M; Le Goff, F

    1993-02-01

    A rickettsia-like microorganism was isolated in suckling mice from Ixodes uriae ticks collected from penguins breeding on Mayes Island, Kerguelen Archipelago, French Subantarctic Territories. At isolation, this agent mimicked a tick-borne arbovirus. Finally, electron microscopy studies of infected suckling mouse livers showed the presence of inclusions filled with pleomorphic microorganism in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes, sometimes dividing by binary fission and thus of obviously non-viral nature. No firm serological relationship was demonstrated with Chlamydia psittaci, C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetti, Cowdria ruminentium, Ehrlichia canis, E. phagocytophila, E. risticii or the WSU/1044 agent. The exact taxonomic position of the "Mayes" agent remains to be clarified. PMID:8105647

  13. Absence of Rickettsia rickettsii and Occurrence of Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks from Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Cohen, Sara B.; Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Eileen; Yabsley, Michael J.; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett G.; Huang, Junjun; Mead, Daniel G.; Jones, Timothy F.; Dunn, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most common tick-borne illness in Tennessee. Little is known about the occurrence of R. rickettsii, the causative agent, in ticks in Tennessee. To better understand the prevalence and distribution of rickettsial agents in ticks, we tested 1,265 Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Ixodes adult and nymphal ticks. Additionally, we tested 231 Amblyomma americanum larvae. Ticks were collected from 49 counties from humans, wild animals, domestic canines, and flannel drags. Spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 32% of adult and nymphal ticks. A total minimum infection rate of 85.63 was found in larval pools tested. Three rickettsial species, Rickettsia montana, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Rickettsia cooleyi were identified by molecular analysis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected. This study suggests that some RMSF cases reported in Tennessee may be caused by cross-reactivity with other SFGR antigenically related to R. rickettsii. PMID:20810834

  14. Spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases in Germany due to global warming.

    PubMed

    Hartelt, Kathrin; Pluta, Silvia; Oehme, Rainer; Kimmig, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Tick-transmitted diseases like tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme Borreliosis have been well known in Germany for decades. Global climate changes may influence the emergence and reemergence of diseases. Ongoing research now gives an additional focus on other tick-borne pathogens such as Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp., the causative agents of Q-fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis, respectively. The epidemiology of these pathogens was investigated on ticks as well as on rodents, the main hosts. Therefore adults of Dermacentor spp. (n = 862) and rodents (n = 119) were collected and examined for the existence of C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In none of the ticks and rodents C. burnetii could be detected, in contrast to Rickettsia spp. where the infection rate in ticks was about 20%. Over and above that, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus were also collected and investigated by PCR for A. phagocytophilum (n = 5,424), Rickettsia helvetica (n = 1,187) and Babesia spp. (n = 3,113). Thereby infection rates of 1%, 8.9% and 1%, respectively, could be determined. The prevalence in rodents was 5.3% for A. phagocytophilum and 0.8% for Babesia microti. None of the rodents was R. helvetica positive.

  15. Indicators for elevated risk of human exposure to host-seeking adults of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis A; Eisen, Rebecca J; Piesman, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    The human-biting adult stage of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) can cause tick paralysis in humans and domestic animals and is the primary tick vector in the intermountain west of the pathogens causing Colorado tick fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and tularemia. We conducted drag sampling studies in Poudre Canyon and Rocky Mountain National Park of Larimer County, CO, to determine microhabitat use patterns by host-seeking D. andersoni adults and find environmental factors signaling elevated risk of tick exposure. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was found to serve as a general indicator of areas with elevated risk of exposure to host-seeking D. andersoni adults; this likely results from a shared climate tolerance of big sagebrush and D. andersoni. Grass was the favored substrate for host-seeking ticks. Drag sampling of open grass or grass bordering rock or shrub produced abundances of D. andersoni adults significantly higher than sampling of brush. Sampling sites in Rocky Mountain National Park, relative to Poudre Canyon, were characterized by more intense usage by elk (Cervus elaphus) but decreased brush coverage, smaller brush size, and lower abundances of host-seeking D. andersoni adults. There has been a tremendous increase in the population of elk in Rocky Mountain National Park over the last decades and we speculate that this has resulted in an ecological cascade where overgrazing of vegetation by elk is followed by suppression of rodent populations, decreased tick abundance, and, ultimately, reduced risk of human exposure to D. andersoni and its associated pathogens. PMID:18697314

  16. Emerging Tick-borne Rickettsia and Ehrlichia at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Fort Eustis, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa K; Jiang, Ju; Truong, Melissa; Yarina, Tamasin; Evans, Holly; Christensen, Timothy P; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Four species of ticks known to parasitize humans (Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick), Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick), Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick), and Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick)) were collected at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Fort Eustis, Virginia during 2009. These ticks were tested individually (adults and nymphs) and in pools of 15 (larvae) for pathogens of public health importance within the genera: Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrlichia, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and, where appropriate, multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Of the 340 A americanum ticks tested, a minimum of 65 (19%), 4 (1%), 4 (1%), and one (<1%) were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, B lonestari, E ewingii and E chaffeensis, respectively. One of 2 (50%) A maculatum ticks collected was found to be positive for R parkeri by MLST and qPCR analyses. All 33 D variabilis ticks were negative for evidence of rickettsial infections. Likewise, no pathogenic organisms were detected from the single Ixodes scapularis tick collected. Pathogenic rickettsiae and ehrlichiae are likely emerging and cause under-recognized diseases, which threaten people who live, work, train, or otherwise engage in outdoor activities at, or in the vicinity of, Fort Eustis, Virginia.

  17. Emerging Tick-borne Rickettsia and Ehrlichia at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Fort Eustis, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa K; Jiang, Ju; Truong, Melissa; Yarina, Tamasin; Evans, Holly; Christensen, Timothy P; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Four species of ticks known to parasitize humans (Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick), Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick), Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick), and Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick)) were collected at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Fort Eustis, Virginia during 2009. These ticks were tested individually (adults and nymphs) and in pools of 15 (larvae) for pathogens of public health importance within the genera: Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrlichia, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and, where appropriate, multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Of the 340 A americanum ticks tested, a minimum of 65 (19%), 4 (1%), 4 (1%), and one (<1%) were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, B lonestari, E ewingii and E chaffeensis, respectively. One of 2 (50%) A maculatum ticks collected was found to be positive for R parkeri by MLST and qPCR analyses. All 33 D variabilis ticks were negative for evidence of rickettsial infections. Likewise, no pathogenic organisms were detected from the single Ixodes scapularis tick collected. Pathogenic rickettsiae and ehrlichiae are likely emerging and cause under-recognized diseases, which threaten people who live, work, train, or otherwise engage in outdoor activities at, or in the vicinity of, Fort Eustis, Virginia. PMID:27613206

  18. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  19. Detection of Hepatozoon felis in Ticks Collected from Free-Ranging Amur Tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica), Russian Far East, 2002-12.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lindsay H; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G; Birtles, Richard J; Lewis, John C M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 69 ticks from nine, free-ranging Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) between 2002 and 2011 and investigated them for tick-borne pathogens. DNA was extracted using alkaline digestion and PCR was performed to detect apicomplexan organisms. Partial 18S rDNA amplification products were obtained from 14 ticks from four tigers, of which 13 yielded unambiguous nucleotide sequence data. Comparative sequence analysis revealed all 13 partial 18S rDNA sequences were most similar to those belonging to strains of Hepatozoon felis (>564/572 base-pair identity, >99% sequence similarity). Although this tick-borne protozoon pathogen has been detected in wild felids from many parts of the world, this is the first record from the Russian Far East. PMID:27243154

  20. Detection of Hepatozoon felis in Ticks Collected from Free-Ranging Amur Tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica), Russian Far East, 2002-12.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lindsay H; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G; Birtles, Richard J; Lewis, John C M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 69 ticks from nine, free-ranging Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) between 2002 and 2011 and investigated them for tick-borne pathogens. DNA was extracted using alkaline digestion and PCR was performed to detect apicomplexan organisms. Partial 18S rDNA amplification products were obtained from 14 ticks from four tigers, of which 13 yielded unambiguous nucleotide sequence data. Comparative sequence analysis revealed all 13 partial 18S rDNA sequences were most similar to those belonging to strains of Hepatozoon felis (>564/572 base-pair identity, >99% sequence similarity). Although this tick-borne protozoon pathogen has been detected in wild felids from many parts of the world, this is the first record from the Russian Far East.

  1. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  2. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  3. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  4. Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, M Pilar; Nijhof, Ard M; Jongejan, Frans; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-12-01

    Tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. In an attempt to derive continuous Dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in The Netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. After several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a Rickettsia-like intracellular organism. Supernatant medium containing some D. reticulatus cells was inoculated into cultures of 2 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines, BME/CTVM2 and BME/CTVM23, where abundant growth of the bacteria occurred intracellularly on transfer to both cell lines. Bacterial growth was monitored by light (live, inverted microscope, Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears) and transmission electron microscopy revealing heavy infection with typical intracytoplasmic Rickettsia-like bacteria, not present in uninfected cultures. DNA was extracted from bacteria-infected and uninfected control cultures, and primers specific for Rickettsia 16S rRNA, ompB, and sca4 genes were used to generate PCR products that were subsequently sequenced. D. reticulatus primary cultures and both infected tick cell lines were positive for all 3 Rickettsia genes. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 99-100% identity with published Rickettsia raoultii sequences. The R. raoultii also grew abundantly in the D. nitens cell line ANE58, poorly in the D. albipictus cell line DALBE3, and not at all in the D. andersoni cell line DAE15. In conclusion, primary tick cell cultures and cell lines are useful systems for isolation and propagation of fastidious tick-borne microorganisms. In vitro isolation of R. raoultii from Dutch D. reticulatus confirms previous PCR-based detection in field ticks, and presence of the bacteria in the tick eggs used to initiate the primary cultures confirms that transovarial transmission of this

  5. Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Nijhof, Ard M.; Jongejan, Frans; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. In an attempt to derive continuous Dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in The Netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. After several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a Rickettsia-like intracellular organism. Supernatant medium containing some D. reticulatus cells was inoculated into cultures of 2 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines, BME/CTVM2 and BME/CTVM23, where abundant growth of the bacteria occurred intracellularly on transfer to both cell lines. Bacterial growth was monitored by light (live, inverted microscope, Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears) and transmission electron microscopy revealing heavy infection with typical intracytoplasmic Rickettsia-like bacteria, not present in uninfected cultures. DNA was extracted from bacteria-infected and uninfected control cultures, and primers specific for Rickettsia 16S rRNA, ompB, and sca4 genes were used to generate PCR products that were subsequently sequenced. D. reticulatus primary cultures and both infected tick cell lines were positive for all 3 Rickettsia genes. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 99–100% identity with published Rickettsia raoultii sequences. The R. raoultii also grew abundantly in the D. nitens cell line ANE58, poorly in the D. albipictus cell line DALBE3, and not at all in the D. andersoni cell line DAE15. In conclusion, primary tick cell cultures and cell lines are useful systems for isolation and propagation of fastidious tick-borne microorganisms. In vitro isolation of R. raoultii from Dutch D. reticulatus confirms previous PCR-based detection in field ticks, and presence of the bacteria in the tick eggs used to initiate the primary cultures confirms that transovarial transmission of this

  6. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

  7. Isolation of African swine fever virus from ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) collected within the African swine fever enzootic area of Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Haresnape, J. M.; Wilkinson, P. J.; Mellor, P. S.

    1988-01-01

    Ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex were collected from domestic pig sties and dwelling houses, and from a warthog habitat, and tested for the presence of African swine fever (ASF) virus. Collections were made in 9 of the 24 districts of Malawi, these being primarily the districts in which O. moubata is most numerous. ASF virus was isolated from ticks collected in both domestic pig sties and houses in certain villages in Mchinji district where ASF outbreaks had recently occurred. Mchinji district is in the centre of a large ASF enzootic area which stretches into other districts of Malawi and also into Zambia and Mozambique. The high titre of virus in some of the ticks demonstrates that O. moubata can act as a virus reservoir and potential vector of disease in the field situation in Malawi. PMID:3402546

  8. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  9. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge. PMID:25656465

  10. Tick removal.

    PubMed

    Roupakias, S; Mitsakou, P; Nimer, A Al

    2011-03-01

    Ticks are blood feeding external parasites which can cause local and systemic complications to human body. A lot of tick-borne human diseases include Lyme disease and virus encephalitis, can be transmitted by a tick bite. Also secondary bacterial skin infection, reactive manifestations against tick allergens, and granuloma's formation can be occurred. Tick paralysis is a relatively rare complication but it can be fatal. Except the general rules for tick bite prevention, any tick found should be immediately and completely removed alive. Furthermore, the tick removal technique should not allow or provoke the escape of infective body fluids through the tick into the wound site, and disclose any local complication. Many methods of tick removal (a lot of them are unsatisfactory and/or dangerous) have been reported in the literature, but there is very limited experimental evidence to support these methods. No technique will remove completely every tick. So, there is not an appropriate and absolutely effective and/or safe tick removal technique. Regardless of the used tick removal technique, clinicians should be aware of the clinical signs of tick-transmitted diseases, the public should be informed about the risks and the prevention of tick borne diseases, and persons who have undergone tick removal should be monitored up to 30 days for signs and symptoms. PMID:21710824

  11. Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region.

  12. Seasonal activity and tick-borne pathogen infection rates of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Egyed, László; Elő, Péter; Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsanna; Széll, Zoltán; Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Sréter, Tamás

    2012-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick species in Europe as it is most widely distributed and transmits the majority of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. As limited data are available for Hungary, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal timing of questing by I. ricinus and the infection rate of this tick species with all major tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. Monthly collections of I. ricinus were carried out over 3 consecutive years by dragging a blanket in 6 biotopes representing different areas of Hungary. Altogether, 1800 nymphs (300 per collection point) were screened as pooled samples (each of 5 specimens) by PCR-based methods for tick-borne pathogens. I. ricinus larvae, nymphs, and adults had bimodal activity patterns with a major peak in the spring. As newly moulted ticks of all stages are thought to emerge in the autumn of each year, it appears that most newly emerged ticks delayed their questing until the following spring. The minimum prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 2.5%. Borr. afzelii, Borr. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borr. garinii, Borr. lusitaniae, and Borr. valaisiana were identified by hybridization. The minimum infection rate with spotted fever group rickettsiae was 1.9%. Rickettsia helvetica was identified in all biotopes. The minimum prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens and Bab. microti was low (0.3-0.5%). Bartonella spp.-, Francisella tularensis-, and TBE virus-specific amplification products were not detected. Relative to the results of comparable studies carried out in the Carpathian Basin, the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens was low in Hungary. This might be attributed to the climatic difference between the lowland areas of Hungary and submountain areas of the surrounding countries involved in the studies.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected from vegetation and small rodents in recreational areas of the city of Poznań.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Jerzy; Hofman, Teresa; Buczek, Alicja; Skoracki, Maciej; Sikora, Bozena

    2003-09-01

    During 1998-1999, Ixodes ricinus (L.) populations were investigated in three different biotopes (deciduous, mixed, coniferous forest) situated in popular recreational areas in Poznań, Poland. In total, 1,123 questing ticks (1,002 nymphs, 69 males, 52 females) were collected by flagging vegetation. Additionally, in 1998 between May and September small rodents were trapped and inspected for feeding ticks. Altogether, 213 rodents of three species: Apodemus agrarius Pall., A. flavicollis Melchior, Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber were captured. Of 323 engorged ticks, 304 were larvae and 19 nymphs. All ticks collected from vegetation, as well as from rodents were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigenwalt & Brenner s.l. spirochetes by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PAB 1B29. The seasonal pattern of activity of questing I. ricinus was always bimodal (May/June and August/September). The most abundant tick population occurred in the deciduous forest. The total infection rate in questing ticks was 16.2%. Differences in mean infection prevalence of host-seeking ticks between three biotopes each year were not significant. On average more larvae parasitized on the genus of Apodemus than on C. glareolus. 17.8% of larvae and 31.6% of nymphs fed on rodents harbored spirochetes. The three rodent species contributed to a different degree in to transmission of the pathogen to subadult stages. Approximately 27% of larvae infested on A. agrarius, 22% on C. glareolus, and only 4.2% on A. flavicollis contained spirochetes. The results suggest that the prevalence of A. agrarius and C. glareolus in disturbed urban forests used for leisure activities seems to be crucial for the maintenance of B. burgdorferi s.l. in I. ricinus populations.

  14. Spread of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) in Indiana: collections of adults in 1991-1994 and description of a Borrelia burgdorferi-infected population.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Timmons, L; Karris, K

    1996-09-01

    Collection records for the adult black legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in Indiana for the period 1991-1994 are presented and a new, established population of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis is described. The number of I. scapularis adults collected in Indiana increased progressively from 19 in 1991 to > 200 in 1994, and the number of Indiana counties reporting at least 1 adult increased from 13 to 29. Also, during this period, 4 countries in northwestern Indiana yielded > 10 specimens each, and B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were collected in 2 of these counties. An established population of I. scapularis, as evidenced by the presence of questing larvae, nymphs, and adults, was discovered in Jasper County in 1993. Twelve of 39 adults (31%) and 4 of 44 nymphs (9%) collected with cloth drags were infected with B. burgdorferi. Three of 49 (6%) white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, collected from the site were also infected with B. burgdorferi. We believe that this focus was established at least 8 yr ago, and that a tick originating from this focus was responsible for a case of Lyme disease reported from this county in 1985.

  15. American Black Bears as Hosts of Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown.

  16. American Black Bears as Hosts of Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. PMID:26336232

  17. Isolation of Coxiella burnetii by a centrifugation shell-vial assay from ticks collected in Cyprus: detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

    PubMed

    Spyridaki, Ioanna; Psaroulaki, Anna; Loukaides, Fidias; Antoniou, Maria; Hadjichristodolou, Christos; Tselentis, Yannis

    2002-01-01

    Ticks are the principal vectors and reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. The identification of isolates is necessary for understanding the clinical diversity of Q fever in different geographic areas. This is the first report of isolation of C. burnetii from ticks by the shell-vial assay and by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of this pathogen in ticks. Of 141 ticks collected in Cyprus (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalloma spp.), 10% were found to be infected with C. burnetii. Three ticks were positive by hemolymph test, and 11 triturated ticks were positive by nested PCR. Three isolates were obtained by the centrifugation shell-vial technique. Analysis by PCR, then restriction fragment length polymorphism showed that the 3 Cyprus isolates had identical restriction profiles to reference strains Nine Mile and Q212. The methods described are useful in studying the epidemiology and ecology of C. burnetii. PMID:12135275

  18. Abundance of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, in relation to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Tälleklint-Eisen, L; Eisen, R J

    1999-09-01

    We examined the impact of environmental characteristics, such as habitat type, topographic exposure and presence of leaf litter, on the abundance of Ixodes pacificus ticks infesting the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) at the University of California Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC), Mendocino County, California. A total of 383 adult lizards were slip-noosed and examined for tick infestation in April and May 1998. At least 94% of the lizards were infested by ticks and at least 20% of the females and 33% of the males carried > 15 ticks. This intensive utilization of western fence lizards (which do not serve as natural reservoirs for Lyme disease spirochetes) by subadult ticks, is probably the primary reason for the low prevalence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in I. pacificus nymphs and adults previously recorded at the HREC. Tick loads were higher on male than female lizards. Also, male lizards were generally more heavily infested in late April than in late May. The prevalence of tick infestation exceeded 88% in all habitat types but males collected in woodland and grass/woodland edges had higher tick loads than those collected in open grassland. Male lizards captured in open, exposed grassland tended to carry heavier tick loads in northern/eastern, as compared to southern/western, exposures, and when leaf litter was present. PMID:10581712

  19. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Jaenson, Thomas G.T.; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. Most ticks were Hyalomma rufipes nymphs and larvae with mean infestation rates of 1.7 nymphs and 0.6 larvae per infested bird. Bartonella spp. RNA was not detected in any of the tick specimens. PMID:22957116

  20. Tick Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases to animals and people. Some of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia. Some ...

  1. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXII. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Guillarmod, A J; Moolman, L C; de Vos, V

    1987-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near Grahamstown, eastern Cape Province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. Fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult Haemaphysalis leachi and adult Rhipicephalus simus was determined. Complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (Felis caracal) in the Cradock, Graaff-Reinet and Southwell regions in the eastern Cape Province. The animals from Cradock and Graaff-Reinet harboured 13 ixodid tick species. The caracals from Southwell were infested with 11 tick species and the seasonal abundance of Ixodes pilosus on these animals was determined. A small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta), 1 bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), 1 aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) and 6 black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) from various localities in the eastern Cape Province were examined for ticks and 9 species were collected. Complete tick collections were made from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), 2 wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), a several (Felis serval), 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta), 2 leopards (Panthera pardus) and a lion (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal. Twelve ixodid tick specis were recovered from these animals.

  2. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas. PMID:26207834

  3. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  4. Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia species in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Svehlová, Andrea; Berthová, Lenka; Sallay, Balázs; Boldiš, Vojtech; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Spitalská, Eva

    2014-09-01

    Vojka nad Dunajom in the south-west of the Slovak Republic is a locality with sympatric occurrence of 3 species of ticks. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in this area and determined the prevalence of Babesia and Rickettsia species in questing adults of these tick species considered as potential risk for humans and animals. Ticks were collected by blanket dragging over the vegetation from September 2011 to October 2012. All ticks were subjected to DNA extraction and individually assayed with PCR-based methods targeting the gltA, sca4, 23S rRNA genes of Rickettsia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. D. reticulatus was the dominant species occurring in this area (67.7%, n=600), followed by I. ricinus (31.8%, n=282) and H. concinna (0.5%, n=4) ticks. Rickettsial infection was determined in 10.8% (n=65) and 11.7% (n=33) of D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks, respectively. Babesia spp. infection was confirmed in 1.8% (n=11) of D. reticulatus and 0.4% (n=1) of I. ricinus ticks. DNA of 6 different pathogenic tick-borne species, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii, Babesia canis, and Babesia venatorum were identified in this locality with sympatric occurrence of I. ricinus, D. reticulatus, and H. concinna ticks.

  5. Effect of prescribed fire for tick control in California chaparral.

    PubMed

    Padgett, K A; Casher, L E; Stephens, S L; Lane, R S

    2009-09-01

    Prescribed fire was investigated as a method for controlling ixodid and argasid ticks in chaparral habitats in northern California. Two experimental and two adjacent control plots within a wildlife preserve were monitored for 1 yr postburn. Ticks were collected by flagging vegetation, by CO2-baited pitfall trap, and by live-trapping rodents. Twice as many rodents were caught at control sites compared with burn sites and no dusky-footed woodrats, Neotoma fuscipes Baird, were found in the treatment sites postburn. This species is known to be a reservoir of the agents of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa, Rurangirwa. Six ixodid tick species were removed from rodents (Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, Ixodes jellisoni Cooley & Kohls, Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall, Ixodes woodi Bishopp, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, and Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann), two of which transmit bacterial zoonotic agents to people in the far-western United States. There was no decrease in number of ticks per animal trapped at either burn site compared with controls; in fact, the mean number of immature I. pacificus per rodent was significantly higher at one burn site than its control site. Soil refugia may protect ticks from fire-induced mortality; the argasid tick Ornithodoros coriaceus Koch, which lives in soil, was unaffected by the prescribed fire as were I. pacificus and D. occidentalis buried in packets 2.5 cm below ground. We conclude that although prescribed fires in chaparral habitats may diminish local rodent abundance, it does not decrease tick loads on rodents. Furthermore, burning chaparral does not result in a decreased abundance of adult ixodid ticks on vegetation and apparently does not affect argasid or ixodid ticks that are sheltered within soil refugia.

  6. Rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Andreadis, T G; Stafford, K C; Holland, C J

    1991-01-01

    Nymphs and adults of hard-bodied ticks were collected in Connecticut and tested by direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining methods for rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi. Of the 609 Ixodes dammini ticks examined, 59 (9.7%) harbored rickettsialike microorganisms in hemocytes (blood cells). These bacteria reacted with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis. Prevalence of infection ranged from 6.8 to 12.7% for males and females, respectively. Although the specific identities of the hemocytic rickettsialike organisms are unknown, they share antigens with ehrlichiae. Electron microscopy revealed rickettsiae in ovarian tissues of I. dammini that also had infected hemocytes. Rickettsialike organisms were also observed in the hemocytes of 5 (6.9%) of 73 Dermacentor variabilis ticks. In analyses for B. burgdorferi, 146 (23.7%) of 617 I. dammini ticks harbored these spirochetes in midguts. Hemocytic rickettsialike microorganisms coexisted with B. burgdorferi in 36 (6.7%) of the 537 nymphs and adults of I. dammini examined. I. dammini, with its broad host range, has the potential to acquire multiple microorganisms. Images PMID:1757551

  7. Transstadial Transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Cozma, Vasile; Sprong, Hein; Jahfari, Setareh; D’Amico, Gianluca; Mărcuțan, Daniel I.; Ionică, Angela M.; Magdaş, Cristian; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%–100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity. PMID:25695663

  8. Microbiome changes through ontogeny of a tick pathogen vector.

    PubMed

    Zolnik, Christine P; Prill, Robert J; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2016-10-01

    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are one of the most important pathogen vectors in the United States, responsible for transmitting Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. The structure of a host's microbial community has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of the host. We employed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 hypervariable regions in the first study to investigate the tick microbiome across all developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, adults). In addition to field-collected life stages, newly hatched laboratory-reared larvae were studied to determine the baseline microbial community structure and to assess transovarial transmission. We also targeted midguts and salivary glands due to their importance in pathogen maintenance and transmission. Over 100 000 sequences were produced per life stage replicate. Rickettsia was the most abundant bacterial genus across all sample types matching mostly the Ixodes rickettsial endosymbionts, and its proportion decreased as developmental stage progressed, with the exception of adult females that harboured a mean relative abundance of 97.9%. Laboratory-reared larvae displayed the lowest bacterial diversity, containing almost exclusively Rickettsia. Many of the remaining bacteria included genera associated with soil, water and plants, suggesting environmental acquisition while off-host. Female organs exhibited significantly different β-diversity than the whole tick from which they were derived. Our results demonstrate clear differences in both α- and β-diversity among tick developmental stages and between tick organs and the tick as a whole. Furthermore, field-acquired bacteria appear to be very important to the overall internal bacterial community of this tick species, with influence from the host bloodmeal appearing limited. PMID:27588381

  9. Habitat and Vegetation Variables Are Not Enough When Predicting Tick Populations in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Trout Fryxell, R. T.; Moore, J. E.; Collins, M. D.; Kwon, Y.; Jean-Philippe, S. R.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Odoi, A.; Kennedy, M.; Houston, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by Amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis). There is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. Consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. Vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were used to test the hypothesis that habitat and vegetation variables can predict tick abundances. No variables were significant predictors of A. americanum adult and nymph tick abundance, and no clustering was evident because this species was found throughout the study area. For A. maculatum adult tick abundance was predicted by NDVI and by the interaction between habitat type and plant diversity; two significant population clusters were identified in a heterogeneous area suitable for quail habitat. For D. variabilis no environmental variables were significant predictors of adult abundance; however, D. variabilis collections clustered in three significant areas best described as agriculture areas with defined edges. This study identified few landscape and vegetation variables associated with tick presence. While some variables were significantly associated with tick populations, the amount of explained variation was not useful for predicting reliably where ticks occur; consequently, additional research that includes multiple sampling seasons and locations throughout the southeast are warranted. This low amount of explained variation may also be due to the use of hosts for dispersal, and potentially to other abiotic and biotic variables. Host species play a large role in the establishment, maintenance, and dispersal of a tick species, as well as the maintenance of disease cycles, dispersal to new areas, and identification of risk areas. PMID:26656122

  10. Habitat and Vegetation Variables Are Not Enough When Predicting Tick Populations in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Moore, J E; Collins, M D; Kwon, Y; Jean-Philippe, S R; Schaeffer, S M; Odoi, A; Kennedy, M; Houston, A E

    2015-01-01

    Two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by Amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by A. maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis). There is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. Consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. Vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were used to test the hypothesis that habitat and vegetation variables can predict tick abundances. No variables were significant predictors of A. americanum adult and nymph tick abundance, and no clustering was evident because this species was found throughout the study area. For A. maculatum adult tick abundance was predicted by NDVI and by the interaction between habitat type and plant diversity; two significant population clusters were identified in a heterogeneous area suitable for quail habitat. For D. variabilis no environmental variables were significant predictors of adult abundance; however, D. variabilis collections clustered in three significant areas best described as agriculture areas with defined edges. This study identified few landscape and vegetation variables associated with tick presence. While some variables were significantly associated with tick populations, the amount of explained variation was not useful for predicting reliably where ticks occur; consequently, additional research that includes multiple sampling seasons and locations throughout the southeast are warranted. This low amount of explained variation may also be due to the use of hosts for dispersal, and potentially to other abiotic and biotic variables. Host species play a large role in the establishment, maintenance, and dispersal of a tick species, as well as the maintenance of disease cycles, dispersal to new areas, and identification of risk areas.

  11. Exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in Gettysburg National Military Park, South-Central Pennsylvania, 2009.

    PubMed

    Han, George S; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Wong, David; Weltman, Andre C

    2014-04-01

    Since 1998, Lyme disease cases have increased in south-central Pennsylvania, which includes Gettysburg National Military Park (NMP). Limited information is available about tick populations or pathogens in this area, and no data regarding frequency of tick bites or prevention measures among Gettysburg NMP employees are available. To address these gaps, ticks were collected, classified, and replaced (to minimize disruptions to tick populations) at two sites within Gettysburg NMP during April-September, 2009, among eight nonremoval samplings. On two additional occasions during May and June, 2009, ticks were collected and removed from the two original sites plus 10 additional sites and tested for tick-borne pathogens by using PCR. A self-administered anonymous survey of Gettysburg NMP employees was conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tick-borne diseases. Peak Ixodes scapularis nymph populations were observed during May-July. Of 115 I. scapularis ticks tested, 21% were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, including 18% of 74 nymphs and 27% of 41 adults; no other pathogen was identified. The entomologic risk index was calculated at 1.3 infected nymphs/hour. An adult and nymph Amblyomma americanum were also found, representing the first confirmed field collection of this tick in Pennsylvania, but no pathogens were detected. The survey revealed that most park employees believed Lyme disease was a problem at Gettysburg NMP and that they frequently found ticks on their skin and clothing. However, use of personal preventive measures was inconsistent, and 6% of respondents reported contracting Lyme disease while employed at Gettysburg NMP. These findings indicate a need to improve surveillance for tick bites among employees and enhance prevention programs for park staff and visitors. PMID:24689815

  12. The transstadial persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata; Werszko, Joanna; Rychlik, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of reports regarding natural infection of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with TBE virus; however, the transmission mode of TBE virus in this tick population has not been investigated. This study was conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest, east Poland. Forty fully engorged nymphs of D. reticulatus were sampled from root voles (Microtus oeconomus). Ticks were kept until molting. All ticks were screened for the presence of TBE virus by nested RT-PCR. Three adult ticks were positive for infection with TBE virus. The present study for the first time demonstrates the possibility of transstadial mode of TBEV transmission in D. reticulatus ticks. PMID:26751892

  13. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella-Like Endosymbionts in Ticks that Infest Horses in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Ouh, In-Ohk; Lee, Gwang Hyeop; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seungjoon; Kwon, Oh-Deog

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Coxiella can be transmitted from ticks to humans during contact with animals; Coxiella may thus spread from the infected horses or ticks to humans. In this study, the presence of Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) in ticks found on infested horses was determined using PCR and genotyping. A total of 213 ticks were randomly collected from 51 horses (4–5 ticks per horse) raised on Jeju Island, Korea, between 2009 and 2013. All ticks were morphologically identified as adult Haemaphysalis longicornis, a predominant tick species widespread in Korea. Based on the results of nested PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, CLE were detected in 121 (52.4%, 95% CI: 45.9–58.8) ticks. CLE 16S rRNA sequences from 9 randomly selected ticks were 100% identical. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 9 sequences were highly similar (97.9–100%) to the sequences of clade B species, like the CLE previously described to be found in Haemaphysalis spp. This study showed that CLE are prevalent in ticks that infest horses reared on Jeju Island, and this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study to describe CLE occurrence in ticks infesting animals reared in Korea. Because of the high prevalence of CLE in ticks found on horses, CLE transmission from ticks to other animals and humans remains a possibility. This warrants a detailed study of other hosts and regions. Considering the zoonotic potential of Coxiella, further strategic surveillance of Coxiella transmission is necessary. PMID:27792764

  14. Acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-08-01

    Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks against deltamethrin and diazinon was assessed in Hisar (Haryana) and its adjoining district Churu (Rajasthan) using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). The mortality slope, LC50, LC95, 95 % confidence limit and resistance factor of field ticks were determined. Results showed that R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from Tohana (Hisar) were found resistant to both the acaricides while the ticks of Agroha (Hisar) were found to be susceptible using AIT. Similar results were observed by using standard method of LPT. Again, H. anatolicum tick isolates of Tara Nagar (Churu) were found susceptible whereas Churu tick isolates were found to be resistant using AIT for both the acaricides. LPT indicated susceptible status of H. anatolicum ticks collected from Churu as well as Tara Nagar for both the acaricides. The study warrants the need for strategic use of available acaricides to overcome the development of acaricide resistance in ticks.

  15. A technique for collecting saliva from the cattle-tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) using chemical stimulation. Environmental and temporal influences on secretion yield.

    PubMed

    Bechara, G H; Szabó, M P; Machado, R Z; Rocha, U F

    1988-01-01

    1. Injection of a pilocarpine solution into the hemocoele of female B. microplus through the respiratory spiracle induced the flow of limpid saliva, collected from the mouth parts with a capillary tube. 2. The time interval between the detachment of the tick from its host and chemical stimulation influenced the volume of saliva secreted; secretion was greater during the first 2 h after detachment. 3. There is a positive correlation between salivary yield and both environmental temperature and relative humidity.

