Science.gov

Sample records for adult tissue samples

  1. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... free at 5 years. Most people who survive 5 years can expect to be cancer-free at 10 years. ... most soft tissue sarcomas, and there is no way to prevent it. ... them can increase your chance of surviving this type of cancer.

  2. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  3. Tissue engineering using adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eberli, Daniel; Atala, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Patients with a variety of diseases may be treated with transplanted tissues and organs. However, there is a shortage of donor tissues and organs, which is worsening yearly because of the aging population. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering are applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, opening new options for cellular therapy and tissue engineering. The use of adult stem cells for tissue engineering applications is promising. This chapter discusses applications of these new technologies for the engineering of tissues and organs. The first part provides an overview of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering techniques; the second highlights different adult stem cell populations used for tissue regeneration. PMID:17161702

  4. Distribution of 3-hydroxy iC17:0 in subgingival plaque and gingival tissue samples: relationship to adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Nichols, F C

    1994-09-01

    Gram-negative organisms incorporate hydroxy fatty acids into the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in the case of some members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, hydroxy fatty acids are incorporated exclusively into lipid A. However, a limited number of Bacteroides species have been shown to incorporate several classes of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, particularly 3-hydroxy iC17:0, into constitutive lipids as well as LPS. The present study examined the distribution of hydroxy fatty acids in two periodontal pathogens, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis, by employing a phospholipid extraction procedure (E. G. Bligh and W. J. Dyer, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37:911-917, 1959) which partitioned constitutive lipids into the organic solvent phase and LPS into the aqueous phase. The distribution of hydroxy fatty acids within organic solvent and aqueous extracts of these bacterial species was then compared with the distribution in subgingival plaque samples isolated from either gingivitis or severe periodontitis sites as well as the distribution in gingival tissue samples. The organic solvent and aqueous extracts were hydrolyzed under strong alkaline conditions, and the free fatty acids were treated to form pentafluorobenzyl-ester, trimethylsilyl-ether derivatives. Hydroxy fatty acid levels were quantified by using gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. By using this approach, the mean values of the 3-hydroxy iC17:0 recovered within organic solvent extracts of P. gingivalis strains ranged from 56 to 63% of total 3-hydroxy iC17:0. Substantially less 3-hydroxy iC17:0 (< 5%) was recovered in organic solvent extracts of P. intermedia. By comparison, 75% of the 3-hydroxy iC17:0 in periodontitis subgingival plaque samples was recovered in organic solvent extracts, while only 43% of the 3-hydroxy iC17:0 in gingivitis plaque samples from the same patients was recovered in organic solvent extracts. However, 3-hydroxy iC17:0 was

  5. Adult stem cells and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Körbling, M; Estrov, Z; Champlin, R

    2003-08-01

    Recently, adult stem cells originating from bone marrow or peripheral blood have been suggested to contribute to repair and genesis of cells specific for liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, gut, and brain tissue. The mechanism involved has been termed transdifferentiation, although other explanations including cell fusion have been postulated. Using adult stem cells to generate or repair solid organ tissue obviates the immunologic, ethical, and teratogenic issues that accompany embryonic stem cells. PMID:12931235

  6. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues.

    PubMed

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K; Rivas, Manuel A; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S; Kukurba, Kim R; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Burchard, Esteban G; Seibold, Max A; MacArthur, Daniel G; Montgomery, Stephen B; Zaitlen, Noah A; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-07-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  7. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  8. Tissue Sampling Guides for Porcine Biomedical Models.

    PubMed

    Albl, Barbara; Haesner, Serena; Braun-Reichhart, Christina; Streckel, Elisabeth; Renner, Simone; Seeliger, Frank; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    This article provides guidelines for organ and tissue sampling adapted to porcine animal models in translational medical research. Detailed protocols for the determination of sampling locations and numbers as well as recommendations on the orientation, size, and trimming direction of samples from ∼50 different porcine organs and tissues are provided in the Supplementary Material. The proposed sampling protocols include the generation of samples suitable for subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses, including cryohistology, paraffin, and plastic histology; immunohistochemistry;in situhybridization; electron microscopy; and quantitative stereology as well as molecular analyses of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes. With regard to the planned extent of sampling efforts, time, and personnel expenses, and dependent upon the scheduled analyses, different protocols are provided. These protocols are adjusted for (I) routine screenings, as used in general toxicity studies or in analyses of gene expression patterns or histopathological organ alterations, (II) advanced analyses of single organs/tissues, and (III) large-scale sampling procedures to be applied in biobank projects. Providing a robust reference for studies of porcine models, the described protocols will ensure the efficiency of sampling, the systematic recovery of high-quality samples representing the entire organ or tissue as well as the intra-/interstudy comparability and reproducibility of results. PMID:26883152

  9. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, R.; Amoroso, M.

    2010-07-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  10. How Somatic Adult Tissues Develop Organizer Activity.

    PubMed

    Vogg, Matthias C; Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The growth and patterning of anatomical structures from specific cellular fields in developing organisms relies on organizing centers that instruct surrounding cells to modify their behavior, namely migration, proliferation, and differentiation. We discuss here how organizers can form in adult organisms, a process of utmost interest for regenerative medicine. Animals like Hydra and planarians, which maintain their shape and fitness thanks to a highly dynamic homeostasis, offer a useful paradigm to study adult organizers in steady-state conditions. Beside the homeostatic context, these model systems also offer the possibility to study how organizers form de novo from somatic adult tissues. Both extracellular matrix remodeling and caspase activation play a key role in this transition, acting as promoters of organizer formation in the vicinity of the wound. Their respective roles and the crosstalk between them just start to be deciphered. PMID:26970630

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of Irradiated Tissue Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, P.; Synytsya, A.; Volka, K.; de Boer, J.; Besserer, J.; Froschauer, S.; Loewe, M.; Moosburger, M.; Würkner, M.

    2003-06-01

    Tissue samples (skin of mice, normal and tumor, skin of a woman, normal and tumor) were irradiated by protons from the Munich tandem accelerator. The samples were analysed using Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague by measuring the intensity of signals sensitive to radiation damage. Effects depending on the delivered dose were found. Proton-irradiation effects are then compared to those of gamma-irradiation.

  12. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-18

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  13. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  15. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  16. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations. PMID:27523415

  17. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor...

  18. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of adults soft tissue sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Bui-Nguyen, B; Italiano, A; Delva, F; Toulmond, M

    2010-06-01

    The main progress in the management of soft tissue sarcomas have been obtained in the field of local control. Although the main evolutive, vital, risk of these diseases is metastatic dissemination, efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy remains a controversial issue. Thus, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be considered as a standard for any situation. The last results of clinical trials, meta-analysis and population studies are presented and discussed in this article. New therapeutic strategies are to be developed to prevent metastases in soft tissue sarcomas. This needs a better understanding of the biology of those tumors, of metastases risk factors and of the determinants of systemic therapies efficacy in these tumors. PMID:20547481

  19. Expression of tmp21 in normal adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Yang, Yuan; Li, Jianbo; Hou, Jing; Xia, Kun; Song, Weihong; Liu, Shengchun

    2014-01-01

    TMP21, known as p23 protein, is one important member of the p24 protein families. The degradation of TMP21 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as with the other presenilin-associated γ-secretase complex members. NFAT plays a very important role in regulation of human TMP21 gene expression. Compared with the function of TMP21, the studies about the distribution of this protein in human tissues are limited. We collected 19 normal adult human tissues from a healthy adult man died in a traffic accident and did examination of all the tissues collected for ICH, western blot and RT-PCR. It was shown that the expression of TMP21 is at high levels in heart, liver, lung, kidney and adrenal gland; moderate levels in brain, pancreas, prostate gland, testicle, small intestine, colon, stomach, gall bladder, thyroid gland and trachea; low levels in skeletal muscle, skin and lymphonodus. TMP21 is widely existed in normal adult human tissues. The current study provided for the first time a comprehensive expression of TMP21 in normal adult human tissues. It will benefit on helping in the design and interpretation of future studies focused on expounding the function of TMP21. PMID:25356171

  20. Leaf tissue sampling and DNA extraction protocols.

    PubMed

    Semagn, Kassa

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomists must be familiar with a number of issues in collecting and transporting samples using freezing methods (liquid nitrogen and dry ice), desiccants (silica gel and blotter paper), and preservatives (CTAB, ethanol, and isopropanol), with each method having its own merits and limitations. For most molecular studies, a reasonably good quality and quantity of DNA is required, which can only be obtained using standard DNA extraction protocols. There are many DNA extraction protocols that vary from simple and quick ones that yield low-quality DNA but good enough for routine analyses to the laborious and time-consuming standard methods that usually produce high quality and quantities of DNA. The protocol to be chosen will depend on the quality and quantity of DNA needed, the nature of samples, and the presence of natural substances that may interfere with the extraction and subsequent analysis. The protocol described in this chapter has been tested for extracting DNA from eight species and provided very good quality and quantity of DNA for different applications, including those genotyping methods that use restriction enzymes. PMID:24415469

  1. Tissue adaptations to gravitational stress - Newborn versus adult giraffes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R; Gershuni, David H.; Danzig, Larry A.; Millard, Ronald W.; Pettersson, Knut

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results on developmental alterations in load-bearing tissues of newborn and adult giraffes are presented. Attention is focused on vascular wall thickness in relation to local blood pressure, and on meniscal adaptations to increased load bearing in the developing giraffe. It is believed that the developing giraffe provides an excellent model for investigations of adaptive mechanisms of increased weight bearing.

  2. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. The net acid load from diets that are rich in acidogenic protein and cereal grains relative to their content of alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to reduced lean tissue mass in older adults. This analysis ...

  3. Adult stem cell lineage tracing and deep tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Juergen; Andersson-Rolf, Amanda; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Lineage tracing is a widely used method for understanding cellular dynamics in multicellular organisms during processes such as development, adult tissue maintenance, injury repair and tumorigenesis. Advances in tracing or tracking methods, from light microscopy-based live cell tracking to fluorescent label-tracing with two-photon microscopy, together with emerging tissue clearing strategies and intravital imaging approaches have enabled scientists to decipher adult stem and progenitor cell properties in various tissues and in a wide variety of biological processes. Although technical advances have enabled time-controlled genetic labeling and simultaneous live imaging, a number of obstacles still need to be overcome. In this review, we aim to provide an in-depth description of the traditional use of lineage tracing as well as current strategies and upcoming new methods of labeling and imaging. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 655-667] PMID:26634741

  4. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  5. Multivariate classification of infrared spectra of cell and tissue samples

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Thomas, Edward V.

    1997-01-01

    Multivariate classification techniques are applied to spectra from cell and tissue samples irradiated with infrared radiation to determine if the samples are normal or abnormal (cancerous). Mid and near infrared radiation can be used for in vivo and in vitro classifications using at least different wavelengths.

  6. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  7. DNA Yield From Tissue Samples in Surgical Pathology and Minimum Tissue Requirements for Molecular Testing.

    PubMed

    Austin, Melissa C; Smith, Christina; Pritchard, Colin C; Tait, Jonathan F

    2016-02-01

    Context .- Complex molecular assays are increasingly used to direct therapy and provide diagnostic and prognostic information but can require relatively large amounts of DNA. Objectives .- To provide data to pathologists to help them assess tissue adequacy and provide prospective guidance on the amount of tissue that should be procured. Design .- We used slide-based measurements to establish a relationship between processed tissue volume and DNA yield by A260 from 366 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples submitted for the 3 most common molecular assays performed in our laboratory (EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF). We determined the average DNA yield per unit of tissue volume, and we used the distribution of DNA yields to calculate the minimum volume of tissue that should yield sufficient DNA 99% of the time. Results .- All samples with a volume greater than 8 mm(3) yielded at least 1 μg of DNA, and more than 80% of samples producing less than 1 μg were extracted from less than 4 mm(3) of tissue. Nine square millimeters of tissue should produce more than 1 μg of DNA 99% of the time. Conclusions .- We conclude that 2 tissue cores, each 1 cm long and obtained with an 18-gauge needle, will almost always provide enough DNA for complex multigene assays, and our methodology may be readily extrapolated to individual institutional practice. PMID:26098132

  8. Preparation of tissue samples for X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Lankosz, Marek; Wojcik, Slawomir; Falkenberg, Gerald; Stegowski, Zdzislaw; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2005-12-01

    As is well-known, trace elements, especially metals, play an important role in the pathogenesis of many disorders. The topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of pathologically changed tissues may shed some new light on processes leading to the degeneration of cells in the case of selected diseases. An ideal and powerful tool for such purpose is the Synchrotron Microbeam X-ray Fluorescence technique. It enables the carrying out of investigations of the elemental composition of tissues even at the single cell level. The tissue samples for histopathological investigations are routinely fixed and embedded in paraffin. The authors try to verify the usefulness of such prepared tissue sections for elemental analysis with the use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Studies were performed on rat brain samples. Changes in elemental composition caused by fixation in formalin or paraformaldehyde and embedding in paraffin were examined. Measurements were carried out at the bending magnet beamline L of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB in Hamburg. The decrease in mass per unit area of K, Br and the increase in P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn in the tissue were observed as a result of the fixation. For the samples embedded in paraffin, a lower level of most elements was observed. Additionally, for these samples, changes in the composition of some elements were not uniform for different analyzed areas of rat brain.

  9. Tissue sampling methods and standards for vertebrate genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent rise in speed and efficiency of new sequencing technologies have facilitated high-throughput sequencing, assembly and analyses of genomes, advancing ongoing efforts to analyze genetic sequences across major vertebrate groups. Standardized procedures in acquiring high quality DNA and RNA and establishing cell lines from target species will facilitate these initiatives. We provide a legal and methodological guide according to four standards of acquiring and storing tissue for the Genome 10K Project and similar initiatives as follows: four-star (banked tissue/cell cultures, RNA from multiple types of tissue for transcriptomes, and sufficient flash-frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA, all from a single individual); three-star (RNA as above and frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA); two-star (frozen tissue for at least 700 μg of DNA); and one-star (ethanol-preserved tissue for 700 μg of DNA or less of mixed quality). At a minimum, all tissues collected for the Genome 10K and other genomic projects should consider each species’ natural history and follow institutional and legal requirements. Associated documentation should detail as much information as possible about provenance to ensure representative sampling and subsequent sequencing. Hopefully, the procedures outlined here will not only encourage success in the Genome 10K Project but also inspire the adaptation of standards by other genomic projects, including those involving other biota. PMID:23587255

  10. Translational research in pediatrics: tissue sampling and biobanking.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Alayne R; Matsui, Doreen; Rieder, Michael J; Fraser, Douglas D

    2012-01-01

    Translational research is expanding and has become a focus of National Research funding agencies, touted as the primary avenue to improve health care practice. The use of human tissues for research on disease etiology is a pillar of translational research, particularly with innovations in research technologies to investigate the building blocks of disease. In pediatrics, translational research using human tissues has been hindered by the many practical and ethical considerations associated with tissue procurement from children and also by a limited population base for study, by the increasing complexities in conducting clinical research, and by a lack of dedicated child-health research funding. Given these obstacles, pediatric translational research can be enhanced by developing strategic and efficient biobanks that will provide scientists with quality tissue specimens to render accurate and reproducible research results. Indeed, tissue sampling and biobanking within pediatric academic settings has potential to impact child health by promoting bidirectional interaction between clinicians and scientists, helping to maximize research productivity, and providing a competitive edge for attracting and maintaining high-quality personnel. The authors of this review outline key issues and practical solutions to optimize pediatric tissue sampling and biobanking for translational research, activities that will ultimately reduce the burden of childhood disease. PMID:22144705

  11. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications. PMID:27338364

  12. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications. PMID:27338364

  13. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  14. Analysis of cesium in tissue samples using the PIXE technique

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, J.S.C.; Lapointe, C.; Birchall, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cesium content is routinely measured in tissue samples at the University of Manitoba Cyclotron Laboratory using the PIXE (Proton Induced X-Ray Emission) technique. It has been possible to estimate the accumulation of Cs in the tissue of mice treated for several days with daily intraperitoneal injection of CsCl. The estimation of Cs concentration employs the internal standard method. We have obtained a detection limit of 2 PPM in 30 min. bombardment time using a 5 nA proton beam at 30 MeV.

  15. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-05-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  16. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  17. Adult stem cell plasticity: will engineered tissues be rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Te-Chao; Alison, Malcolm R; Wright, Nicholas A; Poulsom, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The dogma that adult tissue-specific stem cells remain committed to supporting only their own tissue has been challenged; a new hypothesis, that adult stem cells demonstrate plasticity in their repertoires, is being tested. This is important because it seems possible that haematopoietic stem cells, for example, could be exploited to generate and perhaps deliver cell-based therapies deep within existing nonhaematopoietic organs. Much of the evidence for plasticity derives from histological studies of tissues from patients or animals that have received grafts of cells or whole organs, from a donor bearing (or lacking) a definitive marker. Detection in the recipient of appropriately differentiated cells bearing the donor marker is indicative of a switch in phenotype of a stem cell or a member of a transit amplifying population or of a differentiated cell. In this review, we discuss evidence for these changes occurring but do not consider the molecular basis of cell commitment. In general, the extent of engraftment is low but may be increased if tissues are damaged. In model systems of liver regeneration, the repeated application of a selection pressure increases levels of engraftment considerably; how this occurs is unclear. Cell fusion plays a part in regeneration and remodelling of the liver, skeletal muscle and even regions of the brain. Genetic disease may be amenable to some forms of cell therapy, yet immune rejection will present challenges. Graft-vs.-host disease will continue to present problems, although this may be avoided if the cells were derived from the recipient or they were tolerized. Despite great expectations for cellular therapies, there are indications that attempts to replace missing proteins could be confounded simply by the development of specific immunity that rejects the new phenotype. PMID:15255965

  18. Adult Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rabindra P.; Grimer, Robert J.; Bhujel, Nabina; Carter, Simon R.; Tillman, Roger M.; Abudu, Adesegun

    2008-01-01

    We have retrospectively analysed the experience of a musculoskeletal oncological unit in the management of adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas from 1990 to 2005. Thirty-six patients were seen, of whom 24 were treated at this unit, the remainder only receiving advice. The median age of the patients was 46 years. Most of the sarcomas were deep and of high or intermediate grade with a median size of 5.5 cm. Eleven different histological subtypes were identified. Wide excision was possible only in 21% of the cases. 42% of the patients developed local recurrence and 42% developed metastatic disease usually in the lungs. Overall survival was 49% at 5 years. Tumour size was the most important prognostic factor. Adult head and neck soft tissue sarcomas have a high mortality rate with a high risk of local recurrence and metastatic disease. The rarity of the disease would suggest that centralisation of care could lead to increased expertise and better outcomes. PMID:18382622

  19. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, Aimee L.; Pendergast, Felicity J.; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K.; Larsen, Amy E.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  20. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed. PMID:26140541

  1. Semiautomated Device for Batch Extraction of Metabolites from Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics has become a mainstream analytical strategy for investigating metabolism. The quality of data derived from these studies is proportional to the consistency of the sample preparation. Although considerable research has been devoted to finding optimal extraction protocols, most of the established methods require extensive sample handling. Manual sample preparation can be highly effective in the hands of skilled technicians, but an automated tool for purifying metabolites from complex biological tissues would be of obvious utility to the field. Here, we introduce the semiautomated metabolite batch extraction device (SAMBED), a new tool designed to simplify metabolomics sample preparation. We discuss SAMBED’s design and show that SAMBED-based extractions are of comparable quality to extracts produced through traditional methods (13% mean coefficient of variation from SAMBED versus 16% from manual extractions). Moreover, we show that aqueous SAMBED-based methods can be completed in less than a quarter of the time required for manual extractions. PMID:22292466

  2. Adult stem cells in bone and cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Salgado, António J; Oliveira, João T; Pedro, Adriano J; Reis, Rui L

    2006-09-01

    The progressive increase in life expectancy within the last century has led to the appearance of novel health related problems, some of those within the musculoskeletal field. Among the latter, one can find diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and bone cancer, just to mention some of the most relevant. Other related problems are those that arise from serious injuries, often leading to non-recoverable critical size defects. The therapies currently used to treat this type of diseases/injuries are based on the use of pharmaceutical agents, auto/allotransplant and synthetic materials. However, such solutions present a number of inconveniences and therefore, there is a constant search for novel therapeutic solutions. The appearance of a novel field of science called Tissue engineering brought some hope for the solution of the above mentioned problems. In this field, it is believed that by combining a 3D porous template--scaffold--with an adequate cell population, with osteo or chondrogenic potential, it will be possible to develop bone and cartilage tissue equivalents that when implanted in vivo, could lead to the total regeneration of the affected area. This ideal cell population should have a series of properties, namely a high osteo and chondrogenic potential and at the same time, should be easily expandable and maintained in cultures for long periods of time. Due to its natural and intrinsic properties, stem cells are one of the best available cell types. However, after this sentence, the readers may ask, "Which Stem Cells?". During the last 10/15 years, the scientific community witnessed and reported the appearance of several sources of stem cells with both osteo and chondrogenic potential. Therefore, the present review intends to make an overview of data reported on different sources of adult stem cells (bone marrow, periosteum, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and umbilical cord) for bone and cartilage regenerative medicine, namely those focusing on

  3. Building of a composite virtual slide from contiguous tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently available microscope slide scanners produce whole slide images at various resolutions from histological sections. Nevertheless, acquisition area and so visualization of large tissue samples are limited by the standardized size of glass slides, used daily in pathology departments. The proposed solution has been developed to build composite virtual slides from images of large tumor fragments. Materials and methods Images of HES or immunostained histological sections of carefully labeled fragments from a representative slice of breast carcinoma were acquired with a digital slide scanner at a magnification of 20×. The tiling program involves three steps: the straightening of tissue fragment images using polynomial interpolation method, and the building and assembling of strips of contiguous tissue sample whole slide images in × and y directions. The final image is saved in a pyramidal BigTiff file format. The program has been tested on several tumor slices. A correlation quality control has been done on five images artificially cut. Results Sixty tumor slices from twenty surgical specimens, cut into two to twenty six pieces, were reconstructed. A median of 98.71% is obtained by computing the correlation coefficients between native and reconstructed images for quality control. Conclusions The proposed method is efficient and able to adapt itself to daily work conditions of classical pathology laboratories. PMID:25565295

  4. [Analysis of human tissue samples for volatile fire accelerants].

    PubMed

    Treibs, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In police investigations of fires, the cause of a fire and the fire debris analysis regarding traces of fire accelerants are important aspects for forensic scientists. Established analytical procedures were recently applied to the remains of fire victims. When examining lung tissue samples, vapors inhaled from volatile ignitable liquids could be identified and differentiated from products of pyrolysis caused by the fire. In addition to the medico-legal results this evidence allowed to draw conclusions as to whether the fire victim was still alive when the fire started. PMID:24855737

  5. Imaging of Proteins in Tissue Samples Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Chou, Pi-Tai; Zare, Richard N

    2015-11-17

    Chemical maps of tissue samples provide important information on biological processes therein. Recently, advances in tissue imaging have been achieved using ambient ionization techniques, such as desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), but such techniques have been almost exclusively confined to the mapping of lipids and metabolites. We report here the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) that allows us to image proteins in tissue samples in a label-free manner at atmospheric pressure with only minimum sample preparation. Multiply charged proteins with masses up to 15 kDa were successfully detected by nanoDESI using an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. In an adult mice brain section, expression of proteins including ubiquitin, β-thymosin, myelin basic protein, and hemoglobin were spatially mapped and characterized. We also determined the location of methylation on myelin basic protein. This imaging modality was further implemented to MYC-induced lymphomas. We observed an array of truncated proteins in the region where normal thymus cells were infiltrated by tumor cells, in contrast to healthy tissue. PMID:26509582

  6. Segmentation of colon tissue sample images using multiple graphics accelerators.

    PubMed

    Szénási, Sándor

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, processing medical images is increasingly done through using digital imagery and custom software solutions. The distributed algorithm presented in this paper is used to detect special tissue parts, the nuclei on haematoxylin and eosin stained colon tissue sample images. The main aim of this work is the development of a new data-parallel region growing algorithm that can be implemented even in an environment using multiple video accelerators. This new method has three levels of parallelism: (a) the parallel region growing itself, (b) starting more region growing in the device, and (c) using more than one accelerator. We use the split-and-merge technique based on our already existing data-parallel cell nuclei segmentation algorithm extended with a fast, backtracking-based, non-overlapping cell filter method. This extension does not cause significant degradation of the accuracy; the results are practically the same as those of the original sequential region growing method. However, as expected, using more devices usually means that less time is needed to process the tissue image; in the case of the configuration of one central processing unit and two graphics cards, the average speed-up is about 4-6×. The implemented algorithm has the additional advantage of efficiently processing very large images with high memory requirements. PMID:24893331

  7. Classification and Subtype Prediction of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma by Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil H.; Pavlidis, Paul; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Maki, Robert G.; Noble, William S.; DeSantis, Diann; Woodruff, James M.; Lewis, Jonathan J.; Brennan, Murray F.; Houghton, Alan N.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Adult soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, including well-described subtypes by histological and genotypic criteria, and pleomorphic tumors typically characterized by non-recurrent genetic aberrations and karyotypic heterogeneity. The latter pose a diagnostic challenge, even to experienced pathologists. We proposed that gene expression profiling in soft tissue sarcoma would identify a genomic-based classification scheme that is useful in diagnosis. RNA samples from 51 pathologically confirmed cases, representing nine different histological subtypes of adult soft tissue sarcoma, were examined using the Affymetrix U95A GeneChip. Statistical tests were performed on experimental groups identified by cluster analysis, to find discriminating genes that could subsequently be applied in a support vector machine algorithm. Synovial sarcomas, round-cell/myxoid liposarcomas, clear-cell sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors displayed remarkably distinct and homogenous gene expression profiles. Pleomorphic tumors were heterogeneous. Notably, a subset of malignant fibrous histiocytomas, a controversialhistological subtype, was identified as a distinct genomic group. The support vector machine algorithm supported a genomic basis for diagnosis, with both high sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, we showed gene expression profiling to be useful in classification and diagnosis, providing insights into pathogenesis and pointing to potential new therapeutic targets of soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:12875988

  8. A Digital Gene Expression-Based Bovine Gene Atlas Evaluating 92 Adult, Juvenile and Fetal Cattle Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive transcriptome survey, or “Gene Atlas,” provides information essential for a complete understanding of the genomic biology of an organism. Using a digital gene expression approach, we developed a Gene Atlas of RNA abundance in 92 adult, juvenile and fetal cattle tissues. The samples...

  9. Endogenous control genes in complex vascular tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene expression microarrays and real-time PCR are common methods used to measure mRNA levels. Each method has a fundamentally different approach of normalization between samples. Relative quantification of gene expression using real-time PCR is often done using the 2^(-ΔΔCt) method, in which the normalization is performed using one or more endogenous control genes. The choice of endogenous control gene is often arbitrary or bound by tradition. We here present an analysis of the differences in expression results obtained with microarray and real-time PCR, dependent on different choices of endogenous control genes. Results In complex tissue, microarray data and real-time PCR data show the best correlation when endogenous control genes are omitted and the normalization is done relative to total RNA mass, as measured before reverse transcription. Conclusion We have found that for real-time PCR in heterogeneous tissue samples, it may be a better choice to normalize real-time PCR Ct values to the carefully measured mass of total RNA than to use endogenous control genes. We base this conclusion on the fact that total RNA mass normalization of real-time PCR data shows better correlation to microarray data. Because microarray data use a different normalization approach based on a larger part of the transcriptome, we conclude that omitting endogenous control genes will give measurements more in accordance with actual concentrations. PMID:19900295

  10. Weirs: Counting and sampling adult salmonids in streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Zabkar, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    generally regarded as the most accurate technique available to quantify escapement as the result is supposedly an absolute count (Cousens et al. 1982). Weirs also provide the opportunity to capture fish for observation and sampling of biological characteristics and tissues; they may also serve as recapture sites for basin-wide, mark–recapture population estimates. Temporary weirs are useful in monitoring wild populations of salmonids as well as for capturing broodstock for artificial propagation.

  11. Swine infectious agents in Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu tissue samples from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Brombila, Talita; Bersano, Josete Garcia; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Silva, Sheila Oliveira de Souza; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Ogata, Renato Akio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Richtzenhain, Leonardo Jose

    2014-04-01

    Peccaries and pigs, Tayassuidae and Suidae respectively, diverged approximately one million years ago from a common ancestor. Because these families share some pathogens, peccaries can act as reservoirs of infectious pathogens for domestic and wild swine. We evaluated the presence of swine infectious agents in the spleen and lung tissues of white-lipped peccaries (WLP; Tayassu pecari) and collared peccaries (CP; Pecari tajacu) in Brazil. Samples from 10 adult CP and three WLP, which had been hunted by locals or hit by motor vehicles, were obtained from two free-ranging Brazilian populations. The samples were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), and porcine parvovirus (PPV). Positive samples were sequenced. Both species were negative for PPV and B. bronchiseptica and positive for PCV2 and SuHV-1. The lungs of two animals were positive for M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida. This report is the first demonstration of PCV2 and SuHV-1 swine viruses and of M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida bacteria in peccaries. One factor contributing to this detection was access to tissue samples, which is uncommon. The role of these infectious agents in peccaries is unknown and further epidemiologic studies should be performed. This study identified several infectious agents in peccaries and highlighted the importance of the tissue type used to detect pathogens. PMID:24484498

  12. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Ceglia, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background Maintaining muscle mass while aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. Metabolic acidosis promotes muscle wasting, and the net acid load from diets that are rich in net acid–producing protein and cereal grains relative to their content of net alkali–producing fruit and vegetables may therefore contribute to a reduction in lean tissue mass in older adults. Objective We aimed to determine whether there was an association of 24-h urinary potassium and an index of fruit and vegetable content of the diet with the percentage lean body mass (%LBM) or change in %LBM in older subjects. Design Subjects were 384 men and women ≥65 y old who participated in a 3-y trial comparing calcium and vitamin D with placebo. Potassium was measured in 24-h urine collections at baseline. The %LBM, defined as total body nonfat, nonbone tissue weight ÷ weight × 100, was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 3 y. Physical activity, height, and weight were assessed at baseline and at 3 y. Results At baseline, the mean urinary potassium excretion was 67.0 ± 21.1 mmol/d. Urinary potassium (mmol/d) was significantly positively associated with %LBM at baseline (β = 0.033, P = 0.006; adjusted for sex, weight, and nitrogen excretion) but not with 3-y change in %LBM. Over the 3-y study, %LBM increased by 2.6 ± 3.6%. Conclusion Higher intake of foods rich in potassium, such as fruit and vegetables, may favor the preservation of muscle mass in older men and women. PMID:18326605

  13. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  14. Measurement of phthalates in small samples of mammalian tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Acott, P.D.; Murphy, M.G.; Ogborn, M.R.; Crocker, J.F.S.

    1987-03-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a phthalic acid ester that is used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products, many of which have widespread medical application. DEHP has been shown to be leached from products used for storage and delivery of blood transfusions during procedures such as plasmaphoresis, hemodialysis and open heart surgery. Results of studies in this laboratory have suggested that there is an association between the absorption and deposition of DEHP (and/or related chemicals) in the kidney and the acquired renal cystic disease (ACD) frequently seen in patients who have undergone prolonged dialysis treatment. In order to determine the relationship between the two, it has been necessary to establish a method for extracting and accurately quantitating minute amounts of these chemicals in small tissue samples. The authors have now established such a method using kidneys from normal rats and from a rat model for ACD.

  15. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of calcified tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, O.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Telle, H. H.; Kaiser, J.; Liška, M.; Cáceres, J. O.; Gonzáles Ureña, A.

    2001-06-01

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of important minerals and the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in calcified tissue, to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure, and other medical or biological factors. This theme was exemplified for quantitative detection and mapping of Al, Pb and Sr in representative samples, including teeth (first teeth of infants, second teeth of children and teeth of adults) and bones (tibia and femur). In addition to identifying and quantifying major and trace elements in the tissues, one- and two-dimensional profiles and maps were generated. Such maps (a) provide time/concentration relations, (b) allow to follow mineralisation of the hydroxyapatite matrix and the migration of the elements within it and (c) enable to identify disease states, such as caries in teeth. In order to obtain quantitative calibration, reference samples in the form of pressed pellets with calcified tissue-equivalent material (majority compound of pellets is CaCO 3) were used whose physical properties closely resembled hydroxyapatite. Compounds of Al, Sr and Pb were added to the pellets, containing atomic concentrations in the range 100-10 000 ppm relative to the Ca content of the matrix. Analytical results based on this calibration against artificial samples for the trace elements under investigation agree with literature values, and with our atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) cross-validation measurements.

  16. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  17. Long-term room temperature preservation of corpse soft tissue: an approach for tissue sample storage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disaster victim identification (DVI) represents one of the most difficult challenges in forensic sciences, and subsequent DNA typing is essential. Collected samples for DNA-based human identification are usually stored at low temperature to halt the degradation processes of human remains. We have developed a simple and reliable procedure for soft tissue storage and preservation for DNA extraction. It ensures high quality DNA suitable for PCR-based DNA typing after at least 1 year of room temperature storage. Methods Fragments of human psoas muscle were exposed to three different environmental conditions for diverse time periods at room temperature. Storage conditions included: (a) a preserving medium consisting of solid sodium chloride (salt), (b) no additional substances and (c) garden soil. DNA was extracted with proteinase K/SDS followed by organic solvent treatment and concentration by centrifugal filter devices. Quantification was carried out by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Short tandem repeat (STR) typing profiles were analysed with 'expert software'. Results DNA quantities recovered from samples stored in salt were similar up to the complete storage time and underscored the effectiveness of the preservation method. It was possible to reliably and accurately type different genetic systems including autosomal STRs and mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Autosomal STR typing quality was evaluated by expert software, denoting high quality profiles from DNA samples obtained from corpse tissue stored in salt for up to 365 days. Conclusions The procedure proposed herein is a cost efficient alternative for storage of human remains in challenging environmental areas, such as mass disaster locations, mass graves and exhumations. This technique should be considered as an additional method for sample storage when preservation of DNA integrity is required for PCR-based DNA typing. PMID:21846338

  18. INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN SERUM CHOLESTEROL IS ASSOCIATED WITH REGIONAL WHITE MATTER TISSUE INTEGRITY IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Victoria J.; Leritz, Elizabeth C.; Shepel, Juli; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Milberg, William P.; Rudolph, James L.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Salat, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated links among vascular health and the occurrence of stroke, mild cognitive decline, and dementia in older adults. However, little is known about whether normal variation in vascular indicators may be related to changes in neural tissue integrity. Even less is known about how the brain is affected by cholesterol levels in the normal to moderate risk range, leading up to overt disease pathology. This study examined associations between serum lipid levels and DTI indicators of white matter (WM) structural integrity in a sample of 125 generally healthy older adults aged 43–87 years. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis, controlling for age and gender, revealed low density lipoprotein levels (LDL) as the most robust correlate of regional WM structural integrity of the measured lipids. Higher LDL was associated with decreased WM integrity in right frontal and temporal regions, the superior longitudinal fasciculus and internal/external capsules. Increasing LDL was associated with increased radial and axial diffusivity; however, more widespread statistical effects were found for radial diffusivity. These findings suggest that normal inter-individual variation in lipid levels is associated with compromised regional WM integrity, even in individuals below clinical thresholds for hyperlipidemia. Given the prevalence of cholesterol-associated sequelae in older adults, and mounting evidence suggesting a vascular role in the etiology of dementia, the current data suggest that understanding the relationship between cholesterol and brain tissue microstructure may have important clinical implications for early detection of vascular-related cognitive disorders and optimal regulation of serum lipids to maintain neural health in older adults. PMID:22438182

  19. Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

  20. Variation in glycogen concentrations within mantle and foot tissue in Amblema plicata plicata: Implications for tissue biopsy sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of techniques to non-lethally biopsy tissue from unionids, a new method is available to measure changes in biochemical, contaminant, and genetic constituents in this imperiled faunal group. However, before its widespread application, information on the variability of biochemical components within and among tissues needs to be evaluated. We measured glycogen concentrations in foot and mantle tissue in Amblema plicata plicata (Say, 1817) to determine if glycogen was evenly distributed within and between tissues and to determine which tissue might be more responsive to the stress associated with relocating mussels. Glycogen was measured in two groups of mussels: those sampled from their native environment (undisturbed mussels) and quickly frozen for analysis and those relocated into an artificial pond (relocated mussels) for 24 months before analysis. In both undisturbed and relocated mussels, glycogen concentrations were evenly distributed within foot, but not within mantle tissue. In mantle tissue, concentrations of glycogen varied about 2-fold among sections. In addition, glycogen varied significantly between tissues in undisturbed mussels, but not in relocated mussels. Twenty-four months after relocation, glycogen concentrations had declined by 80% in mantle tissue and by 56% in foot tissue relative to the undisturbed mussels. These data indicate that representative biopsy samples can be obtained from foot tissue, but not mantle tissue. We hypothesize that mantle tissue could be more responsive to the stress of relocation due to its high metabolic activity associated with shell formation.

  1. Theory of Mind Experience Sampling in Typical Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J.; Pruett, John R.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-hr period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self vs. other) and degree of socializing (with people vs. alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: 1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, 2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and 3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1–3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. PMID:23685620

  2. ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Dobson-Patterson, Roberta; O'Gorman, John G; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2016-08-01

    The study investigated, with an adult sample, the hypothesis that differences between subtypes of ADHD on neuropsychological tests contribute to the poor separation of ADHD and healthy groups on tests of this kind. Groups of ADHD inattentive (n=16) and combined (n=16) subtypes were carefully identified using DSM-IV criteria, and their performance on 14 measures of attention, memory, and executive function (EF) was compared between subtypes and between the two subtypes combined and a group of healthy controls (n=30). Multivariate analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two subtypes, and between the two subtypes combined and the healthy controls. Importantly for the hypothesis, where differences for neuropsychological tests in terms of effect sizes between subtypes were largest, the differences in effect sizes between the two groups combined and controls were smallest (r=-0.64, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.87]). PMID:27043366

  3. Persistent synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons in albatross tissue samples from Midway Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Buckland, S.J.

    1996-10-01

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants have been found in even the most remote locations. To assess the global distribution and possible effects of such contaminants, the authors examined the tissues of two species of albatross collected from Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. These birds have an extensive feeding range covering much of the subtropical and northern Pacific Ocean. Anthropogenic contaminants were found at relatively great concentrations in these birds. The sum of 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners ranged from 177 ng/g wet weight in eggs to 2,750 ng/g wet weight in adult fat. Total toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranged from 17.2 to 297 pg/g wet weight in the same tissues, while the inclusion of TEQs from PCBs increased these values to 48.4 and 769 pg/g wet weight, respectively. While contaminant concentrations varied between species and tissues, the contaminant profile was relatively uniform. The profile of contaminants detected was unusual in that much of the TEQs was contributed by two pentachlorinated congeners (2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin), and the profiles of PCB congeners did not match known sources. When compared to other studies the concentrations detected in the Midway Atoll samples were near or above the thresholds known to cause adverse effects in other fish-eating bird species.

  4. Defining Adult Experiences: Perspectives of a Diverse Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Zwiebach, Liza

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles and psychological experiences identified as defining adult moments using mixed methods with a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse sample of young adults both enrolled and not enrolled in college (N = 726; ages 18-35). First, we evaluated results from a single survey item that asked participants to rate how adult they feel. Consistent with previous research, the majority of participants (56.9%) reported feeling “somewhat like an adult,” and older participants had significantly higher subjective adulthood, controlling for other demographic variables. Next, we analyzed responses from an open-ended question asking participants to describe instances in which they felt like an adult. Responses covered both traditional roles (e.g., marriage, childbearing; 36.1%) and nontraditional social roles and experiences (e.g., moving out of parent’s home, cohabitation; 55.6%). Although we found no differences by age and college status in the likelihood of citing a traditional or nontraditional role, participants who had achieved more traditional roles were more likely to cite them in their responses. In addition, responses were coded for psychological experiences, including responsibility for self (19.0%), responsibility for others (15.3%), self-regulation (31.1%), and reflected appraisals (5.1%). Older participants were significantly more likely to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals, whereas younger participants were more likely to include responsibility for self. College students were more likely than noncollege students to include self-regulation and reflected appraisals. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23554545

  5. Studying Genes in Tissue Samples From Younger and Adolescent Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  6. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  7. Debra-mediated Ci degradation controls tissue homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouhua; Guo, Yueqin; Han, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lai; Huang, Xudong; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-02-11

    Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, suggesting that increased Hedgehog (Hh) signaling contributes to ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Consistently, Hh signaling activation causes the same defects, whereas depletion of Hh signaling suppresses these defects. Furthermore, the Hh ligand from multiple sources is involved in ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we show that the JNK pathway acts downstream of Hh signaling to regulate ISC proliferation. Together, our results provide insights into the mechanisms of stem cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis control. PMID:24527387

  8. Debra-Mediated Ci Degradation Controls Tissue Homeostasis in Drosophila Adult Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhouhua; Guo, Yueqin; Han, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lai; Huang, Xudong; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, suggesting that increased Hedgehog (Hh) signaling contributes to ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Consistently, Hh signaling activation causes the same defects, whereas depletion of Hh signaling suppresses these defects. Furthermore, the Hh ligand from multiple sources is involved in ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we show that the JNK pathway acts downstream of Hh signaling to regulate ISC proliferation. Together, our results provide insights into the mechanisms of stem cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis control. PMID:24527387

  9. Fetal tissue sampling. The San Francisco experience with 190 pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Golbus, M S; McGonigle, K F; Goldberg, J D; Filly, R A; Callen, P W; Anderson, R L

    1989-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of genetic defects was done using fetal blood sampling in 167 at-risk pregnancies, by fetal skin biopsy in 15 pregnancies, and by fetal liver biopsy in 8 pregnancies. Fetal blood sampling was done by fetoscopy through January 1985 and by sonographically directed percutaneous umbilical blood sampling since then. In our series, cytogenetics has become the major indication for fetal blood sampling, increasing from 6% of the cases with fetoscopy to 48% with umbilical blood sampling. Fetoscopy provided pure fetal blood in 61% of cases while umbilical blood sampling provided pure fetal blood 97% of the time. The corrected risk of fetal demise after percutaneous umbilical fetal blood sampling was 2% and after fetoscopy was 4%. Images PMID:2735048

  10. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment (“Medaka Osteoclast”) was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation–reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation. PMID:26427061

  11. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast") was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation. PMID:26427061

  12. Comparison of adult corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, R J; Wilde, G E; Shufran, R A; Milliken, G A

    2002-02-01

    Studies were conducted in Kansas corn and soybean fields during 1997 to compare various sampling methods, traps, and trap components for capturing three species of adult corn rootworms: western (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte), southern (D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber), and northern (D. barberi Smith & Lawrence). Lure constituents affected the species of beetle attracted to the trap. Traps with a lure containing 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde attracted more western corn rootworms, those with a lure containing eugenol were more attractive to northern corn rootworms, and those containing trans-cinnamaldehyde were most attractive to southern corn rootworms. Multigard sticky traps caught more beetles than did Pherocon AM sticky traps. In corn, a newly designed lure trap caught more beetles than did sticky traps on most occasions. Also, lure-baited sticky traps caught more beetles than did nonbaited sticky traps. Varying the color of the lure trap bottom did not affect the number caught. In soybeans, the new lure traps captured more beetles than did the nonbaited Multigard or Pherocon AM sticky traps. Results of this study suggest the new lure trap may provide a more accurate assessment of corn rootworm populations than traditional monitoring techniques and may be more esthetically pleasing to growers and consultants. PMID:11942770

  13. Ethical use of tissue samples in genetic research.

    PubMed

    Azarow, Kenneth S; Olmstead, Francis L; Hume, Roderick F; Myers, Jerome; Calhoun, Bryon C; Martin, Laura S

    2003-06-01

    Many centrally based cancer protocols have begun to address the ethical issues concerning tissue banking for genetic research. A multidisciplinary subcommittee of the Madigan Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board was established to determine the scope of the problem and offer a concise, user-friendly policy with guidelines on how to control and monitor the use of stored tissue for future genetic and molecular research. Our institution participates in 69 Southern Oncology Group or National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocols and 47 Children's Oncology Group protocols. Of these protocols, 22 of 69 and 36 of 47, respectively, asked for tissue to be stored for future biologic study. Only 4 of 69 and 3 of 47, respectively, deal with specific consent for future genetic/biologic research. The multidisciplinary committee developed a policy that dealt with the following areas: exempt status, waived consent, informed consent, deceased status, family studies, and information flow. An algorithm was created to establish a system of checks and balances concerning privacy, protection and an appeals process. PMID:12834131

  14. Protein profiling of microdomains purified from renal cell carcinoma and normal kidney tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, F; Morosi, L; Chinello, C; Perego, R; Bianchi, C; Albo, G; Ferrero, S; Rocco, F; Magni, F; Pitto, M

    2012-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is representing about 3% of all adult cancers. A promising strategy for cancer biomarker discovery is subcellular comparative proteomics, allowing enriching specific cell compartments and assessing differences in protein expression patterns. We investigated the proteomic profile of a peculiar RCC subcellular compartment, plasma membrane microdomains (MD), involved in cell signalling, transport, proliferation and in many human diseases, such as cancer. Subcellular fractions were prepared by differential centrifugation from surgical samples of RCC and adjacent normal kidney (ANK). MD were isolated from plasma-membrane-enriched fractions after Triton X-100 treatment and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. MD derived from RCC and ANK tissues were analyzed after SDS-PAGE separation by LC-ESI-MS/MS. We identified 93 proteins from MD isolated from RCC tissue, and 98 proteins from ANK MD. About 70% of the identified proteins are membrane-associated and about half of these are known as microdomain-associated. GRAVY scores assignment shows that most identified proteins (about 70%) are in the hydrophobic range. We chose a panel of proteins to validate their differential expression by WB. In conclusion, our work shows that RCC microdomain proteome is reproducibly different from ANK, and suggests that mining into such differences may support new biomarker discovery. PMID:22159573

  15. Adults' Views on Mathematics Education: A Midwest Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brez, Caitlin C.; Allen, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, few studies have addressed public opinions regarding math education. The current study surveyed adults in a Midwestern town in the United States to assess opinions regarding math and math education. Overall, we found that adults believe that math is useful and that math education is important. We found that parents who currently have a…

  16. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  17. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  18. Relationship of articular soft tissue contour and shape to the underlying eminence and slope profile in young adult temporomandibular joints.

    PubMed

    Pullinger, A G; Bibb, C A; Ding, X; Baldioceda, F

    1993-11-01

    This study examined whether the overall shape of the articular soft tissue overlying the posterior slope and articular eminence of the temporal bone could be predicted by the underlying osseous contour in a histologic model of 51 central sagittal sections of young adult temporomandibular joints. Articular soft tissue and bone contours were traced, and osseous landmarks identified on the basis of joint geometry. Soft tissue thickness measurements were made under low power light microscopy. Seven categories of articular soft tissue pattern were identified. The soft tissue uniformly followed the osseous contour in only one (14%). A progressive increase in soft tissue thickness from the middle of the posterior slope to the articular crest was the most common pattern (35%) but did not describe most of the sample that was more asymmetric. Pattern was poorly predicted by the shape and slope of the temporal bone outline or by dental factors that describe anterior guidance and did not relate to disk displacement. The articular soft tissue compensated for flatter eminence slopes and osseous irregularities and maintained an intact surface. This study has clinical implications for radiographic interpretation of disk space, condyle translation pathways, and the integrity of the functional articular surface. PMID:8247507

  19. The molecular nature of very small embryonic-like stem cells in adult tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongHwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Kang, Hyunsook; Lim, Jisun; Heo, Jinbeom; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2014-11-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been considered as the most important cells in regenerative medicine as they are able to differentiate into all types of cells in the human body. PSCs have been established from several sources of embryo tissue or by reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult tissue by transduction of so-called Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc). Interestingly, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the residence of PSCs in adult tissue and with the ability to differentiate into multiple types of tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs). We also recently demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct4(+) SSEA-1(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and in other murine tissue. These very small (∼3-6 μm) cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. VSELs could be specified into several tissue-residing TCSCs in response to tissue/organ injury, and thus suggesting that these cells have a physiological role in the rejuvenation of a pool of TCSCs under steady-state conditions. In this review article, we discuss the molecular nature of the rare population of VSELs which have a crucial role in regulating the pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and aging of these cells. PMID:25473442

  20. The Molecular Nature of Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells in Adult Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YongHwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Kang, Hyunsook; Lim, Jisun; Heo, Jinbeom; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been considered as the most important cells in regenerative medicine as they are able to differentiate into all types of cells in the human body. PSCs have been established from several sources of embryo tissue or by reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult tissue by transduction of so-called Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc). Interestingly, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the residence of PSCs in adult tissue and with the ability to differentiate into multiple types of tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs). We also recently demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct4+ SSEA-1+Sca-1+Lin−CD45− very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and in other murine tissue. These very small (∼3–6 μm) cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. VSELs could be specified into several tissue-residing TCSCs in response to tissue/organ injury, and thus suggesting that these cells have a physiological role in the rejuvenation of a pool of TCSCs under steady-state conditions. In this review article, we discuss the molecular nature of the rare population of VSELs which have a crucial role in regulating the pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and aging of these cells. PMID:25473442

  1. Facial soft tissue thickness in individuals with different occlusion patterns in adult Turkish subjects.

    PubMed

    Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Can; Ozener, Bariş; Zagyapan, Ragiba; Sahinoglu, Zahira; Yazici, Ayse Canan

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of variation in facial soft tissue thickness is important for forensic anthropologists, dentists, and plastic surgeons. Forensic anthropologists use such information as a guide in facial reconstruction and superimposition methods. The purpose of this study was to measure facial tissue thicknesses of adult males and females of Turkish origin across different types of occlusion, and to compare the results with each other and with values obtained for other populations. The study was conducted on 200 healthy individuals. The analysis of facial tissue thickness included 20 landmarks (10 dentoskeletal and 10 soft tissue) and 10 linear variables. Sex-based variation in facial tissue thickness was noted. The highest soft tissue thickness values were observed in the group with Class III occlusion type at Sn-A point for both the females (16.9, SD=2.4) and the males (17.8, SD=3.3). In the Class I group, the highest tissue depth was observed at Sn-A point (15.3, SD=2.1) in females, and at Li-Id point (17.1, SD=1.9) in males. In the Class II group, contrary to the findings for Class I, the highest soft tissue depth was at Li-Id point (16.0, SD=1.4) in females, and at Sn-A point (18.1, SD=2.6) in males. In conclusion, facial tissue thickness varied in adults depending on the sex and on the type of occlusion. PMID:21741647

  2. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavpetič, P.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Jeromel, L.; Ogrinc Potočnik, N.; Pongrac, P.; Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M.; Pelicon, P.

