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Sample records for adult tissue stem

  1. Adult stem cells and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Körbling, M; Estrov, Z; Champlin, R

    2003-08-01

    Recently, adult stem cells originating from bone marrow or peripheral blood have been suggested to contribute to repair and genesis of cells specific for liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, gut, and brain tissue. The mechanism involved has been termed transdifferentiation, although other explanations including cell fusion have been postulated. Using adult stem cells to generate or repair solid organ tissue obviates the immunologic, ethical, and teratogenic issues that accompany embryonic stem cells.

  2. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications. PMID:27338364

  3. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-06-21

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications.

  4. Adult stem cells applied to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-López, M D; Zamora-Navas, P; García-Herrera, J M; Godino, M; López-Puertas, J M; Guerado, E; Becerra, J; Andrades, J A

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration takes place in the body at a moment or another throughout life. Bone, cartilage, and tendons (the key components of the structure and articulation in the body) have a limited capacity for self-repair and, after traumatic injury or disease, the regenerative power of adult tissue is often insufficient. When organs or tissues are irreparably damaged, they may be replaced by an artificial device or by a donor organ. However, the number of available donor organs is considerably limited. Generation of tissue-engineered replacement organs by extracting stem cells from the patient, growing them and modifying them in clinical conditions after re-introduction in the body represents an ideal source for corrective treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the multipotential progenitors that give rise to skeletal cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, muscle (skeletal and cardiac muscle), adipocytes (fat tissue) and hematopoietic (blood)-supportive stromal cells. MSCs are found in multiple connective tissues, in adult bone marrow, skeletal muscles and fat pads. The wide representation in adult tissues may be related to the existence of a circulating blood pool or that MSCs are associated to the vascular system.

  5. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  6. Adult stem cell plasticity: will engineered tissues be rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Te-Chao; Alison, Malcolm R; Wright, Nicholas A; Poulsom, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The dogma that adult tissue-specific stem cells remain committed to supporting only their own tissue has been challenged; a new hypothesis, that adult stem cells demonstrate plasticity in their repertoires, is being tested. This is important because it seems possible that haematopoietic stem cells, for example, could be exploited to generate and perhaps deliver cell-based therapies deep within existing nonhaematopoietic organs. Much of the evidence for plasticity derives from histological studies of tissues from patients or animals that have received grafts of cells or whole organs, from a donor bearing (or lacking) a definitive marker. Detection in the recipient of appropriately differentiated cells bearing the donor marker is indicative of a switch in phenotype of a stem cell or a member of a transit amplifying population or of a differentiated cell. In this review, we discuss evidence for these changes occurring but do not consider the molecular basis of cell commitment. In general, the extent of engraftment is low but may be increased if tissues are damaged. In model systems of liver regeneration, the repeated application of a selection pressure increases levels of engraftment considerably; how this occurs is unclear. Cell fusion plays a part in regeneration and remodelling of the liver, skeletal muscle and even regions of the brain. Genetic disease may be amenable to some forms of cell therapy, yet immune rejection will present challenges. Graft-vs.-host disease will continue to present problems, although this may be avoided if the cells were derived from the recipient or they were tolerized. Despite great expectations for cellular therapies, there are indications that attempts to replace missing proteins could be confounded simply by the development of specific immunity that rejects the new phenotype. PMID:15255965

  7. Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arnold I

    2007-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from bone marrow or marrow aspirates and because they are culture-dish adherent, they can be expanded in culture while maintaining their multipotency. The MSCs have been used in preclinical models for tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, tendon, fat, and other connective tissues. These tissue-engineered materials show considerable promise for use in rebuilding damaged or diseased mesenchymal tissues. Unanticipated is the realization that the MSCs secrete a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. These molecules are immunosuppressive, especially for T-cells and, thus, allogeneic MSCs can be considered for therapeutic use. In this context, the secreted bioactive molecules provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured adult tissues to limit the area of damage and to mount a self-regulated regenerative response. This regenerative microenvironment is referred to as trophic activity and, therefore, MSCs appear to be valuable mediators for tissue repair and regeneration. The natural titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury can be augmented by allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream. Indeed, human clinical trials are now under way to use allogeneic MSCs for treatment of myocardial infarcts, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's Disease, cartilage and meniscus repair, stroke, and spinal cord injury. This review summarizes the biological basis for the in vivo functioning of MSCs through development and aging. PMID:17620285

  8. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells: Biological Significance and Relevance to Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rumman, Mohammad; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-10-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biological mechanisms of ASC quiescence and their role in tissue regeneration.

  9. Fetal and adult liver stem cells for liver regeneration and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fiegel, H C; Lange, Claudia; Kneser, U; Lambrecht, W; Zander, A R; Rogiers, X; Kluth, D

    2006-01-01

    For the development of innovative cell-based liver directed therapies, e.g. liver tissue engineering, the use of stem cells might be very attractive to overcome the limitation of donor liver tissue. Liver specific differentiation of embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells is currently under investigation. Different types of fetal liver (stem) cells during development were identified, and their advantageous growth potential and bipotential differentiation capacity were shown. However, ethical and legal issues have to be addressed before using fetal cells. Use of adult stem cells is clinically established, e.g. transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. Other bone marrow derived liver stem cells might be mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, the transdifferentiation potential is still in question due to the observation of cellular fusion in several in vivo experiments. In vitro experiments revealed a crucial role of the environment (e.g. growth factors and extracellular matrix) for specific differentiation of stem cells. Co-cultured liver cells also seemed to be important for hepatic gene expression of MSC. For successful liver cell transplantation, a novel approach of tissue engineering by orthotopic transplantation of gel-immobilized cells could be promising, providing optimal environment for the injected cells. Moreover, an orthotopic tissue engineering approach using bipotential stem cells could lead to a repopulation of the recipients liver with healthy liver and biliary cells, thus providing both hepatic functions and biliary excretion. Future studies have to investigate, which stem cell and environmental conditions would be most suitable for the use of stem cells for liver regeneration or tissue engineering approaches.