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Golezardy, H; Horak, I G

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to make an inventory of the ixodid tick species infesting wild animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa. To this end 22 animals in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, 10 in the West Coast National Park and 16 in the Karoo National Park were examined. Fourteen tick species were recovered, of which Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos and Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum were each present in two reserves and the remainder only in one. The distributions of two of the 14 tick species recovered, namely Rhipicephalus capensis and Rhipicephalus neumanni, are virtually confined to the western semi-arid regions of southern Africa. Hyalomma truncatum, R. capensis and R. glabroscutatum were the most numerous of the ticks recovered, and eland, Taurotragus oryx, were the most heavily infested with the former two species and gemsbok, Oryx gazella, and mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, with R. glabroscutatum. PMID:17708155

  17. Tick paralysis.

    PubMed

    Pecina, Cara Ann

    2012-11-01

    Tick paralysis is a rare, but readily treatable condition that if missed can lead to significant morbidity and death. The classic clinical presentation of tick paralysis is the development of an unsteady, ataxic type gait followed by an acute symmetric ascending flaccid paralysis. Symptoms generally begin within 2 to 6 days of tick attachment. If the tick continues to feed, the weakness ascends to the upper extremities over a matter of hours, followed by cranial nerve involvement. Due to the similarity in its presentation, tick paralysis is often misdiagnosed as Guillain-Barré's syndrome, particularly the Miller Fisher's subtype, given its cranial nerve involvement. However, the weakness seen in tick paralysis progresses more quickly than what is generally seen in Guillain-Barré's syndrome and the protein concentration is not elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The mainstay of treatment for tick paralysis is tick removal. The time to full neurologic recovery after tick removal is estimated to be around 1.5 days with initial improvement generally within hours. PMID:23677663

  18. Detection of Murine Herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks.

    PubMed

    Kúdelová, Marcela; Belvončíková, Petra; Vrbová, Michaela; Kovaľová, Alžbeta; Štibrániová, Iveta; Kocáková, Paulína; Slovák, Mirko; Špitalská, Eva; Lapuníková, Barbora; Matúšková, Radka; Šupolíková, Miroslava

    2015-10-01

    Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV 4) strain 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen of murid rodents, which serves as hosts to Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. These ticks are known to transmit multiple pathogens, which can cause diseases in humans and animals. Recently, the detection of MHV-68 antibodies in the blood of animals living in the same biotope as virus-infected mice has suggested the role of ticks in pathogen circulation in nature. Herein, to identify MHV-68 in D. reticulatus ticks, DNA samples from 432 adults were collected at two sites in southwestern Slovakia from 2011 to 2014. Samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), targeting ORF50 of MHV-68. Ignoring season and locality, we have found 25.9 % of the male and 44.9 % of the female ticks to be positive. Within ticks collected in Vojka, 40 % (125/312) became positive, at a rate of approximately 6.8 times higher in spring than in autumn (66 vs 9.7 %). In addition, in the spring, 1.4 times more females were positive than males. Within ticks collected in Gabčíkovo, 23.3 % (28/120) became positive, with positive females being twice as frequent. The infecting virus was identified by analyzing amplified products via sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. Using an explantation/co-cultivation procedure, we examined the salivary glands, intestines, and ovaries of five females for live MHV-68. In all organs of two ticks, we identified a virus capable of replication in mammalian cells. This is the first report of MHV-68 detection in D. reticulatus ticks and of a live virus in their organs. Findings encourage further study to determine whether this potential arbovirus, found in salivary glands, is transmissible. It further supports the hypothesis regarding the mediating role of ticks in MHV-68 circulation in nature.

  19. Abridged Description Listing for Adult and Continuing Education Research Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. Publications Program in Continuing Education.

    This publication contains descriptions of 53 research collections in adult and continuing education housed at Syracuse University (Syracuse, New York) Collection strengths have been identified as the history of adult education as a profession, field, and practice; literacy; and civic education. Each collection is described, and the number of boxes…

  20. Characterization of the bacterial communities of life stages of free living lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Rowe, Lori A; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya R; Dasch, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) is an abundant and aggressive biter of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in the southeastern-central USA and an important vector of several known and suspected zoonotic bacterial pathogens. However, the biological drivers of bacterial community variation in this tick are still poorly defined. Knowing the community context in which tick-borne bacterial pathogens exist and evolve is required to fully understand the ecology and immunobiology of the ticks and to design effective public health and veterinary interventions. We performed a metagenomic survey of the bacterial communities of questing A. americanum and tested 131 individuals (66 nymphs, 24 males, and 41 females) from five sites in three states. Pyrosequencing was performed with barcoded eubacterial primers targeting variable 16S rRNA gene regions 5-3. The bacterial communities were dominated by Rickettsia (likely R. amblyommii) and an obligate Coxiella symbiont, together accounting for 6.7-100% of sequences per tick. DNAs from Midichloria, Borrelia, Wolbachia, Ehrlichia, Pseudomonas, or unidentified Bacillales, Enterobacteriaceae, or Rhizobiales groups were also detected frequently. Wolbachia and Midichloria significantly co-occurred in Georgia (p<0.00001), but not in other states. The significance of the Midichloria-Wolbachia co-occurrence is unknown. Among ticks collected in Georgia, nymphs differed from adults in both the composition (p = 0.002) and structure (p = 0.002) of their bacterial communities. Adults differed only in their community structure (p = 0.002) with males containing more Rickettsia and females containing more Coxiella. Comparisons among adult ticks collected in New York and North Carolina supported the findings from the Georgia collection despite differences in geography, collection date, and sample handling, implying that the differences detected are consistent attributes. The data also suggest that some members of the

  1. Characterization of the Bacterial Communities of Life Stages of Free Living Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Rowe, Lori A.; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya R.; Dasch, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) is an abundant and aggressive biter of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in the southeastern-central USA and an important vector of several known and suspected zoonotic bacterial pathogens. However, the biological drivers of bacterial community variation in this tick are still poorly defined. Knowing the community context in which tick-borne bacterial pathogens exist and evolve is required to fully understand the ecology and immunobiology of the ticks and to design effective public health and veterinary interventions. We performed a metagenomic survey of the bacterial communities of questing A. americanum and tested 131 individuals (66 nymphs, 24 males, and 41 females) from five sites in three states. Pyrosequencing was performed with barcoded eubacterial primers targeting variable 16S rRNA gene regions 5–3. The bacterial communities were dominated by Rickettsia (likely R. amblyommii) and an obligate Coxiella symbiont, together accounting for 6.7–100% of sequences per tick. DNAs from Midichloria, Borrelia, Wolbachia, Ehrlichia, Pseudomonas, or unidentified Bacillales, Enterobacteriaceae, or Rhizobiales groups were also detected frequently. Wolbachia and Midichloria significantly co-occurred in Georgia (p<0.00001), but not in other states. The significance of the Midichloria-Wolbachia co-occurrence is unknown. Among ticks collected in Georgia, nymphs differed from adults in both the composition (p = 0.002) and structure (p = 0.002) of their bacterial communities. Adults differed only in their community structure (p = 0.002) with males containing more Rickettsia and females containing more Coxiella. Comparisons among adult ticks collected in New York and North Carolina supported the findings from the Georgia collection despite differences in geography, collection date, and sample handling, implying that the differences detected are consistent attributes. The data also suggest that some members of the

  2. Characterization of the bacterial communities of life stages of free living lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Rowe, Lori A; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya R; Dasch, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) is an abundant and aggressive biter of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in the southeastern-central USA and an important vector of several known and suspected zoonotic bacterial pathogens. However, the biological drivers of bacterial community variation in this tick are still poorly defined. Knowing the community context in which tick-borne bacterial pathogens exist and evolve is required to fully understand the ecology and immunobiology of the ticks and to design effective public health and veterinary interventions. We performed a metagenomic survey of the bacterial communities of questing A. americanum and tested 131 individuals (66 nymphs, 24 males, and 41 females) from five sites in three states. Pyrosequencing was performed with barcoded eubacterial primers targeting variable 16S rRNA gene regions 5-3. The bacterial communities were dominated by Rickettsia (likely R. amblyommii) and an obligate Coxiella symbiont, together accounting for 6.7-100% of sequences per tick. DNAs from Midichloria, Borrelia, Wolbachia, Ehrlichia, Pseudomonas, or unidentified Bacillales, Enterobacteriaceae, or Rhizobiales groups were also detected frequently. Wolbachia and Midichloria significantly co-occurred in Georgia (p<0.00001), but not in other states. The significance of the Midichloria-Wolbachia co-occurrence is unknown. Among ticks collected in Georgia, nymphs differed from adults in both the composition (p = 0.002) and structure (p = 0.002) of their bacterial communities. Adults differed only in their community structure (p = 0.002) with males containing more Rickettsia and females containing more Coxiella. Comparisons among adult ticks collected in New York and North Carolina supported the findings from the Georgia collection despite differences in geography, collection date, and sample handling, implying that the differences detected are consistent attributes. The data also suggest that some members of the

  3. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from the Masai Mara region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Kevin R; Davis, Jon; Alam, Uzma; Korman, Amy; Rutherford, Jeremiah S; Rosenberg, Ronald; Azad, Abdu F

    2003-05-01

    We have identified for the first time Rickettsia africae, and the ticks that harbored them, in Kenya. A total of 5,325 ticks were collected from vegetation, livestock, and wild animals during two field trips to southwestern Kenya. Most were immature forms (85.2%) belonging to the genera Amblyomma or Rhipicephalus. The adults also included representatives from the genus Boophilus. Ticks were assessed for rickettsial DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the spotted fever group (SFG)-specific rickettsial outer membrane protein A (rompA) gene, and positive amplicons were sequenced. While none of the immature ticks tested positive by PCR, 15.8% of the adult Amblyomma variegatum and less than 1% of the Rhipicephalus spp. were SFG positive. Sequences of amplified products were identified as R. africae. These findings extend the known range of R. africae.

  4. Experimental use of two standard tick collection methods to evaluate the relative effectiveness of several plant-derived and synthetic repellents against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Dolan, Marc C

    2011-12-01

    We used two standard tick collection methods to test the relative effectiveness of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol, classified as an eremophilene sesquiterpene and a monoterpene, respectively, that are derived from botanical sources) with commercially-available plant-derived (EcoSMART Organic Insect Repellent, comprised of plant essential oils) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.). Cloth drags were equally effective in sampling both species of host-seeking nymphs, whereas CO, traps attracted primarily A. americanum. All four repellents performed well on drags, with nootkatone and Permanone Repel (100% repelled through 14 d) slightly more effective than carvacrol and EcoSMART (90.7% and 97.7% repelled at 14 d, respectively) at repelling I. scapularis nymphs. Although the same trend in percent repellency was noted in the CO2 trap trial against both A. americanum nymphs and adults, EcoSMART outperformed Permanone in repelling A. Americanum nymphs after 14 d in the drag trial. Generally, the effectiveness of all repellents tested declined over time. The use of tick drags and CO2 traps was rapid, inexpensive, and easy to use in determining the relative effectiveness of repellents in the field. PMID:22299371

  5. Comparative analysis of the roles of Ixodes persulcatus and I. trianguliceps ticks in natural foci of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses in the Middle Urals, Russia.

    PubMed

    Korenberg, Edward I; Kovalevskii, Yurii V; Gorelova, Natalya B; Nefedova, Valentina V

    2015-04-01

    Long-term studies on natural foci of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses (ITBB) have been performed in Chusovskoi district of Perm region, the Middle Urals, where the vectors of these infections are represented by two ixodid tick species: the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus and many times less abundant vole tick I. trianguliceps. Over 10 years, more than 6000 half-engorged ticks were collected from small forest mammals using the standard procedure, and 1027 I. persulcatus and 1142 I. trianguliceps ticks, individually or in pools, were used to inoculate BSK-2 medium. As a result, 199 Borrelia isolates were obtained. Among them, 177 isolates were identified, and the rrf(5S)-rrl(23S) intergenic spacer sequence was determined in 57 isolates. The prevalence of Borrelia infection in I. persulcatus larvae and nymphs averaged 31.0 and 53.3%, while that in I. trianguliceps larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks was five to ten times lower: 2.6, 10.2, and 8.1%, respectively. Each of the two tick species was found to carry both ITBB agents circulating in the Middle Ural foci (Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii), but the set of genogroups and genovariants of these spirochetes in I. trianguliceps proved to be far less diverse. According to the available data, this tick, compared to I. persulcatus, is generally less susceptible to Borrelia infection (especially by B. afzelii). Taking into account of its relatively low abundance, it appears that I. trianguliceps cannot seriously influence the course of epizootic process in ITBB foci of the study region, whereas highly abundant I. persulcatus with the high level of Borrelia infection is obviously a key component of these parasitic systems. A similar situation may well be typical for the entire geographic range shared by the two tick species. PMID:25843812

  6. Vertical distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens in the northern Moravian mountains correlated with climate warming (Jeseníky Mts., Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Milan; Materna, Jan; Honig, Václav; Metelka, Ladislav; Danielová, Vlasta; Harcarik, Josef; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-09-01

    A study of the vertical distribution of the common tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne pathogens--tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.--was performed in the highest part of the Jeseniky mountain area (the Hrubý Jesenik Mts. with the highest summit Praded, 1,491 m above see level). Altogether 1,253 specimens of all tick stages (607 larvae, 614 nymphs, 8 females and 24 males) were collected at the altitude 990-1,300 m above sea level on 12 collection sites by the flagging method. Altogether 1,207 ticks (8 females, 24 males, 568 nymphs and 607 larvae) were examined for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus and B. burgdorferi s.l. None of the samples contained TBEV, 35 samples (6% of adult ticks, 5% of nymphs, 0.7% of larvae) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. The most prevalent genospecies were B. afzelii (44%), B. garinii (28%), less frequent were B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5%), B. valaisiana (3%). The rather large number of ticks (in absolute numbers as well as recounted to the index: average number of nymphs/worker/collection hour) and the presence of all developmental stages clearly demonstrate that there are viable local tick populations in all the sites, and that recorded ticks were not randomly individuals brought into higher altitudes by birds or game animals. The results are compared with the long-term (2002-2007) monitoring of the tick altitudinal distribution in the Krkonose Mts. and the conditions, which allow ticks to establish local populations up to the timberline in both mountain areas, are discussed. Simultaneously, changes in climatic conditions (especially the air temperature) monitored at 3 meteorological stations in the area of the Jeseníky Mts. were compared with the records from another 8 stations in other mountain areas in the Czech Republic. A very similar statistically significant trend of increasing mean air temperatures during the last three decades is found at all analyzed

  7. The Ticking of the Social Clock: Adults' Beliefs about the Timing of Transition Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies regarding beliefs about descriptive and prescriptive age norms for adults in developmental transitions were examined in a sample of 214 Australian university students ages 17 to 50. Discusses research methodology. The probable consequences for self-esteem, mental health, and life planning are discussed in the context of the research…

  8. Spatial distribution and impact of cattle-raising on ticks in the Pantanal region of Brazil by using the CO(2) tick trap.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Paulo Henrique D; Piranda, Eliane M; Mourão, Guilherme M; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact of cattle-raising on ticks associated with wildlife in the Pantanal region of Brazil, by trapping free-living ticks using a CO(2) tick trap. The traps were equally distributed in two areas: a 600-ha protected area (PA) and the Nhumirim Ranch (NR). Both areas are contiguous and located at the sub-region of Nhecolândia (18 degrees 59'S; 56 degrees 39'W), Pantanal, Brazil. In each area, four habitat types were selected: cerrado (tropical savanna), forest patches, lakes and soda lakes. The last two are temporary lagoons of fresh and salted water, respectively. A total of 980 nymphs, 613 adults and 13 larvae of ticks Amblyomma were collected in 256 h of collection. In a pen of calves infested by Ornithodoros rostratus 114 specimens were collected, including larvae, nymphs and adults. Adults of A. cajennense and A. parvum were more abundant in the savanna at NR, but not differed among habitat types at PA. There was a tendency of having more nymphs in NR than in PA. The higher number of ticks found in the NR in comparison to the PA is not due to the presence of cattle itself but probably due to introduced dogs and horses, habitat alteration. PMID:18454288

  9. Establishment of a laboratory colony of taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus for tick-borne pathogen transmission studies.

    PubMed

    Konnai, Satoru; Saito, Yoichi; Nishikado, Hideto; Yamada, Shinji; Imamura, Saiki; Mori, Akina; Ito, Takuya; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus Schulze (I. persulcatus) is distributed in Russia and Far East Asia including Japan, and has been implicated as the vector of several human pathogens. In particular, I. persulcatus acts as the only tick vector for human lyme borreliosis in Japan. In order to elucidate the mechanism of transmission of I. persulcatus-borne pathogens, we developed a laboratory colony of I. persulcatus. Ticks were fed on Syrian hamster and engorged ticks that had dropped off the animals were collected and maintained to allow them to molt. Tick rearing was performed in incubator at 20 degrees C with 95% relative humidity and 12-hour light/dark photo-period regimen. We found out that adult females fed for 8 +/- 2 days and had a pre-oviposition period lasting for 7 +/- 2 days. The minimum egg incubation period was 1 month with the hatched larvae feeding for 3 +/- 1 days and molting to nymphs 3-4 months thereafter. Meanwhile, the nymphs fed for 4 +/- 1 days and molted to adult 2-3 months thereafter. For future analysis of gene expression profiles in I. persulcatus, we cloned and sequenced the actin gene (a housekeeping gene), and found that it is 92.7% to 98.6% homologous to the published sequences of related ixodid ticks. This laboratory colony of I. persulcatus will facilitate investigations on the role of tick-derived molecules on the transmission of I. persulcatus-borne pathogens and will be important for identification of potential anti-tick vaccine and acaricide target molecules.

  10. Expression of bovine genes associated with local and systemic immune response to infestation with the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jaime L; Riggs, Penny K; Olafson, Pia U; Ivanov, Ivan; Holman, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum Linnaeus 1758 (Acari; Ixodidae), causes considerable production losses to the southern U.S. cattle industry due to reduced weight, infertility, secondary infections at bite wound sites, damaged hides, and potentially death, as these ticks tend to infest livestock in large numbers. Increasing environmental concerns, along with the potential for chemical residue in food products, have led to more emphasis on alternative tick control strategies, such as selective breeding practices and anti-tick vaccines. To enable progress toward these goals, a better understanding of bovine host immune mechanisms elicited by ticks is needed. In this study, 7 calves were phenotyped as susceptible, moderately resistant, or highly resistant to adult A. americanum ticks. Tick bite-site biopsies and blood leukocytes were collected at multiple time points throughout 3 successive tick infestations. Gene expression at tick bite-site biopsies was assessed by microarray analysis over 3 time points for each phenotype group. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR expression analysis evaluated 11 candidate genes in tick bite-site biopsies, and 6 in blood leukocytes. Regression curve estimates calculated from the expression values generated by qRT-PCR in tick bite-sites identified correlations between several candidate genes. Increased expression of IGHG1, IL6, IL1α, and IL1RN in bovine tick bite-site biopsies suggests that Th2 differentiation may be important for the local bovine response to A. americanum ticks. Strong correlations in expression for IL1α and IL1β, for IL1α and IL1RN, and for IL1α and TLR4 were found in biopsies from the tick-resistant phenotypes. The up-regulation of IL12 and IL23 in blood leukocytes from Lone Star tick-infested calves of all phenotypes suggests a possible systemic recruitment of memory T cells. This study provides novel insight concerning the bovine immune response to Lone Star ticks and a basis for future

  11. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases.

  12. Field and Laboratory Evaluations of the Efficacy of DEET Repellent against Ixodes Ticks.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kohei; Komagata, Osamu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Itokawa, Kentaro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Sawabe, Kyoko; Tomita, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the efficacy of a currently available N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) repellent against tick species in Japan. We performed 2 different field trials: "human trap," and "flag-dragging." In total, 482 ticks were collected from white flannel cloths in the field studies. The collected tick species were Ixodes persulcatus and I. ovatus, which accounted for 5.3% and 94.7% of the ticks in the human trap test and 31.4% and 68.6% in the flag-dragging test, respectively. The repellency levels of DEET-treated flannel cloths in the human trap and flag-dragging tests were 84.0% and 99.7%, respectively. The escape times for I. persulcatus and I. ovatus female adults from DEET-treated flannel cloths were determined. The median escape times for I. persulcatus and I. ovatus on DEET-treated flannel cloths were 48 s (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30-96) and 10 s (95% CI: 5-24), respectively. In contrast, many ticks remained on the untreated flannel cloths for 10 min after mounting. These results indicate that DEET repellents appear to prevent tick bites and that the use of DEET repellents against ticks is an effective personal protection measure. PMID:26073735

  13. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from Pianosa island, Tuscany Archipelago, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tomassone, L; Grego, E; Auricchio, D; Iori, A; Giannini, F; Rambozzi, L

    2013-02-01

    A study on tick fauna and tick-borne pathogens was undertaken in Pianosa, an island in the Tuscany Archipelago that constitutes an important stopping and nesting point for migratory birds. Ticks were removed from feral cats and a few terrestrial birds, and host-seeking ticks were collected by dragging. A total of 89 ticks were found on animals: 57 Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado, 1936 and 32 Ixodes acuminatus Neumann, 1901. Host-seeking ticks were 354 Hyalomma spp. larvae and 18 Hyalomma spp. adults, identified as Hyalomma marginatum C.L. Koch, 1844 (n=11) and 7 Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919 (n=7). A sample of adult ticks was subjected to molecular analyses to look for Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequence analysis of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and OspA gene of B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive samples showed the presence of Borrelia spielmanii (n=3; 3.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-10.4) and Borrelia valaisiana (n=13; 13.6%, 95% CI 7.0-23.0) in Ixodes ticks from cats and terrestrial birds. Ixodes spp. were also infected by Rickettsia helvetica (n=19; 23.4%, 95% CI 14.7-34.2). Finally, we detected Rickettsia aeschlimannii in 3 out of 12 host-seeking Hyalomma spp. adults tested (25%, 95% CI 5.5-57.2). Our study shows the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in Pianosa. Hyalomma spp. and Ixodes ticks other than I. ricinus seem to be involved in their epidemiological cycle, and birds could contribute to the pathogen dispersal along their migration routes. This is the first finding of B. spielmanii in Italy. We hypothesize the involvement of peridomestic rodents or hedgehogs in its maintenance in Pianosa.

  14. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  15. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  16. The western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, in the Sutter Buttes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stan A; Lemenager, Debra A; McBride, Ronald L; Brown, David A

    2003-12-01

    The western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, was collected from Huff Canyon in the Sutter Buttes in north central California, Sutter County. The Sutter Buttes are within the Sacramento Valley and outside the normal distribution of I. pacificus in California. Adult I. pacificus were collected via flagging as they quested along deer trails; subadult life stages were collected from three species of lizard, Elgaria multicarinata, Sceloporus occidentalis, and S. graciosus. Adult ticks were tested for the presence of spirochetes using the standard IFA with a monoclonal antibody specific for OSPA. Of the ticks tested, 3.3% were identified as positive for the presence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. These results present the first published account of Ixodes pacificus as well as the first detection of B. burgdorferi in the Sutter Buttes, Sutter County, California. PMID:14714665

  17. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania. PMID:26507182

  18. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania.

  19. Rationale for classical biological control of cattle fever ticks and proposed methods for field collection of natural enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control using specialist parasitoids, predators and/or nematodes from the native ranges of cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus could complement existing control strategies for this livestock pest in the transboundary region between Mexico and T...

  20. Collection of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences from Rhipicephalus ticks from various geographic locations around the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the origin of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, will be helpful to the effort to find biological control agents. Molecular phylogenetics can assist in this determination. Thus, we sequenced and assembled partial gene sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I coding r...

  1. Tick bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... carry bacteria that can cause: Colorado tick fever Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever Tularemia These and other ... given to people who live in areas where Lyme disease is common. The person may receive: Blood and ...

  2. Isolate of Anaplasma marginale not transmitted by ticks.

    PubMed

    Smith, R D; Levy, M G; Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Adams, J H; Rzechula, D L; Hardt, T A; Kocan, K M

    1986-01-01

    The tick-borne transmissibility of 2 isolates of Anaplasma marginale was compared. Dermacentor variabilis were exposed to A marginale as nymphs by feeding on 1 of 4 splenectomized calves during periods of ascending parasitemia (maximum 49% to 81% parasitized erythrocytes) induced by injection of a stabilate. Tick-borne transmission was attempted, using 26 to 224 adult ticks within 30 to 220 days after molting. Adult D variabilis did not transmit an Illinois isolate of A marginale in 7 tick-borne transmission experiments (P = 0.0047), including 2 experiments in which calves were inoculated IV with homogenates of adult ticks. In contrast, a Virginia isolate of A marginale was readily transmitted by the same tick colony. Thus, previously reported morphologic and immunologic differences among A marginale isolates may extend to tick-borne transmissibility. The Virginia and Illinois A marginale isolates had an inclusion appendage that was not a marker for tick transmissibility. PMID:3946891

  3. Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Carbajales-Dale, Patricia; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus–B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi–that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0–6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6–4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis. PMID:26288371

  4. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  5. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird–Tick Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds’ role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually–sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical–Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically–identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly–discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the

  6. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  7. Epidemiological Survey of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks in Nagasaki, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Shimada, Satoshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Takamatsu, Yuki; Uchida, Leo; Horio, Masahiro; Fuxun, Yu; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease endemic in East Asia. Transmitted to other organisms by infected ticks, the SFTS virus (SFTSV) and is endemic to Nagasaki in western Japan. However, epidemiological information regarding SFTSV in Nagasaki ticks has not been available to date. In this study, we began by examining the sensitivities of SFTSV gene detection by real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation in cultured cells and mice. These methods could detect SFTSV in the samples containing more than 4 × 100 ffu. Next, we attempted to isolate SFTSV and to detect viral gene in 2,222 nymph and adult ticks collected from May to August 2013 among seven regions of Nagasaki. However, neither virus isolation nor viral gene detection were confirmed in the tick pools. SFTSV positivity rates are considered to be very low in ticks, and viral loads are also very limited. Further investigations increasing the number of ticks and including larval samples as well as improved detection methods, may be required to find SFTSV-positive ticks in this region. PMID:26543390

  8. Borrelia Species in Host-Seeking Ticks and Small Mammals in Northern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kerry

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of several factors related to the ecology and environmental risk of Borrelia infection in northern Florida. Small mammals and host-seeking adult ticks were collected at several sites, and specimens were tested for the presence of Borrelia species, primarily by PCR amplification. Tissues from some vertebrates and ticks were initially cultured in BSK-H medium to isolate spirochetes, but none were recovered. However, comparison of partial flagellin (flaB), 66-kDa protein (p66), and outer surface protein A (ospA) gene sequences from DNAs amplified from small mammals and ticks confirmed the presence of several Borrelia species. Borrelia lonestari DNA was detected among lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) at four sites. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains were detected in all small mammal species tested and in A. americanum, Ixodes affinis, and Ixodes scapularis ticks. Borrelia bissettii was found in a cotton mouse and cotton rats and in I. affinis ticks. The study findings extend the known geographic distributions of B. lonestari in A. americanum and of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in A. americanum, I. affinis, I. scapularis, and small mammals to new sites in Florida. The presence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in host-seeking lone star ticks at two sites in Florida suggests that A. americanum should still be considered a possible vector of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. PMID:15528699

  9. TickBot: a novel robotic device for controlling tick populations in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Gaff, Holly D; White, Alexis; Leas, Kyle; Kelman, Pamela; Squire, James C; Livingston, David L; Sullivan, Gerald A; Baker, Elizabeth W; Sonenshine, Daniel E

    2015-03-01

    A semi-autonomous 4-wheeled robot (TickBot) was fitted with a denim cloth treated with an acaricide (permethrin™) and tested for its ability to control ticks in a tick-infested natural environment in Portsmouth, Virginia. The robot's sensors detect a magnetic field signal from a guide wire encased in 80m polyethylene tubing, enabling the robot to follow the trails, open areas and other terrain where the tubing was located. To attract ticks to the treated area, CO2 was distributed through the same tubing, fitted with evenly spaced pores and flow control valves, which permitted uniform CO2 distribution. Tests were done to determine the optimum frequency for TickBot to traverse the wire-guided treatment site as well as the duration of operation that could be accomplished on a single battery charge. Prior to treatment, dragging was done to determine the natural abundance of ticks in the test site. Controls were done without CO2 and without permethrin. TickBot proved highly effective in reducing the overall tick densities to nearly zero with the treatment that included both carbon dioxide pretreatment and the permethrin treated cloth. Following a 60min traverse of the treatment areas, adult tick numbers, almost entirely Amblyomma americanum, was reduced to zero within 1h and remained at or near zero for 24h. Treatments without CO2 also showed reduction of ticks to near zero within 1h, but the populations were no different than the control sections at 4h. This study demonstrates the efficacy of TickBot as a tick control device to significantly reduce the risk of tick bites and disease transmission to humans and companion animals visiting a previously tick-infested natural environment. Continued deployment of TickBot for additional days or weeks can assure a relatively tick-safe environment for enjoyment by the public. PMID:25499615

  10. Influence of altitude on tick-borne encephalitis infection risk in the natural foci of the Altai Republic, Southern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Shchuchinova, L D; Kozlova, I V; Zlobin, V I

    2015-04-01

    The Altai Republic is a highly endemic area as far as tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is concerned. The aim of the research was to study the effect of altitude on the risk of tick-borne encephalitis infection in the Altai Republic. The paper analyzes the following data: the study of ixodid ticks collected from the vegetation in 116 sites at the 200-2383m elevation above sea level in 2012-2014, TBE virus prevalence of these vectors, tick-bite incidence rate, and TBE incidence rate of the population. Species identification of 4503 specimens has shown that the most common species are Dermacentor nuttalli (45.3%), Ixodes persulcatus (33.1%), Dermacentor silvarum (9.4%), Dermacentor reticulatus (8.9%), and Haemaphysalis concinna (5.0%). A total of 2997 adult ixodid ticks were studied for the presence of the TBE virus; 2163 samples were examined by ELISA, while 834 specimens were tested by PCR. The TBE virus prevalence of Dermacentor spp. ticks in both reactions was significantly higher than of Ixodes persulcatus ticks (p<0.001). The work shows that the altitude is an important factor in the development of the epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis: the higher the elevation of the area above sea level, the smaller the range of vectors. There is also a change of a leading species: in middle altitude (800-1700m above sea level) the virus is transmitted by ticks of D. nuttalli along with I. persulcatus, and in high mountains (above 1700m above sea level) D. nuttalli becomes an absolute dominant species. However, these species of ticks are less effective vectors than I. persulcatus. With the increase of altitude the tick-bite incidence rate decreases (r=-0.78, p<0.05), and TBE incidence also reduces (r=-0.67, p<0.05).

  11. A molecular survey of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Thuringia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Herb, Ingrid; Fensterer, Veronika; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Wild canines which are closely related to dogs constitute a potential reservoir for haemoparasites by both hosting tick species that infest dogs and harbouring tick-transmitted canine haemoparasites. In this study, the prevalence of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. was investigated in German red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks. DNA extracts of 261 spleen samples and 1953 ticks included 4 tick species: Ixodes ricinus (n=870), I. canisuga (n=585), I. hexagonus (n=485), and Dermacentor reticulatus (n=13) were examined for the presence of Babesia/Theileria spp. by a conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. One hundred twenty-one out of 261 foxes (46.4%) were PCR-positive. Out of them, 44 samples were sequenced, and all sequences had 100% similarity to Theileria annae. Similarly, sequencing was carried out for 65 out of 118 PCR-positive ticks. Theileria annae DNA was detected in 61.5% of the sequenced samples, Babesia microti DNA was found in 9.2%, and Babesia venatorum in 7.6% of the sequenced samples. The foxes were most positive in June and October, whereas the peak of tick positivity was in October. Furthermore, the positivity of the ticks was higher for I. canisuga in comparison to the other tick species and for nymphs in comparison to adults. The high prevalence of T. annae DNA in red foxes in this study suggests a reservoir function of those animals for T. annae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. annae in foxes from Germany as well as the first detection of T. annae and B. microti in the fox tick I. canisuga. Detection of DNA of T. annae and B. microti in three tick species collected from foxes adds new potential vectors for these two pathogens and suggests a potential role of the red fox in their natural endemic cycles.

  12. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma auricularium ticks in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: isolation, transovarial transmission, and transstadial perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Horta, Maurício C; Soares, Herbert S; Nicola, Patricia A; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma auricularium ticks from the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. An engorged female of A. auricularium collected from a skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) was sent alive to the laboratory, where the female was found through molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This engorged female oviposited, and its offspring was reared through three consecutive generations, always using tick-naïve rabbits to feed the ticks. PCR performed on five egg pools, 10 larvae, 10 nymphs, and 10 adults of each of the three generations always yielded rickettsial DNA, indicating maintenance of rickettsial infection in the ticks by transstadial and transovarial passages. DNA sequences of random PCR products from eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults were identified as R. amblyommii. All infested rabbits seroconverted to R. amblyommii antigens at the 21(st) day after infestation, indicating that larvae, nymphs, and adults transmitted R. amblyommii through parasitism. However, no infested rabbit presented fever or any clinical alteration during the experimental period. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from the two A. auricularium females, and the isolates were established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed R. amblyommii by sequencing partial gltA, ompA, and ompB genes. From another sample of 15 A. auricularium adult ticks collected from two armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus), eight (53.3%) were infected by R. amblyommii. This study reports R. amblyommii infecting the tick A. auricularium for the first time. This is also the first report of rickettsia infecting ticks in the northeastern region of Brazil. PMID:23705586

  13. Rickettsia amblyommii infecting Amblyomma auricularium ticks in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: isolation, transovarial transmission, and transstadial perpetuation.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Horta, Maurício C; Soares, Herbert S; Nicola, Patricia A; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma auricularium ticks from the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. An engorged female of A. auricularium collected from a skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) was sent alive to the laboratory, where the female was found through molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This engorged female oviposited, and its offspring was reared through three consecutive generations, always using tick-naïve rabbits to feed the ticks. PCR performed on five egg pools, 10 larvae, 10 nymphs, and 10 adults of each of the three generations always yielded rickettsial DNA, indicating maintenance of rickettsial infection in the ticks by transstadial and transovarial passages. DNA sequences of random PCR products from eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults were identified as R. amblyommii. All infested rabbits seroconverted to R. amblyommii antigens at the 21(st) day after infestation, indicating that larvae, nymphs, and adults transmitted R. amblyommii through parasitism. However, no infested rabbit presented fever or any clinical alteration during the experimental period. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from the two A. auricularium females, and the isolates were established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed R. amblyommii by sequencing partial gltA, ompA, and ompB genes. From another sample of 15 A. auricularium adult ticks collected from two armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus), eight (53.3%) were infected by R. amblyommii. This study reports R. amblyommii infecting the tick A. auricularium for the first time. This is also the first report of rickettsia infecting ticks in the northeastern region of Brazil.

  14. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related. PMID:26209411

  15. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in ticks naturally feeding on buffaloes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-10-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen transmitted by ticks in cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, the tick species involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes in Brazil have not been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of A. marginale in ticks parasitizing water buffaloes. A total of 200 samples of Rhipicephalus microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma maculatum were collected and tested by conventional and quantitative PCR for the presence of the msp1a and msp5 genes. In the present study, 35 ticks (17.5%) were positive for A. marginale DNA by qPCR analysis. The positive ticks belonged to four different species: R. microplus (22.2%), A. cajennense (13.8%), A. maculatum (16.0%), and D. nitens (10.0%). Individuals of the three developmental stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults) of R. microplus and A. cajennense were found to be positive for A. marginale, only nymphs and adults of A. maculatum were found to be positive, and finally, only adults of D. nitens were positive for A. marginale. Our results suggest that R. microplus, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, and D. nitens ticks may be involved in the transmission of A. marginale in buffaloes. However, while A. marginale PCR positive ticks were recorded, this does not indicate vector competence; only that the ticks may contain a blood meal from an infected host. Additionally, the results show that the strains of A. marginale from buffaloes and cattle are phylogenetically related.

  16. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1,107 ticks were collected by tick dragging from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico. PMID:26726019

  17. Host-seeking behavior of adult Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) as determined by flagging vegetation.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Stubbs, H A

    1990-05-01

    Diurnal host-seeking by adults of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls in relation to vegetative habitat type and meterological factors was investigated at a coastal and an inland site in northern California. Host-seeking behavior and relative tick abundance were determined with a tick drag method from late fall to midwinter 1987-1988. At the inland site, tick abundance usually was significantly greater in chaparral-grassland ecotones than in adjoining dense chaparral on the south-facing slope of a mountaintop, whereas both of these vegetative types produced significantly fewer ticks on a north slope compared with a contiguous south-facing slope. There was no evidence for an association between tick abundance and plant species within ecotonal chaparral. Multiple regression analyses revealed that tick abundance in ecotonal chaparral at the inland site and in grassland at the coastal site was not associated consistently with either ambient temperature or relative humidity. Compared with the inland site, ticks were considerably more abundant at the coastal site where sampling occasionally yielded more than 100 ticks per 100 drag samples. The incidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, the etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, in adult ticks collected in the morning (1.5%) versus afternoon (2.2%), and in male (1.3%) versus female ticks (2.5%), at the coastal site in winter was similar.