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on-off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm2 and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  3. Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiart, J.; Hadjem, A.; Wong, M. F.; Bloch, I.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the radio frequencies (RF) exposure in the head tissues of children using a cellular handset or RF sources (a dipole and a generic handset) at 900, 1800, 2100 and 2400 MHz. Based on magnetic resonance imaging, child head models have been developed. The maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) over 10 g in the head has been analyzed in seven child and six adult heterogeneous head models. The influence of the variability in the same age class is carried out using models based on a morphing technique. The SAR over 1 g in specific tissues has also been assessed in the different types of child and adult head models. Comparisons are performed but nevertheless need to be confirmed since they have been derived from data sets of limited size. The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models.

  4. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  5. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Ma, L; Sharma, N K

    2015-05-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardiometabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ⩾40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (group 2). Subjects in group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.006), 2-h insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (P=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, P=0.029) compared with group 1. We identified significant upregulation of 141 genes (for example, MMP9 and SPP1) and downregulation of 17 genes (for example, NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (P=2.81 × 10(-11)-3.74 × 10(-02)) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (P=8.32 × 10(-5)-0.04). Two downregulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  6. Swab or biopsy samples for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue?

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2014-12-01

    Swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are most commonly collected by tissue banks for bacterial and fungal bioburden testing. An in vitro study was performed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standard 'Quality control of microbiological transport systems' (2003) to validate and evaluate the recovery of six challenge organisms from swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. On average, 8.4 to >100 and 7.2 to >100 % of the inoculum was recovered from swab and biopsy samples respectively. A retrospective review of donor episodes was also performed, consisting of paired swab and biopsy samples received in this laboratory during the period 2001-2012. Samples of allograft femoral heads were collected from living donors during hip operations. From the 3,859 donor episodes received, 21 paired swab and biopsy samples each recovered an isolate, 247 swab samples only and 79 biopsy samples only were culture positive. Low numbers of challenge organisms were recovered from inoculated swab and biopsy samples in the in vitro study and validated their use for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. Skin commensals were the most common group of organisms isolated during a 12-year retrospective review of paired swab and biopsy samples from living donor allograft femoral heads. Paired swab and biopsy samples are a suitable representative sample of allograft musculoskeletal tissue for bioburden testing. PMID:24599706

  7. Stromal vascular progenitors in adult human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Pfeifer, Melanie E.; Meyer, E. Michael; Péault, Bruno; Rubin, J. Peter; Donnenberg, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The in vivo progenitor of culture-expanded mesenchymal-like adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) remains elusive, owing in part to the complex organization of stromal cells surrounding the small vessels, and the rapidity with which adipose stromal vascular cells adopt a mesenchymal phenotype in vitro. Methods Immunohistostaining of intact adipose tissue was used to identify 3 markers (CD31, CD34, CD146) which together unambiguously discriminate histologically distinct inner and outer rings of vessel-associated stromal cells, as well as capillary and small vessel endothelial cells. These markers were used in multiparameter flow cytometry in conjunction with stem/progenitor markers (CD90, CD117) to further characterize stromal vascular fraction (SVF) subpopulations. Two mesenchymal and two endothelial populations were isolated by high speed flow cytometric sorting, expanded in short term culture and tested for adipogenesis. Results The inner layer of stromal cells in contact with small vessel endothelium (pericytes) was CD146+/α-SMA+/CD90±/CD34−/CD31−; the outer adventitial stromal ring (designated supra adventitial-adipose stromal cells, SA-ASC) was CD146−/α-SMA−/CD90+/CD34+/CD31−. Capillary endothelial cells were CD31+/CD34+/CD90+ (endothelial progenitor), while small vessel endothelium was CD31+/CD34−/CD90− (endothelial mature). Flow cytometry confirmed these expression patterns and revealed a CD146+/CD90+/CD34+/CD31− pericyte subset that may be transitional between pericytes and SA-ASC. Pericytes had the most potent adipogenic potential, followed by the more numerous SA-ASC. Endothelial populations had significantly reduced adipogenic potential compared to unsorted expanded SVF cells. Conclusions In adipose tissue perivascular stromal cells are organized in two discrete layers, the innermost consisting of CD146+/CD34− pericytes, and the outermost of CD146−/CD34+ SA-ASC, both of which have adipogenic potential in culture. A CD146+/CD

  8. A resource of ribosomal RNA-depleted RNA-Seq data from different normal adult and fetal human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Jocelyn Y.H.; Boon, Priscilla L.S.; Bertin, Nicolas; Fullwood, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype leads to the phenotype of the organism. Enabled by ultra-high-throughput next-generation DNA sequencing, RNA-Seq involves shotgun sequencing of fragmented RNA transcripts by next-generation sequencing followed by in silico assembly, and is rapidly becoming the most popular method for gene expression analysis. Poly[A]+ RNA-Seq analyses of normal human adult tissue samples such as Illumina’s Human BodyMap 2.0 Project and the RNA-Seq atlas have provided a useful global resource and framework for comparisons with diseased tissues such as cancer. However, these analyses have failed to provide information on poly[A]−RNA, which is abundant in our cells. The most recent advances in RNA-Seq analyses use ribosomal RNA-depletion to provide information on both poly[A]+ and poly[A]−RNA. In this paper, we describe the use of Illumina’s HiSeq 2000 to generate high quality rRNA-depleted RNA-Seq datasets from human fetal and adult tissues. The datasets reported here will be useful in understanding the different expression profiles in different tissues. PMID:26594381

  9. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  10. Sampling methods of Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An exotic weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall was first found in south Florida in 1995. The adults have a broad host range that includes foliage of fruit trees, ornamentals and vegetables, but little is known about their basic biology, including larval host plants. Studies were co...

  11. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory in an Adult Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noller, Patricia; Shugm, David

    1988-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Self-Esteem Inventory developed by S. C. Coopersmith (1975) were evaluated via item-total correlation, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, and analysis of variance of data for 352 Australian adults. The instrument had high internal consistency and discriminated well between subjects with high and low…

  12. Use of adult day care service centers in an ethnically diverse sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ellen L; Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Mauro, Ana C

    2014-03-01

    Our nation is aging and unprepared to meet the needs of community-dwelling seniors and their caregivers. This study explored the perceived need for and use of adult day care services (ADS) in a low-income population. A random sample of 537 patient-caregiver dyads were recruited in home care agencies, and separate in-home surveys were conducted. Patients and caregivers were primarily women and 50.2% were of Hispanic origin. Although half (n = 267/537, 49.7%) of the caregivers had a perceived need for using ADS, only 19.1% of these caregivers used these services, mostly in the context of severe patient cognitive impairment. There were no racial or ethnic differences among ADS users and nonusers. The overall low use of ADS in a growing ethnically diverse senior population with a perceived need for services warrants further investigation and action as states seek to decrease nursing home placement and find solutions for our looming caregiving crisis. PMID:24652954

  13. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  14. Acquired Tissue-Specific Promoter Bivalency Is a Basis for PRC2 Necessity in Adult Cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Unmesh; Nalapareddy, Kodandaramireddy; Saxena, Madhurima; O'Neill, Nicholas K; Pinello, Luca; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2016-06-01

    Bivalent promoters in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) carry methylation marks on two lysine residues, K4 and K27, in histone3 (H3). K4me2/3 is generally considered to promote transcription, and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) places K27me3, which is erased at lineage-restricted genes when ESCs differentiate in culture. Molecular defects in various PRC2 null adult tissues lack a unifying explanation. We found that epigenomes in adult mouse intestine and other self-renewing tissues show fewer and distinct bivalent promoters compared to ESCs. Groups of tissue-specific genes that carry bivalent marks are repressed, despite the presence of promoter H3K4me2/3. These are the predominant genes de-repressed in PRC2-deficient adult cells, where aberrant expression is proportional to the H3K4me2/3 levels observed at their promoters in wild-type cells. Thus, in adult animals, PRC2 specifically represses genes with acquired, tissue-restricted promoter bivalency. These findings provide new insights into specificity in chromatin-based gene regulation. PMID:27212235

  15. Effects of Sampling Opportunities on Preference Development for Adults with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan; Browder, Diane M.; Bambara, Linda

    2001-01-01

    A study evaluated effects of providing sampling opportunities on preference development of two adults with severe disabilities. Opportunities for sampling drink items were presented, followed by choice opportunities for selections at the sampling site and a non-sampling site. Participants developed a definite response consistency in selections at…

  16. Adult-derived stem cells and their potential for use in tissue repair and molecular medicine.

    PubMed

    Young, Henry E; Duplaa, Cecile; Katz, Ryan; Thompson, Tina; Hawkins, Kristina C; Boev, Angel N; Henson, Nicholas L; Heaton, Matthew; Sood, Rajiv; Ashley, Dennis; Stout, Christopher; Morgan, Joe H; Uchakin, Peter N; Rimando, Marylen; Long, Gypsy F; Thomas, Crystal; Yoon, Jee-In; Park, Ji Eun; Hunt, Darren J; Walsh, Nancy M; Davis, Josh C; Lightner, Joel E; Hutchings, Anna M; Murphy, Meredith L; Boswell, Elizabeth; McAbee, Jessica A; Gray, Brandon M; Piskurich, Janet; Blake, Lisa; Collins, Julie A; Moreau, Catherine; Hixson, Douglas; Bowyer, Frank P; Black, Asa C

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews three categories of precursor cells present within adults. The first category of precursor cell, the epiblast-like stem cell, has the potential of forming cells from all three embryonic germ layer lineages, e.g., ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The second category of precursor cell, the germ layer lineage stem cell, consists of three separate cells. Each of the three cells is committed to form cells limited to a specific embryonic germ layer lineage. Thus the second category consists of germ layer lineage ectodermal stem cells, germ layer lineage mesodermal stem cells, and germ layer lineage endodermal stem cells. The third category of precursor cells, progenitor cells, contains a multitude of cells. These cells are committed to form specific cell and tissue types and are the immediate precursors to the differentiated cells and tissues of the adult. The three categories of precursor cells can be readily isolated from adult tissues. They can be distinguished from each other based on their size, growth in cell culture, expressed genes, cell surface markers, and potential for differentiation. This report also discusses new findings. These findings include the karyotypic analysis of germ layer lineage stem cells; the appearance of dopaminergic neurons after implantation of naive adult pluripotent stem cells into a 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned Parkinson's model; and the use of adult stem cells as transport mechanisms for exogenous genetic material. We conclude by discussing the potential roles of adult-derived precursor cells as building blocks for tissue repair and as delivery vehicles for molecular medicine. PMID:16202227

  17. Tissue Microarray Technology for Molecular Applications: Investigation of Cross-Contamination between Tissue Samples Obtained from the Same Punching Device

    PubMed Central

    Vassella, Erik; Galván, José A.; Zlobec, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tissue microarray (TMA) technology allows rapid visualization of molecular markers by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In addition, TMA instrumentation has the potential to assist in other applications: punches taken from donor blocks can be placed directly into tubes and used for nucleic acid analysis by PCR approaches. However, the question of possible cross-contamination between samples punched with the same device has frequently been raised but never addressed. Methods: Two experiments were performed. (1) A block from mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) positivetissue and a second from an uninfected patient were aligned side-by-side in an automated tissue microarrayer. Four 0.6 mm punches were cored from each sample and placed inside their corresponding tube. Between coring of each donor block, a mechanical cleaning step was performed by insertion of the puncher into a paraffin block. This sequence of coring and cleaning was repeated three times, alternating between positive and negative blocks. A fragment from the 6110 insertion sequence specific for mycobacterium tuberculosis was analyzed; (2) Four 0.6 mm punches were cored from three KRAS mutated colorectal cancer blocks, alternating with three different wild-type tissues using the same TMA instrument (sequence of coring: G12D, WT, G12V, WT, G13D and WT). Mechanical cleaning of the device between each donor block was made. Mutation analysis by pyrosequencing was carried out. This sequence of coring was repeated manually without any cleaning step between blocks. Results/Discussion: In both analyses, all alternating samples showed the expected result (samples 1, 3 and 5: positive or mutated, samples 2, 4 and 6: negative or wild-type). Similar results were obtained without cleaning step. These findings suggest that no cross-contamination of tissue samples occurs when donor blocks are punched using the same device, however a cleaning step is nonetheless recommended. Our result supports

  18. Labeling and confocal imaging of neurons in thick invertebrate tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bellido, Paloma T; Wardill, Trevor J

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience researchers have long sought methods to describe the neural connectivity of the circuits responsible for specific behaviors. One major obstacle is scale: Neural spines can be <1 µm in diameter, but axons can range from millimeters to centimeters (or larger) in length, making tissue imaging and neuron reconstruction a challenging task. New tissue-clearing agents and long-working-distance objectives offer improved imaging conditions, and here we present a complete protocol for invertebrate tissue that uses these advances. In this protocol, tissue-processing steps previously published in separate articles are combined with recent advances in confocal imaging to visualize invertebrate tissue samples that are >500 µm thick and contain dye-filled neurons. The steps describe dye filling, fixing, antibody labeling, clearing, whole tissue mounting, and confocal imaging with matched refractive indexes. Thus, manual sectioning or "flipping" the tissue to image the whole volume is not required. With matched refractive indexes, loss of resolution and signal is avoided. Tissue volumes are imaged in one stack and nonlinear deformations caused by tissue flipping are prevented. We apply the protocol to whole dragonfly thoracic ganglia (2 × 1 × 0.6 mm) and cephalopod skin samples (20 × 2 × 0.6 mm) with minimal tissue deformation. The resulting images will be used to develop a three-dimensional connectivity atlas of dragonfly ganglia and cephalopod skin innervation. This protocol can be applied to other invertebrate species, and has the advantage that it avoids problems with antigen specificity. PMID:22949711

  19. Experimental implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2015-03-01

    A fast and accurate scatter imaging technique to differentiate cancerous and healthy breast tissue is introduced in this work. Such a technique would have wide-ranging clinical applications from intra-operative margin assessment to breast cancer screening. Coherent Scatter Computed Tomography (CSCT) has been shown to differentiate cancerous from healthy tissue, but the need to raster scan a pencil beam at a series of angles and slices in order to reconstruct 3D images makes it prohibitively time consuming. In this work we apply the coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging technique to reconstruct 3D images of breast tissue samples from experimental data taken without the rotation usually required in CSCT. We present our experimental implementation of coded aperture scatter imaging, the reconstructed images of the breast tissue samples and segmentations of the 3D images in order to identify the cancerous and healthy tissue inside of the samples. We find that coded aperture scatter imaging is able to reconstruct images of the samples and identify the distribution of cancerous and healthy tissues (i.e., fibroglandular, adipose, or a mix of the two) inside of them. Coded aperture scatter imaging has the potential to provide scatter images that automatically differentiate cancerous and healthy tissue inside of ex vivo samples within a time on the order of a minute.

  20. Mitochondrial Respiration Chain Enzymatic Activities in the Human Brain: Methodological Implications for Tissue Sampling and Storage.

    PubMed

    Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Remor, Aline Pertile; Lopes, Mark William; Hohl, Alexandre; Troncoso, Iris H Z; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Boos, Gustavo Luchi; Kondageski, Charles; Nunes, Jean Costa; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Lin, Kátia; Latini, Alexandra Susana; Walz, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes enzymatic (MRCCE) activities were successfully evaluated in frozen brain samples. Epilepsy surgery offers an ethical opportunity to study human brain tissue surgically removed to treat drug resistant epilepsies. Epilepsy surgeries are done with hemodynamic and laboratory parameters to maintain physiology, but there are no studies analyzing the association among these parameters and MRCCE activities in the human brain tissue. We determined the intra-operative parameters independently associated with MRCCE activities in middle temporal neocortex (Cx), amygdala (AMY) and head of hippocampus (HIP) samples of patients (n = 23) who underwent temporal lobectomy using multiple linear regressions. MRCCE activities in Cx, AMY and HIP are differentially associated to trans-operative mean arterial blood pressure, O2 saturation, hemoglobin, and anesthesia duration to time of tissue sampling. The time-course between the last seizure occurrence and tissue sampling as well as the sample storage to biochemical assessments were also associated with enzyme activities. Linear regression models including these variables explain 13-17 % of MRCCE activities and show a moderate to strong effect (r = 0.37-0.82). Intraoperative hemodynamic and laboratory parameters as well as the time from last seizure to tissue sampling and storage time are associated with MRCCE activities in human samples from the Cx, AMYG and HIP. Careful control of these parameters is required to minimize confounding biases in studies using human brain samples collected from elective neurosurgery. PMID:26586405

  1. Bimodal Spectroscopy of Formalin Fixed Samples to Discriminate Dysplastic and Tumor Brain Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, S.; Cicchi, R.; Giordano, F.; Buccoliero, A. M.; Guerrini, R.; Pavone, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    Biomedical spectroscopy has gained attention in the past few years for disease diagnosis. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopies provide finger-print information related to biochemical and morphological alterations when tissues progress from the normal to a malignant stage. Usually, freshly excised tissue specimens are preferred for bio-spectroscopic studies. However, ethical issues, sample availability and distance between the surgery room and the laboratory provide an impelling restriction for in-vitro spectroscopic studies using freshly excised samples. After surgical resection tissues are fixed in 4% formalin for histological studies under a light microscope. The process of fixation prevents degradation of tissues. In this study, we probe the use of formalin fixed sample for differentiating normal and dysplastic brain tissues using fluorescence and Raman spectroscopies. It was found that fluorescence spectral profile changes in the wavelength range from 550-750 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. Also, significant differences were found in the Raman spectral profiles of such samples. The results indicate a potential diagnostic application of spectroscopy in formalin fixed brain samples for differentiating dysplastic and tumor brain tissues.

  2. Residual antibiotics in allograft heart valve tissue samples following antibiotic disinfection.

    PubMed

    Leeming, J P; Lovering, A M; Hunt, C J

    2005-07-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used for the decontamination of allograft heart valves. To monitor the efficacy of this process, samples of tissue are sent for microbiological analysis. This investigation was undertaken to determine residual antibiotic concentrations in decontaminated tissue and to assess the likely inhibitory effect on microbiological cultures. After a typical decontamination protocol, both gentamicin and vancomycin were present in all tissue samples and the majority of enrichment broths at concentrations sufficient to inhibit most bacteria. The data presented indicate that protocols used by heart valve banks and associated microbiology laboratories should be reviewed, and support the use of predecontamination cultures to identify particularly virulent micro-organisms. PMID:15949614

  3. A laser microdissection-based workflow for FFPE tissue microproteomics: Important considerations for small sample processing.

    PubMed

    Longuespée, Rémi; Alberts, Deborah; Pottier, Charles; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Baiwir, Dominique; Kriegsmann, Mark; Herfs, Michael; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Delvenne, Philippe; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-07-15

    Proteomic methods are today widely applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for several applications in research, especially in molecular pathology. To date, there is an unmet need for the analysis of small tissue samples, such as for early cancerous lesions. Indeed, no method has yet been proposed for the reproducible processing of small FFPE tissue samples to allow biomarker discovery. In this work, we tested several procedures to process laser microdissected tissue pieces bearing less than 3000 cells. Combined with appropriate settings for liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, a citric acid antigen retrieval (CAAR)-based procedure was established, allowing to identify more than 1400 proteins from a single microdissected breast cancer tissue biopsy. This work demonstrates important considerations concerning the handling and processing of laser microdissected tissue samples of extremely limited size, in the process opening new perspectives in molecular pathology. A proof of the proposed method for biomarker discovery, with respect to these specific handling considerations, is illustrated using the differential proteomic analysis of invasive breast carcinoma of no special type and invasive lobular triple-negative breast cancer tissues. This work will be of utmost importance for early biomarker discovery or in support of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging for microproteomics from small regions of interest. PMID:26690073

  4. A method to measure the hyperelastic parameters of ex vivo breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Abbas; Plewes, Donald

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in modelling soft tissue deformation. This topic has several biomedical applications ranging from medical imaging to robotic assisted telesurgery. In these applications, tissue deformation can be very large due to low tissue stiffness and lack of physical constraints. As a result, deformation modelling of such organs often requires a treatment, which reflects nonlinear behaviour. While computational techniques such as nonlinear finite element methods are well developed, the required intrinsic nonlinear mechanical parameters of soft tissues that are critical to develop reliable tissue deformation models are not well known. To address this issue, we developed a system to measure the hyperelastic parameters of small ex vivo tissue samples. This measurement technique consists of indenting an unconfined small block of tissue using a computer controlled loading system while measuring the resulting indentation force. The nonlinear tissue force-displacement response is used to calculate the hyperelastic parameters via an appropriate inversion technique. This technique is based on a nonlinear least squares formulation that uses a nonlinear finite element model as the direct problem solver. The features of the system are demonstrated with two samples of breast tissue and typical hyperelastic results are presented.

  5. Recent Progress on Tissue-Resident Adult Stem Cell Biology and Their Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of the stem cell research has given new hopes to treat and even cure diverse degenerative disorders and incurable diseases in human. Particularly, the identification of a rare population of adult stem cells in the most tissues/organs in human has emerged as an attractive source of multipotent stem/progenitor cells for cell replacement-based therapies and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. The tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells offer the possibility to stimulate their in vivo differentiation or to use their ex vivo expanded progenies for cell replacement-based therapies with multiple applications in human. Among the human diseases that could be treated by the stem cell-based therapies, there are hematopoietic and immune disorders, multiple degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzeimeher’s diseases, type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus as well as eye, liver, lung, skin and cardiovascular disorders and aggressive and metastatic cancers. In addition, the genetically-modified adult stem/progenitor cells could also be used as delivery system for expressing the therapeutic molecules in specific damaged areas of different tissues. Recent advances in cancer stem/progenitor cell research also offer the possibility to targeting these undifferentiated and malignant cells that provide critical functions in cancer initiation and progression and disease relapse for treating the patients diagnosed with the advanced and metastatic cancers which remain incurable in the clinics with the current therapies. PMID:18288619

  6. Spontaneous myogenic differentiation of Flk-1-positive cells from adult pancreas and other nonmuscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Tritarelli, Alessandra; Toietta, Gabriele; Gatto, Ilaria; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Pagani, Francesca; Mangoni, Antonella; Straino, Stefania; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2008-02-01

    At the embryonic or fetal stages, autonomously myogenic cells (AMCs), i.e., cells able to spontaneously differentiate into skeletal myotubes, have been identified from several different sites other than skeletal muscle, including the vascular compartment. However, in the adult animal, AMCs from skeletal muscle-devoid tissues have been described in only two cases. One is represented by thymic myoid cells, a restricted population of committed myogenic progenitors of unknown derivation present in the thymic medulla; the other is represented by a small subset of adipose tissue-associated cells, which we recently identified. In the present study we report, for the first time, the presence of spontaneously differentiating myogenic precursors in the pancreas and in other skeletal muscle-devoid organs such as spleen and stomach, as well as in the periaortic tissue of adult mice. Immunomagnetic selection procedures indicate that AMCs derive from Flk-1(+) progenitors. Individual clones of myogenic cells from nonmuscle organs are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from skeletal muscle-derived primary myoblasts. Moreover, they can be induced to proliferate in vitro and are able to participate in muscle regeneration in vivo. Thus, we provide evidence that fully competent myogenic progenitors can be derived from the Flk-1(+) compartment of several adult tissues that are embryologically unrelated to skeletal muscle. PMID:18094147

  7. The expression of c-kit protein in human adult and fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Horie, K; Fujita, J; Takakura, K; Kanzaki, H; Suginami, H; Iwai, M; Nakayama, H; Mori, T

    1993-11-01

    The c-kit proto-oncogene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor and is allelic with the dominant white-spotting (W) locus of the mouse. In this study we investigated the expression of human c-kit protein in various adult and fetal human tissues immunohistochemically using anti-human c-kit monoclonal antibody. To discriminate c-kit+ cells from mast cells expressing c-kit, mast cells were identified by staining with Toluidine blue. In oogonia, spermatogonia and skin melanocytes of the fetus and in oocytes of adult ovary, c-kit expression was detected. In adult uterus, c-kit+ cells were widely distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium, myometrium and cervix, the number and distribution being almost identical to those of mast cells. In fetal uterus, c-kit+ non-mast cells clustered beneath the epithelium and a few mast cells were observed in the myometrium and subserosal layer. In both adult and fetus, c-kit+ non-mast cells were detected within smooth muscle layers of the intestine, colon and oesophagus, while mast cells were observed in the mucosal and submucosal layers of these organs. In contrast to mice, no expression of c-kit protein was detected in the human placenta and decidua. Thus, the distribution of c-kit+ cells in various tissues is similar but not identical between adult and fetus and between human and mouse. PMID:7507133

  8. High stability of microRNAs in tissue samples of compromised quality.

    PubMed

    Peiró-Chova, Lorena; Peña-Chilet, María; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; García-Giménez, José Luis; Alonso-Yuste, Elisa; Burgues, Octavio; Lluch, Ana; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Ribas, Gloria

    2013-12-01

    Degradation of tissue samples limits performing RNA-based molecular studies, but little is known about the potential usefulness of samples of compromised quality for studies focused on miRNAs. In this work we analyze a series of cryopreserved tissue samples (n = 14), frozen samples that underwent a severe thawing process (n = 10), and their paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (n = 24) from patients with breast cancer obtained during primary surgical resection and collected in 2011. Quality and integrity analyses of the total and small fraction of RNA were carried out. Recovery of specific RNA molecules (miRNAs hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-125b, and hsa-miR-191; snoRNA RNU6B; and mRNAs GAPDH and HPRT1) was also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Our results suggest that visualisation of the small RNA electrophoretic profiles obtained using the Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer makes it possible to differentiate between the three groups of samples (optimally frozen, thawed, and FFPE). We demonstrate that specific miRNA molecules can be similarly recovered from different tissue sample sources, which supports their high degree of stability. We conclude that miRNAs are robustly detected irrespective of the quality of the tissue sample. In this regard, a word of caution should be raised before degraded samples are discarded: although prior quality assessment of the biological material to be analyzed is recommended, our work demonstrates that degraded tissue samples are also suitable for miRNA studies. PMID:24197449

  9. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  10. Plasticity in the Adult: How Should the Waddington Diagram Be Applied to Regenerating Tissues?

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Stanger, Ben Z

    2016-01-25

    Conrad Waddington's eponymous 1957 diagram provided a metaphorical framework for considering how sequential developmental fate decisions allow an egg to develop into an embryo. In recent years, the Waddington diagram has been repurposed to illustrate how cellular identity changes in the context of reprogramming. In this Perspective, we revisit the Waddington diagram in light of the emerging recognition that plasticity is part and parcel of adult regeneration. Specifically, we speculate that the "epigenetic landscapes" that define identity in adult tissues are dynamic, facilitating cellular de-differentiation and trans-differentiation in the setting of injury. PMID:26812013

  11. Evidence for tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells in human adult lung from studies of transplanted allografts.

    PubMed

    Lama, Vibha N; Smith, Lisa; Badri, Linda; Flint, Andrew; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Murray, Susan; Wang, Zhuo; Liao, Hui; Toews, Galen B; Krebsbach, Paul H; Peters-Golden, Marc; Pinsky, David J; Martinez, Fernando J; Thannickal, Victor J

    2007-04-01

    The origin and turnover of connective tissue cells in adult human organs, including the lung, are not well understood. Here, studies of cells derived from human lung allografts demonstrate the presence of a multipotent mesenchymal cell population, which is locally resident in the human adult lung and has extended life span in vivo. Examination of plastic-adherent cell populations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples obtained from 76 human lung transplant recipients revealed clonal proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in 62% (106 of 172) of samples. Immunophenotyping of these isolated cells demonstrated expression of vimentin and prolyl-4-hydroxylase, indicating a mesenchymal phenotype. Multiparametric flow cytometric analyses revealed expression of cell-surface proteins, CD73, CD90, and CD105, commonly found on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Hematopoietic lineage markers CD14, CD34, and CD45 were absent. Multipotency of these cells was demonstrated by their capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Cytogenetic analysis of cells from 7 sex-mismatched lung transplant recipients harvested up to 11 years after transplant revealed that 97.2% +/- 2.1% expressed the sex genotype of the donor. The presence of MSCs of donor sex identity in lung allografts even years after transplantation provides what we believe to be the first evidence for connective tissue cell progenitors that reside locally within a postnatal, nonhematopoietic organ. PMID:17347686

  12. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings’ quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants’ quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants’ alcohol use patterns. PMID:26339202

  13. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Brown, Ronald P.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 {mu}g/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 {mu}g/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  14. Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

  15. Adipogenic potential in human mesenchymal stem cells strictly depends on adult or foetal tissue harvest.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Enrico; Viganò, Mariele; Parazzi, Valentina; Montemurro, Tiziana; Montelatici, Elisa; Lavazza, Cristiana; Budelli, Silvia; Vecchini, Alba; Rebulla, Paolo; Giordano, Rosaria; Lazzari, Lorenza

    2013-11-01

    Cell-based therapies promise important developments for regenerative medicine purposes. Adipose tissue and the adipogenic process has become central to an increasing number of translational efforts in addition to plastic and reconstructive surgical applications. In recent experimental clinical trials, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proven to be well tolerated because of their low immunoreactivity. MSC are multipotent cells found among mature cells in different tissues and organs with the potentiality to differentiate in many cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes, thus being a suitable cell source for tissue engineering strategies. We compared the adipogenic potential of MSC originated from two adult sources as fat pads and bone marrow, and from four foetal sources as umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid and preterm umbilical cord perivascular cells. Surprisingly, adult MSC displayed higher differentiation capacities confirmed by gene expression analysis on a selected panel of adipogenesis-related genes. Further, an in-depth molecular analysis highlighted the early and vigorous activation of the PPARγ transcription factor-cascade in adipose-derived MSC that resulted to be both delayed and reduced in foetal MSC accounting for their lack of adipogenic potential. Thus, MSC show a different degree of phenotypic plasticity depending on the source tissue, that should be taken into consideration for the selection of the most appropriate MSC type for specific tissue regeneration purposes. PMID:23942228

  16. Adult male mice conceived by in vitro fertilization exhibit increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Simbulan, R K; Liu, X; Feuer, S K; Maltepe, E; Donjacour, A; Rinaudo, P

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal development is highly plastic and readily influenced by the environment. Adverse conditions have been shown to alter organ development and predispose offspring to chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Notably, it appears that the changes in glucocorticoid hormones or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral tissues could play a role in the development of chronic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation embryo culture is associated with growth alterations and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unknown if GR signaling is affected in adult IVF offspring. Here we show that GR expression is increased in inbred (C57Bl6/J) and outbred (CF-1× B6D2F1/J) blastocysts following in vitro culture and elevated levels are also present in the adipose tissue of adult male mice. Importantly, genes involved in lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis and responsive to GR were also increased in adipose tissue, indicating that increased GR activates downstream gene pathways. The promoter region of GR, previously reported to be epigenetically modified by perinatal manipulation, showed no changes in DNA methylation status. Our findings demonstrate that IVF results in a long-term change in GR gene expression in a sex- and tissue-specific manner. These changes in adipose tissues may well contribute to the metabolic phenotype in mice conceived by IVF. PMID:26511158

  17. Tritium and(14)C counting in tissue samples by using liquid scintillation method.

    PubMed

    Parekh, C K; Eigen, E

    1968-05-01

    The combustion method has been modified to increase the recovery of tritiated water after combustion of a tritium-labeled tissue sample. This was accomplished by cooling the bottom of the combustion flask in a dry ice-acetone bath while irradiating the top with an infrared lamp. The procedure resulted in at least 92% to 102% recovery of the tritiated water. The NCS solubilizer was found to be superior to hyamine for solubilizing(14)C labeled tissue samples. The samples yielded light yellow-colored solutions when incubated for 15 hr at 50-55C. The counting efficiency of this solution was 75% or higher. PMID:17805860

  18. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3-34-fold higher than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples were similar, with the exception of ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, which reached a greater concentration in liver lipids than in lipids from both adipose tissues (4-fold; p < 0. 05). Comparisons with available international data on adipose tissue levels reveal that the organochlorine body burden in the Inuit population of Greenland is presently among the highest resulting from environmental exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504150

  19. Terahertz spectroscopy and detection of brain tumor in rat fresh-tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Fukushi, Y.; Kubota, O.; Itsuji, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Ouchi, T.

    2015-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging of biomedical samples is expected to be an important application of THz analysis techniques. Identification and localization of tumor tissue, imaging of biological samples, and analysis of DNA by THz spectroscopy have been reported. THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is useful for obtaining the refractive index over a broad frequency range. However, THz-TDS spectra of fresh tissue samples are sensitive to procedures such as sample preparation, and a standardized measurement protocol is required. Therefore, in this work, we establish a protocol for measurements of THz spectra of fresh tissue and demonstrate reliable detection of rat brain tumor tissue. We use a reflection THz-TDS system to measure the refractive index spectra of the samples mounted on a quartz plate. The tissue samples were measured immediately after sectioning to avoid sample denaturalization during storage. Special care was taken in THz data processing to eliminate parasitic reflections and reduce noise. The error level in our refractive index measurements was as low as 0.02 in the frequency range 0.8-1.5 THz. With increasing frequency, the refractive index in the tumor and normal regions monotonically decreased, similarly to water, and it was 0.02 higher in the tumor regions. The spectral data suggest that the tumor regions have higher water content. Hematoxylin-eosin stained images showed that increased cell density was also responsible for the observed spectral features. A set of samples from 10 rats showed consistent results. Our results suggest that reliable tumor detection in fresh tissue without pretreatment is possible with THz spectroscopy measurements. THz spectroscopy has the potential to become a real-time in vivo diagnostic method.

  20. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites. PMID:26904042

  1. Unpacking Sleep and Suicide in Older Adults in a Combined Online Sample

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Shea; Nadorff, Michael R.; Winer, E. Samuel; Ward, Kathryn Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Duration of insomnia symptoms and nightmares are related to suicidal risk in young adults independent of current symptoms of insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, depression, and PTSD. However, this relation has yet to be examined among older adults, despite older adults being at higher risk of suicidal behavior. Further, the current study aims to replicate previous research among younger adults showing that insomnia symptoms and nightmares are associated with suicide risk independent of the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS). Methods: The present study utilized 167 participants age 55 and older obtained by combining two independent mTurk data collections of adults in the United States. Results: In the current sample, duration of nightmares was associated with suicide risk in older adults independent of symptoms of current insomnia and nightmares, duration of insomnia, and symptoms of PTSD, anhedonia, and the IPTS. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the duration of nightmares (i.e., how long someone has been experiencing nightmares) predict substantial variance in suicide risk among older adults in addition to the risk factors typically examined. Thus, assessment of sleep dysfunction is important when assessing suicide risk among older adults. Citation: Golding S, Nadorff MR, Winer ES, Ward KC. Unpacking sleep and suicide in older adults in a combined online sample. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1385–1392. PMID:26194726

  2. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used the (14)C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of (14)C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of (14)C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples (donor birth years 1945-1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of (14)C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited tissue turnover. The tendon concentrations of (14)C approximately reflected the atmospheric levels present during the first 17 yr of life, indicating that the tendon core is formed during height growth and is essentially not renewed thereafter. In contrast, (14)C levels in muscle indicated continuous turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue. PMID:23401563

  3. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-09-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm-1, area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I1/I2%)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I1/I2%=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively.

  4. Measurement of the hyperelastic properties of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Joseph J.; Samani, Abbas

    2009-04-01

    The elastic and hyperelastic properties of biological soft tissues have been of interest to the medical community. There are several biomedical applications where parameters characterizing such properties are critical for a reliable clinical outcome. These applications include surgery planning, needle biopsy and brachtherapy where tissue biomechanical modeling is involved. Another important application is interpreting nonlinear elastography images. While there has been considerable research on the measurement of the linear elastic modulus of small tissue samples, little research has been conducted for measuring parameters that characterize the nonlinear elasticity of tissues included in tissue slice specimens. This work presents hyperelastic measurement results of 44 pathological ex vivo breast tissue samples. For each sample, five hyperelastic models have been used, including the Yeoh, N = 2 polynomial, N = 1 Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, and Veronda-Westmann models. Results show that the Yeoh, polynomial and Ogden models are the most accurate in terms of fitting experimental data. The results indicate that almost all of the parameters corresponding to the pathological tissues are between two times to over two orders of magnitude larger than those of normal tissues, with C11 showing the most significant difference. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicates that C02 of the Yeoh model, and C11 and C20 of the polynomial model have very good potential for cancer classification as they show statistically significant differences for various cancer types, especially for invasive lobular carcinoma. In addition to the potential for use in cancer classification, the presented data are very important for applications such as surgery planning and virtual reality based clinician training systems where accurate nonlinear tissue response modeling is required.

  5. Effects of formalin fixation on tissue optical properties of in-vitro brain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Martelli, Fabrizio; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-03-01

    Application of light spectroscopy based techniques for the detection of cancers have emerged as a promising approach for tumor diagnostics. In-vivo or freshly excised samples are normally used for point spectroscopic studies. However, ethical issues related to in-vivo studies, rapid decay of surgically excised tissues and sample availability puts a limitation on in-vivo and in-vitro studies. There has been a few studies reported on the application of formalin fixed samples with good discrimination capability. Usually formalin fixation is performed to prevent degradation of tissues after surgical resection. Fixing tissues in formalin prevents cell death by forming cross-linkages with proteins. Previous investigations have revealed that washing tissues fixed in formalin using phosphate buffered saline is known to reduce the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. But this could not be the case with reflectance measurements. Hemoglobin is a principal absorbing medium in biological tissues in the visible range. Formalin fixation causes hemoglobin to seep out from red blood cells. Also, there could be alterations in the refractive index of tissues when fixed in formalin. In this study, we propose to investigate the changes in tissue optical properties between freshly excised and formalin fixed brain tissues. The results indicate a complete change in the spectral profile in the visible range where hemoglobin has its maximum absorption peaks. The characteristic bands of oxy-hemoglobin at 540, 580 nm and deoxy-hemoglobin at 555 nm disappear in the case of samples fixed in formalin. In addition, an increased spectral intensity was observed for the wavelengths greater than 650 nm where scattering phenomena are presumed to dominate.

  6. Comparison of organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue autopsy samples from two Ontario municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.T.; LeBel, G.L.; Junkins, E.

    1984-01-01

    Human adipose tissue samples obtained during autopsies in a Canadian Great Lakes community, Kingston, Ontario, and a second community, Ottawa, Ontario, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, chlorobenzenes, and chlorophenols. Significantly different levels of Dichlorodiphenyl-dichlorethane, mirex, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol were found in Kingston adipose tissues compared to Ottawa tissues. Residue levels of oxychlordane, mirex, and polychlorinated biphenyls were significantly different in Kingston males versus Kingston females. The means and ranges of residue levels were contrasted with those reported in previous Canadian surveys.

  7. Quantitative mapping of collagen fiber alignment in thick tissue samples using transmission polarized-light microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Dmitry D.; Shvachkina, Marina E.; Sherman, Maria M.; Spivak, Andrey V.; Pravdin, Alexander B.; Yakovlev, Dmitry A.

    2016-07-01

    Immersion optical clearing makes it possible to use transmission polarized-light microscopy for characterization of thick (200 to 2000 μm) layers of biological tissues. We discuss polarization properties of thick samples in the context of the problem of characterization of collagen fiber alignment in connective tissues such as sclera and dermis. Optical chirality caused by azimuthal variations of the macroscopic (effective) optic axis of the medium across the sample thickness should be considered in polarization mapping of thick samples of these tissues. We experimentally evaluate to what extent the optical chirality affects the measurement results in typical situations and show under what conditions it can be easily taken into account and does not hinder, but rather helps, in characterization of collagen fiber alignment.

  8. Quantitative mapping of collagen fiber alignment in thick tissue samples using transmission polarized-light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Dmitry D; Shvachkina, Marina E; Sherman, Maria M; Spivak, Andrey V; Pravdin, Alexander B; Yakovlev, Dmitry A

    2016-07-01

    Immersion optical clearing makes it possible to use transmission polarized-light microscopy for characterization of thick (200 to 2000  μm) layers of biological tissues. We discuss polarization properties of thick samples in the context of the problem of characterization of collagen fiber alignment in connective tissues such as sclera and dermis. Optical chirality caused by azimuthal variations of the macroscopic (effective) optic axis of the medium across the sample thickness should be considered in polarization mapping of thick samples of these tissues. We experimentally evaluate to what extent the optical chirality affects the measurement results in typical situations and show under what conditions it can be easily taken into account and does not hinder, but rather helps, in characterization of collagen fiber alignment. PMID:27027930

  9. Isolation of high quality protein samples from punches of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Becker, K F; Kuphal, S; Hein, R; Hofstädter, F; Bosserhoff, A K

    2008-04-01

    In general, it is believed that the extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples is not feasible. However, recently a new technique was developed, presenting the extraction of non-degraded, full length proteins from formalin fixed tissues, usable for western blotting and protein arrays. In the study presented here, we applied this technique to punch biopsies of formalin fixed tissues embedded in paraffin to reduce heterogeneity of the tissue represented in sections, and to ensure analysing mainly defined cellular material. Successful extraction was achieved even from very small samples (0.7 mm(3)). Additionally, we were able to detect highly glycosylated proteins and protein modification, such as phosphorylation. Interestingly, with this technique it is feasible to extract high quality proteins from 14 year old samples. In summary, the new technique makes a great pool of material now usable for molecular analysis with high throughput tools. PMID:18228195

  10. [The three-dimensional culture of adult mesenchymal stem cells for intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ganjun; Liu, Hao; Deng, Li; Chen, Xiaohe; Zhao, Xianfeng; Liang, Tao; Li, Xiuqiong

    2009-12-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the major causes of low back pain. As current clinical treatments are aimed at restoring biomechanical function and providing symptomatic relief, the methods focused on biological repair have aroused interest and several tissue engineering approaches using different cell types have been proposed. Owing to the unsuitable nature of degenerate cells for tissue engineering, attention has been given to the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this connection, we have made a study on the characteristics of MSCs derived from adult bone marrow and on the feasibility of constructing IVD tissue-engineering cell under a Three-Dimensional Pellet Culture System. The human bone marrow MSCs were isolated and purified with density gradient solution and attachment-independent culture system. MSCs isolated using this method are a homogeneous population as indicated by morphology and other criteria. They have the capacity for self-renewal and proliferation, and the multilineage potential to differentiate. PMID:20095491

  11. Method for the detection of desmethylbromethalin in animal tissue samples for the determination of bromethalin exposure.

    PubMed

    Filigenzi, Michael S; Bautista, Adrienne C; Aston, Linda S; Poppenga, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Bromethalin, a potent neurotoxin, is widely available for use as a rodenticide. As access to other rodenticides is reduced due to regulatory pressure, the use of bromethalin is likely to increase with a concomitant increase in poisonings in nontarget animals. Analytical methods for the detection of bromethalin residues in animals suspected to have been exposed to this rodenticide are needed to support post-mortem diagnosis of toxicosis. This paper describes a novel method for the analysis of desmethylbromethalin (DMB), bromethalin's toxic metabolite, in tissue samples such as liver, brain, and adipose. Samples were extracted with 5% ethanol in ethyl acetate, and an aliquot of the extract was evaporated dry, reconstituted, and analyzed by reverse phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer utilized electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. This method was qualitatively validated at a level of 1.0 ng/g in liver tissue. The quantitative potential of the method was also evaluated, and a method detection limit of 0.35 ng/g wet weight was determined in fat tissue. DMB was detected in tissue samples from animals suspected to have been poisoned by this compound. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other methods reported for analysis of DMB in tissue samples using LC-MS/MS. PMID:25688571

  12. Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max

    2016-10-01

    Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time. PMID:27178172

  13. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Ross, J Perran; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Terrell, Scott P; Woodward, Allan R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Perceval, H Franklin; Hinterkopf, Joy P

    2008-04-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. PMID:18436661

  14. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  15. Quantitative analysis of spatial sampling error in the infant and adult electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Grieve, Philip G; Emerson, Ronald G; Isler, Joseph R; Stark, Raymond I

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this report was to determine the required number of electrodes to record the infant and adult electroencephalogram (EEG) with a specified amount of spatial sampling error. We first developed mathematical theory that governs the spatial sampling of EEG data distributed on a spherical approximation to the scalp. We then used a concentric sphere model of current flow in the head to simulate realistic EEG data. Quantitative spatial sampling error was calculated for the simulated EEG, with additive measurement noise, for 64, 128, and 256 electrodes equally spaced over the surface of the sphere corresponding to the coverage of the human scalp by commercially available "geodesic" electrode arrays. We found the sampling error for the infant to be larger than that for the adult. For example, a sampling error of less than 10% for the adult was obtained with a 64-electrode array but a 256-electrode array was needed for the infant to achieve the same level of error. With the addition of measurement noise, with power 10 times less than that of the EEG, the sampling error increased to 25% for both the infant and adult, for these numbers of electrodes. These results show that accurate measurement of the spatial properties of the infant EEG requires more electrodes than for the adult. PMID:15050554

  16. Automated MALDI matrix coating system for multiple tissue samples for imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mounfield, William P; Garrett, Timothy J

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method. PMID:22234508

  17. Rapid mass spectrometric conversion of tissue biopsy samples into permanent quantitative digital proteome maps

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tiannan; Kouvonen, Petri; Koh, Ching Chiek; Gillet, Ludovic C; Wolski, Witold E; Röst, Hannes L; Rosenberger, George; Collins, Ben C; Blum, Lorenz C; Gillessen, Silke; Joerger, Markus; Jochum, Wolfram; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Clinical specimens are each inherently unique, limited and non-renewable. As such, small samples such as tissue biopsies are often completely consumed after a limited number of analyses. Here we present a method that enables fast and reproducible conversion of a small amount of tissue (approximating the quantity obtained by a biopsy) into a single, permanent digital file representing the mass spectrometry-measurable proteome of the sample. The method combines pressure cycling technology (PCT) and SWATH mass spectrometry (MS), and the resulting proteome maps can be analyzed, re-analyzed, compared and mined in silico to detect and quantify specific proteins across multiple samples. We used this method to process and convert 18 biopsy samples from 9 renal cell carcinoma patients into SWATH-MS fragment ion maps. From these proteome maps we detected and quantified more than 2,000 proteins with a high degree of reproducibility across all samples. The identified proteins clearly separated tumorous kidney tissues from healthy tissue, and differentiated distinct histomorphological kidney cancer subtypes. PMID:25730263

  18. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  19. Dispersion and sampling of adult dermacentor andersoni in rangeland in Western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-host populations of adult Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni (Stiles) were sampled by dragging at 13 locations in Alberta, Washington, and Oregon. A total of 222 samples were taken ranging in size from 86 – 250 10 sq. m. quadrats. Simulated quadrats ranging in size from 20 – 50 sq...

  20. Using Marked Lygus hesperus (Knight) (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults to Evaluate Sweepnet Sampling in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recently elevated pest status of Lygus spp. across much of the U.S. cottonbelt has accentuated the need for improved understanding of commonly used sampling methods. A mark-release-recapture method was devised and validated for use in sampling studies of adults of the western tarnished plant bug...

  1. Plastinated tissue samples as three-dimensional models for optical instrument characterization

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Daniel L.; Chaney, Eric J.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Histology of biological specimens is largely limited to investigating two-dimensional structure because of the sectioning required to produce optically thin samples for conventional microscopy. With the advent of three-dimensional optical imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and multiphoton microscopy (MPM), methods of tissue preparation that minimally disrupt three-dimensional structure are needed. We propose plastination as a means of transforming tissues into three-dimensional models suitable for optical instrument characterization. Tissues are plastinated by infusing them with transparent polymers, after which they can be safely handled, unlike fresh or fixed tissues. Such models are useful for investigating three-dimensional structure, testing and comparing the performance of optical instruments, and potentially investigating tissue properties not normally observed after the three-dimensional scattering properties of a biological samples are lost. We detail our plastination procedures and show examples of imaging several plastinated tissues from a pre-clinical rat model using optical coherence tomography. PMID:18825267

  2. Plastinated tissue samples as three-dimensional models for optical instrument characterization.

    PubMed

    Marks, Daniel L; Chaney, Eric J; Boppart, Stephen A

    2008-09-29

    Histology of biological specimens is largely limited to investigating two-dimensional structure because of the sectioning required to produce optically thin samples for conventional microscopy. With the advent of three-dimensional optical imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and multiphoton microscopy (MPM), methods of tissue preparation that minimally disrupt three-dimensional structure are needed. We propose plastination as a means of transforming tissues into three-dimensional models suitable for optical instrument characterization. Tissues are plastinated by infusing them with transparent polymers, after which they can be safely handled, unlike fresh or fixed tissues. Such models are useful for investigating three-dimensional structure, testing and comparing the performance of optical instruments, and potentially investigating tissue properties not normally observed after the three-dimensional scattering properties of a biological samples are lost. We detail our plastination procedures and show examples of imaging several plastinated tissues from a pre-clinical rat model using optical coherence tomography. PMID:18825267

  3. Rapid quantification of inflammation in tissue samples using perfluorocarbon emulsion and fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Eric T.; Young, Won-Bin; Xu, Hongyan; Pusateri, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of inflammation in tissue samples can be a time-intensive bottleneck in therapeutic discovery and preclinical endeavors. We describe a versatile and rapid approach to quantitatively assay macrophage burden in intact tissue samples. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion is injected intravenously, and the emulsion droplets are effectively taken up by monocytes and macrophages. These ‘in situ’ labeled cells participate in inflammatory events in vivo resulting in PFC accumulation at inflammatory loci. Necropsied tissues or intact organs are subjected to conventional fluorine-19 (19F) NMR spectroscopy to quantify the total fluorine content per sample, proportional to the macrophage burden. We applied these methods to a rat model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) exhibiting extensive inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the spinal cord. In a cohort of EAE rats, we used 19F NMR to derive an inflammation index (IFI) in intact CNS tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm intracellular colocalization of the PFC droplets within CNS CD68+ cells having macrophage morphology. The IFI linearly correlated to mRNA levels of CD68 via real-time PCR analysis. This 19F NMR approach can accelerate tissue analysis by at least an order of magnitude compared with histological approaches. PMID:21548906

  4. Spatial pattern and sequential sampling of squash bug (Heteroptera: Coreidae) adults in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Giles, Kristopher; Edelson, J V

    2006-04-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of adult squash bugs were determined in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, during 2001 and 2002. Results of analysis using Taylor's power law regression model indicated that squash bugs were aggregated in watermelon. Taylor's power law provided a good fit with r2 = 0.94. A fixed precision sequential sampling plan was developed for estimating adult squash bug density at fixed precision levels in watermelon. The plan was tested using a resampling simulation method on nine and 13 independent data sets ranging in density from 0.15 to 2.52 adult squash bugs per plant. Average estimated means obtained in 100 repeated simulation runs were within the 95% CI of the true means for all the data. Average estimated levels of precision were similar to the desired level of precision, particularly when the sampling plan was tested on data having an average mean density of 1.19 adult squash bugs per plant. Also, a sequential sampling for classifying adult squash bug density as below or above economic threshold was developed to assist in the decision-making process. The classification sampling plan is advantageous in that it requires smaller sample sizes to estimate the population status when the population density differs greatly from the action threshold. However, the plan may require excessively large sample sizes when the density is close to the threshold. Therefore, an integrated sequential sampling plan was developed using a combination of a fixed precision and classification sequential sampling plans. The integration of sampling plans can help reduce sampling requirements. PMID:16686160

  5. Three Dimensional Imaging of Paraffin Embedded Human Lung Tissue Samples by Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna E.; Vasilescu, Dragos M.; Seal, Katherine A. D.; Keyes, Samuel D.; Mavrogordato, Mark N.; Hogg, James C.; Sinclair, Ian; Warner, Jane A.; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Lackie, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) micro-architecture of lung tissue can provide insights into the pathology of lung disease. Micro computed tomography (µCT) has previously been used to elucidate lung 3D histology and morphometry in fixed samples that have been stained with contrast agents or air inflated and dried. However, non-destructive microstructural 3D imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues would facilitate retrospective analysis of extensive tissue archives of lung FFPE lung samples with linked clinical data. Methods FFPE human lung tissue samples (n = 4) were scanned using a Nikon metrology µCT scanner. Semi-automatic techniques were used to segment the 3D structure of airways and blood vessels. Airspace size (mean linear intercept, Lm) was measured on µCT images and on matched histological sections from the same FFPE samples imaged by light microscopy to validate µCT imaging. Results The µCT imaging protocol provided contrast between tissue and paraffin in FFPE samples (15mm x 7mm). Resolution (voxel size 6.7 µm) in the reconstructed images was sufficient for semi-automatic image segmentation of airways and blood vessels as well as quantitative airspace analysis. The scans were also used to scout for regions of interest, enabling time-efficient preparation of conventional histological sections. The Lm measurements from µCT images were not significantly different to those from matched histological sections. Conclusion We demonstrated how non-destructive imaging of routinely prepared FFPE samples by laboratory µCT can be used to visualize and assess the 3D morphology of the lung including by morphometric analysis. PMID:26030902

  6. Semiquantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue samples by thin layer chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulhern, B.M.; Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Belisle, A.A.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  7. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia; Rozhkova, Elena A.