  10. The molecular nature of very small embryonic-like stem cells in adult tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongHwan; Jeong, Jaeho; Kang, Hyunsook; Lim, Jisun; Heo, Jinbeom; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2014-11-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been considered as the most important cells in regenerative medicine as they are able to differentiate into all types of cells in the human body. PSCs have been established from several sources of embryo tissue or by reprogramming of terminally differentiated adult tissue by transduction of so-called Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc). Interestingly, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the residence of PSCs in adult tissue and with the ability to differentiate into multiple types of tissue-committed stem cells (TCSCs). We also recently demonstrated that a population of pluripotent Oct4(+) SSEA-1(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) resides in the adult murine bone marrow (BM) and in other murine tissue. These very small (∼3-6 μm) cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA-1. VSELs could be specified into several tissue-residing TCSCs in response to tissue/organ injury, and thus suggesting that these cells have a physiological role in the rejuvenation of a pool of TCSCs under steady-state conditions. In this review article, we discuss the molecular nature of the rare population of VSELs which have a crucial role in regulating the pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and aging of these cells. PMID:25473442

  11. A mystery unraveled: nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells in human adult tissues

    PubMed Central

    Simerman, Ariel A; Perone, Marcelo J; Gimeno, María L; Dumesic, Daniel A; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have emerged as the gold standard of pluripotent stem cells and the class of stem cell with the highest potential for contribution to regenerative and therapeutic application; however, their translational use is often impeded by teratoma formation, commonly associated with pluripotency. We discuss a population of nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells, which offer an innovative and exciting avenue of exploration for the potential treatment of various human diseases. Areas covered: This review discusses the origin of Muse cells, describes in detail their various unique characteristics, and considers future avenues of their application and investigation with respect to what is currently known of adult pluripotent stem cells in scientific literature. We begin by defining cell potency, then discuss both mesenchymal and various reported populations of pluripotent stem cells, and finally delve into Muse cells and the characteristics that set them apart from their contemporaries. Expert opinion: Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT) are efficiently, routinely and painlessly isolated from human lipoaspirate material, exhibit tripoblastic differentiation both spontaneously and under media-specific induction, and do not form teratomas. We describe qualities specific to Muse-AT cells and their potential impact on the field of regenerative medicine and cell therapy. PMID:24745973

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells: comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Puissant, Bénédicte; Barreau, Corinne; Bourin, Philippe; Clavel, Cyril; Corre, Jill; Bousquet, Christine; Taureau, Christine; Cousin, Béatrice; Abbal, Michel; Laharrague, Patrick; Penicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis; Blancher, Antoine

    2005-04-01

    Like mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow (BM-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ADAS cells) can differentiate into several lineages and present therapeutical potential for repairing damaged tissues. The use of allogenic stem cells can enlarge their therapeutical interest, provided that the grafted cells could be tolerated. We investigate here, for the first time, the immunosuppressive properties of ADAS cells compared with the well-characterized immunosuppressive properties of BM-MSCs. ADAS cells did not provoke in vitro alloreactivity of incompatible lymphocytes and, moreover, suppressed mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens. The impairment of inhibition when ADAS cells and BM-MSCs were separated from lymphocytes by a permeable membrane suggests that cell contact is required for a full inhibitory effect. Hepatocyte growth factor is secreted by both stem cells but, similar to interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), the levels of which were undetectable in supernatants of MLR inhibited by ADAS cells or BM-MSCs, it did not seem implicated in the stem cell suppressive effect. These findings support that ADAS cells share immunosuppressive properties with BM-MSCs. Therefore, ADAS cell-based reconstructive therapy could employ allogenic cells and because of their immunosuppressive properties, ADAS cells could be an alternative source to BM-MSCs to treat allogenic conflicts.

  13. [The three-dimensional culture of adult mesenchymal stem cells for intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ganjun; Liu, Hao; Deng, Li; Chen, Xiaohe; Zhao, Xianfeng; Liang, Tao; Li, Xiuqiong

    2009-12-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the major causes of low back pain. As current clinical treatments are aimed at restoring biomechanical function and providing symptomatic relief, the methods focused on biological repair have aroused interest and several tissue engineering approaches using different cell types have been proposed. Owing to the unsuitable nature of degenerate cells for tissue engineering, attention has been given to the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this connection, we have made a study on the characteristics of MSCs derived from adult bone marrow and on the feasibility of constructing IVD tissue-engineering cell under a Three-Dimensional Pellet Culture System. The human bone marrow MSCs were isolated and purified with density gradient solution and attachment-independent culture system. MSCs isolated using this method are a homogeneous population as indicated by morphology and other criteria. They have the capacity for self-renewal and proliferation, and the multilineage potential to differentiate.

  14. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J.E.; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D.; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem cell and tissue population dynamics. We show that healthy cells induce clonal extinction in weak tissues, targeting both stem and differentiated cells for elimination. We also find that competition induces stem cell proliferation and self-renewal in healthy tissue, promoting selective advantage and tissue colonization. Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute−/+ cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. PMID:26212135

  15. Use of Adult Stem Cells for Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Current Status and Future Developments

    PubMed Central

    Baugé, Catherine; Boumédiene, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. So, in recent years, researchers and surgeons have been working hard to elaborate cartilage repair interventions for patients who suffer from cartilage damage. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or hypertrophic cartilage. In the next years, the development of new strategies using adult stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium and/or culture in low oxygen tension should improve the quality of neoformed cartilage. Through these solutions, some of the latest technologies start to bring very promising results in repairing cartilage from traumatic injury or chondropathies. This review discusses the current knowledge about the use of adult stem cells in the context of cartilage tissue engineering and presents clinical trials in progress, as well as in the future, especially in the field of bioprinting stem cells. PMID:26246809

  16. High-efficiency immunomagnetic isolation of solid tissue-originated integrin-expressing adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palmon, Aaron; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Krief, Guy; Aframian, Doron J

    2012-02-01

    Isolation of highly pure specific cell types is crucial for successful adult stem cell-based therapy. As the number of such cells in adult tissue is low, an extremely efficient method is needed for their isolation. Here, we describe cell-separation methodologies based on magnetic-affinity cell sorting (MACS) MicroBeads with monoclonal antibodies against specific membrane proteins conjugated to superparamagnetic particles. Cells labeled with MACS MicroBeads are retained in a magnetic field within a MACS column placed in a MACS separator, allowing fast and efficient separation. Both positively labeled and non-labeled fractions can be used directly for downstream applications as the separated cell fractions remain viable with no functional impairment. As immunomagnetic separation depends on the interaction between a cell's membrane and the magnetically labeled antibody, separation of specific cells originating from solid tissues is more complex and demands a cell-dissociating pretreatment. In this paper, we detail the use of immunomagnetic separation for the purpose of regenerating damaged salivary gland (SG) function in animal and human models of irradiated head and neck cancer. Each year 500,000 new cases of head and neck cancer occur worldwide. Most of these patients lose SG function following irradiation therapy. SGs contain integrin α6β1-expressing epithelial stem cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be isolated, multiplied in culture and auto-implanted into the irradiated SGs to regenerate damaged SG function.