  18. Tick survey for prevalent pathogens in peri-urban recreation sites in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany).

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Mehlhorn, Tim; Müller, Melanie; Vogt, Manfred; Rissland, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks are important vectors of human pathogens in Central Europe. Despite this fact, prevalence studies are scarce, especially with regard to much-frequented peri-urban recreation sites. In this pilot study, 4.014 larvae, nymphs and adult ticks sampled monthly during the active seasons in 2011 and 2012 from 14 distinct collection sites in two German states (Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate) were screened for Borrelia spp., Anaplasma spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Mean prevalence rates were 19.8 % for Borrelia spp., 1.9 % for Anaplasma spp. and 0.1 % for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), which are in accordance with those reported from other regions in Germany and neighbouring countries. Nevertheless, the detection of TBEV-infected ticks is the first positive result after several unsuccessful efforts over the previous years in official "TBE-risk" zones of Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate which supports the presumption of the origin of observed local infection. Besides ixodid ticks a non-engorged adult female tick of the invading species Dermacentor reticulatus has been found reflecting the appearance of another vector eventually jeopardising the health of host animals as well as humans.

  19. Assessing the abundance, seasonal questing activity, and Borrelia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Jani J; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Tonteri, Elina; Penttinen, Ritva

    2016-02-01

    Studies have revealed that Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) have become more abundant and their geographical distribution extended northwards in some Nordic countries during the past few decades. However, ecological data of tick populations in Finland are sparse. In the current study, I. ricinus abundance, seasonal questing activity, and their Borrelia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence were evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland, Seili Island, where a previous study mapping tick densities was conducted 12 years earlier. A total of 1940 ticks were collected from five different biotopes by cloth dragging during May-September 2012. The overall tick density observed was 5.2 ticks/100m(2) for nymphs and adults. Seasonal questing activity of ticks differed between biotopes and life stages: bimodal occurrences were observed especially for nymphal and adult ticks in forested biotopes, while larvae in pastures exhibited mostly unimodal occurrence. Prevalence of Borrelia and TBEV in ticks was evaluated using conventional and real-time PCR. All samples were negative for TBEV. Borrelia prevalence was 25.0% for adults (n=44) and the minimum infection rate (MIR) 5.6% for pooled nymph samples (191 samples, 1-14 individuals per sample; 30/191 positive). No Borrelia were detected in pooled larval samples (63 samples, 1-139 individuals per sample). Five species of Borrelia were identified from the samples: B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi. In Finland, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi have previously been reported from the Åland Islands but not from the mainland or inner archipelago. The results of the present study suggest an increase in I. ricinus abundance on the island.

  20. Assessing the abundance, seasonal questing activity, and Borrelia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Jani J; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Tonteri, Elina; Penttinen, Ritva

    2016-02-01

    Studies have revealed that Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) have become more abundant and their geographical distribution extended northwards in some Nordic countries during the past few decades. However, ecological data of tick populations in Finland are sparse. In the current study, I. ricinus abundance, seasonal questing activity, and their Borrelia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence were evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland, Seili Island, where a previous study mapping tick densities was conducted 12 years earlier. A total of 1940 ticks were collected from five different biotopes by cloth dragging during May-September 2012. The overall tick density observed was 5.2 ticks/100m(2) for nymphs and adults. Seasonal questing activity of ticks differed between biotopes and life stages: bimodal occurrences were observed especially for nymphal and adult ticks in forested biotopes, while larvae in pastures exhibited mostly unimodal occurrence. Prevalence of Borrelia and TBEV in ticks was evaluated using conventional and real-time PCR. All samples were negative for TBEV. Borrelia prevalence was 25.0% for adults (n=44) and the minimum infection rate (MIR) 5.6% for pooled nymph samples (191 samples, 1-14 individuals per sample; 30/191 positive). No Borrelia were detected in pooled larval samples (63 samples, 1-139 individuals per sample). Five species of Borrelia were identified from the samples: B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi. In Finland, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi have previously been reported from the Åland Islands but not from the mainland or inner archipelago. The results of the present study suggest an increase in I. ricinus abundance on the island. PMID:26548608

  1. Heterogeneous Associations of Ecological Attributes with Tick-Borne Rickettsial Pathogens in a Periurban Landscape.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ram K; Goodin, Douglas G; Dryden, Michael W; Hroobi, Ali; Gordon, David M; Cheng, Chuanmin; Nair, Arathy D; Jakkula, Laxmi U M R; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Anderson, Gary A; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-09-01

    The variations in prevalence levels of two tick-borne rickettsial pathogens, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia Ewingii, in a periurban environment were evaluated along with their ecological determinants. Tick life stage and sex, month of tick collection, landscape fragmentation, and ecological covariates specific to pasture and woodland sites were considered as explanatory covariates. Questing lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) were collected by flagging for an hour once every week during mid-April through mid-August in years 2013 and 2014. A total of 4357 adult and nymphal ticks (woodland = 2720 and pasture = 1637) were collected and assessed for pathogen prevalence by molecular methods. Female A. americanum ticks were more infected with E. chaffeensis than males or nymphs in woodland areas [♂ = 6.05%; ♀ = 12.0%; nymphs = 2.09%] and pastures [♂ = 8.05%; ♀ = 12.03%; nymphs = 3.33%], and the prevalence was influenced by edge density in the landscape. Higher E. ewingii infection was noted among female A. americanum ticks within woodland areas [♂ = 1.89%; ♀ = 2.14%; nymphs = 1.57%], but no such difference was evident in pastures [♂ = 1.03%; ♀ = 1.33%; nymphs = 1.12%]. Prevalence of E. ewingii was influenced by edge contrast index, and the percentage of pasture perimeter that was less than 20 meters from woodland areas. This study elucidates the complexity of tick-borne pathogen ecology and points to the need for further studies on the role of reservoir hosts, particularly that played by small vertebrates, which is not fully understood in the region.

  2. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiae in Ixodes ricinus ticks from southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, B U; Röllinghoff, M; Bogdan, C

    1999-11-01

    A total of 287 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks, collected in two regions of southern Germany (Frankonia and Baden-Württemberg) where Borrelia burgdorferi infections are known to be endemic, were examined for the presence of 16S ribosomal DNA specific for the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup, E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and B. burgdorferi by nested PCR. Totals of 2.2% (6 of 275) and 21.8% (65 of 275) of the ticks were positive for the E. phagocytophila genogroup and B. burgdorferi, respectively. Two ticks (0.7%) were coinfected with both bacteria. Of 12 engorged I. ricinus ticks collected from two deer, 8 (67%) were positive for the E. phagocytophila genogroup and one (8%) was positive for B. burgdorferi. There was no evidence of infection with E. canis or E. chaffeensis in the investigated tick population. The nucleotide sequences of the 546-bp Ehrlichia PCR products differed at one or two positions from the original sequence of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent (S.-M. Chen, J. S. Dumler, J. S. Bakken, and D. H. Walker, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:589-595, 1994). Three groups of sequence variants were detected; two of these were known to occur in other areas in Europe or the United States, whereas one has not been reported before. Thus, in the German I. ricinus tick population closely related granulocytic ehrlichiae are prevalent, which might represent variants of E. phagocytophila or the HGE agent. PMID:10523532

  3. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Amblyomma maculatum Gulf Coast ticks collected from humans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ju; Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Richards, Allen L

    2012-03-01

    Rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia recently found to be pathogenic to humans, causes an eschar-associated febrile illness. The R. parkeri rickettsiosis, Tidewater spotted fever, has been misdiagnosed as Rocky Mountain spotted fever due to serologic cross reactivity and the lack of specific diagnostic methods. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, also a SFG rickettsia, is a recently described agent of unknown pathogenicity originally identified in ticks collected from domestic animals during a fever outbreak investigation in northern Peru. Among 37 Amblyomma maculatum (collected from humans (n=35) and questing (n=2)) obtained from the southern United States during 2000-2009, nine and four A. maculatum nucleic acid preparations were found positive for R. parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae, respectively, by newly developed genus- and species-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. In addition Rickettsia felis was found in two A. maculatum nucleic acid preparations.

  4. Morphology of the midgut of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) adult ticks in different feeding stages.

    PubMed

    Remedio, R N; Sampieri, B R; Vendramini, M C R; Souza, N M; Anholeto, L A; Denardo, T A G B; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells of ticks are fundamental for their full feeding and reproductive success, besides being considered important sites for the development of pathogens. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are known for their great medical and veterinary importance, and for this reason, the knowledge of their intestinal morphology may provide relevant subsidies for the control of these animals, either by direct acaricidal action over these cells or by the production of vaccines. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the midgut morphology of male and female R. sanguineus ticks in different feeding stages, by means of histological analysis. Significant differences were observed between the genders, and such alterations may refer mainly to the distinct demands for nutrients, much higher in females, which need to develop and carry out the egg-laying process. In general, the midgut is coated by a thin muscle layer and presents a pseudostratified epithelium, in which two basic types of cells can be observed, connected to a basal membrane-generative or stem and digestive cells. The latter was classified as follows: residual, deriving from the phase anterior to ecdysis; pinocytic, with vesicles containing liquid or pre-digested components of blood; phagocytic, with entire cells or remnants of nuclear material inside cytoplasmic vesicles; and mature, free in the lumen. Digestion is presumably intracellular and asynchronous and corresponds to a process which starts with the differentiation of generative cells into pinocytic digestive cells, which subsequently start to phagocytize intact blood cells and finally detach from the epithelium, being eliminated with feces.

  5. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission. PMID:26741324

  6. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission.

  7. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, Alan. S.; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  8. Tick paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. Breathing difficulties require emergency care. Prevention Use insect repellents and protective clothing when in tick-infested areas. ... chap 298. Read More Botulism Guillain-Barré syndrome Insect bites and stings Movement - uncoordinated Muscle function loss Poisoning - fish and ...

  9. Detection of Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks and Bartonella seroprevalence in human populations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Schötta, Anna Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors for many bacterial, protozoan and viral pathogens and are potential vectors for Bartonella species. Hunters and foresters, therefore, may be regarded as high-risk groups for Bartonella infections. The aims of this study were (i) to identify Bartonella species in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in all provinces of Austria, and (ii) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella species in hunters and blood donors in eastern Austria. A total of 515 larval, nymphal and adult I. ricinus, collected throughout Austria in 2005, were selected from the tick library at the Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology of the Medical University of Vienna and screened in a specific real-time PCR that targeted a region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella species. The overall Bartonella infection rate was 2.1% (11/515) and the highest rate, 7.5% (4/53), was found in ticks from Vienna. This finding was confirmed by screening a further 60 I. ricinus collected from Vienna in 2013: of these, 6.7% (4/60) were positive for Bartonella spp. The rate of infection was always higher in adult ticks. Sequence analysis in the Bartonella-positive ticks identified several species, including B. henselae, B. doshiae and B. grahamii. To our knowledge this is the first time that these species have been identified in I. ricinus in Austria. Prevalence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and B. quintana was determined in serum samples from hunters (100) and blood donors (100): in hunters 23% were positive for B. quintana and in 2 samples (2%), antibodies to both B. quintana and B. henselae were detected; in blood donors 22% were positive for B. quintana, 1% for B. henselae and 5% for both. These results indicate that exposure to ticks does not constitutes a relevant risk for Bartonella infection.

  10. Relative density of host-seeking ticks in different habitat types of south-western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kazimírová, Mária; Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kocianová, Elena; Marini, Giovanni; Mojšová, Michala; Mahríková, Lenka; Berthová, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Rosá, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a vector of microbial pathogens of medical and veterinary importance in Europe. Recently, increasing abundance of ticks has been observed in urban and suburban areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the tick species composition and examine correlations between local environmental variables and the relative density of host-seeking I. ricinus in two habitat types. Questing ticks were collected along six 100 m(2) transects in urban/suburban locations of Bratislava town, and in a non-fragmented deciduous forest in the Small Carpathians Mountains (south-western Slovakia) during 2011-2013. In total, 6015 I. ricinus were collected (3435 and 2580 in the urban/suburban and natural habitat, respectively), out of which over 80 % were nymphs. Haemaphysalis concinna comprised 1.3 % of the tick collections. Peak I. ricinus nymph and adult host-seeking activities were registered in April-June. Spatial and temporal variation in tick relative density and differences in the subadult/adult ratio were observed between habitats and between locations within the same habitat type. The relative density of questing I. ricinus nymphs correlated negatively with altitude, geographical aspect and saturation deficit in a 64-day period comprising the 8-day period including the date of tick sampling and previous 56 days. No significant correlation was found between roe deer density and questing nymph density. The study revealed the presence of abundant I. ricinus populations in green areas of Bratislava, suggesting a risk of exposure of town dwellers and domestic and companion animals to potentially infected ticks.

  11. Relative density of host-seeking ticks in different habitat types of south-western Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kazimírová, Mária; Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kocianová, Elena; Marini, Giovanni; Mojšová, Michala; Mahríková, Lenka; Berthová, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Rosá, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a vector of microbial pathogens of medical and veterinary importance in Europe. Recently, increasing abundance of ticks has been observed in urban and suburban areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the tick species composition and examine correlations between local environmental variables and the relative density of host-seeking I. ricinus in two habitat types. Questing ticks were collected along six 100 m(2) transects in urban/suburban locations of Bratislava town, and in a non-fragmented deciduous forest in the Small Carpathians Mountains (south-western Slovakia) during 2011-2013. In total, 6015 I. ricinus were collected (3435 and 2580 in the urban/suburban and natural habitat, respectively), out of which over 80 % were nymphs. Haemaphysalis concinna comprised 1.3 % of the tick collections. Peak I. ricinus nymph and adult host-seeking activities were registered in April-June. Spatial and temporal variation in tick relative density and differences in the subadult/adult ratio were observed between habitats and between locations within the same habitat type. The relative density of questing I. ricinus nymphs correlated negatively with altitude, geographical aspect and saturation deficit in a 64-day period comprising the 8-day period including the date of tick sampling and previous 56 days. No significant correlation was found between roe deer density and questing nymph density. The study revealed the presence of abundant I. ricinus populations in green areas of Bratislava, suggesting a risk of exposure of town dwellers and domestic and companion animals to potentially infected ticks. PMID:26926874

  12. 77 FR 37923 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Investment Act (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs Gold Standard Evaluation (WIA Evaluation); New...: New collection. Title of Collection: WIA Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs Gold Standard...

  13. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe

    2016-09-30

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico.

  14. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe

    2016-09-30

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico. PMID:26726019

  15. Ixodid ticks associated with feral swine in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David M; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, P Wesley; Strey, Otto F; Blankenship, Terry L; Teel, Pete D

    2013-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from feral swine in eight Texas ecoregions from 2008-2011. Sixty-two percent of 806 feral swine were infested with one or more of the following species: Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum, Dermacentor albipictus, D. halli, D. variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. Juvenile and adult feral swine of both sexes were found to serve as host to ixodid ticks. Longitudinal surveys of feral swine at four geographic locations show persistent year-round tick infestations of all gender-age classes for tick species common to their respective geographic locations and ecoregions. Amblyomma americanum, A. cajennense, A. maculatum and D. variabilis were collected from 66% of feral swine harvested through an abatement program in seven ecoregions from March to October in 2009. These results indicate westward geographic expansion of D. variabilis. Summary results show feral swine are competent hosts for ixodid species responsible for the transmission of pathogens and diminished well-being in livestock, wildlife, and humans.

  16. Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Wild Animals and Ixodidae Ticks in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Hur, Moon-Suk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Jeong, Soo-Myoung; Shin, Nam-Shik; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern China, southern Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). To investigate SFTSV infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. Using serum samples and ticks, SFTSV-specific genes were amplified by one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR and sequenced. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody levels in wild animals. Serum samples were collected from a total of 91 animals: 21 Korean water deer (KWD), 3 Siberian roe deer, 5 gorals, 7 raccoon dogs, 54 wild boars (WBs), and 1 carrion crow. The SFTSV infection rate in wild animals was 3.30% (3 of 91 animals: 1 KWD and 2 WBs). The seropositive rate was 6.59% (6 of 91 animals: 5 KWD and 1 WB). A total of 891 ticks (3 species) were collected from 65 wild animals (9 species). Of the attached tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis (74.86%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (20.20%) and Ixodes nipponensis (4.94%). The average minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in ticks was 4.98%. The MIRs of H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. nipponensis were 4.51%, 2.22%, and 22.73%, respectively. The MIRs of larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks were 0.68%, 6.88%, and 5.53%, respectively. In addition, the MIRs of fed and unfed ticks were 4.67% and 4.96%, respectively. We detected a low SFTSV infection rate in wild animals, no differences in SFTSV infection rate with respect to bloodsucking in ticks, and SFTSV infection for all developmental stages of ticks. This is the first report describing the detection of SFTSV in wild animals in the ROK. PMID:27043361

  17. Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Wild Animals and Ixodidae Ticks in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Hur, Moon-Suk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Jeong, Soo-Myoung; Shin, Nam-Shik; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern China, southern Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). To investigate SFTSV infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. Using serum samples and ticks, SFTSV-specific genes were amplified by one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR and sequenced. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody levels in wild animals. Serum samples were collected from a total of 91 animals: 21 Korean water deer (KWD), 3 Siberian roe deer, 5 gorals, 7 raccoon dogs, 54 wild boars (WBs), and 1 carrion crow. The SFTSV infection rate in wild animals was 3.30% (3 of 91 animals: 1 KWD and 2 WBs). The seropositive rate was 6.59% (6 of 91 animals: 5 KWD and 1 WB). A total of 891 ticks (3 species) were collected from 65 wild animals (9 species). Of the attached tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis (74.86%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (20.20%) and Ixodes nipponensis (4.94%). The average minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in ticks was 4.98%. The MIRs of H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. nipponensis were 4.51%, 2.22%, and 22.73%, respectively. The MIRs of larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks were 0.68%, 6.88%, and 5.53%, respectively. In addition, the MIRs of fed and unfed ticks were 4.67% and 4.96%, respectively. We detected a low SFTSV infection rate in wild animals, no differences in SFTSV infection rate with respect to bloodsucking in ticks, and SFTSV infection for all developmental stages of ticks. This is the first report describing the detection of SFTSV in wild animals in the ROK.

  18. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens—methodological principles and caveats

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Gray, Jeremy S.; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S.; Nijhof, Ard M.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial capacity of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. This approach should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases. PMID:23964348

  19. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia odocoilei DNA in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Fresia E; Pinger, Robert R; Vann, Carolyn N; Abley, Melanie J; Sullivan, Bridget; Grindle, Nate; Clay, Keith; Fuqua, Clay

    2006-03-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, first reported in Indiana in 1987, has now been detected in more than half of Indiana's counties. The first case of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (human anaplasmosis) in Indiana was reported in 2002. We now report the detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia odocoilei (Emerson and Wright 1968) in I. scapularis ticks collected in northern Indiana. Using polymerase chain reaction analysis, 41 of 193 adult ticks (21.2%) collected from deer were positive for A. phagocytophylum, and 22 (11.4%) were positive for Babesia sp. Restriction fragment analysis of 12, and sequencing of another five of the amplified products identified these parasites as B. odocoilei. Five ticks (2.6%) were coinfected. Eight of 68 questing adult ticks (11.8%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum; seven (10.3%) were positive for Babesia sp. Six of the latter seven positive samples were determined to be B. odocoilei by restriction fragment analysis and sequencing of two samples. None of 39 pools of nymphs was positive for Babesia sp. Three of 15 ticks (20%) collected from a dog were positive for A. phagocytophilum and three ticks (20%) were positive for Babesia sp. One was confirmed as B. odocoilei. One tick was coinfected. This is the first report of the presence of these two agents in ticks in Indiana.

  20. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  1. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  2. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  3. Rickettsia parkeri infecting free-living Amblyomma triste ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia L T; Alves, Alvair S; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Martins, Thiago F; Witter, Rute; Pacheco, Thábata A; Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Chitarra, Cristiane S; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the infection of rickettsiae in 151 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 59 Amblyomma ovale, 166 Amblyomma triste, one Amblyomma dissimile and four Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in the municipality of Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, within the Pantanal biome of Brazil. Ticks were individually processed by the hemolymph test with Gimenez staining, isolation of rickettsia in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the citrate synthase rickettsial gene. Through the shell vial technique, rickettsiae were successfully isolated and established in Vero cell culture from one free-living A. triste female tick, which previously showed to contain Rickettsia-like organisms by the hemolymph test. Molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate was achieved through DNA partial sequences of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, ompB), which showed to be all 100% identical to Rickettsia parkeri. After testing all ticks by PCR, the frequency of R. parkeri infection was 7.23% (12/166) in A. triste adult ticks. The remaining ticks were negative by PCR. This is the first report of in vitro isolation of R. parkeri in the Pantanal biome, confirming the occurrence of this emerging rickettsial pathogen in this natural area of South America.

  4. Isolation and maintenance of Rickettsia raoultii in a Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick cell line.

    PubMed

    Santibáñez, Sonia; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Romero, Lourdes; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia raoultii, a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae, has been implicated in cases of DEBONEL/TIBOLA/SENLAT, and has been detected in Dermacentor spp. and Rhipicephalus pumilio ticks by PCR. R. raoultii has been isolated in mammalian and tick cell lines. This study aimed to isolate R. raoultii from Spanish Dermacentor marginatus in tick cell lines. A single adult D. marginatus collected from vegetation in La Rioja (Northen Spain) in October 2012 was surface-sterilised, triturated and aliquots of the homogenate were inoculated into a panel of tick cell lines derived from embryonic Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus evertsi and Ixodes ricinus. Cultures were maintained at 28 °C with weekly medium changes and checked by Gimenez stain for Rickettsia-like intracellular organisms. After 50 days of incubation, intracellular Rickettsia-like organisms were observed in the R. sanguineus cell line RML-RSE using Gimenez stain. PCR assays and sequencing of fragments of 16S RNA, ompB and ompA genes in DNA extracted from the culture suspension showed 100% identity with R. raoultii. Growth of intracellular microorganisms was not observed in preparations of the other tick cell lines. In conclusion, the tick cell line RML-RSE is a useful system for the isolation and maintenance of R. raoultii.

  5. Influence of the Biotope on the Tick Infestation of Cattle and on the Tick-Borne Pathogen Repertoire of Cattle Ticks in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hornok, Sándor; Abichu, Getachew; Meli, Marina L.; Tánczos, Balázs; Sulyok, Kinga M.; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Gönczi, Enikő; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of vector-borne infections occur in the tropics, including Africa, but molecular eco-epidemiological studies are seldom reported from these regions. In particular, most previously published data on ticks in Ethiopia focus on species distribution, and only a few molecular studies on the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens or on ecological factors influencing these. The present study was undertaken to evaluate, if ticks collected from cattle in different Ethiopian biotopes harbour (had access to) different pathogens. Methods In South-Western Ethiopia 1032 hard ticks were removed from cattle grazing in three kinds of tick biotopes. DNA was individually extracted from one specimen of both sexes of each tick species per cattle. These samples were molecularly analysed for the presence of tick-borne pathogens. Results Amblyomma variegatum was significantly more abundant on mid highland, than on moist highland. Rhipicephalus decoloratus was absent from savannah lowland, where virtually only A. cohaerens was found. In the ticks Coxiella burnetii had the highest prevalence on savannah lowland. PCR positivity to Theileria spp. did not appear to depend on the biotope, but some genotypes were unique to certain tick species. Significantly more A. variegatum specimens were rickettsia-positive, than those of other tick species. The presence of rickettsiae (R. africae) appeared to be associated with mid highland in case of A. variegatum and A. cohaerens. The low level of haemoplasma positivity seemed to be equally distributed among the tick species, but was restricted to one biotope type. Conclusions The tick biotope, in which cattle are grazed, will influence not only the tick burden of these hosts, but also the spectrum of pathogens in their ticks. Thus, the presence of pathogens with alternative (non-tick-borne) transmission routes, with transstadial or with transovarial transmission by ticks appeared to be associated with the biotope type, with the tick

  6. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  7. [Adult and Continuing Education Collections at Syracuse University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse University Library Associates Courier, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This issue of the biannual "Syracuse University Library Associate Courier" is devoted to covering the world famous collections of adult and continuing education materials held by the Syracuse University Library. It contains five articles: "Laubach in India: 1935-1970" (S. Y. Shah) describes missionary and founder of Laubach Literacy International…

  8. Interaction between ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and pathogenic nematodes (Nematoda): susceptibility of tick species at various developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I

    1999-11-01

    The virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to tick species under laboratory conditions is reported. The susceptibility of larval, nymphal, and adult stages of the ticks Hyalomma excavatum (Koch), Rhipicephalus bursa (Canestrini & Fanz), and R. sanguineus (Latereille) to 2 strains of Steinernema carpocapsae and 3 strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were compared in laboratory assays. Preimaginal stages of ticks were found to be more resistant to the nematodes than were adult ticks which exhibited 80-100% mortality in a dish containing 5,000 infective juveniles of H. bacteriophora IS-3 or IS-5 strains isolated in Israel. These 2 strains were found to be much more virulent to unfed adult ticks than were the other isolates. No marked difference was found between engorged ticks and unfed adults of R. sanguineus or H. excavatum in terms of mortality, whereas engorged males and unfed females of R. bursa were significantly more susceptible than unfed males or engorged females. PMID:10593074

  9. Isolation of deer tick virus (Powassan virus, lineage II) from Ixodes scapularis and detection of antibody in vertebrate hosts sampled in the Hudson Valley, New York State

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deer tick virus, DTV, is a genetically and ecologically distinct lineage of Powassan virus (POWV) also known as lineage II POWV. Human incidence of POW encephalitis has increased in the last 15 years potentially due to the emergence of DTV, particularly in the Hudson Valley of New York State. We initiated an extensive sampling campaign to determine whether POWV was extant throughout the Hudson Valley in tick vectors and/or vertebrate hosts. Methods More than 13,000 ticks were collected from hosts or vegetation and tested for the presence of DTV using molecular and virus isolation techniques. Vertebrate hosts of Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) were trapped (mammals) or netted (birds) and blood samples analyzed for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to POWV. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) were calculated to determine infection rates in ticks at each study site. Results Evidence of DTV was identified each year from 2007 to 2012, in nymphal and adult I. scapularis collected from the Hudson Valley. 58 tick pools were positive for virus and/or RNA. Infection rates were higher in adult ticks collected from areas east of the Hudson River. MLE limits ranged from 0.2-6.0 infected adults per 100 at sites where DTV was detected. Virginia opossums, striped skunks and raccoons were the source of infected nymphal ticks collected as replete larvae. Serologic evidence of POWV infection was detected in woodchucks (4/6), an opossum (1/6), and birds (4/727). Lineage I, prototype POWV, was not detected. Conclusions These data demonstrate widespread enzootic transmission of DTV throughout the Hudson Valley, in particular areas east of the river. High infection rates were detected in counties where recent POW encephalitis cases have been identified, supporting the hypothesis that lineage II POWV, DTV, is responsible for these human infections. PMID:24016533

  10. Efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10%/permethrin 50% versus fipronil 10%/(S)-methoprene 12%, against ticks in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Galli, Gianluca; Paradies, Paola; Mallia, Egidio; Capelli, Gioia

    2005-06-30

    Preventing tick bites is a fundamental step towards reducing the impact of tick-borne protozoal, bacterial and viral diseases (TBDs) in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10%/permethrin 50% and of fipronil 10%/S-methoprene 12% against ticks in naturally infected dogs and to assess methodological parameters to calculate drug efficacy on tick immature stages. From July to August 2004, 45 privately owned dogs of various sexes, ages, breeds, coat length and habits were enrolled in a trial carried out in an area (radius approximately 50km) in Southern Italy. Three homogeneous groups (both for dog population and tick population) were formed: 15 dogs treated with imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% spot-on (group A), 15 dogs treated with fipronil 10% and methoprene 12% spot-on (group B) and 15 untreated dogs (group C). The dogs in each group were then sub-grouped according to their age and weight. Two different treatments were administered (time 0 and +28 days) to groups A and B, and the dogs were checked weekly for tick infestation until day +56 post-treatment (p.t.). Twenty-four areas distributed on the whole body surface were examined for ticks at each follow-up, while only at time 0 and at day +56 p.t., ticks were collected from the dogs and identified. For the immature stages a semi-quantitative method was adopted and the load of immature stages was evaluated and grouped into four classes up to day +56 p.t. when the mean number of immature ticks (MIT) for each infection class was evaluated. All the adult ticks collected were identified as brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Immature stages were first compared at day +28 p.t.. The efficacy of both products used in groups A and B on adult ticks was high and generally very similar. Conversely, the efficacy of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50% against immatures was higher than that of fipronil 10% and methoprene 12% throughout the observation

  11. Tick Surveillance for Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Andoh, Masako; Maeda, Ken; Watarai, Masahisa; Sato, Kozue; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013, a total of 4325 host-seeking adult ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes were collected from various localities of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Tick lysates were subjected to real-time PCR assay to detect borrelial infection. The assay was designed for specific detection of the Relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi and for unspecific detection of Lyme disease-related spirochetes. Overall prevalence of B. miyamotoi was 2% (71/3532) in Ixodes persulcatus, 4.3% (5/117) in Ixodes pavlovskyi and 0.1% (1/676) in Ixodes ovatus. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks were significantly higher than in I. ovatus. Co-infections with Lyme disease-related spirochetes were found in all of the tick species. During this investigation, we obtained 6 isolates of B. miyamotoi from I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi by culture in BSK-M medium. Phylogenetic trees of B. miyamotoi inferred from each of 3 housekeeping genes (glpQ, 16S rDNA, and flaB) demonstrated that the Hokkaido isolates were clustered with Russian B. miyamotoi, but were distinguishable from North American and European B. miyamotoi. A multilocus sequence analysis using 8 genes (clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA) suggested that all Japanese B. miyamotoi isolates, including past isolates, were genetically clonal, although these were isolated from different tick and vertebrate sources. From these results, B. miyamotoi-infected ticks are widely distributed throughout Hokkaido. Female I. persulcatus are responsible for most human tick-bites, thereby I. persulcatus is likely the most important vector of indigenous relapsing fever from tick bites in Hokkaido. PMID:25111141

  12. Distribution pattern and number of ticks on lizards.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Skórka, Piotr; Sajkowska, Zofia Anna; Ekner-Grzyb, Anna; Dudek, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    The success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. Ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. Here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length because such sites should provide ticks with superior attachment conditions. This study was performed in field conditions in central Poland in 2008-2011. In total, 500 lizards (Lacerta agilis) were caught and 839 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, larvae and nymphs) were collected from them. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the ticks were most abundant on forelimbs and their axillae, with 90% of ticks attached there. This part of the lizard body and the region behind the hindlimb were covered by the smallest scales with relatively wide gaps between them. This does not fully support our hypothesis that ticks prefer locations with easy access to skin between scales, because it does not explain why so few ticks were in the hindlimb area. We found that the abundance of ticks was positively correlated with lizard body size index (snout-vent length). Tick abundance was also higher in male and mature lizards than in female and young individuals. Autotomy had no effect on tick abundance. We found no correlation between tick size and lizard morphology, sex, autotomy and body size index. The probability of occurrence of dead ticks was positively linked with the total number of ticks on the lizard but there was no relationship between dead tick presence and lizard size, sex or age. Thus lizard body size and sex are the major factors affecting the abundance of ticks, and these parasites are distributed nearly exclusively on the host's forelimbs and their axillae.

  13. Distribution pattern and number of ticks on lizards.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Skórka, Piotr; Sajkowska, Zofia Anna; Ekner-Grzyb, Anna; Dudek, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    The success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. Ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. Here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length because such sites should provide ticks with superior attachment conditions. This study was performed in field conditions in central Poland in 2008-2011. In total, 500 lizards (Lacerta agilis) were caught and 839 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, larvae and nymphs) were collected from them. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the ticks were most abundant on forelimbs and their axillae, with 90% of ticks attached there. This part of the lizard body and the region behind the hindlimb were covered by the smallest scales with relatively wide gaps between them. This does not fully support our hypothesis that ticks prefer locations with easy access to skin between scales, because it does not explain why so few ticks were in the hindlimb area. We found that the abundance of ticks was positively correlated with lizard body size index (snout-vent length). Tick abundance was also higher in male and mature lizards than in female and young individuals. Autotomy had no effect on tick abundance. We found no correlation between tick size and lizard morphology, sex, autotomy and body size index. The probability of occurrence of dead ticks was positively linked with the total number of ticks on the lizard but there was no relationship between dead tick presence and lizard size, sex or age. Thus lizard body size and sex are the major factors affecting the abundance of ticks, and these parasites are distributed nearly exclusively on the host's forelimbs and their axillae. PMID:26520053

  14. County Scale Distribution of Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in Oklahoma: Addressing Local Deficits in Tick Maps Based on Passive Reporting.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne W; Noden, Bruce H; Gruntmeir, Jeff M; Holland, Taylor; Mitcham, Jessica R; Martin, Jaclyn E; Johnson, Eileen M; Little, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Geographic distribution records for the lone star tick [Amblyomma americanum (L.)] in the peer-reviewed literature are incomplete for Oklahoma, preventing accurate disease risk assessments. To address this issue and document the presence of A. americanum in available habitats throughout the state, county-scale tick records published in U.S. Department of Agriculture-Cooperative Economic Insect Reports and specimens maintained at the K.C. Emerson Entomology Museum, Oklahoma State University, were reviewed. In addition, dry ice traps and tick drags were used to collect adult and nymphal A. americanum from throughout the state. Review of published USDA reports and the local museum collection documented A. americanum in 49 total counties (35 and 35, respectively). Active surveillance efforts confirmed the presence of this tick in 50 counties from which this species had not been previously reported to be established, documenting A. americanum is established in 68 of the 77 (88.3%) counties in Oklahoma. Taken together, these data verify that A. americanum ticks are much more widespread in Oklahoma than reflected in the literature, a phenomenon likely repeated throughout the geographic range of this tick in the eastern half of North America. PMID:26336311

  15. DEET, Showers, and Tick Checks Can Stop Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... and bringing ticks with them. Prevent Ticks on Animals Use tick control products to prevent family pets ... medications should be used regularly to protect your animals and your family from ticks. Consult your veterinarian ...