    2015-08-31

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.

  8. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  9. Fetal and adult liver stem cells for liver regeneration and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fiegel, H C; Lange, Claudia; Kneser, U; Lambrecht, W; Zander, A R; Rogiers, X; Kluth, D

    2006-01-01

    For the development of innovative cell-based liver directed therapies, e.g. liver tissue engineering, the use of stem cells might be very attractive to overcome the limitation of donor liver tissue. Liver specific differentiation of embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells is currently under investigation. Different types of fetal liver (stem) cells during development were identified, and their advantageous growth potential and bipotential differentiation capacity were shown. However, ethical and legal issues have to be addressed before using fetal cells. Use of adult stem cells is clinically established, e.g. transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. Other bone marrow derived liver stem cells might be mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, the transdifferentiation potential is still in question due to the observation of cellular fusion in several in vivo experiments. In vitro experiments revealed a crucial role of the environment (e.g. growth factors and extracellular matrix) for specific differentiation of stem cells. Co-cultured liver cells also seemed to be important for hepatic gene expression of MSC. For successful liver cell transplantation, a novel approach of tissue engineering by orthotopic transplantation of gel-immobilized cells could be promising, providing optimal environment for the injected cells. Moreover, an orthotopic tissue engineering approach using bipotential stem cells could lead to a repopulation of the recipients liver with healthy liver and biliary cells, thus providing both hepatic functions and biliary excretion. Future studies have to investigate, which stem cell and environmental conditions would be most suitable for the use of stem cells for liver regeneration or tissue engineering approaches. PMID:16989722

  10. Progerin expression disrupts critical adult stem cell functions involved in tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Laurin Marie; Gomez, Lourdes Adriana; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M; Howard, Guy A; Schiller, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell?mediated vascular repair is progerin, an alternative splice variant of lamin A. Progerin results from erroneous activation of cryptic splice sites within the LMNA gene, and significantly increases during aging. Mutations triggering progerin overexpression cause the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), in which patients die at approximately 13-years of age due to atherosclerosis-induced disease. Progerin expression affects tissues rich in cells that can be derived from marrow stromal cells (MSCs. Studies using various MSC subpopulations and models have led to discrepant results. Using a well-defined, immature subpopulation of MSCs, Marrow Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, we find progerin significantly disrupts expression and localization of self-renewal markers, proliferation, migration, and membrane elasticity. One potential treatment, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, ameliorates some of these effects. Our results confirm proposed progerin-induced mechanisms and suggest novel ways in which progerin disturbs critical stem cell functions collectively required for proper tissue repair, offering promising treatment targets for future therapies. PMID:25567453

  11. Progerin expression disrupts critical adult stem cell functions involved in tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Laurin Marie; Gomez, Lourdes Adriana; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M; Howard, Guy A; Schiller, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell–mediated vascular repair is progerin, an alternative splice variant of lamin A. Progerin results from erroneous activation of cryptic splice sites within the LMNA gene, and significantly increases during aging. Mutations triggering progerin overexpression cause the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), in which patients die at approximately 13-years of age due to atherosclerosis-induced disease. Progerin expression affects tissues rich in cells that can be derived from marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Studies using various MSC subpopulations and models have led to discrepant results. Using a well-defined, immature subpopulation of MSCs, Marrow Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, we find progerin significantly disrupts expression and localization of self-renewal markers, proliferation, migration, and membrane elasticity. One potential treatment, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, ameliorates some of these effects. Our results confirm proposed progerin-induced mechanisms and suggest novel ways in which progerin disturbs critical stem cell functions collectively required for proper tissue repair, offering promising treatment targets for future therapies. PMID:25567453

  12. Transgenic Zebrafish Reveal Tissue-Specific Differences in Estrogen Signaling in Response to Environmental Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves. Citation: Gorelick DA, Iwanowicz LR, Hung AL, Blazer VS, Halpern ME. 2014. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to

  13. Comparing the Push-Pull Versus Discard Blood Sample Method From Adult Central Vascular Access Devices.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dia

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the discard blood sampling method for central vascular access devices with the push-pull method. A comparative, within-subject design was used to evaluate 61 unique, paired blood samples from 1 adult outpatient oncology clinic. A 21-measure laboratory panel was conducted on each of the paired samples. Interpretation showed a small mean bias and excellent agreement between the methods. Blood samples obtained using the push-pull method were within clinically acceptable ranges. No hemolysis was noted by laboratory evaluation of 59 samples. PMID:27074989

  14. The Novel Application of Non-Lethal Citizen Science Tissue Sampling in Recreational Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Samuel M.; Holmes, Bonnie J.; Pepperell, Julian G.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fishing pressure and uncertainty surrounding recreational fishing catch and effort data promoted the development of alternative methods for conducting fisheries research. A pilot investigation was undertaken to engage the Australian game fishing community and promote the non-lethal collection of tissue samples from the black marlin Istiompax indica, a valuable recreational-only species in Australian waters, for the purpose of future genetic research. Recruitment of recreational anglers was achieved by publicizing the project in magazines, local newspapers, social media, blogs, websites and direct communication workshops at game fishing tournaments. The Game Fishing Association of Australia and the Queensland Game Fishing Association were also engaged to advertise the project and recruit participants with a focus on those anglers already involved in the tag-and-release of marlin. Participants of the program took small tissue samples using non-lethal methods which were stored for future genetic analysis. The program resulted in 165 samples from 49 participants across the known distribution of I. indica within Australian waters which was a sufficient number to facilitate a downstream population genetic analysis. The project demonstrated the potential for the development of citizen science sampling programs to collect tissue samples using non-lethal methods in order to achieve targeted research objects in recreationally caught species. PMID:26376487

  15. The Novel Application of Non-Lethal Citizen Science Tissue Sampling in Recreational Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Williams, Samuel M; Holmes, Bonnie J; Pepperell, Julian G

    2015-01-01

    Increasing fishing pressure and uncertainty surrounding recreational fishing catch and effort data promoted the development of alternative methods for conducting fisheries research. A pilot investigation was undertaken to engage the Australian game fishing community and promote the non-lethal collection of tissue samples from the black marlin Istiompax indica, a valuable recreational-only species in Australian waters, for the purpose of future genetic research. Recruitment of recreational anglers was achieved by publicizing the project in magazines, local newspapers, social media, blogs, websites and direct communication workshops at game fishing tournaments. The Game Fishing Association of Australia and the Queensland Game Fishing Association were also engaged to advertise the project and recruit participants with a focus on those anglers already involved in the tag-and-release of marlin. Participants of the program took small tissue samples using non-lethal methods which were stored for future genetic analysis. The program resulted in 165 samples from 49 participants across the known distribution of I. indica within Australian waters which was a sufficient number to facilitate a downstream population genetic analysis. The project demonstrated the potential for the development of citizen science sampling programs to collect tissue samples using non-lethal methods in order to achieve targeted research objects in recreationally caught species. PMID:26376487

  16. Non-lethal sampling of walleye for stable isotope analysis: a comparison of three tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, Steven R.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of fishes is often performed using muscle or organ tissues that require sacrificing animals. Non-lethal sampling provides an alternative for evaluating isotopic composition for species of concern or individuals of exceptional value. Stable isotope values of white muscle (lethal) were compared with those from fins and scales (non-lethal) in walleye, Sander vitreus (Mitchill), from multiple systems, size classes and across a range of isotopic values. Isotopic variability was also compared among populations to determine the potential of non-lethal tissues for diet-variability analyses. Muscle-derived isotope values were enriched compared with fins and depleted relative to scales. A split-sample validation technique and linear regression found that isotopic composition of walleye fins and scales was significantly related to that in muscle tissue for both δ13C and δ15N (r2 = 0.79–0.93). However, isotopic variability was significantly different between tissue types in two of six populations for δ15N and three of six populations for δ13C. Although species and population specific, these findings indicate that isotopic measures obtained from non-lethal tissues are indicative of those obtained from muscle.

  17. Periodontal implications of orthodontic treatment in adults with reduced or normal periodontal tissues versus those of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P J; Quinn, R S; Eakle, W S; Chambers, D

    1989-09-01

    This longitudinal study monitored periodontal status in 20 adults and 20 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Ten adults had generalized periodontitis and received periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, before orthodontic treatment. They also received periodontal maintenance at 3-month intervals during orthodontic treatment. The other 10 adults had normal periodontal tissues. Neither these latter adults nor the adolescents received periodontal maintenance during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal status was determined (1) at six standard sites before fixed appliances were placed (baseline), (2) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after appliances had been placed, and (3) 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after appliances had been removed. At each of these visits, these sites were assessed for plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, and pocket depth. Loss of attachment between baseline and 3 months after appliances were removed and tooth loss were also determined. Complete data were obtained for 15 adolescents and 14 adults. During orthodontic treatment the adolescent group showed significantly more (p less than 0.05) periodontal inflammation and supragingival plaque than the adults; after appliances were removed, this pattern was no longer statistically significant. For loss of attachment, there were no significant differences among adolescents, adults with normal periodontal tissues, or adults with reduced but healthy periodontal tissues who had undergone treatment for periodontal disease. For tooth loss, three nonstudy site teeth with pockets deeper than 6 mm and/or furcation involvements were lost because of periodontal abscesses in the adult group treated for periodontal disease. PMID:2773862

  18. Expression of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) in fetal and adult liver: changes in liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, A D; Stewart, J A; Aitchison, M; MacSween, R N

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of tissue polypeptide antigen (40 kD molecular weight) in normal adult and fetal liver, and in liver disease was investigated and compared with the distribution of low and high molecular weight cytokeratins. In normal liver tissue polypeptide antigen was found only in bile duct epithelium; this distribution is similar to that of high molecular weight cytokeratin, but differs from that of low molecular weight cytokeratins. In liver disease it was found in areas of ductular transformation; in Mallory's bodies; and in alcoholic liver disease and primary biliary cirrhosis in some hepatocytes that did not contain Mallory's bodies. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2442199

  19. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; et al

    2015-08-31

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissuemore » specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.« less

  20. Efficient Cargo Delivery into Adult Brain Tissue Using Short Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose; Bhattarai, Prabesh; Zhang, Yixin; Brand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish brains can regenerate lost neurons upon neurogenic activity of the radial glial progenitor cells (RGCs) that reside at the ventricular region. Understanding the molecular events underlying this ability is of great interest for translational studies of regenerative medicine. Therefore, functional analyses of gene function in RGCs and neurons are essential. Using cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI), RGCs can be targeted efficiently but the penetration capacity of the injected molecules reduces dramatically in deeper parts of the brain tissue, such as the parenchymal regions that contain the neurons. In this report, we tested the penetration efficiency of five known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and identified two– polyR and Trans – that efficiently penetrate the brain tissue without overt toxicity in a dose-dependent manner as determined by TUNEL staining and L-Plastin immunohistochemistry. We also found that polyR peptide can help carry plasmid DNA several cell diameters into the brain tissue after a series of coupling reactions using DBCO-PEG4-maleimide-based Michael’s addition and azide-mediated copper-free click reaction. Combined with the advantages of CVMI, such as rapidness, reproducibility, and ability to be used in adult animals, CPPs improve the applicability of the CVMI technique to deeper parts of the central nervous system tissues. PMID:25894337

  1. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J.E.; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D.; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem cell and tissue population dynamics. We show that healthy cells induce clonal extinction in weak tissues, targeting both stem and differentiated cells for elimination. We also find that competition induces stem cell proliferation and self-renewal in healthy tissue, promoting selective advantage and tissue colonization. Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute−/+ cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. PMID:26212135

  2. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J E; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-08-10

    Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem cell and tissue population dynamics. We show that healthy cells induce clonal extinction in weak tissues, targeting both stem and differentiated cells for elimination. We also find that competition induces stem cell proliferation and self-renewal in healthy tissue, promoting selective advantage and tissue colonization. Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute(-/+) cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. PMID:26212135

  3. Radioisotopic method for the measurement of lipolysis in small samples of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J.; Berry, E.M.; Gruen, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the study of adrenoreceptor response in small needle biopsy samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue, we developed a dual radioisotopic technique for measuring lipolysis rate. Aliquots (20-75 mg) of adipose tissue fragments were incubated in a buffered albumin medium containing (/sup 3/H)palmitate and (/sup 14/C)glucose, each of high specific activity. In neutral glycerides synthesized in this system, (/sup 14/C)glucose is incorporated exclusively into the glyceride-glycerol moiety and /sup 3/H appears solely in the esterified fatty acid. Alpha-2 and beta-1 adrenoreceptor activation of tissue incubated in this system does not alter rates of /sup 14/C-labeled glyceride accumulation, but does produce a respective increase or decrease in the specific activity of fatty acids esterified into newly synthesized glycerides. This alteration in esterified fatty acid specific activity is reflected in the ratio of /sup 14/C:/sup 3/H in newly synthesized triglycerides extracted from the incubated adipose tissue. There is a high correlation (r . 0.90) between the /sup 14/C:/sup 3/H ratio in triglycerides and the rate of lipolysis as reflected in glycerol release into the incubation medium. The degree of adrenoreceptor activation by various concentrations of lipolytic and anti-lipolytic substances can be assessed by comparing this ratio in stimulated tissue to that characterizing unstimulated tissue or the incubation medium. This technique permits the study of very small, unweighed tissue biopsy fragments, the only limitation on sensitivity being the specific activity of the medium glucose and palmitate. It is, therefore, useful for serial examinations of adipose tissue adrenoreceptor dose-response characteristics under a variety of clinical circumstances.

  4. Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hewitson, Laura; Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Glausser, Margaret K.; Jaing, Crystal J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV). Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. The LLMDAmore » technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae , Bacteroidaceae , and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations.« less

  5. Screening of Viral Pathogens from Pediatric Ileal Tissue Samples after Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Thissen, James B.; Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Glausser, Margaret K.; Jaing, Crystal J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV). Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA), was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations. PMID:24778651

  6. Tabletop magnetic resonance elastography for the measurement of viscoelastic parameters of small tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipek-Ugay, Selcan; Drießle, Toni; Ledwig, Michael; Guo, Jing; Hirsch, Sebastian; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of low-cost tabletop MR elastography (MRE) for quantifying the complex shear modulus G∗ of small soft biological tissue samples as provided by pathologists. The MRE system was developed based on a tabletop MRI scanner equipped with a 0.5 T permanent magnet and a tissue sample holder mounted to a loudspeaker. A spin echo sequence was enhanced with motion-encoding gradients of 250 mT/m amplitude synchronized to acoustic vibration frequencies. Shear wave images suitable for elastography were acquired between vibration frequencies of 0.5 and 1 kHz in agarose, ultrasound gel, porcine liver, porcine skeletal muscle, and bovine heart with a spatial resolution of 234 μm pixel edge length. The measured frequency dependence of G∗ agreed well with previous work based on high-field MR systems. The ratio between loss and storage moduli was highest in liver and ultrasound gel, followed by muscle tissue and agarose gel while ultrasound gel and liver showed similarly low storage moduli compared to the other samples. The shear wave to noise ratio is an important imaging criteria for MRE and was about 4.2 times lower for the preliminary setup of the 0.5 T tabletop system compared to a 7 T animal scanner. In the future, the new tabletop MRE system may serve as a low cost device for preclinical research on the correlation of viscoelastic parameters with histopathology of biological samples.

  7. Tabletop magnetic resonance elastography for the measurement of viscoelastic parameters of small tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Ipek-Ugay, Selcan; Drießle, Toni; Ledwig, Michael; Guo, Jing; Hirsch, Sebastian; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of low-cost tabletop MR elastography (MRE) for quantifying the complex shear modulus G(∗) of small soft biological tissue samples as provided by pathologists. The MRE system was developed based on a tabletop MRI scanner equipped with a 0.5 T permanent magnet and a tissue sample holder mounted to a loudspeaker. A spin echo sequence was enhanced with motion-encoding gradients of 250 mT/m amplitude synchronized to acoustic vibration frequencies. Shear wave images suitable for elastography were acquired between vibration frequencies of 0.5 and 1 kHz in agarose, ultrasound gel, porcine liver, porcine skeletal muscle, and bovine heart with a spatial resolution of 234 μm pixel edge length. The measured frequency dependence of G(∗) agreed well with previous work based on high-field MR systems. The ratio between loss and storage moduli was highest in liver and ultrasound gel, followed by muscle tissue and agarose gel while ultrasound gel and liver showed similarly low storage moduli compared to the other samples. The shear wave to noise ratio is an important imaging criteria for MRE and was about 4.2 times lower for the preliminary setup of the 0.5 T tabletop system compared to a 7 T animal scanner. In the future, the new tabletop MRE system may serve as a low cost device for preclinical research on the correlation of viscoelastic parameters with histopathology of biological samples. PMID:25554945

  8. Effect of anti-sclerostin therapy and osteogenesis imperfecta on tissue-level properties in growing and adult mice while controlling for tissue age.

    PubMed

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Lloyd, William R; Salemi, Joseph D; Marini, Joan C; Caird, Michelle S; Morris, Michael D; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2016-03-01

    Bone composition and biomechanics at the tissue-level are important contributors to whole bone strength. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a candidate anabolic therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis that increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in animal studies, but its effect on bone quality at the tissue-level has received little attention. Pre-clinical studies of Scl-Ab have recently expanded to include diseases with altered collagen and material properties such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scl-Ab on bone quality by determining bone material composition and tissue-level mechanical properties in normal wild type (WT) tissue, as well as mice with a typical OI Gly➔Cys mutation (Brtl/+) in type I collagen. Rapidly growing (3-week-old) and adult (6-month-old) WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated for 5weeks with Scl-Ab. Fluorescent guided tissue-level bone composition analysis (Raman spectroscopy) and biomechanical testing (nanoindentation) were performed at multiple tissue ages. Scl-Ab increased mineral to matrix in adult WT and Brtl/+ at tissue ages of 2-4wks. However, no treatment related changes were observed in mineral to matrix levels at mid-cortex, and elastic modulus was not altered by Scl-Ab at any tissue age. Increased mineral-to-matrix was phenotypically observed in adult Brtl/+ OI mice (at tissue ages>3wks) and rapidly growing Brtl/+ (at tissue ages>4wks) mice compared to WT. At identical tissue ages defined by fluorescent labels, adult mice had generally lower mineral to matrix ratios and a greater elastic modulus than rapidly growing mice, demonstrating that bone matrix quality can be influenced by animal age and tissue age alike. In summary, these data suggest that Scl-Ab alters the matrix chemistry of newly formed bone while not affecting the elastic modulus, induces similar changes between Brtl/+ and WT mice, and provides new insight into the interaction between tissue age and

  9. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C·G > T·A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  10. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Munchel, Sarah; Hoang, Yen; Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C · G > T · A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  11. High-efficiency immunomagnetic isolation of solid tissue-originated integrin-expressing adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palmon, Aaron; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Krief, Guy; Aframian, Doron J

    2012-02-01

    Isolation of highly pure specific cell types is crucial for successful adult stem cell-based therapy. As the number of such cells in adult tissue is low, an extremely efficient method is needed for their isolation. Here, we describe cell-separation methodologies based on magnetic-affinity cell sorting (MACS) MicroBeads with monoclonal antibodies against specific membrane proteins conjugated to superparamagnetic particles. Cells labeled with MACS MicroBeads are retained in a magnetic field within a MACS column placed in a MACS separator, allowing fast and efficient separation. Both positively labeled and non-labeled fractions can be used directly for downstream applications as the separated cell fractions remain viable with no functional impairment. As immunomagnetic separation depends on the interaction between a cell's membrane and the magnetically labeled antibody, separation of specific cells originating from solid tissues is more complex and demands a cell-dissociating pretreatment. In this paper, we detail the use of immunomagnetic separation for the purpose of regenerating damaged salivary gland (SG) function in animal and human models of irradiated head and neck cancer. Each year 500,000 new cases of head and neck cancer occur worldwide. Most of these patients lose SG function following irradiation therapy. SGs contain integrin α6β1-expressing epithelial stem cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be isolated, multiplied in culture and auto-implanted into the irradiated SGs to regenerate damaged SG function. PMID:22019721

  12. Analysis of dissected tissues with digital holographic microscopy: quantification of inflammation mediated tissue alteration, influence of sample preparation, and reliability of numerical autofocusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Lenz, Philipp; Bettenworth, Dominik; Krausewitz, Philipp; Domagk, Dirk; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) allows label-free imaging of tissue sections and quantification of the spatial refractive index distribution, which is of interest for applications in digital pathology. We show that DHM allows quantitative imaging of different layers in unstained tissue samples by detection of refractive index changes. In addition, we evaluate the automated refocussing feature of DHM for application on dissected tissues and could achieve highly reproducible holographic autofocusing for unstained and moderately stained samples. Finally, it is demonstrated that in human ulcerative colitis patients the average tissue refractive index is reduced significantly in all parts of the inflamed colonic wall in comparison to patients in remission.

  13. Confidentiality, informed consent, and children's participation in research involving stored tissue samples: interviews with medical professionals from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Dierickx, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Ethical issues regarding research biobanks continue to be a topic of intense debate, especially issues of confidentiality, informed consent, and child participation. Although considerable empirical literature concerning research biobank ethics exists, very little information is available regarding the opinions of medical professionals doing genetics research from the Middle East, especially Arabic speaking countries. Ethical guidelines for research biobanks are critically needed as some countries in the Middle East are starting to establish national research biobanks. Islam is the dominant religion in these countries, and it affects people's behavior and influences their positions. Moreover, communities in these countries enjoy a set of customs, traditions and social norms, and have social and familial structures that must be taken into account when developing research policies. We interviewed 12 medical professionals from the Middle East currently working with stored tissue samples to document their opinions. We found general agreement. Participants' primary concerns were similar to the views of researchers internationally. Since children tend to represent a high percentage of Middle Eastern populations, and because children's bodies are not just small adult bodies, the interviewed professionals strongly believed that it is imperative to include children in biobank research. Participants generally believed that protecting confidentiality is socially very important and that informed consent/assent must be obtained from both adult and child participants. This study provides a starting point for additional studies. PMID:25981282

  14. The influence of cancer tissue sampling on the identification of cancer characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Guo, Xin; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Mengmeng; Qi, Lishuang; Li, Yang; Chen, Libin; Gu, Yunyan; Guo, Zheng; Zhao, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer tissue sampling affects the identification of cancer characteristics. We aimed to clarify the source of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in macro-dissected cancer tissue and develop a robust prognostic signature against the effects of tissue sampling. For estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancer patients, we identified DEGs in macro-dissected cancer tissues, malignant epithelial cells and stromal cells, defined as Macro-Dissected-DEGs, Epithelial-DEGs and Stromal-DEGs, respectively. Comparing Epithelial-DEGs to Stromal-DEGs (false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%), 86% of the overlapping genes exhibited consistent dysregulation (defined as Consistent-DEGs), and the other 14% of genes were dysregulated inconsistently (defined as Inconsistent-DEGs). The consistency score of dysregulation directions between Macro-Dissected-DEGs and Consistent-DEGs was 91% (P-value < 2.2 × 10−16, binomial test), whereas the score was only 52% between Macro-Dissected-DEGs and Inconsistent-DEGs (P-value = 0.9, binomial test). Among the gene ontology (GO) terms significantly enriched in Macro-Dissected-DEGs (FDR < 10%), 18 immune-related terms were enriched in Inconsistent-DEGs. DEGs associated with proliferation could reflect common changes of malignant epithelial and stromal cells; DEGs associated with immune functions are sensitive to the percentage of malignant epithelial cells in macro-dissected tissues. A prognostic signature which was insensitive to the cellular composition of macro-dissected tissues was developed and validated for ER+ breast patients. PMID:26490514

  15. Simultaneous sampling of tissue oxygenation and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nugent, William H; Song, Bjorn K; Pittman, Roland N; Golub, Aleksander S

    2016-05-01

    Under physiologic conditions, microvascular oxygen delivery appears to be well matched to oxygen consumption in respiring tissues. We present a technique to measure interstitial oxygen tension (PISFO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) under steady-state conditions, as well as during the transitions from rest to activity and back. Phosphorescence Quenching Microscopy (PQM) was employed with pneumatic compression cycling to achieve 1 to 10Hz sampling rates of interstitial PO2 and simultaneous recurrent sampling of VO2 (3/min) in the exteriorized rat spinotrapezius muscle. The compression pressure was optimized to 120-130mmHg without adverse effect on the tissue preparation. A cycle of 5s compression followed by 15s recovery yielded a resting VO2 of 0.98±0.03ml O2/100cm(3)min while preserving microvascular oxygen delivery. The measurement system was then used to assess VO2 dependence on PISFO2 at rest and further tested under conditions of isometric muscle contraction to demonstrate a robust ability to monitor the on-kinetics of tissue respiration and the compensatory changes in PISFO2 during contraction and recovery. The temporal and spatial resolution of this approach is well suited to studies seeking to characterize microvascular oxygen supply and demand in thin tissues. PMID:26683232

  16. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index in a Sample of Croatian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurin, Tanja; Jokic-Begic, Natasa; Korajlija, Anita Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a person's tendency to fear anxiety-related symptoms due to the belief that these symptoms may have harmful consequences. The most widely used operationalization of AS in adults is the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). The factor structure, gender stability, and psychometric properties of the ASI in a sample of…

  17. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  18. Foggy Faithfulness: Relationship Quality, Religiosity, and the Perceptions of Dating Infidelity Scale in an Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Brent A.; Wilson, Karen; Clark, Eddie M.; Bequette, Amanda W.; Weidler, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to (a) replicate the factor structure of the Perceptions of Dating Infidelity Scale (PDIS) with a sample of older adults, (b) examine whether religiosity and relational variables (e.g., satisfaction, commitment) were correlates of perceptions of infidelity, and (c) examine unique predictors of ratings of…

  19. Among-sampler variation in sweep net samples of adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweep net is a standard sampling method for adults of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton. However, factors that influence the relationship between true population levels and population estimates obtained using the sweep net are poorly documented. Improved understan...

  20. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  1. Stress, Social Support, and Outcomes in Two Probability Samples of Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…

  2. Profiles of Chronic Illness Knowledge in a Community Sample of American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The author identified profiles of chronic illness knowledge (i.e., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) in a community sample of American adults and examined the effect of sociodemographic influences on relations of illness knowledge to health practices and well-being. Participants were 181 women and 120 men who completed measures of illness…

  3. Fetal and adult fibroblasts display intrinsic differences in tendon tissue engineering and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qiao-Mei; Chen, Jia Lin; Shen, Wei Liang; Yin, Zi; Liu, Huan Huan; Fang, Zhi; Heng, Boon Chin; Ouyang, Hong Wei; Chen, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Injured adult tendons do not exhibit optimal healing through a regenerative process, whereas fetal tendons can heal in a regenerative fashion without scar formation. Hence, we compared FFs (mouse fetal fibroblasts) and AFs (mouse adult fibroblasts) as seed cells for the fabrication of scaffold-free engineered tendons. Our results demonstrated that FFs had more potential for tendon tissue engineering, as shown by higher levels of tendon-related gene expression. In the in situ AT injury model, the FFs group also demonstrated much better structural and functional properties after healing, with higher levels of collagen deposition and better microstructure repair. Moreover, fetal fibroblasts could increase the recruitment of fibroblast-like cells and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells to the injury site during the regeneration process. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanisms of better regeneration with FFs should be elucidated and be used to enhance adult tendon healing. This may assist in the development of future strategies to treat tendon injuries. PMID:24992450

  4. Selective expression of prion protein in peripheral tissues of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Ford, M J; Burton, L J; Morris, R J; Hall, S M

    2002-01-01

    The level of expression of normal cellular prion protein, PrP(c) (cellular prion protein), controls both the rate and the route of neuroinvasive infection, from peripheral entry portal to the CNS. Paradoxically, an overview of the distribution of PrP(c) within tissues outside the CNS is lacking. We have used novel antibodies that recognise cellular prion protein in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue (in order to optimise immunohistochemical labelling of this conformationally labile protein), in combination with in situ hybridisation, to examine the expression of PrP(c) in peripheral tissues of the adult mouse. We found that although prion protein is expressed in many tissues, it is expressed at high levels only in discrete subpopulations of cells. Prominent amongst these are elements of the "hardwired neuroimmune network" that integrate the body's immune defence and neuroendocrine systems under CNS control. These prion protein-expressing elements include small diameter afferent nerves in the skin and the lamina propria of the aerodigestive tract, sympathetic ganglia and nerves, antigen presenting and processing cells (both follicular and non-follicular dendritic cells) and sub-populations of lymphocytes particularly in skin, gut- and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues. Prion protein is also expressed in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems, in the dispersed neuroendocrine system, and in peripheral nervous system axons and their associated Schwann cells. This selective expression of cellular prion protein provides a variety of alternative routes for the propagation and transport of prion infection entering from peripheral sites, either naturally (via the aerodigestive tract or abraded skin) or experimentally (by intraperitoneal injection) to the brain. Key regulatory cells that express prion protein, and in particular enteroendocrine cells in the mucosal wall of the gut, and dendritic cells that convey pathogens from epithelial layers to secondary lymphoid

  5. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  6. Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults.

    PubMed

    Watt, James P; O'Brien, Katherine L; Katz, Scott; Bronsdon, Melinda A; Elliott, John; Dallas, Jean; Perilla, Mindy J; Reid, Raymond; Murrow, Laurel; Facklam, Richard; Santosham, Mathuram; Whitney, Cynthia G

    2004-11-01

    Several studies have shown that nasopharyngeal sampling is more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling for the detection of pneumococcal carriage in children. The data for adults are limited and conflicting. This study was part of a larger study of pneumococcal carriage on the Navajo and White Mountain Apache Reservation following a clinical trial of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Persons aged 18 years and older living in households with children enrolled in the vaccine trial were eligible. We collected both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens by passing a flexible calcium alginate wire swab either nasally to the posterior nasopharynx or orally to the posterior oropharynx. Swabs were placed in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin medium and frozen at -70 degrees C. Pneumococcal isolation was performed by standard techniques. Analyses were based on specimens collected from 1,994 adults living in 1,054 households. Nasopharyngeal specimens (11.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8 and 12.6%) were significantly more likely to grow pneumococci than were oropharyngeal specimens (5.8%; 95% CI, 4.8 to 6.9%) (P < 0.0001). Few persons had pneumococcal growth from both specimens (1.7%). Therefore, both tests together were more likely to identify pneumococcal carriage (15.2%; 95% CI, 13.7 to 16.9%) than either test alone. Although we found that nasopharyngeal sampling was more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling, nasopharyngeal sampling alone would have underestimated the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in this adult population. Sampling both sites may give more accurate results than sampling either site alone in studies of pneumococcal carriage in adults. PMID:15528682

  7. Adult stem cells and biocompatible scaffolds as smart drug delivery tools for cardiac tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Stefania; Romanazzo, Sara; Mosqueira, Diogo; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpetua; Aoyagi, Takao; Forte, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of adult stem cells to cardiac repair is mostly ascribed to an indirect paracrine effect, rather than to their actual engraftment and differentiation into new contractile and vascular cells. This effect consists in a direct reduction of host cell death, promotion of neovascularization, and in a "bystander effect" on local inflammation. A number of cytokines secreted by adult stem/progenitor cells has been proposed to be responsible for the consistent beneficial effect reported in the early attempts to deliver different stem cell subsets to the injured myocardium. Aiming to maximize their beneficial activity on the diseased myocardium, the genetic modification of adult stem cells to enhance and/or control the secretion of specific cytokines would turn them into active drug delivery vectors. On the other hand, engineering biocompatible scaffolds as to release paracrine factors could result in multiple advantages: (1) achieve a local controlled release of the drug of interest, thus minimizing off-target effects, (2) enhance stem cell retention in the injured area and (3) boost the beneficial paracrine effects exerted by adult stem cells on the host tissue. In the present review, a critical overview of the state-of-the-art in the modification of stem cells and the functionalization of biocompatible scaffolds to deliver beneficial soluble factors to the injured myocardium is offered. Besides the number of concerns to be addressed before a clinical application can be foreseen for such concepts, this path could translate into the generation of active scaffolds as smart cell and drug delivery systems for cardiac repair. PMID:23745554

  8. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested. PMID:26825495

  9. Tissue specific uptake and elimination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Falk, Sandy; Failing, Klaus; Georgii, Sebastian; Brunn, Hubertus; Stahl, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Tissue specific uptake and elimination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Adult trout were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) via food over a time period of 28d. In the following 28-d depuration period the fish were fed PFAA-free food. At defined sampling times four animals were removed from the experimental tank, euthanized and dissected. Muscle, liver, kidneys, gills, blood, skin and carcass were examined individually. At the end of the accumulation phase between 0.63% (PFOA) and 15.5% (PFOS) of the absolute, applied quantity of PFAAs was recovered in the whole fish. The main target organ was the liver with recovery rates between 0.11% (PFBS) and 4.01% (PFOS) of the total amount of ingested PFAAs. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids were taken up more readily and had longer estimated elimination half-lives than perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids of the same chain length. The longest estimated elimination half-lives were found to be for PFOS between 8.4d in muscle tissue and 20.4d in the liver and for PFNA between 8.2d in the blood and 11.6d in the liver. PMID:25022474

  10. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle. PMID:22142412

  11. Threshold-dependent sample sizes for selenium assessment with stream fish tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource managers are developing assessments of selenium (Se) contamination in freshwater ecosystems based on fish tissue concentrations. We evaluated the effects of sample size (i.e., number of fish per site) on the probability of correctly detecting mean whole-body Se values above a range of potential management thresholds. We modeled Se concentrations as gamma distributions with shape and scale parameters fitting an empirical mean-to-variance relationship in data from southwestern West Virginia, USA (63 collections, 382 individuals). We used parametric bootstrapping techniques to calculate statistical power as the probability of detecting true mean concentrations up to 3 mg Se/kg above management thresholds ranging from 4-8 mg Se/kg. Sample sizes required to achieve 80% power varied as a function of management thresholds and type-I error tolerance (α). Higher thresholds required more samples than lower thresholds because populations were more heterogeneous at higher mean Se levels. For instance, to assess a management threshold of 4 mg Se/kg, a sample of 8 fish could detect an increase of ∼ 1 mg Se/kg with 80% power (given α = 0.05), but this sample size would be unable to detect such an increase from a management threshold of 8 mg Se/kg with more than a coin-flip probability. Increasing α decreased sample size requirements to detect above-threshold mean Se concentrations with 80% power. For instance, at an α-level of 0.05, an 8-fish sample could detect an increase of ∼ 2 units above a threshold of 8 mg Se/kg with 80% power, but when α was relaxed to 0.2 this sample size was more sensitive to increasing mean Se concentrations, allowing detection of an increase of ∼ 1.2 units with equivalent power. Combining individuals into 2- and 4-fish composite samples for laboratory analysis did not decrease power because the reduced number of laboratory samples was compensated by increased precision of composites for estimating mean

  12. Analysis of histone gene expression in adult tissues of the sea urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus: tissue-specific expression of sperm histone genes.

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, T; Weisser, K; Childs, G

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed the histone mRNA population found in several adult tissues of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and in testis of Lytechinus pictus. Unique species of H1 and H2b mRNAs encoding the sperm-specific histone subtypes can be found exclusively in testis RNA. S. purpuratus contains two distinct testis-specific H1 transcripts, while L. pictus contains one such transcript. Each of these mRNAs is larger than either early or late embryonic H1 mRNAs. Other somatic adult tissues contain transcripts derived from members of the late embryonic H1 histone gene family. S. purpuratus contains one H2b transcript found exclusively in testis, while L. pictus contains two such H2b mRNAs. Similarly, in tissues other than testis, late H2b transcripts were found. While there is no sperm-specific H2a protein, a limited set of late histone H2a genes encoding primarily the H2a-beta subtype is expressed in testis. The majority of the H2a protein found in diploid adult tissues is also the H2a-beta subtype; however, the size of the H2a transcripts differs between testis and other tissues. We conclude that different members of the late H2a gene family are differentially expressed in embryos and adult tissues. We prepared and characterized cDNA clones encoding the sperm-specific H2b protein as well as the H2a-beta protein found in testis. Images PMID:3785204

  13. The relationship between decorrelation time and sample thickness in acute rat brain tissue slices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Joshua; Jang, Mooseok; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-03-01

    The optical opacity of biological tissue has long been a challenge in biomedical optics due to the strong scattering nature of tissue in the optical regime. While most conventional optical techniques attempt to gate out multiply scattered light and use only unscattered light, new approaches in the field of wavefront shaping exploit the time reversible symmetry of optical scattering in order to focus light inside or through scattering media. While these approaches have been demonstrated effectively on static samples, it has proven difficult to apply them to dynamic biological samples since even small changes in the relative positions of the scatterers within will cause the time symmetry that wavefront shaping relies upon to decorrelate. In this paper we investigate the decorrelation curves of acute rat brain slices for thicknesses in the range 1-3 mm (1/e decorrelation time on the order of seconds) using multi-speckle diffusing wave spectroscopy (MSDWS) and compare the results with theoretical predictions. The results of this study demonstrate that the 1/L^2 relationship between decorrelation time and thickness predicted by diffusing wave spectroscopy provides a good rule of thumb for estimating how the decorrelation of a sample will change with increasing thickness. Understanding this relationship will provide insight to guide the future development of biophotonic wavefront shaping tools by giving an estimate of how fast wavefront shaping systems need to operate to overcome the dynamic nature of biological samples.

  14. Determination of optical properties of oxidative bleaching human dental tissue samples using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Y. R.; Guo, Z. Y.; Shu, S. Y.; Zeng, C. C.; Zhong, H. Q.; Chen, B. L.; Liu, Z. M.; Bao, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative bleaching changes of human teeth induced changes in the optical properties of dental tissue. We introduced 1310 nm wavelengths of optical coherence tomography (OCT) attenuation coefficient method which is a relatively novel and rarely reported methodology to measure the correlation coefficient during the teeth oxidative bleaching procedure. And the quantitative parameters of enamel optical thickness and disruption of the entrance signal (DES) were extracted from the OCT images. The attenuation coefficient of the bleached tissue is 6.2 mm-1 which is significant (p < 0.001) higher than that unbleached sample is 1.4 mm-1. But attenuation coefficient varied significantly (p < 0.001) between 5.9 and 1.5 mm-1 in dentine which is downtrend. Furthermore, the persistence of bleaching oxidation in 35% hydrogen peroxide-induced optical thickness of enamel is similar with unbleached tissue which may indicate the refractive index of enamel is unchanged. Moreover, disruption of the entrance signal (DES) analysis showed that remarkable difference was appeared at enamel surface. The results indicate that optical properties of oxidative bleaching human dental tissue can be determined by attenuation coefficient using OCT system.

  15. Enzymatic tissue digestion as an alternative sample preparation approach for quantitative analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chongwoo; Penn, Lara D; Hollembaek, John; Li, Wenlin; Cohen, Lucinda H

    2004-03-15

    Compound extraction from biological tissue often presents a challenge for the bioanalytical chemist. Labor-intensive homogenization or sonication of whole or powdered tissue is performed before compounds can be extracted and analyzed. Enzymatic digestion is commonly used for tissue dissociation and cell harvesting and offers the advantages of unattended sample preparation, potential automation, and low cost. The feasibility of enzymatic digestion as an alternate tissue preparation technique was evaluated for bioanalysis of drugs in conjunction with LC/MS/MS. Two different enzymes (collagenase and proteinase K) that are known to degrade connective tissues to allow tissue dissolution were chosen for evaluation, employing well-known antidepressants desipramine and fluoxetine as test compounds in dog and rat brain tissue. Comparison between enzymatic digestion and conventional homogenization tissue preparation was performed, including investigation of matrix ionization suppression of both methods using a postcolumn infusion system. Results showed that enzymatic digestion has extraction efficiency comparable to homogenization. Matrix ionization suppression was not observed for either the test compounds evaluated or the sample extraction method. Test compound levels of incurred tissue samples prepared by enzymatic digestion were in good agreement with the values obtained by the conventional homogenization tissue preparation, indicating that enzymatic digestion is an appropriate tissue sample preparation method. PMID:15018580

  16. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  17. The Sequential Tissue Distribution of Duck Tembusu Virus in Adult Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Ding, Leilei; Lin, Yuan; Li, Qimeng; He, Xijun; Chen, Qiusheng; Chen, Hualan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a novel Tembusu virus (TMUV) that caused a severe decrease in the egg production of ducks was isolated in southeast China. Given the novelty of this duck pathogen, little information is available regarding its pathogenesis. Here, we systematically investigated the replication kinetics of TMUV PTD2010 in adult male and female ducks. We found that PTD2010 was detectable in most of the parenchymatous organs as well as the oviduct and intestinal tract from days 1 to 7 after inoculation. Viral titers were maintained at high levels for at least 9 days in the spleen, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, brain, and ovary. No virus was detected in any of these organs or tissues at 18 days after inoculation. PTD2010, thus, causes systemic infections in male and female ducks; its replication kinetics show similar patterns in most organs, with the exception of the ovaries and testes. PMID:25215289

  18. Liquid microjunction surface sampling of acetaminophen, terfenadine and their metabolites in thin tissue sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Paranthaman, Nithya; Moench, Paul; Catoire, Alexandre; Flarakos, Jimmy; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the analytical performance of a fully automated droplet-based surface-sampling system for determining the distribution of the drugs acetaminophen and terfenadine, and their metabolites, in rat thin tissue sections. The following are the results: The rank order of acetaminophen concentration observed in tissues was stomach > small intestine > liver, while the concentrations of its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites were greatest in the liver and small intestine. Terfenadine was most concentrated in the liver and kidney, while its major metabolite, fexofenadine, was found in the liver and small intestine. In conclusion, the spatial distributions of both drugs and their respective metabolites observed in this work were consistent with previous studies using radiolabeled drugs.

  19. Liquid microjunction surface sampling of acetaminophen, terfenadine and their metabolites in thin tissue sections

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Paranthaman, Nithya; Moench, Paul; Catoire, Alexandre; Flarakos, Jimmy; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the analytical performance of a fully automated droplet-based surface-sampling system for determining the distribution of the drugs acetaminophen and terfenadine, and their metabolites, in rat thin tissue sections. The following are the results: The rank order of acetaminophen concentration observed in tissues was stomach > small intestine > liver, while the concentrations of its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites were greatest in the liver and small intestine. Terfenadine was most concentrated in the liver and kidney, while its major metabolite, fexofenadine, was found in the liver and small intestine. In conclusion, the spatialmore » distributions of both drugs and their respective metabolites observed in this work were consistent with previous studies using radiolabeled drugs.« less

  20. The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    de Zwaan, Martina; Gruss, Barbara; Müller, Astrid; Graap, Holmer; Martin, Alexandra; Glaesmer, Heide; Hilbert, Anja; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population aged 18-64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate the prevalence of ADHD. A 4-item screening tool was used to assess probable cases of current depression and anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire). The estimated crude prevalence rate of current ADHD was 4.7%. Adult ADHD was significantly associated with lower age, low educational level, unemployment, marital status (never married and divorced), and rural residency. No association was found with gender. Adult ADHD was strongly associated with positive screening results for depression and anxiety. ADHD is a common disorder of adulthood, is associated with significant social impairment and psychiatric co-morbidity, and should receive further research attention. PMID:21499942

  1. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08), followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09) and sexual abuse (OR=2.07). Conclusions The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations. Highlights of the article Child maltreatment is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in a nationally representative sample of young Danish adults. Co-occurring (multiple) types of maltreatment display stronger associations with ADHD symptoms with attenuated effects for sexual abuse. Males confer stronger associations with ADHD symptoms than females. Findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of childhood trauma in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:27306866

  2. Extension of the Contingency Naming Test to adult assessment: psychometric analysis in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Tara; Suhr, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The Contingency Naming Test (CNT; Taylor, Albo, Phebus, Sachs, & Bierl, 1987) was initially designed to assess aspects of executive functioning, such as processing speed and response inhibition, in children. The measure has shown initial utility in identifying differences in executive function among child clinical groups; however, there is an absence of adequate psychometric data for use with adults. The current study expanded psychometric data upward for use with a college student sample and explored the measure's test-retest reliability and factor structure. Performance in the adult sample showed continued improvement above child norms, consistent with theories of executive function development. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the CNT is most closely related to measures of processing speed, as well as elements of response inhibition within the latter trials. Overall, results from the current study provide added support for the utility of the CNT as a measure of executive functioning in young adults. However, more research is needed to determine patterns of performance among adult clinical groups, as well as to better understand how performance patterns may change in a broader age range, including middle and older adulthood. PMID:22432965

  3. Use of Adult Stem Cells for Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Current Status and Future Developments

    PubMed Central

    Baugé, Catherine; Boumédiene, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. So, in recent years, researchers and surgeons have been working hard to elaborate cartilage repair interventions for patients who suffer from cartilage damage. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or hypertrophic cartilage. In the next years, the development of new strategies using adult stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium and/or culture in low oxygen tension should improve the quality of neoformed cartilage. Through these solutions, some of the latest technologies start to bring very promising results in repairing cartilage from traumatic injury or chondropathies. This review discusses the current knowledge about the use of adult stem cells in the context of cartilage tissue engineering and presents clinical trials in progress, as well as in the future, especially in the field of bioprinting stem cells. PMID:26246809

  4. Predicting visceral adipose tissue by MRI using DXA and anthropometry in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laddu, Deepika R.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Sato, Tetsuya; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue, independent of total adiposity, is associated with development of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in children and adults. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for estimating visceral adiposity (VAT) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using anthropometric variables and measures of abdominal fat mass from DXA in adolescents and young adults. Methods Cross-sectional data was collected from a multiethnic population of seventy males and females, aged 12–25 years, with BMI ranging from 14.5–38.1 kg/m2. Android (AFM; android region as defined by manufacturers instruction) and lumbar L1-L4 regional fat masses were assessed using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy; GE Lunar Corp, Madison, WI, USA). Criterion measures of intra-abdominal visceral fat were obtained using single-slice MRI (General Electric Signa Model 5x 1.5T) and VAT area was analyzed at the level OF L4–L5. Image analysis was carried out using ZedView 3.1. Results DXA measures of AFM (r=0.76) and L1-L4 (r=0.71) were significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with MRI-measured VAT. DXA AFM, together with gender and weight, explained 62% of the variance in VAT (SEE=10.06 cm2). DXA L1-L4 fat mass with gender explained 54% of the variance in VAT (SEE=11.08 cm2). Addition of the significant interaction, gender × DXA fat mass, improved prediction of VAT from AFM (Radj2=0.61, SEE=10.10cm2) and L1-L4 (Radj2=0.59, SEE=10.39cm2). Conclusion These results demonstrate that VAT is accurately estimated from regional fat masses measured by DXA in adolescents and young adults. PMID:26097436

  5. Normalization of gene expression measurement of tissue samples obtained by transurethral resection of bladder tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Laura A; Pileczki, Valentina; Cojocneanu-Petric, Roxana M; Petrut, Bogdan; Braicu, Cornelia; Jurj, Ancuta M; Buiga, Rares; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    Background Sample processing is a crucial step for all types of genomic studies. A major challenge for researchers is to understand and predict how RNA quality affects the identification of transcriptional differences (by introducing either false-positive or false-negative errors). Nanotechnologies help improve the quality and quantity control for gene expression studies. Patients and methods The study was performed on 14 tumor and matched normal pairs of tissue from patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas. We assessed the RNA quantity by using the NanoDrop spectrophotometer and the quality by nano-microfluidic capillary electrophoresis technology provided by Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. We evaluated the amplification status of three housekeeping genes and one small nuclear RNA gene using the ViiA 7 platform, with specific primers. Results Every step of the sample handling protocol, which begins with sample harvest and ends with the data analysis, is of utmost importance due to the fact that it is time consuming, labor intensive, and highly expensive. High temperature of the surgical procedure does not affect the small nucleic acid sequences in comparison with the mRNA. Conclusion Gene expression is clearly affected by the RNA quality, but less affected in the case of small nuclear RNAs. We proved that the high-temperature, highly invasive transurethral resection of bladder tumor procedure damages the tissue and affects the integrity of the RNA from biological specimens. PMID:27330317

  6. Evaluation of sample holders designed for long-lasting X-ray micro-tomographic scans of ex-vivo soft tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudak, J.; Zemlicka, J.; Krejci, F.; Karch, J.; Patzelt, M.; Zach, P.; Sykora, V.; Mrzilkova, J.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray microradiography and microtomography are imaging techniques with increasing applicability in the field of biomedical and preclinical research. Application of hybrid pixel detector Timepix enables to obtain very high contrast of low attenuating materials such as soft biological tissue. However X-ray imaging of ex-vivo soft tissue samples is a difficult task due to its structural instability. Ex-vivo biological tissue is prone to fast drying-out which is connected with undesired changes of sample size and shape producing later on artefacts within the tomographic reconstruction. In this work we present the optimization of our Timepix equipped micro-CT system aiming to maintain soft tissue sample in stable condition. Thanks to the suggested approach higher contrast of tomographic reconstructions can be achieved while also large samples that require detector scanning can be easily measured.