  17. Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokzijl, Francis; de Ligt, Joep; Jager, Myrthe; Sasselli, Valentina; Roerink, Sophie; Sasaki, Nobuo; Huch, Meritxell; Boymans, Sander; Kuijk, Ewart; Prins, Pjotr; Nijman, Isaac J.; Martincorena, Inigo; Mokry, Michal; Wiegerinck, Caroline L.; Middendorp, Sabine; Sato, Toshiro; Schwank, Gerald; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Vries, Robert G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Stratton, Michael R.; Clevers, Hans; Cuppen, Edwin; van Boxtel, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The gradual accumulation of genetic mutations in human adult stem cells (ASCs) during life is associated with various age-related diseases, including cancer. Extreme variation in cancer risk across tissues was recently proposed to depend on the lifetime number of ASC divisions, owing to unavoidable random mutations that arise during DNA replication. However, the rates and patterns of mutations in normal ASCs remain unknown. Here we determine genome-wide mutation patterns in ASCs of the small intestine, colon and liver of human donors with ages ranging from 3 to 87 years by sequencing clonal organoid cultures derived from primary multipotent cells. Our results show that mutations accumulate steadily over time in all of the assessed tissue types, at a rate of approximately 40 novel mutations per year, despite the large variation in cancer incidence among these tissues. Liver ASCs, however, have different mutation spectra compared to those of the colon and small intestine. Mutational signature analysis reveals that this difference can be attributed to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine residues in the colon and small intestine, probably reflecting their high ASC division rate. In liver, a signature with an as-yet-unknown underlying mechanism is predominant. Mutation spectra of driver genes in cancer show high similarity to the tissue-specific ASC mutation spectra, suggesting that intrinsic mutational processes in ASCs can initiate tumorigenesis. Notably, the inter-individual variation in mutation rate and spectra are low, suggesting tissue-specific activity of common mutational processes throughout life.

  18. Current Understanding of the Pathways Involved in Adult Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration for Tissue Homeostasis and Repair.

    PubMed

    Goichberg, Polina

    2016-08-01

    With the advancements in the field of adult stem and progenitor cells grows the recognition that the motility of primitive cells is a pivotal aspect of their functionality. There is accumulating evidence that the recruitment of tissue-resident and circulating cells is critical for organ homeostasis and effective injury responses, whereas the pathobiology of degenerative diseases, neoplasm and aging, might be rooted in the altered ability of immature cells to migrate. Furthermore, understanding the biological machinery determining the translocation patterns of tissue progenitors is of great relevance for the emerging methodologies for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. The present article provides an overview of studies addressing the physiological significance and diverse modes of stem and progenitor cell trafficking in adult mammalian organs, discusses the major microenvironmental cues regulating cell migration, and describes the implementation of live imaging approaches for the exploration of stem cell movement in tissues and the factors dictating the motility of endogenous and transplanted cells with regenerative potential. PMID:27209167

  19. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  20. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  1. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  2. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  3. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues.

  4. Epithelial-connective tissue interactions induced by thyroid hormone receptor are essential for adult stem cell development in the Xenopus laevis intestine.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takashi; Buchholz, Daniel R; Shi, Yun-Bo; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    In the amphibian intestine during metamorphosis, stem cells appear and generate the adult absorptive epithelium, analogous to the mammalian one, under the control of thyroid hormone (TH). We have previously shown that the adult stem cells originate from differentiated larval epithelial cells in the Xenopus laevis intestine. To clarify whether TH signaling in the epithelium alone is sufficient for inducing the stem cells, we have now performed tissue recombinant culture experiments using transgenic X. laevis tadpoles that express a dominant-positive TH receptor (dpTR) under a control of heat shock promoter. Wild-type (Wt) or dpTR transgenic (Tg) larval epithelium (Ep) was isolated from the tadpole intestine, recombined with homologous or heterologous nonepithelial tissues (non-Ep), and then cultivated in the absence of TH with daily heat shocks to induce transgenic dpTR expression. Adult epithelial progenitor cells expressing sonic hedgehog became detectable on day 5 in both the recombinant intestine of Tg Ep and Tg non-Ep (Tg/Tg) and that of Tg Ep and Wt non-Ep (Tg/Wt). However, in Tg/Wt intestine, they did not express other stem cell markers such as Musashi-1 and never generated the adult epithelium expressing a marker for absorptive epithelial cells. Our results indicate that, while it is unclear why some larval epithelial cells dedifferentiate into adult progenitor/stem cells, TR-mediated gene expression in the surrounding tissues other than the epithelium is required for them to develop into adult stem cells, suggesting the importance of TH-inducible epithelial-connective tissue interactions in establishment of the stem cell niche in the amphibian intestine.

  5. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates proliferation maintaining the multipotency of human adult bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoli; H'ng, Shiau-Chen; Leong, David T; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Melendez, Alirio J

    2010-08-01

    High renewal and maintenance of multipotency of human adult stem cells (hSCs), are a prerequisite for experimental analysis as well as for potential clinical usages. The most widely used strategy for hSC culture and proliferation is using serum. However, serum is poorly defined and has a considerable degree of inter-batch variation, which makes it difficult for large-scale mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expansion in homogeneous culture conditions. Moreover, it is often observed that cells grown in serum-containing media spontaneously differentiate into unknown and/or undesired phenotypes. Another way of maintaining hSC development is using cytokines and/or tissue-specific growth factors; this is a very expensive approach and can lead to early unwanted differentiation. In order to circumvent these issues, we investigated the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), in the growth and multipotency maintenance of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs. We show that S1P induces growth, and in combination with reduced serum, or with the growth factors FGF and platelet-derived growth factor-AB, S1P has an enhancing effect on growth. We also show that the MSCs cultured in S1P-supplemented media are able to maintain their differentiation potential for at least as long as that for cells grown in the usual serum-containing media. This is shown by the ability of cells grown in S1P-containing media to be able to undergo osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation. This is of interest, since S1P is a relatively inexpensive natural product, which can be obtained in homogeneous high-purity batches: this will minimize costs and potentially reduce the unwanted side effects observed with serum. Taken together, S1P is able to induce proliferation while maintaining the multipotency of different human stem cells, suggesting a potential for S1P in developing serum-free or serum-reduced defined medium for adult stem cell cultures.