  16. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    PubMed Central

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-01-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil. PMID:24714968

  17. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    PubMed

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended. PMID:26732926

  18. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  19. Sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Sobrino, Raquel; Vicente, Joaquín; Fierro, Yolanda; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. Since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. To test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer—182 males and 124 females—were collected during 7 years in a red deer population in south-central Spain. By using generalized linear models, with a negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function, we modeled tick abundance on deer with 20 potential predictors. Three models were developed: one for red deer males, another for hinds, and one combining data for males and females and including “sex” as factor. Our rationale was that if tick burdens on males and hinds relate to the explanatory factors in a differential way, it is not possible to precisely and accurately predict the tick burden on one sex using the model fitted on the other sex, or with the model that combines data from both sexes. Our results showed that deer males were the primary target for ticks, the weight of each factor differed between sexes, and each sex specific model was not able to accurately predict burdens on the animals of the other sex. That is, results support for sex-biased differences. The higher weight of host individual and population factors in the model for males show that intrinsic deer factors more strongly explain tick burden than environmental host-seeking tick abundance. In contrast, environmental variables predominated in the models explaining tick burdens in hinds. PMID:23819112

  20. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Raoofi, Afshin; Hosseini, Arman; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Amininajafi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep north of Iran. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of hard ticks on cattle and sheep in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. A total of 26 ticks were collected from 22 infested cattle and 26 ticks were collected from 12 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2013-2014. The species collected from cattle and sheep were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The results show that these are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:27605782

  1. Collective Transformations, Collective Theories: What Adult Educators Can Learn From the Boston Women's Health Book Collective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birden, Susan

    The experiences of the 12-woman Boston Women's Health Book Collective was examined in a case study that focused on the collective's activities from its formation in 1969 through its publication of the book "Our Bodies, Ourselves" in 1973 and its opening of a women's clinic in downtown Boston that is still in operation today. The case study draws…

  2. Are ticks venomous animals?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many Ixodida genera can induce paralysis and other types of toxicoses. Tick saliva was previously proposed as a special kind of venom since tick venom is used for blood feeding that counteracts host defense mechanisms. As a result, the present study provides evidence to reconsider the venomous properties of tick saliva. Results Based on our extensive literature mining and in silico research, we demonstrate that ticks share several similarities with other venomous taxa. Many tick salivary protein families and their previously described functions are homologous to proteins found in scorpion, spider, snake, platypus and bee venoms. This infers that there is a structural and functional convergence between several molecular components in tick saliva and the venoms from other recognized venomous taxa. We also highlight the fact that the immune response against tick saliva and venoms (from recognized venomous taxa) are both dominated by an allergic immunity background. Furthermore, by comparing the major molecular components of human saliva, as an example of a non-venomous animal, with that of ticks we find evidence that ticks resemble more venomous than non-venomous animals. Finally, we introduce our considerations regarding the evolution of venoms in Arachnida. Conclusions Taking into account the composition of tick saliva, the venomous functions that ticks have while interacting with their hosts, and the distinguishable differences between human (non-venomous) and tick salivary

  3. Different Ecological Niches for Ticks of Public Health Significance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Arsenault, Julie; Badcock, Jacqueline; Cheng, Angela; Edsall, Jim; Goltz, Jim; Kennedy, Joe; Lindsay, L Robbin; Pelcat, Yann; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern as their incidence and range have increased in recent decades. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to northward expansion of the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis, the principal tick vector for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi, into central and eastern Canada. In this study the geographical distributions of Ixodid ticks, including I. scapularis, and environmental factors associated with their occurrence were investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, where few I. scapularis populations have been found to date. Density of host-seeking ticks was evaluated by drag sampling of woodland habitats in a total of 159 sites. Ixodes scapularis ticks (n = 5) were found on four sites, Ixodes muris (n = 1) on one site and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n = 243) on 41 sites. One of four adult I. scapularis ticks collected was PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. No environmental variables were significantly associated with the presence of I. scapularis although comparisons with surveillance data in neighbouring provinces (Québec and Nova Scotia) suggested that temperature conditions may be too cold for I. scapularis (< 2800 annual degree days above 0°C [DD > 0°C]) across much of New Brunswick. In contrast, the presence of H. leporispalustris, which is a competent vector of tularaemia, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with specific ranges of mean DD > 0°C, mean annual precipitation, percentage of clay in site soil, elevation and season in a multivariable logistic regression model. With the exception of some localized areas, temperature conditions and deer density may be too low for the establishment of I. scapularis and Lyme disease risk areas in New Brunswick, while environmental conditions were suitable for H. leporispalustris at many sites. These findings indicate differing ecological niches for two tick species of public health significance. PMID:26131550

  4. Different Ecological Niches for Ticks of Public Health Significance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Arsenault, Julie; Badcock, Jacqueline; Cheng, Angela; Edsall, Jim; Goltz, Jim; Kennedy, Joe; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Pelcat, Yann; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern as their incidence and range have increased in recent decades. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to northward expansion of the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis, the principal tick vector for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi, into central and eastern Canada. In this study the geographical distributions of Ixodid ticks, including I. scapularis, and environmental factors associated with their occurrence were investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, where few I. scapularis populations have been found to date. Density of host-seeking ticks was evaluated by drag sampling of woodland habitats in a total of 159 sites. Ixodes scapularis ticks (n = 5) were found on four sites, Ixodes muris (n = 1) on one site and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n = 243) on 41 sites. One of four adult I. scapularis ticks collected was PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. No environmental variables were significantly associated with the presence of I. scapularis although comparisons with surveillance data in neighbouring provinces (Québec and Nova Scotia) suggested that temperature conditions may be too cold for I. scapularis (< 2800 annual degree days above 0°C [DD > 0°C]) across much of New Brunswick. In contrast, the presence of H. leporispalustris, which is a competent vector of tularaemia, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with specific ranges of mean DD > 0°C, mean annual precipitation, percentage of clay in site soil, elevation and season in a multivariable logistic regression model. With the exception of some localized areas, temperature conditions and deer density may be too low for the establishment of I. scapularis and Lyme disease risk areas in New Brunswick, while environmental conditions were suitable for H. leporispalustris at many sites. These findings indicate differing ecological niches for two tick species of public health significance. PMID:26131550

  5. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae. PMID:27007518

  6. High prevalence of Rickettsia africae variants in Amblyomma variegatum ticks from domestic mammals in rural western Kenya: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice N; Jiang, Ju; Omulo, Sylvia A; Cutler, Sally J; Ade, Fredrick; Ogola, Eric; Feikin, Daniel R; Njenga, M Kariuki; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mpoke, Solomon; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Breiman, Robert F; Knobel, Darryn L; Richards, Allen L

    2014-10-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging human diseases caused by obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Despite being important causes of systemic febrile illnesses in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the reservoir hosts of these pathogens. We conducted surveys for rickettsiae in domestic animals and ticks in a rural setting in western Kenya. Of the 100 serum specimens tested from each species of domestic ruminant 43% of goats, 23% of sheep, and 1% of cattle had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the SFG rickettsiae. None of these sera were positive for IgG against typhus group rickettsiae. We detected Rickettsia africae-genotype DNA in 92.6% of adult Amblyomma variegatum ticks collected from domestic ruminants, but found no evidence of the pathogen in blood specimens from cattle, goats, or sheep. Sequencing of a subset of 21 rickettsia-positive ticks revealed R. africae variants in 95.2% (20/21) of ticks tested. Our findings show a high prevalence of R. africae variants in A. variegatum ticks in western Kenya, which may represent a low disease risk for humans. This may provide a possible explanation for the lack of African tick-bite fever cases among febrile patients in Kenya.

  7. High Prevalence of Rickettsia africae Variants in Amblyomma variegatum Ticks from Domestic Mammals in Rural Western Kenya: Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Alice N.; Jiang, Ju; Omulo, Sylvia A.; Cutler, Sally J.; Ade, Fredrick; Ogola, Eric; Feikin, Daniel R.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mpoke, Solomon; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Breiman, Robert F.; Knobel, Darryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging human diseases caused by obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Despite being important causes of systemic febrile illnesses in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the reservoir hosts of these pathogens. We conducted surveys for rickettsiae in domestic animals and ticks in a rural setting in western Kenya. Of the 100 serum specimens tested from each species of domestic ruminant 43% of goats, 23% of sheep, and 1% of cattle had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the SFG rickettsiae. None of these sera were positive for IgG against typhus group rickettsiae. We detected Rickettsia africae–genotype DNA in 92.6% of adult Amblyomma variegatum ticks collected from domestic ruminants, but found no evidence of the pathogen in blood specimens from cattle, goats, or sheep. Sequencing of a subset of 21 rickettsia-positive ticks revealed R. africae variants in 95.2% (20/21) of ticks tested. Our findings show a high prevalence of R. africae variants in A. variegatum ticks in western Kenya, which may represent a low disease risk for humans. This may provide a possible explanation for the lack of African tick-bite fever cases among febrile patients in Kenya. PMID:25325312

  8. High prevalence of Rickettsia africae variants in Amblyomma variegatum ticks from domestic mammals in rural western Kenya: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice N; Jiang, Ju; Omulo, Sylvia A; Cutler, Sally J; Ade, Fredrick; Ogola, Eric; Feikin, Daniel R; Njenga, M Kariuki; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mpoke, Solomon; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Breiman, Robert F; Knobel, Darryn L; Richards, Allen L

    2014-10-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging human diseases caused by obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Despite being important causes of systemic febrile illnesses in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the reservoir hosts of these pathogens. We conducted surveys for rickettsiae in domestic animals and ticks in a rural setting in western Kenya. Of the 100 serum specimens tested from each species of domestic ruminant 43% of goats, 23% of sheep, and 1% of cattle had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the SFG rickettsiae. None of these sera were positive for IgG against typhus group rickettsiae. We detected Rickettsia africae-genotype DNA in 92.6% of adult Amblyomma variegatum ticks collected from domestic ruminants, but found no evidence of the pathogen in blood specimens from cattle, goats, or sheep. Sequencing of a subset of 21 rickettsia-positive ticks revealed R. africae variants in 95.2% (20/21) of ticks tested. Our findings show a high prevalence of R. africae variants in A. variegatum ticks in western Kenya, which may represent a low disease risk for humans. This may provide a possible explanation for the lack of African tick-bite fever cases among febrile patients in Kenya. PMID:25325312

  9. Lone star tick abundance, fire, and bison grazing in tall-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum L.) were collected by drag samples of 1 km transects on 12 watersheds at Konza Prairie Research Natural Area near Manhattan, Kans., during summer 1995-1996. Watersheds were treated to 2 experimental treatments: 3 burn intervals (1-year, 4-year, and 20-year) and 2 grazing treatments (grazed by bison (Bos bison L.) or ungrazed). The objectives were to determine whether fire interval, time since most recent burn, and the presence of large ungulate grazers would cause changes in lone star tick abundance in tallgrass prairie in central Kansas. Watersheds burned at 1-year intervals had fewer larvae and adults than watersheds burned at 4-year or 20-year intervals. Watersheds burned during the year of sampling had fewer ticks than watersheds burned one or more years in the past. For watersheds burned 1 or more years in the past there was no effect from time since burn. The presence of bison did not affect tick abundance. Spring burning is an effective method to reduce tick populations in tallgrass prairie during the year of the burn.

  10. Population dynamics of American dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along park trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, J.F.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    We conclude a mark-recapture study in which drag-collected ticks were removed from some park trails weekly from April to July. Weekly survival rates (probability of surviving and remaining on the trails) were significantly lower on trials used heavily by hikers, horses, and pets than on trails used less frequently. Although usage was the only obvious difference among these trails, differences in weekly survival rate estimates may be attributable to differential success in acquiring hosts. The estimated probability of capturing a host-seeking tick located along a trail on a single drag was 0.20 on the drag alone, and 0.25 including the person dragging. When routes parallel to the trails and of equal lengths were dragged immediately after sampling the trails, only .apprxeq. 5% as many ticks (including ticks on the person dragging) were found off the trails as on them. We found no evidence of reduced tick numbers on removal trails, but this result should be considered inconclusive because the power of the discerning test was low. However, the data reported here provide insights into turnover rates of the adult Dermacentor variabilis population and effectiveness of the drag as a sampling device.

  11. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S.; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks. PMID:27190688

  12. Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combination of Fipronil 9.8% and (S)-Methoprene 8.8% against Ticks and Fleas in Naturally Infested Dogs.

    PubMed

    Nambi, Ayyanampakkam Pandurangan; Rathi, Badal; S, Kavitha; Dudhatra, Ghanshyam; Yamini, Hamsa S; Ali Bhat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) (Fiprofort® Plus) was tested against ticks and fleas in naturally infested dogs. A total of fifty dogs were allocated in the study with ticks infestation (n = 35) and fleas infestation (n = 15). On day 0, thirty-five tick and fifteen flea infested dogs received the test formulation, a combination of fipronil 9.8% (w/v) and (S)-methoprene 8.8% (w/v) spot-on solution. Ticks and flea counts were taken on days 0 (pretreatment) and 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment. Blood samples were collected for evaluation of haematological parameters on days 0 (pretreatment) and 7, 21, and 35 after treatment. All the adult ticks and fleas collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis, respectively. The efficacy of spot-on formulation against ticks was 34.00% (day 3), 53.14% (day 7), 62.71% (day 14), 65.48% (day 21), 59.80% (day 28), and 58.82% (day 35), whereas against fleas it was 38.00% (day 3), 64.34% (day 7), 89.67% (day 14), 95.40% (day 21), 100.00% (day 28), and 100.00% (day 35). Haematological parameters for ticks and fleas infested dogs were statistically nonsignificant as compared to control. The combination of fipronil and (S)-methoprene eliminated the existing ticks and fleas infestation and prevented the dogs from flea and tick infestation for four weeks.

  13. Geographic information systems and spatial analysis of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Price, S.D.; Das, A.; Shields, T.M.; Glass, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    In the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S.A., the vector of Lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and other human and veterinary pathogens is the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. In 1997 and 1998, 663 adult I. scapularis ticks were collected from 320 transects spanning 66,400 km2 in five states of the Middle Atlantic region. Tick abundance patterns were clustered, with relatively high numbers along the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay, decreasing to the west and south. There were significant associations between tick abundance and land cover, distance to water, distance to forest edge, elevation, and soil type.

  14. Deer ticks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases are often carried by ticks, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colorado Tick Fever, Lyme disease, and tularemia. Less common or less frequent diseases include typhus, Q-fever, relapsing fever, viral encephalitis, ...

  15. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atlas. Download this map [PDF - 1 page] Lone star tick ( Amblyomma americanum ) Where found: Widely distributed in ... is distinguished by a white dot or “lone star” on her back. Lone star tick saliva can ...

  16. Spatial and seasonal variation in the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the variation in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Lyme Borreliosis Spirochaetes, LBS) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causing tick-borne fever in ruminants and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis) in ticks is vital from both a human and an animal disease perspective to target the most effective mitigation measures. From the host competence hypothesis, we predicted that prevalence of LBS would decrease with red deer density, while prevalence of A. phagocytophilum would increase. Methods Based on a sample of 112 adult and 686 nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected with flagging during questing from 31 transects (4–500 m long) corresponding to individual seasonal home ranges of 41 red deer along the west coast of Norway, we tested whether there were spatial and seasonal variations in prevalence with a special emphasis on the population density of the most common large host in this area, the red deer (Cervus elaphus). We used a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of A. phagocytophilum and LBS. Results Prevalence of LBS was higher in adult female ticks (21.6%) compared to adult male ticks (11.5%) and nymphs (10.9%), while prevalence was similar among stages for prevalence of A. phagocytophilum (8.8%). Only partly consistent with predictions, we found a lower prevalence of LBS in areas of high red deer density, while there was no relationship between red deer density and prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks. Prevalence of both bacteria was much higher in ticks questing in May compared to August. Conclusions Our study provides support to the notion that spatial variation in host composition forms a role for prevalence of LBS in ticks also in a northern European ecosystem, while no such association was found for A. phagocytophilum. Further studies are needed to fully understand the similar seasonal pattern of prevalence of the two pathogens. PMID:23786850

  17. Uneven seasonal distribution of Babesia canis and its two 18S rDNA genotypes in questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in urban habitats.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Kartali, Kitti; Takács, Nóra; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported from cities in Central Europe that clinical cases of canine babesiosis are most frequent in spring time, despite the fact that the peak activity of Dermacentor reticulatus (the vector of Babesia canis) is during autumn. The present study was initiated to evaluate the seasonal distribution of B. canis-infected D. reticulatus ticks in this context. In two habitats of Budapest 852 D. reticulatus adults were collected between August, 2014 and June, 2015. Among the molecularly analysed 413 ticks 8.2% were PCR positive for piroplasms. Both formerly reported 18S rDNA genotypes of B. canis: ("A" and "B") were identified. In habitat-1 B. canis-infected ticks were detected only in spring. Similarly, in habitat-2 B. canis-infected ticks occurred significantly more frequently during winter and spring than in the autumn (24.6% vs. 1.4%), and their monthly distribution showed significant negative correlation with tick size. The prevalence of infected ticks was the highest (43.5%) in late February. In addition, a month-dependent time-shift was noted in the appearance of the two B. canis 18S rDNA genotypes: the less pathogenic "A" predominating earlier, and the more pathogenic "B" later. It is known from literature that D. reticulatus individuals that moult to adult in the spring are smaller in size. Thus, the above results suggest that in urban habitats the occurrence of B. canis-infected ticks (or their questing activity) is more likely, when there are freshly emerged adults in the population, i.e. early in the questing season. It was also observed that the temporal distribution of D. reticulatus ticks carrying different B. canis genotypes was not random. PMID:27009915

  18. Tick-borne protozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...

  19. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010.

  20. Ecology of a tick-borne spotted fever in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Binder, Lina C; Oliveira, Caroline S; Costa, Francisco B; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Gregori, Fábio; Polo, Gina; Oliveira, Stefan V; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state of Brazil, bordering Uruguay. Clinical cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis were recently reported in Rio Grande do Sul. None of these cases was lethal, and all were confirmed by seroconversion to R. rickettsii antigens. Because serological cross-reactions are well known to occur between different SFG agents, the SFG agent responsible for the clinical cases remains unknown in Rio Grande do Sul, where no rickettsial agent is known to infect ticks. During 2013-2014, ticks and blood sera samples were collected from domestic dogs and wild small mammals, and from the vegetation in a SFG-endemic area of Rio Grande do Sul. Dogs were infested by Amblyomma ovale adult ticks, whereas small mammals were infested by immature stages of A. ovale, Ixodes loricatus, and adults of I. loricatus. Ticks collected on vegetation were adults of A. ovale, and immature stages of A. ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, and Amblyomma longirostre. Three Rickettsia species were detected: Rickettsia bellii in I. loricatus, Rickettsia amblyommii in A. longirostre, and a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent (Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) in A. ovale. Seroreactivity to SFG antigens were detected in 19.7 % (27/137) canine and 37.5 % (15/40) small mammal sera, with highest titers to R. parkeri. Results indicate that the R. parkeri-like agent, strain Atlantic rainforest, is circulating between A. ovale ticks, dogs and small mammals in the study area, suggesting that this SFG pathogen could be one of the etiological agents of SFG clinical cases in Rio Grande do Sul.

  1. Ecology of a tick-borne spotted fever in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Binder, Lina C; Oliveira, Caroline S; Costa, Francisco B; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Gregori, Fábio; Polo, Gina; Oliveira, Stefan V; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state of Brazil, bordering Uruguay. Clinical cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis were recently reported in Rio Grande do Sul. None of these cases was lethal, and all were confirmed by seroconversion to R. rickettsii antigens. Because serological cross-reactions are well known to occur between different SFG agents, the SFG agent responsible for the clinical cases remains unknown in Rio Grande do Sul, where no rickettsial agent is known to infect ticks. During 2013-2014, ticks and blood sera samples were collected from domestic dogs and wild small mammals, and from the vegetation in a SFG-endemic area of Rio Grande do Sul. Dogs were infested by Amblyomma ovale adult ticks, whereas small mammals were infested by immature stages of A. ovale, Ixodes loricatus, and adults of I. loricatus. Ticks collected on vegetation were adults of A. ovale, and immature stages of A. ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, and Amblyomma longirostre. Three Rickettsia species were detected: Rickettsia bellii in I. loricatus, Rickettsia amblyommii in A. longirostre, and a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent (Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) in A. ovale. Seroreactivity to SFG antigens were detected in 19.7 % (27/137) canine and 37.5 % (15/40) small mammal sera, with highest titers to R. parkeri. Results indicate that the R. parkeri-like agent, strain Atlantic rainforest, is circulating between A. ovale ticks, dogs and small mammals in the study area, suggesting that this SFG pathogen could be one of the etiological agents of SFG clinical cases in Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:27392739

  2. Natural Transmission of Zoonotic Babesia spp. by Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Claire A.M.; Bouju-Albert, Agnès; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    To determine characteristics of natural transmission of Babesia sp. EU1 and B. divergens by adult Ixodes ricinus ticks, we examined tick salivary gland contents. We found that I. ricinus is a competent vector for EU1 and that their sporozoites directly invade erythrocytes. We conclude that EU1 is naturally transmitted by I. ricinus. PMID:19193284

  3. Birds and their ticks in northwestern California: minimal contribution to Borrelia burgdorferi enzootiology.

    PubMed

    Slowik, T J; Lane, R S

    2001-08-01

    Birds and their attendant ticks were surveyed for infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California from March to July, 1998 to 1999. In total, 234 birds were captured and recaptured (15%); nearly 2.5 times more birds were captured in chaparral than in woodland-grass. Overall, 34 species representing 15 families were collected during this study; of these, 24 species were caught in chaparral, 19 in woodland-grass, and 9 in both vegetational types. The most frequently captured birds were sage sparrows (Amphispiza belli) in chaparral, and American robins (Turdus migratorius) and oak titmice (Baelophus inornatus) in woodland-grass. Birds hosted 35 Ixodes pacificus (15 larvae, 20 nymphs) and 9 Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (3 larvae, 5 nymphs, 1 adult) ticks, of which 32 were removed from chaparral birds and 12 from woodland birds. The prevalence of tick infestation was 13% (21/167) in chaparral and 5% (3/67) in woodland-grass, but the relative and mean tick intensities of 0.19 and 1.5 for chaparral birds, and 0.18 and 4.0 for woodland birds, respectively, did not differ significantly by habitat. Spirochetes were not detected in either bird-blood or tick-tissue samples when tested by culture, immunofluorescence, or Giemsa-staining. In contrast, over 90% (86/94) of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) collected in June or July were infested with an average of 6.9 and 8.9 immature I. pacificus in chaparral and woodland-grass, respectively. We conclude that birds contribute little to the enzootiology of B. burgdorferi in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California because of their limited parasitism by tick vectors and lack of detectable spirochetemias. PMID:11534638

  4. Birds and their ticks in northwestern California: minimal contribution to Borrelia burgdorferi enzootiology.

    PubMed

    Slowik, T J; Lane, R S

    2001-08-01

    Birds and their attendant ticks were surveyed for infection with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California from March to July, 1998 to 1999. In total, 234 birds were captured and recaptured (15%); nearly 2.5 times more birds were captured in chaparral than in woodland-grass. Overall, 34 species representing 15 families were collected during this study; of these, 24 species were caught in chaparral, 19 in woodland-grass, and 9 in both vegetational types. The most frequently captured birds were sage sparrows (Amphispiza belli) in chaparral, and American robins (Turdus migratorius) and oak titmice (Baelophus inornatus) in woodland-grass. Birds hosted 35 Ixodes pacificus (15 larvae, 20 nymphs) and 9 Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (3 larvae, 5 nymphs, 1 adult) ticks, of which 32 were removed from chaparral birds and 12 from woodland birds. The prevalence of tick infestation was 13% (21/167) in chaparral and 5% (3/67) in woodland-grass, but the relative and mean tick intensities of 0.19 and 1.5 for chaparral birds, and 0.18 and 4.0 for woodland birds, respectively, did not differ significantly by habitat. Spirochetes were not detected in either bird-blood or tick-tissue samples when tested by culture, immunofluorescence, or Giemsa-staining. In contrast, over 90% (86/94) of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) collected in June or July were infested with an average of 6.9 and 8.9 immature I. pacificus in chaparral and woodland-grass, respectively. We conclude that birds contribute little to the enzootiology of B. burgdorferi in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northwestern California because of their limited parasitism by tick vectors and lack of detectable spirochetemias.

  5. Research Strategies to Reduce Tick Densities and the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission through Host-Targeted Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While white-tailed deer are not reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, they are the keystone host animal on which adult female blacklegged ticks engorge on blood that is essential to production of tick eggs and completion of the life cycle. This session explores current re...

  6. An Insight into the Sialome of the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum, with a Glimpse on Its Time Dependent Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Shahid; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Hard ticks feed for several days or weeks on their hosts. Blood feeding is assisted by tick saliva, which is injected in the host skin regularly, alternating with blood ingestion. Tick saliva contains hundreds or thousands of different peptides and other bioactive compounds that assist feeding by inhibiting their hosts’ blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, as well as pain and itching. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides are also found in tick saliva. Molecular characterization of tick salivary compounds, or its sialome (from the Greek sialos = saliva), helps identification of possible antigens that might confer anti-tick immunity, as well as identifying novel pharmacologically active compounds. Amblyomma americanum is a major nuisance tick in Eastern and Southern US, being a vector of Theileria and Ehrlichia bacteria to animals and humans. Presently we report an RNAseq study concerning the salivary glands of adult female A. americanum ticks, which involved sequencing of four libraries collected at different times of feeding. A total of 5,792 coding sequences were deduced from the transcriptome assembly, 3,139 of which were publicly deposited, expanding from the previously available 146 salivary sequences found in GenBank. A remarkable time-dependent transcript expression was found, mostly related to secretory products, supporting the idea that ticks may have several “sialomes” that are expressed at different times during feeding. The molecular nature of this sialome switching remains unknown. The hyperlinked spreadsheet containing the deduced coding sequences can be found at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/Amb_americanum/Ambame-web.xlsx. PMID:26131772

  7. Biological control of ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  8. Potential for exposure to tick bites in recreational parks in a Lyme disease endemic area.

    PubMed Central

    Falco, R C; Fish, D

    1989-01-01

    Eight recreational parks located in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York State were surveyed for the presence of ticks during the summer of 1985 by drag sampling. Ixodes dammini, the primary vector of Lyme disease in the northeast, was found in all but one park and accounted for 580 (91.8 per cent) of the 632 ticks collected. Of these, 18 per cent were larvae, 80 per cent were nymphs, and 2 per cent were adults. An I. dammini encounter distance, defined as the mean number of meters traveled before encountering a nymphal or adult I. dammini on a drag cloth, ranged from 36 m in high-risk parks, to infinity (no tick encounters). Generally, areas of high use presented higher encounter distances (lower risk) than those of the entire park. Two of the three parks with the highest annual attendance also had the highest I. dammini population indices as projected from our sampling regimen. These results indicate that recreational parks in Lyme disease endemic areas represent a substantial human risk for tick bites and Lyme disease. PMID:2909174

  9. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil. PMID:26467462

  10. Effect of Rickettsia rickettsii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) Infection on the Biological Parameters and Survival of Its Tick Vector-Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Lauren; Snellgrove, Alyssa; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a potentially fatal tick-borne disease spread from North America to Argentina. The major vectors of R. rickettsii in the United States are Dermacentor andersoni Stiles and Dermacentor variabilis (Say). It is generally believed that vector ticks serve as major reservoirs of R. rickettsii in nature; however, the ability of ticks to support the indefinite perpetuation of R. rickettsii has been challenged by reports of deleterious effects of rickettsial infection on D. andersoni. To better elucidate the relationship of the pathogen with D. variabilis, we assessed the effects of R. rickettsii on the survival, fertility, and fecundity of D. variabilis. We used an isolate of R. rickettsii (Di-6), originally acquired from an opossum caught in Virginia, and ticks from a laboratory colony established from adult D. variabilis also collected in Virginia. Overall, infection with R. rickettsii protracted the feeding periods of all life stages of ticks. Infected nymphal and adult ticks experienced a slight decrease in feeding success compared with the uninfected colony, but neither larval nor nymphal molting success was affected. Infected females reached smaller engorgement weights, were less efficient in conversion of bloodmeal into eggs, and produced smaller egg clutches with a lower proportion of eggs hatching. However, no sudden die-off was observed among infected ticks, and longevity was not decreased due to R. rickettsii infection in any stage. Although infection with the studied isolate of R. rickettsii caused slight decrease in fecundity in sympatric vector ticks, no obvious deleterious effects were observed. PMID:26494822

  11. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Cozma, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans). Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals. PMID:21554736

  12. 76 FR 68509 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Request for Information Collection for Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult Reporting System, Extension... support the Reintegration of Ex-Offenders-Adult (RExO-Adult) grants, which expires on March 31, 2012. A... Reintegration of Ex-Offender-Adult (formerly Prisoner Reentry Initiative) grants, faith-based and...

  13. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease When warm weather arrives, you might get the ... mainly in the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness. It’s ...

  14. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Jahfari, Setareh; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Fonville, Manoj; van der Giessen, Joke; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Methods Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period. Results Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5), Babesia divergens (n = 3), Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1) and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1). None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8), reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment. Conclusions Based on molecular

  15. Seasonal analysis of Rickettsia species in ticks in an agricultural site of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Špitalská, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Kraljik, Jasna; Miklisová, Dana; Mahríková, Lenka; Bona, Martin; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-03-01

    Many rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are emerging pathogens causing serious diseases associated with vertebrate hosts. Ixodidae ticks are known as their vectors. Investigation of the relative abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Rickettsia spp. in an agricultural site comprising a game reserve in Slovakia was the aim of this study. In total, 2198 I. ricinus (492 larvae, 1503 nymphs and 203 adults) were collected by flagging the vegetation along 100 m(2) transects in Rozhanovce (eastern Slovakia): 334, 595 and 1269 in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Considering questing nymphs and adults, the highest relative density of 81 individuals/100 m(2) was observed in May 2013, the lowest of 0.3 individuals/100 m(2) in March 2012. A total of 1056 ticks (853 nymphs, 100 females and 103 males; 2011: n = 329, 2012: n = 509 and 2013: n = 218) were individually screened by PCR-based methods for the presence of Rickettsia spp. The overall prevalences were 7.3% for nymphs, 15% for females, 7.8% for males; 7.0% in 2011, 8.4% in 2012, and 8.7% in 2013. The maximum prevalences were observed in July in nymphs and in May in adults. Sequencing showed infection with R. helvetica in 73 ticks (72.6% nymphs, 16.4% females, 11% males) and with R. monacensis in 11 ticks (8 nymphs, 3 females). The results showed the circulation of pathogenic Rickettsia species in the agricultural site and a potential risk for humans to encounter infected ticks.

  16. Ixodid ticks parasitizing Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: geographical and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortazár, Christian

    2006-08-31

    Commercial hunting of Spanish wild ungulates has made them an important economic resource. Wild ungulates may have an important role in the maintenance of ixodid tick populations, and also as reservoirs of pathogens. We studied the ixodid ticks that parasitize Iberian red deer and European wild boar from Spain. Ixodid ticks (n=6,336) were collected from 431 Iberian red deer and 142 wild boar in different regions of Spain. We found 10 different ixodid tick species parasitizing Iberian red deer, mainly Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (63.7%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (7.9%) and R. bursa (7.5%). R. (Boophilus) annulatus was only collected in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). We found 8 ixodid tick species on the wild boar, mainly Hy. m. marginatum (68.7%), R. bursa (14.6%) and Dermacentor marginatus (9.3%). We found one adult Hy. marginatum rufipes and one adult Hy. anatolicum excavatum parasitizing wild boar from south-central Spain. Mean prevalence of ixodid ticks was 41.3+/-0.08% (n=475) and 31+/-0.09% (n=284) and intensity of parasitization was 13.9+/-0.2 (n=283) and 13.6+/-0.3 (n=130) ticks/animal for Iberian red deer and wild boar, respectively. Only 5 of the 13 ixodid tick species found were shared by Iberian red deer and wild boar. This finding could indicate a host preference when Iberian red deer and wild boar share common habitats. In both Iberian red deer and wild boar from south-central Spain the monthly relative frequencies of Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa presented an inverse pattern. The highest Hy. m. marginatum relative frequencies coincided with the lowest R. bursa relative frequencies along the year. R. bursa and I. ricinus were present in areas from northern to southern Spain while Hyalomma sp. and D. marginatus were exclusively collected in the two southern thirds of Spain. Haemaphysalis sp. and D. reticulatus were collected in northern Spain. Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa were present during the whole year in red deer and wild

  17. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected.

  18. Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected. PMID:17933365

  19. 77 FR 48973 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Vocational and Adult Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Vocational and Adult Education; Perkins... and financial reports for the Office of Vocational Adult Education office (OVAE) Division of...

  20. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... their instructions to help prevent bites. Use an insect repellent containing 20% to 30% DEET. Tick repellents that ... I won’t get sick? What tick or insect repellent should I use for my child? Which tick ...

  1. Ornithodoros peropteryx (Acari: Argasidae) in Bolivia: an argasid tick with a single nymphal stage.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; Terassini, Flavio A; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-10-01

    By the end of the 1960s, the argasid tick Ornithodoros peropteryx was described from larval specimens collected from the bat Peropteryx macrotis in Colombia. Since its original description, no additional record of O. peropteryx has been reported, and its post-larval stages have remained unknown. During July 2010, 18 larvae were collected from 9 bats (Centronycteris maximiliani), resulting in a mean infestation of 2.0 ± 2.2 ticks per bat (range 1-8). These bats were captured in a farm in northeastern Bolivia close to Guaporé River in the border with Brazil. Morphological examinations of the larvae revealed them to represent the species O. peropteryx. One engorged larva that was kept alive in the laboratory moulted to a nymph after 9 days. Fourteen days after the larval moulting, the nymph moulted to an adult female without taking any blood meal during the nymphal period. This adult female was used for a morphological description of the female stage of O. peropteryx. In addition, the larvae were used for a morphological redescription of this stage. One larva and two legs extirpated from the adult female were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene, which yielded DNA sequences at least 11 % divergent from any available argasid sequence in Genbank. We show that O. peropteryx ontogeny is characterized by a single, non-feeding, nymphal stage. This condition has never been reported for ticks. PMID:23543273

  2. [Transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland].

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    (V. salvator and V. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens pythons (P. regius) were examined, with detailed descriptions of where the parasite was feeding on the body of the host. Among the 434 specimens of ticks collected from the monitor lizards, the majority were attached on the host's legs (40.5%), on the trunk (29.3%), on the head (20.3%), with fewest on the tail (9.9%). Also, 430 specimens of ticks were collected from the bodies of pythons. They mostly parasitized along the whole length of the back (54.4%) and on the stomach side of the trunk (29.8%), less frequently in the area of the cloaca (5.6%), around the eyes (3.7%), in the nostril openings (0.9%) and on the remainder of the head (5.6%). On the hosts, ticks were found at different development stages, but adult development stages dominated. The most frequent were males (999 specimens), then adult females (552 specimens), nymphs (508 specimens) and larvae (45 specimens). During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed for ticks Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum and Hyalomma aegyptium. Asymmetries and deformations of the general body shape were observed, as were anomalies concerning structures on the surface of the body and anomalies of the legs. For the first time in Poland, epidemiological tests were carried out in the direction of the infection of exotic ticks gathered from reptiles with micro-organisms which pose a threat for the health of people and animals. For this purpose, molecular techniques - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used. The isolates from 345 ticks, were examined for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is the etiological factor in human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Rickettsia spp. from the spotted fever group, causing human rickettsiosis. This study confirmed the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two ticks of Amblyomma flavomaculatum (constituting 0.6% of all the ticks investigated) feeding on

  3. Genotypic Variation and Mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes Ticks from North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Chris D.; Matthews, Heather E.; Schutzer, Steven; Rounds, Megan A.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Nolte, Oliver; Campbell, Scott R.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Li, Feng; Sampath, Ranga; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a multilocus PCR electrospray mass spectrometry assay to determine the species and genotype Borrelia from ticks collected in New York, Connecticut, Indiana, Southern Germany, and California and characterized isolates from parts of the United States and Europe. These analyses identified 53 distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with higher resolution than ospC typing. Genotypes of other members of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex were also identified and genotyped including B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, and B. valaisiana. While each site in North America had genotypes unique to that location, we found genotypes shared between individual regions and two genotypes found across the United States. Significant B. burgdorferi s.s. genotypic diversity was observed between North America and Europe: only 6.6% of US genotypes (3 of 45) were found in Europe and 27% of the European genotypes (3 of 11) were observed in the US. Interestingly, 39% of adult Ixodes scapularis ticks from North America were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.s. and 22.2% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.l. Conclusions/Significance The presence of multiple Borrelia genotypes in ticks increases the probability that a person will be infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi, potentially increasing the risks of disseminated Lyme disease. Our study indicates that the genotypic diversity of Borrelia in ticks in both North America and Europe is higher then previously reported and can have

  4. The role of particular tick developmental stages in the circulation of tick-borne pathogens affecting humans in Central Europe. 2. Tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Hard-bodied ticks transmit various pathogens, such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and carry numerous other microorganisms with an unknown pathogenic potential. Among them, tick-borne encephalitis virus has great importance. In Central European conditions all developmental stages of ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of the TBE virus. According to pathogen and tick biology, the roles of larvae, nymphs and adults are different. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents and medium sized mammals; adults transfer the infection to ruminants and to next generations via transovarial transmission. All active developmental stages of I. ricinus can play role of the bridge vector, transmitting the infection to humans apart males which don't feed. The late summer peak of human infectivity is caused by the summer peak of I. ricinus nymphs' activity. The Dermacentor reticulatus tick attacks humans infrequently, but does participate in the circulation of the virus in the zoonotic foci; larvae and nymphs of the D. reticulatus ticks are responsible for circulation in rodents, mainly Microtinae, while adults transmit the infection to ruminants. PMID:27262951

  5. [QUESTING BEHAVIOR OF HARD TICKS (IXODIDAE) IN ONTOGENESIS].