  7. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant status in tissue samples in oral cancer: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Austin, Ravi David; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients of different clinical stages in comparison with the healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was designed with 20 new histopathologically proven oral carcinoma patients and an equal number of age, sex, and tobacco chewing habit matched healthy subjects. Their tissue samples were subjected to evaluation of lipid peroxidation product and antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The statistical comparisons between the study groups were performed by independent Student's unpaired t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Post-hoc analysis was performed for within study group comparisons. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed using SPSS (α=0.05). Results: Significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) SOD and CAT (P < 0.001) was observed in the tissue of OSCC patients as compared with the healthy controls. On the other hand, reduced GSH and GPx were significantly increased in tumor samples. Conclusion: Reduced lipid peroxidation and increased activity of reduced GSH and GPx provides the suitable environment for the local growth and invasion of the tumor and metastasis in the later stages. Among the antioxidant enzymes, GSH reductase appears to have a profound role in carcinogenesis and thus it can be considered as potential prognostic marker. PMID:27076834

  8. A novel method for measuring aromatase activity in tissue samples by determining estradiol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Rascle, J B; Colombel, S; Al Khansa, I; Freyberger, A; Bars, R

    2011-07-01

    Increasing scrutiny of endocrine disrupters has led to changes to European pesticide and biocide legislation and to the introduction of the Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program by the US EPA. One element of endocrine disrupter identification is to determine its effects on aromatase, but most available assays are limited as they depend on tritiated water production to indicate enzyme activity. Whilst acceptable for determining aromatase effects using a cell-free approach, this method is unreliable for cell or tissue-based investigations as other cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme activities can similarly produce tritiated water and consequently confound interpretation of the aromatase data. To address this lack of specificity an assay directly measuring the final estrogen product by incubating rat tissue protein with testosterone and measuring the resultant estradiol concentration was developed. Using this approach we demonstrated marked increases in enzyme activity in pregnant rat ovary samples and dose-related inhibitions when incubating non-pregnant rat ovary samples with known aromatase inhibitors. Hepatic aromatase activity was investigated using our method and by tritiated water production with microsomes from rats dosed with the antiandrogen 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethane. Additional cytochrome P-450s were also measured. Treatment-related increased tritiated water production and general hepatic enzyme activity were recorded but estradiol was not increased, indicating that the increased tritiated water was due to general enzyme activity and not aromatase activity. A simple and specific method has been developed that can detect aromatase inhibition and induction, which when applied to tissue samples, provides a means of generating relevant animal data concerning chemical effects on the aromatase enzyme. PMID:21259292

  9. Microscopy and elemental analysis in tissue samples using computed microtomography with synchrotron x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The initial development shows that CMT using synchrotron x-rays can be developed to ..mu..m spatial resolution and perhaps even better. This creates a new microscopy technique which is of special interest in morphological studies of tissues, since no chemical preparation or slicing of the sample is necessary. The combination of CMT with spatial resolution in the ..mu..m range and elemental mapping with sensitivity in the ppM range results in a new tool for elemental mapping at the cellular level. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  10. In vivo facial tissue depth for Canadian Mi'kmaq adults: a case study from Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Harris, Mikkel; Huculak, Meaghan; Pringle, Ashleigh; Fournier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines facial tissue depth in Canadian Mi'kmaq adults. Using ultrasound, measurements were taken at 19 landmarks on the faces of 152 individuals aged 18-75 years old. The relationships between tissue thickness, age, and sex were investigated. A positive linear trend exists between tissue thickness and age for Mi'kmaq males and females at multiple landmarks. Seven landmarks show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 18-34 years old; no landmarks show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 35-45 years old and 46-55 years old. Significant differences were shown in facial tissue depth between Mi'kmaq and White Americans and Mi'kmaq and African Americans. These data can assist in 3-D facial reconstructions and aid in establishing the identity of unknown Mi'kmaq individuals. PMID:25572085

  11. Cortical activity evoked by an acute painful tissue-damaging stimulus in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Slater, Rebeccah; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Everyday painful experiences are usually single events accompanied by tissue damage, and yet most experimental studies of cutaneous nociceptive processing in the brain use repeated laser, thermal, or electrical stimulations that do not damage the skin. In this study the nociceptive activity in the brain evoked by tissue-damaging skin lance was analyzed with electroencephalography (EEG) in 20 healthy adult volunteers (13 men and 7 women) aged 21–40 yr. Time-frequency analysis of the evoked activity revealed a distinct late event-related vertex potential (lance event-related potential, LERP) at 100–300 ms consisting of a phase-locked energy increase between 1 and 20 Hz (delta-beta bands). A pairwise comparison between lance and sham control stimulation also revealed a period of ultralate stronger desynchronization after lance in the delta band (1–5 Hz). Skin application of mustard oil before lancing, which sensitizes a subpopulation of nociceptors expressing the cation channel TRPA1, did not affect the ultralate desynchronization but reduced the phase-locked energy increase in delta and beta bands, suggesting a central interaction between different modalities of nociceptive inputs. Verbal descriptor screening of individual pain experience revealed that lance pain is predominantly due to Aδ fiber activation, but when individuals describe lances as C fiber mediated, an ultralate delta band event-related desynchronization occurs in the brain-evoked activity. We conclude that pain evoked by acute tissue damage is associated with distinct Aδ and C fiber-mediated patterns of synchronization and desynchronization of EEG oscillations in the brain. PMID:23427303

  12. Assessing Skin Blood Flow Dynamics in Older Adults Using a Modified Sample Entropy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    The aging process may result in attenuated microvascular reactivity in response to environmental stimuli, which can be evaluated by analyzing skin blood flow (SBF) signals. Among various methods for analyzing physiological signals, sample entropy (SE) is commonly used to quantify the degree of regularity of time series. However, we found that for temporally correlated data, SE value depends on the sampling rate. When data are oversampled, SE may give misleading results. To address this problem, we propose to modify the definition of SE by using time-lagged vectors in the calculation of the conditional probability that any two vectors of successive data points are within a tolerance r for m points remain within the tolerance at the next point. The lag could be chosen as the first minimum of the auto mutual information function. We tested the performance of modified SE using simulated signals and SBF data. The results showed that modified SE is able to quantify the degree of regularity of the signals regardless of sampling rate. Using this approach, we observed a more regular behavior of blood flow oscillations (BFO) during local heating-induced maximal vasodilation period compared to the baseline in young and older adults and a more regular behavior of BFO in older adults compared to young adults. These results suggest that modified SE may be useful in the study of SBF dynamics. PMID:25570060

  13. Multivariate classification of the infrared spectra of cell and tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, D.M.; Jones, H.D.; Thomas, E.V.

    1997-03-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy of biopsied canine lymph cells and tissue was performed to investigate the possibility of using IR spectra coupled with multivariate classification methods to classify the samples as normal, hyperplastic, or neoplastic (malignant). IR spectra were obtained in transmission mode through BaF{sub 2} windows and in reflection mode from samples prepared on gold-coated microscope slides. Cytology and histopathology samples were prepared by a variety of methods to identify the optimal methods of sample preparation. Cytospinning procedures that yielded a monolayer of cells on the BaF{sub 2} windows produced a limited set of IR transmission spectra. These transmission spectra were converted to absorbance and formed the basis for a classification rule that yielded 100{percent} correct classification in a cross-validated context. Classifications of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic cell sample spectra were achieved by using both partial least-squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) classification methods. Linear discriminant analysis applied to principal components obtained from the spectral data yielded a small number of misclassifications. PLS weight loading vectors yield valuable qualitative insight into the molecular changes that are responsible for the success of the infrared classification. These successful classification results show promise for assisting pathologists in the diagnosis of cell types and offer future potential for {ital in vivo} IR detection of some types of cancer. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  14. Interactive programs with preschool children bring smiles and conversation to older adults: time-sampling study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Keeping older adults healthy and active is an emerging challenge of an aging society. Despite the importance of personal relationships to their health and well-being, changes in family structure have resulted in a lower frequency of intergenerational interactions. Limited studies have been conducted to compare different interaction style of intergenerational interaction. The present study aimed to compare the changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation in older adults brought about by a performance-based intergenerational (IG) program and a social-oriented IG program to determine a desirable interaction style for older adults. Methods The subjects of this study were 25 older adults who participated in intergenerational programs with preschool children aged 5 to 6 years at an adult day care centre in Tokyo. We used time sampling to perform a structured observation study. The 25 older participants of intergenerational programs were divided into two groups based on their interaction style: performance-based IG program (children sing songs and dance) and social-oriented IG program (older adults and children play games together). Based on the 5-minute video observation, we compared changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation between the performance-based and social-oriented IG programs. Results Constructive behaviour and intergenerational conversation were significantly higher in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming group (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed in frequency of smiles, however, when weighted smiling rate was used, smiles were significantly more frequently observed in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming (p<0.05). The visual attention occurred between the generations was significantly higher in the performance-based IG

  15. METHODS FOR USING 3-D ULTRASOUND SPECKLE TRACKING IN BIAXIAL MECHANICAL TESTING OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUE SAMPLES

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon Hwai; Park, Dae Woo; Dutta, Debaditya; Simon, Marc; Kim, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Being multilayered and anisotropic, biological tissues such as cardiac and arterial walls are structurally complex, making full assessment and understanding of their mechanical behavior challenging. Current standard mechanical testing uses surface markers to track tissue deformations and does not provide deformation data below the surface. In the study described here, we found that combining mechanical testing with 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking could overcome this limitation. Rat myocardium was tested with a biaxial tester and was concurrently scanned with high-frequency ultrasound in three dimensions. The strain energy function was computed from stresses and strains using an iterative non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Because the strain energy function consists of terms for the base matrix and for embedded fibers, spatially varying fiber orientation was also computed by curve fitting. Using finite-element simulations, we first validated the accuracy of the non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Next, we compared experimentally measured rat myocardium strain energy function values with those in the literature and found a matching order of magnitude. Finally, we retained samples after the experiments for fiber orientation quantification using histology and found that the results satisfactorily matched those computed in the experiments. We conclude that 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking can be a useful addition to traditional mechanical testing of biological tissues and may provide the benefit of enabling fiber orientation computation. PMID:25616585

  16. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  17. A percutaneous needle biopsy technique for sampling the supraclavicular brown adipose tissue depot of humans

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Palam; Chondronikola, Maria; Chao, Tony; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K.; Cesani, Fernardo; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been proposed as a potential target tissue against obesity and its related metabolic complications. Although the molecular and functional characteristics of BAT have been intensively studied in rodents, only a small number of studies have used human BAT specimens due to the difficulty of sampling human BAT deposits. We established a novel positron emission tomography and computed tomography-guided Bergström needle biopsy technique to acquire human BAT specimens from the supraclavicular area in human subjects. Forty-three biopsies were performed on 23 participants. The procedure was tolerated well by the majority of participants. No major complications were noted. Numbness (9.6%) and hematoma (2.3%) were the two minor complications noted, which fully resolved. Thus, the proposed biopsy technique can be considered safe with only minimal risk of adverse events. Adoption of the proposed method is expected to increase the sampling of the supraclavicular BAT depot for research purposes so as to augment the scientific knowledge of the biology of human BAT. PMID:25920777

  18. Protocol: High-throughput and quantitative assays of auxin and auxin precursors from minute tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The plant hormone auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), plays important roles in plant growth and development. The signaling response to IAA is largely dependent on the local concentration of IAA, and this concentration is regulated by multiple mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the precise quantification of local IAA concentration provides insights into the regulation of IAA and its biological roles. Meanwhile, pathways and genes involved in IAA biosynthesis are not fully understood, so it is necessary to analyze the production of IAA at the metabolite level for unbiased studies of IAA biosynthesis. Results We have developed high-throughput methods to quantify plant endogenous IAA and its biosynthetic precursors including indole, tryptophan, indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The protocol starts with homogenizing plant tissues with stable-labeled internal standards added, followed by analyte purification using solid phase extraction (SPE) tips and analyte derivatization. The derivatized analytes are finally analyzed by selected reaction monitoring on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS) to determine the precise abundance of analytes. The amount of plant tissue required for the assay is small (typically 2–10 mg fresh weight), and the use of SPE tips is simple and convenient, which allows preparation of large sets of samples within reasonable time periods. Conclusions The SPE tips and GC-MS/MS based method enables high-throughput and accurate quantification of IAA and its biosynthetic precursors from minute plant tissue samples. The protocol can be used for measurement of these endogenous compounds using isotope dilution, and it can also be applied to analyze IAA biosynthesis and biosynthetic pathways using stable isotope labeling. The method will potentially advance knowledge of the role and regulation of IAA. PMID:22883136

  19. Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Mass Spectrometry for Detection of Drugs and Metabolites in Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Koeplinger, Kenneth A.; Vavek, Marissa; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2008-01-01

    A self-aspirating, liquid micro-junction surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter mass spectrometry system was demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of spotted and dosed drugs and their metabolites in thin tissue sections. Proof-of-principle sampling and analysis directly from tissue without the need for sample preparation was demonstrated first by raster scanning a region on a section of rat liver onto which reserpine was spotted. The mass spectral signal from selected reaction monitoring was used to develop a chemical image of the spotted drug on the tissue. The probe was also used to selectively spot sample areas of sagittal whole mouse body tissue sections that had been dosed orally (90 mg/kg) with R,S-sulforaphane 3 hrs prior to sacrifice. Sulforaphane and its glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine conjugates were monitored with selected reaction monitoring and detected in the stomach and various other tissues from the dosed mouse. No signal for these species was observed in the tissue from a control mouse. The same dosed tissue section was used to illustrate the possibility of obtaining a line scan across the whole body section. In total these results illustrate the potential for rapid screening of the distribution of drugs and metabolites in tissue sections with the micro-liquid junction surface sampling probe/electrospray mass spectrometry approach.

  20. Congregational Participation of a National Sample of Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carter, Erik W; Kleinert, Harold L; LoBianco, Tony F; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Butler, Laura N; Tyree, Milton S

    2015-12-01

    Supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to thrive requires careful consideration of multiple avenues of community involvement. Yet little attention has focused on the place of faith community participation in the lives of adults with IDD. We examined attendance at religious services using National Core Indicator data for a sample of 12,706 adults with IDD residing in 24 states. Almost half of adults (48.3%) reported attending a religious service in the past month, and more than one third (34.6%) attended 3 or more times. Religious involvement varied considerably based on a variety of individual (e.g., race, disability type, behavioral support needs, communication mode) and contextual factors (e.g., geographic locale, residential type). Moreover, monthly involvement in religious activities was much less common than participation in other community activities (i.e., exercise, entertainment, eating out, shopping). We offer recommendations for supporting the spiritual lives of adults with IDD, as well as highlight areas for future research and practice. PMID:26618738

  1. Hyaluronan and Fibrin Biomaterial as Scaffolds for Neuronal Differentiation of Adult Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Chiara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Bressan, Eriberto; Ferroni, Letizia; Nalesso, Elisa; Puppa, Alessandro Della; D’Avella, Domenico; Lops, Diego; Pinton, Paolo; Zavan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we have described a simple protocol to obtain an enriched culture of adult stem cells organized in neurospheres from two post-natal tissues: skin and adipose tissue. Due to their possible application in neuronal tissue regeneration, here we tested two kinds of scaffold well known in tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membranes and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres from skin and adipose tissue were seeded onto two scaffold types: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres were then induced to acquire a glial and neuronal-like phenotype. Gene expression, morphological feature and chromosomal imbalance (kariotype) were analyzed and compared. Adipose and skin derived neurospheres are able to grow well and to differentiate into glial/neuron cells without any chromosomal imbalance in both scaffolds. Adult cells are able to express typical cell surface markers such as S100; GFAP; nestin; βIII tubulin; CNPase. In summary, we have demonstrated that neurospheres isolated from skin and adipose tissues are able to differentiate in glial/neuron-like cells, without any chromosomal imbalance in two scaffold types, useful for tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes. PMID:22072917

  2. Determination of sex from an autopsy sample of adult hyoid bones.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha Pratim

    2012-07-01

    Determination of sex is the first and crucial step in the process of identifying human remains in forensic casework. Sex determination from skeletal remains is well studied and an extensively documented subject. The hyoid bone, however, has drawn less attention in studies of this nature. The present study was designed to derive a model for the determination of sex from the adult hyoid in a sample of the Indian Bengali population using discriminant function analysis on 50 adult bones (38 men and 12 women). The following discriminant function was obtained: DF = 0.103W + 0.118AP + 0.130CR + 0.483AW + 0.117DR - 20.64. Overall, 90% of the cases could be correctly classified into the two sexes by means of five predictors (overall width, length of the greater cornu, anteroposterior length, width of the body of hyoid and the distance between the lesser cornua) in the model. Cross-validated results showed correct classification in 90% of the cases. The results of this preliminary study show that these variables contribute to discrimination between the two sexes in the study population. Sexing of the adult human hyoid bone is thus possible with reasonable accuracy using the discriminant function on a sample obtained from the same population. PMID:22427484

  3. Typology of club drug use among young adults recruited using time-space sampling

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Grov, Christian; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelly, Brian C.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of recent club drug use among 400 young adults (18–29) recruited using time-space sampling in NYC. Subjects had used at least one of six club drugs (MDMA, Ketamine, GHB, Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and LSD) within the prior 3 months. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to estimate latent groups based on patterns of recent club drug use and examined differences in demographic and psychological variables by class. A 3-class model fit the data best. Patterns were: Primary cocaine users (42% of sample), Mainstream users (44% of sample), and Wide-range users (14% of sample). Those most likely to be Primary cocaine users were significantly less likely to be heterosexual males and had higher educational attainment than the other two classes. Those most likely to be Wide-range users were less likely to be heterosexual females, more likely to be gay/bisexual males, dependent on club drugs, had significantly greater drug and sexual sensation-seeking, and were more likely to use when experiencing physical discomfort or pleasant times with others compared to the other two groups. Findings highlight the utility of using person-centered approaches to understand patterns of substance use, as well as highlight several patterns of club drug use among young adults. PMID:19939585

  4. Typology of club drug use among young adults recruited using time-space sampling.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Grov, Christian; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined patterns of recent club drug use among 400 young adults (18-29) recruited using time-space sampling in NYC. Subjects had used at least one of six club drugs (methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), cocaine, methamphetamine, and D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)) within the prior 3 months. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to estimate latent groups based on patterns of recent club drug use and examined differences in demographic and psychological variables by class. A 3-class model fit the data best. Patterns were: Primary cocaine users (42% of sample), Mainstream users (44% of sample), and Wide-range users (14% of sample). Those most likely to be Primary cocaine users were significantly less likely to be heterosexual males and had higher educational attainment than the other two classes. Those most likely to be Wide-range users were less likely to be heterosexual females, more likely to be gay/bisexual males, dependent on club drugs, had significantly greater drug and sexual sensation seeking, and were more likely to use when experiencing physical discomfort or pleasant times with others compared to the other two groups. Findings highlight the utility of using person-centered approaches to understand patterns of substance use, as well as highlight several patterns of club drug use among young adults. PMID:19939585

  5. Mapping international practice patterns in EUS-guided tissue sampling: outcome of a global survey

    PubMed Central

    van Riet, Priscilla A.; Cahen, Djuna L.; Poley, Jan-Werner; Bruno, Marco J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Although Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue sampling is widely used, the optimal sampling strategy remains subject of debate. We evaluated practice patterns within the international endosonographic community. Patients and methods: An online questionnaire was sent to 400 endosonographers from the United States, Europe, and Asia. Results: A total of 186 (47 %) endosonographers participated: United States 54 (29 %), Europe 85 (46 %), and Asia 47 (25 %). European (75 %) and Asian (84 %) respondents routinely check coagulation status, whereas US respondents only check on indication (64 %, P = 0.007). While propofol sedation is standard in the United States (83 %), conscious sedation is still widely used in Europe (52 %) and Asia (84 %, P < 0.001). Overall, the 22-gauge needle is most commonly used (52 %). For fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of solid pancreatic lesions, 22-gauge (45 %) and 25-gauge (49 %) needles are used equally. For fine-needle biopsy (FNB) of solid masses, the 25-gauge device is less favored than the 22-gauge FNA device (49 % versus 21 %). The 19-gauge needle is generally used for FNB of submucosal masses (62 %). Rapid on-site pathological evaluation (ROSE) is utilized more often by US (98 %) than by European and Asian respondents (51 %, P < 0.001). Cytolyt (52 %), formalin (15 %) and alcohol (15 %) are used for FNA specimen preservation in the United States and Europe, while saline (27 %) and alcohol (38 %) are widely used in Asia (P < 0.001). Conclusions: EUS-guided tissue sampling practices vary substantially within the international endosonographic community and differ considerably from recommendations expressed in guidelines. Because the clinical relevance of these variations is largely unknown, the outcome of this survey suggests a need for further studies. PMID:27227103

  6. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  7. Primary intracranial soft tissue sarcomas in children, adolescents, and young adults: single institution experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ossama M; Khatua, Soumen; Mukherjee, Devashis; Olar, Adriana; Lazar, Alexander; Luthra, Raja; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Ketonen, Leena; Zaky, Wafik

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature reporting the outcome of intracranial sarcomas (IS) in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA). A multimodal therapeutic approach is commonly used, with no well-established treatment consensus. We conducted a retrospective review of CAYA with IS, treated at our institution, to determine their clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes. Immunohistochemistry (PDGFRA and EGFR) and DNA sequencing were performed on 5 tumor samples. A literature review of IS was also conducted. We reviewed 13 patients (median age, 7 years) with a primary diagnosis of IS between 1990 and 2015. Diagnoses included unclassified sarcoma (n = 9), chondrosarcoma (n = 2), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2). Five patients underwent upfront gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor. The 5-drug regimen (vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and ifosfamide) was the most common treatment used. Nine patients died due to progression or recurrence (n = 8) or secondary malignancy (n = 1). The median follow-up period of the 4 surviving patients was 1.69 years (range 1.44-5.17 years). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 21 and 44 %, respectively. BRAF, TP53, KRAS, KIT, ERBB2, MET, RET, ATM, and EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of the 5 tissue samples. All 5 samples were immunopositive for PDGFRA, and only 2 were positive for EGFR. IS remain a therapeutic challenge due to high progression and recurrence rates. Collaborative multi-institutional studies are warranted to delineate a treatment consensus and investigate tumor biology to improve the disease outcome. PMID:26718692

  8. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Pediatric and Young Adult Nonrhabdomyosarcoma Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kristy B.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Knapik, Jacquelyn A.; Lagmay, Joanne P.; Morris, Christopher; Kirwan, Jessica M.; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Scarborough, Mark T.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Marcus, Robert B.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, outcomes, and complications in patients aged {<=}30 years with resectable nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft-tissue sarcoma treated at the University of Florida with radiotherapy (RT) during a 34-year period. Methods and Materials: A total of 95 pediatric or young adult patients with nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft-tissue sarcoma were treated with curative intent with surgery and RT at the University of Florida between 1973 and 2007. The most common histologic tumor subtypes were synovial sarcoma in 22 patients, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 19, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in 11 patients. The mean age at RT was 22 years (range, 6-30). Of the 95 patients, 73 had high-grade tumors; 45 had undergone preoperative RT and 50 postoperative RT. The prognostic factors for survival, local recurrence, and distant recurrence were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up was 7.2 years (range, 0.4-30.5). The actuarial 5-year local control rate was 88%. A microscopically negative margin was associated with superior local control. Although 83% of local recurrence cases initially developed in the absence of metastases, all patients with local failure ultimately died of their disease. The actuarial estimate of 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival was 65% and 63%, respectively. Of all the deaths, 92% were disease related. An early American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, tumor <8 cm, and the absence of neurovascular invasion were associated with superior disease-free survival. The National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, Grade 3-4 treatment complication rate was 9%. No secondary malignancies were observed. Conclusion: In the present large single-institution study, we found positive margins and locally advanced features to be poor prognostic factors for both local progression and survival. The results from the present study have helped to characterize the therapeutic ratio of RT in pediatric and young

  9. Subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) development in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Tafeit, Erwin; Möller, Reinhard; Jurimae, Toivo; Sudi, Karl; Wallner, Sandra Johanna

    2007-06-01

    The importance of body composition measurements to elucidate the dynamics of related diseases in pediatrics is gaining recognition. The methods used should not expose subjects to high doses of radiation and require substantial cooperation. The Lipometer is a new optical device that enables the non-invasive, quick and safe determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers (in mm) at any site of the human body. The topographic specification of 15 evenly distributed body sites, which makes it possible to precisely measure subcutaneous body fat distribution, is called subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). SAT-Top was determined in more than 1000 children and young adults between the ages of 7 and 21. In this paper we describe the SAT-Top development of these subjects through different age groups and the differences between male and female SAT-Top development in each age group. SAT layer profiles (medians of the 15 body sites) for boys and girls in age group 1 (7-9 yrs) show a very similar pattern for both sexes, followed by slightly decreasing SAT layer thicknesses in boys and increasing values in girls in the subsequent age groups. Between age group 3 (11-13 yrs) and age group 7 (19-21 yrs) male and female SAT-Top is significantly different. The discriminating power between male and female SAT-Top was investigated by stepwise discriminant analysis, which provided no significant results for age group 1 (7-9 yrs), about 73% correct classification for age group 2 (9-11 yrs) and 3 (11-13 yrs), 83% for age group 4 (13-15 yrs), and about 91-93% for the following age groups (15-21 yrs). It is known that SAT development is the same in both sexes until puberty, when girls gain relatively more fat mass than boys to reach a higher body-fat percentage as adults. This paper presents a precise description of SAT development in boys and girls from childhood to adolescence, which provides a basis for further investigations. PMID:17847915

  10. Associations between Exposure to Alienating Behaviors, Anxiety, and Depression in an Italian Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Baker, Amy J L; Bernet, William

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between exposure to alienating behaviors (ABs) and anxiety and depression as mediated through psychological maltreatment and parental bonding in a sample of Italian adults in the community. Five hundred and nine adults were given a measure of exposure to ABs, the Baker Strategy Questionnaire; the Psychological Maltreatment Measure; the Parental Bonding Instrument; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y; and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Exposure to ABs was associated with psychological maltreatment, which was associated with parental bonding, which was associated with each of the three mental health outcomes: depression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety. The authors conclude that exposure to ABs in childhood represents a risk factor for subsequent poor mental health. PMID:27122408

  11. Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

  12. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William; Baker, Amy J L; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2015-03-01

    This study addresses a particular form of child psychological maltreatment, exposing a child to alienating behaviors in the context of a high degree of conflict between the parents. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors that occurred in an Italian sample of children and the reported associated psychosocial symptoms. Seven hundred and thirty-nine adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors and measures of current symptomatology. About 75% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; 15% of the sample endorsed the item, "tried to turn me against the other parent." The results revealed strong and statistically significant associations between reported exposure to parental alienating behaviors and reports of current symptomatology. PMID:25613416

  13. Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Moore, Ronald J.; Ramirez Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

    2013-05-03

    To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its’ suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated.

  14. Cellulase activity screening using pure carboxymethylcellulose: application to soluble cellulolytic samples and to plant tissue prints.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Hanne R; Krause, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Reliable, rapid and inexpensive detection of cellulolytic enzymes that can be used for a wide variety of biological and environmental samples are currently in high demand. Here, a new cellulase detection protocol is described that circumvents problems observed with popular agar-based methods by exploiting the ability of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to form gel-like surfaces on its own. These pure CMC-layers are sensitive to cellulolytic degradation and stainable by Gram's iodine without showing unwelcome reactions with other enzymes. The staining intensity negatively correlates with the enzyme activity and can be used for quantification. Cellulase activities are not obstructed by high sugar contents (e.g., in plant material) which limit the applicability of other quantification methods, making our new method particularly attractive for screening of plant extracts. A useful variant of this new method is its applicability to plant tissue prints for spatial mapping of the cellulolytic activity in a zymogram-like fashion. PMID:24413752

  15. Medulloblastoma with soft-tissue and skeletal metastases in an adult: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GENG, DIANZHONG; SONG, XIAOHUA; LIU, JING; YU, ZESHUN; NING, FANGLING

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is a highly malignant primary brain tumor, which occurs in the cerebellum or posterior cranial fossa. MB is most commonly identified in children <10 years of age. The disease is rare in adults, affecting patients aged between 30 and 50 years of age, with an incidence of 0.5 cases per 1,000,000 individuals. Extraneural metastases are reported in 7–10% of cases, most commonly involving the bones and more rarely involving the lymph nodes, visceral organs and bone marrow. The current study presents the case of a 36-year-old male who underwent a gross total resection followed by radiation therapy to the craniospinal axis for the treatment of MB. The patient subsequently developed widespread metastasis, which involved the soft tissue of the occipital bone. Subsequently, the patient was administered palliative radiotherapy and initially exhibited a good clinical response. However, the patient succumbed at 18 months post-diagnosis due to dissemination of the disease. The literature on the extraneural metastasis of MB is also reviewed in the current study. PMID:26622837

  16. A mystery unraveled: nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells in human adult tissues

    PubMed Central

    Simerman, Ariel A; Perone, Marcelo J; Gimeno, María L; Dumesic, Daniel A; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have emerged as the gold standard of pluripotent stem cells and the class of stem cell with the highest potential for contribution to regenerative and therapeutic application; however, their translational use is often impeded by teratoma formation, commonly associated with pluripotency. We discuss a population of nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells, which offer an innovative and exciting avenue of exploration for the potential treatment of various human diseases. Areas covered: This review discusses the origin of Muse cells, describes in detail their various unique characteristics, and considers future avenues of their application and investigation with respect to what is currently known of adult pluripotent stem cells in scientific literature. We begin by defining cell potency, then discuss both mesenchymal and various reported populations of pluripotent stem cells, and finally delve into Muse cells and the characteristics that set them apart from their contemporaries. Expert opinion: Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT) are efficiently, routinely and painlessly isolated from human lipoaspirate material, exhibit tripoblastic differentiation both spontaneously and under media-specific induction, and do not form teratomas. We describe qualities specific to Muse-AT cells and their potential impact on the field of regenerative medicine and cell therapy. PMID:24745973

  17. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Following Complete Resection of Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Bramwell, Vivien H. C.; Bell, Robert; Davis, Aileen M.; Charette, Manya L.; The members of the cancer care Ontario practice guidelines initiative sarcoma disease site group

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. To review the literature and make recommendations for the use of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients. The recommendations apply to patients >15 years old with completely resected STS. Methods. A systematic overview of the published literature was combined with a consensus process around the interpretation of the evidence in the context of conventional practice to develop an evidence-based practice guideline. Results. Four meta-analyses and 17 randomized clinical trials comparing anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation were reviewed. The Sarcoma Meta-Analysis Collaboration (SMAC) was the best analysis because it assessed individual patient data and had the longest follow-up. The results of the SMAC meta-analysis together with data from more recently published randomized trials, as well as our analysis of the toxicity and compliance data, are incorporated in this systematic review. Discussion. It is reasonable to consider anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who have had removal of a sarcoma with features predicting a high likelihood of relapse (deep location, size >5 cm, high histological grade). Although the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy are most apparent in patients with extremity sarcomas, patients with high-risk tumours at other sites should also be considered for such therapy. PMID:18521341

  18. Comparative microarray analyses of adult female midgut tissues from feeding Rhipicephalus species.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Willem A; Stutzer, Christian; Olivier, Nicholas A; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has a debilitating effect on the livestock industry worldwide, owing to its being a vector of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. In South Africa, co-infestation with R. microplus and R. decoloratus, a common vector species on local livestock, occurs widely in the northern and eastern parts of the country. An alternative to chemical control methods is sought in the form of a tick vaccine to control these tick species. However, sequence information and transcriptional data for R. decoloratus is currently lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying genes that are shared between midgut tissues of feeding adult female R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks. In this regard, a custom oligonucleotide microarray comprising of 13,477 R. microplus sequences was used for transcriptional profiling and 2476 genes were found to be shared between these Rhipicephalus species. In addition, 136 transcripts were found to be more abundantly expressed in R. decoloratus and 1084 in R. microplus. Chi-square analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly overrepresented in R. microplus and R. decoloratus. This study is the first transcriptional profiling of R. decoloratus and is an additional resource that can be evaluated further in future studies for possible tick control. PMID:25448423

  19. Transposable elements and their KRAB-ZFP controllers regulate gene expression in adult tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Duc, Julien; Coluccio, Andrea; Offner, Sandra; Imbeault, Michaël; Rowe, Helen M.; Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Summary KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are early embryonic controllers of transposable elements (TEs), which they repress with their cofactor KAP1 through histone and DNA methylation, a process thought to result in irreversible silencing. Using a target-centered functional screen, we matched murine TEs with their cognate KRAB-ZFP. We found the paralogs ZFP932 and Gm15446 to bind overlapping but distinguishable subsets of ERVK (endogenous retrovirus K), to repress these elements in embryonic stem cells, and to regulate secondarily the expression of neighboring genes. Most importantly, we uncovered that these KRAB-ZFPs and KAP1 control TEs in adult tissues, in cell culture and in vivo, where they partner up to modulate cellular genes. Therefore, TEs and KRAB-ZFPs establish transcriptional networks that regulate not only development but probably many physiological events. Given the high degree of species-specificity of TEs and KRAB-ZFPs, these results have important implications for understanding the biology of higher vertebrates, including humans. PMID:27003935

  20. Comparative potential of juvenile and adult human articular chondrocytes for cartilage tissue formation in three-dimensional biomimetic hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Piera; Lai, Janice H; Dhulipala, Lakshmi; Behn, Anthony W; Goodman, Stuart B; Smith, Robert L; Maloney, William J; Yang, Fan; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of human articular cartilage is inherently limited and extensive efforts have focused on engineering the cartilage tissue. Various cellular sources have been studied for cartilage tissue engineering including adult chondrocytes, and embryonic or adult stem cells. Juvenile chondrocytes (from donors below 13 years of age) have recently been reported to be a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration. Previous studies have compared the potential of adult and juvenile chondrocytes or adult and osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. To comprehensively characterize the comparative potential of young, old, and diseased chondrocytes, here we examined cartilage formation by juvenile, adult, and OA chondrocytes in three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic hydrogels composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and chondroitin sulfate. All three human articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the 3D biomimetic hydrogels and cultured for 3 or 6 weeks to allow maturation and extracellular matrix formation. Outcomes were analyzed using quantitative gene expression, immunofluorescence staining, biochemical assays, and mechanical testing. After 3 and 6 weeks, juvenile chondrocytes showed a greater upregulation of chondrogenic gene expression than adult chondrocytes, while OA chondrocytes showed a downregulation. Aggrecan and type II collagen deposition and glycosaminoglycan accumulation were high for juvenile and adult chondrocytes but not for OA chondrocytes. Similar trend was observed in the compressive moduli of the cartilage constructs generated by the three different chondrocytes. In conclusion, the juvenile, adult and OA chondrocytes showed differential responses in the 3D biomimetic hydrogels. The 3D culture model described here may also provide a useful tool to further study the molecular differences among chondrocytes from different stages, which can help elucidate the mechanisms for age-related decline in the intrinsic capacity for cartilage repair. PMID:25054343

  1. Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parents, Support Staff, and a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Bryde, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…

  2. Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

  3. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal. PMID:24830480

  4. Moderate‐to‐Vigorous Physical Activity With Accelerometry is Associated With Visceral Adipose Tissue in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Murabito, Joanne M.; Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Esliger, Dale; Blease, Susan J.; Hoffman, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the relation between objectively measured physical activity with accelerometry and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community‐based sample. Methods and Results We evaluated 1249 participants of the Framingham Third Generation and Omni II cohorts (mean age 51.7 years, 47% women) who underwent assessment of moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with accelerometry over 5 to 7 days, and multi‐detector computed tomography for measurement of SAT and VAT volume; fat attenuation was estimated by SAT and VAT hounsfield units (HU). In women, higher levels of MVPA were associated with decreased SAT (P<0.0001) and VAT volume (P<0.0001). The average decrement in VAT per 30 minute/day increase in MVPA was −453 cm3 (95% CI −574, −331). The association was attenuated but persisted upon adjustment for BMI (−122 cm3, P=0.002). Higher levels of MVPA were associated with higher SAT HU (all P≤0.01), a marker of fat quality, even after adjustment for SAT volume. Similar findings were observed in men but the magnitude of the association was less. Sedentary time was not associated with SAT or VAT volume or quality in men or women. Conclusions MVPA was associated with less VAT and SAT and better fat quality. PMID:25736442

  5. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  6. Exploitation of the hepatic stellate cell Raman signature for their detection in native tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Galler, Kerstin; Schleser, Franziska; Fröhlich, Esther; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Kortgen, Andreas; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) surround liver sinusoids and store retinol while they are quiescent. During fibrotic liver diseases and acute-on-chronic liver failure they change to the activated state in which they proliferate, lose their retinol content and deposit extracellular matrix molecules. The process of HSC activation is of utmost interest, but so far only insufficiently understood, because there is a lack of techniques to address the function of single HSCs in the tissue context. In this contribution, the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy for the label-free detection of HSCs in mouse liver samples is demonstrated. First, culture-induced activation of primary mouse HSCs is followed in vitro and characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. The HSC activation state is confirmed by immunofluorescence labeling of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and α-smooth muscle actin (ASMA). As expected, the unique Raman spectrum of retinol in quiescent HSCs is lost during activation. Nevertheless, successful discrimination of HSCs from primary hepatocytes is possible during all states of activation. A classification model based on principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) of the lipid droplet Raman data yields a prediction accuracy of 99%. The in vitro results are transferred to fresh liver slices and freshly sampled livers. Quiescent HSCs and a HSC transforming from quiescent to activated state are identified based on their Raman signature. This provides valuable information on HSC activation state in the liver. PMID:25145462

  7. Monoaminergic uptake in synaptosomes prepared from frozen brain tissue samples of normal and narcoleptic canines.

    PubMed

    Valtier, D; Dement, W C; Mignot, E

    1992-08-14

    Canine narcolepsy, a model of the human disorder, is associated with altered catecholamine but not serotonin (5-HT) metabolism in some brain areas, particularly the amygdala. A possible explanation for these global changes could be the existence of specific defects in monoamine uptake processes. We have studied the uptake of [3H]norepinephrine (NE), [3H]dopamine (DA) and [3H]5-HT in synaptosomes prepared from cortex and amygdala of narcoleptic and control Doberman pinscher brains. Since narcoleptic canines are relatively few in number, we have used a specific brain freezing procedure that has been reported to allow restoration of metabolically functional tissue upon thawing. Preliminary studies comparing monoamine uptake in fresh and frozen brain samples of both groups of dogs were carried out and demonstrated that this procedure significantly altered serotoninergic but not noradrenergic and dopaminergic uptake. All further investigations were then done on synaptosomes prepared from frozen samples. Our results demonstrate that synaptosomal uptake of [3H]NE, [3H]DA and [3H]5-HT in cortex and amygdala are not altered in narcolepsy. PMID:1393561

  8. Argon cluster ion source evaluation on lipid standards and rat brain tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Bich, Claudia; Havelund, Rasmus; Moellers, Rudolf; Touboul, David; Kollmer, Felix; Niehuis, Ewald; Gilmore, Ian S; Brunelle, Alain

    2013-08-20

    Argon cluster ion sources for sputtering and secondary ion mass spectrometry use projectiles consisting of several hundreds of atoms, accelerated to 10-20 keV, and deposit their kinetic energy within the top few nanometers of the surface. For organic materials, the sputtering yield is high removing material to similar depth. Consequently, the exposed new surface is relatively damage free. It has thus been demonstrated on model samples that it is now really possible to perform dual beam depth profiling experiments in organic materials with this new kind of ion source. Here, this possibility has been tested directly on tissue samples, 14 μm thick rat brain sections, allowing primary ion doses much larger than the so-called static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) limit and demonstrating the possibility to enhance the sensitivity of time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS biological imaging. However, the depth analyses have also shown some variations of the chemical composition as a function of depth, particularly for cholesterol, as well as some possible matrix effects due to the presence or absence of this compound. PMID:23875833

  9. Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft tissue facial profile of Turkish adults.

    PubMed

    Malkoç, Siddik; Demir, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan; Canbuldu, Naci

    2009-04-01

    One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is the evaluation of the patient's soft tissue profile. The aim of this study was to develop angular photogrammetric standards for Class I Anatolian Turkish males and females. A random sample of 100 Turkish individuals (46 males and 54 females; ages 19-25 years) was obtained. The photographic set-up consisted of a tripod that held a 35 mm camera and a primary flash. The camera was used in its manual position and photographic records were taken of the subjects in natural head posture. The photographic records, 35 mm slide format, were digitized and analyzed using the Quick Ceph Image software program for Windows. Twelve measurements were digitally analyzed on each photograph. For statistical evaluation a Student's t-test was performed and the reliability of the method was analyzed. The results were compared with reported norms of facial aesthetics. The nasofrontal (G-N-Prn), nasal (Cm-Sn/N-Prn), vertical nasal (N-Prn/TV), and nasal dorsum (N-Mn-Prn) angles showed statistically insignificant gender differences (P>0.05). The nasolabial angle (Cm-Sn-Ls) demonstrated large variability. Gender differences were present in the mentolabial (Li-Sm-Pg) and cervicomental (G-Pg/C-Me) angles. The mentolabial angle showed a high method error and large variability. Facial (G-Sn-Pg) and total facial (G-Prn-Pg) convexity angles were similar, while Cm-Sn-Ls angle range was larger compared with other angles. The mean values obtained from this sample can be used for comparison with records of subjects with the same characteristics and following the same photogrammetric technique. Angular photogrammetric profile analysis can provide the orthodontist with a way of determining problems associated with various soft tissue segments of the face. PMID:19064675

  10. Analysis of protein biomarkers in human clinical tumor samples: critical aspects to success from tissue acquisition to analysis.

    PubMed

    Warren, Madhuri V; Chan, W Y Iris; Ridley, John M

    2011-04-01

    There has been increased interest in the analysis of protein biomarkers in clinical tumor tissues in recent years. Tissue-based biomarker assays can add value and aid decision-making at all stages of drug development, as well as being developed for use as predictive biomarkers and for patient stratification and prognostication in the clinic. However, there must be an awareness of the legal and ethical issues related to the sourcing of human tissue samples. This article also discusses the limits of scope and critical aspects on the successful use of the following tissue-based methods: immunohistochemistry, tissue microarrays and automated image analysis. Future advances in standardization of tissue biobanking methods, immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis techniques are also discussed. PMID:21473728

  11. Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Sample inventory and results of analyses of selected samples for organic compounds and trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Schantz, M.M.; Koster, B.J.; Zeisler, R.

    1992-02-01

    In 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) was established as part of the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).The purpose of the AMMTAP was to establish a representative collection of Alaska marine mammal tissues for future contaminant analyses and documentation of long-term trends in environmental quality. Since 1987, specimens have been collected from 65 animals (seven species) from six different sites. The report contains the current sample inventory and the results of the analysis of selected samples for the measurement of inorganic and organic compounds.

  12. Determination of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle-tissue of rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, J.E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1994-01-01

    Malachite green, an effective antifungal therapeutant used in fish culture, is a known teratogen. We developed a method to simultaneously detect both the chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle tissue of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Homogenates of these tissues were fortified with [c-14] malachite green chloride and extracted with 1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile or in methanol. The extracts were partitioned with chloroform, dried, redissolved in mobile phase, and analyzed by liquid chromatography (lc) with postcolumn oxidation of leuco malachite green to the chromatic form. Lc fractions were collected every 30 s for quantitation by scintillation counting. Recoveries of total [c-14] malachite green chloride residue were 85 and 98% in eggs fortified with labeled malachite green at concentrations of 0.5 And 1.00 Mug/g, respectively; 68% in fry similarly fortified at a concentration of 0.65 Mug/g; and 66% in muscle homogenate similarly fortified at a level of 1.00 Mug/g. The method was tested under operational conditions by exposing adult rainbow trout to 1.00 Mg/l [c-14] malachite green chloride bath for 1 h. Muscle samples analyzed by sample oxidation and scintillation counting contained 1.3 And 0.5 Mug/g total malachite green chloride residues immediately after exposure and after a 5-day withdrawal period, respectively.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Community Integration Questionnaire in a Heterogeneous Sample of Adults With Physical Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Braden, Alan L.; Craggs, Jason G.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychometric properties of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) in a mixed sample of adults with physical disabilities. Design Cross-sectional, survey study. Setting Academic and community medical clinics, national registry, and self-referral. Participants Community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury (n=146), multiple sclerosis (n=174), limb loss (n=158), or muscular dystrophy (n=273). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures CIQ, General Health item from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and Mental Health Scale from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Based on the original scoring procedures, the CIQ Total scale and Home Integration subscale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency; however, reliability indices for the Social Integration and Productive Activities subscales were suboptimal. The exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor solution (accounting for approximately 63% of the variance) that did not replicate the original factor structure of the CIQ. The results of the confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a modified 3-factor solution provided the best fit to the data from our samples. Using a revised scoring system based on these findings, the CIQ demonstrated improved reliability relative to the original scoring and good concurrent validity. Conclusions The results provide general support for the validity of the CIQ as a measure of participation in adults with physical disabilities. However, our results indicate that some small modifications to the original scoring system are needed to optimize its use in this patient group. Additional research is needed to refine the measurement of participation in these and other populations. PMID:21851927

  14. Cocaine use trajectories of club drug-using young adults recruited using time-space sampling.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Grov, Christian; Delucchi, Kevin L; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2011-12-01

    Cocaine is the most widely used club drug. Yet, little is known about how patterns of cocaine use vary over time among young adults of diverse gender and sexual identities. This study used latent class growth analysis to identify trajectories of cocaine use over a year and explored individual and substance use factors associated with these trajectories. A sample of 400 young adults (mean age=23.9 years) with recent club drug use were recruited from New York City bars and nightclubs using time-space sampling. Participants completed quantitative measures at baseline, 4-, 8- and 12-months follow-up. A 4-class model fit the data best. Patterns were: Consistent use (48%), Inconsistent use (14%), Decreasing Likelihood of use (28%), and Consistent non-use (11%). Those most likely to be in the Consistent use class had the highest frequency of baseline club drug dependence (χ2 (3, 397)=15.1, p<.01), cocaine dependence (χ2 (3, 397) = 18.9, p<.01), recent alcohol use (χ2 (3, 397)=12.48, p<.01), and drug sensation-seeking (χ2 (3, 397)=9.03, p<.01). Those most likely to be in the Consistent Non-use class had the highest frequency of baseline marijuana use (χ2 (3, 397)=2.71, p<.05). Contrary to hypotheses, there were no differences in most-likely trajectory class by gender/sexual-orientation, age, ethnicity, education, employment status, or income. Findings highlight the diversity of cocaine use patterns over time among young adults, and the personal and substance use characteristics that are associated with each. PMID:21907497

  15. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  17. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  18. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; MORONI, Raquel Borges; MENDES, Júlio; JUSTINIANO, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; MORONI, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  19. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  20. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  1. Low invasive in vivo tissue sampling for monitoring biomarkers and drugs during surgery.

    PubMed

    Bojko, Barbara; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Gomez-Rios, German A; Knaak, Jan M; Machuca, Tiago; Cudjoe, Erasmus; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Hsin, Michael; Cypel, Marcelo; Selzner, Markus; Liu, Mingyao; Keshjavee, Shaf; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    The techniques currently used for drug, metabolite, and biomarker determination are based on sample collection, and therefore they are not suitable for repeated analysis because of the high invasiveness. Here, we present a novel method of biochemical analysis directly in organ during operation without need of a separate sample collection step: solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The approach is based on flexible microprobe coated with biocompatible extraction phase that is inserted to the tissue with no damage or disturbance of the organ. The method was evaluated during lung and liver transplantations using normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) and ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP). The study demonstrated feasibility of the method to extract wide range of endogenous compounds and drugs. Statistical analysis allowed observing metabolic changes of lung during cold ischemic time, perfusion, and reperfusion. It was also demonstrated that the level of drugs and their metabolites can be monitored over time. Based on the methylprednisolone as a selected example, the impairment of enzymatic properties of liver was detected in the injured organs but not in healthy control. This finding was supported by changes in pathways of endogenous metabolites. The SPME probe was also used for analysis of perfusion fluid using stopcock connection. The evaluation of biochemical profile of perfusates demonstrated potential of the approach for monitoring organ function during ex vivo perfusion. The simplicity of the device makes it convenient to use by medical personnel. With the microprobe, different areas of the organ or various organs can be sampled simultaneously. The technology allows assessment of organ function by biochemical profiling, determination of potential biomarkers, and drug monitoring. The use of this method for preintervention analysis could enhance the decision-making process for the best possible personalized approach, whereas post-transplantation monitoring would be

  2. Effects of MRTI sampling characteristics on estimation of HIFU SAR and tissue thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, C. R.; Todd, N.; Payne, A.; Parker, D. L.; Christensen, D. A.; Roemer, R. B.

    2013-10-01

    While the non-invasive and three-dimensional nature of magnetic-resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) makes it a valuable tool for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, random and systematic errors in MRTI measurements may propagate into temperature-based parameter estimates used for pretreatment planning. This study assesses the MRTI effects of zero-mean Gaussian noise (SD = 0.0-2.0 °C), temporal sampling (tacq = 1.0-8.0 s), and spatial averaging (Res = 0.5-2.0 mm isotropic) on HIFU temperature measurements and temperature-based estimates of the amplitude and full width half maximum (FWHM) of the HIFU specific absorption rate and of tissue thermal diffusivity. The ultrasound beam used in simulations and ex vivo pork loin experiments has lateral and axial FWHM dimensions of 1.4 mm and 7.9 mm respectively. For spatial averaging simulations, beams with lateral FWHM varying from 1.2-2.2 mm are also assessed. Under noisy conditions, parameter estimates are improved by fitting to data from larger voxel regions. Varying the temporal sampling results in minimal changes in measured temperatures (<2% change) and parameter estimates (<5% change). For the HIFU beams studied, a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 or smaller is required to keep errors in temperature and all estimated parameters less than 10%. By quantifying the errors associated with these sampling characteristics, this work provides researchers with appropriate MRTI conditions for obtaining estimates of parameters essential to pretreatment modeling of HIFU thermal therapies.