  6. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  7. Evidence for tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells in human adult lung from studies of transplanted allografts.

    PubMed

    Lama, Vibha N; Smith, Lisa; Badri, Linda; Flint, Andrew; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Murray, Susan; Wang, Zhuo; Liao, Hui; Toews, Galen B; Krebsbach, Paul H; Peters-Golden, Marc; Pinsky, David J; Martinez, Fernando J; Thannickal, Victor J

    2007-04-01

    The origin and turnover of connective tissue cells in adult human organs, including the lung, are not well understood. Here, studies of cells derived from human lung allografts demonstrate the presence of a multipotent mesenchymal cell population, which is locally resident in the human adult lung and has extended life span in vivo. Examination of plastic-adherent cell populations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples obtained from 76 human lung transplant recipients revealed clonal proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in 62% (106 of 172) of samples. Immunophenotyping of these isolated cells demonstrated expression of vimentin and prolyl-4-hydroxylase, indicating a mesenchymal phenotype. Multiparametric flow cytometric analyses revealed expression of cell-surface proteins, CD73, CD90, and CD105, commonly found on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Hematopoietic lineage markers CD14, CD34, and CD45 were absent. Multipotency of these cells was demonstrated by their capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. Cytogenetic analysis of cells from 7 sex-mismatched lung transplant recipients harvested up to 11 years after transplant revealed that 97.2% +/- 2.1% expressed the sex genotype of the donor. The presence of MSCs of donor sex identity in lung allografts even years after transplantation provides what we believe to be the first evidence for connective tissue cell progenitors that reside locally within a postnatal, nonhematopoietic organ.

  8. Comparative analysis of paracrine factor expression in human adult mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose, and dermal tissue.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sarah Tzu-Feng; Asgari, Azar; Lokmic, Zerina; Sinclair, Rodney; Dusting, Gregory James; Lim, Shiang Yong; Dilley, Rodney James

    2012-08-10

    Human adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) support the engineering of functional tissue constructs by secreting angiogenic and cytoprotective factors, which act in a paracrine fashion to influence cell survival and vascularization. MSCs have been isolated from many different tissue sources, but little is known about how paracrine factor secretion varies between different MSC populations. We evaluated paracrine factor expression patterns in MSCs isolated from adipose tissue (ASCs), bone marrow (BMSCs), and dermal tissues [dermal sheath cells (DSCs) and dermal papilla cells (DPCs)]. Specifically, mRNA expression analysis identified insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) to be expressed at higher levels in ASCs compared with other MSC populations whereas VEGF-A, angiogenin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) were expressed at comparable levels among the MSC populations examined. Analysis of conditioned media (CM) protein confirmed the comparable level of angiogenin and VEGF-A secretion in all MSC populations and showed that DSCs and DPCs produced significantly higher concentrations of leptin. Functional assays examining in vitro angiogenic paracrine activity showed that incubation of endothelial cells in ASC(CM) resulted in increased tubulogenic efficiency compared with that observed in DPC(CM). Using neutralizing antibodies we concluded that VEGF-A and VEGF-D were 2 of the major growth factors secreted by ASCs that supported endothelial tubulogenesis. The variation in paracrine factors of different MSC populations contributes to different levels of angiogenic activity and ASCs maybe preferred over other MSC populations for augmenting therapeutic approaches dependent upon angiogenesis.

  9. Hematopoietic stem cell origin of connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Makio; Larue, Amanda C; Watson, Patricia M; Watson, Dennis K

    2010-07-01

    Connective tissue consists of "connective tissue proper," which is further divided into loose and dense (fibrous) connective tissues and "specialized connective tissues." Specialized connective tissues consist of blood, adipose tissue, cartilage, and bone. In both loose and dense connective tissues, the principal cellular element is fibroblasts. It has been generally believed that all cellular elements of connective tissue, including fibroblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and bone cells, are generated solely by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, a number of studies, including those from our laboratory based on transplantation of single hematopoietic stem cells, strongly suggested a hematopoietic stem cell origin of these adult mesenchymal tissues. This review summarizes the experimental evidence for this new paradigm and discusses its translational implications.

  10. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

    2000-06-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  11. In search of the best candidate for regeneration of ischemic tissues: are embryonic/fetal stem cells more advantageous than adult counterparts?

    PubMed

    Emanueli, Costanza; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Madeddu, Paolo

    2005-10-01

    Human stem cells and progenitor cells from the bone marrow have been proposed for the regeneration of ischemic cardiac tissues. Early clinical trials indicate that infusion of autologous bone-marrow cells into the infarcted heart enhances ventricular function, albeit the long-term benefit remains to be ascertained. Alternatively, angiogenic growth factors could be used to stimulate the recruitment of vascular progenitor cells into tissues in need of regeneration. Unfortunately, in atherosclerotic patients, the curative potential of autologous stem cells might be impoverished by underlying disease and associated risk factors. Thus, research is focusing on the use of embryonic stem cells which are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have the potential to give rise to all tissue types in the body. Ethical problems and technical hurdles may limit the immediate application of embryonic stem cells. In the meanwhile, fetal hematopoietic stem cells,which have been routinely used to reconstitute the hematopoietic system in man, could represent an alternative, owing to their juvenile phenotype and ability to differentiate into vascular endothelial, muscular, and neuronal cell lineages. With progresses in stem cell expansion, the blood of a single cord could be sufficient to transplant an adult. These observations raise the exciting possibility of using fetal cells as a new way to speed up the healing of damaged tissues.

  12. Adult Stem Cell Responses to Nanostimuli

    PubMed Central

    Tsimbouri, Penelope M.