    PubMed

    Leonovich, S A

    2015-01-01

    Literary and own data on questing behavior of larvae, nymphs, and adults in main genera of hard ticks are analyzed. Evolutionary patterns of this behavior and the role of different life stages in this process are discussed. PMID:26827487

  6. Rickettsia conorii israelensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia.

  7. Rickettsia species in ticks removed from humans in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gargili, Aysen; Palomar, Ana M; Midilli, Kenan; Portillo, Aránzazu; Kar, Sırrı; Oteo, José A

    2012-11-01

    A total of 167 ticks collected from humans in Istanbul (Turkey) in 2006 were screened for Rickettsia species, and nested PCRs targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial fragment genes were carried out. Rickettsia monacensis (51), R. aeschlimannii (8), R. conorii subsp. conorii (3), R. helvetica (2), R. raoultii (1), R. africae (1), R. felis (1), and other Rickettsia spp. (2), were detected. To our knowledge, these Rickettsia species (except R. conorii) had never been reported in ticks removed from humans in Turkey. The presence of R. africae also had not been previously described, either in Hyalomma ticks or in any European tick species. In addition, R. aeschlimannii and R. felis had not been found associated with Rhipicephalus bursa specimens. The presence of human pathogenic Rickettsia in ticks removed from humans provides information about the risk of tick-borne rickettsioses in Turkey.

  8. Hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to Ehrlichiae and detection of DNA of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Stafford, K C; Mather, T N; Yeh, M T; Horn, K D; Dumler, J S

    1995-01-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and British Columbia (Canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. Hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (FA) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi, or Rickettsia rickettsii. Of the 693 nymphal and adult Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Ixodes pacificus ticks tested with dog anti-E. canis antiserum, 209 (32.5%) contained hemocytic bacteria. The prevalence of infected ticks varied greatly with species and locale. In parallel tests of duplicate hemolymph preparations from adult I. scapularis ticks, the hemocytic organisms reacted positively with E. canis and/or E. equi antisera, including sera from persons who had granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In separate PCR analyses, DNA of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis was detected in 59 (50.0%) of 118 adult and in 1 of 2 nymphal I. scapularis ticks tested from Connecticut. There was no evidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA in these ticks. In indirect FA tests of hemolymph for spotted fever group rickettsiae, the overall prevalence of infection was less than 4%. Specificity tests of antigens and antisera used in these studies revealed no cross-reactivity between E. canis and E. equi or between any of the ehrlichial reagents and those of R. rickettsii. The geographic distribution of hemocytic microorganisms with shared antigens to Ehrlichia species or spotted fever group rickettsiae is widespread. PMID:8567911

  9. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species☆

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  10. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  11. Seasonal Distribution of Ticks in Four Habitats near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M.; Sancho, Alfredo R.; Sames, William J.; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests. PMID:23864743

  12. Seasonal distribution of ticks in four habitats near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M; Sancho, Alfredo R; Sames, William J; Chae, Joon-Seok; Klein, Terry A

    2013-06-01

    This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests.

  13. Questing ticks in suburban forest are infected by at least six tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Paul, Richard E L; Bonnet, Sarah

    2011-07-01

    The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the transmission of pathogens of public health importance such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. is widely recognized and is suspected in several emerging vector-borne pathogens in Europe. Here, we assess prevalence rates of several endemic and emerging zoonotic pathogens in tick populations in an area of high human population density in France, to contribute to a risk assessment for potential transmission to humans. Pathogen prevalence rates were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction detection and sequencing in questing ticks, individually for adults and in pools of 10 for nymphs. In addition to finding micro-organisms corresponding to symbionts, we found high prevalence rates of B. burgdorferi s.l. (32% of adult females and 10% of nymphs) and low to moderate ones of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (~1%), spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. (~6%), Babesia sp. EU1 (~1%), Bartonella birtlesii (0.1%), and Francisella tularensis (!1%). Our findings extend the knowledge of the geographical distribution of these endemic and emergent pathogens and support the conclusion that ticks are important vectors of pathogenic micro-organisms in suburban forests. Moreover, tick coinfection with multiple pathogens was found to occur frequently, which poses a serious challenge for diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The incrimination of these pathogens in potentially severe pathologies requires widespread surveillance to assess the risk of infection, thereby facilitating diagnosis and treatment, as well as raising local awareness of tick-borne diseases.

  14. Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks as Reservoir and Vector of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-Mei; Zhao, Li; Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhang, Zhen-Tang; Liu, Jian-Wei; Fang, Li-Zhu; Xue, Zai-Feng; Ma, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Ding, Shu-Jun; Lei, Xiao-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered phlebovirus. The Haemaphysalis longicornis tick has been suspected to be the vector of SFTSV. To determine whether SFTSV can be transmitted among ticks, from ticks to animals, and from animals to ticks, we conducted transmission studies between developmental stages of H. longicornis ticks and between ticks and mice. Using reverse transcription PCR, we also analyzed the prevalence of SFTSV infection among H. longicornis ticks collected from vegetation in Shandong Province, China. Our results showed a low prevalence of SFTSV among collected ticks (0.2%, 8/3,300 ticks), and we showed that ticks fed on SFTSV-infected mice could acquire the virus and transstadially and transovarially transmit it to other developmental stages of ticks. Furthermore, SFTSV-infected ticks could transmit the virus to mice during feeding. Our findings indicate ticks could serve as a vector and reservoir of SFTSV. PMID:26402039

  15. Protective Immunity Against Tick Infestation in Cattle Vaccinated with Recombinant Trypsin Inhibitor of Rhipicephalus Microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and the related cattle fever tick species, R. annulatus, collectively referred to herein as Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), transmit Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and Anaplasma marginale, that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, respectively....

  16. Frequency and Distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae Detected in Human-Parasitizing Ticks, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Phillip C; Billingsley, Peggy M; Seals, Janel P; Ferguson, Erin E; Allen, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    To describe the presence and distribution of tickborne bacteria and their vectors in Texas, USA, we screened ticks collected from humans during 2008-2014 for Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrlichia spp. Thirteen tick species were identified, and 23% of ticks carried bacterial DNA from at least 1 of the 3 genera tested.

  17. Frequency and Distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae Detected in Human-Parasitizing Ticks, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Elizabeth A.; Williamson, Phillip C.; Billingsley, Peggy M.; Seals, Janel P.; Ferguson, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    To describe the presence and distribution of tickborne bacteria and their vectors in Texas, USA, we screened ticks collected from humans during 2008–2014 for Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Ehrlichia spp. Thirteen tick species were identified, and 23% of ticks carried bacterial DNA from at least 1 of the 3 genera tested. PMID:26811941

  18. Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Hynes, Wayne L.; Gaff, Holly D.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern United States has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. The results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern Virginia. Since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected from vegetation in a variety of habitats, with Amblyomma americanum constituting over 95% of ticks collected. Other species represented included Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes affinis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and Ixodes brunneus. We found that 26.9–54.9% of A. americanum ticks tested were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, a non-pathogenic symbiont of this tick species. We also found no evidence of R. rickettsii in D. variabilis ticks, although they did show low infection rates of R. montanensis (1.5–2.0%). Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae were found in 41.8–55.7% and 0–1.5% A. maculatum ticks, respectively. The rate of R. parkeri in A. maculatum ticks is among the highest in the literature and has increased in the 2 years since R. parkeri and A. maculatum were first reported in southeastern Virginia. We conclude that tick populations in southeastern Virginia have recently undergone dramatic changes in species and abundance and that these populations support a variety of rickettsial agents with the potential for increased risk to human health. PMID:24201057

  19. Survey of Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California Reveals a Diversity of Microorganisms and a Novel and Widespread Anaplasmataceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Eshoo, Mark W.; Carolan, Heather E.; Massire, Christian; Chou, Danny M.; Crowder, Chris D.; Rounds, Megan A.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Schutzer, Steven E.; Ecker, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes pacificus ticks can harbor a wide range of human and animal pathogens. To survey the prevalence of tick-borne known and putative pathogens, we tested 982 individual adult and nymphal I. pacificus ticks collected throughout California between 2007 and 2009 using a broad-range PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) assay designed to detect a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms. Overall, 1.4% of the ticks were found to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, 2.0% were infected with Borrelia miyamotoi and 0.3% were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, 3.0% were infected with Babesia odocoilei. About 1.2% of the ticks were co-infected with more than one pathogen or putative pathogen. In addition, we identified a novel Anaplasmataceae species that we characterized by sequencing of its 16S rRNA, groEL, gltA, and rpoB genes. Sequence analysis indicated that this organism is phylogenetically distinct from known Anaplasma species with its closest genetic near neighbors coming from Asia. The prevalence of this novel Anaplasmataceae species was as high as 21% at one site, and it was detected in 4.9% of ticks tested statewide. Based upon this genetic characterization we propose that this organism be called ‘Candidatus Cryptoplasma californiense’. Knowledge of this novel microbe will provide awareness for the community about the breadth of the I. pacificus microbiome, the concept that this bacterium could be more widely spread; and an opportunity to explore whether this bacterium also contributes to human or animal disease burden. PMID:26375033

  20. Attempted transmission to cattle of Anaplasma marginale from overwintered Dermacentor andersoni ticks.

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, L N; Saunders, J R

    1987-01-01

    Since the 1983 summer outbreak of anaplasmosis in southern Saskatchewan, the role of the tick, Dermacentor andersoni as an overwintering reservoir for Anaplasma marginale has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to determine if spring-collected ticks carried virulent A. marginale. Sixteen splenectomized calves were assigned randomly to two groups of 14 principals and two controls. Adult D. andersoni, collected in April from areas having high transmission rates of A. marginale, were confined to the ears of the principals by special bags and allowed to feed for eight days. The two control calves were subsequently challenged intravenously with blood from a calf infected with the Virginia strain of A. marginale. Principals and controls were monitored for 60 and 50 days postexposure respectively for signs of infection by clinical, hematological and serological procedures. None of the principals developed anaplasmosis but both control calves developed signs of disease. PMID:3651893

  1. Comparison of tick-borne microorganism communities in Ixodes spp. of the Ixodes ricinus species complex at distinct geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Dubinina, Helen V; Sitnicova, Natalia; Bespyatova, Liubov; Uspenskaia, Inga; Efremova, Galina; Toderas, Ion; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the tick-borne microorganism communities of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick) and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick) from the I. ricinus species complex in distinct geographical regions of Eastern Europe and European Russia, we demonstrated differences between the two ticks. Taiga ticks were more frequently mono- and co-infected than sheep ticks: 24.4 % (45/184 tested ticks) versus 17.5 % (52/297) and 4.3 % (8/184) versus 3.4 % (10/297), respectively. Ginsberg co-infection index values were significant at the various sites. Diversity of the tick-borne microorganism communities was estimated by the Shannon index, reaching values of 1.71 ± 0.46 and 1.20 ± 0.15 at the sheep-tick and the taiga-tick harbored sites, respectively. Richness of the tick-borne microorganism community in the sheep tick collection sites was about twice the value of the taiga tick collection sites. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the peculiarities of the tick-borne microorganism communities among the ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

  2. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be pathogenic to its vertebrate hosts

  3. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  4. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  5. Tick repellents and acaricides of botanical origin: a green roadmap to control tick-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    %) and Verbenaceae (5 %). Regression equation analyses showed that the literature grew by approximately 20 % per year (period: 2005-2015). Lastly, in the final section, insights for future research are discussed. We focused on some caveats for future data collection and analysis. Current critical points mainly deal with (a) not uniform methods used, which prevent proper comparison of the results; (b) inaccurate tested concentrations, frequently 100 % concentration corresponded to the gross extract, where the exact amounts of extracted substances are unknown; and (c) not homogeneous size of tested tick instars and species. Overall, the knowledge summarized in this review may be helpful for comparative screening among extensive numbers of plant-borne preparations, in order to develop newer and safer tick control tools. PMID:27146901

  6. High prevalence of "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" and apparent exclusion of Rickettsia parkeri in adult Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Kansas and Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Denison, Amy M; Dryden, Michael W; Noden, Bruce H; Lash, R Ryan; Abdelghani, Sarah S; Evans, Anna E; Kelly, Aubree R; Hecht, Joy A; Karpathy, Sandor E; Ganta, Roman R; Little, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    Amblyomma maculatum (the Gulf Coast tick), an aggressive, human-biting, Nearctic and Neotropical tick, is the principal vector of Rickettsia parkeri in the United States. This pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia species has been identified in 8-52% of questing adult Gulf Coast ticks in the southeastern United States. To our knowledge, R. parkeri has not been reported previously from adult specimens of A. maculatum collected in Kansas or Oklahoma. A total of 216 adult A. maculatum ticks were collected from 18 counties in Kansas and Oklahoma during 2011-2014 and evaluated by molecular methods for evidence of infection with R. parkeri. No infections with this agent were identified; however, 47% of 94 ticks collected from Kansas and 73% of 122 ticks from Oklahoma were infected with "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" a spotted fever group Rickettsia species of undetermined pathogenicity. These preliminary data suggest that "Ca. R. andeanae" is well-adapted to survival in populations of A. maculatum in Kansas and Oklahoma, and that its ubiquity in Gulf Coast ticks in these states may effectively exclude R. parkeri from their shared arthropod host, which could diminish markedly or preclude entirely the occurrence of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in this region of the United States. PMID:25773931

  7. High prevalence of "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" and apparent exclusion of Rickettsia parkeri in adult Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Kansas and Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Denison, Amy M; Dryden, Michael W; Noden, Bruce H; Lash, R Ryan; Abdelghani, Sarah S; Evans, Anna E; Kelly, Aubree R; Hecht, Joy A; Karpathy, Sandor E; Ganta, Roman R; Little, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    Amblyomma maculatum (the Gulf Coast tick), an aggressive, human-biting, Nearctic and Neotropical tick, is the principal vector of Rickettsia parkeri in the United States. This pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia species has been identified in 8-52% of questing adult Gulf Coast ticks in the southeastern United States. To our knowledge, R. parkeri has not been reported previously from adult specimens of A. maculatum collected in Kansas or Oklahoma. A total of 216 adult A. maculatum ticks were collected from 18 counties in Kansas and Oklahoma during 2011-2014 and evaluated by molecular methods for evidence of infection with R. parkeri. No infections with this agent were identified; however, 47% of 94 ticks collected from Kansas and 73% of 122 ticks from Oklahoma were infected with "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" a spotted fever group Rickettsia species of undetermined pathogenicity. These preliminary data suggest that "Ca. R. andeanae" is well-adapted to survival in populations of A. maculatum in Kansas and Oklahoma, and that its ubiquity in Gulf Coast ticks in these states may effectively exclude R. parkeri from their shared arthropod host, which could diminish markedly or preclude entirely the occurrence of R. parkeri rickettsiosis in this region of the United States.

  8. Prevalence of Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, Kathrin; Strube, Christina

    2014-06-01

    To narrow the gap of missing knowledge on Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in ticks in northwestern Germany and, at the same time, to provide first prevalence data on these pathogens in the city of Hamburg, a total of 1,400 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at ten different public green areas from April until October 2011. Ticks were examined using probe-based quantitative real-time PCR. A percentage of 3.6% (51/1,400) ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum infections divided into 2.1% (3/141) adults [1.7% (1/60) females and 2.5% (2/81) males] and 3.8% (48/1,259) nymphs. The percentage of infected ticks per sampling site varied statistically significantly from 0.7% (1/140) to 12.1% (17/140), whereas between sampling months, no statistically significant differences were observed (2.0-6.5%, 4-13/140). The overall Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 52.5% (735/1,400). In adult ticks, Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 56% (79/141) divided into 61.7% (37/60) infected females and 51.9% (42/81) infected males. Nymphs showed an infection rate of 52.1% (656/1,259). In contrast to A. phagocytophilum infections, no statistically significant differences in Rickettsia spp. infection rates among sampling sites (44.3-63.6%, 62-89/140) were observed, whereas seasonal variations were obvious: the percentage of Rickettsia-positive ticks was significantly lower in April (36.5%, 73/200) and May (29.5%, 59/200) compared to the summer and fall months (55.0-64.5%, 110-129/200). Rickettsia species differentiation via real-time pyrosequencing revealed Rickettsia helvetica as the only occurring species. Co-infections with both Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.0% (28/1,400) of the ticks. The present study revealed that in the city of Hamburg, the tick infection rate with A. phagocytophilum is comparable with other German data, whereas the Rickettsia spp. infection rate of 52.5% is by far the highest prevalence detected in

  9. Acaricidal effect of herbal extracts against cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, J P; Ghosh, S; Patel, K K; Singh, Veer

    2014-05-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Datura stramonium, Azadirachta indica, and Calotropis procera leaves, Allium sativum (AS) cloves, and Carica papaya (CP) seeds collected from Banaskanta, Gujarat (India) was tested for its acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The percent adult mortality within 15 days, reproductive index, percentage inhibition of oviposition, hatching of laid ova, and percentage larval mortality were studied at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml. At the highest concentration (100 mg/ml), the adult tick mortality was 66.67, 73.33, 80.00, and 93.33% for C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts, respectively, and it was statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, for A. indica, mortality was low and estimated to be 33.33%. Inhibition of oviposition at the highest concentration of A. indica, C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extract-treated ticks was 20.73, 71.34, 77.17, 85.83, and 100.00%, respectively. Inhibition of fecundity of treated groups differed significantly from the control and was concentration dependent. Larvae treated with all the tested concentrations of A. indica, C. procera, D. stramonium, A. sativum, and C. papaya extracts by larval packet test showed significant mortality (P < 0.001) than that of control tick larvae, and at the highest concentration, it was 55.2, 63.2, 71.8, 69.0, and 82.2%, respectively. Garlic cloves and papaya seed extract produced complete failure of eclosion of eggs from the treated ticks even at lower concentrations; however, neem, calotropis, and datura was capable of reducing hatchability by 20, 50, and 70%, respectively. The results pointed that the crude extracts of A. sativum cloves and C. papaya seeds have very good acaricidal properties and could be a potential component of alternative R. (B.) microplus tick control strategy. PMID:24633906

  10. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    PubMed

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  11. Acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Haryana and Rajasthan states of India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-08-01

    Acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks against deltamethrin and diazinon was assessed in Hisar (Haryana) and its adjoining district Churu (Rajasthan) using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). The mortality slope, LC50, LC95, 95 % confidence limit and resistance factor of field ticks were determined. Results showed that R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from Tohana (Hisar) were found resistant to both the acaricides while the ticks of Agroha (Hisar) were found to be susceptible using AIT. Similar results were observed by using standard method of LPT. Again, H. anatolicum tick isolates of Tara Nagar (Churu) were found susceptible whereas Churu tick isolates were found to be resistant using AIT for both the acaricides. LPT indicated susceptible status of H. anatolicum ticks collected from Churu as well as Tara Nagar for both the acaricides. The study warrants the need for strategic use of available acaricides to overcome the development of acaricide resistance in ticks. PMID:27100113

  12. Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the lake zone of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Laisser, Emmanuel Levillal Katamboi; Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Msalya, George; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mwilawa, Anjello Joseph; Mwega, Elisa Daniel; Kusiluka, Lughano; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p < 0.05) infested with ticks in Tarime district (96.1 %) than in Serengeti (61.7 %). The average counts of ticks were higher in adult animals (p < 0.05) than in young animals. The overall prevalence of T. parva was 27.7 % and was higher (p < 0.05) in Serengeti (38.3 %) than in Tarime district (16.7 %). However, all animals tested positive for T. parva did not show any clinical signs of East Coast fever (ECF), suggesting the existence of subclinical infection in Tarime zebu. These results suggest that Tarime cattle can tolerate ECF infection and are likely to serve as potential carriers of T. parva to other less-tolerant cattle breeds in mixed herds. Since Tarime cattle are preferred by most farmers with mixed herds, routine screening for T. parva is highly recommended to minimize introduction of infected cattle into an immunologically naive population. PMID:25092591

  13. Tick induced facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Patil, M M; Walikar, B N; Kalyanshettar, S S; Patil, S V

    2012-01-01

    We report a 3-year old boy with acute onset of left sided facial palsy secondary to tick infestation in the left ear. On 7th day of follow-up, following tick removal, the facial palsy had resolved. PMID:22318101

  14. Aspects of Adult Literacy: A Collection of Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tovim, Margaret, Ed.; Kedney, R. J., Ed.

    The book contains 15 papers focusing on adult illiteracy in Great Britain in the context of the community, but excluding the prison population, trainees at Adult Training Centres, patients in mental hospitals, or literacy education in the armed forces. The papers are presented in three sections. Part 1 on students contains six papers: "The Scale…

  15. Adult Education. Part II: Collection of Learning Experiences. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S., Ed.

    This document, which is the first in a series of best practice documents incorporating the wisdom and experiences of New York's adult educators, presents eight learning experiences that are specifically tailored for adult learners and instructors. The following information is provided for each learning experience: (1) a brief description of the…

  16. A Case of Subacute Ataxia in the Summertime: Tick Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Christin B; Chiota-McCollum, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Tick paralysis is caused by a neurotoxin secreted in the saliva of a gravid female tick, and manifests with ataxia, areflexia, ascending paralysis, bulbar palsy, and ophthalmoparesis. An 84-year-old man presented in June in coastal Mississippi with several days of subacute ataxia, bulbar palsy, unilateral weakness, and absent deep tendon reflexes. MRI/MRA and extensive serum and cerebrospinal fluid investigations were unrevealing. His symptoms progressed over several days, until his nurse discovered and removed an engorged tick from his gluteal fold. Within hours of tick removal, his subacute symptoms completely resolved. While tick paralysis is rare in adults, it is a condition that internists should be familiar with, particularly in seasons and areas with high prevalence of disease. This case also highlights the importance of performing a thorough skin exam on patients with the aforementioned neurologic abnormalities. PMID:25794538

  17. Surveillance of tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild birds and ticks in Tomsk city and its suburbs (Western Siberia).

    PubMed

    Mikryukova, Tamara P; Moskvitina, Nina S; Kononova, Yulia V; Korobitsyn, Igor G; Kartashov, Mikhail Y; Tyuten Kov, Oleg Y; Protopopova, Elena V; Romanenko, Vladimir N; Chausov, Evgeny V; Gashkov, Sergey I; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Moskvitin, Sergey S; Tupota, Natalya L; Sementsova, Alexandra O; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Loktev, Valery B

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of wild birds in the transmission of tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), we investigated randomly captured wild birds bearing ixodid ticks in a very highly endemic TBE region located in Tomsk city and its suburbs in the south of Western Siberia, Russia. The 779 wild birds representing 60 species were captured carrying a total of 841 ticks, Ixodes pavlovskyi Pom., 1946 (n=531), Ixodes persulcatus P. Sch., 1930 (n=244), and Ixodes plumbeus Leach. 1815 (n=66). The highest average number of ticks per bird in a particular species was found for the fieldfare (Turdus pilaris Linnaeus, 1758) (5.60 ticks/bird) and the tree pipit (Anthus trivialis Linnaeus, 1758) (13.25 ticks/bird). Samples from wild birds and ticks collected in highly endemic periods from 2006 to 2011 were tested for the TBEV markers using monoclonal modified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RT-PCR. TBEV RNA and antigen were found in 9.7% and 22.8% samples collected from wild birds, respectively. TBEV markers were also detected in 14.1% I. persulcatus ticks, 5.2% I. pavlovskyi, and 4.2% I. plumbeus ticks collected from wild birds. Two TBEV strains were also isolated on PKE (pig kidney embryo) cells from fieldfare and Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, 1849). Sequencing of 5'-NCR of TBEV revealed that all TBEV isolates belong to Far Eastern (dominate) and Siberian genotypes. Several phylogenetic subgroups included TBEV sequences novel for the Tomsk region. Our data suggest that wild birds are potential disseminators of TBEV, TBEV-infected ixodid ticks, and possibly other tick-borne infections.

  18. Borrelia sp. in ticks recovered from white-tailed deer in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Luckhart, S; Mullen, G R; Durden, L A; Wright, J C

    1992-07-01

    Six hundred sixty-five hunter-killed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 18 counties in Alabama (USA) were examined for ticks. Most of the collections were made at state-operated wildlife management areas. Four species of ticks (n = 4,527) were recovered: the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum (n = 482); the Gulf Coast tick A. maculatum (n = 11); the winter tick Dermacentor albipictus (n = 1,242); and the black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis (n = 2,792). Fifty-six percent of the ticks (n = 2,555) were examined for Borrelia sp. spirochetes using an immunofluorescent, polyclonal antibody assay. Spirochetes were detected in I. scapularis (five females, seven males) from Barbour, Butler, Coosa, and Lee counties and A. americanum (four males, four nymphs) from Hale, Lee, and Wilcox counties. Area-specific prevalences in ticks were as high as 3.3% for I. scapularis and 3.8% for A. americanum.

  19. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari found among wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunglee; Takano, Ai; Taylor, Kyle; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Konnai, Satoru; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    A relapsing fever Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari (herein referred to as B. lonestari-like) was detected from wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis ticks in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The total prevalence of this Borrelia sp. in tested deer blood samples was 10.6% using conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in deer fawns compared to adults (21.9% and 9.4%, respectively). Additionally, there was significant regional difference between our two sampling areas, Shiretoko and Shibetsu with 17% and 2.8% prevalence, respectively. Regional differences were also found in tick species collected from field and on deer. In the Shiretoko region, Haemaphysalis spp. were more abundant than Ixodes spp., while in Shibetsu, Ixodes spp. were more abundant. Using real-time PCR analysis, B. lonestari-like was detected from 2 out of 290 adult Haemaphysalis spp. ticks and 4 out of 76 pools of nymphs. This is the first report of a B. lonestari-like organism in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and the first phylogenetic analysis of this B. lonestari-like organism in Asia. Based on our results, Haemaphysalis spp. are the most likely candidates to act as a vector for B. lonestari-like; furthermore, regional variation of B. lonestari-like prevalence in sika deer may be dependent on the population distribution of these ticks. PMID:25108784

  20. Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2012-02-01

    While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected). PMID:22309858

  1. Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2012-02-01

    While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected).

  2. Climate, niche, ticks, and models: what they are and how we should interpret them.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín

    2008-12-01

    Ticks spend most of their life cycle in the environment, and all tick life cycle stages are dependent on a complex combination of climate variables. Furthermore, host availability and vegetation significantly modulate the dynamics of tick populations. Tick recruitment is dependent on successful reproduction, which in turn requires sufficient adult tick densities, available blood meal sources, and egg survival. Though many animals can serve as hosts, there are several determinants of host suitability. For example, host availability in time and space is an important determinant of tick bionomics. Shelter and protection from environmental extremes are critical to tick survival. Questing and diapausing ticks are vulnerable to extremes of temperature and humidity. There are concerns about how predicted climate change may alter several critical features of host-parasite relationships of ticks, the potential for invasion of new areas or alteration of patterns of pathogen transmission in particular. However, modeling approaches that relate known occurrences of tick species to climate (and/or landscape) features and predict geographic occurrences are not completely fulfilling our needs to understand how the "tick panorama" can change as a consequence of these climate trends. This is a short review about the concept of ecological niche as applied to ticks, as well as some raised concerns about its evaluation and strict definition, and its usefulness to map geographical suitability for ticks. Comments about how climate, hosts, and landscape configuration are briefly discussed regarding its applicability to tick mapping and with reference about their impact on tick abundance. I will further comment on already published observations about observed changes in the geographical range of ticks in parts of Europe. PMID:19030890

  3. Tick microbiome: the force within

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Sukanya; Fikrig, Erol

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are obligate blood-feeders and serve as vectors of human and livestock pathogens worldwide. Defining the tick microbiome and deciphering the interactions between the tick and its symbiotic bacteria in the context of tick development and pathogen transmission, will likely reveal new insights and spawn new paradigms to control tick-borne diseases. Descriptive observations on the tick microbiome that began almost a century ago serve as forerunners to the gathering momentum to define the tick microbiome in greater detail. This review will focus on the current efforts to address the microbiomes of diverse ticks, and the evolving understanding of tick microbiomes. There is hope that these efforts will bring a holistic understanding of pathogen transmission by ticks. PMID:25936226

  4. Lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae) occurrence in Nebraska: historical and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cortinas, R; Spomer, S

    2013-03-01

    In 2010 and 2011, field collections were undertaken to determine the geographic range of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), in Nebraska In addition, tick identifications from submissions by the general public dating to 1911 were examined. Consistent lone star tick identifications from extreme southeast Nebraska began in 1987. Specimens have been identified from 27 counties, making lone star ticks the second most frequently and second most widely reported tick in the state after Dermacentor variabilis (Say). Surveys conducted in 70 sites in 43 counties yielded 2,169 ticks of which 1,035 were lone star ticks. Lone star ticks were more frequent in the southeast portion of the state and ticks were found in nine counties from which there were no known submissions. Life stage peaks observed during the surveys corresponded with those observed from submissions. Other ticks, incidental to the study, were also collected. Woody plant expansion into the tallgrass prairie, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianianus L.) and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo L.) population growth, and the increased frequency of milder winters may be facilitating lone star tick occurrence in the region. Further studies will assess lone star tick establishment and disease pathogen prevalence in the state.

  5. Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SOMEYA, Azusa; ITO, Ryuki; MAEDA, Akihiko; IKENAGA, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important to stay alert and pay attention to tick-borne diseases in order to ensure the safety of the citizens of the city as well as that of visitors. PMID:25298315

  6. [Tick-borne encephalitis--an update].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a systemic infectious disease with nonspecific symptoms and/or severe neurological disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis and myelitis. The disease is caused by TBE virus, an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the family of flaviviruses. Three subtypes are currently present in different parts of Europe and Asia. The TBE virus is transmitted to humans primarily by the tick bite of Ixodes species such as I. ricinus, but also by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk and raw milk products. In Germany, more than 75% of all TBE cases occur in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg (southern Germany). Depending on the region, 1 to 4% of adult I. ricinus ticks in southern Germany are infected with the central European TBE virus variant. Treatment of TBE is symptomatic and supportive, a specific antiviral therapy does not exist. TBE cases acquired in central European countries have usually a good prognosis. Mortality rates above 2% have been documented in cases of tick-borne encephalitis in the elderly. In endemic areas, active immunization with inactivated TBE virus vaccines provides the most secure protection against TBE. In addition, exposure prophylaxis (protection against tick bites) plays a crucial role for TBE prevention.

  7. Field sampling of unfed adults of Amblyomma hebraeum Koch.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Yunker, C E; Butler, J F

    1987-08-01

    No methods have previously been available for the field sampling of unfed adults of Amblyomma hebraeum. We released 2000 unfed adults into a 5-m2 area in mopane woodland in southeastern Zimbabwe. The ticks sought shelter beneath the debris on the soil surface but emerged and became active in host seeking when stimulated. Effective stimuli were the odours of cattle and sheep and high concentrations of carbon dioxide from dry ice. The ticks did not respond to low concentrations of carbon dioxide, vibrations generated by stamping the ground with poles, or two volatile components of ox breath known to attract tsetse flies. The presence of humans in the release area also had little or no effect in stimulating the ticks. As adults of A. hebraeum are large and conspicuous they can easily be collected from the soil surface, either manually or using a vacuum device, after stimulation by cattle or the release of high concentrations of carbon dioxide.

  8. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  9. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  10. Density of Ixodes scapularis ticks on Monhegan Island after complete deer removal: a question of avian importation?

    PubMed

    Elias, Susan P; Smith, Robert P; Morris, Sara R; Rand, Peter W; Lubelczyk, Charles; Lacombe, Eleanor H

    2011-06-01

    Questing adult blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) abundance declined markedly three years after the 1999 removal of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) from Monhegan Island, ME. Since 2000, subadult ticks have not been found on Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout); questing nymphs have not been found since 2002. This suggested I. scapularis was reintroduced annually via bird importation of subadult ticks, but unable to complete its two-year life cycle on the island due to lack of deer. To investigate this, we used uncertainty analysis to estimate 1) questing adult ticks/ha that would result from avian importation of nymphs, and 2) questing adult ticks/ha on Monhegan Island, using bird capture and tick burden data from Appledore Island, ME, flagged tick data from Monhegan Island, and ten uncertain parameters. During the deer-fed period (1990-2001), estimated tick density on Monhegan Island was 18 times greater than that of imported ticks. During the post-deer-fed period (2002-2008), Monhegan Island tick density was equivalent to imported tick density. This supported the premise that all I. scapularis ticks on Monhegan Island have been bird-derived since 2002. PMID:21635637

  11. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands.

  12. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands. PMID:26515059

  13. The dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the Kruger National Park (1988-2002). Part II. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Arthur M; Gallivan, Gordon J; Horak, Ivan G

    2011-03-24

    The study aimed to assess the long-term population dynamics of questing Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis in two landscape zones of the Kruger National Park (KNP). Ticks were collected by dragging the vegetation monthly in three habitats (grassland, woodland and gully) at two sites in the KNP (Nhlowa Road and Skukuza) from August 1988 to March 2002. Larvae were the most commonly collected stage of both species. More R. appendiculatus were collected at Nhlowa Road than at Skukuza, with larvae being most abundant from May to August, while nymphs were most abundant from August to December. Larvae were most commonly collected in the gullies from 1991 to 1994, but in the grassland and woodland habitats from 1998 onwards. Nymphs were most commonly collected in the grassland and woodland. More R. zambeziensis were collected at Skukuza than at Nhlowa Road, with larvae being most abundant from May to September, while nymphs were most abundant from August to November. Larvae and nymphs were most commonly collected in the woodland and gullies and least commonly in the grassland (p < 0.01). The lowest numbers of R. appendiculatus were collected in the mid-1990 s after the 1991/1992 drought. Rhipicephalus zambeziensis numbers declined after 1991 and even further after 1998, dropping to their lowest levels during 2002. The changes in numbers of these two species reflected changes in rainfall and the populations of several of their large herbivore hosts, as well as differences in the relative humidity between the two sites over time.

  14. A white-tailed deer/lone star tick model for studying transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Deborah C; Bowen, C Jerry; Wasala, Nalinda B

    2013-03-01

    Animal models for Ehrlichia chaffeensis have been unsuccessful in recapitulating the natural disease cycle. We have developed an animal model for tick feeding and transmission using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus), the intracellular bacterium (Ehrlichia chaffeensis), and the lone star tick vector (Amblyomma americanum). Here, we report the acquisition and transmission of E. chaffeensis infections by refeeding male ticks in this experimental model. This finding is important because techniques for gene silencing are most successful for unfed adult ticks. Males are able to refeed several days after acquiring a tick-borne pathogen. Using refeeding male lone star ticks and RNA interference technology, we plan to decipher underlying molecular mechanisms involved in transmitting E. chaffeensis to a host via a lone star tick bite.

  15. Management of ticks and tick-borne diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Stafford, K.C.; Goodman, J.L.; Dennis, D.T.; Sonenshine, D .E.