  3. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  4. Associations between anxiety disorders, suicide ideation, and age in nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Sarah; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Erickson, Julie; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    Suicidal behaviors are of significant concern for the individuals displaying such behavior and for service providers who encounter them. Using nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults, we aimed to examine: whether age moderates the relationship between having any anxiety disorder and suicide ideation (SI), the prevalence of SI among younger and older adults, and whether age and individual anxiety disorders were differentially associated with SI. Age moderated the relationship between any anxiety disorder and SI among Americans only. Past-year SI was less prevalent among older, compared to younger, adults; though, nearly every anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of SI among younger and older Canadian and American adults after controlling for covariates. Effect sizes were particularly large for older American adults, but were coupled with large confidence intervals. Findings contribute to a growing literature suggesting that SI in the context of anxiety is a highly prevalent and complex mental health problem across the adult lifespan. PMID:25306089

  5. Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra; Namaky, Nauder; Baldwin, Scott A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity (viewing oneself as a drinker) is a potential risk factor for problematic drinking in US undergraduate samples. Whether that risk extends to a broader, more general US sample is unknown. Additionally, there are critical, unanswered questions with respect to moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship; an important issue for designing prevention efforts. Study aims were to assess the unique associations and interactive effects of implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity on problematic drinking, and to evaluate age and sex as potential moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship. A sample of 11,320 adults aged 18-98 completed measures of implicit and explicit drinking identity and problematic drinking (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT). Implicit and explicit drinking identity had positive, significant associations with AUDIT scores, as expected. Moderation analyses indicated small, but significant, interactions. There was an implicit by explicit identity interaction consistent with a synergistic effect: lower implicit and explicit identity was linked to a greater probability of being a non-drinker. Age moderated explicit but not implicit identity: lower drinking identity appeared to be more protective for younger individuals. Sex moderated implicit but not explicit identity: a weaker positive association with implicit identity and AUDIT scores was observed among men, potentially reflecting stigma against women's drinking. Findings suggest that drinking identity's potential as a risk factor for problematic drinking extends to a more general US sample and that both implicit and explicit identity should be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:27156218

  6. The brief cognitive assessment tool (BCAT): cross-validation in a community dwelling older adult sample.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Mansbach, William E; Clark, Kristen; Mace, Ryan A

    2014-08-13

    ABSTRACT Background: Cognitive impairment is underrecognized and misdiagnosed among community-dwelling older adults. At present, there is no consensus about which cognitive screening tool represents the "gold standard." However, one tool that shows promise is the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool (BCAT), which was originally validated in an assisted living sample and contains a multi-level memory component (e.g. word lists and story recall items) and complex executive functions features (e.g. judgment, set-shifting, and problem-solving). Methods: The present study cross-validated the BCAT in a sample of 75 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a short battery of several individually administered cognitive tests, including the BCAT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Using a very conservative MoCA cut score of <26, the base rate of cognitive impairment in this sample was 35%. Results: Adequate internal consistency and strong evidence of construct validity were found. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated from sensitivity and 1-specificity values for the classification of cognitively impaired versus cognitively unimpaired. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the BCAT was .90, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.83, 0.97]. A BCAT cut-score of 45 (scores below 45 suggesting cognitive impairment) resulted in the best balance between sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.80). Conclusions: A BCAT cut-score can be used for identifying persons to be referred to appropriate healthcare professionals for more comprehensive cognitive assessment. In addition, guidelines are provided for clinicians to interpret separate BCAT memory and executive dysfunction component scores. PMID:25115580

  7. Critical comparison of sample preparation strategies for shotgun proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples: insights from liver tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The growing field of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue proteomics holds promise for improving translational research. Direct tissue trypsinization (DT) and protein extraction followed by in solution digestion (ISD) or filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) are the most common workflows for shotgun analysis of FFPE samples, but a critical comparison of the different methods is currently lacking. Experimental design DT, FASP and ISD workflows were compared by subjecting to the same label-free quantitative approach three independent technical replicates of each method applied to FFPE liver tissue. Data were evaluated in terms of method reproducibility and protein/peptide distribution according to localization, MW, pI and hydrophobicity. Results DT showed lower reproducibility, good preservation of high-MW proteins, a general bias towards hydrophilic and acidic proteins, much lower keratin contamination, as well as higher abundance of non-tryptic peptides. Conversely, FASP and ISD proteomes were depleted in high-MW proteins and enriched in hydrophobic and membrane proteins; FASP provided higher identification yields, while ISD exhibited higher reproducibility. Conclusions These results highlight that diverse sample preparation strategies provide significantly different proteomic information, and present typical biases that should be taken into account when dealing with FFPE samples. When a sufficient amount of tissue is available, the complementary use of different methods is suggested to increase proteome coverage and depth. PMID:25097466

  8. The distribution and localization of /sup 127/m tellurium in normal and pathological nervous tissues of young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Duckett, S.

    1982-11-01

    An equal amount (per weight) of /sup 127/m tellurium (Te) was injected IP into weanling and adult rats, some intoxicated with a diet containing Te, others not. The young intoxicated rats presented a segmental demyelination of the sciatic nerve and paralysis of the hind limbs; the adult intoxicated rats did not. Quantitation of 127m Te in nervous and other tissues was done with a gamma counter. Correlative morphological examination of the nervous tissues was done with light and electron microscopy. This study shows that Te crosses the vascular wall without injuring endothelial cells and invades the surrounding sciatic nerve parenchyma following administration of 127m Te to a weanling or adult rat. However, Te damages the endothelium, crosses the vascular wall of endo and perineurial vessels in weanling rats, causes a perivascular oedema, cytoplasmic anomalies in the Schwann cells, destruction of myelin and apparently invades axones--according to autoradiographic studies--following the administration of 127m Te plus the Te-diet. It is concluded that Te penetrates more quickly and in larger amounts the walls of blood vessels in the sciatic nerve of weanling rats intoxicated with Te, than the same nerve in the other weanling and adults rats. Te in the amounts indicated here penetrates the parenchyma of the CNS but apparently does not cause injury.

  9. Integrated genome-wide analysis of genomic changes and gene regulation in human adrenocortical tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Wang, Yonghong; Patel, Dhaval; Liu-Chittenden, Yi; Jain, Meenu; Boufraqech, Myriem; Zhang, Lisa; Meltzer, Paul S.; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and whether there is progression from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma, we performed genome-wide gene expression, gene methylation, microRNA expression and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis in human adrenocortical tissue (normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC) samples. A pairwise comparison of normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC gene expression profiles with more than four-fold expression differences and an adjusted P-value < 0.05 revealed no major differences in normal versus adrenocortical adenoma whereas there are 808 and 1085, respectively, dysregulated genes between ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma and ACC versus normal. The majority of the dysregulated genes in ACC were downregulated. By integrating the CGH, gene methylation and expression profiles of potential miRNAs with the gene expression of dysregulated genes, we found that there are higher alterations in ACC versus normal compared to ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma. Importantly, we identified several novel molecular pathways that are associated with dysregulated genes and further experimentally validated that oncostatin m signaling induces caspase 3 dependent apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation. Finally, we propose that there is higher number of genomic changes from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma and identified oncostatin m signaling as a plausible druggable pathway for therapeutics. PMID:26446994

  10. Stable isotope analysis of 1987-1991 zooplankton samples and bowhead whale tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of bowhead whale tissue samples and bowhead whale prey organisms collected over the years 1987 to 1991 were used to provide detail on the isotope ratio gradients evident in the arctic Alaskan zooplankton and to verify previous findings regarding the growth rates and age determination techniques developed for bowhead whales. Zooplankton of the Bering and Chukchi seas are enriched in (13)C relative to the eastern Beaufort Sea. The analysis of baleen from bowhead whales taken between 1987 to 1990 indicate that the whales are slow-growing and the young animals between year one and about six to seven years of age, undergo a period of little or no linear growth. The authors estimate that bowheads require 16-18 years to reach the length of sexual maturity, i.e., 13-14 m. From baleen Delta(13C) cycles, a 20 year record of the isotope ratios in the phytoplankton of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas was constructed. The long-term record has been compared with the temperature anomalies in surface waters of the Bering Sea. The Delta(13C) of the zooplankton is inversely correlated with temperature and refutes current models attempting to relate ocean temperature, and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels with the Delta(13C) of ocean sediment organic matter.

  11. Transitions in Care among Older Adults with Dementia in a Nationally Representative Sample of Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Christopher M.; Tu, Wanzhu; Unroe, Kathleen T.; LaMantia, Michael A.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults with dementia experience frequent transitions in care Objectives To describe transitions in care among older adults with dementia identified from a nationally representative cohort and to describe transition rates among subjects with more severe levels of cognitive and functional impairment Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Participants 16,186 HRS respondents aged 65 years or over whose survey data were linked with Medicare claims from 1999-2008 Measurements Transitions in care between home, home with formal services, hospital, and nursing facility care, as well as cognitive function, activities of daily living, and mortality. Results The 3,447 (21.3%) HRS subjects who were ever diagnosed with dementia experienced frequent transitions. Among subjects transitioning from a hospital stay, 52.2% returned home without home care services while 33.8% transitioned to a nursing facility. Among subjects transitioning from a nursing facility, 59.2% transitioned to the hospital while 25.3% returned home without services. There were 2,139 transitions to death and 58.7% of HRS subjects with dementia died at home. Even among persons with moderate to severe dementia, we documented multiple transitions in care, including transitions from the hospital to home and back to the hospital. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of older adults, subjects diagnosed with dementia experience frequent transitions. Those persons with dementia who are cared for at home and who transition back to home often have moderate to severe impairments in both function and cognition. PMID:26200764

  12. Grinding and polishing instead of sectioning for the tissue samples with a graft: Implications for light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mukhamadiyarov, Rinat A; Sevostyanova, Victoria V; Shishkova, Daria K; Nokhrin, Andrey V; Sidorova, Olga D; Kutikhin, Anton G

    2016-06-01

    A broad use of the graft replacement requires a detailed investigation of the host-graft interaction, including both histological examination and electron microscopy. A high quality sectioning of the host tissue with a graft seems to be complicated; in addition, it is difficult to examine the same tissue area by both of the mentioned microscopy techniques. To solve these problems, we developed a new technique of epoxy resin embedding with the further grinding, polishing, and staining. Graft-containing tissues prepared by grinding and polishing preserved their structure; however, sectioning frequently required the explantation of the graft and led to tissue disintegration. Moreover, stained samples prepared by grinding and polishing may then be assessed by both light microscopy and backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, grinding and polishing outperform sectioning when applied to the tissues with a graft. PMID:27023831

  13. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  14. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a general population sample of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20-24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302107

  15. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, McKee J.; Wallendal, Maggie S.; Hyde, Trevor F.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  16. C-Myb(+) erythro-myeloid progenitor-derived fetal monocytes give rise to adult tissue-resident macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, Guillaume; Chen, Jinmiao; Lavin, Yonit; Low, Donovan; Almeida, Francisca F; See, Peter; Beaudin, Anna E; Lum, Josephine; Low, Ivy; Forsberg, E Camilla; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Ng, Lai Guan; Chan, Jerry K Y; Greter, Melanie; Becher, Burkhard; Samokhvalov, Igor M; Merad, Miriam; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-04-21

    Although classified as hematopoietic cells, tissue-resident macrophages (MFs) arise from embryonic precursors that seed the tissues prior to birth to generate a self-renewing population, which is maintained independently of adult hematopoiesis. Here we reveal the identity of these embryonic precursors using an in utero MF-depletion strategy and fate-mapping of yolk sac (YS) and fetal liver (FL) hematopoiesis. We show that YS MFs are the main precursors of microglia, while most other MFs derive from fetal monocytes (MOs). Both YS MFs and fetal MOs arise from erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) generated in the YS. In the YS, EMPs gave rise to MFs without monocytic intermediates, while EMP seeding the FL upon the establishment of blood circulation acquired c-Myb expression and gave rise to fetal MOs that then seeded embryonic tissues and differentiated into MFs. Thus, adult tissue-resident MFs established from hematopoietic stem cell-independent embryonic precursors arise from two distinct developmental programs. PMID:25902481

  17. Non-suicidal self-injury disorder in a community sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Andover, Margaret S

    2014-10-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) Disorder has been included in DSM-5 for the first time as a disorder requiring further research. The present study investigated DSM-5 criteria for NSSI Disorder in a community sample of adults and provided an initial investigation of differences between those with and without a diagnosis of NSSI Disorder and NSSI history. Participants over the age of 18 (N=548) completed an online survey using Amazon׳s MTurk. A lifetime history of NSSI was reported by 23% of the sample. Nearly 3% of the total sample and 11.2% of those with an NSSI history met criteria for NSSI Disorder. Those with NSSI Disorder were similar to participants with an NSSI history who did not meet criteria for the disorder on NSSI frequency and methods, and age of NSSI onset, use of coping strategies, and borderline symptoms, but they differed on automatic reinforcement of the behavior and reported interference with functioning. Endorsement of specific NSSI Disorder criteria, potential implications for the diagnosis, and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:24958066

  18. [A survey of dental-periodontal pathology in a sample of blind adult subjects].

    PubMed

    Campisi, G; Cumbo, V

    1994-01-01

    The authors, after a short inquiry into the Italian epidemiological reality of blind subjects, explain the results of a study made on a sample of 105 blind adults (average age: 60.3 years) in order to check their oral health conditions. In particular, they have pointed out the DMFT index, the average number of permanent teeth present, the OHI-S index in its two components ID and IC, the CPITN index. The results of this study point is a high DMFT index, mainly owing to teeth extracted for periodontal disease. A high OHI-S index and the prevalence of the codes 2 e 3 of the CPITN index direct the therapeutical choice towards a professional oral hygiene and oral preventive protocols adequate to their sensorial deficiency. PMID:8170450

  19. Residential segregation and obesity among a national sample of Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Zhao, Luhua

    2014-04-01

    We explored the role of residential segregation in obesity among a national sample of Hispanics for the first time. Data on the 8785 Hispanic adults in the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to 2000 census data on the segregation of 290 metropolitan statistical areas. Multilevel modeling revealed that after controlling for individual-level variables, the odds of being obese for Hispanics residing in high-segregated metropolitan statistical areas were 26.4 percent higher than for those residing in low-segregated metropolitan statistical areas. This segregation effect might be mediated by the obesogenic features (e.g. paucity of recreational facilities and abundance of fast-food outlets) of segregated Hispanic neighborhoods. PMID:23460679

  20. Gender differences in schizotypic features in a large sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, L S; Burns, S A

    1995-10-01

    Research with self-report measures of schizotypic or psychosis-prone features in nonclinical populations suggests that, similarly to schizophrenic populations, males score higher on more "negative" schizotypic features and females score higher on more "positive" schizotypic features. We administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Chapman Scales of Psychosis Proneness--impulsivity/nonconformity, magical ideation, perceptual aberration, physical anhedonia, and social anhedonia--to a large, nonclinical, young adult sample (N = 1179: 453 males and 726 females). Results indicated increased negative symptomatology in males compared with females, but not increased positive symptomatology in females compared with males. Findings on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factors suggested that interpersonal deficits differed by gender as well. Finally, a measure of impulsive behavior and nonconformity not typically associated with negative symptomatology indicated gender differences not predicted by a negative/positive dichotomy. PMID:7561812

  1. The nature and prevalence of partner psychological abuse in a national sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Follingstad, Diane R; Rogers, M Jill

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the occurrence of serious psychological abuse (PSYAB) in one's "worst relationship" was solicited from a nationwide sample of adults in the United States. To designate that they experienced any of the psychologically abusive behaviors, respondents had to have perceived malignant intent by the perpetrator. Respondents reported significant rates of the presence and frequency for 14 specified categories of serious PSYAB as well as for the 42 individual behaviors constituting these categories (i.e., 3 per category). The 3 behaviors within each category frequently co-occurred even though they represented distinct manifestations and increasing levels of severity for that type of PSYAB. Only some of the behaviors demonstrated a relationship between frequency of that behavior in a relationship and subsequent emotional and behavioral impact. Neither demographics nor social desirability were strongly related to report of partner PSYAB. PMID:24672991

  2. Activation of the Canonical Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Pathway during Lung Morphogenesis and Adult Lung Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sountoulidis, Alexandros; Stavropoulos, Athanasios; Giaglis, Stavros; Apostolou, Eirini; Monteiro, Rui; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.; Chen, Huaiyong; Stripp, Barry R.; Mummery, Christine; Andreakos, Evangelos; Sideras, Paschalis

    2012-01-01

    Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) has been implicated in early lung development, adult lung homeostasis and tissue-injury repair. However, the precise mechanism of action and the spatio-temporal pattern of BMP-signaling during these processes remains inadequately described. To address this, we have utilized a transgenic line harboring a BMP-responsive eGFP-reporter allele (BRE-eGFP) to construct the first detailed spatiotemporal map of canonical BMP-pathway activation during lung development, homeostasis and adult-lung injury repair. We demonstrate that during the pseudoglandular stage, when branching morphogenesis progresses in the developing lung, canonical BMP-pathway is active mainly in the vascular network and the sub-epithelial smooth muscle layer of the proximal airways. Activation of the BMP-pathway becomes evident in epithelial compartments only after embryonic day (E) 14.5 primarily in cells negative for epithelial-lineage markers, located in the proximal portion of the airway-tree, clusters adjacent to neuro-epithelial-bodies (NEBs) and in a substantial portion of alveolar epithelial cells. The pathway becomes activated in isolated E12.5 mesenchyme-free distal epithelial buds cultured in Matrigel suggesting that absence of reporter activity in these regions stems from a dynamic cross-talk between endoderm and mesenchyme. Epithelial cells with activated BMP-pathway are enriched in progenitors capable of forming colonies in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. As lung morphogenesis approaches completion, eGFP-expression declines and in adult lung its expression is barely detectable. However, upon tissue-injury, either with naphthalene or bleomycin, the canonical BMP-pathways is re-activated, in bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells respectively, in a manner reminiscent to early lung development and in tissue areas where reparatory progenitor cells reside. Our studies illustrate the dynamic activation of canonical BMP-pathway during lung

  3. Comparison between whole mount tissue preparations and virtual tissue microarray samples for measuring Ki-67 and apoptosis indices in human bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Tsuta, Koji; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Keyhani, Afsaneh; Dinney, Colin P.; Nagai, Takeshi; Kamat, Ashish M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent tissue microarray (TMA)-based studies have shown that cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. However, little is known about the differences in these biomarker measurements between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs. This study aimed to elucidate the discrepancy in the measurements of Ki-67 indices (KIs) and apoptosis indices (AIs) between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs of bladder urothelial carcinoma samples. Whole mount tissue preparations for Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling were made from 30 patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Digital microscopy-assisted virtual TMAs, consisting of 3 small round areas (1 or 0.6 mm in diameter), were generated from the same whole mount tissue preparations. The measurement results in highly reactive areas of biomarkers were compared between the whole mount tissue preparation- and the TMA-based methods. Bland–Altman plot analysis, regression analysis, and Kendall τ were performed to investigate differences in the measurement results, systematic biases, and correlations between biomarkers. Although the Bland–Altman plot analysis demonstrated that almost all the plots were within the limits of agreement, fixed biases were detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the KI (0.181 and 0.222, respectively) and the AI (0.055 and 0.063, respectively). Proportional biases were also detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the AI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, positive correlations between KIs and AIs were observed in whole mount tissue preparations (r = 0.260, P = 0.044) and in the 1 mm TMAs (r = 0.375, P = 0.004); however, no such correlation was observed in the 0.6 mm TMAs. Our study suggests that the measurement results for certain biomarkers of bladder

  4. Comparison between whole mount tissue preparations and virtual tissue microarray samples for measuring Ki-67 and apoptosis indices in human bladder cancer: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Tsuta, Koji; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Keyhani, Afsaneh; Dinney, Colin P; Nagai, Takeshi; Kamat, Ashish M

    2016-08-01

    Recent tissue microarray (TMA)-based studies have shown that cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. However, little is known about the differences in these biomarker measurements between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs. This study aimed to elucidate the discrepancy in the measurements of Ki-67 indices (KIs) and apoptosis indices (AIs) between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs of bladder urothelial carcinoma samples.Whole mount tissue preparations for Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling were made from 30 patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Digital microscopy-assisted virtual TMAs, consisting of 3 small round areas (1 or 0.6 mm in diameter), were generated from the same whole mount tissue preparations. The measurement results in highly reactive areas of biomarkers were compared between the whole mount tissue preparation- and the TMA-based methods. Bland-Altman plot analysis, regression analysis, and Kendall τ were performed to investigate differences in the measurement results, systematic biases, and correlations between biomarkers.Although the Bland-Altman plot analysis demonstrated that almost all the plots were within the limits of agreement, fixed biases were detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the KI (0.181 and 0.222, respectively) and the AI (0.055 and 0.063, respectively). Proportional biases were also detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the AI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, positive correlations between KIs and AIs were observed in whole mount tissue preparations (r = 0.260, P = 0.044) and in the 1 mm TMAs (r = 0.375, P = 0.004); however, no such correlation was observed in the 0.6 mm TMAs.Our study suggests that the measurement results for certain biomarkers of bladder urothelial

  5. Substance Use and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders in a Community Sample of Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgender people have elevated substance use prevalence compared with the U.S. general population, however no studies have comprehensively examined the relationship of psychosocial risk factors to substance use and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment among both male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender adults. Methods Secondary data analysis of a 2013 community-based survey of transgender adults in Massachusetts (N=452) was conducted. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were fit to examine the relationship of four risk factor domains with SUD treatment history and recent substance use: (1) demographics; (2) gender-related characteristics; (3) mental health; (4) socio-structural factors. Adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Results Ten percent of the sample reported lifetime SUD treatment. Factors associated with significant increase in odds of lifetime SUD treatment alongside recent substance use (all p<0.05) were: (1) older age (aOR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01–1.04), higher educational attainment (aOR=3.59; 95% CI=2.35–5.50), low income (aOR=0.58; 95% CI=0.39–0.86); (2) MTF identity (aOR=3.03; 95% CI=1.95–4.67), gender-affirming medical care (aOR=1.99; 95% CI=1.32–3.00); (3) intimate partner violence (aOR=1.68; 95% CI=1.13–2.49), posttraumatic stress disorder (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI=1.69–3.88), depression (aOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.58–3.35), mental health treatment (aOR=1.65; 95% CI=1.11–2.45); (4) discrimination (aOR=1.90; 95% CI=1.22–2.95), unstable housing (aOR=1.80; 95% CI=1.21–2.67), and sex work (aOR=2.48; 95% CI=1.24–4.95). Conclusions Substance use and SUD treatment among transgender adults are associated with demographic, gender-related, mental health, and socio-structural risk factors. Studies are warranted that identify SUD treatment barriers, and integrate SUD treatment with psychosocial and structural interventions for a diverse spectrum of transgender adults

  6. Polytraumatization in an adult national sample and its association with psychological distress and self-esteem

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Doris; Dahlstöm, Örjan; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. Method A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Linköping Difficult Life Events Scale - Adult - was sent out to a nationally reprative sample and 5062 people chose to participate in the study. Results Results showed that almost everyone (97%) has experienced at least one potential traumatic event and that polytraumatization (the 10% of the participants with most reported traumas) was significantly (Z = 12.57, P < 0.001, r = 0.18) associated with psychological distress and global self-esteem. Gender differences were significant (Z = 8.44, P < 0.001, r = 0.12), in that men experience more noninterpersonal traumas but women report more symptoms. The effect sizes regarding the impact of potential trauma on self-esteem were largest for women with experience of polytraumatization in the age group 18–25 (r = 0.48). There was almost linear increase in psychological distress and linear decrease in self-esteem with increasing number of traumatic events experienced. Conclusion Experience of polytrauma can be considered an important factor to take into account in psychiatric settings as well. PMID:25722950

  7. Dietary magnesium, lung function, wheezing, and airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population sample.

    PubMed

    Britton, J; Pavord, I; Richards, K; Wisniewski, A; Knox, A; Lewis, S; Tattersfield, A; Weiss, S

    1994-08-01

    Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biological activities, including some that may protect against the development of asthma and chronic airflow obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary magnesium intake is associated with better lung function, and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham, UK, we measured dietary magnesium intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, lung function as the 1-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and atopy as the mean skin-prick test response to three common environmental allergens. We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a cumulative dose of 12.25 mumol or less. Mean (SD) daily intake of magnesium was 380 (114) mg/day. After adjusting for age, sex, and height, and for the effects of atopy and smoking, a 100 mg/day higher magnesium intake was associated with a 27.7 (95% CI, 11.9-43.5) mL higher FEV1, and a reduction in the relative odds of hyper-reactivity by a ratio of 0.82 (0.72-0.93). The same incremental difference in magnesium intake was also associated with a reduction in the odds of self-reported wheeze within the past 12 months, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, atopy, and kilojoule intake, by a ratio of 0.85 (0.76-0.95). Dietary magnesium intake is independently related to lung function and the occurrence of airway hyper-reactivity and self-reported wheezing in the general population. Low magnesium intake may therefore be involved in the aetiology of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease. PMID:7914305

  8. TIN DISTRIBUTION IN ADULT RAT TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRIMETHYLTIN AND TRIETHYLTIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The time course of distribution of tin in the adult rat was determined in brain, liver kidney, heart, and blood following single ip administrations of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT) and triethyltin bromide (TET). Adult Long-Evans rats were killed 1 hr, 4 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr, 5 days, 1...

  9. Measurement of microparticle tissue factor activity in clinical samples: A summary of two tissue factor-dependent FXa generation assays.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Yohei; Alexander, Wyeth; Kasthuri, Raj; Voorhees, Peter; Mobarrez, Fariborz; Taylor, Angela; McNamara, Coleen; Wallen, Hakan; Witkowski, Marco; Key, Nigel S; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Detection of a prothrombotic state using biomarkers would be of great benefit to identify patients at risk of thrombosis that would benefit from thromboprophylaxis. Tissue factor (TF) is a highly procoagulant protein that under normal conditions is not present in the blood. However, increased levels of TF in the blood in the form of microparticles (MPs) (also called extracellular vesicles) are observed under various pathological conditions. In this review, we will discuss studies that have measured MP-TF activity in a variety of diseases using two similar FXa generation assay. One of the most robust signals for MP-TF activity (16-26 fold higher than healthy controls) is observed in pancreatic cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. In this case, the TF+ MPs appear to be derived from the cancer cells. Surprisingly, cirrhosis and acute liver injury are associated with 17-fold and 38-fold increases in MP-TF activity, respectively. Based on mouse models, we speculate that the TF+ MPs are derived from hepatocytes. More modest increases are observed in patients with urinary tract infections (6-fold) and in a human endotoxemia model (9-fold) where monocytes are the likely source of the TF+ MPs. Finally, there is no increase in MP-TF activity in the majority of cardiovascular disease patients. These studies indicate that MP-TF activity may be a useful biomarker to identify patients with particular diseases that have an increased risk of thrombosis. PMID:26916302

  10. Characterizing active and inactive brown adipose tissue in adult humans using PET-CT and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F; Walker, Ronald C; Avison, Malcolm J; Welch, E Brian

    2016-07-01

    Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults. Unlike [(18)F]FDG PET, which can detect only active BAT, MRI is capable of detecting both active and inactive BAT. The MRI-derived fat signal fraction (FSF) of active BAT was significantly lower than that of inactive BAT (means ± SD; 60.2 ± 7.6 vs. 62.4 ± 6.8%, respectively). This change in tissue morphology was also reflected as a significant increase in Hounsfield units (HU; -69.4 ± 11.5 vs. -74.5 ± 9.7 HU, respectively). Additionally, the CT HU, MRI FSF, and MRI R2* values are significantly different between BAT and WAT, regardless of the activation status of BAT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify PET-CT and MRI FSF measurements and utilize a semiautomated algorithm to identify inactive and active BAT in the same adult subjects. Our findings support the use of these metrics to characterize and distinguish between BAT and WAT and lay the foundation for future MRI analysis with the hope that some day MRI-based delineation of BAT can stand on its own. PMID:27166284

  11. An Unsupervised MVA Method to Compare Specific Regions in Human Breast Tumor Tissue Samples Using ToF-SIMS

    PubMed Central

    Bluestein, Blake M.; Morrish, Fionnuala; Graham, Daniel J.; Guenthoer, Jamie; Hockenbery, David; Porter, Peggy; Gamble, Lara J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate two sets of pre- and post-chemotherapy human breast tumor tissue sections to characterize lipids associated with tumor metabolic flexibility and response to treatment. The micron spatial resolution imaging capability of ToF-SIMS provides a powerful approach to attain spatially-resolved molecular and cellular data from cancerous tissues not available with conventional imaging techniques. Three ca. 1 mm2 areas per tissue section were analyzed by stitching together 200 μm × 200 μm raster area scans. A method to isolate and analyze specific tissue regions of interest by utilizing PCA of ToF-SIMS images is presented, which allowed separation of cellularized areas from stromal areas. These PCA-generated regions of interest were then used as masks to reconstruct representative spectra from specifically stromal or cellular regions. The advantage of this unsupervised selection method is a reduction in scatter in the spectral PCA results when compared to analyzing all tissue areas or analyzing areas highlighted by a pathologist. Utilizing this method, stromal and cellular regions of breast tissue biopsies taken pre- versus post-chemotherapy demonstrate chemical separation using negatively-charged ion species. In this sample set, the cellular regions were predominantly all cancer cells. Fatty acids (i.e. palmitic, oleic, and stearic), monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and vitamin E profiles were distinctively different between the pre- and post-therapy tissues. These results validate a new unsupervised method to isolate and interpret biochemically distinct regions in cancer tissues using imaging ToF-SIMS data. In addition, the method developed here can provide a framework to compare a variety of tissue samples using imaging ToF-SIMS, especially where there is section-to-section variability that makes it difficult to use a serial hematoxylin and

  12. An unsupervised MVA method to compare specific regions in human breast tumor tissue samples using ToF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, Blake M; Morrish, Fionnuala; Graham, Daniel J; Guenthoer, Jamie; Hockenbery, David; Porter, Peggy L; Gamble, Lara J

    2016-03-21

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate two sets of pre- and post-chemotherapy human breast tumor tissue sections to characterize lipids associated with tumor metabolic flexibility and response to treatment. The micron spatial resolution imaging capability of ToF-SIMS provides a powerful approach to attain spatially-resolved molecular and cellular data from cancerous tissues not available with conventional imaging techniques. Three ca. 1 mm(2) areas per tissue section were analyzed by stitching together 200 μm × 200 μm raster area scans. A method to isolate and analyze specific tissue regions of interest by utilizing PCA of ToF-SIMS images is presented, which allowed separation of cellularized areas from stromal areas. These PCA-generated regions of interest were then used as masks to reconstruct representative spectra from specifically stromal or cellular regions. The advantage of this unsupervised selection method is a reduction in scatter in the spectral PCA results when compared to analyzing all tissue areas or analyzing areas highlighted by a pathologist. Utilizing this method, stromal and cellular regions of breast tissue biopsies taken pre- versus post-chemotherapy demonstrate chemical separation using negatively-charged ion species. In this sample set, the cellular regions were predominantly all cancer cells. Fatty acids (i.e. palmitic, oleic, and stearic), monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and vitamin E profiles were distinctively different between the pre- and post-therapy tissues. These results validate a new unsupervised method to isolate and interpret biochemically distinct regions in cancer tissues using imaging ToF-SIMS data. In addition, the method developed here can provide a framework to compare a variety of tissue samples using imaging ToF-SIMS, especially where there is section-to-section variability that makes it difficult to use a serial hematoxylin

  13. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

    PubMed Central

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus. PMID:24688822

  14. Discrimination in Health Care and CAM Use in a Representative Sample of U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Faith, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Tippens, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Discrimination in medical settings may influence patient attitudes about health care and health-seeking behaviors. Patients who experience discrimination may seek alternative means of health care, including use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between discrimination in health care and CAM use. Design Data come from the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey (HCQS), which used a multistage sampling design with random-digit dialing, oversampling telephone exchanges with higher densities of African-American, Hispanic, and Asian households. The 2001 HCQS sample consisted of 6722 adults living in the continental United States. To correct for the disproportionate sample design, data were adjusted using sample weights to make the results representative of the U.S. population 18 years and older. Present analyses were limited to 6008 respondents who had visited a doctor or clinic or had been admitted to the hospital in the last 2 years. Outcome measures Outcome measures were CAM use, practitioner-provided CAM use, and herbal medicine use. Results In adjusted logistic regression analyses, discrimination in health care was significantly associated with use of herbal medicines alone (adjusted odds ratio=1.47, confidence interval: 1.05, 2.04), but not with use of practitioner-provided CAM (i.e., use of acupuncture, chiropractor, traditional healer or herbalist, alone or in combination with herbal medicines). Conclusions Further research is needed to examine the direction of the relationship between discrimination and CAM use and differences by CAM modality. PMID:23308362

  15. Genomic DNA isolation of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) from leaf and stipe tissue samples for PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Lanes, E C M; Nick, C; Kuki, K N; Freitas, R D; Motoike, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata is an oleaginous species of the Arecaceae family; it has been identified as one of the most promising plants for sustainable production of renewable energy, especially biodiesel. We developed an efficient protocol of genomic DNA extraction for A. aculeata using leaf and stipe tissues, based on the cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide method, and we evaluated the quantity, purity, and integrity of the resultant DNA. We also determined whether these procedures interfere with PCR amplification using SSR molecular markers. The lowest concentration of DNA was obtained from stipe tissues (135 ng/μL), while fresh leaf tissues provided the highest concentration of DNA (650 ng/μL). Good quality DNA was obtained from fresh leaf, lyophilized leaf, and stipe tissues (relative purity, 1.79-1.89 nm). Differences in quantity and quality of DNA extracted from different tissues did not interfere with general patterns of PCR amplification based on SSR markers. PMID:24085452

  16. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women

  17. Evaluation of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in a Sample of Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Yoo, Ji Eun

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the psychometric qualities and construct validity of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS; Ellison in J Psychol Theol 11:330-340, 1983) using a sample of 470 Korean adults. Two factor analyses, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, were conducted in order to test the validity of the SWBS. The results of the factor analyses supported the original two-dimensional structure of the SWBS-religious well-being (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) with method effects associated with negatively worded items. By controlling for method effects, the evaluation of the two-factor structure of SWBS is confirmed with clarity. Further, the differential pattern and magnitude of correlations between the SWB subscales and the religious and psychological variables suggested that two factors of the SWBS were valid for Protestant, Catholic, and religiously unaffiliated groups except Buddhists. The Protestant group scored higher in RWB compared to the Buddhist, Catholic, and unaffiliated groups. The Protestant group scored higher in EWB compared to the unaffiliated groups. Future studies may need to include more Buddhist samples to gain solid evidence for validity of the SWBS on a non-Western religious tradition. PMID:25735753

  18. The WAIS-R(UK): basic psychometric properties in an adult UK sample.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J R; Gray, C D; Allan, K M

    1995-05-01

    The WAIS-R is the most widely used measure of intellectual ability in the UK, despite never having been standardized in this country. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the WAIS-R in a sample of 200 subjects, which was representative of the adult UK population in terms of the distributions of age, sex and social class. The properties of the three IQ scales, i.e. the FSIQ, the VIQ and the PIQ, were found to be very similar to those reported for the US standardization sample: the scores were normally distributed, with means close to the desired value of 100; moreover, the reliabilities of the IQ scales were extremely high and closely matched the US reliabilities. There were also indications, however, that the scales have restricted standard deviations when used in the UK. The reliabilities of the 11 original subtests ranged from moderate to high and the majority were similar to the US reliabilities. However, in addition to evidence of restricted SDs, significant differences (sometimes as much as two-thirds of an SD) were found among the subtest means. These in-built subtest discrepancies could lead to erroneous conclusions about an individual's performance. A conversion table for UK test users is provided to overcome this problem. PMID:7647715

  19. Mediators of the relationship between religiousness/spirituality and alcohol problems in an adult community sample.

    PubMed

    Drerup, Michelle L; Johnson, Thomas J; Bindl, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    Johnson et al. (2008b) reported that, in a college student sample, the effect of religiousness on alcohol use was mediated by negative beliefs about alcohol, social influences, and spiritual well-being, and that these variables in turn impacted alcohol use and problems both directly and indirectly via motives for drinking. This study attempted to replicate those findings in a sample of community dwelling adults (N=211). The effect of Religious/Spiritual Involvement was mediated by Negative Beliefs about Alcohol, Social Modeling, and Spiritual-Well-Being. However, Social Modeling had stronger relationships with motives for drinking and alcohol consumption than the other two mediators. The effect of Religious Struggle on Alcohol Problems was mediated by Spiritual Well-Being and coping motives for drinking. Results provide further support for the motivational model of alcohol use and suggest plausible mechanisms by which religiousness could causally impact alcohol use and problems. Religious struggle may be a clinically significant correlate of alcohol problems. PMID:21868169

  20. Direct sampling of resting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults in apple tree canopies and surrounding habitats.

    PubMed

    Epstein, David L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J

    2011-06-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths

  1. Cultural Sensitivity in Screening Adults for a History of Childhood Abuse: Evidence from a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Wendy; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Bernstein, David P.; Scher, Christine D.; Forde, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background A number of practice guidelines and recommendations call for the assessment of childhood abuse history among adult medical patients. The cultural sensitivity of screening questions, however, has not been examined. Objective To assess whether questions that inquire about childhood abuse history function differently for black and white patients. Design Cross-sectional telephone surveys in 1997 and 2003. Subjects Randomly sampled adults from Memphis, Tenn (1997, N = 832; 2003, N = 967). Measurements Physical, emotional, and sexual abuse scales of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire–Short Form (CTQ-SF). Standardized mean difference technique for differential item functioning to assess for possible bias in CTQ-SF items. Results Controlling for total physical abuse scale scores, black respondents were significantly (P < .01) more likely than white respondents to report that they had been punished with a hard object during their childhood, but less likely to report having being hit so hard that it left marks, have been hit so hard that someone noticed, or to believe they had been physically abused. Conclusions Inquiries that do not explicitly differentiate physical punishment from physical abuse may not be useful for black respondents because they tend to identify black respondents who report fewer clearly abusive experiences than comparable white respondents. Although untested in this study, one possible explanation is that physical discipline may be used more frequently and may play a different role among black families than among white families. These results underline the importance of attending to cultural factors in clinical history taking about childhood abuse histories. PMID:17356970

  2. Cadmium levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: The BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    PubMed

    López-Herranz, Ana; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pollán, Marina; Calvo, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Victoria Cortes, Maria; Castaño, Argelia

    2016-09-01

    Urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) were measured in 1770 adults (aged 18-65 years) as a representative sample of the Spanish workforce. The geometric mean (GM) was 0.28 μg/l with 95% CI: 0.27-0.32 μg/l (GM: 0.20 μg/g 95% CI: 0.18-022 μg/g creatinine). The 95% percentile was 1.03 μg/l. U-Cd increased with age, with women showing higher U-Cd than men (p<0.001; 0.24 μg/g vs 0.17 μg/g). A multivariate analysis confirmed that sex, age and smoking habit significantly influence U-Cd. Smoking habit increases U-Cd by ∼90% per 10 years of age, almost twice the increase observed for non-smoking. Female smokers had 85% higher U-Cd than non-smokers, whereas the corresponding value for male smokers and non-smokers was 45%. No regional differences were observed with respect to the national reference level. The Spanish population studied here exhibits similar urinary cadmium levels to its European counterparts in Germany and slightly lower levels than in France, the Czech Republic, Italy and the United Kingdom. This paper provides the first baseline information concerning cadmium exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. As such, these findings will help us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, thereby enabling comparisons with other countries and contributing to the improvement of public health and environmental quality. PMID:25899448

  3. Current Understanding of the Pathways Involved in Adult Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration for Tissue Homeostasis and Repair.

    PubMed

    Goichberg, Polina

    2016-08-01

    With the advancements in the field of adult stem and progenitor cells grows the recognition that the motility of primitive cells is a pivotal aspect of their functionality. There is accumulating evidence that the recruitment of tissue-resident and circulating cells is critical for organ homeostasis and effective injury responses, whereas the pathobiology of degenerative diseases, neoplasm and aging, might be rooted in the altered ability of immature cells to migrate. Furthermore, understanding the biological machinery determining the translocation patterns of tissue progenitors is of great relevance for the emerging methodologies for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. The present article provides an overview of studies addressing the physiological significance and diverse modes of stem and progenitor cell trafficking in adult mammalian organs, discusses the major microenvironmental cues regulating cell migration, and describes the implementation of live imaging approaches for the exploration of stem cell movement in tissues and the factors dictating the motility of endogenous and transplanted cells with regenerative potential. PMID:27209167

  4. Characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from internal tissues, ceca and rinse samples from commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella from internal tissues (spleen, liver/gall bladder, thymus, Meckel’s diverticulum, and free floating yolk), ceca and carcass rinse samples were determined from six-week-old (n=30) and eight-week-old (n=40) commercial broilers ...

  5. A vocabulary for the identification and delineation of teratoma tissue components in hematoxylin and eosin-stained samples

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavatula, Ramamurthy; McCann, Michael T.; Fickus, Matthew; Castro, Carlos A.; Ozolek, John A.; Kovacevic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    We propose a methodology for the design of features mimicking the visual cues used by pathologists when identifying tissues in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained samples. Background: H&E staining is the gold standard in clinical histology; it is cheap and universally used, producing a vast number of histopathological samples. While pathologists accurately and consistently identify tissues and their pathologies, it is a time-consuming and expensive task, establishing the need for automated algorithms for improved throughput and robustness. Methods: We use an iterative feedback process to design a histopathology vocabulary (HV), a concise set of features that mimic the visual cues used by pathologists, e.g. “cytoplasm color” or “nucleus density”. These features are based in histology and understood by both pathologists and engineers. We compare our HV to several generic texture-feature sets in a pixel-level classification algorithm. Results: Results on delineating and identifying tissues in teratoma tumor samples validate our expert knowledge-based approach. Conclusions: The HV can be an effective tool for identifying and delineating teratoma components from images of H&E-stained tissue samples. PMID:25191619

  6. Development of a sensitive method to extract and detect low numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts from adult cattle faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wells, B; Thomson, S; Ensor, H; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2016-08-30

    Cryptosporidium transmission studies to date have concluded that adult cattle are not a significant source of oocysts contributing to clinical cryptosporidiosis in calves on farm. However current methods of sample processing have been optimised for calf faecal samples and may be less sensitive when used on adult samples due to lower numbers of oocysts and larger size of samples. A modified and novel method of oocyst extraction and concentration was developed and applied in an experiment involving spiking adult cattle faecal samples with known concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The results showed an increased sensitivity of detection from 100oocysts/g of faecal sample using conventional protocols to 5oocysts/g using the newly developed method. As it is important to be able to accurately assess the contribution of adult ruminants to the transmission of Cryptosporidium, both on farm and in the environment, the development of the techniques described here is likely to make an important contribution to Cryptosporidium transmission studies in future and in subsequent control strategies aimed at the reduction of Cryptosporidium infection in calves on farm. PMID:27523933

  7. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia) , chronic = inflamma...

  8. Simultaneous determination of perfluorinated compounds and their potential precursors in mussel tissue and fish muscle tissue and liver samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, I; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2015-03-27

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination in fish liver and muscle tissue and mussel samples of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and 10 potential precursors, including four polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), four fluorotelomer saturated acids (FTCAs) and two fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (FTUCAs), was developed in the present work. Different clean-up strategies by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mix-mode weak anion exchanger (WAX), reverse phase Envi-Carb or a combination of them was optimized and evaluated for the clean-up of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid (FUSLE) extracts before the analysis by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mix-mode WAX coupled in-line to Envi-Carb was finally selected since it rendered the cleanest extracts and minimum matrix effect. The FUSLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS methodology was validated in terms of recovery, precision and method detection limits (MDLs). Apparent recovery values in the 65-116%, 59-119% and 67-126% range and MDLs in the 0.1-2.7 ng/g, 0.1-3.8 ng/g and 0.2-3.1ng/g range were obtained for liver, mussel and fish muscle tissue samples, respectively. The method developed was applied to the analysis of grey mullet liver (Chelon labrosus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples from the Basque Coast (North of Spain) and Yellowfin tuna muscle tissue (Thunnus albacares) samples from the Indian Ocean. To the best of our knowledge this is the first method that describes the simultaneous determination of 14 PFCs and 10 potential precursors in fish liver, fish muscle tissue and mussel samples. Besides, this is the first time that 8:2 monosubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 monoPAP) and 8:2 disubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 diPAP) were detected in mussel and tuna samples

  9. Differential Contributions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways to Thrombin Generation in Adult, Maternal and Cord Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Nicklaus T.; Szlam, Fania; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Bernstein, Peter S.; Szlam, Arthur D.; Tanaka, Kenichi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombin generation (TG) is a pivotal process in achieving hemostasis. Coagulation profiles during pregnancy and early neonatal period are different from that of normal (non-pregnant) adults. In this ex vivo study, the differences in TG in maternal and cord plasma relative to normal adult plasma were studied. Methods Twenty consented pregnant women and ten consented healthy adults were included in the study. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery. Platelet-poor plasma was isolated for the measurement of TG. In some samples, anti-FIXa aptamer, RB006, or a TFPI inhibitor, BAX499 were added to elucidate the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway to TG. Additionally, procoagulant and inhibitor levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma, and these values were used to mathematically simulate TG. Results Peak TG was increased in maternal plasma (393.6±57.9 nM) compared to adult and cord samples (323.2±38.9 nM and 209.9±29.5 nM, respectively). Inhibitory effects of RB006 on TG were less robust in maternal or cord plasma (52% vs. 12% respectively) than in adult plasma (81%). Likewise the effectiveness of BAX499 as represented by the increase in peak TG was much greater in adult (21%) than in maternal (10%) or cord plasma (12%). Further, BAX499 was more effective in reversing RB006 in adult plasma than in maternal or cord plasma. Ex vivo data were reproducible with the results of the mathematical simulation of TG. Conclusion Normal parturient plasma shows a large intrinsic pathway reserve for TG compared to adult and cord plasma, while TG in cord plasma is sustained by extrinsic pathway, and low levels of TFPI and AT. PMID:27196067

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, H; Delpy, D T

    2000-09-01

    Previous modeling of near-infrared (NIR) light distribution in models of the adult head incorporating a clear nonscattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer have shown the latter to have a profound effect on the resulting photon measurement density function (PMDF). In particular, the presence of the CSF limits the PMDF largely to the outer cortical gray matter with little signal contribution from the deeper white matter. In practice, the CSF is not a simple unobstructed clear layer but contains light-scattering membranes and is crossed by various blood vessels. Using a radiosity-diffusion finite-element model, we investigated the effect on the PMDF of introducing intrusions within the clear layer. The results show that the presence of such obstructions does not significantly increase the light penetration into the brain tissue, except immediately adjacent to the obstruction and that its presence also increases the light sampling of the adjacent skull tissues, which would lead to additional contamination of the NIR spectroscopy signal by the surface tissue layers. PMID:18350064

  11. Evaluation of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Isbel, Nicole M; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Lee, Katie J; Taylor, Paul J; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Scott B; Leary, Diana R; Staatz, Christine E

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To examine the predictive performance of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients. METHODS Twenty full tacrolimus area under the concentration–time curve from 0 to 12 h post-dose (AUC0–12) profiles (AUCf) were collected from 20 subjects. Predicted tacrolimus AUC0–12 (AUCp) was calculated using the following: (i) 42 multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies (LSSs); (ii) five population pharmacokinetic (PK) models in the Bayesian forecasting program TCIWorks; and (iii) a Web-based consultancy service. Correlations (r2) between C0 and AUCf and between AUCp and AUCf were examined. Median percentage prediction error (MPPE) and median absolute percentage prediction error (MAPE) were calculated. RESULTS Correlation between C0 and AUCf was 0.53. Using the 42 LSS equations, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.54 to 0.99. The MPPE and MAPE were <15% for 29 of 42 equations (62%), including five of eight equations based on sampling taken ≤2 h post-dose. Using the PK models in TCIWorks, AUCp derived from only C0 values showed poor correlation with AUCf (r2 = 0.27–0.54) and unacceptable imprecision (MAPE 17.5–31.6%). In most cases, correlation, bias and imprecision estimates progressively improved with inclusion of a greater number of concentration time points. When concentration measurements at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h post-dose were applied, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.75 to 0.93, and MPPE and MAPE were <15% for all models examined. Using the Web-based consultancy service, correlation between AUCp and AUCf was 0.74, and MPPE and MAPE were 6.6 and 9.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Limited sampling methods better predict tacrolimus exposure compared with C0 measurement. Several LSSs based on sampling taken 2 h or less post-dose predicted exposure with acceptable bias and imprecision. Generally, Bayesian forecasting methods required inclusion of a concentration

  12. A critical evaluation of sample extraction techniques for enhanced proteomic analysis of recalcitrant plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramu S; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2004-09-01

    Most published proteomics studies of bulk plant tissues use a procedure in which proteins are precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and acetone (TCA-A), but few attempts have been made to contrast this approach in a systematic way with alternative methods against a spectrum of tissues. To address this, TCA-A was compared with another acetone-based protocol (TCA-B) or a phenol (Phe)-based method, targeting a range of tomato tissues and three species of fruits that contain high levels of contaminating compounds: banana, avocado and orange. The Phe method gave a higher protein yield and typically greater resolution and spot intensity, particularly with extracts from tissues containing high levels of soluble polysaccharides. The methods also generated remarkably different two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein spot patterns. Peptide mass fingerprinting was used to identify polypeptides that were common to multiple extracts or uniquely present in one extract type. While no clear pattern emerged to explain the basis for the differential protein extraction, it was noted that the Phe method showed enhanced extraction of glycoproteins. These results suggest that the Phe protocol is highly effective with more recalcitrant tissues and that a combination of TCA-A and Phe methods provides enhanced 2-DE based proteomic analyses of most plant tissues. PMID:15352226

  13. Evaluation of soft-tissue morphology of the face in 1,050 young adults.

    PubMed

    Borman, H; Ozgür, F; Gürsu, G

    1999-03-01

    Anthropometry of the face has always been an interesting subject for artists and plastic surgeons. Since ancient times, many rules have been proposed for the ideal face. The authors measured directly vertical and horizontal proportions of the face and inclinations of the soft-tissue facial profile in 1050 young Turkish adults. Differences between the facial measurements of subjects from seven different geographic regions were analyzed. Some of the measurements were compared further with the measurements of other populations in the literature, and the validity of the neoclassical canons were tested. The special head height measure was shorter than the special face height in the majority of our study group (women/men: equal height, 13%/15%; longer special head height, 28%/30%; shorter special head height, 59%/55%). Faces with three equally high-profile sections were not seen in women or in men. When the forehead height was compared with the nose height, equality was present in a small percentage of the population (women/men: equal height, 17%/18%; longer forehead, 41%/ 42%; shorter forehead, 42%/40%). The nose height was equal to the lower face height in a minority of the population (women/men: equal height, 10%/11%; longer nose, 9%/11%; shorter nose (81%/78%). The forehead height was shorter than the lower face height in the majority of the population (women/ men: equal height, 8%/9%; longer forehead, 12%/13%; shorter forehead, 79%/78%). The intercanthal distance was shorter than the nose width in the majority of the population (women/men: equal width, 20%/19%; wider intercanthal distance, 35%/37%; narrower intercanthal width, 65%/68%). The population was distributed evenly in regard to the variations of the orbital proportion canon (women/men: equal intercanthal width and eye fissure length, 31%/36%; wider intercanthal distance, 34%/27%; narrower intercanthal width, 35%/37%). The mouth width was greater than 1.5 times the nose width in the majority of the

  14. Measurement of characteristic prompt gamma rays emitted from oxygen and carbon in tissue-equivalent samples during proton beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Panthi, Rajesh; Mackin, Dennis S.; McCleskey, Matt; Saastamoinen, Antti; Roeder, Brian T.; Beddar, Sam

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize how prompt gamma (PG) emission from tissue changes as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration, and to assess the feasibility of determining elemental concentration in tissues irradiated with proton beams. For this study, four tissue-equivalent water-sucrose samples with differing densities and concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were irradiated with a 48 MeV proton pencil beam. The PG spectrum emitted from each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector, and the absolute detection efficiency of the detector, average beam current, and delivered dose distribution were also measured. Changes to the total PG emission from 12C (4.44 MeV) and 16O (6.13 MeV) per incident proton and per Gray of absorbed dose were characterized as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration in the sample. The intensity of the 4.44 MeV PG emission per incident proton was found to be nearly constant for all samples regardless of their carbon concentration. However, we found that the 6.13 MeV PG emission increased linearly with the total amount (in grams) of oxygen irradiated in the sample. From the measured PG data, we determined that 1.64 × 107 oxygen PGs were emitted per gram of oxygen irradiated per Gray of absorbed dose delivered with a 48 MeV proton beam. These results indicate that the 6.13 MeV PG emission from 16O is proportional to the concentration of oxygen in tissue irradiated with proton beams, showing that it is possible to determine the concentration of oxygen within tissues irradiated with proton beams by measuring 16O PG emission.