    2015-01-01

    Adult or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found in different tissues in the body, residing in stem cell microenvironments called “stem cell niches”. They play different roles but their main activity is to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair throughout the lifetime of an organism. Their ability to differentiate into different cell types makes them an ideal tool to study tissue development and to use them in cell-based therapies. This differentiation process is subject to both internal and external forces at the nanoscale level and this response of stem cells to nanostimuli is the focus of this review. PMID:26193326

  13. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in quiescent or actively dividing states. 'Professional' stem cells may also co-exist with facultative stem cells, which are more specialized daughter cells that revert to a stem cell state under specific tissue damage conditions. Here, we discuss stem cell strategies as seen in three solid mammalian tissues: the intestine, mammary gland and skeletal muscle. PMID:26999737

  14. A multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized cardiac tissue constructs using adult stem sells, dynamic cell cultures, and porous scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, Stefania; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Duim, Sjoerd; Goumans, Marie-Josè; Aoyagi, Takao; Forte, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D) cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment toward the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment. PMID:24917827

  15. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  16. Potential of Newborn and Adult Stem Cells for the Production of Vascular Constructs Using the Living Tissue Sheet Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bourget, Jean-Michel; Gauvin, Robert; Duchesneau, David; Remy, Murielle; Auger, François A.; Germain, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Bypass surgeries using native vessels rely on the availability of autologous veins and arteries. An alternative to those vessels could be tissue-engineered vascular constructs made by self-organized tissue sheets. This paper intends to evaluate the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from two different sources: (1) bone marrow-derived MSCs and (2) umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs. When cultured in vitro, a proportion of those cells differentiated into smooth muscle cell- (SMC-) like cells and expressed contraction associated proteins. Moreover, these cells assembled into manipulable tissue sheets when cultured in presence of ascorbic acid. Tubular vessels were then produced by rolling those tissue sheets on a mandrel. The architecture, contractility, and mechanical resistance of reconstructed vessels were compared with tissue-engineered media and adventitia produced from SMCs and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. Histology revealed a collagenous extracellular matrix and the contractile responses measured for these vessels were stronger than dermal fibroblasts derived constructs although weaker than SMCs-derived constructs. The burst pressure of bone marrow-derived vessels was higher than SMCs-derived ones. These results reinforce the versatility of the self-organization approach since they demonstrate that it is possible to recapitulate a contractile media layer from MSCs without the need of exogenous scaffolding material. PMID:26504783

  17. Potential of Newborn and Adult Stem Cells for the Production of Vascular Constructs Using the Living Tissue Sheet Approach.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Jean-Michel; Gauvin, Robert; Duchesneau, David; Remy, Murielle; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Bypass surgeries using native vessels rely on the availability of autologous veins and arteries. An alternative to those vessels could be tissue-engineered vascular constructs made by self-organized tissue sheets. This paper intends to evaluate the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from two different sources: (1) bone marrow-derived MSCs and (2) umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs. When cultured in vitro, a proportion of those cells differentiated into smooth muscle cell- (SMC-) like cells and expressed contraction associated proteins. Moreover, these cells assembled into manipulable tissue sheets when cultured in presence of ascorbic acid. Tubular vessels were then produced by rolling those tissue sheets on a mandrel. The architecture, contractility, and mechanical resistance of reconstructed vessels were compared with tissue-engineered media and adventitia produced from SMCs and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. Histology revealed a collagenous extracellular matrix and the contractile responses measured for these vessels were stronger than dermal fibroblasts derived constructs although weaker than SMCs-derived constructs. The burst pressure of bone marrow-derived vessels was higher than SMCs-derived ones. These results reinforce the versatility of the self-organization approach since they demonstrate that it is possible to recapitulate a contractile media layer from MSCs without the need of exogenous scaffolding material. PMID:26504783

  18. Adult stem-like cells in kidney

    PubMed Central

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  19. Adult stem-like cells in kidney.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-26

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  20. [Study progress of dental pulp stem cells in tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Shiyu, Shi; Jiamin, Xie

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, modern tissue engineering is becoming emerging and developing rapidly, and the acquisition, cultivation and differentiation of seed cells is the premise and foundation of the construction of tissue engineering, so more and more scholars pay attention to stem cells as seed cells for tissue engineering construction. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) is a kind of adult stem cells derived from dental pulp, and as a new kind of seed cells of tissue engineering, the study of DPSCs presents important significance in tissue and organ regeneration. In this review, we introduced the progress of studies on dental pulp stem cells and discussed their clinical application prospects. PMID:27051964

  1. Neural Crest As the Source of Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pierret, Chris; Spears, Kathleen; Maruniak, Joel A.; Kirk, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that adult stem cells can cross germ layer boundaries. For example, bone marrow-derived stem cells appear to differentiate into neurons and glial cells, as well as other types of cells. How can stem cells from bone marrow, pancreas, skin, or fat become neurons and glia; in other words, what molecular and cellular events direct mesodermal cells to a neural fate? Transdifferentiation, dediffereniation, and fusion of donor adult stem cells with fully differentiated host cells have been proposed to explain the plasticity of adult stem cells. Here we review the origin of select adult stem cell populations and propose a unifying hypothesis to explain adult stem cell plasticity. In addition, we outline specific experiments to test our hypothesis. We propose that peripheral, tissue-derived, or adult stem cells are all progeny of the neural crest. PMID:16646675

  2. Markers of epidermal stem cell subpopulations in adult mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M

    2014-10-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of mammalian skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. As in other epithelia, adult stem cells within the epidermis maintain tissue homeostasis and contribute to repair of tissue damage. The bulge of hair follicles, where DNA-label-retaining cells reside, was traditionally regarded as the sole epidermal stem cell compartment. However, in recent years multiple stem cell populations have been identified. In this review, we discuss the different stem cell compartments of adult murine and human epidermis, the markers that they express, and the assays that are used to characterize epidermal stem cell properties.

  3. Synthesis of calcium phosphate-zirconia scaffold and human endometrial adult stem cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Aliakbar; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Ostad, Seyed Naser; Azami, Mahmoud; Geramizadeh, Bita; Hatam, Gholamreza; Bizari, Davood; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Vasei, Mohammad; Ai, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    To address the hypothesis that using a zirconia (ZrO2)/ β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite might improve both the mechanical properties and cellular compatibility of the porous material, we fabricated ZrO2/β-TCP composite scaffolds with different ZrO2/β-TCP ratios, and evaluated their physical and mechanical characteristics, also the effect of three-dimensional (3D) culture (ZrO2/β-TCP scaffold) on the behavior of human endometrial stem cells. Results showed the porosity of a ZrO2/β-TCP scaffold can be adjusted from 65% to 84%, and the compressive strength of the scaffold increased from 4.95 to 6.25 MPa when the ZrO2 content increased from 30 to 50 wt%. The cell adhesion and proliferation in the ZrO2/β-TCP scaffold was greatly improved when ZrO2 decreased. Moreover, in vitro study showed that an osteoblasts-loaded ZrO2/β-TCP scaffold provided a suitable 3D environment for osteoblast survival and enhanced bone regeneration. We thus showed that a porous ZrO2/β-TCP composite scaffold has excellent mechanical properties, and cellular/tissue compatibility, and would be a promising substrate to achieve both bone reconstruction and regeneration needed during in vivo study for treatment of large bone defects.