    2005-01-01

    The mainstays of tick management and protection from tick-borne diseases have traditionally been personal precautions and the application of acaricides. These techniques maintain their value, and current innovations hold considerable promise for future improvement in effective targeting of materials for tick control. Furthermore, an explosion of research in the past few decades has resulted in the development and expansion of several novel and potentially valuable approaches to tick control, including vaccination against tick-borne pathogen transmission and against tick attachment, host management, use of natural enemies (especially entomopathogenic fungi), and pheromone-based techniques. The situations that require tick management are diverse, and occur under varied ecological conditions. Therefore, the likelihood of finding a single ?magic bullet? for tick management is low. In practical terms, the approach to tick management or to management of tick-borne disease must be tailored to the specific conditions at hand. One area that needs increased attention is the decision-making process in applying IPM to tick control. Further development of novel tick control measures, and increased efficiency in their integration and application to achieve desired goals, holds great promise for effective future management of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  16. Population-Based Passive Tick Surveillance and Detection of Expanding Foci of Blacklegged Ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N.; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0–9 years old) and older adults (55–74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases. PMID:25171252

  17. Vasoconstriction induced by salivary gland extracts from ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Pekáriková, Danica; Rajská, Petra; Kazimírová, Mária; Pecháňová, Olga; Takáč, Peter; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2015-12-01

    In their quest for blood, most haematophagous parasites secrete vasodilators in their saliva to counter the host haemostatic response of vasoconstriction. Surprisingly, salivary gland extracts from adult female Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks induced constriction in a rat femoral artery model; males induced vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on the time of feeding. Based on comparative HPLC fractionation, the active compounds inducing vasoconstriction do not appear to be prostaglandins (which ticks normally use as vasodilators). Vasoconstriction may be unique to ixodid ticks, helping them control blood flow during their prolonged blood-feeding of up to 10 days or more.

  18. Genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis in tick vectors detected in Hokkaido and Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ota, Naomi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashina, Hidenari; Matsui, Shirou; Fukumoto, Natsuko; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Naoya; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible tick vectors that can transmit Theileria orientalis in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Questing ticks collected from three different districts, Taiki, Otofuke, and Shin-Hidaka, of Hokkaido included Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis douglasi, and Ixodes ovatus, while all the ticks collected from Yonaguni island of Okinawa were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis. When the ticks were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. orientalis, the parasite was commonly detected among all tick species. Genotype-specific PCR assays revealed that all tick species in Hokkaido were predominantly detected with type 2, while ticks collected from Okinawa (H. longicornis) were predominantly detected with type 1. Consistent with the genetic diversity of T. orientalis in ticks, genotyping PCR assays from cattle grazed in the same Hokkaido sampling locations identified type 2 as the most prevalent genotype. This study provides the first identification of I. persulcatus, H. megaspinosa, H. douglasi, and I. ovatus as possible tick vectors of T. orientalis, and finds that the variety of vectors apparently capable of transmitting T. orientalis is wider in Japan than expected. The authors suggest that tick control strategies should be modified in Hokkaido based on the seasonal activities of ticks identified in the present study.

  19. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. Methods On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusion Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe. PMID:24455105

  20. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nikpay, Ali; Nabian, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle. Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2) respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA. Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3%) and increased duration of feeding, preoviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%). All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B.) annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control. PMID:27308287

  1. The Phenology of Ticks and the Effects of Long-Term Prescribed Burning on Tick Population Dynamics in Southwestern Georgia and Northwestern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Gleim, Elizabeth R.; Conner, L. Mike; Berghaus, Roy D.; Levin, Michael L.; Zemtsova, Galina E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. Management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. One promising management strategy is prescribed burning. However, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a failure of some studies to simulate operational management scenarios and/or account for other predictors of tick abundance. Therefore, our study was conducted to increase knowledge of tick population dynamics relative to long-term prescribed fire management. Furthermore, we targeted a region, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida (USA), in which little is known regarding tick dynamics so that basic phenology could be determined. Twenty-one plots with varying burn regimes (burned surrounded by burned [BB], burned surrounded by unburned [BUB], unburned surrounded by burned [UBB], and unburned surrounded by unburned [UBUB]) were sampled monthly for two years while simultaneously collecting data on variables that can affect tick abundance (e.g., host abundance, vegetation structure, and micro- and macro-climatic conditions). In total, 47,185 ticks were collected, of which, 99% were Amblyomma americanum, 0.7% were Ixodes scapularis, and fewer numbers of Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes brunneus, and Dermacentor variabilis. Monthly seasonality trends were similar between 2010 and 2011. Long-term prescribed burning consistently and significantly reduced tick counts (overall and specifically for A. americanum and I. scapularis) regardless of the burn regimes and variables evaluated. Tick species composition varied according to burn regime with A. americanum dominating at UBUB, A. maculatum at BB, I. scapularis at UBB, and a more even composition at BUB. These data indicate that

  2. Isolation and propagation of a Spiroplasma sp. from Slovakian Ixodes ricinus ticks in Ixodes spp. cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Palomar, Ana M.; Kazimirova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes spp. ticks are known to occasionally harbour spiroplasmas – helical mycoplasmas in the class Mollicutes; a previous study in Slovakia reported an overall prevalence of Spiroplasma ixodetis of 3% in Ixodes ricinus. In the present study, extracts of unfed adult I. ricinus ticks collected from vegetation in south-western Slovakia were added to a panel of cell lines derived from I. ricinus and Ixodes scapularis embryos. The cultures were monitored by preparation and examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears at intervals over the subsequent 16–18 months. Spiroplasma-like microorganisms were detected in cultures of both tick species after 2–3 months and subcultured onto fresh, uninfected cells of the appropriate cell line up to seven times. Molecular analysis using PCR assays targeting fragments of the 16S rRNA, ITS and rpoB genes confirmed the identity of the microorganisms as a Spiroplasma sp., with between 98.9% and 99.5% similarity to S. ixodetis. The sequences of the spiroplasmas isolated from three different pools of ticks collected on two different occasions were identical for all three genes tested. PMID:26003954

  3. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure. PMID:25054511

  4. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure.

  5. Rickettsia slovaca from Dermacentor marginatus ticks in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Masala, Giovanna; Chisu, Valentina; Satta, Giuseppe; Socolovschi, Christina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Nineteen ticks belonging to the species Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Haemaphysalis sulcata were collected from wild animals (wild boar, deer, and mouflon) in south-western Sardinia, Italy. Five D. marginatus ticks from wild boar were PCR-positive when analyzed using gltA-specific and ompA-specific primers, leading to the identification and first isolation in cell culture of Rickettsia slovaca, the causative agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), on the island of Sardinia. This study confirms the detection of a new tick-borne rickettsia that can be added to the others already known to be present in Sardinia (Rickettsia aeschlimannii, R. massiliae, and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae). These data increase our knowledge of tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia and, more generally, in the Mediterranean basin.

  6. The supercooling ability of ticks (Acari, Ixodoidea).

    PubMed

    Dautel, H; Knülle, W

    1996-01-01

    The supercooling capacity of nine laboratory-held species of ticks originating from different geographical areas, as well as five field-collected species from Germany, was investigated. All but one tick species showed mean supercooling points between about -17 and -23 degrees C, suggesting that the capacity to supercool to temperatures of < or = -17 degrees C might be an inherent property of many tick species unrelated to their geographic origin. Photoperiod did not influence the mean supercooling point in any of the species and there was also no distinct seasonal pattern of supercooling in seasonally acclimatized Dermacentor marginatus. Thus, the supercooling ability was independent of the presence/absence of diapause. The finding of thermal hysteresis in D. marginatus hemolymph raises the question of whether or not anti-freeze proteins are involved in the supercooling capacity of that species. An interspecies comparison revealed a weak negative correlation between relative water content and supercooling point of the ticks and an even weaker correlation between body mass or body water mass and the supercooling point. Since the ticks exhibited low supercooling points both before and shortly after feeding, the blood used as food should lack potent ice nucleators.

  7. Tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Doan-Wiggins, L

    1991-05-01

    Ticks may transmit a variety of human pathogens and are second in importance only to the mosquito as a vector of human disease. The majority of tick-borne diseases are nonspecific in their initial clinical and laboratory presentation and may be confused with a variety of more common illnesses. A history of tick exposure is frequently not available. Although specific serologic tests exist for confirming the diagnosis of many of these diseases, the time required for confirmation of results makes them of little use in the acute situation. Recognition of the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens and clinical suspicion are of key importance in making the appropriate diagnosis. Early and specific therapy is a principal factor in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. PMID:1893895

  8. Colorado tick fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediately by using tweezers, pulling carefully and steadily. Insect repellent may be helpful. Alternative Names Mountain tick fever; ... chap 51. Read More Acute Encephalitis Fever Incidence Insect bites and stings Update Date 12/7/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  9. [Protection against tick bites].

    PubMed

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing. PMID:25624140

  10. Tick Bites (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carry harmful germs and cause diseases like Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease . The deer tick ... red dots on the ankles and wrists (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) flu -like symptoms such as fever , ...

  11. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  12. First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

    2014-03-17

    The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil. PMID:24560364

  13. Feeding Period Required by Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks for Transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to Vertebrate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Danilo G.; Soares, Herbert S.; Soares, João Fábio

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic to the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, where the etiologic agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. We determined the minimal feeding period required by A. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit R. rickettsii to guinea pigs. Unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit R. rickettsii. In contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to transmit R. rickettsii to hosts. Most confirmed infections of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans in the São Paulo metropolitan area have been associated with contact with domestic dogs, the main host of A. aureolatum adult ticks. The typical expectation that transmission of tickborne bacteria to humans as well as to dogs requires ≥2 hours of tick attachment may discourage persons from immediately removing them and result in transmission of this lethal bacterium. PMID:25148391

  14. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    PubMed Central

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The rare ospC allele L was detected in 30% of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains cultured from a tick species, Ixodes affinis, and two rodent host species, Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus, collected in a coastal plain area of Georgia and South Carolina, in the southeastern United States. PMID:23220965

  15. Developing Anti-tick Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed. PMID:27076303

  16. Seasonal dynamics of tick species in an urban park of Rome.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano; Bianchi, Riccardo; Quarchioni, Elisa; Marini, Luca; Mancini, Fabiola; Ciervo, Alessandra; Khoury, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Regular collections were obtained in the Natural Reserve of the Insugherata of Rome during 2011 in order to obtain the tick species composition and the respective seasonal dynamics of the area. A total of 325 ticks was collected in selected sites by means of drag sampling. Among the identified species, Rhipicephalus turanicus was the most abundant (72.3%), followed by Ixodes ricinus (19.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (6.5%), Haemaphysalis punctata (1.2%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.3%). R. turanicus occurred mainly in pastures, showing a mono-modal seasonal activity pattern from spring to early summer. Questing I. ricinus were prevalent in woodland from October to May, and the seasonal trend of specimens showed a weak peak in winter. Although adult D. marginatus exhibited seasonal dynamics similar to I. ricinus, with an activity period from October to April, this species occurred in a different environment (pasture) and with considerably lower densities. Haemaphysalis punctata and R. bursa were rare, with an apparent autumn and autumn-winter seasonal activity, respectively. While the species diversity recorded appears as an unequivocal consequence of the natural state of the park, the remarkable R. turanicus density could be a direct effect of the recent introduction of wild boar, as carriers, from the close Veio Park. The presence of the species, a proven vector of various diseases in humans and domestic animals, is discussed in the light of the possible risk of tick-bite exposure of park workers and visitors.

  17. Prevalence and genetic diversity of piroplasm species in horses and ticks from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ros-García, Amaia; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The genetic diversity and prevalence of Babesia and Theileria species in the equine population of Tunisia were studied using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization on blood samples and unfed adult ticks collected from apparently healthy horses from three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia. Piroplasms were identified in 13 of 104 of the horse blood samples analyzed (12.5%) and five genotype groups were identified: Theileria equi group A (nine animals, 8.7%), group C (one animal, 1.0%) and group D (three animals, 2.9%), and Babesia caballi groups A and B (one animal each). All horses from the semi-arid zone were negative and prevalence in the humid and sub-humid zones were 12.9% and 20.0%, respectively. Three Ixodid tick species (Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavatum and Rhipicephalus bursa) were collected from examined horses and equine piroplasms were detected in 10.8% of them. T. equi groups A and D (9.2%), and B. caballi group B (1.6%) were identified in ticks. This work represents the first epidemiological report of equine piroplasmosis in Tunisia. Results showed a high level of diversity within the 18S rRNA gene of equine piroplasm species, and confirmed the presence in Tunisia of two T. equi genetic groups, C and D, only reported before in South Africa and Sudan.

  18. Risk of exposure to ticks (Ixodidae) and the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in ticks in Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cuber, Piotr; Andreassen, Åshild; Vainio, Kirsti; Asman, Marek; Dudman, Susanne; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa; Ottesen, Preben; Ånestad, Gabriel; Cieśla-Nobis, Sabina; Solarz, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the results of the first study on seasonal activity of ticks and prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in nymphs from the Silesian Province (Southern Poland). Previous studies on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in Poland have been conducted mostly in northern and eastern regions, but none in the Silesian Province itself. The aims of this study were to analyse the seasonal variation in tick populations and compare TBEV prevalence in nymphs from different geographical locations in the Silesia. A total of 5160 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected by the flagging method from 23 localities in southern Poland in 2010. Micro-climatic parameters (air temperature and humidity) were measured in order to estimate their influence on tick population. The highest tick activity was recorded in spring and was positively correlated with relative air humidity (RH). TBEV in the Silesian Province was analysed in 1750 nymphs and an overall prevalence was 0.11% (2 pools out of 175 analysed). The results of this study show that TBEV pool prevalence in nymphs is low in accordance with the low number of TBE cases reported within the region. PMID:25838177

  19. Geographical distribution patterns and habitat suitability models for presence of host-seeking ixodid ticks in dense woodlands of Mendocino County, California.

    PubMed

    Eisen, L; Eisen, R J; Lane, R S

    2006-03-01

    We used drag sampling to examine the geographical distribution patterns of ixodid ticks engaging in open (non-nidicolous) host-seeking behavior in dense woodland habitats of the climatically and ecologically diverse Mendocino County in north coastal California. The findings based on this sampling methodology reflect risk of human exposure to host-seeking ticks rather than the true distribution of the ticks. Drag sampling in 78 sites yielded 7,860 nymphal or adult Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, 220 Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, 150 Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall, 15 Hemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), 12 Ixodes angustus Neumann, 12 Ixodes auritulus Neumann, and a single Dermacentor variabilis (Say). I. pacificus, which is the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to humans in California, occurred in all 78 sites examined. D. occidentalis, another tick species commonly biting humans in California, and H. leporispalustris typically were encountered in oak-associated woodlands in the central or eastern parts of the county. In contrast, three species of Ixodes ticks (I. angustus, I. auritulus, and I. spinipalpis) most commonly were found questing openly in woodlands with redwood present in the western part of the county. I. angustus and I. spinipalpis are occasional human biters and known experimental vectors of B. burgdorferi. Our study represents the first collection of large numbers of openly host-seeking I. spinipalpis ticks. Univariate tests of associations between presence of ticks (D. occidentalis, H. leporispalustris, I. angustus, I. auritulus, or I. spinipalpis) and environmental geographical information systems-remote sensing (GIS/ RS)-based data indicated that elevation, number of growing degree-days, and tasseled cap brightness, greenness, and wetness are especially useful predictors of presence of openly hostseeking ticks. Combinations of the above-mentioned GIS/RS-based data yielded significant logistic regression

  20. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1%) Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness. PMID:24734213

  1. Shrub clearing adversely affects the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Tack, Wesley; Madder, Maxime; Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-07-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the importance of vertical forest structure as a component of Ixodes ricinus tick habitat, an experiment was set up in a coniferous forest on sandy soils in northern Belgium. Ticks were sampled in six control and six treatment plots on various sampling occasions in 2008-2010. In the course of the study period, a moderate thinning was carried out in all plots and shrub clearing was performed in the treatment plots. Thinning had no effect on tick abundance, while shrub clearing had an adverse affect on the abundance of all three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) up to 2 years post-clearing. Our findings are especially relevant in the light of the ongoing efforts to improve vertical forest structure in Belgium and many other parts of Europe, which might create suitable habitats for ticks and change the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Also, our results indicate that shrub clearing could be applied as a tick control measure in recreational areas where there is a high degree of human-tick contact.

  2. Trial of a minimal-risk botanical compound to control the vector tick of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Rand, Peter W; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; St Amand, Theodore; Smith, Robert P

    2010-07-01

    We compared the application of IC2, a minimal-risk (25B) botanical compound containing 10% rosemary oil, with bifenthrin, a commonly used synthetic compound, and with water for the control of Ixodes scapularis Say (= Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin), on tick-infested grids in Maine, in an area where Lyme disease is established and other tick-borne diseases are emerging. High-pressure sprays of IC2, bifenthrin, and water were applied during the peak nymphal (July) and adult (October) seasons of the vector tick. No ticks could be dragged on the IC2 grids within 2 wk of the July spray, and few adult ticks were found in October or the following April. Similarly, no adult ticks could be dragged 1.5 wk after the October IC2 spray, and few the following April. No ticks were found on the bifenthrin grids after either spray through the following April, whereas substantial numbers of ticks remained throughout on the grids sprayed with water. Thus, IC2 appears to be an effective, minimum-risk acaricide to control the vector tick of Lyme disease.

  3. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals. Do not apply any insect acaricides or repellents to your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! ... permethrin, etc.) Amitraz Repel Ticks on Dogs A repellent product may prevent the tick from coming into ...

  4. Doll Collecting; A Course Designed for the Adult Education Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Betty M.

    The author has attempted to organize the many materials to be found on doll collecting into a course which will provide a foundation of knowledge for appreciating and evaluating old dolls. The course has been divided into sessions in which old dolls will be studied by type (images, idols, and early playthings; child, doll, and social realities;…

  5. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  6. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner. PMID:25717008

  7. First molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Castro, Oscar; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-10-01

    Rickettsia parkei is the etiological agent of spotted fever in Uruguay, where is transmitted to humans by the tick Amblyomma triste. In the present study, ticks were collected from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and domestic dogs during 2011-2012 in different parts of Uruguay. Three out of 11 (27.3%) Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybaras, and 4 out of 6 (66.7%) Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from dogs were shown by molecular analyses to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri strain Maculatum 20. Until the present work, A. triste was the only tick species that was found infected by R. parkeri in Uruguay. This is the first report of R. parkeri infecting these two tick species in Uruguay, expanding the current distribution of this rickettsial pathogen in the country.

  8. Bunyaviruses are common in male and female Ixodes scapularis ticks in central Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the United States and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Recently, several novel viruses in the family Bunyaviridae (South Bay virus (SBV) and Blacklegged tick phlebovirus (BTPV)) were identified infecting female I. scapularis ticks collected in New York State. We used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female I. scapularis ticks collected in Centre County, Pennsylvania. We identified both SBV and BTPV in both male and female ticks from all collection locations. The role of male I. scapularis in pathogen epidemiology has been overlooked because they rarely bite and are not considered important pathogen vectors. However, males may act as reservoirs for pathogens that can then be transmitted to females during mating. Our data highlight the importance of examining all potential avenues of pathogen maintenance and transmission throughout the vector-pathogen life cycle in order to understand the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens.

  9. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.

    PubMed

    Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad.

  10. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  11. Attempt to detect evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks and mammalian wildlife in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Poel, W H M; Van der Heide, R; Bakker, D; De Looff, M; De Jong, J; Van Manen, N; Gaasenbeck, C P H; Borgsteede, F H M

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is present in mammalian wildlife species or ticks in The Netherlands, serum samples and ticks were tested for TBEV antibodies and TBEV RNA, respectively. Serum samples were collected from wild boar (666), deer (13), fox (399), and rodents (90), and were tested for TBEV antibodies, using ELISA, and SN test or HI test. Over a period of 4 years, a total of 906 ticks was collected from seven regions in The Netherlands. In four different regions, this was done on a monthly basis and during four consecutive summers. All ticks were tested for TBEV RNA by RT-PCR. TBEV antibody was detected by ELISA in two (0.5%) sera of foxes and 49 (7%) sera of wild boar, but not confirmed by HI or SNT. TBEV RNA was not detected in any of 906 ticks. It was concluded that there is no real evidence for a TBEV reservoir in ticks or wildlife in The Netherlands. PMID:15815150

  12. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  13. Redescription of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (Acari: Ixodidae), a rare South America tick confirmed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Onofrio, Valeria C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, João R; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-06-01

    The species Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 is a rare tick found on the Neotropical Region, but it has not been recorded as a valid taxon in some lists proposed by current taxonomists. After a comparison between the Brazilian material of A. fuscum deposited in the Acari Collection of the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, and the male type deposited in Leiden Museum of Natural History, The Netherlands, we confirm the taxonomic validity of A. fuscum and redescribe the adult specimens based on light and scanning electron microscope studies.

  14. Proteomic analysis of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus saliva: a comparison between partially and fully engorged females.

    PubMed

    Tirloni, Lucas; Reck, José; Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, João Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E; Fox, Jay W; Yates, John R; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antônio F M; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship.

  15. Molecular characterization of tick salivary gland glutaminyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Steven W; Browning, Rebecca E; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-09-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the bloodmeal of adult female ticks prior to fast-feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with bloodmeal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  16. The ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a bovine host infected with Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis. Babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus. The most prevalent species is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The transmission of B. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the R. microplus ovarian proteome identified several R. microplus proteins that were differentially expressed in response to infection. Through various approaches, we studied the reaction of the R. microplus ovarian transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods A group of ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf while a second group fed on an uninfected splenectomized control calf. RNA was purified from dissected adult female ovaries of both infected and uninfected ticks and a subtracted B. bovis-infected cDNA library was synthesized, subtracting with the uninfected ovarian RNA. Four thousand ESTs were sequenced from the ovary subtracted library and annotated. Results The subtracted library dataset assembled into 727 unique contigs and 2,161 singletons for a total of 2,888 unigenes, Microarray experiments designed to detect B. bovis-induced gene expression changes indicated at least 15 transcripts were expressed at a higher level in ovaries from ticks feeding upon the B. bovis-infected calf as compared with ovaries from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. We did not detect any transcripts from these microarray experiments that were expressed at a lower level in the infected ovaries compared with the uninfected ovaries. Using the technique called serial analysis of gene expression, 41 ovarian transcripts from infected ticks were differentially expressed when compared with transcripts of controls. Conclusion Collectively, our experimental approaches provide

  17. 76 FR 13339 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child and Adult...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... accuracy of meal claims submitted for reimbursement by family day care home providers for meals served to children who attend the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) day care homes. The assessment is tasked... family day care homes (FDCHs) during FY 2011. DATES: Written comments on this notice must be received...

  18. Tick-Borne Rickettsial Pathogens in Ticks and Small Mammals in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Min; Yi, Ying-Hua; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Mi-Jin; Cho, Mae-Rim; Desai, Atul R.; Shringi, Smriti; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Lee, John S.; Lee, In-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Foley, Janet; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne infectious agents among ticks, ticks comprising five species from two genera (Hemaphysalis spp. and Ixodes spp.) were screened using molecular techniques. Ticks (3,135) were collected from small wild-caught mammals or by dragging/flagging in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and were pooled into a total of 1,638 samples (1 to 27 ticks per pool). From the 1,638 tick samples, species-specific fragments of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1 sample), Anaplasma platys (52 samples), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (29 samples), Ehrlichia ewingii (2 samples), Ehrlichia canis (18 samples), and Rickettsia rickettsii (28 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. Twenty-one pooled and individual tick samples had mixed infections of two (15 samples) or three (6 samples) pathogens. In addition, 424 spleen samples from small captured mammals (389 rodents, 33 insectivores, and 2 weasels) were screened for selected zoonotic pathogens. Species-specific DNA fragments of A. phagocytophilum (110 samples), A. platys (68 samples), E. chaffeensis (8 samples), E. ewingii (26 samples), E. canis (51 samples), and Rickettsia sp. (22 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. One hundred thirty small mammals had single infections, while 4, 14, and 21 striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) had mixed infections of four, three, and two pathogens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence comparison also revealed that Korean strains of E. chaffeensis clustered closely with those from China and the United States, while the Rickettsia (rOmpA) sequences clustered within a clade together with a Chinese strain. These results suggest that these agents should be considered in differential diagnosis while examining cases of acute febrile illnesses in humans as well as animals in the ROK. PMID:16957192

  19. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in ticks and small mammals in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Min; Yi, Ying-Hua; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Mi-Jin; Cho, Mae-Rim; Desai, Atul R; Shringi, Smriti; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Lee, In-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Foley, Janet; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2006-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne infectious agents among ticks, ticks comprising five species from two genera (Hemaphysalis spp. and Ixodes spp.) were screened using molecular techniques. Ticks (3,135) were collected from small wild-caught mammals or by dragging/flagging in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and were pooled into a total of 1,638 samples (1 to 27 ticks per pool). From the 1,638 tick samples, species-specific fragments of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1 sample), Anaplasma platys (52 samples), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (29 samples), Ehrlichia ewingii (2 samples), Ehrlichia canis (18 samples), and Rickettsia rickettsii (28 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. Twenty-one pooled and individual tick samples had mixed infections of two (15 samples) or three (6 samples) pathogens. In addition, 424 spleen samples from small captured mammals (389 rodents, 33 insectivores, and 2 weasels) were screened for selected zoonotic pathogens. Species-specific DNA fragments of A. phagocytophilum (110 samples), A. platys (68 samples), E. chaffeensis (8 samples), E. ewingii (26 samples), E. canis (51 samples), and Rickettsia sp. (22 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. One hundred thirty small mammals had single infections, while 4, 14, and 21 striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) had mixed infections of four, three, and two pathogens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence comparison also revealed that Korean strains of E. chaffeensis clustered closely with those from China and the United States, while the Rickettsia (rOmpA) sequences clustered within a clade together with a Chinese strain. These results suggest that these agents should be considered in differential diagnosis while examining cases of acute febrile illnesses in humans as well as animals in the ROK.

  20. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keesing, Felicia; Allan, Brian F; Young, Truman P; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    In African savannas, large mammals, both wild and domestic, support an abundant and diverse population of tick ectoparasites. Because of the density of ticks and the many pathogens that they vector, cattle in East Africa are often treated with acaricides. While acaricides are known to be effective at reducing tick burdens on cattle, their effects on the overall abundance and community composition of ticks in savanna ecosystems are less well understood. It is also not known how well tick populations can be maintained in the absence of large mammals. We evaluated the effects of wildlife and of acaricide-treated cattle on host-seeking tick populations in a long-term, exclusion experiment in central Kenya. Over seven years, we sampled larval, nymphal, and adult ticks monthly on replicated treatment plots that controlled for the presence of cattle and for the presence of two guilds of large wild mammals: megaherbivores (giraffes and elephants) and all other large wild herbivores (> 15 kg). Two species of ticks were found in this habitat; across all surveys, 93% were Rhipicephalus pulchellus and 7% were R. praetextatus. The presence of acaricide-treated cattle dramatically reduced the abundance of host-seeking nymphal and adult ticks but did not affect the abundance of host-seeking larval ticks. The abundance of larval ticks was determined by the presence of large wild mammals, which appear to import gravid female ticks into the experimental plots. On plots with no large mammals, either wild or domestic, larval and nymphal ticks were rare. Adult R. pulchellus were most abundant in plots that allowed wildlife but excluded cattle. Adult R. praetextatus were relatively abundant in plots without any large mammals. These differences suggest that these ticks utilize different members of the host community. The reduction in ticks that results from the presence of acaricide-treated cattle has potential health benefits for humans and wildlife, but these benefits must be weighed

  1. Avian tick paralysis caused by Ixodes brunneus in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luttrell, M.P.; Creekmore, L.H.; Mertins, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1988 and 1994, 16 definitive and 26 presumptive cases of tick paralysis were diagnosed in 10 species of birds from five southeastern states in the USA. All birds had engorged adult female Ixodes brunneus ticks on the head region and were partially paralyzed or dead. Cases occurred in the winter and early spring months, and most birds were passerines found in private yards or near feeders. All stages of I. brunneus feed exclusively on birds, and this species previously has been associated with avian tick paralysis. Little is known concerning the life cycle of this ixodid tick and its impact on wild bird populations.

  2. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keesing, Felicia; Allan, Brian F; Young, Truman P; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    In African savannas, large mammals, both wild and domestic, support an abundant and diverse population of tick ectoparasites. Because of the density of ticks and the many pathogens that they vector, cattle in East Africa are often treated with acaricides. While acaricides are known to be effective at reducing tick burdens on cattle, their effects on the overall abundance and community composition of ticks in savanna ecosystems are less well understood. It is also not known how well tick populations can be maintained in the absence of large mammals. We evaluated the effects of wildlife and of acaricide-treated cattle on host-seeking tick populations in a long-term, exclusion experiment in central Kenya. Over seven years, we sampled larval, nymphal, and adult ticks monthly on replicated treatment plots that controlled for the presence of cattle and for the presence of two guilds of large wild mammals: megaherbivores (giraffes and elephants) and all other large wild herbivores (> 15 kg). Two species of ticks were found in this habitat; across all surveys, 93% were Rhipicephalus pulchellus and 7% were R. praetextatus. The presence of acaricide-treated cattle dramatically reduced the abundance of host-seeking nymphal and adult ticks but did not affect the abundance of host-seeking larval ticks. The abundance of larval ticks was determined by the presence of large wild mammals, which appear to import gravid female ticks into the experimental plots. On plots with no large mammals, either wild or domestic, larval and nymphal ticks were rare. Adult R. pulchellus were most abundant in plots that allowed wildlife but excluded cattle. Adult R. praetextatus were relatively abundant in plots without any large mammals. These differences suggest that these ticks utilize different members of the host community. The reduction in ticks that results from the presence of acaricide-treated cattle has potential health benefits for humans and wildlife, but these benefits must be weighed

  3. Potential Vertical Transmission of Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) from Moose (Alces americanus) Dams to Neonates.

    PubMed

    Severud, William J; DelGiudice, Glenn D

    2016-01-01

    North American moose (Alces americanus) frequently become infested with winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus). During capture of neonatal moose in northeastern Minnesota, US, in May-June 2013 and 2014, we recovered adult ticks from neonates, presumably vertically transferred from dams, heretofore, not documented. Infestations on neonates may have population-level implications.

  4. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J; Vesterinen, Eero J; Partio, Esa K; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained "unclassified Chlamydiales" and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to "uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks" and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. PMID:27681922

  5. The widely distributed hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, can retain canine parvovirus, but not be infected in laboratory condition.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Mochizuki, Masami

    2015-04-01

    Ticks are known to transmit various pathogens, radically threatening humans and animals. Despite the close contact between ticks and viruses, our understanding on their interaction and biology is still lacking. The aim of this study was to experimentally assess the interaction between canine parvovirus (CPV) and a widely distributed hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, in laboratory condition. After inoculation of CPV into the hemocoel of the ticks, polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that CPV persisted in inoculated unfed adult female ticks for 28 days. Canine parvovirus was recovered from the inoculated ticks using a cell culture, indicating that the virus retained intact in the ticks after inoculation, but significant positive reaction indicating virus infection was not detected in the tick organs by immunofluorescence antibody test using a monoclonal antibody. In the case of ticks inoculated with feline leukemia virus, the virus had shorter persistence in the ticks compared to CPV. These findings provide significant important information on the characteristic interaction of tick with non-tick-borne virus.

  6. The widely distributed hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, can retain canine parvovirus, but not be infected in laboratory condition

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Hiroyuki; TANAKA, Tetsuya; MOCHIZUKI, Masami

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Ticks are known to transmit various pathogens, radically threatening humans and animals. Despite the close contact between ticks and viruses, our understanding on their interaction and biology is still lacking. The aim of this study was to experimentally assess the interaction between canine parvovirus (CPV) and a widely distributed hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, in laboratory condition. After inoculation of CPV into the hemocoel of the ticks, polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that CPV persisted in inoculated unfed adult female ticks for 28 days. Canine parvovirus was recovered from the inoculated ticks using a cell culture, indicating that the virus retained intact in the ticks after inoculation, but significant positive reaction indicating virus infection was not detected in the tick organs by immunofluorescence antibody test using a monoclonal antibody. In the case of ticks inoculated with feline leukemia virus, the virus had shorter persistence in the ticks compared to CPV. These findings provide significant important information on the characteristic interaction of tick with non-tick-borne virus. PMID:25650060

  7. Collective memories of three wars in United States history in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Zaromb, Franklin; Butler, Andrew C; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2014-04-01

    A collective memory is a representation of the past that is shared by members of a group. We investigated similarities and differences in the collective memories of younger and older adults for three major wars in U.S. history (the Civil War, World War II, and the Iraq War). Both groups were alive during the recent Iraq War, but only the older subjects were alive during World War II, and both groups learned about the Civil War from historical sources. Subjects recalled the 10 most important events that occurred during each war and then evaluated the emotional valence, the relative importance, and their level of knowledge for each event. They also estimated the percentage of people that would share their memory of each event within their age group and the other age group. Although most historical events were recalled by fewer than 25 % of subjects, younger and older adults commonly recalled a core set of events for each war that conform to a narrative structure that may be fundamental to collective remembering. Younger adults showed greater consensus in the events that they recalled for all three wars, relative to older adults, but there was less consensus in both groups for the Iraq War. Whereas younger adults recalled more specific events of short duration, older adults recalled more extended and summarized events of long duration. Our study shows that collective memories can be studied empirically and can differ depending on whether the events are experienced personally or learned from historical sources.

  8. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations.

  9. Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H

    2009-10-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. PMID:19501969

  10. Detection of Two Zoonotic Babesia microti Lineages, the Hobetsu and U.S. Lineages, in Two Sympatric Tick Species, Ixodes ovatus and Ixodes persulcatus, Respectively, in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Qiang, Wei; Nakao, Minoru; Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2012-01-01

    The species Babesia microti, commonly found in rodents, demonstrates a high degree of genetic diversity. Three lineages, U.S., Kobe, and Hobetsu, are known to have zoonotic potential, but their tick vector(s) in Japan remains to be elucidated. We conducted a field investigation at Nemuro on Hokkaido Island and at Sumoto on Awaji Island, where up to two of the three lineages occur with similar frequencies in reservoirs. By flagging vegetation at these spots and surrounding areas, 4,010 ticks, comprising six species, were collected. A nested PCR that detects the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species revealed that Ixodes ovatus and I. persulcatus alone were positive. Lineage-specific PCR for rRNA-positive samples demonstrated that I. ovatus and I. persulcatus carried, respectively, the Hobetsu and U.S. parasites. No Kobe-specific DNA was detected. Infected I. ovatus ticks were found at multiple sites, including Nemuro and Sumoto, with minimum infection rates (MIR) of ∼12.3%. However, all I. persulcatus ticks collected within the same regions, a total of 535, were negative for the Hobetsu lineage, indicating that I. ovatus, but not I. persulcatus, was the vector for the lineage. At Nemuro, U.S. lineage was detected in 2 of 139 adult I. persulcatus ticks (MIR, 1.4%), for the first time, while 48 of I. ovatus ticks were negative for that lineage. Laboratory experiments confirmed the transmission of Hobetsu and U.S. parasites to hamsters via I. ovatus and I. persulcatus, respectively. Differences in vector capacity shown by MIRs at Nemuro, where the two species were equally likely to acquire either lineage of parasite, may explain the difference in distribution of Hobetsu throughout Japan and U.S. taxa in Nemuro. These findings are of importance in the assessment of the regional risk for babesiosis in humans. PMID:22389378

  11. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, J J; Fourie, L J; Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox) was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg/kg body weight and those in another 25 mg/kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and + 7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days + 1 and + 8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  12. Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and natural forested areas of Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. Nevertheless, little is known about the relative density of ticks in these two ecologically distinct habitats and the diversity of tick-borne pathogens that they carry. Methods We compared densities of questing I. ricinus nymphs and adults in urban and natural habitats in Central and Northeastern Poland, assessed the prevalence and rate of co-infection with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and ‘Ca. Neoehrlichia spp.’ in ticks, and compared the diversity of tick-borne pathogens using molecular assays (PCR). Results Of the 1325 adults and nymphs, 6.2% were infected with at least one pathogen, with 4.4%, 1.7% and less than 0.5% being positive for the DNA of Rickettsia spp., A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Ca. N. mikurensis, respectively. Although tick abundance was higher in natural habitats, the prevalence of the majority of pathogens was higher in urban forested areas. Conclusion We conclude that: (i) zoonotic genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum are widely distributed in the Polish tick population, (ii) although the diversity of tick borne pathogens was higher in natural habitats, zoonotic species/strains were detected only in urban forests, (iii) and we provide the first description of Ca. N. mikurensis infections in ticks in Poland. PMID:24661311

  13. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species in bat ticks, France, 2010.