  15. Measurement of characteristic prompt gamma rays emitted from oxygen and carbon in tissue-equivalent samples during proton beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Polf, Jerimy C; Panthi, Rajesh; Mackin, Dennis S; McCleskey, Matt; Saastamoinen, Antti; Roeder, Brian T; Beddar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize how prompt gamma (PG) emission from tissue changes as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration, and to assess the feasibility of determining elemental concentration in tissues irradiated with proton beams. For this study, four tissue-equivalent water-sucrose samples with differing densities and concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were irradiated with a 48 MeV proton pencil beam. The PG spectrum emitted from each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector, and the absolute detection efficiency of the detector, average beam current, and delivered dose distribution were also measured. Changes to the total PG emission from 12C (4.44 MeV) and 16O (6.13 MeV) per incident proton and per Gray of absorbed dose were characterized as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration in the sample. The intensity of the 4.44 MeV PG emission per incident proton was found to be nearly constant for all samples regardless of their carbon concentration. However, we found that the 6.13 MeV PG emission increased linearly with the total amount (in grams) of oxygen irradiated in the sample. From the measured PG data, we determined that 1.64 × 107 oxygen PGs were emitted per gram of oxygen irradiated per Gray of absorbed dose delivered with a 48 MeV proton beam. These results indicate that the 6.13 MeV PG emission from 16O is proportional to the concentration of oxygen in tissue irradiated with proton beams, showing that it is possible to determine the concentration of oxygen within tissues irradiated with proton beams by measuring 16O PG emission. PMID:23920051

  16. Pathology Tissue-quantitative Mass Spectrometry Analysis to Profile Histone Post-translational Modification Patterns in Patient Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Noberini, Roberta; Uggetti, Andrea; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that has been implicated with various pathologies, including cancer. Dissecting such a code in physiological and diseased states may be exploited for epigenetic biomarker discovery, but hPTM analysis in clinical samples has been hindered by technical limitations. Here, we developed a method (PAThology tissue analysis of Histones by Mass Spectrometry - PAT-H-MS) that allows to perform a comprehensive, unbiased and quantitative MS-analysis of hPTM patterns on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. In pairwise comparisons, histone extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues showed patterns similar to fresh frozen samples for 24 differentially modified peptides from histone H3. In addition, when coupled with a histone-focused version of the super-SILAC approach, this method allows the accurate quantification of modification changes among breast cancer patient samples. As an initial application of the PAThology tissue analysis of Histones by Mass Spectrometry method, we analyzed breast cancer samples, revealing significant changes in histone H3 methylation patterns among Luminal A-like and Triple Negative disease subtypes. These results pave the way for retrospective epigenetic studies that combine the power of MS-based hPTM analysis with the extensive clinical information associated with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archives. PMID:26463340

  17. Pathology Tissue-quantitative Mass Spectrometry Analysis to Profile Histone Post-translational Modification Patterns in Patient Samples.

    PubMed

    Noberini, Roberta; Uggetti, Andrea; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Minucci, Saverio; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2016-03-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that has been implicated with various pathologies, including cancer. Dissecting such a code in physiological and diseased states may be exploited for epigenetic biomarker discovery, but hPTM analysis in clinical samples has been hindered by technical limitations. Here, we developed a method (PAThology tissue analysis of Histones by Mass Spectrometry - PAT-H-MS) that allows to perform a comprehensive, unbiased and quantitative MS-analysis of hPTM patterns on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. In pairwise comparisons, histone extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues showed patterns similar to fresh frozen samples for 24 differentially modified peptides from histone H3. In addition, when coupled with a histone-focused version of the super-SILAC approach, this method allows the accurate quantification of modification changes among breast cancer patient samples. As an initial application of the PAThology tissue analysis of Histones by Mass Spectrometry method, we analyzed breast cancer samples, revealing significant changes in histone H3 methylation patterns among Luminal A-like and Triple Negative disease subtypes. These results pave the way for retrospective epigenetic studies that combine the power of MS-based hPTM analysis with the extensive clinical information associated with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archives. PMID:26463340

  18. Probing focal cortical dysplasia in formalin fixed samples using tissue optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Conti, Valerio; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of most common causes of intractable epilepsy in pediatric population and these are often insensitive to anti-epileptic drugs. FCD is characterized by a disarray in localized regions of the cerebral cortex and abnormal neurons which results them to misfire with incorrect signals. Resective neurosurgery to remove or disconnect the affected parts from the rest of the brain seems to be a viable option to treat FCD. Before neurosurgery the subject could undergo imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. On the downside FCD could be elusive in MRI images and may be practically invisible in CT scans. Furthermore, unnecessary removal of normal tissues is to be taken into consideration as this could lead to neurological defects. In this context, optical spectroscopy have been widely investigated as an alternative technique for the detection of abnormal tissues in different organ sites. Disease progression is accompanied by a number of architectural, biochemical and morphological changes. These variations are reflected in the spectral intensity and line shape. Here, in this proof of concept study we propose to investigate the application of tissue optical spectroscopy based on fluorescence excitation at two wavelength 378 and 445 nm coupled along with Raman spectroscopy for the detection of FCD on formalin fixed tissue specimens from pediatric subjects. For fluorescence at both the excitation wavelengths FCD showed a decreased intensity at longer wavelength when compared to normal tissues. Also, differences exist in the Raman spectral profiles of normal and FCD.

  19. Discrepancies between VEGF −1154 G>A Polymorphism Analysis Performed in Peripheral Blood Samples and FFPE Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marisi, Giorgia; Passardi, Alessandro; Calistri, Daniele; Zoli, Wainer; Amadori, Dino; Ulivi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with the response or toxicity to different types of treatment. Although SNP analysis is usually performed on DNA from peripheral blood, formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is often used for retrospective studies. We analyzed VEGF (−2578C>A, −1498C>T, −1154G>A, −634C>G, +936C>T) and eNOS (+894G>T, −786T>C, VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) 27bp intron 4) polymorphisms by direct sequencing or Real Time PCR in 237 patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Peripheral blood was used for 153 patients, whereas only FFPE tumor tissue was available for 84 patients. All SNP frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), with the exception of VEGF −1154, which was only in HWE in peripheral blood specimens. We therefore analyzed this SNP in DNA extracted from FFPE tumor tissue compared to FFPE healthy tissue and peripheral blood from 20 patients. Numerous heterozygous patients in peripheral blood DNA were homozygous for the A-allele in both tumor and healthy FFPE tissues. Our findings indicate that, although FFPE tissue might be a suitable specimen for genotyping, VEGF −1154 does not give reliable results on this type of material. As other SNPs may also have this limitation, genotype concordance should first be confirmed by comparing results obtained from FFPE and fresh sample analyses. PMID:25079441

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale in a Sample of Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11-17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations. PMID:27242563

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale in a Sample of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Tirassa, Maurizio; Testa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed at the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.). Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview meant to evaluate a person's Theory of Mind (ToM). It is composed of several questions organized in four scales, each focusing on one of the areas of knowledge in which such faculty may manifest itself: Scale A (I-Me) investigates first-order first-person ToM; Scale B (Other-Self) investigates third-person ToM from an allocentric perspective; Scale C (I-Other) again investigates third-person ToM, but from an egocentric perspective; and Scale D (Other-Me) investigates second-order ToM. The psychometric proprieties of Th.o.m.a.s. were evaluated in a sample of 156 healthy persons: 80 preadolescent and adolescent (aged 11–17 years, 42 females) and 76 adults (aged from 20 to 67 years, 35 females). Th.o.m.a.s. scores show good inter-rater agreement and internal consistency; the scores increase with age. Evidence of criterion validity was found as Scale B scores were correlated with those of an independent instrument for the evaluation of ToM, the Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the four-factors theoretical model to the data, although the four factors were highly correlated. For each of the four scales, Rasch analyses showed that, with few exceptions, items fitted the Partial credit model and their functioning was invariant for gender and age. The results of this study, along with those of previous researches with clinical samples, show that Th.o.m.a.s. is a promising instrument to assess ToM in different populations. PMID:27242563

  2. Association of telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in a community sample of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Carpenter, Linda L; Kao, Hung-Teh; Porton, Barbara; Philip, Noah S; Ridout, Samuel J; Ridout, Kathryn K; Price, Lawrence H

    2015-06-01

    Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were divided into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of early life adversity and lifetime psychopathology: No Adversity/No Disorder, n=136; Adversity/No Disorder, n=91; No Adversity/Disorder, n=46; Adversity/Disorder, n=119. Telomere length and mtDNA copy number were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There was a positive correlation between mtDNA and telomere length in the entire sample (r=0.120, p<0.001) and in each of the four groups of participants (No Adversity/No Disorder, r=0.291, p=0.001; Adversity/No Disorder r=0.279, p=0.007; No Adversity/Disorder r=0.449, p=0.002; Adversity/Disorder, r=0.558, p<0.001). These correlations remained significant when controlling for age, smoking, and body mass index and establish an association between mtDNA and telomere length in a large group of women and men both with and without early adversity and psychopathology, suggesting co-regulation of telomeres and mitochondrial function. The mechanisms underlying this association may be important in the pathophysiology of age-related medical conditions, such as heart disease and cancer, as well as for stress-associated psychiatric disorders. PMID:25845980

  3. How You Can Help Medical Research: Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples

    MedlinePlus

    ... sample to make sure the proposed research is ethical, useful, and based on good science. After the ... discuss further? • Am I comfortable with experts making decisions about how my samples will be used in ...

  4. Epidemiology of undiagnosed trichomoniasis in a probability sample of urban young adults.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Susan M; Turner, Charles F; Hobbs, Marcia; Miller, William C; Tan, Sylvia; Roman, Anthony M; Eggleston, Elizabeth; Villarroel, Maria A; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Chromy, James R; Erbelding, Emily

    2014-01-01

    T. vaginalis infection (trichomoniasis) is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. It is associated with increased HIV risk and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Trichomoniasis surveillance data do not exist for either national or local populations. The Monitoring STIs Survey Program (MSSP) collected survey data and specimens which were tested using nucleic acid amplification tests to monitor trichomoniasis and other STIs in 2006-09 among a probability sample of young adults (N = 2,936) in Baltimore, Maryland--an urban area with high rates of reported STIs. The estimated prevalence of trichomoniasis was 7.5% (95% CI 6.3, 9.1) in the overall population and 16.1% (95% CI 13.0, 19.8) among Black women. The overwhelming majority of infected men (98.5%) and women (73.3%) were asymptomatic. Infections were more common in both women (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.6, 8.2) and men (OR = 9.0, 95% CI 1.8, 44.3) with concurrent chlamydial infection. Trichomoniasis did not vary significantly by age for either men or women. Women with two or more partners in the past year and women with a history of personal or partner incarceration were more likely to have an infection. Overall, these results suggest that routine T vaginalis screening in populations at elevated risk of infection should be considered. PMID:24626058

  5. Post traumatic stress disorder and coping in a sample of adult survivors of the Italian earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cofini, V; Carbonelli, A; Cecilia, M R; Binkin, N; di Orio, F

    2015-09-30

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people who had left their damaged homes and were still living in temporary housing more than a year after the April 2009 L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake. In addition, we evaluated the differences in coping strategies implemented by persons who had and who did not have PTSD. A cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out on a sample of 281 people aged >18 years and living in temporary housing after the earthquake. The questionnaires used include the Davidson Trauma Scale and the Brief Cope. The prevalence of PTSD was 43%. Women and the non-employed were more vulnerable to PTSD, while, age and level of education were not associated with PTSD. Those with PTSD symptoms often employed maladaptive coping strategies for dealing with earthquake and had the highest scores in the domains of denial, venting, behavioral disengagement, self-blame. By contrast, those without PTSD generally had more adaptive coping mechanisms. Adults who were living in temporary housing after the earthquake experienced high rates of PTSD. The difference in coping mechanisms between those who have PTSD and those who do not also suggests that they influence the likeliness of developing PTSD. PMID:26162658

  6. Cognitive ability, acquiescence, and the structure of personality in a sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Clemens M; Rammstedt, Beatrice

    2015-12-01

    Acquiescence, or the tendency to respond to descriptions of conceptually distinct personality attributes with agreement/affirmation, constitutes a major challenge in personality assessment. The aim of this study was to shed light on cognitive ability as a potential source of individual differences in acquiescent responding. We hypothesized that respondents with lower cognitive ability exhibit stronger acquiescent response tendencies than respondents with higher cognitive ability and that this leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure by means of principal component analyses (exploratory factor analysis was not applicable to these data) in the former group. Further, we hypothesized that after controlling for acquiescence by using mean-corrected instead of raw item scores, the Big Five structure holds even among respondents with lower cognitive ability. Analyses in a sample of 1,071 German adults aged 56 to 75 years using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test as a measure of cognitive ability and the BFI-10, a 10-item abbreviated version of the Big Five Inventory, as a measure of personality, corroborated these hypotheses. These findings suggest that lower cognitive ability and age-related declines in cognitive functioning more specifically are associated with higher acquiescence, which in turn leads to problems in establishing the Big Five structure among individuals with lower cognitive ability that should be addressed by controlling for acquiescence. PMID:26011482

  7. Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in a Sample of Multiethnic Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Bianca P.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in a high-risk sample of predominantly minority young adults from low-income urban communities. Participants were 1,130 individuals (57.9% women) ages 21 to 26 who participated in a telephone interview assessing IPV victimization, violence-related behaviors, and sexual behaviors. Results indicated that about 20.9% of participants reported experiencing one or more IPV incidents in their lifetime. Based on previous research, we examined lifetime violence, lifetime number of sexual partners, number of children, education, and religious service attendance as predictors of IPV. Results from a multivariate logistic regression showed that lifetime violence-related behaviors, number of lifetime sexual partners, and number of children were significant risk factors for IPV. The link between children and IPV risk: (a) was moderated by education for women and men and (b) was stronger for women (vs. men). These findings suggest that training for coping with stress and anger, endorsement of safe sex practices, and greater support for education may be effective strategies for preventing and reducing IPV among high-risk populations. PMID:23735905

  8. Predictors of web navigation performance in a life span sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Jason C; Scialfa, Charles T

    2005-01-01

    The influence of age, subject matter knowledge, working memory, reading abilities, spatial abilities, and processing speed on Web navigation was assessed in a sample of 41 participants between the ages of 19 and 83 years. Each participant navigated a stand-alone tourism Web site to find answers to 12 questions. Performance was measured using time per trial, number of pages per trial, and number of revisited pages per trial. Age did not influence the number of total pages or repeat pages visited, which were predicted by domain knowledge, working memory, and processing speed. Age was associated with slower times per trial, and the effect remained significant after controlling for working memory, processing speed, and spatial abilities. Only with the addition of subject matter knowledge and World Wide Web experience was the age effect eliminated. Actual or potential applications of this research include redesigning Web sites to minimize memory demands and enhance visual segmentation. The data also suggest that age differences in Web navigation can be offset partially by taking advantage of older adults' prior experiences in the domain. PMID:16170939

  9. Rumination and Perceived Impairment Associated with Depressive Symptoms in a Verbal Adolescent-Adult ASD Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L.; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ >= 70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition, were associated with greater self-perceived autism-related impairments (n=48), greater rumination (n=21), and lower perceived social support (n=37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n=21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related Insistence on Sameness behaviors (n=18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. PMID:24802136

  10. The reporting of maltreatment experiences during the Adult Attachment Interview in a sample of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Vaillancourt, Kyla; McKibbon, Amanda; Benoit, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This present student examines maltreatment experiences reported by 55 high-risk pregnant adolescents in response to a slightly adapted version of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996 ). Previous research has suggested that the rates of unresolved states of mind regarding trauma in response to the AAI may be underestimated due to the lack of direct questions and associated probes regarding physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. We address this concern by including behaviorally phrased questions and probes regarding maltreatment experiences into the original format of the AAI and examine the concordance between reports of maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Maltreatment experiences in response to the AAI were evaluated using the Maltreatment Classification Scale developed by Barnett, Manly, and Cicchetti (1993). We also examine the association between unresolved states of mind and dissociation using the Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale. Results revealed a significant concordance between reports of maltreatment in response to the AAI and CTQ measures. Reports of maltreatment were prevalent in this sample: across the AAI and CTQ measures, 96% of pregnant adolescents reported some form of emotional abuse, 84% physical abuse, 59% sexual abuse, and 88% reported neglect. Sexual abuse history uniquely predicted unresolved status in response to the AAI. Self-reports of dissociation were significantly associated with unresolved states of mind. Results suggest that the inclusion of behaviorally focused questions and probes regarding maltreatment in the AAI protocol can further contribute to the clinical and theoretical value of this tool. PMID:22385310

  11. Prevalence and predictors of habitual snoring in a sample of Saudi middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring among a sample of middle-aged Saudi adults, and its potential predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 until June 2013 in randomly selected Saudi Schools in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The enrolled subjects were 2682 school employees (aged 30-60 years, 52.1% females) who were randomly selected and interviewed. The questionnaire used for the interview included: the Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire to assess for snoring, medical history, and socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure readings were recorded using standard methods. Results: Forty percent of the 2682 enrolled subjects were snorers: 23.5% were habitual snorers, 16.6% were moderate snorers, and 59.9%, were non-snorers. A multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of snoring were ageing, male gender, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, family history of both snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, water-pipe smoking, and consanguinity. Conclusion: This study shows that snoring is a common condition among the Saudi population. Previously reported risk factors were reemphasized but consanguinity was identified as a new independent predictive risk factor of snoring. Exploring snoring history should be part of the clinical evaluation. PMID:26219441

  12. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart. PMID:25122839

  13. DNA-flow cytometry of head and neck carcinoma: the importance of uniform tissue sampling and tumor sites.

    PubMed

    Westerbeek, H A; Mooi, W J; Begg, C; Dessing, M; Balm, A J

    1992-01-01

    Flow cytometric DNA ploidy measurements using deparaffinized tumor specimens were performed on 46 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, including 22 carcinomas of the oropharynx, 18 carcinomas of the larynx and six carcinomas of the oral cavity. Aneuploidy was found in 14 of these tumors with carcinomas of the larynx and oral cavity showing almost equal percentages of DNA aneuploidy (10/18 and 3/6, respectively). In contrast, only 1 of the oropharyngeal carcinomas was aneuploid. Accurate microscopy-controlled sampling of tumor tissue from the histological tissue blocks was found to be mandatory in order to obtain reliable ploidy measurements. PMID:1642865

  14. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry as a novel tool for detecting histone modifications in clinical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Shibojyoti; Sun, Na; Buck, Achim; Imhof, Axel; Walch, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), histone variants and enzymes responsible for the incorporation or the removal of the PTMs are being increasingly associated with human disease. Combinations of histone PTMs and the specific incorporation of variants contribute to the establishment of cellular identity and hence are potential markers that could be exploited in disease diagnostics and prognostics and therapy response prediction. Due to the scarcity of suitable antibodies and the pre-requirement of tissue homogenization for more advanced analytical techniques, comprehensive information regarding the spatial distribution of these factors at the tissue level has been lacking. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry provides an ideal platform to measure histone PTMs and variants from tissues while maintaining the information about their spatial distribution. Discussed in this review are the relevance of histones in the context of human disease and the contribution of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry in measuring histones in situ. PMID:26808584

  15. Towards a minimally invasive sampling tool for high resolution tissue analytical mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardi, R.

    2015-09-01

    Multiple spatial mapping techniques of biological tissues have been proposed over the years, but all present limitations either in terms of resolution, analytical capacity or invasiveness. Ren et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 284001) propose in their most recent work the use of a picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) under conditions of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) to extract small amounts of cellular and molecular components, conserving their viability, structure and activity. The PIRL DIVE technique would then work as a nanobiopsy with minimal damage to the surrounding tissues, which could potentially be applied for high resolution local structural characterization of tissues in health and disease with the spatial limit determined by the laser focus.

  16. In vivo adeno-associated viral vector-mediated genetic engineering of white and brown adipose tissue in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24043756

  17. In Vivo Adeno-Associated Viral Vector–Mediated Genetic Engineering of White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24043756

  18. Mass spectral determination of phenylacetonitrile (PAN) levels in body tissues of adult desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Wings and legs of the gregarious desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria have been shown to be release sites of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major adult male-produced pheromone. However, there is limited information on the distribution of PAN within the locust. Here we show, using gas chromatograph...

  19. ALKYTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of triethyltin (TET) on ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates and subcellular fractions were compared in neonatal and adult rats. n 5 day old rats, relative sensitivities to TET inhibition were: brain and liver mitochondrial ATPase >> rain Na+/K+ ATPase > b...

  20. The Italian version of Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale: psychometric proprieties and its associations with pathological narcissism and adult attachment in an adult non clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Borroni, Serena; Bortolla, Roberta; Lombardi, Lucrezia M G; Somma, Antonella; Maffei, Cesare; Fossati, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale (PSPS) in 447 nonclinical adult volunteers (63.5% female; mean age = 36.89 years). In our sample the PSPS total score and PSPS scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability estimates, and both the dimensionality analyses and WLSMV exploratory structural model supported the original three factors structure for PSPS items. We found a significant correlation between perfectionistic self-presentation and pathological narcissism and a significant role of attachment patterns in explaining the differences between these two constructs. Perfectionistic participants were characterized by avoidant and anxiety attachment styles, while narcissistic participants reported an anxiety style only. As a whole, our findings support the hypothesis that the Italian version of the PSPS is a reliable measure of perfectionist self-presentation in an adult community sample. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26877067

  1. Comparison of Accuracy of Whole-Exome Sequencing with Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh Frozen Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mi Jeong; Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Yu Jin; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Kyung Soo; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixing with paraffin embedding (FFPE) has been a standard sample preparation method for decades, and archival FFPE samples are still very useful resources. Nonetheless, the use of FFPE samples in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing, which is a powerful technique for the identification of genomic alterations at the nucleotide level, has been challenging due to poor DNA quality and artificial sequence alterations. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of matched frozen samples and FFPE samples of tissues from 4 cancer patients and compared the next-generation sequencing data obtained from these samples. The major differences between data obtained from the 2 types of sample were the shorter insert size and artificial base alterations in the FFPE samples. A high proportion of short inserts in the FFPE samples resulted in overlapping paired reads, which could lead to overestimation of certain variants; >20% of the inserts in the FFPE samples were double sequenced. A large number of soft clipped reads was found in the sequencing data of the FFPE samples, and about 30% of total bases were soft clipped. The artificial base alterations, C>T and G>A, were observed in FFPE samples only, and the alteration rate ranged from 200 to 1,200 per 1M bases when sequencing errors were removed. Although high-confidence mutation calls in the FFPE samples were compatible to that in the frozen samples, caution should be exercised in terms of the artifacts, especially for low-confidence calls. Despite the clearly observed artifacts, archival FFPE samples can be a good resource for discovery or validation of biomarkers in cancer research based on whole-exome sequencing. PMID:26641479

  2. Comparison of Accuracy of Whole-Exome Sequencing with Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh Frozen Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ensel; Choi, Yoon-La; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Yu Jin; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Kyung Soo; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    Formalin fixing with paraffin embedding (FFPE) has been a standard sample preparation method for decades, and archival FFPE samples are still very useful resources. Nonetheless, the use of FFPE samples in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing, which is a powerful technique for the identification of genomic alterations at the nucleotide level, has been challenging due to poor DNA quality and artificial sequence alterations. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of matched frozen samples and FFPE samples of tissues from 4 cancer patients and compared the next-generation sequencing data obtained from these samples. The major differences between data obtained from the 2 types of sample were the shorter insert size and artificial base alterations in the FFPE samples. A high proportion of short inserts in the FFPE samples resulted in overlapping paired reads, which could lead to overestimation of certain variants; >20% of the inserts in the FFPE samples were double sequenced. A large number of soft clipped reads was found in the sequencing data of the FFPE samples, and about 30% of total bases were soft clipped. The artificial base alterations, C>T and G>A, were observed in FFPE samples only, and the alteration rate ranged from 200 to 1,200 per 1M bases when sequencing errors were removed. Although high-confidence mutation calls in the FFPE samples were compatible to that in the frozen samples, caution should be exercised in terms of the artifacts, especially for low-confidence calls. Despite the clearly observed artifacts, archival FFPE samples can be a good resource for discovery or validation of biomarkers in cancer research based on whole-exome sequencing. PMID:26641479

  3. The focus on sample quality: Influence of colon tissue collection on reliability of qPCR data

    PubMed Central

    Korenkova, Vlasta; Slyskova, Jana; Novosadova, Vendula; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Langerova, Lucie; Bjorkman, Jens; Vycital, Ondrej; Liska, Vaclav; Levy, Miroslav; Veskrna, Karel; Vodicka, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Kubista, Mikael; Verderio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Successful molecular analyses of human solid tissues require intact biological material with well-preserved nucleic acids, proteins, and other cell structures. Pre-analytical handling, comprising of the collection of material at the operating theatre, is among the first critical steps that influence sample quality. The aim of this study was to compare the experimental outcomes obtained from samples collected and stored by the conventional means of snap freezing and by PAXgene Tissue System (Qiagen). These approaches were evaluated by measuring rRNA and mRNA integrity of the samples (RNA Quality Indicator and Differential Amplification Method) and by gene expression profiling. The collection procedures of the biological material were implemented in two hospitals during colon cancer surgery in order to identify the impact of the collection method on the experimental outcome. Our study shows that the pre-analytical sample handling has a significant effect on the quality of RNA and on the variability of qPCR data. PAXgene collection mode proved to be more easily implemented in the operating room and moreover the quality of RNA obtained from human colon tissues by this method is superior to the one obtained by snap freezing. PMID:27383461

  4. The focus on sample quality: Influence of colon tissue collection on reliability of qPCR data.

    PubMed

    Korenkova, Vlasta; Slyskova, Jana; Novosadova, Vendula; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Langerova, Lucie; Bjorkman, Jens; Vycital, Ondrej; Liska, Vaclav; Levy, Miroslav; Veskrna, Karel; Vodicka, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Kubista, Mikael; Verderio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Successful molecular analyses of human solid tissues require intact biological material with well-preserved nucleic acids, proteins, and other cell structures. Pre-analytical handling, comprising of the collection of material at the operating theatre, is among the first critical steps that influence sample quality. The aim of this study was to compare the experimental outcomes obtained from samples collected and stored by the conventional means of snap freezing and by PAXgene Tissue System (Qiagen). These approaches were evaluated by measuring rRNA and mRNA integrity of the samples (RNA Quality Indicator and Differential Amplification Method) and by gene expression profiling. The collection procedures of the biological material were implemented in two hospitals during colon cancer surgery in order to identify the impact of the collection method on the experimental outcome. Our study shows that the pre-analytical sample handling has a significant effect on the quality of RNA and on the variability of qPCR data. PAXgene collection mode proved to be more easily implemented in the operating room and moreover the quality of RNA obtained from human colon tissues by this method is superior to the one obtained by snap freezing. PMID:27383461

  5. Evaluation of a novel tagging and tissue preservation system for potential use in forensic sample collection.

    PubMed

    Grassberger, Martin; Stein, Christina; Hanslik, Stefan; Hochmeister, Manfred

    2005-07-16

    The authors describe a new, easy-to-use barcode-based tissue collection, preservation and body tracking system, which might prove instrumental in the containment of mass fatalities such as aircraft accidents, war related accidents, environmental disasters (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods) terrorist bombings or mass murders. PMID:15939157

  6. Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Patai, Árpád V; Schöller, Andrea; Krenács, Tibor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to test the applicability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples for gene specific DNA methylation analysis after using two commercially available DNA isolation kits. Genomic DNA was isolated from 5 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal adjacent tissues from "recent", collected within 6 months, and "archived", collected more than 5 years ago, FFPE tissues using either High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation kit or QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and sequencing. QIAamp (Q) method resulted in slightly higher recovery in archived (HP: 1.22 ± 3.18 μg DNA; Q: 3.00 ± 4.04 μg DNA) and significantly (p < 0.05) higher recovery in recent samples compared to High Pure method (HP) (HP: 4.10 ± 2.91 μg DNA; Q: 11.51 ± 7.50 μg DNA). Both OD260/280 and OD260/230 ratios were lower, but still high in the High Pure isolated archived and recent samples compared to those isolated with QIAamp. Identical DNA methylation patterns were detected for all 3 genes tested by MS-HRM with both isolation kits in the recent group. However, despite of higher DNA recovery in QIAamp slightly more reproducible methylation results were obtained from High Pure isolated archived samples. Sequencing confirmed DNA hypermethylation in CRCs. In conclusion, reproducible DNA methylation patterns were obtained from recent samples using both isolation kits. However, long term storage may affect the reliability of the results leading to moderate differences between the efficiency of isolation kits. PMID:25991403

  7. Predictors of type 2 diabetes in a nationally representative sample of adults with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Debra L; Mackinnon, Andrew; Morgan, Vera A; Watts, Gerald F; McGrath, John J; Castle, David J; Waterreus, Anna; Galletly, Cherrie A

    2014-06-01

    Antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine and olanzapine are associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, but relatively little is known about the relationship between risk factors for type 2 diabetes established in the general population and type 2 diabetes in people with psychosis. We estimated the prevalence of established risk factors and their association with type 2 diabetes in a nationally representative sample of people with an ICD-10 psychosis (N=1642) who gave a fasting blood sample (N=1155). Logistic regression was used to summarize associations adjusted for age and sex. In this sample, whose mean duration of psychosis was 14.7 years, 12.1% (13.1% of women and 11.5% of men) had type 2 diabetes at age 18-64 years based on current fasting blood glucose levels or treatment with a hypoglycaemic drug. Risk was greatly increased in young adults compared with the general population and peaked in middle age. Risk factors in the general population were common in people with psychosis and strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in those people. Treatment with clozapine was associated with an increased risk and treatment with olanzapine with a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes. The development of diabetes or pre-diabetes may therefore influence the likelihood of treatment with olanzapine over time. The strongest predictors of type 2 diabetes in a multivariate model were a body mass index of at least 40 and treated hypercholesterolemia, followed by a body mass index between 35 and 39.9, a family history of diabetes and treated hypertension. There was minimal to no confounding of the association between type 2 diabetes and current clozapine or olanzapine treatment, but neither association remained significant after adjustment for other predictors. Longitudinal relationships among predictors are likely to be complex, and previous antipsychotic drug treatment may at least partly explain risks associated with severe obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension. A

  8. Examining the Relationship between At-Risk Gambling and Suicidality in a National Representative Sample of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William; Gorman, Bernard S.; Lesieur, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Although many clinical studies document a relationship between gambling and suicidality, evidence of this association in general population surveys has been mixed. Probing this association in a nationally representative sample of young adults with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, we made same gender comparisons of…

  9. The Kuder Skills Assessment-College and Adult Version: Development and Initial Validation in a College Business Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottinghaus, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the Kuder Skills Assessment-College and Adult version (KSA-CA; Rottinghaus, 2006), a new measure incorporating advances in the measurement of self-efficacy across 16 basic occupational domains (e.g., finance, information technology) and the six Kuder Clusters. Similar to the original development sample, all scales of the…

  10. Effect of sampling method on the species composition and abundance of adult mosquitoes in a Florida swamp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of the adult mosquito populations in a Florida swamp (Sumter Co.) were obtained using suction traps and portable CDC light traps (augmented with CO2) and the results compared with mosquitoes captured by mechanical aspirator when landing on a human subject. Sixteen mosquito species total wer...

  11. The Relationship between Intelligence and Multiple Domains of Religious Belief: Evidence from a Large Adult US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Gary J.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of religiosity have been linked to lower levels of intelligence in a number of recent studies. These results have generated both controversy and theoretical interest. Here in a large sample of US adults we address several issues that restricted the generalizability of these previous results. We measured six dimensions of religiosity…

  12. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  13. Prevalence of Behavior Disorder and Disturbance to Family and Staff in a Sample of Adult Day Health Care Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Holmes, Douglas; Dichter, Elizabeth; Koren, Mary Jane; Ramirez, Mildred; Fairchild, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the prevalence of behavior disorders in a sample of residents (N=360) in adult day health care programs. Findings indicate relatively high rates of behavior disorders. Most prevalent were the affective disorders (seeking reassurance, depression, crying) and verbal-vocal agitation. Differences between formal and informal caregivers'…

  14. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  15. Teaching Manual Signs to Adults with Mental Retardation Using Matching-to-Sample Procedures and Stimulus Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, N. C.; Goyos, C.; Saunders, M.; Saunders, R.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to teach manual signs through an automated matching-to-sample procedure and to test for the emergence of new conditional relations and imitative behaviors. Seven adults with mild to severe mental retardation participated. Four were also hearing impaired. Relations between manual signs (set A) and pictures (set B)…

  16. Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an…

  17. Quantitative comparison of the expression of myogenic regulatory factors in flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) embryos and adult tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Tan, Xungang; Xu, Peng; Sun, Wei; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin are myogenic regulatory factors that play important roles during myogenesis. It is thought that MyoD and Myf5 are required for myogenic determination, while myogenin is important for terminal differentiation and lineage maintenance. To better understand the function of myogenic regulatory factors in muscle development of flounder, an important economic fish in Asia, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to characterize the expression patterns of MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin at early stages of embryo development, and in different tissues of the adult flounder. The results show that, Myf5 is the first gene to be expressed during the early stages of flounder development, followed by MyoD and myogenin. The expressions of Myf5, yoD, and myogenin at the early stages have a common characteristic: expression gradually increased to a peak level, and then gradually decreased to an extremely low level. In the adult flounder, the expression of the three genes in muscle is much higher than that in other tissues, indicating that they are important for muscle growth and maintenance of grown fish. During embryonic stages, the expression level of MyoD might serve an important role in the balance between muscle cell differentiation and proliferation. When the MyoD expression is over 30% of its highest level, the muscle cells enter the differentiation stage.

  18. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery. PMID:11314500

  19. Increase in adipose tissue linoleic acid of US adults in the last half century.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is a bioactive fatty acid with diverse effects on human physiology and pathophysiology. LA is a major dietary fatty acid, and also one of the most abundant fatty acids in adipose tissue, where its concentration reflects dietary intake. Over the last half century in the United States, dietary LA intake has greatly increased as dietary fat sources have shifted toward polyunsaturated seed oils such as soybean oil. We have conducted a systematic literature review of studies reporting the concentration of LA in subcutaneous adipose tissue of US cohorts. Our results indicate that adipose tissue LA has increased by 136% over the last half century and that this increase is highly correlated with an increase in dietary LA intake over the same period of time. PMID:26567191

  20. Thomsen-Friedenreich-related carbohydrate antigens in normal adult human tissues: a systematic and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Stosiek, P; Springer, G F; Karsten, U

    1996-08-01

    A broad variety of normal human tissues were examined for the expression of Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF)-related histo-blood group antigens, TF (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha 1-R), Tn (TF precursor, GalNAc alpha 1-R), sialosyl-Tn (NeuAc alpha 2-6GalNAc alpha 1-R), considered to be useful in cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy, and sialosyl-TF, the cryptic form of TF. These antigens or, more correctly, glycotopes, were determined by immunohistochemistry with at least two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) each (except sialosyl-TF) as well as by lectin histochemistry. For a better dissection of sialosyl-TF and TF glycotopes, tissue sections were pretreated with galactose oxidase or the galactose oxidase-Schiff sequence. Staining with mAbs appeared to be more restricted than with the lectins used. Distribution patterns among normal epithelia were different for all four antigens. These antigens were also detected in some non-epithelial tissues. They can be classified in the following sequence according to the frequency of their occurrence in normal tissues: sialosyl-TF > > sialosyl-Tn > Tn > TF. Most of the positively staining sites for TF, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn are located in immunologically privileged areas. The complex results obtained with anti-TF mAbs (after treatment of the tissue sections with sialidase from Vibrio cholerae) and the lectins amaranthin and jacalin revealed a differential distribution of the subtypes of sialosyl-TF [NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha 1-R and Gal beta 1-3 (NeuAc alpha 2-6)GalNAc alpha 1-R] in normal human tissues. From our data it can be inferred that TF, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn are promising targets for a cancer vaccine. PMID:8877380

  1. Effects of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on blood pressure and perivascular adipose tissue function in adult life.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Jing; Holloway, Alison C; Su, Li-Ying; Takemori, Kumiko; Lu, Chao; Lee, Robert M K W

    2008-08-20

    In Wistar rats, maternal exposure to nicotine was shown to impair the inhibitory function of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular contractility in the aorta of the offspring. It is not known whether an impairment of perivascular adipose tissue function occurs in smaller arteries, and whether the control of blood pressure is affected. Here we studied the blood pressure effects and the alteration of perivascular adipose tissue function in mesenteric arteries of the offspring born to Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) dams exposed to nicotine. Nulliparous female WKY rats were given either nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) or saline (vehicle) by subcutaneous injection 2 weeks prior to mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. Blood pressure of the offspring and functional studies with mesenteric arteries were conducted. Tissue samples (thoracic aorta, mesenteric arteries, and kidneys) were collected for morphological and immunohistochemical examinations. Blood pressure increased from 14 weeks of age onwards in the offspring born to nicotine-exposed dams. Nicotine-exposed offspring showed a significant increase in the number of brown adipocytes in aortic perivascular adipose tissue relative to control offspring. In mesenteric arteries from control offspring, contractile responses induced by phenylephrine, serotonin, and 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha, 9alpha-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F(2)alpha (U44619) were significantly attenuated in the presence of perivascular adipose tissue, an effect not observed in the nicotine-exposed tissues. Endothelium-dependent relaxation responses to carbachol, kidney weight, the total number of nephrons and glomerulus' size were comparable in nicotine and saline groups. We conclude that fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine caused blood pressure elevation. Alterations in perivascular adipose tissue composition and modulatory function are some of the mechanisms associated with this blood pressure increase. PMID:18647709

  2. Histological image data of limb skeletal tissue from larval and adult Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Catherine D; Diaz-Castillo, Carlos; Sosnik, Julian; Phan, Anne; Gardiner, David M

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Cartilage and bone cells do not participate in skeletal regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum limbs" [1]. Here we present image data of the post-embryonic development of the forelimb skeletal tissue of Ambystoma Mexicanum. Histological staining was performed on sections from the intact limbs of young (6.5 cm) and old (25 cm) animals, and on dissected skeletal tissues (cartilage, bone, and periosteum) from these animals. PMID:27547798

  3. Gingival Cyst of the Adult as Early Sequela of Connective Tissue Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Gil Escalante, Mariana; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2015-01-01

    The subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) is a highly predictable procedure with low complication rate. The reported early complications consist of typical postsurgical sequelae, such as pain and swelling. This case report describes the development and management of a gingival cyst following SCTG to obtain root coverage. Three weeks after SCTG procedure, a slightly raised, indurated, ~5 mm diameter asymptomatic lesion was evident. Excisional biopsy was performed and the histopathological evaluation confirmed the gingival cyst diagnosis. At the 1-year follow-up, the site had complete root coverage and normal tissue appearance and the patient remained asymptomatic. PMID:26236510

  4. Mouse matriptase-2: identification, characterization and comparative mRNA expression analysis with mouse hepsin in adult and embryonic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, John D; Campagnolo, Luisa; Goodarzi, Goodarz; Truong, Tony N; Stuhlmann, Heidi; Quigley, James P

    2003-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of mouse matriptase-2 (m-matriptase-2), an 811-amino-acid protein composed of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning domain, two CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains, three LDLR (low-density-lipoprotein receptor class A) domains and a C-terminal serine-protease domain. All m-matriptase-2 protein domain boundaries corresponded with intron/exon junctions of the encoding gene, which spans approx. 29 kb and comprises 18 exons. Matriptase-2 is highly conserved in human, mouse and rat, with the rat matriptase-2 gene ( r-maltriptase-2 ) predicted to encode transmembrane and soluble isoforms. Western-blot analysis indicated that m-matriptase-2 migrates close to its theoretical molecular mass of 91 kDa, and immunofluorescence analysis was consistent with the proposed surface membrane localization of this protein. Reverse-transcription PCR and in-situ -hybridization analysis indicated that m-matriptase-2 expression overlaps with the distribution of mouse hepsin (m-hepsin, a cell-surface serine protease identified in hepatoma cells) in adult tissues and during embryonic development. In adult tissues both are expressed at highest levels in liver, kidney and uterus. During embryogenesis m-matriptase-2 expression peaked between days 12.5 and 15.5. m-hepsin expression was biphasic, with peaks at day 7.5 to 8.5 and again between days 12.5 and 15.5. In situ hybridization of embryonic tissues indicated abundant expression of both m-matriptase-2 and m-hepsin in the developing liver and at lower levels in developing pharyngo-tympanic tubes. While m-hepsin was detected in the residual embryonic yolk sac and with lower intensity in lung, heart, gastrointestinal tract, developing kidney tubules and epithelium of the oral cavity, m-matriptase-2 was absent in these tissues, but strongly expressed within the nasal cavity by olfactory epithelial

  5. Prediction and validation of DXA-derived appendicular lean soft tissue mass by ultrasound in older adults.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Young, Kaelin C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression-based prediction equations for estimating dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived appendicular lean soft tissue mass (aLM) using ultrasound and to investigate the validity of these equations in 102 Caucasian adults aged 50 to 76 years. The subjects were randomly separated into two groups: 71 in the model-development group (41 men and 30 women) and 31 in the cross-validation group (18 men and 13 women). aLM was measured using a DXA, and muscle thickness (MT) was measured using ultrasound at 9 sites. Stepwise linear regression analysis was used to determine predictive models for DXA-derived aLM from MT variables, sex, and age. A number of ultrasound prediction equations for estimation of aLM were developed and then cross-validated in a subsample of older adults. The results indicated that ultrasound MT and MT × height can be used to accurately and reliably estimate DXA-derived aLM in older Caucasian adults. PMID:26552906

  6. Concurrent and Simultaneous Polydrug Use: Latent Class Analysis of an Australian Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Lake-Hui; Chan, Gary C. K.; White, Angela; Connor, Jason P.; Baker, Peter J.; Saunders, John B.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use and illicit drug use peak during young adulthood (around 18–29 years of age), but comparatively little is known about polydrug use in nationally representative samples of young adults. Drawing on a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey), this study examines polydrug use patterns and associated psychosocial risk factors among young adults (n = 3,333; age 19–29). Method: The use of a broad range of licit and illicit drugs were examined, including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, inhalants, steroids, barbiturates, meth/amphetamines, heroin, methadone/buprenorphine, other opiates, painkillers, and tranquilizers/sleeping pills. Latent class analysis was employed to identify patterns of polydrug use. Results: Polydrug use in this sample was best described using a 5-class solution. The majority of young adults predominantly used alcohol only (52.3%), alcohol and tobacco (34.18%). The other classes were cannabis, ecstasy, and licit drug use (9.4%), cannabis, amphetamine derivative, and licit drug use (2.8%), and sedative and alcohol use (1.3%). Young adult males with low education and/or high income were most at risk of polydrug use. Conclusion: Almost half of young adults reported polydrug use, highlighting the importance of post-high school screening for key risk factors and polydrug use profiles, and the delivery of early intervention strategies targeting illicit drugs. PMID:24350230

  7. Aetiology and Severity of Gingival Recession in an Adult Population Sample in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods: The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: The majority (79.4%) of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1st and 2nd molars (35.3%) and the mandibular 1st and 2nd molars (28.7%) were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P <60; 0.05), malpositioned teeth (P <60; 0.001), horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P <60; 0.001) and brushing once daily (P <60; 0.001) appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession. PMID:22013465

  8. Condom use errors and problems in a national sample of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Baćak, Valerio; Stulhofer, Aleksandar

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examined the correlates of condom use errors and problems in a population-based study conducted in 2010 among young Croatian adults aged 18-25 years. Out of a total sample of 1,005 participants, 679 reported condom use in the preceding year. The analyses focused on four outcomes: condom breakage, condom slippage, condom-related erection loss, and delayed condom application. Eighteen percent of participants experienced breakage, 13% reported slippage, 17% reported erection loss, and 34% applied a condom after intercourse started. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the correlates of these condom use errors and problems. Condom breakage was less likely to be reported by women and older participants. The odds of breakage were increased for participants who reported being under the influence of drugs during sex and who reported other condom use errors and problems in the past year. Condom slippage was more likely to occur among younger participants and those who reported condom breakage and delayed condom application. Condom-related erection loss was positively associated with a higher number of sexual partners in the preceding year, condom breakage, and a higher score on the Anti-Erotic Obstacles to Condom Use Scale. Odds of delayed condom application were increased for participants who experienced condom breakage and for those who consumed alcohol before sex in the past year. Having used a condom at first sex significantly reduced the odds of applying a condom after intercourse started. In comparison to non-habitual condom users, habitual users were found less likely to report any of the assessed condom use errors and problems. Improving condom use skills remains an important task in Croatia, which is currently hampered by the absence of evidence-based sex education in schools. PMID:21882054

  9. Psychometric properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an adult community sample in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Salokangas, Raimo K. R.; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Patterson, Paul; von Reventlow, Heinrich Graf; Heinimaa, Markus; From, Tiina; Luutonen, Sinikka; Hankala, Juha; Kotimäki, Mika; Tuominen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among individuals who experience mental disorder and that childhood trauma experiences are associated with adult psychopathology. Although several interview and self-report instruments for retrospective trauma assessment have been developed, many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb) rather than on multiple types of trauma or adversity. Methods Within the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) was developed as a new self-report assessment of multiple types of childhood trauma and distressing experiences. The TADS includes 43 items and, following previous measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, focuses on five core domains: emotional neglect (EmoNeg), emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical neglect (PhyNeg), physical abuse (PhyAb), and SexAb. This study explores the psychometric properties of the TADS (internal consistency and concurrent validity) in 692 participants drawn from the general population who completed a mailed questionnaire, including the TADS, a depression self-report and questions on help-seeking for mental health problems. Inter-method reliability was examined in a random sample of 100 responders who were reassessed in telephone interviews. Results After minor revisions of PhyNeg and PhyAb, internal consistencies were good for TADS totals and the domain raw score sums. Intra-class coefficients for TADS total score and the five revised core domains were all good to excellent when compared to the interviewed TADS as a gold standard. In the concurrent validity analyses, the total TADS and its all core domains were significantly associated with depression and help-seeking for mental problems as proxy measures for traumatisation. In addition, robust cutoffs for the total TADS and its domains were calculated. Conclusions Our results suggest the TADS as a valid, reliable, and clinically useful instrument for assessing

  10. Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Muscle Connective Tissue and Satellite Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, Patrick A.; Chretien, Fabrice; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kirova, Youlia; Caramelle, Philippe; Garcia, Luis; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gherardi, Romain K.

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle includes satellite cells, which reside beneath the muscle fiber basal lamina and mainly represent committed myogenic precursor cells, and multipotent stem cells of unknown origin that are present in muscle connective tissue, express the stem cell markers Sca-1 and CD34, and can differentiate into different cell types. We tracked bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells in both muscle connective tissue and satellite cell niches of irradiated mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing BM cells. An increasing number of GFP+ mononucleated cells, located both inside and outside of the muscle fiber basal lamina, were observed 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation. Sublaminal cells expressed unambiguous satellite cell markers (M-cadherin, Pax7, NCAM) and fused into scattered GFP+ muscle fibers. In muscle connective tissue there were GFP+ cells located close to blood vessels that expressed the ScaI or CD34 stem-cell antigens. The rate of settlement of extra- and intralaminal compartments by BM-derived cells was compatible with the view that extralaminal cells constitute a reservoir of satellite cells. We conclude that both muscle satellite cells and stem cell marker-expressing cells located in muscle connective tissue can derive from BM in adulthood. PMID:14982831

  11. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of tissue samples for oral pathology follow-up monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, I.; Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Perna, G.; Capozzi, V.; Cirillo, N.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2010-04-01

    An "in vitro" study of Raman spectra from oral human tissues is reported in order to the develop a diagnostic method suitable for "in vivo" oral pathology follow-up. The investigated pathology is Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) for which new techniques for guiding and monitoring therapy would be particularly useful. Raman spectra were obtained in the wavenumber regions from 1000 to 1800 cm-1 and 2700 to 3200 cm-1 from tissues from patients at different stages of pathology (active PV, under therapy and in PV remission stage) as confirmed by histopathological and immunofluorescence analysis. Differences in the spectra depending on tissue illness stage arise in 1150-1250 cm-1 (amide III) and 1420-1450 cm-1 (CH3 deformation) regions and around 1650 cm-1 (amide I) and 2930 cm-1 (CH3 symmetric stretch). A wavelet deconvolution procedure was applied to the spectra for better discriminating among the three different stages of illness and a linear regression analysis was used to fully exploit the content of information of Raman spectra.