  4. Craniofacial Tissue Engineering by Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, J.J.; Giannobile, W.V.; Helms, J.A.; Hollister, S.J.; Krebsbach, P.H.; Longaker, M.T.; Shi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside in various craniofacial structures in the adult. Cells with characteristics of adult stem cells have been isolated from the dental pulp, the deciduous tooth, and the periodontium. Several craniofacial structures—such as the mandibular condyle, calvarial bone, cranial suture, and subcutaneous adipose tissue—have been engineered from mesenchymal stem cells, growth factor, and/or gene therapy approaches. As a departure from the reliance of current clinical practice on durable materials such as amalgam, composites, and metallic alloys, biological therapies utilize mesenchymal stem cells, delivered or internally recruited, to generate craniofacial structures in temporary scaffolding biomaterials. Craniofacial tissue engineering is likely to be realized in the foreseeable future, and represents an opportunity that dentistry cannot afford to miss. PMID:17062735

  5. Potential of embryonic and adult stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Jaroslaw; Wiese, Cornelia; Rolletschek, Alexandra; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Cross, Michael; Wobus, Anna M

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of stem cell research indicate their enormous potential as a source of tissue for regenerative therapies. The success of such applications will depend on the precise properties and potentials of stem cells isolated either from embryonic, fetal or adult tissues. Embryonic stem cells established from the inner cell mass of early mouse embryos are characterized by nearly unlimited proliferation, and the capacity to differentiate into derivatives of essentially all lineages. The recent isolation and culture of human embryonic stem cell lines presents new opportunities for reconstructive medicine. However, important problems remain; first, the derivation of human embryonic stem cells from in vitro fertilized blastocysts creates ethical problems, and second, the current techniques for the directed differentiation into somatic cell populations yield impure products with tumorigenic potential. Recent studies have also suggested an unexpectedly wide developmental potential of adult tissue-specific stem cells. Here too, many questions remain concerning the nature and status of adult stem cells both in vivo and in vitro and their proliferation and differentiation/transdifferentiation capacity. This review focuses on those issues of embryonic and adult stem cell biology most relevant to their in vitro propagation and differentiation. Questions and problems related to the use of human embryonic and adult stem cells in tissue regeneration and transplantation are discussed.

  6. Stem cell origin differently affects bone tissue engineering strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Orciani, Monia; Dicarlo, Manuela; Fini, Milena; Orsini, Giovanna; Di Primio, Roberto; Falconi, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering approaches are encouraging for the improvement of conventional bone grafting technique drawbacks. Thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation ability, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and among these adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) are the first- identified and well-recognized stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue. On the basis of these considerations, we analyzed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e., periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum) as well as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches. PMID:26441682

  7. Local Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Are a Preferential Target for Initiation of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcomas Associated with p53 and Rb Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinhyang; Curtis, Stephen J.; Roy, David M.; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The cell of origin and pathogenesis of the majority of adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS) remains poorly understood. Because mutations in both the P53 and RB tumor suppressor genes are frequent in STS in humans, we inactivated these genes by Cre-loxP–mediated recombination in mice with floxed p53 and Rb. Ninety-three percent of mice developed spindle cell/pleomorphic sarcomas after a single subcutaneous injection of adenovirus carrying Cre-recombinase. Similar to human STS, these sarcomas overexpress Cxcr4, which contributes to their invasive properties. Using irradiation chimeras generated by transplanting bone marrow cells from mice carrying either the Rosa26StoploxPLacZ or the Z/EG reporter, as well as the floxed p53 and Rb genes, into irradiated p53loxP/loxPRbloxP/loxP mice, it was determined that sarcomas do not originate from bone marrow–derived cells, such as macrophages, but arise from the local resident cells. At the same time, dermal mesenchymal stem cells isolated by strict plastic adherence and low levels of Sca-1 expression (Sca-1low, CD31negCD45neg) have shown enhanced potential for malignant transformation according to soft agar, invasion, and tumorigenicity assays, after the conditional inactivation of both p53 and Rb. Sarcomas formed after transplantation of these cells have features typical for undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas. Taken together, our studies indicate that local Sca-1low dermal mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are preferential targets for malignant transformation associated with deficiencies in both p53 and Rb. PMID:20864684

  8. Stem and progenitor cells: advancing bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tevlin, R; Walmsley, G G; Marecic, O; Hu, Michael S; Wan, D C; Longaker, M T

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many other postnatal tissues, bone can regenerate and repair itself; nevertheless, this capacity can be overcome. Traditionally, surgical reconstructive strategies have implemented autologous, allogeneic, and prosthetic materials. Autologous bone--the best option--is limited in supply and also mandates an additional surgical procedure. In regenerative tissue engineering, there are myriad issues to consider in the creation of a functional, implantable replacement tissue. Importantly, there must exist an easily accessible, abundant cell source with the capacity to express the phenotype of the desired tissue, and a biocompatible scaffold to deliver the cells to the damaged region. A literature review was performed using PubMed; peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance in order to identify key advances in stem and progenitor cell contribution to the field of bone tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce various adult stem cells implemented in bone tissue engineering such as mesenchymal stem cells (including bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells), endothelial progenitor cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. We then discuss numerous advances associated with their application and subsequently focus on technological advances in the field, before addressing key regenerative strategies currently used in clinical practice. Stem and progenitor cell implementation in bone tissue engineering strategies have the ability to make a major impact on regenerative medicine and reduce patient morbidity. As the field of regenerative medicine endeavors to harness the body's own cells for treatment, scientific innovation has led to great advances in stem cell-based therapies in the past decade.