    PubMed

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents. PMID:23171714

  14. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents. PMID:23171714

  15. Candidatus Rickettsia hoogstraalii in Ethiopian Argas persicus ticks.

    PubMed

    Pader, Vera; Nikitorowicz Buniak, Joanna; Abdissa, Alemseged; Adamu, Haileeysus; Tolosa, Tadele; Gashaw, Abebaw; Cutler, Ronald R; Cutler, Sally J

    2012-12-01

    Ethiopian soft ticks Argas persicus, hard ticks including both Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., and fleas were collected from livestock, traditional human dwellings, and cracks and crevices of trees. They were assessed in pools for the presence of Rickettsia using PCR-based methods. The extracted tick DNA was subjected to molecular screening for Rickettsia, which revealed 50.5% of the pooled samples to be positive for Rickettsia spp. These were then subjected to multi-gene analysis using both outer surface proteins and housekeeping genes with proven discriminatory potential. Sequencing of the citrate synthase and outer membrane genes clearly led to the identification of three distinct rickettsial species, Candidatus Rickettsia hoogstraalii in Argas persicus ticks; R. africae in hard tick pools, and R. felis in fleas. Furthermore, we demonstrated the presence of the plasmid-borne small heat-shock protein gene hsp2 in DNA from A. persicus ticks suggesting that Candidatus R. hoogstraalii carried by these ticks possess a plasmid. Unlike chromosomal gene sequences, the hsp2 gene failed to cluster with Candidatus R. hoogstraalii, instead falling into an isolated separate clade, suggesting a different origin for the plasmid. PMID:23140898

  16. Excretion of host immunoglobulin in tick saliva and detection of IgG-binding proteins in tick haemolymph and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nuttall, P A

    1994-11-01

    Host immunoglobulin G (IgG) crossed the gut wall into the haemocoel of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus female ticks when they fed on guinea-pigs. Guinea-pig IgG was also found in saliva of the feeding ticks. The concentration and antibody activity of IgG in haemolymph, salivary gland extract (SGE) and saliva at different stages of tick feeding were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Specific activity of the IgG in tick samples was determined by feeding ticks on guinea-pigs which were immunized with killed Escherichia coli: 35-42% of the antibody activity in guinea-pig immune serum remained in the tick samples. The high relative concentration of IgG in tick saliva at later stages of feeding suggests that the tick may have a mechanism for getting rid of foreign proteins via the salivary gland. Such a mechanism could involve IgG binding proteins (IGBPs) which were found in both haemolymph and SGE of female ticks at day 6 of feeding using a guinea-pig IgG-agarose affinity column. In female ticks, the M(r) of IGBPs in SGE (23 and 57 kDa) were less than those in haemolymph (78 and > 100 kDa). The existence of IGBPs in both the tick salivary gland and haemolymph indicate that haemolymph and salivary gland cooperate to remove foreign proteins, e.g. host immunoglobulin, from the body during feeding. This mechanism may be a part of the tick self-defence system. PMID:7794319

  17. Survey of birds and lizards for ixodid ticks (Acari) and spirochetal infection in northern California.

    PubMed

    Manweiler, S A; Lane, R S; Block, W M; Morrison, M L

    1990-11-01

    A total of 138 birds (24 species) was captured in an oak woodland between December 1988 and June 1989 at the University of California, Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, Yuba County, Calif. Ticks were not found on 71 birds captured between December 1988 and March 1989. Five subadult Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls were removed from 3 of 67 birds caught between April and June 1989. These three birds, an orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora celata (Say], a lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena (Say], and a chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina (Bechstein], represent new host records for I. pacificus in California. Tissues from two ticks and thick blood films prepared from 126 birds tested negative for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence (DI). A total of 172 larval and 197 nymphal I. pacificus was removed from 15 of 16 western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard) caught between April and June 1989 in the same location as were birds. Thick blood films prepared from all 16 lizards and tissue smears from 334 of the ticks (143 larvae and 191 nymphs) were DI test-negative for spirochetes. One (1.1%) of 93 adult I. pacificus collected at the bird-lizard capture site in February 1989 was infected with spirochetes that resembled B. burgdorferi. PMID:2280384

  18. Ticks (Ixodidae) on humans in South America.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Beati, L; Barros-Battesti, D M; Labruna, M B; Nava, S; Venzal, J M; Mangold, A J; Szabó, M P J; Martins, J R; González-Acuña, D; Estrada-Peña, A

    2006-01-01

    Twenty eight species of Ixodidae have been found on man in South America (21 Amblyomma, 1 Boophilus, 2 Dermacentor, 2 Haemaphysalis, 1 Ixodes and 1 Rhipicephalus species). Most of them are rarely found on man. However, three species frequently parasitize humans in restricted areas of Argentina (A. neumanni reported from 46 localities), Uruguay (A. triste from 21 sites) and Argentina-Brazil (A. parvum from 27 localities). The most widespread ticks are A. cajennense (134 localities in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Suriname and Venezuela), A. ovale (37 localities in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Suriname and Venezuela) and A. oblongoguttatum (28 sites in Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela). Amblyomma aureolatum (18 localities in Argentina, Brazil, French Guiana and Paraguay), A. cajennense, and A. triste are vectors of rickettsioses to man in South America. A better understanding of the respective roles of these and other tick species in transmitting pathogens to humans will require further local investigations. Amblyomma ticks should be the main subjects of these studies followed by species of Boophilus, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis and Rhipicephalus species. In contrast with North America, Europe and Asia, ticks of the genus Ixodes do not appear to be major players in transmitting diseases to human. Indeed, there is only one record of an Ixodes collected while feeding on man for all South America.

  19. Diversity of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cheetahs (Acinoyx jubatus) at three breeding centres in South Africa and activity patterns of questing ticks.

    PubMed

    Golezardy, Habib; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Penzhorn, Barend L

    2016-07-01

    Ticks were collected from 191 cheetahs at three breeding centres in North West and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa. Haemaphysalis elliptica, a common tick of large felids, was the most abundant species collected, while Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus simus occurred in lower numbers. In addition to these three species, drag-sampling of the vegetation revealed the presence of Amblyomma marmoreum, Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. The presence of free-ranging antelopes, murid rodents and tortoises at the breeding centres probably contributed to the availability of immature tick stages on the vegetation. Diurnal and seasonal questing patterns of ixodid ticks were investigated at monthly intervals at the largest cheetah-breeding centre. Questing ticks were most abundant on the vegetation during the warm summer months. Most questing H. elliptica larvae and nymphs were collected from the vegetation in the early morning and late afternoon and fewest during the middle of the day. PMID:27020735

  20. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Merino, Octavio; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans and animals. The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased worldwide in both humans and domestic animals over the past years resulting in greater interest in the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Advances in vector and pathogen genomics and proteomics have moved forward our knowledge of the vector-pathogen interactions that take place during the colonization and transmission of arthropod-borne microbes. Tick-borne pathogens adapt from the vector to the mammalian host by differential gene expression thus modulating host processes. In recent years, studies have shown that targeting tick proteins by vaccination can not only reduce tick feeding and reproduction, but also the infection and transmission of pathogens from the tick to the vertebrate host. In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens.

  1. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Octavio; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans and animals. The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased worldwide in both humans and domestic animals over the past years resulting in greater interest in the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Advances in vector and pathogen genomics and proteomics have moved forward our knowledge of the vector-pathogen interactions that take place during the colonization and transmission of arthropod-borne microbes. Tick-borne pathogens adapt from the vector to the mammalian host by differential gene expression thus modulating host processes. In recent years, studies have shown that targeting tick proteins by vaccination can not only reduce tick feeding and reproduction, but also the infection and transmission of pathogens from the tick to the vertebrate host. In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:23847771

  2. Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Borreliosis in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2%) of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6%) of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. Conclusions/Significance Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco. PMID:23029574

  3. Rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense ticks and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is the deadliest spotted fever of the world. In most of the BSF-endemic areas, capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the principal host for the tick Amblyomma cajennense, which is the main vector of BSF. Methods In 2012, a BSF case was confirmed in a child that was bitten by ticks in a residential park area inhabited by A. cajennense-infested capybaras in Itú municipality, southeastern Brazil. Host questing A. cajennense adult ticks were collected in the residential park and brought alive to the laboratory, where they were macerated and intraperitoneally inoculated into guinea pigs. A tick-inoculated guinea pig that presented high fever was euthanized and its internal organs were macerated and inoculated into additional guinea pigs (guinea pig passage). Tissue samples from guinea pig passages were also used to inoculate Vero cells through the shell vial technique. Infected cells were used for molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Blood serum samples were collected from 172 capybaras that inhabited the residential park. Sera were tested through the immunofluorescence assay using R. rickettsii antigen. Results A tick-inoculated guinea pig presented high fever accompanied by scrotal reactions (edema and marked redness). These signs were reproduced by consecutive guinea pig passages. Rickettsia was successfully isolated in Vero cells that were inoculated with brain homogenate derived from a 3rd passage-febrile guinea pig. Molecular characterization of this rickettsial isolate (designated as strain ITU) yielded DNA sequences that were all 100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. rickettsii in Genbank. A total of 83 (48.3%) out of 172 capybaras were seroreactive to R. rickettsii, with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 8192. Conclusions A viable isolate of R

  4. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infection in horses and ixodid ticks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Vali; Razmi, Golamreza; Seifi, Hesam; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2014-04-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a hemoprotozoan tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution that is caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. However, the geographical distribution of equine piroplasmosis in Iran is unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the causative agents and vector ticks of equine piroplasmosis in horses in the North Khorasan Province. In the year 2011, 100 horses were randomly selected from 14 villages. Blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected and examined using microscopical, molecular, and serological methods. Theileria equi infection was microscopically detected in 5 (5%) of the blood smears with low parasitemia, while serum samples were tested by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies against T. equi, B. caballi, and a mixed infection were detected in 48 (48%), 2 (2%), and 3 (3%) of the serum samples, respectively. A multiplex PCR was used to detect T. equi and B. caballi DNA in blood samples. No B. caballi infections could be found, but Theileria equi DNA was detected in 45 (45%) of the blood samples, and a BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank. Both molecular and serological results did not identify any significant association between T. equi infection and risk factors. A comparision of the results of 3 diagnostic methods demonstrated a poor agreement between microscopical examination with IFAT and PCR and a moderate agreement between IFAT and PCR. Thirty-seven adult ticks (20 females and 17 males) were collected from 15 horses. The most common tick was Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (n=19), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (n=10), Rhipicephalus bursa (n=4), Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n=3), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n=1). The salivary glands and ovaries were also examined using PCR. The genomic DNA samples of the salivary glands of 3 ticks, H. a. excavatum (n=2) and R. bursa (n=1), had a

  5. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks from Different Geographical Locations in Belarus

    PubMed Central

    Reye, Anna L.; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P.; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M.; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5–17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved. PMID:23349900

  6. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Reye, Anna L; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  7. Is Collective Efficacy Age Graded? The Development and Evaluation of a New Measure of Collective Efficacy for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Adena M.; Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Community processes are key determinants of older adults' ability to age in place, but existing scales measuring these constructs may not provide accurate, unbiased measurements among older adults because they were designed with the concerns of child-rearing respondents in mind. This study examines the properties of a new theory-based measure of collective efficacy (CE) that accounts for the perspectives of older residents. Methods. Data come from the population-based Chicago Neighborhood Organization, Aging and Health study (N = 1,151), which surveyed adults aged 65 to 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlations, and factor analysis, we explored the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new measure. Results. Principal component analysis indicated that the new scale measures a single latent factor. It had good internal consistency reliability, was highly correlated with the original scale, and was similarly associated with neighborhood exchange and disorder, self-rated health, mobility, and loneliness. The new scale also showed less age-differentiated nonresponse compared to the original scale. Discussion. The older adult CE scale has reliability and validity equivalent to that of the existing measure but benefits from a more developed theoretical grounding and reduced likelihood of age-related differential nonresponse. PMID:22315685

  8. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  9. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.

    PubMed

    Tuininga, Amy R; Miller, Jessica L; Morath, Shannon U; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C

    2009-05-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment.

  10. Population dynamics of ticks infesting the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in central Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Moussi, Nawfel; Jedidi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Sassi, Limam; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-12-01

    A tick population was monitored on 30 camels (Camelus dromedarius) over one year in Kairouan region, Central Tunisia. A total of 1630 ticks was collected and identified resulting in an estimate of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to 2 genera and 5 species: Hyalomma impeltatum (53%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (45%) were the dominant species followed by Hyalomma excavatum (1%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.5%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.5%) (p<0.001). Mean infestation prevalence was 90.6%; all the animals were infested by at least one tick from May to September. The highest mean prevalence was observed in H. impeltatum (60%), the lowest was reported in R. turanicus (0.03%) (p<0.05). Mean overall intensity of infestation was 4.4 ticks/animal. The highest mean intensity was observed in H. impeltatum (2.7 ticks/animal). Overall mean abundance of ticks was 4.4 ticks/animal. Different abiotic factors, namely monthly mean minimum and monthly mean maximum temperatures and the number of sunny days were positively correlated with overall monthly tick burdens which were in turn negatively correlated with the monthly mean relative humidity. This is the first study on camel tick dynamics in Tunisia.

  11. Molecular detection of Theileria, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. in ixodid ticks from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Kifaya; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-07-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit various infectious agents that cause disease in humans and livestock worldwide. A cross-sectional survey on the presence of protozoan pathogens in ticks was carried out to assess the impact of tick-borne protozoa on domestic animals in Palestine. Ticks were collected from herds with sheep, goats and dogs in different geographic districts and their species were determined using morphological keys. The presence of piroplasms and Hepatozoon spp. was determined by PCR amplification of a 460-540bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene followed by RFLP or DNA sequencing. A PCR-RFLP method based on the 18S rRNA was used in order to detect and to identify Hepatozoon, Babesia and Theileria spp. A total of 516 ticks were collected from animals in six Palestinian localities. Five tick species were found: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva and Haemaphysalis adleri. PCR-based analyses of the ticks revealed Theileria ovis (5.4%), Hepatozoon canis (4.3%), Babesia ovis (0.6%), and Babesia vogeli (0.4%). Theileria ovis was significantly associated with ticks from sheep and with R. turanicus ticks (p<0.01). H. canis was detected only in R. sanguineus s.l. and was significantly associated with ticks from dogs (p<0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of these pathogens in ticks collected from Palestine. Communicating these findings with health and veterinary professionals will increase their awareness, and contribute to improved diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26969489

  12. Nidicolous ticks of small mammals in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern California

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet; Rejmanek, Daniel; Fleer, Katryna; Nieto, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the Holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. Far western North American communities in which A. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial pathogen A. phagocytophilum and differences in dynamics of hosts and vectors across heterogeneous landscapes. We evaluated sites in northern California in order to identify primarily nidicolous ticks and the hosts they infest. A total of 667 ticks was found in 11 study sites, including 288 on flags and 379 attached to small mammals. Larvae were over-represented among attached ticks and adults on flags. The most abundant species was I. pacificus. Two-hundred fourteen nidicolous ticks were found, most abundantly I. angustus and I. spinipalpis. All adult I. ochotonae, I. auritulus, I. angustus, I. jellisoni, and I. woodi were female, while the male:female ratio of I. spinipalpis was 1.2:1 and 1:1 for I. pacificus. The greatest number of ticks was obtained from Tamias ochrogenys, Peromyscus spp., and Neotoma fuscipes. Of 234 small mammal individuals that were infested with Ixodes spp., only 81 (34.6%) were infested with I. pacificus. The remaining infested small mammals hosted nidicolous tick species. Eight ticks were PCR-positive, including 6 I. pacificus (one adult, one larva, and 6 nymphs), and 2 adult I. ochotonae and high PCR prevalences of 18% and 9% were detected in woodrats and chipmunks, respectively. Nymphal I. angustus ticks were active year-long with a possible increase in August while larval activity was only observed in December and spring months and adults only during spring and fall. Overall, we show high tick species richness and year-round high levels of

  13. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  14. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria.

  15. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  16. Tick imbedded in the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a close-up photograph of a tick embedded in the skin. Ticks are important because they can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, and others.

  17. Techniques for collecting saliva from awake, unrestrained, adult monkeys for cortisol assay.

    PubMed

    Lutz, C K; Tiefenbacher, S; Jorgensen, M J; Meyer, J S; Novak, M A

    2000-10-01

    Cortisol levels serve as an index of pituitary-adrenal activity in nonhuman primates. In adult monkeys, cortisol is normally measured in blood (typically requiring restraint or sedation) or urine (reflecting a state rather than point estimate). In contrast, saliva collection is less invasive than drawing blood and allows for repeated sampling within a short period of time. Although protocols exist for collecting saliva from young monkeys, these procedures are inadequate for awake, unrestrained adult animals. Our laboratory has developed two methods for collecting saliva from adult rhesus monkeys: a "screen" method, which involves licking screen-covered gauze, and a "pole" method, which involves sucking and chewing on an attached rope. Twenty-three adult male rhesus monkeys were used to evaluate these two methods. After a period of adaptation, saliva samples were collected from 21 of 23 subjects. Saliva collection was faster with the pole than with the screen method (P < 0.01), but the pole method was not suitable for some animals because of their tendency to bite off the attached rope. An analysis of 19 saliva samples revealed a mean cortisol concentration of 0.84 microg/dl (range 0.27-1.77 microg/dl). There was no statistically significant difference in cortisol value between methods used (P > 0.22). The influence of the flavoring on the cortisol assay was tested, and was found to have no significant effect (P > 0.28). Our results indicate that either technique can be used to safely collect saliva from unrestrained adult monkeys. Choice of technique will depend on the proclivities of individual monkeys.

  18. Questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation of sable antelope and multi-herbivore enclosures in Thabazimbi.

    PubMed

    Uys, André C; Horak, Ivan G; Harrison, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This survey of ixodid ticks was the first to compare the species composition and population dynamics of free-living ticks in intensive, sable antelope breeding enclosures, now commonplace in commercial wildlife ranching in South Africa, with those of multi-herbivore enclosures. The species composition, abundance and seasonal abundance of questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation in intensive breeding enclosures for sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), on which strategic tick control is practised, were compared with those of ticks in a multi-species herbivore enclosure surrounding the breeding enclosures in which no tick control is practised. A total of eight ixodid tick species were collected by drag-sampling the woodland and grassland habitats in each enclosure type monthly from July 2011 to July 2013. Rhipicephalus decoloratus, a potential vector of fatal tick-borne disease in sable antelopes, was the most abundant, accounting for 65.4% of the total number of ticks collected in the sable enclosures, whilst representing only 25.4% of number of ticks collected in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. Rhipicephalus decoloratus and R. evertsi evertsi were more abundant than R. appendiculatus (both p < 0.05) and Amblyomma hebraeum (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Rhipicephalus decoloratus larvae were collected throughout the year, with peak collections in November 2012 and October to December 2013 in the sable enclosures; and in April/May 2012 and February/April 2013 in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. More R. decoloratus were recovered in the second year than in the first year in the grassland habitat of the sable enclosures (V = 7.0, p < 0.05) possibly as a result of acaricide resistance. The apparent temporal over-abundance of R. decoloratus in sable antelope breeding enclosures, in the face of strategic tick control, is of concern and requires further investigation. PMID:26244584

  19. Questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation of sable antelope and multi-herbivore enclosures in Thabazimbi.

    PubMed

    Uys, André C; Horak, Ivan G; Harrison, Alan

    2015-07-14

    This survey of ixodid ticks was the first to compare the species composition and population dynamics of free-living ticks in intensive, sable antelope breeding enclosures, now commonplace in commercial wildlife ranching in South Africa, with those of multi-herbivore enclosures. The species composition, abundance and seasonal abundance of questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation in intensive breeding enclosures for sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), on which strategic tick control is practised, were compared with those of ticks in a multi-species herbivore enclosure surrounding the breeding enclosures in which no tick control is practised. A total of eight ixodid tick species were collected by drag-sampling the woodland and grassland habitats in each enclosure type monthly from July 2011 to July 2013. Rhipicephalus decoloratus, a potential vector of fatal tick-borne disease in sable antelopes, was the most abundant, accounting for 65.4% of the total number of ticks collected in the sable enclosures, whilst representing only 25.4% of number of ticks collected in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. Rhipicephalus decoloratus and R. evertsi evertsi were more abundant than R. appendiculatus (both p < 0.05) and Amblyomma hebraeum (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Rhipicephalus decoloratus larvae were collected throughout the year, with peak collections in November 2012 and October to December 2013 in the sable enclosures; and in April/May 2012 and February/April 2013 in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. More R. decoloratus were recovered in the second year than in the first year in the grassland habitat of the sable enclosures (V = 7.0, p < 0.05) possibly as a result of acaricide resistance. The apparent temporal over-abundance of R. decoloratus in sable antelope breeding enclosures, in the face of strategic tick control, is of concern and requires further investigation.

  20. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Habitats in North East Germany: Reemergence of TBEV in Ticks after 15 Years of Inactivity

    PubMed Central

    Krienke, Anja; Riebold, Diana; Loebermann, Micha; Littmann, Martina; Fiedler, Karin; Klaus, Christine; Süss, Jochen; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis has risen in Europe since 1990 and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) has been documented to be spreading into regions where it was not previously endemic. In Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, a federal state in Northern Germany, TBEV was not detectable in over 16,000 collected ticks between 1992 and 2004. Until 2004, the last human case of TBE in the region was reported in 1985. Following the occurrence of three autochthonous human cases of TBE after 2004, however, we collected ticks from the areas in which the infections were contracted. To increase the chance of detecting TBEV-RNA, some of the ticks were fed on mice. Using nested RT-PCR, we were able to confirm the presence of TBEV in ticks for the first time after 15 years. A phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the sequences we obtained and a TBEV sequence from Mecklenburg-East Pomerania published in 1992 and pointed to the reemergence of a natural focus of TBEV after years of low activity. Our results imply that natural foci of TBEV may either persist at low levels of activity for years or reemerge through the agency of migrating birds. PMID:25110671

  1. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Chris D.; Carolan, Heather E.; Rounds, Megan A.; Honig, Vaclav; Mothes, Benedikt; Haag, Heike; Nolte, Oliver; Luft, Ben J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Ecker, David J.; Schutzer, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever-related spirochete transmitted by Ixodes ticks, has been recently shown to be a human pathogen. To characterize the prevalence of this organism in questing Ixodes ticks, we tested 2,754 ticks for a variety of tickborne pathogens by PCR and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from California, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Indiana in the United States and from Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe from 2008 through 2012. In addition, an isolate from Japan was characterized. We found 3 distinct genotypes, 1 for North America, 1 for Europe, and 1 for Japan. We found B. miyamotoi infection in ticks in 16 of the 26 sites surveyed, with infection prevalence as high as 15.4%. These results show the widespread distribution of the pathogen, indicating an exposure risk to humans in areas where Ixodes ticks reside. PMID:25280366

  2. Rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Marketa; Literak, Ivan; Chevez, Luis; Martins, Thiago F; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-09-01

    Ticks were collected from captive reptiles, wild birds, and incidentally from humans at two locations in Honduras and part of these were tested for the presence of Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction. The following species of ticks were found: Amblyomma dissimile on Iguanidae reptiles, Amblyomma longirostre and Amblyomma nodosum on birds, and Amblyomma mixtum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) on humans. A. dissimile was infected with Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. Both A. longirostre and A. mixtum were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras. New host - Amblyomma tick associations are documented.

  3. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Partio, Esa K.; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans.

  4. Chlamydia-Like Organisms (CLOs) in Finnish Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Hokynar, Kati; Sormunen, Jani J.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Partio, Esa K.; Lilley, Thomas; Timonen, Veera; Panelius, Jaana; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including Borreliae and Flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. Ticks can also carry DNA of Chlamydia-like organisms (CLOs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CLOs in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. DNA from CLOs was detected by pan-Chlamydiales-PCR in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern Finland. The estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was 6% and 2%, respectively. For the first time, we show CLO DNA also in human skin as 68% of all skin biopsies studied contained CLO DNA as determined through pan-Chlamydiales-PCR. Sequence analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene fragment indicated that the sequences detected in ticks were heterogeneous, representing various CLO families; whereas the majority of the sequences from human skin remained “unclassified Chlamydiales” and might represent a new family-level lineage. CLO sequences detected in four skin biopsies were most closely related to “uncultured Chlamydial bacterium clones from Ixodes ricinus ticks” and two of them were very similar to CLO sequences from Finnish ticks. These results suggest that CLO DNA is present in human skin; ticks carry CLOs and could potentially transmit CLOs to humans. PMID:27681922

  5. Prevalence of vector-borne bacterial pathogens in riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) and their ticks.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Kelly M; Foley, Janet E; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B; Larsen, R Scott

    2014-04-01

    From June to October 2010, 48 endangered riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) were trapped at a captive propagation site in central California with the intention of release into re-established habitats. During prerelease examinations, ticks and blood samples were collected for surveillance for Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Bartonella spp. Ticks were identified, and DNA was extracted for PCR analysis. Serology was performed to detect exposure to Rickettsia spp., B. burgdorferi, and A. phagocytophilum. DNA was extracted from blood samples and analyzed for A. phagocytophilum using PCR assays. Rabbit blood samples were also cultured for Bartonella spp. Haemaphysalis leporispalustris ticks were detected on all rabbits except one. A total of 375 ticks were collected, with 48% of the rabbits (23 rabbits) having a burden ranging from 0 to 5 ticks, 15% (seven rabbits) from 6 to 10 ticks, 25% (12 rabbits) from 11 to 15 ticks, and 12% (six rabbits) with >15 ticks. There was no evidence of B. burgdorferi or R. rickettsii in tick or rabbit samples. There was also no evidence of Bartonella spp. in the rabbit samples. Four tick samples and 14 rabbits were weakly PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum, and six rabbits were antibody positive for A. phagocytophilum. These results suggest that there may be little risk of these tick-borne diseases in riparian brush rabbits or to the people in contact with them.

  6. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  7. Physiological responses of beef cattle to Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations.

    PubMed

    Riley, P J; Byford, R L; Hallford, D M; Campbell, J W; Perez-Eguia, E

    1995-04-01

    Nine yearling crossbred beef steers, Bos taurus L., were used to examine physiological responses to Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch, infestation. Steers were stanchioned indoors in individual environmentally controlled rooms. On day 0, each animal received 0, 25, or 75 pairs of ticks. Physiological variables measured daily were feed intake, heart rates, rectal temperatures, and respiration rates. Blood samples were collected from each animal on days 7, 21, and 42 for serum constituent analysis. To monitor metabolic hormone status, intensive blood samples were collected hourly for 6 h on days 21 and 42. Throughout the treatment period, feed intake values were similar among treatments resulting in comparable body weight at the end of the trial. Heart rates and rectal temperatures were unaffected, however, respiration rates of steers infested with 25 pairs of ticks were higher than the other treatment groups. Treatment effects were detected in uric acid concentrations on day 7 in steers infested with 75 pairs of ticks. Treatment effects were detected in total, direct and indirect bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and aspartate amino transferase concentrations. Likewise, creatine kinase concentrations were higher in the tick-infested steers on day 7. Elevated white blood cell counts were observed in tick-infested steers. All other serum components were similar and were within their normal ranges. Serum insulin, prolactin, growth hormone, and cortisol concentrations were unaffected by tick infestations. Gulf coast tick infestation resulted in altered blood composition indicative of infection caused by tick feeding habits. PMID:7722083

  8. Prevalence of five pathogenic agents in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from western France.

    PubMed

    Cotté, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Cote, Martine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2010-10-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus ticks are vectors of many emerging pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, spotted fever group Rickettsia sp., Babesia sp., and very likely Bartonella sp. In this study, we looked for the presence of DNA of these microorganisms in 572 ticks from two forests in the west of France. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification were performed on individual nymphal, male, and female I. ricinus ticks. Amplification from 1 tick among the 572 samples (0.2%) resulted in PCR products with Bartonella-specific primers. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment did not lead to species identification. Two ticks (0.3%) carried A. phagocytophilum-specific DNA. Eight ticks (1.4%) were positive with spotted fever group Rickettsia-specific primers, and all PCR fragments were related to Rickettsia helvetica. Thirty-five ticks (6.1%) were positive with B. burgdorferi sl-specific primers; the sequences were all related to Borrelia garinii or Borrelia afzelii, except one that was related to Borrelia carolinensis, a newly described species never reported in Europe so far. Thirty-five ticks (6.1%) carried Babesia sp. DNA. Female adults were more infected by B. burgdorferi sl than male adults. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl and Babesia sp. was significantly different between the two forests, with a higher prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl in ticks from the forest of Princé and a higher prevalence of Babesia sp. in ticks from the forest of Gâvre. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has detected all five pathogens in questing I. ricinus in the west of France and the first report of B. carolinensis DNA in ticks in Europe.

  9. Bacterial community in Haemaphysalis ticks of domesticated animals from the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation. PMID:27132518

  10. Bacterial community in Haemaphysalis ticks of domesticated animals from the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation.

  11. Vector Competence of the Tick Ixodes ricinus for Transmission of Bartonella birtlesii

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Caroline; Cote, Martine; Le Rhun, Danielle; Lecuelle, Benoit; Levin, Michael L.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites. PMID:21655306

  12. Human tick infestation pattern, tick-bite rate, and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection risk during occupational tick exposure at the Seedorf military training area, northwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Rutenfranz, Martin; Hepke, Jürgen; Rogge, Mareike; Görner, Andreas; Keth, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    The human tick infestation pattern, tick bite rate, and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.-infection risk were investigated during occupational tick exposure of military personnel at the Seedorf military training area, northwestern Germany, from January to December 2009. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. seroconversion rates were monitored from April to September 2009. Continuous occupational health surveillance and education were established. Feeding ticks were mostly removed by medical personnel, transferred to 70% ethanol, identified, and tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. Pre- and post-exposure sera were screened for B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies. A total of 710 feeding ticks was removed, 704 (99.2%) of which were I. ricinus, 5 were I. hexagonus (0.7%), and one was H. concinna (0.1%). Of the I. ricinus specimens, 63.9% were nymphs, 24.7% larvae, 10.9% adult females, and 0.5% adult males. The tick bite rate among occupationally exposed personnel was 42.2% from April to September 2009. Up to 18 simultaneously feeding ticks per person per exposure incident were detected. The mean number of attached ticks was 2.0±2.2 per person per exposure incident. Overall, 86.4% of all feeding ticks were removed from patients within less than 24h after attachment. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA could be detected in 3.5% of larval, 4.4% of nymphal, 13% of adult female, and 33.3% of adult male ticks, indicating a mean prevalence of 5.3%. Among the genospecies detected, B. afzelii accounted for 84%, B. burgdorferi s.s. for 11%, B. garinii for 3%, and B. spielmanii for 3%. The overall seroconversion rate in 566 personnel exposed from April to September was 1.7%, and 0.7% acquired clinical Lyme borreliosis. Experiences reported herein indicate the need to further improve personal protection measures, health education, and medical staff training in order to minimize exposure to ticks and optimize diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.

  13. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in caddisfly adults (Trichoptera) collected from great lakes connecting channels.

    PubMed

    Kovats, Z E; Ciborowski, J J

    1993-09-01

    Pennsylvania-style light traps were used to capture adult Trichoptera from the St. Marys, St. Clair, Detroit and Niagara rivers, Canada. Adequate biomass was acquired in single, 2-h collections to permit triplicate gas chromatographic analyses of 1-4 g samples for 36 organochlorine contaminants. Contaminant levels varied unpredictably but relatively little among samples taken at monthly intervals over the summer. Samples collected simultaneously from the two sides of the Detroit R. reflected local sediment contaminant patterns, suggesting limited dispersal by adults. Genus-specific differences in contaminant concentrations within the Hydropsychidae and Leptoceridae probably reflect differences in larval habitats and manner of feeding. Contaminant concentrations and relative composition paralleled published reports of contaminants in sediments from collection locations. St. Marys R. caddisflies contained contaminant levels indistinguishable from samples collected at reference sites. St. Clair R. samples contained high levels of compounds associated with petrochemical industries located in the river's upstream reaches. High levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most other contaminants in Detroit R. samples reflected industrial loadings near Detroit, Michigan. Niagara R. samples contained elevated concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Cluster analysis grouped samples into five clusters each with unique contaminant composition. These also corresponded to geographic origin: St. Marys, St. Clair, Detroit and upper and lower Niagara rivers. The relative ease of collection and consistent results obtained render adult Trichoptera potentially valuable candidates for surveys of aquatic contamination over a broad range of geographical and ecological conditions.

  14. Electronic Data Collection and Management System for Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pujari, Sameer J; Palipudi, Krishna M; Morton, Jeremy; Levinsohn, Jay; Litavecz, Steve; Green, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Portable handheld computers and electronic data management systems have been used for national surveys in many high-income countries, however their use in developing countries has been challenging due to varying geographical, economic, climatic, political and cultural environments. In order to monitor and measure global adult tobacco use, the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative household survey of adults, 15 years of age or older, using a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and data collection and management procedures. The Survey has been conducted in 14 low- and middle-income countries, using an electronic data collection and management system. This paper describes implementation of the electronic data collection system and associated findings. Methods: The Survey was based on a comprehensive data management protocol, to enable standardized, globally comparable high quality data collection and management. It included adaptation to specific country needs, selection of appropriate handheld hardware devices, use of open source software, and building country capacity and provide technical support. Results: In its first phase, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey was successfully conducted between 2008 and 2010, using an electronic data collection and management system for interviews in 302,800 households in 14 countries. More than 2,644 handheld computers were fielded and over 2,634 fieldworkers, supervisors and monitors were trained to use them. Questionnaires were developed and programmed in 38 languages and scripts. The global hardware failure rate was < 1% and data loss was almost 0%. Conclusion: Electronic data collection and management systems can be used effectively for conducting nationally representative surveys, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, irrespective of geographical, climatic, political and cultural

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. The etiological agent Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a member of the virus genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. TBEV is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of Europe annually. Related viruses within the same group, Louping ill virus (LIV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus (POWV), also cause human encephalitis but rarely on an epidemic scale. Three other viruses within the same group, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma virus (ALKV), are closely related to the TBEV complex viruses and tend to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers rather than encephalitis. This review describes the clinical manifestations associated with TBEV infections, the main molecular-biological properties of these viruses, and the different factors that define the incidence and severity of disease. The role of ticks and their local hosts in the emergence of new virus variants with different pathogenic characteristics is also discussed. This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains. PMID:12615309

  16. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. The etiological agent Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a member of the virus genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. TBEV is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of Europe annually. Related viruses within the same group, Louping ill virus (LIV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus (POWV), also cause human encephalitis but rarely on an epidemic scale. Three other viruses within the same group, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma virus (ALKV), are closely related to the TBEV complex viruses and tend to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers rather than encephalitis. This review describes the clinical manifestations associated with TBEV infections, the main molecular-biological properties of these viruses, and the different factors that define the incidence and severity of disease. The role of ticks and their local hosts in the emergence of new virus variants with different pathogenic characteristics is also discussed. This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains.