  12. Limit of Detection in X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Tissue Equivalent Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Vassiljev, N.; Konstantinidis, A.; Griffiths, J.; Speller, R.

    2015-09-01

    There is a suggestion of a new approach to mammography whereby following a conventional mammogram, the radiologist could interrogate suspicious regions using X-ray diffraction whilst the patient is still present and to establish the true extent of disease. A starting point for this work is to quantify the minimum detectable amount of breast cancer within a realistic thickness phantom. Perspex has a similar diffraction pattern to healthy breast tissue whilst water is similar to breast tumour, hence these two materials are used as tissue equivalent test objects for X-ray diffraction measurements. The preliminary results show linear agreement between the ratio of Perspex to water and the ratio of the diffraction peak intensities at 0.7 nm-1 and 1.5 nm-1. The minimum detectable limit for a component of the two ‘tissue’ mix was found to be 4.1%. This suggests that X-ray diffraction can be used to quantify tissue like mixtures down to the 4.1% / 95.9% mix level and hence has a strong potential for delineating the extent of infiltration disease.

  13. Storage and shipping of tissue samples for DNA analyses: A case study on earthworms☆

    PubMed Central

    Straube, Daniela; Juen, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, molecular analyses play an important role in studies of soil dwelling animals, for example in taxonomy, phylogeography or food web analyses. The quality of the DNA, used for later molecular analyses, is an important factor and depends on collection and preservation of samples prior to DNA extraction. Ideally, DNA samples are frozen immediately upon collection, but if samples are collected in the field, suitable preservation methods might be limited due to unavailability of resources or remote field sites. Moreover, shipping samples over long distances can cause loss of DNA quality e.g. by thawing or leaking of preservation liquid. In this study we use earthworms, a key organism in soil research, to compare three different DNA preservation methods – freezing at −20 °C, storing in 75% ethanol, and freeze drying. Samples were shipped from the United States of America to Austria. The DNA of the samples was extracted using two different extraction methods, peqGOLD™ and Chelex® 100. The DNA amplification success was determined by amplifying four DNA fragments of different length. The PCR amplification success is significantly influenced by preservation method and extraction method and differed significantly depending on the length of the DNA fragment. Freeze drying samples was the best preservation method when samples were extracted using the silica based extraction method peqGOLD™. For samples that were extracted with Chelex® 100, storage in ethanol was the best preservation method. However, the overall amplification success was significantly lower for the extraction procedure based on Chelex® 100. The detection of the small DNA fragments was higher and independent from the extraction method, while the amplification success was significantly reduced for the longer DNA fragments. We recommend freeze drying of DNA samples, especially when they have to be shipped for longer distances. No special packaging or declaration is needed for freeze dried

  14. Hemodialysis outcomes in a global sample of children and young adult hemodialysis patients: the PICCOLO MONDO cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Maria; Gibson, Keisha; Plattner, Brett; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kotanko, Peter; Marcelli, Daniele; Marelli, Cristina; Etter, Michael; Carioni, Paola; von Gersdorff, Gero; Xu, Xiaoqi; Kooman, Jeroen P.; Xiao, Qingqing; van der Sande, Frank M.; Power, Albert; Picoits-Filho, Roberto; Sylvestre, Lucimary; Westreich, Katherine; Usvyat, Len

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the experience of pediatric and young adult hemodialysis (HD) patients from a global cohort. Methods The Pediatric Investigation and Close Collaborative Consortium for Ongoing Life Outcomes for MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes (PICCOLO MONDO) study provided de-identified electronic information of 3244 patients, ages 0–30 years from 2000 to 2012 in four regions: Asia, Europe, North America and South America. The study sample was categorized into pediatric (≤18 years old) and young adult (19–30 years old) groups based on the age at dialysis initiation. Results For those with known end-stage renal disease etiology, glomerular disease was the most common diagnosis in children and young adults. Using Europe as a reference group, North America [odds ratio (OR) 2.69; CI 1.29, 5.63] and South America (OR 4.21; CI 2.32, 7.63) had the greatest mortality among young adults. North America also had higher rates of overweight, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations and secondary diabetes compared with all other regions. Initial catheter use was greater for North American (86.4% in pediatric patients and 75.2% in young adults) and South America (80.6% in pediatric patients and 75.9% in young adults). Catheter use at 1-year follow-up was most common in North American children (77.3%) and young adults (62.9%). Asia had the lowest rate of catheter use. For both age groups, dialysis adequacy (equilibrated Kt/V) ranged between 1.4 and 1.5. In Asia, patients in both age groups had significantly longer treatment times than in any other region. Conclusions The PICCOLO MONDO study has provided unique baseline and 1-year follow-up information on children and young adults receiving HD around the globe. This cohort has brought to light aspects of care in these age groups that warrant further investigation. PMID:26985383

  15. Transcriptional profiling and genotyping of degraded nucleic acids from autopsy tissue samples after prolonged formalin fixation times

    PubMed Central

    Ferruelo, Antonio; El-Assar, Mariam; Lorente, José A; Nin, Nicolás; Peñuelas, Oscar; Fernández-Segoviano, Pilar; Gonzalez, Constancio; Esteban, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Background: Samples used for genotyping and transcription studies are obtained and conserved in very specific conditions. The possibility to use autopsy tissue samples, which contain nucleic acids of very poor quality, would open new possibilities for genetic studies. Methods: We have used liver tissue samples from autopsy cases to (i) determine its quality; (ii) study gene expression of 13 genes involved in different cell processes, before and after cDNA pre-amplification (quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction); and (iii) analyze the presence of 2 common polymorphisms of relevance for illness (ACE I/D genotype by PCR amplification, and TNF-α promoter gene polymorphism, by DNA sequencing). Results: Samples were grouped according to different buffered formalin fixation times (group 1, <15 days; group 2, 60-90 days; group 3, 150-180 days; group 4, 240-270 days). Nucleic acids showed a time-dependent degradation. The expression of 13 genes could be studied in all cases from groups 1 and 2, only 7 from group 3 and none from group 4. cDNA preamplification allowed the study of all genes in all samples. DNA genotyping for ACE and TNF-α promoter region was possible in all cases. Conclusions: We conclude that nucleic acids extracted from autopsy specimens after prolonged periods of time in formalin were of sufficient quality to study gene expression and genotyping using currently available methodology and cDNA pre-amplification. PMID:21326810

  16. Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the separation of tetracycline antibiotics from egg and tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ligang; Liu, Jun; Zeng, Qinglei; Wang, Hui; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Ding, Lan

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared using hydrophobic Fe(3)O(4) magnetite as the magnetically susceptible component, oxytetracycline as template molecule, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, and styrene and divinylbenzene as polymeric matrix components. The polymers were applied to the separation of tetracycline antibiotics from egg and tissue samples. The extraction and clean-up procedures were carried out in a single step by blending and stirring the sample, extraction solvent and polymers. The analytes can be transferred from the sample matrix to the polymers directly or through the extraction solvent as medium. When the extraction was complete, the polymers adsorbing the analytes were easily separated from the sample matrix by an adscititious magnet. The analytes eluted from the polymers were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries ranging from 72.8% to 96.5% were obtained with relative standard deviations in the range of 2.9-12.3%. The limit of detection was less than 0.2 ng g(-1). The feasibility of this method was validated by analysis of incurred egg and tissue samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by the classical method in which solvent extraction, centrifugation, and subsequent clean-up and concentration by solid-phase extraction were applied. The proposed method reduced the complicacy of classical method and improved the reliability of method. PMID:19268956

  17. Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Sexual Minority Adults by Study Sampling Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Laura; Rhodes, Anne E.; Brennan, David J.; Gesink, Dionne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous reviews have demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempts for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (sexual minorities), compared with heterosexual groups, but these were restricted to general population studies, thereby excluding individuals sampled through LGB community venues. Each sampling strategy, however, has particular methodological strengths and limitations. For instance, general population probability studies have defined sampling frames but are prone to information bias associated with underreporting of LGB identities. By contrast, LGB community surveys may support disclosure of sexuality but overrepresent individuals with strong LGB community attachment. Objectives. To reassess the burden of suicide-related behavior among LGB adults, directly comparing estimates derived from population- versus LGB community–based samples. Search methods. In 2014, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for articles addressing suicide-related behavior (ideation, attempts) among sexual minorities. Selection criteria. We selected quantitative studies of sexual minority adults conducted in nonclinical settings in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Data collection and analysis. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed for a difference in prevalence of suicide-related behavior by sample type, adjusted for study or sample-level variables, including context (year, country), methods (medium, response rate), and subgroup characteristics (age, gender, sexual minority construct). We examined residual heterogeneity by using τ2. Main results. We pooled 30 cross-sectional studies, including 21 201 sexual minority adults, generating the following lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide attempts: 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%, 5%) for heterosexual respondents to population surveys, 11% (95% CI = 8%, 15%) for LGB respondents to population surveys, and 20% (95% CI

  18. Comparing paraffined and deparaffinized breast cancer tissue samples and an analysis of Raman spectroscopy and infrared methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depciuch, J.; Kaznowska, E.; Szmuc, K.; Zawlik, I.; Cholewa, M.; Heraud, P.; Cebulski, J.

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer makes up a quarter of all cancer in women, which is why research into new diagnostic methods and sample preparations need to be developed at an accelerated pace. Researchers are looking for diagnostic tools to detect when an individual has cancer cells and use that information to see what measurements and approaches can be used to take further diagnostic steps. The most common method of sample preparation is the imbibing of tumor tissue in paraffin, which can produce a background for spectroscopic measurements in the range of 500-3500 cm-1. In this study we demonstrated that proper preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens and the measurement methodology can eliminate paraffin vibration, as was done in the work Depciuch et al. 2015. Thanks to this spectroscopic technique there may become a reliable and accurate method of diagnosing breast cancer based on the evidence found from the prepared samples. The study compared the results obtained through Raman spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements of healthy and cancerous breast tissues that were either embedded in paraffin or deparaffinized. The resulting spectrum and accurate analysis led to the conclusion that the appropriate measurement of the background and the elimination of peaks from the paraffin had the greatest impact on the reliability of results. Furthermore, after the accurate, detailed studies FTIR and Raman spectroscopy on samples of breast tissue that were deparaffinized or embedded in paraffin, including a complete analysis of the peak after transformation Kramers-Kröning (KK), it was found that sample preparation did not affect the result obtained by measuring the reflectance in the mid-infrared range, and that this only had a minimal effect relating to the intensity obtained by the measurement of the Raman peak. Only in special cases, when Raman spectroscopic methods are used for research to find the peculiarities of the spectra, are deparaffinization recommended

  19. Pathologic evaluation of a new endoscopic ultrasound needle designed to obtain core tissue samples: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas G.; Witt, Benjamin; Chadwick, Barbara; Wells, Jason; Taylor, Linda Jo; Dimaio, Christopher; Schmidt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Standard endoscopic ultrasound-fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) needles are in widespread use. Meaningful differences between the available needles have been difficult to identify. Recently, a new EUS needle (Shark Core®, Covidien, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland), has been introduced in an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, tissue yield, and to potentially obtain a core tissue sample. We performed a pilot study prospectively to evaluate this new needle when compared to a standard EUS-FNA needle. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the first 15 patients undergoing EUS-FNA with the Shark Core needle was performed and it was compared to EUS-FNA in 15 patients who underwent EUS-FNA with a standard needle. Results: The Shark Core needle required fewer needle passes to obtain diagnostic adequacy than the standard needle [(χ2(1) = 11.3, P < 0.001]. The Shark Core needle required 1.5 passes to reach adequacy, whereas the standard needle required three passes. For cases with cell blocks, the Shark Core needle produced diagnostic material in 85% of cases [95% confidence interval (CI): 54–98], whereas the standard needle produced diagnostic material in 38% of the cases (95% CI: 9-76). The Shark Core needle produced actual tissue cores 82% of the time (95% CI: 48–98) and the standard needle produced no tissue cores (95% CI: 0-71) (P = 0.03). Conclusion: This pilot study found that the Shark Core needle had a high rate of producing adequate cytologic material for the diagnosis of pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions sampled by EUS with fewer passes required to obtain a definitive diagnosis and with a high rate of tissue cores being obtained when compared to a standard FNA needle.

  20. A low dimensional entropy-based descriptor of several tissues in skin cancer histopathology samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Pablo; Corredor, Germán.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The use of low-level visual features to assign high level labels in datasets of histopathology images is a possible solution to the problems derived from manual labeling by experts. However, in many cases, the visual cues are not enough. In this article we propose the use of features derived exclusively from the spatial distribution of the cell nuclei. These features are calculated using the weight of k-nn graphs constructed from the distances between cells. Results show that there are k values with enhanced discriminatory power, especially when comparing cancerous and non-cancerous tissue.

  1. Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells for ligament and tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Dhinsa, Baljinder S; Mahapatra, Anant N; Khan, Wasim S

    2014-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injuries are common, and repair slowly with reduced biomechanical properties. With increasing financial demands on the health service and patients to recover from tendon and ligament injuries faster, and with less morbidity, health professionals are exploring new treatment options. Tissue engineering may provide the answer, with its unlimited source of natural cells that in the correct environment may improve repair and regeneration of tendon and ligament tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells have demonstrated the ability to self renew and have multilineage differentiation potential. The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been reported, however significant in vitro culture expansion is required due to the low yield of cells, which has financial implications. Harvesting of bone marrow cells also has associated morbidity. Several studies have looked at alternative sources for mesenchymal stem cells. Reports in literature from animal studies have been encouraging, however further work is required. This review assesses the potential sources of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering in tendons and ligaments. PMID:25012740

  2. Lumbar vertebral canal size in adults and children: observations from a skeletal sample from London, England.

    PubMed

    Watts, R

    2013-04-01

    The morphometry of the lumbar vertebral canal is of importance to clinical and bioarchaeological researchers, yet there are no growth standards for its diameters and there is a disagreement over the age at which its development is complete. Direct measurements of the midsagittal and interpedicular diameters of the lumbar vertebral canal (L1-L5) were taken from 65 children (3-17 years) and 120 adults (>17 years) from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery, London (1348-1350 CE) to discover the age at which these diameters reached their final adult size in an historical population from later mediaeval London. Children were grouped into age categories: 3-5 years; 6-10 years; 11-14 years; 15-17 years, and the group means of each diameter were compared with the mean adult diameters using one-way ANOVAs. The child midsagittal diameters were not significantly different from adults in any age category, indicating that this diameter reached adult size by 3-5 years of age. However, interpedicular diameters increased with age until 15-17 years when they reached full adult size. Mean diameters and percentiles (10th and 90th) are provided for each age category. PMID:23415375

  3. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  4. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J.; Grune, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples. PMID:26141921

  5. Two follistatin-like 1 homologs are differentially expressed in adult tissues and during embryogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Wen; Li, Fu-Gui; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) peptides play important roles in inhibiting myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Here, we characterized and examined the expression patterns of fstl1a and -b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). These genes encode 314 aa and 310 aa peptides, respectively, sharing a sequence identity of 83%. Except for the existence of the follistatin-N-terminal (FOLN) and Kazal-type 2 serine protease inhibitor (Kazal 2) domains, grass carp Fstl1a and -b do not share amino acid sequence similarity with Fst1 and -b. Both fstl1a and -b mRNAs were widely expressed in adult tissues. During embryogenesis, grass carp fstl1a and -b mRNA was detected in the presomitic mesoderm and somites at 12h post fertilization (hpf). At 24hpf, fstl1a mRNA was expressed in the hindbrain, somites, notochord and tailbud, while fstl1b mRNA was only detected in the tailbud. At 36hpf, fstl1a mRNA was detected in the hindbrain and notochord, and fstl1b was also expressed in the notochord. Furthermore, fstl1a and -b were downregulated in brain and liver tissue following injection with 10 or 50μg hGH, while fstl1b was significantly up-regulated in muscle tissue after 10μg hGH treatment. Both fstl1a and -b were significantly up-regulated at 2, 4 or 6days of nutrient restriction, and fstl1a was still highly expressed in the liver and muscle after 3days of refeeding, as was fstl1b in the brain and muscle. The expression of these genes returned to near control levels following 6days of refeeding. Our findings suggest that the two fstls play important but divergent roles in embryonic development and tissue growth regulation in grass carp. PMID:26439673

  6. MicroRNA Stability in Postmortem FFPE Tissues: Quantitative Analysis Using Autoptic Samples from Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Yu; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Eriko; Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are very short (18-24 nucleotides) nucleic acids that are expressed in a number of biological tissues and have been shown to be more resistant to extreme temperatures and pH compared to longer RNA molecules, like mRNAs. As miRNAs contribute to diverse biological process and respond to various kinds of cellular stress, their utility as diagnostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets has recently been explored. Here, we have evaluated the usefulness of miRNA quantification during postmortem examination of cardiac tissue from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Cardiac tissue was collected within one week of the patient's death and either frozen (19 samples) or fixed in formalin for up to three years (36 samples). RNA integrity was evaluated with an electropherogram, and it appears that longer RNAs are fragmented after death in the long-term fixed samples. Quantitative PCR was also performed for seven miRNAs and three other small RNAs in order to determine the appropriate controls for our postmortem analysis. Our data indicate that miR-191 and miR-26b are more suitable than the other types of small RNA molecules as they are stably detected after death and long-term fixation. Further, we also applied our quantitation method, using these endogenous controls, to evaluate the expression of three previously identified miRNA biomarkers, miR-1, miR-208b, and miR-499a, in formalin-fixed tissues from AMI patients. Although miR-1 and miR-208b decreased (1.4-fold) and increased (1.2-fold), respectively, in the AMI samples compared to the controls, the significance of these changes was limited by our sample size. In contrast, the relative level of miR-499a was significantly decreased in the AMI samples (2.1-fold). This study highlights the stability of miRNAs after death and long-term fixation, validating their use as reliable biomarkers for AMI during postmortem examination. PMID:26046358

  7. Biodistribution Analysis of Oncolytic Adenoviruses in Patient Autopsy Samples Reveals Vascular Transduction of Noninjected Tumors and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Koski, Anniina; Bramante, Simona; Kipar, Anja; Oksanen, Minna; Juhila, Juuso; Vassilev, Lotta; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-10-01

    In clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses, there has been no mortality associated with treatment vectors. Likewise, in the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), where 290 patients were treated with 10 different viruses, no vector-related mortality was observed. However, as the patient population who received adenovirus treatments in ATAP represented heavily pretreated patients, often with very advanced disease, some patients died relatively soon after receiving their virus treatment mandating autopsy to investigate cause of death. Eleven such autopsies were performed and confirmed disease progression as the cause of death in each case. The regulatory requirement for investigating the safety of advanced therapy medical products presented a unique opportunity to study tissue samples collected as a routine part of the autopsies. Oncolytic adenoviral DNA was recovered in a wide range of tissues, including injected and noninjected tumors and various normal tissues, demonstrating the ability of the vector to disseminate through the vascular route. Furthermore, we recovered and cultured viable virus from samples of noninjected brain metastases of an intravenously treated patient, confirming that oncolytic adenovirus can reach tumors through the intravascular route. Data presented here give mechanistic insight into mode of action and biodistribution of oncolytic adenoviruses in cancer patients. PMID:26156245

  8. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  9. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  10. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  11. The characterization of hematopoietic tissue in adult Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhihao; Kavungal, Sharath; Jiang, Shuai; Zhao, Depeng; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-07-01

    Invertebrates rely on the efficient innate immune mechanisms against invaders, in which the continuous production of hemocytes (hematopoiesis) is indispensable. In the present study, the hematopoietic tissue (HPT) from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was identified and characterized. It was a thin and non-transparent sheet located at the dorsolateral side of the stomach, which was composed of a series of ovoid lobules. Each lobule was surrounded by connective tissue containing a large amount of spherical cells with big nucleus. In HPT, the cells were full of mitochondria and granules, and DNA replication was detected in some cells by EdU labeling technique. Cell proliferation was observed in HPT by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The distribution of two transcription factors, GATA1 and RUNX1, were examined by human GATA1 and RUNX1 antibodies, respectively. Three homologues of RUNX1 were detected in the HPT while no signal of RUNX1 was observed in hemocytes, and GATA1 was detected in both HPT and some hemocytes. The mRNA transcript of a novel hematopoiesis related cytokine EsAst was detected in hepatopancreas and hemocytes, but it was no detectable in HPT. The mRNA expression level of EsAst in hepatopancreas was 1.38-fold higher than that in hemocytes. Total hemocytes counts were related to the mRNA expression level of EsAst post Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. The results suggested that the stem cells in the hematopoietic tissue of Chinese mitten crab E. sinensis were regulated by transcriptional and humoral factors to generate hemocytes. PMID:26868307

  12. Advances in Radiation Therapy for Primary and Metastatic Adult Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Philip; Sen, Neilayan; Abrams, Ross; Wang, Dian

    2016-06-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) consist of a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal origin. While surgical resection is the primary treatment for STS, the use of radiotherapy (RT) as an adjunctive modality has been shown to improve oncologic outcomes. Technologic improvements, such as image guidance and intensity-modulated radiotherapy that significantly improve both the precision and delivery of RT, have led to the reduction of long-term RT toxicities without compromising outcomes. This review addresses these technologic advancements as well as discussing the most current updates regarding the use of brachytherapy, charged particles, and novel agents with RT. PMID:27113370

  13. The activity of some phosphatases in tissues of adult Hymenolepis nana Siebold (Csetoda).

    PubMed

    Humiczewska, M

    1989-01-01

    Histochemical methods were used to study the localization and activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in tissues of the mature form of Hymenolepis nana. Considerable differences in activity and localization of particular enzymes were observed in the organs of the parasite. The results obtained permit the statement that the integument is the most active enzymatically; in connection with the literature data, this gives grounds for the thesis that the integument of the cestodes functions as an absorbent-digestive organ. PMID:2558920

  14. Determination of five nitroimidazole residues in artificial porcine muscle tissue samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingyun; Su, Yan; Liao, Xiulin; Yang, Na; Yang, Xiupei; Choi, Martin M F

    2012-01-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of five nitroimidazoles including benzoylmetronidazole, dimetridazole, metronidazole, ronidazole, and secnidazole in porcine muscles. Nitroimidazoles in samples were extracted by ethyl acetate with subsequent clean-up by a strong cation exchange solid phase extraction column. The clean extracts were subjected to CE separation with optimal experimental conditions: pH 3.0 running buffer containing 25mM sodium phosphate and 0.10mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, 5s hydrodynamic injection at 0.5psi and 28kV separation voltage. The nitroimidazoles could be monitored and detected at 320nm within 18min. The limits of detection were below 1.0μg/kg and limits of quantification were lower than 3.2μg/kg for all nitroimidazoles in the muscle samples. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 85.4-96.0, 83.5-92.5, 1.3-3.9, and 1.1-4.2%, respectively for the intra-day and inter-day analyses. The proposed CE method has been successfully applied to determine nitroimidazoles in artificial porcine muscle samples with good accuracy and recovery, demonstrating that it has potential for detection and quantification of multi-nitroimidazole residue in real muscle samples. PMID:22265553

  15. How You Can Help Medical Research: Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples

    MedlinePlus

    ... racial or ethnic group – Your age – Your family history – Your medical history “I donated my samples because I wanted to ... people in your life the following questions: • Is donation right for me? • Do ... No. 12-7933 Printed August 2012 NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health

  16. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient.

  17. Group B streptococcus infections of soft tissue and bone in California adults, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Khan, M A; Reingold, A; Watt, J P

    2015-11-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an increasing cause of disease in adults. We present long-term trends in incidence of overall infections and identify characteristics of patients with GBS cellulitis, bone and joint infections. Active, population-based surveillance was conducted from 1995-2012 in three California counties and the data were analysed retrospectively. All cases had isolation of GBS from a normally sterile site. Cases of cellulitis were classified based on clinical diagnosis. GBS bone or joint infection was defined as isolation of GBS from a bone or joint or a diagnosis of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Medical charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical information. There were 3917 cases of GBS; the incidence of disease increased from 5·8 to 8·3 cases/100 000 persons (P < 0·001) from 1995 to 2012. In adults aged ⩾40 years, the overall incidence of GBS increased from 8·5 to 14·2 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001) persons during the study period. The incidence of cellulitis increased from 1·6 to 3·8 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001), bone infection increased from 0·7 to 2·6 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001), and the incidence of joint infection remained approximately constant at an average rate of 1·0 case/100 000. The highest incidence rates were observed in men, persons aged ⩾80 years, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (51·2% cellulitis cases, 76·3% bone infections, 29·8% joint infections). PMID:26418351

  18. Soft Tissue Tumors in Adults: ESSR-Approved Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Weber, Marc-André; Lalam, Radhesh K; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bohndorf, Klaus; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Tagliafico, Alberto; van Rijswijk, Carla; Vilanova, Joan C; Afonso, P Diana; Breitenseher, Martin; Beggs, Ian; Robinson, Philip; de Jonge, Milko C; Krestan, Christian; Bloem, Johan L

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, but early, accurate diagnosis with subsequent appropriate treatment is crucial for the clinical outcome. The ESSR guidelines are intended to help radiologists in their decision-making and support discussion among clinicians who deal with patients with suspected or proven soft tissue tumors. Potentially malignant lesions recognized by ultrasound should be referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which also serves as a preoperative local staging modality, with specific technical requirements and mandatory radiological report elements. Radiography may add information about matrix calcification and osseous involvement. Indeterminate lesions, or lesions in which therapy is dependent on histology results, should be biopsied. For biopsy, we strongly recommend referral to a specialist sarcoma center, where an interdisciplinary tumor group, with a specialized pathologist, radiologist, and the surgeon are involved. In sarcoma, a CT scan of the chest is mandatory. Additional staging modalities are entity-specific. There are no evidence-based recommendations for routine follow-up in surgically treated sarcomas. However, we would recommend regular follow-up with intervals dependent on tumor grade, for 10 years after the initial diagnosis. PMID:26696086

  19. Development of a chromogenic in situ hybridization for Giardia duodenalis and its application in canine, feline, and porcine intestinal tissues samples.

    PubMed

    Weissenböck, Herbert; Ondrovics, Martina; Gurtner, Susanne; Schiessl, Peter; Mostegl, Meike M; Richter, Barbara

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, a chromogenic in situ hybridization for the identification of Giardia duodenalis in paraffin-embedded tissue samples was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of the probe was validated by testing it on cultured reference samples of different assemblages of G. duodenalis as well as culture and tissue samples containing other protozoa and infectious agents. The probe gave a positive reaction with the Giardia samples and a negative reaction with all other samples. Further, the probe was used for screening of histological slides of intestine from different animal species (99 canine samples, 85 feline samples, and 202 porcine samples) for the presence of G. duodenalis trophozoites. With this assay, the parasites were detected in samples from 8 dogs (8.08%), 6 cats (7.06%), and zero pigs. The results clearly indicate that the described method is useful for detection of Giardia trophozoites in routinely processed intestinal tissue of different animal species. PMID:21908276

  20. Diversity of Retinal Ganglion Cells Identified by Transient GFP Transfection in Organotypic Tissue Culture of Adult Marmoset Monkey Retina

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Satoru; Komatsu, Yusuke; Yamamori, Tetsuo; Koizumi, Amane

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian retina has more diversity of neurons than scientists had once believed in order to establish complicated vision processing. In the monkey retina, morphological diversity of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) besides dominant midget and parasol cells has been suggested. However, characteristic subtypes of RGCs in other species such as bistratified direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGC) have not yet been identified. Increasing interest has been shown in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkey as a “super-model” of neuroscientific research. Here, we established organotypic tissue culture of the adult marmoset monkey retina with particle-mediated gene transfer of GFP to survey the morphological diversity of RGCs. We successfully incubated adult marmoset monkey retinas for 2 to 4 days ex vivo for transient expression of GFP. We morphologically examined 121 RGCs out of more than 3240 GFP-transfected cells in 5 retinas. Among them, we identified monostratified or broadly stratified ganglion cells (midget, parasol, sparse, recursive, thorny, and broad thorny ganglion cells), and bistratified ganglion cells (recursive, large, and small bistratified ganglion cells [blue-ON/yellow-OFF-like]). By this survey, we also found a candidate for bistratified DSGC whose dendrites were well cofasciculated with ChAT-positive starburst dendrites, costratified with ON and OFF ChAT bands, and had honeycomb-shaped dendritic arbors morphologically similar to those in rabbits. Our genetic engineering method provides a new approach to future investigation for morphological and functional diversity of RGCs in the monkey retina. PMID:23336011

  1. Hyperspectral imaging with wavelet transform for classification of colon tissue biopsy samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Khalid

    2008-08-01

    Automatic classification of medical images is a part of our computerised medical imaging programme to support the pathologists in their diagnosis. Hyperspectral data has found its applications in medical imagery. Its usage is increasing significantly in biopsy analysis of medical images. In this paper, we present a histopathological analysis for the classification of colon biopsy samples into benign and malignant classes. The proposed study is based on comparison between 3D spectral/spatial analysis and 2D spatial analysis. Wavelet textural features in the wavelet domain are used in both these approaches for classification of colon biopsy samples. Experimental results indicate that the incorporation of wavelet textural features using a support vector machine, in 2D spatial analysis, achieve best classification accuracy.

  2. Polytobacco use and multiple-product smoking among a random community sample of African-American adults

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope; Simms, Denise Adams; Bess, Jukelia J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about polytobacco use among African-American adults. This study is the first to explore this among a random, statewide, community sample of African-American adults. Setting Community-based sampling obtained a random, household-probability sample of African-American adults from California, surveyed door to door in randomly selected census tracts statewide. Participants Participants were a statewide, random-household sample of N=2118 African-American adults from California who completed a survey on past 30-day smoking of cigarettes, blunts, bidis, kreteks, cigarillos, marijuana and cigars. Results Almost half (49.3%) of the African-American cigarette-smokers and 14.9% of the cigarette non-smokers had smoked at least one non-cigarette product in the past 30 days. Smokers had a substantial prevalence of smoking cigarillos (28.7%) and blunts (27.7%). Logistic regressions revealed that the odds of smoking most of the non-cigarette products were higher for cigarette smokers and men, inversely related to age, and unrelated to socioeconomic status. However, smoking of blunts, bidis and kreteks was not predicted by cigarette smoking. Conclusions Smoking of cigarillos (eg, Phillies, Black & Mild) and blunts may be prevalent among African-American cigarette-smokers and non-smokers alike, but such products are not examined in most population-level smoking research. Smoking of these products should be included in surveillance studies, in cancer prevention programmes and in healthcare provider-assessment of smoking, and addressed in smoking cessation programmes as well. PMID:24334154

  3. Whirling agitated single drop microextraction technique for the simultaneous analysis of Paraquat and Maneb in tissue samples of treated mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rupender; Jha, Rakesh R; Singh, Mahendra P; Patel, Devendra K

    2016-05-01

    A new microextraction technique, whirling agitated single drop microextraction, has been proposed for the simultaneous analysis of Paraquat and Maneb in tissue samples before liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. This technique is based on the idea that the escalatory motion of the sample solution along with the extraction solvent increases the movement of molecules into the extraction solvent. In this technique, a simple handheld rotator was utilized to rapidly agitate the biphasic extraction system for the instantaneous extraction of targeted analytes. After extraction, the extracted phase was directly solidified by cooling in crushed ice and easily collected using a micro-spatula. The method showed good performance by achieving sensitive detection limits at 4.81 ng g(-1) (Paraquat) and 9.12 ng g(-1) (Maneb). Mean recoveries and enrichment factors were obtained >91.21% and up to 114 that ensured the preconcentration capacity of the method. The method precision was verified by evaluating intraday variation (n = 10) ≤4.57 (Paraquat) and ≤4.68 (Maneb) in terms of percent relative standard deviation. Additionally, method efficacy was assured by obtaining very little matrix interferences (≤3.11%). Moreover, the method suitability was also checked with its application on tissue samples of intraperitoneally treated mice with Paraquat and Maneb. PMID:26970105

  4. Pharmacokinetic study on pradofloxacin in the dog – Comparison of serum analysis, ultrafiltration and tissue sampling after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pradofloxacin, a newly developed 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone, show enhanced activity against Gram-positive organisms and anaerobes to treat canine and feline bacterial infections. The purpose of this cross-over study was to measure the unbound drug concentration of pradofloxacin in the interstitial fluid (ISF) using ultrafiltration and to compare the kinetics of pradofloxacin in serum, ISF and tissue using enrofloxacin as reference. Results After oral administration of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) and pradofloxacin (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively), serum collection and ultrafiltration in regular intervals over a period of 24 h were performed, followed by tissue sampling at the end of the third dosing protocol (pradofloxacin 6 mg/kg). Peak concentrations of pradofloxacin (3 mg/kg) were 1.55±0.31 μg/ml in the ISF and 1.85±0.23 μg/ml in serum and for pradofloxacin (6 mg/kg) 2.71±0.81 μg/kg in the ISF and 2.77±0.64 μg/kg in serum; both without a statistical difference between ISF and serum. Comparison between all sampling approaches showed no consistent pattern of statistical differences. Conclusions Despite some technical shortcomings the ultrafiltration approach appears to be the most sensitive sampling technique to estimate pharmacokinetic values of pradofloxacin at the infection site. Pharmacokinetics – Pradofloxacin – Ultrafiltration – Dog – Oral Administration. PMID:23410255

  5. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas H; Laursen, Kristian H; Persson, Daniel P; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. Results We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight). A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM) with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds), the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm) closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. Conclusion A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at improvement of the

  6. Isolated Limb Perfusion of Melphalan With or Without Tumor Necrosis Factor in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Arm or Leg

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Stage IVB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIC Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IVA Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  7. OGG1 mRNA expression and incision activity in rats are higher in foetal tissue than in adult liver tissue while 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels are unchanged.

    PubMed

    Riis, Bente; Risom, Lotte; Loft, Steffen; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2002-09-01

    This study was set up to investigate the relationships between the formation and removal of DNA damage in form of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in neonatal (day 16 of gestation) as compared to adult rats. The hypothesis addressed was whether the rapidly dividing foetal tissue has an enhanced requirement of DNA repair providing protection against potentially mutagenic DNA damages such as 8-oxodG. The activity of the primary 8-oxodG-repair protein OGG1 was measured by a DNA incision assay and the expression of OGG1 mRNA was measured by Real-Time PCR normalised to 18S rRNA. The tissue level of 8-oxodG was measured by HPLC-ECD. We found a 2-3-fold increased incision activity in the foetal control tissue, together with a 3-15-fold increase in mRNA of OGG1 as compared to liver tissue from adult rats. The levels of 8-oxodG in the foetal tissue were unaltered as compared to the adult groups. To increase the levels of 8-oxodG, the rats received an injection (i.p.) of the hepatotoxin 2-nitropropane. The compound induced significant levels of 8-oxodG in male rat livers 5h after the injection and in the foetuses 24h after the injection, while the female rats showed no increase in 8-oxodG. The incision activity was slightly depressed in both male and female liver tissue and in the foetal tissue 5h after the injection, but significantly increased from 5 to 24h after the injection. However, it did not reach levels significantly above the control levels. In conclusion, this study confirms that foetal tissue has increased levels of OGG1 mRNA and correspondingly an enhanced incision activity on an 8-oxodG substrate in a crude tissue extract. PMID:12509275

  8. Elements in autopsy liver tissue samples from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes. V. Selenium measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils; Laursen, Jens; Byg, Keld-Erik; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Mulvad, Gerd; Hansen, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    The content of selenium in normal liver tissue samples from Greenlandic Inuit was measured and the results compared with those obtained in normal liver tissue samples from Danes. Normal liver tissue samples were obtained at autopsy from 50 Greenlandic Inuit (27 men, 23 women) with a median age of 61 years (range 23-83) and from 74 Danes (44 men, 30 women) with a median age of 60 years (range 15-87). Total liver selenium content was measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The content of selenium (median) was in Inuit 26.6 micromol/kg dry liver (5-95 percentile: 15.2-49.4) and in Danes 17.7 micromol/kg dry liver (5-95 percentile: < 3.8-36.5) (p < 0.0001). Liver selenium content displayed no significant gender difference, either in Inuit or Danes. In Inuit men, there was a negative correlation between liver selenium content and age (rs = -0.39, p < 0.05), whereas Danish men displayed a positive correlation between liver selenium content and age (rs = 0.37, p = 0.02). There was no correlation in Inuit or Danish women. In Inuit, the median hepatic selenium index (liver selenium content divided by age) was 0.48 and in Danes 0.33 (p = 0.001). There was an inverse correlation between hepatic selenium index and age both in Inuit (rs = -0.77, p < 0.0001) and in Danes (rs = -0.47, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, Inuit had a higher liver content of selenium and a higher hepatic selenium index compared with Danes. The more favourable selenium status is due to a higher nutritional selenium intake with fish and meat from sea mammals. PMID:15139392

  9. Differences in tissue distribution of HBCD alpha and gamma between adult and developing mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HBCD is a mixture of three main stereoisomers, alpha (a), beta (b) and gamma (g). Despite its minor contribution to global hexabromocyclododecane production and usage, a-HBCD is the dominant congener found in most biotic samples worldwide. Evidence of toxicity and lack of stereoisomer studies drives...

  10. The Evaluation of Left Ventricular Functions with Tissue Doppler Echocardiography in Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Fatma E.; Sari, Cenk; Özer-Sari, Sevil; Demirezer-Bolat, Aylin; Durmaz, Tahir; Keles, Telat; Ersoy, Osman; Bozkurt, Engin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of celiac disease on cardiac functions using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Patients and Methods: The study included 30 patients with celiac disease (CD) and 30 healthy volunteers. Echocardiographic examinations were assessed by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. The peak systolic velocity (S'm), early diastolic myocardial peak velocity (E'm), late diastolic myocardial peak velocity (A'm), E'm/A'm ratio, myocardial precontraction time (PCT'm), myocardial contraction time (CT'm), and myocardial isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT'm), E to E'm ratio were measured. Results: In pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography, mitral late diastolic flow (A) velocity and E to E'm ratio were significantly higher (P = 0.02 and P = 0,017), E/A ratio was significantly lower (P = 0.008) and IVRT was significantly prolonged (P = 0.014) in patients with CD. In TDE, S'm, E'm, and E'm/A'm ratio were significantly lower, IVRT'm was longer (P = 0.009) from septal mitral annulus and S'm, E'm, E'm/A'm ratio were significantly lower, PCT'm, PCT/ET ratio, IVRT'm were longer, and MPI was higher from lateral mitral annulus in celiac group than controls. Conclusion: Our study confirms that patients with CD have impaired diastolic function. More importantly, we also demonstrated an impairment of myocardial systolic function in patients with CD by TDE. We recommend using TDE in addition to conventional echocardiography parameters for the cardiovascular risk assessment of patients with CD. PMID:26997217

  11. Expression of spicule matrix protein gene SM30 in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitajima, T.; Tomita, M.; Killian, C. E.; Akasaka, K.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for spicule matrix protein, SM30, from sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and have studied the expression of this gene in comparison with that of another spicule matrix protein gene, SM50. In cultured micromeres as well as in intact embryos transcripts of SM30 were first detectable around the onset of spicule formation and rapidly increased with the growth of spicules, which accompanied accumulation of glycosylated SM30 protein(s). When micromeres were cultured in the presence of Zn2+, spicule formation and SM30 expression were suppressed, while both events resumed concurrently after the removal of Zn2+ from the culture medium. Expression of SM50, in contrast, started before the appearance of spicules and was not sensitive to Zn2+. Differences were also observed in adult tissues; SM30 mRNA was detected in spines and tube feet but not in the test, while SM50 mRNA was apparent in all of these mineralized tissues at similar levels. These results strongly suggest that the SM30 gene is regulated by a different mechanism to that of the SM50 gene and that the products of these two genes are differently involved in sea urchin biomineralization. A possible role of SM30 protein in skeleton formation is discussed.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Expression Profile of Wnk1 and Wnk1/Hsn2 Splice Variants in Developing and Adult Mouse Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shekarabi, Masoud; Lafrenière, Ron G.; Gaudet, Rébecca; Laganière, Janet; Marcinkiewicz, Martin M.; Dion, Patrick A.; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    The With No lysine (K) family of serine/threonine kinase (WNK) defines a small family of kinases with significant roles in ion homeostasis. WNK1 has been shown to have different isoforms due to what seems to be largely tissue specific splicing. Here, we used two distinct in situ hybridization riboprobes on developing and adult mouse tissues to make a comparative analysis of Wnk1 and its sensory associated splice isoform, Wnk1/Hsn2. The hybridization signals in developing mouse tissues, which were prepared at embryonic day e10.5 and e12.5, revealed a homogenous expression profile with both probes. At e15.5 and in the newborn mouse, the two probes revealed different expression profiles with prominent signals in nervous system tissues and also other tissues such as kidney, thymus and testis. In adult mouse tissues, the two expression profiles appeared even more restricted to the nervous tissues, kidney, thymus and testis, with no detectable signal in the other tissues. Throughout the nervous system, sensory tissues, as well as in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1), CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, were strongly labeled with both probes. Hybridization signals were also strongly detected in Schwann and supporting satellite cells. Our results show that the expression profiles of Wnk1 isoforms change during the development, and that the expression of the Wnk1 splice variant containing the Hsn2 exon is prominent during developing and in adult mouse tissues, suggesting its important role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. PMID:23451271

  13. Factors Associated with Paranoid Symptoms in a Community Sample of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Dan G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates paranoia in older adults. In cross-sectional analyses, symptoms were strongly associated with black race, lower income and education, less exercise, and more depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analysis, three years following initial interview, symptoms were predicted by baseline paranoid symptoms, education and depressive symptoms…

  14. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  15. Determinants of Domain Knowledge and Independent Study Learning in an Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability (fluid and crystallized intelligence) and nonability (personality, interests, self-concept, etc.) determinants of domain knowledge before and after an independent learning opportunity were evaluated in the context of a study of 141 adults between the ages of 18 and 69. The domain knowledge under consideration included an array of…

  16. Premilitary Adult Sexual Assault Victimization and Perpetration in a Navy Recruit Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Female (n = 5,226) and male (n = 5,969) U.S. Navy recruits completed a survey assessing their premilitary histories of adult sexual assault (SA), defined as attempted or completed rape since the age of 14. The survey was completed under anonymous or identified conditions. Overall, 39% of women reported premilitary SA victimization and 13% of men…

  17. Interrelations between Subjective Health and Episodic Memory Change in Swedish and Canadian Samples of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlin, Ake; Maitland, Scott B.; Backman, Lars; Dixon, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented associations between subjective health ratings and objective indicators of disease and death. Less is known about relations between subjective health ratings and level of cognitive performance in older adults. In this study, we explored whether subjective health ratings are related to episodic memory performance,…

  18. Congregational Participation of a National Sample of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Kleinert, Harold L.; LoBianco, Tony F.; Sheppard-­Jones, Kathleen; Butler, Laura N.; Tyree, Milton S.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to thrive requires careful consideration of multiple avenues of community involvement. Yet little attention has focused on the place of faith community participation in the lives of adults with IDD. We examined attendance at religious services using National Core Indicator…

  19. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  20. Sexuality in a Community Based Sample of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Laura; Schalomon, P. Melike; Smith, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the sexual attitudes and behaviours of individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in community settings. A total of 82 (55 female and 17 male) adults with autism were contrasted with 282 members of the general population on their responses to an online survey of sexual knowledge and…

  1. Patterns of Learning in a Sample of Adult Returners to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anthony; Johnston, Bill; McDonald, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' comments shed light on the relation between patterns of learning on the one hand, and study skills, epistemological issues and attitudes to peer interaction on…

  2. Effects of thawing, refreezing and storage conditions of tissue samples and protein extracts on 2-DE spot intensity.

    PubMed

    Weist, Stephanie; Brunkau, Cindy; Wittke, Janosch; Eravci, Murat; Broedel, Oliver; Krause, Eberhard; Stephanowitz, Heike; Eravci, Selda; Baumgartner, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    We report that reliable quantitative proteome analyses can be performed with tissue samples stored at -80 degrees C for up to 10 years. However, storing protein extracts at 4 degrees C for 24 h and freezing protein extracts at -80 degrees C and thawing them significantly altered 41.6 and 17.5% of all spot intensities on 2-DE gels, respectively. Fortunately, these storing effects did not impair the reliability of quantifying 2-DE experiments. Nonetheless, the results show that freezing and storage conditions should be carefully controlled in proteomic experiments. PMID:20127687

  3. Neurocognitive correlates of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Aycicegi-Dinn, Ayse; Dervent-Ozbek, Sevinc; Yazgan, Yanki; Bicer, Duygu; Dinn, Wayne M

    2011-03-01

    We established a neuropsychological testing profile among Turkish adults presenting with ADHD controlling for general intelligence and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Adults with ADHD frequently present with comorbid conditions (e.g., mood and substance use/abuse disorders) that may have a detrimental impact on neurocognitive function. Hence, we excluded patients with ADHD meeting criteria for comorbid psychiatric syndromes. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to adults with ADHD attending a general psychiatry clinic in Istanbul, Turkey, and healthy control participants. Adults with ADHD demonstrated performance deficits on tests of attention, information processing speed, and general and working memory. Patients with ADHD also reported a significantly greater number of symptoms associated with frontal lobe syndromes (i.e., dysexecutive symptoms and disinhibition). Patients with ADHD demonstrated rather striking deficits on tests of verbal and nonverbal memory. Once information was encoded, however, patients with ADHD do not demonstrate significant information loss. Patients with ADHD and healthy controls did not differ on tests of alternation learning, inhibitory control (error rates), and ToM skills. Findings support the contention that dorsal-prefrontal (rather than ventral-prefrontal) dysfunction is associated with adult ADHD. Unexpectedly, groups did not differ on executive control and fluency tasks. Yet patients with ADHD obtained substantially higher scores on a self-report measure of executive dysfunction. This suggests that dysexecutive symptoms among patients with ADHD in the current study do not reflect set-shifting or organizational deficits. Rather, symptoms may reflect attentional and working memory deficits as well as diminished information processing speed. PMID:21432617

  4. Genome-wide detection of DNase I hypersensitive sites in single cells and FFPE tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenfei; Tang, Qingsong; Wan, Mimi; Cui, Kairong; Zhang, Yi; Ren, Gang; Ni, Bing; Sklar, Jeffrey; Przytycka, Teresa M; Childs, Richard; Levens, David; Zhao, Keji

    2015-12-01

    DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) provide important information on the presence of transcriptional regulatory elements and the state of chromatin in mammalian cells. Conventional DNase sequencing (DNase-seq) for genome-wide DHSs profiling is limited by the requirement of millions of cells. Here we report an ultrasensitive strategy, called single-cell DNase sequencing (scDNase-seq) for detection of genome-wide DHSs in single cells. We show that DHS patterns at the single-cell level are highly reproducible among individual cells. Among different single cells, highly expressed gene promoters and enhancers associated with multiple active histone modifications display constitutive DHS whereas chromatin regions with fewer histone modifications exhibit high variation of DHS. Furthermore, the single-cell DHSs predict enhancers that regulate cell-specific gene expression programs and the cell-to-cell variations of DHS are predictive of gene expression. Finally, we apply scDNase-seq to pools of tumour cells and pools of normal cells, dissected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue slides from patients with thyroid cancer, and detect thousands of tumour-specific DHSs. Many of these DHSs are associated with promoters and enhancers critically involved in cancer development. Analysis of the DHS sequences uncovers one mutation (chr18: 52417839G>C) in the tumour cells of a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma, which affects the binding of the tumour suppressor protein p53 and correlates with decreased expression of its target gene TXNL1. In conclusion, scDNase-seq can reliably detect DHSs in single cells, greatly extending the range of applications of DHS analysis both for basic and for translational research, and may provide critical information for personalized medicine. PMID:26605532

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Tissue Samples by Combining iTRAQ Isobaric Labeling with Selected/Multiple Reaction Monitoring (SRM/MRM).

    PubMed

    Narumi, Ryohei; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics is an indispensible technique used in the discovery and quantification of phosphorylation events on proteins in biological samples. The application of this technique to tissue samples is especially useful for the discovery of biomarkers as well as biological studies. We herein describe the application of a large-scale phosphoproteome analysis and SRM/MRM-based quantitation to develop a strategy for the systematic discovery and validation of biomarkers using tissue samples. PMID:26584920

  6. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma or Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  7. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    NISHIMORI, Asami; KONNAI, Satoru; IKEBUCHI, Ryoyo; OKAGAWA, Tomohiro; NAKAHARA, Ayako; MURATA, Shiro; OHASHI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  8. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  9. Differences between neonates and adults in tissue-type-plasminogen activator (t-PA)-catalyzed plasminogen activation with various effectors and in carbohydrate sequences of fibrinogen chains.