  9. Stem cells as vehicles for youthful regeneration of aged tissues.

    PubMed

    Rando, Thomas A; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Stem cells hold great promise for regenerative therapies for a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders of aging by virtue of their ability to regenerate tissues and contribute to their homeostasis. Aging is associated with a marked decline in these functionalities of adult stem cells. As such, regeneration of aged tissues is both less efficient and less effective than that of young tissues. Recent studies have revealed the remarkably dynamic responses of stem cells to systemic signals, including the ability of "youthful" factors in the blood of young animals to enhance the functionality of aged stem cells. Thus, there is much hope that even aged stem cells retain a remarkable regenerative potential if provided with the correct cues and environment to engage in tissue repair. The overall focus of the presentations of this session is to address the determinants of changes in stem cell functionality with age, the key characteristics of stem cells in aged tissues, the extent to which those characteristics are capable of being rejuvenated and by what signals, and the potential for stem cell therapeutics for chronic diseases and acute injuries in aged individuals.

  10. [Stem cells and tissue engineering techniques].

    PubMed

    Sica, Gigliola

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic use of stem cells and tissue engineering techniques are emerging in urology. Here, stem cell types, their differentiating potential and fundamental characteristics are illustrated. The cancer stem cell hypothesis is reported with reference to the role played by stem cells in the origin, development and progression of neoplastic lesions. In addition, recent reports of results obtained with stem cells alone or seeded in scaffolds to overcome problems of damaged urinary tract tissue are summarized. Among others, the application of these biotechnologies in urinary bladder, and urethra are delineated. Nevertheless, apart from the ethical concerns raised from the use of embryonic stem cells, a lot of questions need to be solved concerning the biology of stem cells before their widespread use in clinical trials. Further investigation is also required in tissue engineering utilizing animal models.

  11. Markers of Epidermal Stem Cell Subpopulations in Adult Mammalian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Watt, Fiona M.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of mammalian skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. As in other epithelia, adult stem cells within the epidermis maintain tissue homeostasis and contribute to repair of tissue damage. The bulge of hair follicles, where DNA-label-retaining cells reside, was traditionally regarded as the sole epidermal stem cell compartment. However, in recent years multiple stem cell populations have been identified. In this review, we discuss the different stem cell compartments of adult murine and human epidermis, the markers that they express, and the assays that are used to characterize epidermal stem cell properties. PMID:24993676

  12. Emerging restorative treatments for Parkinson's disease: manipulation and inducement of dopaminergic neurons from adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junpeng; Xu, Qunyuan

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a selective loss of midbrain Dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To address this problem, various types of stem cells that have potential to differentiate into DA neurons are being investigated as cellular therapies for PD, including cells derived from embryonic or adult donor tissue, and embryonic stem cells. These cell sources, however, have raised certain questions with regard to ethical and rejection issues. Recent progress in adult stems has further proved that the cells derived from adult tissue could be expanded and differentiated into DA precursor cells in vitro, and cell therapy with adult stem cells could produce a clear improvement for PD models. Using adult stem cells for clinic application may not only overcome the ethical problem inherent in using human fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, but also open the possibility for autologous transplantation. The patient-specific adult stem cell is therefore a potential and prospective candidate for PD treatment.

  13. Biomaterial Approaches for Stem Cell-Based Myocardial Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Josh; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Brafman, David A

    2015-01-01

    Adult and pluripotent stem cells represent a ready supply of cellular raw materials that can be used to generate the functionally mature cells needed to replace damaged or diseased heart tissue. However, the use of stem cells for cardiac regenerative therapies is limited by the low efficiency by which stem cells are differentiated in vitro to cardiac lineages as well as the inability to effectively deliver stem cells and their derivatives to regions of damaged myocardium. In this review, we discuss the various biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to direct stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. First, we discuss the stem cell types available for cardiac repair and the engineering of naturally and synthetically derived biomaterials to direct their in vitro differentiation to the cell types that comprise heart tissue. Next, we describe biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to enhance the in vivo integration and differentiation of stem cells delivered to areas of cardiac damage. Finally, we present emerging trends of using stem cell-based biomaterial approaches to deliver pro-survival factors and fully vascularized tissue to the damaged and diseased cardiac tissue. PMID:26052226

  14. Successful isolation of viable adipose-derived stem cells from human adipose tissue subject to long-term cryopreservation: positive implications for adult stem cell-based therapeutics in patients of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Sean M; Carter, Cynthia M; Dierov, Raia; Weiss, Scott; Gersch, Robert P; Percec, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2-1159 days) from patients of varying ages (26-62 years). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved <1 year than from tissue cryopreserved >2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages.

  15. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Sean M.; Carter, Cynthia M.; Dierov, Raia; Weiss, Scott; Percec, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days) from patients of varying ages (26–62 years). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved <1 year than from tissue cryopreserved >2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages. PMID:25945096

  16. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Seong, Jeong Min; Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Mantalaris, Anathathios; Hwang, Yu-Shik

    2010-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone.

  17. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  18. Adult Stem Cells and Diabetes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ilgun, Handenur; Kim, Joseph William; Luo, LuGuang

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that diabetes will be the fourth most prevalent disease by 2050. Developing a new therapy for diabetes is a challenge for researchers and clinicians in field. Many medications are being used for treatment of diabetes however with no conclusive and effective results therefore alternative therapies are required. Stem cell therapy is a promising tool for diabetes therapy, and it has involved embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we focus on adult stem cells, especial human bone marrow stem cells (BM) for diabetes therapy, its history, and current development. We discuss prospects for future diabetes therapy such as induced pluripotent stem cells which have popularity in stem cell research area. PMID:27123495

  19. Stem cells: tissue regeneration and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tataria, Monika; Perryman, Scott V; Sylvester, Karl G

    2006-11-01

    Regenerative medicine is the promised paradigm of replacement and repair of damaged or senescent tissues. As the building blocks for organ development and tissue repair, stem cells have unique and wide-ranging capabilities, thus delineating their potential application to regenerative medicine. The recognition that consistent patterns of molecular mechanisms drive organ development and postnatal tissue regeneration has significant implications for a variety of pediatric diseases beyond replacement biology. The observation that organ-specific stem cells derive all of the differentiated cells within a given tissue has led to the acceptance of a stem cell hierarchy model for tissue development, maintenance, and repair. Extending the tissue stem cell hierarchical model to tissue carcinogenesis may revolutionize the manner in which we conceptualize cancer therapeutics. In this review, the clinical promise of these technologies and the emerging concept of "cancer stem cells" are examined. A basic understanding of stem cell biology is paramount to stay informed of this emerging technology and the accompanying research in this area with the potential for clinical application. PMID:17055959