  17. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela

    2015-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976

  18. Adverse moisture events predict seasonal abundance of Lyme disease vector ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north temperate regions worldwide, affecting an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States alone. The incidence of LB is correlated with human exposure to its vector, the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). To date, attempts to model tick encounter risk based on environmental parameters have been equivocal. Previous studies have not considered (1) the differences between relative humidity (RH) in leaf litter and at weather stations, (2) the RH threshold that affects nymphal blacklegged tick survival, and (3) the time required below the threshold to induce mortality. We clarify the association between environmental moisture and tick survival by presenting a significant relationship between the total number of tick adverse moisture events (TAMEs - calculated as microclimatic periods below a RH threshold) and tick abundance each year. Methods We used a 14-year continuous statewide tick surveillance database and corresponding weather data from Rhode Island (RI), USA, to assess the effects of TAMEs on nymphal populations of I. scapularis. These TAMEs were defined as extended periods of time (>8 h below 82% RH in leaf litter). We fit a sigmoid curve comparing weather station data to those collected by loggers placed in tick habitats to estimate RH experienced by nymphal ticks, and compiled the number of historical TAMEs during the 14-year record. Results The total number of TAMEs in June of each year was negatively related to total seasonal nymphal tick densities, suggesting that sub-threshold humidity episodes >8 h in duration naturally lowered nymphal blacklegged tick abundance. Furthermore, TAMEs were positively related to the ratio of tick abundance early in the season when compared to late season, suggesting that lower than average tick abundance for a given year resulted from tick mortality and not from other factors. Conclusions Our results clarify the mechanism

  19. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M; Mitchell, Robert D; Bissinger, Brooke W; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  20. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiwei; Khalil, Sayed M.; Mitchell, Robert D.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase) were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs) that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). However, when the tick MTs were compared to

  1. Molecular detection of emerging tick-borne pathogens in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-02-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission globally due to their capability to serve as vectors for human and animal pathogens. The Republic of Serbia is an endemic area for a large number of tick-borne diseases. However, current knowledge on these diseases in Serbia is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of new emerging tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 187 ticks, including 124 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 45 Ixodes ricinus and 18 Dermacentor reticulatus were collected from dogs. In addition, 26 questing I. ricinus ticks were collected from the vegetation, using the flagging method, from 4 different localities in Vojvodina, Serbia. DNA was extracted from each tick individually and samples were tested by either conventional or real-time PCR assays for the presence of Rickettsia spp.-DNA (gltA and ompA gene fragments), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-DNA (16S rRNA gene fragment) and Hepatozoon spp./Babesia spp.-DNA (18S rRNA gene fragment). In addition, all I. ricinus DNA samples were tested for Bartonella spp.-DNA (ITS locus) by real-time PCR. In this study, the presence of novel emerging tick-borne pathogens including Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia massiliae, Babesia venatorum, Babesia microti, Hepatozoon canis and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was identified for the first time in Serbia. Our findings also confirmed the presence of Rickettsia monacensis, Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks from Serbia. The findings of the current study highlight the great diversity of tick-borne pathogens of human and animal importance in Serbia. Physicians, public health workers and veterinarians should increase alertness to the presence of these tick-borne pathogens in this country. PMID:26565929

  2. Potential effects of mixed infections in ticks on transmission dynamics of pathogens: comparative analysis of published records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Ticks are often infected with more than one pathogen, and several field surveys have documented nonrandom levels of coinfection. Levels of coinfection by pathogens in four tick species were analyzed using published infection data. Coinfection patterns of pathogens in field-collected ticks include numerous cases of higher or lower levels of coinfection than would be expected due to chance alone, but the vast majority of these cases can be explained on the basis of vertebrate host associations of the pathogens, without invoking interactions between pathogens within ticks. Nevertheless, some studies have demonstrated antagonistic interactions, and some have suggested potential mutualisms, between pathogens in ticks. Negative or positive interactions between pathogens within ticks can affect pathogen prevalence, and thus transmission patterns. Probabilistic projections suggest that the effect on transmission depends on initial conditions. When the number of tick bites is relatively low (e.g., for ticks biting humans) changes in prevalence in ticks are predicted to have a commensurate effects on pathogen transmission. In contrast, when the number of tick bites is high (e.g., for wild animal hosts) changes in pathogen prevalence in ticks have relatively little effect on levels of transmission to reservoir hosts, and thus on natural transmission cycles.

  3. An unexpected advantage of insectivorism: insect moulting hormones ingested by song birds affect their ticks.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Csörgő, Tibor; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Csorba, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are important hormones that regulate moulting in arthropods. Three-host ixodid ticks normally moult to the next stage after finishing their blood meal, in the off-host environment. Presumably, three-host ticks that feed on the blood of insectivorous vertebrate hosts can be exposed to high levels of exogenous ecdysteroids causing them to initiate apolysis (the first step of moulting) on the vertebrate host. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ticks undergo apolysis on insectivorous song birds, and if this phenomenon is associated with the seasonal variation in the availability of moths and with the presence of naturally acquired ecdysteroids in avian blood. During a triannual survey, 3330 hard tick larvae and nymphs were collected from 1164 insectivorous song birds of 46 species. A noteworthy proportion of ticks, 20.5%, showed apolysis. The occurrence of apolytic ticks on birds was correlated with the known seasonality of lepidopteran caterpillars. In addition, 18 blood samples of tick-infested birds were analysed with liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Eight samples contained ecdysteroids or their derivatives, frequently in high concentrations, and the presence of these was associated with tick apolysis. In conclusion, naturally acquired ecdysteroids may reach high levels in the blood of insectivorous passerine birds, and will affect ticks (feeding on such blood) by shortening their parasitism. PMID:26996354

  4. An unexpected advantage of insectivorism: insect moulting hormones ingested by song birds affect their ticks

    PubMed Central

    Hornok, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Csörgő, Tibor; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Csorba, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are important hormones that regulate moulting in arthropods. Three-host ixodid ticks normally moult to the next stage after finishing their blood meal, in the off-host environment. Presumably, three-host ticks that feed on the blood of insectivorous vertebrate hosts can be exposed to high levels of exogenous ecdysteroids causing them to initiate apolysis (the first step of moulting) on the vertebrate host. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ticks undergo apolysis on insectivorous song birds, and if this phenomenon is associated with the seasonal variation in the availability of moths and with the presence of naturally acquired ecdysteroids in avian blood. During a triannual survey, 3330 hard tick larvae and nymphs were collected from 1164 insectivorous song birds of 46 species. A noteworthy proportion of ticks, 20.5%, showed apolysis. The occurrence of apolytic ticks on birds was correlated with the known seasonality of lepidopteran caterpillars. In addition, 18 blood samples of tick-infested birds were analysed with liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry. Eight samples contained ecdysteroids or their derivatives, frequently in high concentrations, and the presence of these was associated with tick apolysis. In conclusion, naturally acquired ecdysteroids may reach high levels in the blood of insectivorous passerine birds, and will affect ticks (feeding on such blood) by shortening their parasitism. PMID:26996354

  5. Vector biodiversity did not associate with tick-borne pathogen prevalence in small mammal communities in northern and central California.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Piovia-Scott, Jonah

    2014-04-01

    Vector and host abundance affect infection transmission rates, prevalence, and persistence in communities. Biological diversity in hosts and vectors may provide "rescue" hosts which buffer against pathogen extinction and "dilution" hosts which reduce the force of infection in communities. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted zoonotic pathogen that circulates in small mammal and tick communities characterized by varying levels of biological diversity. We examined the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Ixodes spp. ticks in 11 communities in northern and central California. A total of 1020 ticks of 8 species was evaluated. Five percent of ticks (5 species) were PCR-positive, with the highest prevalence (6-7%) in I. pacificus and I. ochotonae. In most species, adults had a higher prevalence than nymphs or larvae. PCR prevalence varied between 0% and 40% across sites; the infection probability in ticks increased with infestation load and prevalence in small mammals, but not tick species richness, diversity, evenness, or small mammal species richness. No particular tick species was likely to "rescue" infection in the community; rather the risk of A. phagocytophilum infection is related to exposure to particular tick species and life stages, and overall tick abundance.

  6. Eco-epidemiological factors contributing to the low risk of human exposure to ixodid tick-borne borreliae in southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Kleinjan, Joyce E; Maxwell, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the eco-epidemiology of Lyme disease in southern California, a region where the incidence is much lower than it is in northern California. Here, we sought to discover the previously unknown microhabitats of nymphs of the primary vector, the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus), in 3 moderately to heavily-utilized state parks in the Santa Monica Mountains in Los Angeles County; to elucidate the seasonal distribution and abundance of adults of I. pacificus and another human-biter, the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis); and to determine what Lyme-disease or relapsing-fever group borreliae are present in questing nymphs or adult ticks. I. pacificus nymphs were collected infrequently at various times of day in 2 chaparral or 7 woodland litter areas by dragging (combined mean=0.4 nymphs per hour). The western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was a choice sentinel animal for detecting the presence of I. pacificus nymphs (and larvae) in diverse biotopes even when dragging litter in them was fruitless. The abundance and seasonality of I. pacificus and D. occidentalis adults resembled what had been documented previously for these ticks in northern California. Overall, zero of 27 free-living and 118 lizard-infesting I. pacificus nymphs, 7 (0.29%) of 2392 I. pacificus adults and 2 (0.22%) of 896 D. occidentalis adults were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb sl), but none of them harbored B. miyamotoi, a relapsing-fever group spirochete implicated recently as a zoonotic pathogen in Russia. Borrelia americana and the human pathogen B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were each detected in one (0.04%), and uncharacterized Bb sl in 5 adult I. pacificus (0.21%) that clustered with B. americana. Both PCR-positive D. occidentalis adults contained B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. We conclude that the acarologic risk of being bitten by a B. burgdorferi sensu lato-infected ixodid tick in the habitats studied is slight, which offers a

  7. Eco-epidemiological factors contributing to the low risk of human exposure to ixodid tick-borne borreliae in southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Kleinjan, Joyce E; Maxwell, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the eco-epidemiology of Lyme disease in southern California, a region where the incidence is much lower than it is in northern California. Here, we sought to discover the previously unknown microhabitats of nymphs of the primary vector, the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus), in 3 moderately to heavily-utilized state parks in the Santa Monica Mountains in Los Angeles County; to elucidate the seasonal distribution and abundance of adults of I. pacificus and another human-biter, the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis); and to determine what Lyme-disease or relapsing-fever group borreliae are present in questing nymphs or adult ticks. I. pacificus nymphs were collected infrequently at various times of day in 2 chaparral or 7 woodland litter areas by dragging (combined mean=0.4 nymphs per hour). The western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was a choice sentinel animal for detecting the presence of I. pacificus nymphs (and larvae) in diverse biotopes even when dragging litter in them was fruitless. The abundance and seasonality of I. pacificus and D. occidentalis adults resembled what had been documented previously for these ticks in northern California. Overall, zero of 27 free-living and 118 lizard-infesting I. pacificus nymphs, 7 (0.29%) of 2392 I. pacificus adults and 2 (0.22%) of 896 D. occidentalis adults were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb sl), but none of them harbored B. miyamotoi, a relapsing-fever group spirochete implicated recently as a zoonotic pathogen in Russia. Borrelia americana and the human pathogen B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were each detected in one (0.04%), and uncharacterized Bb sl in 5 adult I. pacificus (0.21%) that clustered with B. americana. Both PCR-positive D. occidentalis adults contained B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. We conclude that the acarologic risk of being bitten by a B. burgdorferi sensu lato-infected ixodid tick in the habitats studied is slight, which offers a

  8. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs. PMID:26336305

  9. Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Norte, A C; da Silva, L P; Tenreiro, P J Q; Felgueiras, M S; Araújo, P M; Lopes, P B; Matos, C; Rosa, A; Ferreira, P J S G; Encarnação, P; Rocha, A; Escudero, R; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2015-09-01

    Wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. The aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in Portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using PCR techniques. Seven tick species were collected from birds including Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma spp., Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes ventalloi. We found that I. frontalis and Hyalomma spp. were the most common ticks infesting birds of several species and that they were widespread in Portugal. Turdus merula was the bird species that presented the highest diversity of infesting ticks and had one of the highest infestation intensities. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 7.3% (37/505) of Ixodidae ticks derived from birds. The most common genospecies was Borrelia turdi (6.9%), detected in ticks collected from Parus major, T. merula and Turdus philomelos, but Borrelia valaisiana (0.2%) and one Borrelia sp. (0.2%) similar to Borrelia bissettii (96% of similarity of the flaB gene in Blastn) were also detected. This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks.

  10. Management of tick bites and lyme disease during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme N; Gemmill, Ian; Moore, Kieran M

    2012-11-01

    Lyme disease results from the bite of a black-legged tick, populations of which have now become established in parts of Nova Scotia, southeastern Quebec, southern Ontario from the Thousand Islands through the geographic regions on the north shore of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, southeastern Manitoba, and British Columbia's Lower Mainland, Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island. It takes more than 24 hours of attachment to transfer the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to the bitten animal or human. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is primarily clinical, with early Lyme disease characterized by a skin lesion (erythema migrans, a bull's-eye rash), which expands out from the site of the tick bite, and is often accompanied by influenza-like symptoms, arthralgia, myalgia, and fever. These signs and symptoms can present anywhere from three to 30 days after the tick bite. The management of pregnant women with a tick bite or suspected Lyme disease should be similar to that of non-pregnant adults, except that doxycyline, the first line antibiotic of choice, should not be used in pregnant women because of risk of permanent tooth discolouration and possible impact on bone formation in the fetus. An algorithm for the management of tick bites in pregnancy is presented. Clinical, serological, and epidemiological studies have all failed to demonstrate a causal association between infection with B. burgdorferi and any adverse pregnancy outcomes regardless of whether maternal exposure occurs before conception or during pregnancy itself.

  11. Transport of ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  12. Detecting resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, with a propoxur-based biochemical test.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G D; Green, P; Stuttgen, M; Barker, S C

    1999-11-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of resistance to insecticides in arthropods is needed. In the cattle tick. Boophilus microplus, resistance to a variety of acaricides is widespread. The most commonly used assay for resistance, the larval packet test, takes at least two, but generally six weeks for a one-host tick like B. microplus to complete and may take up to three months to complete for three-host ticks. Here we describe a test for resistance to organophosphate acaricides that can be used on larvae and adult ticks which takes less than 24 hours. The test measures the difference in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in homogenates of ticks in the presence and absence of propoxur, a carbamate acaricide. We found clear discrimination of organophosphate-susceptible and organophosphate-resistant adults with 100 microM propoxur. AChE from susceptible ticks had almost no activity at this concentration of propoxur whereas AChE from resistant ticks had 67% of its potential activity. AChE from heterozygote ticks could also be distinguished from AChE from homozygous-susceptible and homozygous-resistant ticks. This is the first biochemical test for resistance to an acaricide. Rapid, sensitive tests like ours will allow resistance to organophosphates to be detected soon after it develops in the field, thus, the spread of resistance might be slowed and the useful life of acaricides extended.

  13. Feeding aggregation of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Ixodidae): benefits and costs in the contest with host responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Hails, R S; Cui, W W; Nuttall, P A

    2001-11-01

    Gregariousness can be advantageous in interspecific competition while intraspecific competition may favour solitude. We examined feeding behaviour of the ixodid tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, in the context of interspecific (tick-host) and intraspecific (tick-tick) competition. Such competition is mediated through host rejection responses to tick infestation to which ticks respond by secreting immunodulatory saliva. We observed that group feeding adults increased their blood-feeding rate, reducing the time to mating and repletion, compared with individual feeding of paired adults. The benefits of feeding aggregation indicate direct reciprocity between ticks, most likely resulting from the shared activities of their bioactive saliva. However, fast-feeding ticks appeared to impair blood-feeding success of slow-feeding females during group feeding. This may be explained by the faster feeders exacerbating host responses on detachment that are then directed against the slower feeders. As female fecundity is generally proportional to the size of the bloodmeal, there will be a selection pressure to feed gregariously. Greater understanding of the benefits and costs of feeding aggregation may help to improve tick control strategies.

  14. Theileria sp. OT3 and other tick-borne pathogens in sheep and ticks in Italy: molecular characterization and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, A; Marangi, M; Papini, R; Paoletti, B; Wijnveld, M; Jongejan, F

    2015-02-01

    PCR Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization and sequencing were used to determine the dynamics of infection with tick-borne pathogens in one hundred apparently healthy sheep in Italy. Blood samples were tested once prior to the onset of the grazing season (June 2010) and once after the end of the grazing season (August 2010). Ticks collected from sheep and from the vegetation were also tested by PCR/RLB. Before grazing, 56% of the sheep harbored several tick-borne pathogens: Anaplasma ovis was the most prevalent (41%), followed by A. ovis co-infected with Theileria sp. OT3 (14%). After grazing, 87% of sheep were positive for A. ovis alone (41%), co-infected with Theileria sp. OT3 (8%) or co-infected with Babesia motasi (5%). Other sheep were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum alone (20%), co-infected with B. motasi (7%) or with Theileria sp. OT3 (5%) (p<0.001). After grazing, sheep were significantly more infected with tick-borne pathogens than before grazing. Ticks collected were all Haemaphysalis punctata (n-89) and 36% were positive for A. ovis, Ehrlichia ovina and A. ovis combined with A. phagocytophilum. Phylogenetic analysis including isolates from countries in the Mediterranean Basin show circulation of the same variants of Theileria sp. OT3, whereas two different geographical origins for the isolates of A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum were identified. This is the first report from Italy of Theileria sp. OT3 in sheep, whereas the detection of Ehrlichia ovina in ticks is worth noting, and the presence of A. phagocytophilum in sheep and in ticks poses a potential public health risk. PMID:25448422

  15. Tick fauna of Malaysian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) in Bangi, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Konto, M.; Fufa, G. I.; Zakaria, A.; Tukur, S. M.; Watanabe, M.; Ola-Fadunsin, S. D.; Khan, M. S.; Shettima, Y. M.; Babjee, S. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. Results: 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63%) for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. Conclusion: This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick. PMID:27047012

  16. Comparative sialomics between hard and soft ticks: Implications for the evolution of blood-feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Ben J.; Andersen, John F.; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Schwan, Tom G.; Pham, Van M.; Garfield, Mark K.; Hammer, Carl H.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Ticks evolved various mechanisms to modulate their host’s hemostatic and immune defenses. Differences in the anti-hemostatic repertoires suggest that hard and soft ticks evolved anti-hemostatic mechanisms independently, but raise questions on the conservation of salivary gland proteins in the ancestral tick lineage. To address this issue the sialome (salivary gland secretory proteome) from the soft tick, Argas monolakensis was determined by proteomic analysis and cDNA library construction of salivary glands from fed and unfed adult female ticks. The sialome is composed of ~130 secretory proteins, of which the most abundant protein folds are the lipocalin, BTSP, BPTI and metalloprotease families which also comprise the most abundant proteins found in the salivary glands. Comparative analysis indicates that the major protein families are conserved in hard and soft ticks. Phylogenetic analysis shows, however, that most gene duplications are lineage specific, indicating that the protein families analyzed possibly evolved most of their functions after divergence of the two major tick families. In conclusion, the ancestral tick may have possessed a simple (few members for each family), but diverse (many different protein families) salivary gland protein domain repertoire. PMID:18070664

  17. Observation of Live Ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) by Scanning Electron Microscopy under High Vacuum Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yuka; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kuwabata, Susumu; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes (SEM), which image sample surfaces by scanning with an electron beam, are widely used for steric observations of resting samples in basic and applied biology. Various conventional methods exist for SEM sample preparation. However, conventional SEM is not a good tool to observe living organisms because of the associated exposure to high vacuum pressure and electron beam radiation. Here we attempted SEM observations of live ticks. During 1.5×10−3 Pa vacuum pressure and electron beam irradiation with accelerated voltages (2–5 kV), many ticks remained alive and moved their legs. After 30-min observation, we removed the ticks from the SEM stage; they could walk actively under atmospheric pressure. When we tested 20 ticks (8 female adults and 12 nymphs), they survived for two days after SEM observation. These results indicate the resistance of ticks against SEM observation. Our second survival test showed that the electron beam, not vacuum conditions, results in tick death. Moreover, we describe the reaction of their legs to electron beam exposure. These findings open the new possibility of SEM observation of living organisms and showed the resistance of living ticks to vacuum condition in SEM. These data also indicate, for the first time, the usefulness of tick as a model system for biology under extreme condition. PMID:22431980

  18. Rickettsial infections in ticks from wild birds in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literak, Ivan; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-03-01

    Ticks were collected from wild birds at 3 locations in Paraguay during the South American winter in August and September 2012. In total, 480 birds belonging to 106 species were examined. Overall, 31 (6.5%) birds representing 21 species were found parasitized by ticks which were identified as Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (2 larvae, 20 nymphs), Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) (17 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma parvum Aragão (7 nymphs), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) (1 nymph), Amblyomma ovale Koch (1 nymph), Amblyomma tigrinum Koch (1 larva), and Amblyomma spp. (4 larvae). Ticks collected accidentally on humans at the study locations during field work included 1 nymph of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann and 54 nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius). Most ticks were individually tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting rickettsial genes gltA and ompA and by amplicon sequencing. Two (12%) out of 17 A. longirostre larvae were found infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 (33%) out of 6 A. parvum nymphs were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia andeanae'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in Paraguayan ticks.

  19. Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Wijnveld, Michiel; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. Investigation of D. marginatus nymphs revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia massiliae and Borrelia afzelii for the first time in this tick species. These findings broaden the range of those tick-borne agents, which are typically transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but may also have Dermacentor spp. as potential or alternative vectors. Ehrlichiacanis was also newly detected in Ixodes canisuga larvae from red foxes. In absence of transovarial transmission in ticks this implies that Eurasian red foxes may play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23439290

  20. Molecular evidence of Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from South Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Wijnveld, Michiel; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    To monitor the emergence of thermophilic, Mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern Hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. Golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. Dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both D. reticulatus and D. marginatus nymphs, unlike previously reported. Subadults of three ixodid species were selected for reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis to screen their vector potential for 40 pathogens/groups. Results were negative for Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria spp. Investigation of D. marginatus nymphs revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia massiliae and Borrelia afzelii for the first time in this tick species. These findings broaden the range of those tick-borne agents, which are typically transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, but may also have Dermacentor spp. as potential or alternative vectors. Ehrlichiacanis was also newly detected in Ixodes canisuga larvae from red foxes. In absence of transovarial transmission in ticks this implies that Eurasian red foxes may play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of canine ehrlichiosis.

  1. Tick species (Acari: Ixodida) in Antalya City, Turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2015-07-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are an important group of ectoparasites of vertebrates. Most species are known vectors of diseases including Lyme disease, Q fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. A 3-year research was conducted in Antalya, Turkey, to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. The study was carried out in five districts (Aksu, Dosemealtı, Kepez, Konyaaltı, and Muratpasa) of Antalya Metropolitan Municipality area in Turkey, between May 2010 and May 2013, where 1393 tick specimens were collected from domestic and wild animals (cattle, goats, sheep, hedgehogs, tortoises, dogs, cats, chickens) and from the environment. The collected ticks were preserved in 70 % alcohol and then were identified. Five genus and eight hard and soft tick species were identified, including Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. sanguineus, R. turanicus, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum, Haemaphysalis parva, and Dermacentor niveus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, and H. aegyptium were the most common tick species in Antalya city. Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were the most abundant tick species infesting dogs in the city. The hosts of H. aegyptium are primarily tortoises in Antalya. The results of this research will contribute to establishing appropriate measures to control tick infestations on animals and humans and their environment in the city of Antalya. PMID:25869959

  2. Pilot study assessing the effectiveness of factory-treated, long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites during occupational tick exposure in highly infested military training areas, Germany.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Rutenfranz, Martin; Keth, Alexander; Hepke, Jürgen; Rogge, Mareike; Görner, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The protective effectiveness of factory-based permethrin-impregnated polymer-coated battle dress uniforms (PTBDUs) against tick bites was evaluated at four military training areas in southwestern and central Germany where tick bite incidence is known to be high. Data were analyzed by comparing tick bite incidence using non-permethrin-treated BDUs (NTBDUs) during 2009 versus PTBDUs during 2010 and 2011, the first two years after their formal introduction for in-country use in the German Bundeswehr. During 2009, 262 individual tick bites were reported at the four training sites, resulting in a tick bite incidence of 8.8 % per exposed person when wearing NTBDUs only. In 2010 and 2011, one tick bite case occurred under field conditions each year that PTBDUs were worn, corresponding to a protective effectiveness of 99.6 and 98.6 %. These data imply an annual tick bite incidence of 0.035 and 0.078 % per exposed person, respectively. Between 2010 and 2011, a 0.8 % decline in the protective effectiveness of PTBDUs was observed. Five tick bite incidents occurred while wearing non-impregnated parkas over correctly worn PTBDUs. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected by standard tick drags from 2009 to 2011, with high mean annual densities ranging from 28.9 to 106.5 ticks per 100 m(2), while single drags revealed tick densities between zero and 381 ticks per 100 m(2). Overall, 4596 I. ricinus ticks (54 ♂, 82 ♀, 1776 nymphs, and 2684 larvae) were collected, of which 128 (2.8 %; mean annual range, 0-10.1 %) were Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. positive. The Borrelia genospecies distribution was as follows: 112 (87.5 %) Borrelia afzelii, 10 (7.8 %) B. burgdorferi s.s., and 6 (4.7 %) Borrelia garinii. Neither the tick density means from 2009 to 2011 nor associated B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalences differed significantly among the military locations investigated. The documented tick bite reductions clearly demonstrate the powerful protective effectiveness of properly worn PTBDUs against

  3. Detection and quantification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and rural environment, northern Poland, by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, Joanna; Cieniuch, Stella; Lass, Anna; Biernat, Beata; Racewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. are emerging tick-borne pathogens which can threaten human health. A duplex real-time PCR and qPCRs with primers and probes targeting 97 and 116 bp fragments of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for qualitative and quantitative detection of both pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Altogether 1875 ticks (1084 adults and 791 nymphs) were collected from rural and urban habitats in northern Poland. Of them, at least 0.9% were found to be infected with A. phagocytophilum while 2.5% with Babesia spp. A comparison of the infection rates by the tick stage, the type of area, the collection site, habitats of different tick density and by the month of collection was done. The prevalence of pathogens was significantly lower in nymphs than in adult ticks (p = 0.02) and in rural areas than in urban areas (p = 0.007). Four different 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum were determine, however none of them showed 100% identity with compared sequences isolated from human patients. The dominant Babesia species was B. venatorum. Results of qPCRs with circular and linearized forms of plasmids used as the standards showed significant difference in the pathogen loads (p = 0.001). The copy numbers of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. estimated from the linear plasmids were 28.7 and 5.1 times lower, respectively, when compared with their circular forms, and were accepted as more reliable. The average number of copies of 16S rRNA gene of A. phagocytophilum in the positive I. ricinus samples were 3.39 × 10(5) ± 6.09 × 10(5). The mean copy number of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. was ~2.55 × 10(5) ± 1.04 × 10(6). We confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in I. ricinus in both rural and urban environments. The determined low infection rates suggests, however, that the risk for local population and tourists to acquire infection is also low. Moreover, we confirmed recent findings that serious

  4. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, N; Berggoetz, M; Rühle, C; Pretorius, A M; Gern, L

    2009-04-01

    Eight ixodid tick species, associated with 59 free-ranging mammals belonging to 10 species, were collected at five different localities in the Free State Province, South Africa. Four of the study areas were nature reserves (Willem Pretorius, Sandveld, Tussen-die-Riviere, and Soetdoring), and one site was a private farm located in Senekal district. The collection was performed from March 2006 until June 2006. Ticks (n=569) and tissues from animals (n=52) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, reverse line blot, and sequencing for various tick-borne pathogens belonging to the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the known vector of Babesia bovis responsible for Asiatic redwater in South Africa, was found for the first time in the Free State Province. Rhipicephalus warburtoni [corrected] also was collected in areas in the Free State where it has not been previously described. Anaplasma marginale was detected for the first time in a gemsbok (Oryx gazella gazella). Gene sequences recovered in this study were 98-100% homologous with GenBank sequences for Anaplasma bovis, Theileria separata, and Theileria sp. Malelane sable antelope. PMID:19395753

  5. Synanthropic birds influence the distribution of Borrelia species: analysis of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sverakova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich; Hromadko, Miloslav

    2011-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 835 birds and from vegetation in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Host-seeking ticks (n = 427) were infected predominantly by Borrelia afzelii (25%). Ticks (n = 1,012) from songbirds (Passeriformes) were infected commonly by Borrelia garinii (12.1%) and Borrelia valaisiana (13.4%). Juveniles of synanthropic birds, Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), were major reservoir hosts of B. garinii. PMID:21148704

  6. Sialomes and Mialomes: A Systems-Biology View of Tick Tissues and Tick-Host Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Kotál, Jan; Karim, Shahid; Kopacek, Petr; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Pedra, Joao H F; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2016-03-01

    Tick saliva facilitates tick feeding and infection of the host. Gene expression analysis of tick salivary glands and other tissues involved in host-pathogen interactions has revealed a wide range of bioactive tick proteins. Transcriptomic analysis has been a milestone in the field and has recently been enhanced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, the application of quantitative proteomics to ticks with unknown genomes has provided deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tick hematophagy, pathogen transmission, and tick-host-pathogen interactions. We review current knowledge on the transcriptomics and proteomics of tick tissues from a systems-biology perspective and discuss future challenges in the field.

  7. Detection of “Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina”and Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Tomassone, L.; Nuñez, P.; Ceballos, L. A.; Gürtler, R. E.; Kitron, U.; Farber, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from vegetation and from humans, wild and domestic mammals in a rural area in the semi-arid Argentine Chaco in late spring 2006 to evaluate their potential role as vectors of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsiae. A total of 233 adult ticks, identified as Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma pseudoconcolor, was examined for Rickettsia spp. We identified an SFG rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, “Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Argentina”, in A. parvum and A. pseudoconcolor by PCR assays targeting gltA, ompA, ompB and 17-kDa outer membrane antigen rickettsial genes. Rickettsia bellii was detected in a host-seeking male of A. tigrinum. Amblyomma parvum is widespread in the study area and is a potential threat to human health. PMID:20186466

  8. Tick-borne relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Mark S; Schwan, Tom G; Anderson, Donald E; Borchardt, Stephanie M

    2008-09-01

    Each year, many residents of and visitors to endemic regions of the western United States are exposed to the tick vectors of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF), Ornithodoros hermsi, Ornithodoros turicata, or Ornithodoros parkeri. This disease is remarkable because the human host is unaware of the tick bite, usually becomes very ill, may experience an exacerbation of symptoms rather than improvement shortly after beginning appropriate treatment, and, despite often high numbers of the etiologic organism in the blood, rarely dies as a result of the illness. Although relapsing fever is acquired in many parts of the world, this article focuses primarily on knowledge about TBRF in North America. PMID:18755384

  9. Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle.

    PubMed

    Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W

    1981-02-01

    Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control. PMID:7259646

  10. Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle.

    PubMed

    Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W

    1981-02-01

    Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control.

  11. Description of the immature stages and redescription of the female of Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 (Acari: Ixodidae), an endemic tick species of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Onofrio, Valeria C; Faccini, João L H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Arruda-Santos, Ana D; Giacomin, Flávia G

    2007-11-01

    Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 is a tick endemic to Brazil, where nine species of Ixodes Latreille, 1796 are currently known to occur. Larvae, nymphs and females of I. schulzei were obtained from a laboratory colony originating from an engorged female collected on a free-living water rat Nectomys squamipes from the Santa Branca municipality, São Paulo State. Only female ticks were obtained from engorged nymphs. Unfed immature and female adult specimens were measured and the descriptions were based on optical and scanning electron microscopy, as were drawings of some features of the larva. Both immature stages present the very long palpi and basis capituli, and the female has large, contiguous porose areas. However, the basis capituli is triangular, with a slight central elevation in the larva and nymph, whereas in the female this area is depressed. The I. schulzei types deposited at the FIOCRUZ (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz) were also examined, as was other material from collections, such as the IBSP (Coleção Acarológica do Instituto Butantan), CNC-FMVZ/USP (Coleção Nacional de Carrapatos da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da USP) and USNTC (United States National Tick Collection). In addition, the relationship between I. schulzei and other immature neotropical species of Ixodes is discussed.

  12. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    PubMed

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. PMID:27232135

  13. Tularaemia transmitted by ticks (Dermacentor andersoni) in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J R; McLaughlin, B G; Nitiuthai, S

    1983-01-01

    Common wood ticks (Dermacentor andersoni) collected from Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park, Saskatchewan in the spring of 1982 transmitted a lethal tularaemia infection to four of six rabbits. Francisella tularensis organisms were isolated from tissues taken from the dead rabbits and identified from subcultures using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. One human associated with the animals developed symptoms of tularaemia and, after successful therapy, had a significant increase in titre of specific antibodies to F. tularensis. This is the first time tick-transmitted tularaemia has been reported in Saskatchewan in more than 25 years. PMID:6667429

  14. Evidence of the role of tick subolesin in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, José; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Naranjo, Victoria; Ayoubi, Patricia; Nijhof, Ard M; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Galindo, Ruth C; Blouin, Edmour F; Gortazar, Christian; Jongejan, Frans; Kocan, Katherine M

    2008-01-01

    Background Subolesin is an evolutionary conserved protein that was discovered recently in Ixodes scapularis as a tick protective antigen and has a role in tick blood digestion, reproduction and development. In other organisms, subolesin orthologs may be involved in the control of developmental processes. Because of the profound effect of subolesin knockdown in ticks and other organisms, we hypothesized that subolesin plays a role in gene expression, and therefore affects multiple cellular processes. The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the role of subolesin in gene expression. Results Two subolesin-interacting proteins were identified and characterized by yeast two-hybrid screen, co-affinity purification and RNA interference (RNAi). The effect of subolesin knockdown on the tick gene expression pattern was characterized by microarray analysis and demonstrated that subolesin RNAi affects the expression of genes involved in multiple cellular pathways. The analysis of subolesin and interacting protein sequences identified regulatory motifs and predicted the presence of conserved protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites. Conclusion Collectively, these results provide evidence that subolesin plays a role in gene expression in ticks. PMID:18673577

  15. Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Ticks in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Socolovschi, Cristina; Diatta, Georges; Bassene, Hubert; Molez, Jean-François; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Epidemiologically, animals are considered reservoirs and humans incidental hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated Q fever in rural Senegal. Human samples (e.g., sera, saliva, breast milk, feces) were screened in the generally healthy population of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region. Ticks were collected in four regions. Seroprevalence was studied by immunofluorescence, and all other samples were tested by two qPCR systems for detection of C. burnetii. Positive samples were genotyped (multispacer typing) by amplification and sequencing of three spacers. Strains were isolated by cell culture. We found that the seroprevalence may be as high as 24.5% (59 of 238 studied) in Dielmo village. We identified spontaneous excretion of C. burnetii by humans through faeces and milk. Hard and soft ticks (8 species) were infected in 0–37.6%. We identified three genotypes of C. burnetii. The previously identified genotype 6