    PubMed

    Ries, M; Easton, R L; Longstaff, C; Zenker, M; Corran, P H; Morris, H R; Dell, A; Gaffney, P J

    2001-08-01

    Our study investigates the effect of fetal and adult soluble fibrin (SF), fetal and adult fibrinogen Aalpha- and gamma-chains, as well as adult CNBr-fibrinogen fragments on tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)-catalyzed plasminogen activation of both fetal and adult Glu-plasminogen types 1 and 2. In addition, we determined carbohydrate sequences of fetal and adult Bbeta- and gamma-chains by mass spectrometric analysis. In the absence of an effector, no substantial differences in the rate of plasmin formation could be seen between the fetal and adult plasminogen types. In the presence of an effector, both fetal Glu-plasminogen types revealed lower values for k(cat app) than the respective adult types. No differences could be seen in the values for K(m app). The resulting differences in catalytic efficiencies between the fetal and adult plasminogen types were much less than previously reported. No differences could be seen between fetal and adult effectors in stimulating t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation. Detailed analyses of the activation kinetics revealed a longer initial phase of slow plasmin formation of both fetal Glu-plasminogen types compared to their respective adult types, indicating a slower plasmin-induced modification of CNBr-fibrinogen fragments or SF by fetal plasmin. Mass spectrometric analysis of the N-glycans present on adult and fetal Bbeta- and gamma-fibrinogen chains showed the presence of a major monosialylated biantennary structure with lesser amounts of the disialylated form. In contrast to previous data, we conclude that catalytic efficiency of t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in neonates is only slightly lower than in adults. PMID:11672579

  10. Statistical analysis of biomechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture using a bending method in a Japanese forensic sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Koizumi, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the mechanical properties of the adult sagittal suture compared with surrounding parietal bones using bending tests and investigated the association between the mechanical properties of the suture and age. We used the heads of 116 Japanese cadavers (76 male cadavers and 40 female cadavers) of known age and sex. A total of 1160 cranial samples, 10 from each skull, were collected. The samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography, and the sample thickness at the center of each sample (ST) was measured. The failure stress of each sample (FS) was measured by a bending test, and the ratio of failure stress to the square of sample thickness (FS/ST(2)) was calculated. Statistical analyses revealed that the FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly lower at all suture sites than at all bone sites regardless of sex. There were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at any suture site in male samples. In female samples, age had significant positive correlations with FS and FS/ST(2) values at the middle suture sites, whereas there were not significant but slight positive correlations between age and FS and FS/ST(2) values at the edges of the suture. Statistical analyses also demonstrated that FS and FS/ST(2) values were significantly greater in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites. These findings suggest that the bending strength of the adult sagittal suture is significantly lower than that of surrounding parietal bones. Therefore, avoiding direct impact on cranial sutures may be important for preventing skull fractures and severe complications that can cause death. The results of this study also revealed that the bending strength of the middle sagittal suture significantly increases with age in only female samples, whereas the bending strength is significantly higher in male samples than in female samples at the middle suture sites, indicating the possibility of sex

  11. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  12. Simultaneous Multi-Antibody Staining in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Strengthens Diagnostic Accuracy Especially in Small Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Gian; Csanadi, Agnes; Otto, Claudia; Plönes, Till; Bittermann, Nicola; Rawluk, Justyna; Passlick, Bernward; Werner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Histological subclassification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has growing therapeutic impact. In advanced cancer stages tissue specimens are usually bioptically collected. These small samples are of extraordinary value since molecular analyses are gaining importance for targeted therapies. We therefore studied the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, economic and prognostic effects of a tissue sparing simultaneous multi-antibody assay for subclassification of NSCLC. Of 265 NSCLC patients tissue multi arrays (TMA) were constructed to simulate biopsy samples. TMAs were stained by a simultaneous bi-color multi-antibody assay consisting of TTF1, Vimentin, p63 and neuroendocrine markers (CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin). Classification was based mainly on the current proposal of the IASLC with a hierarchical decision tree for subclassification into adenocarcinoma (LAC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and NSCLC not otherwise specified. Investigation of tumor heterogeneity showed an explicit lower variation for immunohistochemical analyses compared to conventional classification. Furthermore, survival analysis of our combined immunohistochemical classification revealed distinct separation of each entity's survival curve. This was statistically significant for therapeutically important subgroups (p = 0.045). As morphological and molecular cancer testing is emerging, our multi-antibody assay in combination with standardized classification delivers accurate and reliable separation of histomorphological diagnoses. Additionally, it permits clinically relevant subtyping of NSCLC including LCNEC. Our multi-antibody assay may therefore be of special value, especially in diagnosing small biopsies. It futher delivers substantial prognostic information with therapeutic consequences. Integration of immunohistochemical subtyping including investigation of neuroendocrine differentiation into standard histopathological

  13. Development of a remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for investigation of calcified tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hrdlicka, Ales; Prokes, Lubomir; Stankova, Alice; Novotny, Karel; Vitesnikova, Anna; Kanicky, Viktor; Otruba, Vitezslav; Kaiser, Jozef; Novotny, Jan; Malina, Radomir; Palenikova, Katerina

    2010-05-01

    The development of a remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) setup with an off-axis Newtonian collection optics, Galilean-based focusing telescope, and a 532 nm flattop laser beam source is presented. The device was tested at a 6 m distance on a slice of bone to simulate its possible use in the field, e.g., during archaeological excavations. It is shown that this setup is sufficiently sensitive to both major (P, Mg) and minor elements (Na, Zn, Sr). The measured quantities of Mg, Zn, and Sr correspond to the values obtained by reference laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) measurements within an approximately 20% range of uncertainty. A single point calibration was performed by use of a bone meal standard . The radial element distribution is almost invariable by use of LA-ICP-MS, whereas the LIBS measurement showed a strong dependence on the sample porosity. Based on these results, this remote LIBS setup with a relatively large (350 mm) collecting mirror is capable of semiquantitative analysis at the level of units of mg kg{sup -1}.

  14. Depleted uranium induces sex- and tissue-specific methylation patterns in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gombeau, Kewin; Pereira, Sandrine; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalie, Isabelle; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to different concentrations (2 and 20 μg L(-)(1)) of environmentally relevant waterborne depleted uranium (DU) on the DNA methylation patterns both at HpaII restriction sites (5'-CCGG-3') and across the whole genome in the zebrafish brain, gonads, and eyes. We first identified sex-dependent differences in the methylation level of HpaII sites after exposure. In males, these effects were present as early as 7 days after exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU, and were even more pronounced in the brain, gonads, and eyes after 24 days. However, in females, hypomethylation was only observed in the gonads after exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU for 24 days. Sex-specific effects of DU were also apparent at the whole-genome level, because in males, exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU for 24 days resulted in cytosine hypermethylation in the brain and eyes and hypomethylation in the gonads. In contrast, in females, hypermethylation was observed in the brain after exposure to both concentrations of DU for 7 days. Based on our current knowledge of uranium toxicity, several hypotheses are proposed to explain these findings, including the involvement of oxidative stress, alteration of demethylation enzymes and the calcium signaling pathway. This study reports, for the first time, the sex- and tissue-specific epigenetic changes that occur in a nonhuman organism after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium, which could induce transgenerational epigenetic effects. PMID:26829549

  15. Densely calculated facial soft tissue thickness for craniofacial reconstruction in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Mingquan; Deng, Qingqiong; Wu, Zhongke; Ji, Yuan; Li, Kang; He, Taiping; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) is used to recreate a likeness of original facial appearance for an unidentified skull; this technique has been applied in both forensics and archeology. Many CFR techniques rely on the average facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) of anatomical landmarks, related to ethnicity, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), etc. Previous studies typically employed FSTT at sparsely distributed anatomical landmarks, where different landmark definitions may affect the contrasting results. In the present study, a total of 90,198 one-to-one correspondence skull vertices are established on 171 head CT-scans and the FSTT of each corresponding vertex is calculated (hereafter referred to as densely calculated FSTT) for statistical analysis and CFR. Basic descriptive statistics (i.e., mean and standard deviation) for densely calculated FSTT are reported separately according to sex and age. Results show that 76.12% of overall vertices indicate that the FSTT is greater in males than females, with the exception of vertices around the zygoma, zygomatic arch and mid-lateral orbit. These sex-related significant differences are found at 55.12% of all vertices and the statistically age-related significant differences are depicted between the three age groups at a majority of all vertices (73.31% for males and 63.43% for females). Five non-overlapping categories are given and the descriptive statistics (i.e., mean, standard deviation, local standard deviation and percentage) are reported. Multiple appearances are produced using the densely calculated FSTT of various age and sex groups, and a quantitative assessment is provided to examine how relevant the choice of FSTT is to increasing the accuracy of CFR. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective in understanding the distribution of FSTT and the construction of a new densely calculated FSTT database for craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:27544400

  16. Evaluation of two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry for tissue-specific protein profiling of laser-microdissected plant samples

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, Martina; Lipton, Mary S.; Giavalisco, Patrick; Smith, Richard D.; Kehr, Julia

    2005-07-14

    Laser microdissection (LM) allows the collection of homogeneous tissue- and cell specific plant samples. The employment of this technique with subsequent protein analysis has thus far not been reported for plant tissues, probably due to the difficulties associated with defining a reasonable cellular morphology and, in parallel, allowing efficient protein extraction from tissue samples. The relatively large sample amount needed for successful proteome analysis is an additional issue that complicates protein profiling on a tissue- or even cell-specific level. In contrast to transcript profiling that can be performed from very small sample amounts due to efficient amplification strategies, there is as yet no amplification procedure for proteins available. In the current study, we compared different tissue preparation techniques prior to LM/laser pressure catapulting (LMPC) with respect to their suitability for protein retrieval. Cryosectioning was identified as the best compromise between tissue morphology and effective protein extraction. After collection of vascular bundles from Arabidopsis thaliana stem tissue by LMPC, proteins were extracted and subjected to protein analysis, either by classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), or by high-efficiency liquid chromatography (LC) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Our results demonstrate that both methods can be used with LMPC collected plant material. But because of the significantly lower sample amount required for LC-MS/MS than for 2-DE, the combination of LMPC and LC-MS/MS has a higher potential to promote comprehensive proteome analysis of specific plant tissues.

  17. The problem with medical research on tissue and organ samples taken in connection with forensic autopsies in France.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, C; Dupont, V; Jousset, N

    2016-02-01

    Currently, in France, it is legally impossible to conduct scientific research on tissue and organ samples taken from forensic autopsies. In fact, the law schedules the destruction of such samples at the end of the judicial investigation, and the common law rules governing cadaver research cannot be applied to the forensic context. However, nothing seems in itself to stand in the way of such research since, despite their specific nature, these samples from forensic autopsies could be subject, following legislative amendments, to common law relating to medical research on samples taken from deceased persons. But an essential legislative amendment, firstly to allow the Biomedicine Agency to become authorized to issue a research permit and secondly, to change the research conditions in terms of the non-opposition of the deceased to said research. Such an amendment would be a true breakthrough because it would allow teams to continue to move forward calmly in research, and allow this research to be placed within a legal framework, which would promote international exchanges. PMID:26694871

  18. Bipolar risk and mental imagery susceptibility in a representative sample of Chinese adults residing in the community

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Roger Man-kin; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; McManus, Freda; Kennerley, Helen; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Background: We need to better understand the cognitive factors associated with risk for bipolar disorders. Recent research suggests that increased susceptibility to mental imagery may be one such factor. However, since this research was primarily conducted with Western students and at a single time-point, it is not known whether the relationship between imagery susceptibility and bipolar symptoms exists across cultures or within the general community, or whether this relationship remains stable over time. Aim: This study evaluated whether Chinese adults identified as being at high (HR) versus low (LR) risk of developing bipolar disorders showed greater mental imagery susceptibility. We aimed to test whether such a relationship was stable over time by measuring imagery characteristics at baseline and at the 7-week follow-up. Method: This prospective study recruited a community sample of N = 80 Chinese adults screened for the absence of neurotic and psychotic disorders. The sample was split into HR (n = 18) and LR (n = 62) groups at baseline based on a criterion cut-off score on a measure of hypomania, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). Participants completed measures of imagery susceptibility and its impact: the Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS) and the Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES), at baseline and 7 weeks later. Results: HR group reported greater tendency to use imagery in daily life (SUIS) and greater emotional impact of prospective imagery (IFES) than LR group at baseline. These results remained stable at follow-up. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for increased susceptibility to mental imagery in individuals at high risk of bipolar disorders recruited from a community sample of Chinese adults. This extends previous research in Western student samples suggesting that imagery (both levels of use and its emotional impact) may be a cognitive factor with cross-cultural relevance that is stable over time. PMID:26271252

  19. Persistent organochlorine pesticides detected in blood and tissue samples of vultures from different localities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, E; Bouwman, H; van der Bank, H; Verdoorn, G H; Hofmann, D

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography was used to establish the presence of quantifiable residues of 14 persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in whole blood, clotted blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle samples obtained from individual African whitebacked (Pseudogyps africanus), Cape griffon (Gyps coprotheres) and Lappetfaced (Torgos tracheliotos) vultures from different localities in South Africa. The levels of pesticides measured in whole blood samples of live specimens were compared between nestlings from two natural breeding colonies, adults from a wildlife area and birds held in captivity. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences between populations were detected in geometric means calculated for gamma-BHC (lindane), alpha(cis)-chlordane and alpha-endosulfan. Five of the organochlorine contaminants displayed significant variations between concentrations detected in the clotted blood, organs and muscles excised from vulture carcasses. This includes residues of gamma-BHC, alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, beta-endosulfan and heptachlor epoxide. Values of the respective biocides measured in vulture samples were generally low in comparison to results documented for a number of avian species. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochloride pesticides, continual monitoring of especially breeding colonies is recommended. Furthermore, the suitability of African whitebacked vulture nestlings as basic bioindicators is highly advocated. PMID:11461840

  20. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel; Nilsson, Staffan; Levin, Max; Cajander, Stefan; Lönn, Lars; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta

    2010-10-01

    Events during early life can affect reproductive and metabolic functions in adulthood. We evaluated the programming effects of a single early postnatal estradiol injection (within 3h after birth) in female rats. We assessed ovarian and parametrial adipose tissue morphology, evaluated gene expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number. Parametrial adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity was increased. In ovaries, estradiol increased mRNA expression of adiponectin, complement component 3, estrogen receptor α, and glucose transporter 3 and 4; in parametrial adipose tissue, expression of complement component 3 was increased, expression of estrogen receptor α was decreased, and expression of leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was unaffected. These findings suggest that early postnatal estradiol exposure of female rats result in long-lasting effects on the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue at adult age. PMID:19857573

  1. Somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor-I and Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNAs in rate fetal and adult tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, P.K.; Moats-Staats, B.M.; Hynes, M.A.; Simmons, J.G.; Jansen, M.; D'ercole, A.J.; Van Wyk, J.J.

    1986-11-05

    Somatomedin-C or insulin-like growth factor I (Sm-C/IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) have been implicated in the regulation of fetal growth and development. In the present study /sup 32/P-labeled complementary DNA probes encoding human and mouse Sm-C/IGF-I and human IGF-II were used in Northern blot hybridizations to analyze rat Sm-C/IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs in poly(A/sup +/) RNAs from intestine, liver, lung, and brain of adult rats and fetal rats between day 14 and 17 of gestation. In fetal rats, all four tissues contained a major mRNA of 1.7 kilobase (kb) that hybridized with the human Sm-C/IGF-I cDNA and mRNAs of 7.5, 4.7, 1.7, and 1.2 kb that hybridized with the mouse Sm-C/IGF-I cDNA. Adult rat intestine, liver, and lung also contained these mRNAs but Sm-C/IGF-I mRNAs were not detected in adult rat brain. These findings provide direct support for prior observations that multiple tissues in the fetus synthesize immunoreactive Sm-C/IGF-I and imply a role for Sm-C/IGF-I in fetal development as well as postnatally. Multiple IGF-II mRNAs of estimated sizes 4.7, 3.9, 2.2, 1.75, and 1.2 kb were observed in fetal rat intestine, liver, lung, and brain. The 4.7- and 3.9-kb mRNAs were the major hybridizing IGF-II mRNAs in all fetal tissues. Higher abundance of IGF-II mRNAs in rat fetal tissues compared with adult tissues supports prior hypotheses, based on serum IGF-II concentrations, that IGF-II is predominantly a fetal somatomedin. IGF-II mRNAs are present, however, in some poly(A/sup +/) RNAs from adult rat tissues. The brain was the only tissue in the adult rat where the 4.7- and 3.9-kb IGF-II mRNAs were consistently detected. These findings suggest that a role for IGF-II in the adult rat, particularly in the central nervous system, cannot be excluded.

  2. Intensified Adjuvant IFADIC Chemotherapy for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Prospective Randomized Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brodowicz, Thomas; Schwameis, Eva; Widder, Joachim; Amann, Gabriele; Wiltschke, Christoph; Dominkus, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Ritschl, Peter; Pötter, Richard; Kotz, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. The present prospective randomized adjuvant trial was carried out to compare the toxicity, feasibility and efficacy of augmented chemotherapy added to hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy after wide or marginal resection of grade 2 and grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients and methods. Fifty-nine patients underwent primary surgery by wide or marginal excision and were subsequently randomized to receive radiotherapy alone or under the addition of six courses of ifosfamide (1500 mg/m2 , days 1–4), dacarbazine (DTIC) (200 mg/m2 , days 1–4) and doxorubicin (25 mg/m2 , days 1–2) administered in 14-day-intervals supported by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (30 × 106 IU/day, s.c.) on days 5–13. According to the randomization protocol, 28 patients received radiotherapy only, whereas 31 patients were treated with additional chemotherapy. Results. The relative ifosfamide–doxorubicin–DTIC (IFADIC) dose intensity achieved was 93%. After a mean observation period of 41±19.7 months (range, 8.1–84 months), 16 patients (57%) in the control group versus 24 patients (77%) in the chemotherapy group were free of disease (p>0.05).Within the control group, tumor relapses occurred in 12 patients (43%;six patients with distant metastases, two with local relapse, four with both) versus seven patients (23%; five patients with distant metastases, one with local recurrence, one with both) from the chemotherapy group. Relapse-free survival (RFS) (p=0.1), time to local failure (TLF) (p=0.09), time to distant failure (TDF) (p=0.17) as well as overall survival (OS) (p=0.4) did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. Treatment-related toxicity was generally mild in both treatment arms. Conclusion. We conclude that the safety profile of intensified IFADIC added to radiotherapy was manageable and tolerable in the current setting. Inclusion of intensified IFADIC was not translated into a significant benefit concerning OS, RFS, TLF and

  3. In Vivo Neural Tissue Engineering: Cylindrical Biocompatible Hydrogels That Create New Neural Tracts in the Adult Mammalian Brain.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amanda R; Carter, Arrin B; Hager, Lydia E; Price, Elmer M

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with neurodegenerative disorders or brain injury have few treatment options and it has been proposed that endogenous adult neural stem cells can be harnessed to repopulate dysfunctional nonneurogenic regions of the brain. We have accomplished this through the development of rationally designed hydrogel implants that recruit endogenous cells from the adult subventricular zone to create new relatively long tracts of neuroblasts. These implants are biocompatible and biodegradable cylindrical hydrogels consisting of fibrin and immobilized neurotrophic factors. When implanted into rat brain such that the cylinder intersected the migratory path of endogenous neural progenitors (the rostral migratory stream) and led into the nonneurogenic striatum, we observed a robust neurogenic response in the form of migrating neuroblasts with long (>100 μm) complex neurites. The location of these new neural cells in the striatum was directly coincident with the original track of the fibrin implant, which itself had completely degraded, and covered a significant area and distance (>2.5 mm). We also observed a significant number of neuroblasts in the striatal region between the implant track and the lateral ventricle. When these fibrin cylinders were implanted into hemiparkinson rats, correction of parkinsonian behavior was observed. There were no obvious behavioral, inflammatory or tumorigenic sequelae as a consequence of the implants. In conclusion, we have successfully engineered neural tissue in vivo, using neurogenic biomaterials cast into a unique cylindrical architecture. These results represent a novel approach to efficiently induce neurogenesis in a controlled and targeted manner, which may lead toward a new therapeutic modality for neurological disorders. PMID:27295980

  4. Assessing the effects of model Maillard compound intake on iron, copper and zinc retention and tissue delivery in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Pastoriza, Silvia; Navarro, M Pilar; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of dietary Maillard reaction compounds (MRP) as metal chelating polymers can alter mineral absorption and/or retention. Our aim in this study was to analyse the long-term effects of the consumption of model MRP from glucose-lysine heated for 90 min at 150 °C (GL) on iron, copper and zinc whole-body retention and tissue delivery. For 88 days, weaning rats were fed a Control diet or one containing 3% GL, until reaching the adult stage. During the experimental period a mineral balance was conducted to investigate the mineral retention. At day 88, the animals were sacrificed, blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination and some organs were removed. Copper and zinc balances were unaffected (Cu: 450 vs. 375 μg; Zn: 6.7 vs. 6.2 mg for Control and GL groups, respectively) and no change was observed in whole-body delivery. Iron retention, too, was unaltered (11.2 mg for Control and GL groups) but due to the tendency toward decreased body weight in the GL group (248 vs. 233 g for the Control and GL groups), whole-body iron concentration was 13% higher in the GL group than in the Control group. Absorbed iron accumulated particularly in the liver (144 vs. 190 μg g(-1) for the Control and GL groups), thus reducing haemoglobin levels. The long-term intake of MRP induced iron accumulation in the body but this did not result in enhanced iron functionality, since the haemoglobin concentration declined. Taking into account the findings of our research group's studies of young and adult rats, we now corroborate the hypothesis that the negative effect of GL MRP consumption on iron functionality takes place regardless of the animals' stage of life. PMID:26593232

  5. Elements in autopsy liver tissue samples from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes. III. Zinc measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laursen, J; Milman, N; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G; Saaby, H; Byg, K E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the content of zinc (Zn) in liver tissue samples from Greenlandic Inuit using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and compare the results with those obtained in liver samples from Danes. Normal liver tissue samples was obtained at autopsy from 50 Greenlandic Inuit (27 men) with a median age of 61 years (range 23-83) and from 74 Danes (44 men) with a median age of 60 years (range 15-87). In the entire series, liver zinc content in Inuit was not significantly different compared with Danes. There was no significant gender difference in liver zinc content either in Inuit or in Danes. The content of zinc given as median (5-95 percentile) was in Inuit 3.809 mmol/kg dry liver (2.355-7.406), and in Danes 3.992 mmol/kg dry liver (2.499-8.645). There was a significant, positive correlation between liver zinc content and age in Danish women (r(s) = 0.43, p = 0.02), which could not be demonstrated in Danish men or in Inuit. Median hepatic zinc index (zinc content in mmol/kg dry weight divided by age in years) in Inuit was 0.073, and in Danes 0.080 (p = 0.3) without any significant difference between the two genders. In Inuit and Danes there was an inverse correlation between hepatic zinc index and age both in the two genders and in the entire series: Inuit: r(s) = -0.62, p < 0.0001; Danes: r(s) = -0.70, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that Inuit have liver zinc levels, which are similar to those found in Danes. PMID:11846009

  6. Enhanced expression of polysialic acid correlates with malignant phenotype in breast cancer cell lines and clinical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xiang; Zeng, Ying-Nan; He, Fa; Yang, Xiao-Min; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is highly expressed during embryonic development, but barely expressed during postnatal development, and may be 're-expressed' in cancer tissues. In this study, motility and migration assays were performed to compare the changes in cell behavior between non-malignant and maligant cells. Next, the expression levels of PSA were evaluated in 4 human and mouse normal breast or breast cancer (BC) cell lines using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene-labeling HPLC technology, as well as in human clinical BC tissue samples. PSA expression was significantly higher in malignant cells (where it appeared to facilitate cell migration and motility) than in non-malignant cells. Enhanced PSA expression levels were also observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a leading cause of cancer cell metastasis, which was induced in the NMuMG and MCF10A cells by treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). An increased PSA expression also correlated with the disease stage in the patients with BC (P<0.0001). Using RT-qPCR, we found that polysialyltransferase ST8SiaIV (PST) and polysialyltransferase ST8SiaII (STX), which are responsible for PSA synthesis, were differently expressed in the tested BC samples. However, PST, but not STX, was re-expressed in 14 out of 20 clinical BC samples. The findings of the present study indicate that the pathophysiology of BC involves the aberrant regulation of PSA expression and PST gene expression. PMID:26530860

  7. Epithelial-connective tissue interactions induced by thyroid hormone receptor are essential for adult stem cell development in the Xenopus laevis intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hasebe, Takashi; Buchholz, Daniel R.; Shi, Yun-Bo; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    In the amphibian intestine during metamorphosis, stem cells appear and generate the adult absorptive epithelium, analogous to the mammalian one, under the control of thyroid hormone (TH). We have previously shown that the adult stem cells originate from differentiated larval epithelial cells in the Xenopus laevis intestine. To clarify whether TH signaling in the epithelium alone is sufficient for inducing the stem cells, we have now performed tissue recombinant culture experiments, using transgenic X. laevis tadpoles that express a dominant positive TH receptor (dpTR) under a control of heat shock promoter. Wild-type (Wt) or dpTR transgenic (Tg) larval epithelium (Ep) was isolated from the tadpole intestine, recombined with homologous or heterologous non-epithelial tissues (non-Ep), and then cultivated in the absence of TH with daily heat shocks to induce transgenic dpTR expression. Adult epithelial progenitor cells expressing sonic hedgehog became detectable on day 5 in both the recombinant intestine of Tg Ep and Tg non-Ep (Tg/Tg) and that of Tg Ep and Wt non-Ep (Tg/Wt). However, in Tg/Wt intestine, they did not express other stem cell markers such as Musashi-1 and never generated the adult epithelium expressing a marker for absorptive epithelial cells. Our results indicate that, while it is unclear why some larval epithelial cells dedifferentiate into adult progenitor/stem cells, TR-mediated gene expression in the surrounding tissues other than the epithelium is required for them to develop into adult stem cells, suggesting the importance of TH-inducible epithelial-connective tissue interactions in establishment of the stem cell niche in the amphibian intestine. PMID:21280164

  8. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use. PMID:25868753

  9. Adult stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration in the ageing context: the role for A-type lamins as intrinsic modulators of ageing in adult stem cells and their niches

    PubMed Central

    Pekovic, Vanja; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Adult stem cells have been identified in most mammalian tissues of the adult body and are known to support the continuous repair and regeneration of tissues. A generalized decline in tissue regenerative responses associated with age is believed to result from a depletion and/or a loss of function of adult stem cells, which itself may be a driving cause of many age-related disease pathologies. Here we review the striking similarities between tissue phenotypes seen in many degenerative conditions associated with old age and those reported in age-related nuclear envelope disorders caused by mutations in the LMNA gene. The concept is beginning to emerge that nuclear filament proteins, A-type lamins, may act as signalling receptors in the nucleus required for receiving and/or transducing upstream cytosolic signals in a number of pathways central to adult stem cell maintenance as well as adaptive responses to stress. We propose that during ageing and in diseases caused by lamin A mutations, dysfunction of the A-type lamin stress-resistant signalling network in adult stem cells, their progenitors and/or stem cell niches leads to a loss of protection against growth-related stress. This in turn triggers an inappropriate activation or a complete failure of self-renewal pathways with the consequent initiation of stress-induced senescence. As such, A-type lamins should be regarded as intrinsic modulators of ageing within adult stem cells and their niches that are essential for survival to old age. PMID:18638067

  10. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-05

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  11. Sample entropy reveals high discriminative power between young and elderly adults in short fMRI data sets

    PubMed Central

    Sokunbi, Moses O.

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have placed Sample entropy on the same data length constraint of 10m–20m (m: pattern length) as approximate entropy, even though Sample entropy is largely independent of data length and displays relative consistency over a broader range of possible parameters (r, tolerance value; m, pattern length; N, data length) under circumstances where approximate entropy does not. This is particularly erroneous for some fMRI experiments where the working data length is less than 100 volumes (when m = 2). We therefore investigated whether Sample entropy is able to effectively discriminate fMRI data with data length, N less than 10m (where m = 2) and r = 0.30, from a small group of 10 younger and 10 elderly adults, and the whole cohort of 43 younger and 43 elderly adults, that are significantly (p < 0.001) different in age. Ageing has been defined as a loss of entropy; where signal complexity decreases with age. For the small group analysis, the results of the whole brain analyses show that Sample entropy portrayed a good discriminatory ability for data lengths, 85 ≤ N ≤ 128, with an accuracy of 85% at N = 85 and 80% at N = 128, at q < 0.05. The regional analyses show that Sample entropy discriminated more brain regions at N = 128 than N = 85 and some regions common to both data lengths. As data length, N increased from 85 to 128, the noise level decreased. This was reflected in the accuracy of the whole brain analyses and the number of brain regions discriminated in the regional analyses. The whole brain analyses suggest that Sample entropy is relatively independent of data length, while the regional analyses show that fMRI data with length of 85 volumes is consistent with our hypothesis of a loss of entropy with ageing. In the whole cohort analysis, Sample entropy discriminated regionally between the younger and elderly adults only at N = 128. The whole cohort analysis at N = 85 was indicative of the ageing process but this indication was not significant (p

  12. Characterization and Functional Properties of Gastric Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells from Children, Adults, and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jayaum S.; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Patil, Seema; Kader, Howard A.; Safta, Anca M.; Czinn, Steven J.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from children, adults, and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory T (TEM) phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>70%) or expressed CD103 alone (~20%). Gastric LPMC CD4+ T cells also either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>35%) or expressed at least one of these markers. Thus, gastric LPMC CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had the characteristics of TRM cells. Gastric CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells produced multiple cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A, MIP-1β) and up-regulated CD107a upon stimulation. However, marked differences were observed in their cytokine and multi-cytokine profiles when compared to their PBMC TEM counterparts. Furthermore, gastric CD8+ TRM and CD4+ TRM cells demonstrated differences in the frequency, susceptibility to activation, and cytokine/multi-cytokine production profiles among the age groups. Most notably, children’s gastric TRM cells responded differently to stimuli than gastric TRM cells from adults or the elderly. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of gastric TRM, which exhibit diverse functional characteristics in children, adults, and the elderly. PMID:24995010

  13. Age-Dependent Changes in Geometry, Tissue Composition and Mechanical Properties of Fetal to Adult Cryopreserved Human Heart Valves

    PubMed Central

    van Geemen, Daphne; Soares, Ana L. F.; Oomen, Pim J. A.; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Janssen-van den Broek, Marloes W. J. T.; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Goumans, Marie-José T. H.; Baaijens, Frank P. T.; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information about age-specific structural and functional properties of human heart valves, while this information is key to the development and evaluation of living valve replacements for pediatric and adolescent patients. Here, we present an extended data set of structure-function properties of cryopreserved human pulmonary and aortic heart valves, providing age-specific information for living valve replacements. Tissue composition, morphology, mechanical properties, and maturation of leaflets from 16 pairs of structurally unaffected aortic and pulmonary valves of human donors (fetal-53 years) were analyzed. Interestingly, no major differences were observed between the aortic and pulmonary valves. Valve annulus and leaflet dimensions increase throughout life. The typical three-layered leaflet structure is present before birth, but becomes more distinct with age. After birth, cell numbers decrease rapidly, while remaining cells obtain a quiescent phenotype and reside in the ventricularis and spongiosa. With age and maturation–but more pronounced in aortic valves–the matrix shows an increasing amount of collagen and collagen cross-links and a reduction in glycosaminoglycans. These matrix changes correlate with increasing leaflet stiffness with age. Our data provide a new and comprehensive overview of the changes of structure-function properties of fetal to adult human semilunar heart valves that can be used to evaluate and optimize future therapies, such as tissue engineering of heart valves. Changing hemodynamic conditions with age can explain initial changes in matrix composition and consequent mechanical properties, but cannot explain the ongoing changes in valve dimensions and matrix composition at older age. PMID:26867221

  14. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. A New Sample Substrate for Imaging and Correlating Organic and Trace Metal Composition in Biological Cells and Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Wang, Q.; Smith, R.; Zhong, H.; Elliott, D.; Warren, J.

    2007-01-01

    Many disease processes involve alterations in the chemical makeup of tissue. Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopes are becoming increasingly popular tools for imaging the organic and trace metal compositions of biological materials, respectively, without the need for extrinsic labels or stains. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) provides chemical information on the organic components of a material at a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of 2-10 {mu}m in the mid-infrared region. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe is a complementary technique used to probe trace element content in the same systems with a similar spatial resolution. However to be most beneficial, it is important to combine the results from both imaging techniques on a single sample, which requires precise overlap of the IR and X-ray images. In this work, we have developed a sample substrate containing a gold grid pattern on its surface, which can be imaged with both the IR and X-ray microscopes. The substrate consists of a low trace element glass slide that has a gold grid patterned on its surface, where the major and minor parts of the grid contain 25 and 12 nm gold, respectively. This grid pattern can be imaged with the IR microscope because the reflectivity of gold differs as a function of thickness. The pattern can also be imaged with the SXRF microprobe because the Au fluorescence intensity changes with gold thickness. The tissue sample is placed on top of the patterned substrate. The grid pattern's IR reflectivity image and the gold SXRF image are used as fiducial markers for spatially overlapping the IR and SXRF images from the tissue. Results show that IR and X-ray images can be correlated precisely, with a spatial resolution of less than one pixel (i.e., 2-3 microns). The development of this new tool will be presented along with applications to paraffin-embedded metalloprotein crystals, Alzheimer's disease, and hair

  16. Diabetes Self-care among a Multiethnic Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Traywick, LaVona S.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy; Kart, Cary S.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes constitutes a leading and increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults, particularly African Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and rural dwellers. To understand diabetes self-care, an essential determinant of diabetic and overall health outcomes, 80 middle aged and older adults from these four disproportionately affected racial/ethnic/residential groups engaged in in-depth interviews, focusing on approaches to and explanations for diabetes self-care. Certain self-care activities (medication-taking, diet, foot care) were performed regularly while others (blood glucose monitoring, exercise) were practiced less frequently. Despite research suggestions to the contrary, only one in four elders used unconventional diabetes therapies, and only one-third listed someone other than a health care provider as a primary information source. Few self-care differences emerged according to race/ethnicity/residence, perhaps because of the influential and common circumstance of low income. Thematic analyses suggest that inadequate resources, perceived efficacy of medication, great respect for biomedical authority, and lack of familiarity with and concerns about unconventional therapies are influential in establishing these patterns of self-care. We discuss the similarity of self-care practices and perspectives irrespective of race/ethnicity/residence and the predominance of biomedical acceptability. PMID:18369715

  17. Effects of Complementary Therapy on Health in a National U.S. Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Walkup, Michael; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The study objectives were to identify types of complementary therapy that are most predictive of health outcomes, including functional status, physical health–related quality of life (HRQoL), and mental HRQoL among older adults. Design This was a prospective study. Settings/location The study comprised computer-assisted interviews conducted in participants' homes. Subjects Subjects included 1683 adults aged 55 and older who participated in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey and the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Intervention None. Outcome measures Functional status, physical HRQoL, and mental HRQoL at 1-year follow-up. Results The use of biologically based therapies predicted better functional status, such that users reported less functional impairment than nonusers (p < 0.01), adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, health insurance, household income, and comorbid conditions. Users of manipulative and body-based methods reported less functional impairment (p < 0.05). They also reported better physical and mental health–related quality of life, though these relationships were marginally significant. Other groups of therapies, alternative medical systems, mind–body therapies, and prayer were not predictive of either functional status or HRQoL. Conclusions Favorable effects were observed among users of biologically based therapies and users of manipulative and body-based methods. Other types of complementary therapy had no effects on health status over a 1-year follow-up period. PMID:20590482

  18. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  19. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  20. Replication Study of the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania–Adult Version in a Clinically Characterized Sample

    PubMed Central

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Tung, Esther S.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Altenburger, Erin M.; Pauls, David L.; Flessner, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania–Adult Version (MIST-A) in a replication sample of clinically characterized hair pullers using exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N = 193). EFA eigenvalues and visual inspection of our scree plot revealed a two-factor solution. Factor structure coefficients and internal consistencies suggested a 13-item scale with an 8-item “Intention” scale and a 5-item “Emotion” scale. Both scales displayed good construct and discriminant validity. These findings indicate the need for a revised scale that provides a more refined assessment of pulling phenomenology that can facilitate future treatment advances. PMID:25868534

  1. Gas-liquid chromatographic and gas-liquid-mass spectometric determination of fenvalerate and permethrin residues in grasshoppers and duck tissue samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Kolbe, E.J.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for determining fenvalerate and permethrin residues in grasshoppers and duck tissues. Samples are Soxhlet-extracted with hexane and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography with an in-line alumina column. Samples are analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection, and confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The average recovery from fortified tissues was 97%.

  2. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Geary, James F; Agnew, Dalen W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2015-12-01

    The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R) on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM-10 μM) for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. PMID:26288741

  3. In vitro flubendazole-induced damage to vital tissues in adult females of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Geary, James F.; Agnew, Dalen W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a microfilaricidal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate macrofilaricide. FLBZ has demonstrated profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental filarial rodent models and one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns due to its markedly limited oral bioavailability. However, a new formulation that provided sufficient bioavailability following oral administration could render FLBZ an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. This study characterized the effects of FLBZ and its reduced metabolite (FLBZ-R) on filarial nematodes in vitro to determine the exposure profile which results in demonstrable damage. Adult female Brugia malayi were exposed to varying concentrations of FLBZ or FLBZ-R (100 nM–10 μM) for up to five days, after which worms were fixed for histology. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in the hypodermis and developing embryos at concentrations as low as 100 nM following 24 h exposure. The results indicate that damage to tissues required for reproduction and survival can be achieved at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. PMID:26288741

  4. Intended Sensitive and Harsh Caregiving Responses to Infant Crying: The Role of Cry Pitch and Perceived Urgency in an Adult Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…

  5. Lack of Association between a 3'UTR VNTR Polymorphism of Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian Sample of Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aperecida da Silva, Maria; Cordeiro, Quirino; Louza, Mario; Vallada, Homero

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a possible association between a 3'UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian sample of adult patients. Method: Study Case-control with 102 ADHD adult outpatients ("DSM-IV" criteria) and 479 healthy controls. The primers' sequence used were: 3'UTR-Forward: 5' TGT GGT GAT GGG…

  6. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  7. Disparities in Psychosocial Functioning in a Diverse Sample of Adults with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L.; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B.; Keller, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: global assessment of functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

  8. Disparities in psychosocial functioning in a diverse sample of adults with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B; Keller, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

  9. Factors influencing use of an e-health website in a community sample of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharit, Joseph; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N; Hernández, Mario A; Arana, Neysarí; Fu, Shih Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of the internet as a source of health information and link to healthcare services has raised concerns about the ability of consumers, especially vulnerable populations such as older adults, to access these applications. This study examined the influence of training on the ability of adults (aged 45+ years) to use the Medicare.gov website to solve problems related to health management. The influence of computer experience and cognitive abilities on performance was also examined. Design Seventy-one participants, aged 47–92, were randomized into a Multimedia training, Unimodal training, or Cold Start condition and completed three healthcare management problems. Measurement and analyses Computer/internet experience was measured via questionnaire, and cognitive abilities were assessed using standard neuropsychological tests. Performance metrics included measures of navigation, accuracy and efficiency. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, χ2 and regression techniques. Results The data indicate that there was no difference among the three conditions on measures of accuracy, efficiency, or navigation. However, results of the regression analyses showed that, overall, people who received training performed better on the tasks, as evidenced by greater accuracy and efficiency. Performance was also significantly influenced by prior computer experience and cognitive abilities. Participants with more computer experience and higher cognitive abilities performed better. Conclusions The findings indicate that training, experience, and abilities are important when using complex health websites. However, training alone is not sufficient. The complexity of web content needs to be considered to ensure successful use of these websites by those with lower abilities. PMID:22802269

  10. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  11. Utility of different massive parallel sequencing platforms for mutation profiling in clinical samples and identification of pitfalls using FFPE tissue.

    PubMed

    Fassunke, Jana; Haller, Florian; Hebele, Simone; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Penzel, Roland; Pfarr, Nicole; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Endris, Volker

    2015-11-01

    In the growing field of personalised medicine, the analysis of numerous potential targets is becoming a challenge in terms of work load, tissue availability, as well as costs. The molecular analysis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has shifted from the analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status to the analysis of different gene regions, including resistance mutations or translocations. Massive parallel sequencing (MPS) allows rapid comprehensive mutation testing in routine molecular pathological diagnostics even on small formalin-fixed, paraffin‑embedded (FFPE) biopsies. In this study, we compared and evaluated currently used MPS platforms for their application in routine pathological diagnostics. We initiated a first round‑robin testing of 30 cases diagnosed with NSCLC and a known EGFR gene mutation status. In this study, three pathology institutes from Germany received FFPE tumour sections that had been individually processed. Fragment libraries were prepared by targeted multiplex PCR using institution‑specific gene panels. Sequencing was carried out using three MPS systems: MiSeq™, GS Junior and PGM Ion Torrent™. In two institutes, data analysis was performed with the platform-specific software and the Integrative Genomics Viewer. In one institute, data analysis was carried out using an in-house software system. Of 30 samples, 26 were analysed by all institutes. Concerning the EGFR mutation status, concordance was found in 26 out of 26 samples. The analysis of a few samples failed due to poor DNA quality in alternating institutes. We found 100% concordance when comparing the results of the EGFR mutation status. A total of 38 additional mutations were identified in the 26 samples. In two samples, minor variants were found which could not be confirmed by qPCR. Other characteristic variants were identified as fixation artefacts by reanalyzing the respective sample by Sanger sequencing. Overall, the results of this study

  12. Utility of different massive parallel sequencing platforms for mutation profiling in clinical samples and identification of pitfalls using FFPE tissue

    PubMed Central

    FASSUNKE, JANA; HALLER, FLORIAN; HEBELE, SIMONE; MOSKALEV, EVGENY A.; PENZEL, ROLAND; PFARR, NICOLE; MERKELBACH-BRUSE, SABINE; ENDRIS, VOLKER

    2015-01-01

    In the growing field of personalised medicine, the analysis of numerous potential targets is becoming a challenge in terms of work load, tissue availability, as well as costs. The molecular analysis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has shifted from the analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status to the analysis of different gene regions, including resistance mutations or translocations. Massive parallel sequencing (MPS) allows rapid comprehensive mutation testing in routine molecular pathological diagnostics even on small formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies. In this study, we compared and evaluated currently used MPS platforms for their application in routine pathological diagnostics. We initiated a first round-robin testing of 30 cases diagnosed with NSCLC and a known EGFR gene mutation status. In this study, three pathology institutes from Germany received FFPE tumour sections that had been individually processed. Fragment libraries were prepared by targeted multiplex PCR using institution-specific gene panels. Sequencing was carried out using three MPS systems: MiSeq™, GS Junior and PGM Ion Torrent™. In two institutes, data analysis was performed with the platform-specific software and the Integrative Genomics Viewer. In one institute, data analysis was carried out using an in-house software system. Of 30 samples, 26 were analysed by all institutes. Concerning the EGFR mutation status, concordance was found in 26 out of 26 samples. The analysis of a few samples failed due to poor DNA quality in alternating institutes. We found 100% concordance when comparing the results of the EGFR mutation status. A total of 38 additional mutations were identified in the 26 samples. In two samples, minor variants were found which could not be confirmed by qPCR. Other characteristic variants were identified as fixation artefacts by reanalyzing the respective sample by Sanger sequencing. Overall, the results of this study

  13. Mood, motives, and gambling in young adults: an examination of within- and between-person variations using experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Abby L; Stewart, Sherry H; Hoaken, Peter N S; Flett, Gordon L

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that young adults are a population at risk for problem gambling and that young adults gamble for various reasons, including positive mood enhancement and negative mood reduction. Although these motives have been identified as important proximal predictors of gambling, the research to date has focused on between-subjects relationships. What is missing is a process-level understanding of the specific within-subjects relations between mood-regulation motives for gambling, mood states, and gambling behaviors. The current study used experience sampling to assess the specific link between gambling motives, mood states, and gambling behavior. Participants were 108 young adults (ages 19-24 years), who completed baseline measures of gambling motives and gambling problems and then reported on their mood states and gambling behavior three times a day for 30 days. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed a significant positive moderating effect for enhancement motives on the relationship between positive mood and amount of time spent gambling and number of drinks consumed while gambling. In addition, problem gambling status was associated with consuming fewer drinks while gambling at higher levels of positive mood, and spending more money than intended at higher levels of negative mood. Unexpectedly, there was only one moderating effect for coping motives on the mood-gambling relationship; low coping motivated gamblers consumed more alcohol while gambling at higher levels of positive mood, whereas high coping motivated gamblers did not change their drinking in response to positive mood. The current findings highlight enhancement motives as risky motives for young adult gambling, particularly in the context of positive mood, and suggest that gambling interventions should include strategies to address positive mood management. PMID:23772764

  14. Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury among hospitalized adults with documented hepatitis C Virus infection: a nationwide inpatient sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, G N; Patel, A; Simoes, P K; Yacoub, R; Annapureddy, N; Kamat, S; Konstantinidis, I; Perumalswami, P; Branch, A; Coca, S G; Wyatt, C M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may cause kidney injury, particularly in the setting of cryoglobulinemia or cirrhosis; however, few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of acute kidney injury in patients with HCV. We aimed to describe national temporal trends of incidence and impact of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement 'dialysis-requiring AKI' in hospitalized adults with HCV. We extracted our study cohort from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project using data from 2004 to 2012. We defined HCV and dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury based on previously validated ICD-9-CM codes. We analysed temporal changes in the proportion of hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring AKI and utilized survey multivariable logistic regression models to estimate its impact on in-hospital mortality. We identified a total of 4,603,718 adult hospitalizations with an associated diagnosis of HCV from 2004 to 2012, of which 51,434 (1.12%) were complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury increased significantly from 0.86% in 2004 to 1.28% in 2012. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury vs those without (27.38% vs 2.95%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.74-2.51). The proportion of HCV hospitalizations complicated by dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury increased significantly between 2004 and 2012. Similar to observations in the general population, dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury was associated with a twofold increase in odds of in-hospital mortality in adults with HCV. These results highlight the burden of acute kidney injury in hospitalized adults with HCV infection. PMID:26189719

  15. Protein profile study of clinical samples using laser induced fluorescence as the detection method: case of malignant and normal cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karemore, Gopal; Raja, Sujatha N.; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2009-02-01

    Protein profiles of tissue homogenates were recorded using HPLC separation and LIF detection method. The samples were collected from volunteers with clinically normal or cervical cancer conditions. It is shown that the protein profile can be classified as belonging to malignant or normal state by using hard and Fuzzy clustering methods. The study was performed to test the utility of the HPLC-LIF protein profiling method for classification of tissue samples as well as to establish a complementary method for histopathology for clinical diagnosis of the tissue as normal or malignant.

  16. The resilience scale for adults in italy: A validation study comparing clinical substance abusers with a nonclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Natale Salvatore; Renati, Roberta; Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2016-06-01

    This article reports a validation study of the Italian version of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), a measure designed to assess individual, family, and social resilience protective resources. The RSA was administered to a clinical (i.e., substance use disorders, or SUD; N = 437) and a nonclinical sample (N = 337). A confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 6-factor structure of the RSA in both samples. The RSA correlated positively with functional coping strategies and negatively with perceived stress and dysfunctional coping strategies. Moreover, the RSA subscales discriminated between SUD and non-SUD individuals. Factorial invariance testing also confirmed comparable psychometric properties across gender. The results confirm good psychometric properties of the Italian RSA and provide support for the construct validity of the scale. The RSA may be suited for use in studies examining natural course and intervention trials. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27031088

  17. Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Two Samples of Deaf Adults via a Computerized American Sign Language Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Robert Q; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparable between groups. More men than women in both deaf samples reported past-year physical and sexual abuse. Past-year IPV was associated with higher utilization of hospital emergency services. Implications for IPV research, education, and intervention in the Deaf community are discussed. PMID:24142445

  18. Psychometric assessment of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory in a sample of low-income single mothers.

    PubMed

    Lutenbacher, M

    2001-01-01

    The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) is a 32-item inventory widely used to identify adolescents and adults at risk for inadequate parenting behaviors. It includes four subscales representing the most frequent patterns associated with abusive parenting: (a) Inappropriate Expectations; (b) Lack of Empathy; (c) Parental Value of Corporal Punishment; and (d) Parent-Child Role Reversal. Although it has been used in a variety of samples, the psychometric properties of the AAPI have not been examined in low-income single mothers. The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the reliability and validity of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) in a sample of 206 low-income single mothers; (b) assess the mother's risk for inadequate parenting by comparing their AAPI subscale scores with normative subscale scores on the AAPI; (c) assess the construct validity of the AAPI by testing the hypothesis that mothers with lower AAPI scores have a higher level of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in comparison to mothers with higher AAPI scores; and (d) determine whether the 4-factor structure proposed by Bavolek (1984) could be replicated. AAPI scores indicated these mothers were at high risk for child abuse when compared with normative data for parents with no known history of abuse. Higher risk for abusive parenting was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, less education, and unemployment. The subscales, Inappropriate Expectations and Parental Value of Corporal Punishment demonstrated poor internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of .40 and .54, respectively. Hypothesis testing supported the construct validity of the AAPI. Bavolek's 4-factor structure was not supported. A 19-item modified version of the AAPI with three dimensions was identified. This modified version of the AAPI may provide a more efficacious tool for use with low-income single mothers. PMID:11881270

  19. Psychographic characteristics, tobacco, and alcohol use in a sample of young adults on the U.S./México border.

    PubMed

    Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon

    2016-12-01

    Few studies using psychographic segmentation have been conducted; even fewer in minority samples. Study aims were to identify psychographic clusters and their relation to tobacco and alcohol use within a predominantly Hispanic (87%) young adult (ages 18-25) sample. Participants (N=754; 72.5% female; Mage=20.7 [2.2]) completed the following measures online: sociodemographics, tobacco use history, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire (Collins, Parks, & Marlatt, 1985), a social activities scale, a psychographic survey, a music preference item, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, & Donohew, 2002), and the Mini-International Personality Item Pool (Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, & Lucas, 2006). Two step cluster analysis identified two groups. 'Popular Extroverts' (49.3% of sample) reported higher: extroversion scores F(1, 652)=40.03, sensation seeking scores F(1, 652)=20.38, alcohol use (greater number of drinks per week [F(1, 652)=9.69]; and past month binge drinking [χ² (1)=12.80]), and lifetime tobacco use (χ² [1]=10.61) (all ps≤0.002). 'Mainstream/Conventionals' (50.7% of sample) reported greater intentions to smoke in the next month F(1, 284)=11.81, p=0.001. 'Popular Extroverts' may benefit from prevention/cessation messaging promoting peer support and intensity-oriented activities. For 'Mainstream/Conventionals,' messaging communicating negative attitudes toward smoking and the tobacco industry may be effective. Future directions include testing targeted messages which may be incorporated into mass media tobacco and alcohol interventions for young adults on the U.S./México border. PMID:27393933

  20. The Cognition Battery of the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function: Validation in an Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Sandra; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Tulsky, David S.; Zelazo, Philip David; Slotkin, Jerry; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Fox, Nathan; Havlik, Richard; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Mungas, Dan; Manly, Jennifer J.; Moy, Claudia; Conway, Kevin; Edwards, Emmeline; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a special series on validity studies of the Cognition Battery (CB) from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (R. C. Gershon et al., 2013) in an adult sample. This first paper in the series describes the sample, each of the seven instruments in the NIHTB-CB briefly, and the general approach to data analysis. Data are provided on test-retest reliability and practice effects, and raw scores (mean, standard deviation, range) are presented for each instrument and the gold standard instruments used to measure construct validity. Accompanying papers provide details on each instrument, including information about instrument development, psychometric properties, age and education effects on performance, and convergent and discriminant construct validity. One paper in the series is devoted to a factor analysis of the NIHTB-CB in adults and another describes the psychometric properties of three composite scores derived from the individual measures representing fluid and crystallized abilities and their combination. The NIHTB-CB is designed to provide a brief, comprehensive, common set of measures to allow comparisons among disparate studies and to improve scientific communication. PMID:24959840