  20. Ovarian adult stem cells: hope or pitfall?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For many years, ovarian biology has been based on the dogma that oocytes reserve in female mammals included a finite number, established before or at birth and it is determined by the number and quality of primordial follicles developed during the neonatal period. The restricted supply of oocytes in adult female mammals has been disputed in recent years by supporters of postnatal neo-oogenesis. Recent experimental data showed that ovarian surface epithelium and cortical tissue from both mouse and human were proved to contain very low proportion of cells able to propagate themselves, but also to generate immature oocytes in vitro or in vivo, when transplanted into immunodeficient mice ovaries. By mentioning several landmarks of ovarian stem cell reserve and addressing the exciting perspective of translation into clinical practice as treatment for infertility pathologies, the purpose of this article is to review the knowledge about adult mammalian ovarian stem cells, a topic that, since the first approach quickly attracted the attention of both the scientific media and patients. PMID:25018783

  1. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  2. Beyond the Niche: Tissue-Level Coordination of Stem Cell Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Lucy Erin; Bilder, David

    2014-01-01

    Adult animals rely on populations of stem cells to ensure organ function throughout their lifetime. Stem cells are governed by signals from stem cell niches, and much is known about how single niches promote stemness and direct stem cell behavior. However, most organs contain a multitude of stem cell–niche units, which are often distributed across the entire expanse of the tissue. Beyond the biology of individual stem cell–niche interactions, the next challenge is to uncover the tissue-level processes that orchestrate spatial control of stem-based renewal, repair, and remodeling throughout a whole organ. Here we examine what is known about higher order mechanisms for interniche coordination in epithelial organs, whose simple geometry offers a promising entry point for understanding the regulation of niche number, distribution, and activity. We also consider the potential existence of stem cell territories and how tissue architecture may influence niche coordination. PMID:23937350

  3. APC is required for muscle stem cell proliferation and skeletal muscle tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Alice; Lacour, Floriane; Giordani, Lorenzo; Colnot, Sabine; Maire, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a crucial regulator of many stem cell types. In constantly cycling stem cells of fast turnover tissues, APC loss results in the constitutive activation of a Wnt target gene program that massively increases proliferation and leads to malignant transformation. However, APC function in skeletal muscle, a tissue with a low turnover rate, has never been investigated. Here we show that conditional genetic disruption of APC in adult muscle stem cells results in the abrogation of adult muscle regenerative potential. We demonstrate that APC removal in adult muscle stem cells abolishes cell cycle entry and leads to cell death. By using double knockout strategies, we further prove that this phenotype is attributable to overactivation of β-catenin signaling. Our results demonstrate that in muscle stem cells, APC dampens canonical Wnt signaling to allow cell cycle progression and radically diverge from previous observations concerning stem cells in actively self-renewing tissues. PMID:26304725

  4. APC is required for muscle stem cell proliferation and skeletal muscle tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Alice; Lacour, Floriane; Giordani, Lorenzo; Colnot, Sabine; Maire, Pascal; Le Grand, Fabien

    2015-08-31

    The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a crucial regulator of many stem cell types. In constantly cycling stem cells of fast turnover tissues, APC loss results in the constitutive activation of a Wnt target gene program that massively increases proliferation and leads to malignant transformation. However, APC function in skeletal muscle, a tissue with a low turnover rate, has never been investigated. Here we show that conditional genetic disruption of APC in adult muscle stem cells results in the abrogation of adult muscle regenerative potential. We demonstrate that APC removal in adult muscle stem cells abolishes cell cycle entry and leads to cell death. By using double knockout strategies, we further prove that this phenotype is attributable to overactivation of β-catenin signaling. Our results demonstrate that in muscle stem cells, APC dampens canonical Wnt signaling to allow cell cycle progression and radically diverge from previous observations concerning stem cells in actively self-renewing tissues. PMID:26304725

  5. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huaqi; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  6. [Multipotency of adult stem cells derived from human amnion].

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingxia; Li, Weijia; Li, Bingzong; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunhua

    2009-05-01

    Adult stem cells are drawing more and more attention due to the potential application in degenerative medicine without posing any moral problem. There is growing evidence showing that the human amnion contains various types of adult stem cell. Since amniotic tissue is readily available, it has the potential to be an important source of regenerative medicine material. In this study we tried to find multipotent adult stem cells in human amnion. We isolated stem cells from amniotic mesenchymal cells by limiting dilution assay. Similar to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, these cells displayed a fibroblast like appearance. They were positive for CD105, CD29, CD44, negative for haematopoietic (GlyA, CD31, CD34, CD45) and epithelial cell (pan-CK) markers. These stem cells had the potential to differentiate not only into osteogenic, adipogenic and endothelial lineages, but also hepatocyte-like cells and neural cells at the single-cell level depending on the culture conditions. They had the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation even after being expanded for more than 30 population doublings in vitro. So they may be an ideal stem cell source for inherited or degenerative diseases treatment.

  7. Stem Cell Sources for Vascular Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the stem cell sources with the potential to be used in vascular tissue engineering and to promote vascular regeneration. The first clinical studies using tissue-engineered vascular grafts are already under way, supporting the potential of this technology in the treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases. Despite progress in engineering biomaterials with the appropriate mechanical properties and biological cues as well as bioreactors for generating the correct tissue microenvironment, the source of cells that make up the vascular tissues remains a major challenge for tissue engineers and physicians. Mature cells from the tissue of origin may be difficult to obtain and suffer from limited proliferative capacity, which may further decline as a function of donor age. On the other hand, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells have great potential to provide large numbers of autologous cells with a great differentiation capacity. Here, we discuss the adult multipotent as well as embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, their differentiation potential toward vascular lineages, and their use in engineering functional and implantable vascular tissues. We also discuss the associated challenges that need to be addressed in order to facilitate the transition of this technology from the bench to the bedside. PMID:22571595

  8. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenggang; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-12-01

    Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s). In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC), a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs), spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages. PMID:26624996

  9. Generation of stomach tissue from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Taka-aki K; Ninomiya, Naoto; Sekine, Mari; Komazaki, Shinji; Wang, Pi-Chao; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Successful pluripotent stem cell differentiation methods have been developed for several endoderm-derived cells, including hepatocytes, β-cells and intestinal cells. However, stomach lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells has remained a challenge, and only antrum specification has been demonstrated. We established a method for stomach differentiation from embryonic stem cells by inducing mesenchymal Barx1, an essential gene for in vivo stomach specification from gut endoderm. Barx1-inducing culture conditions generated stomach primordium-like spheroids, which differentiated into mature stomach tissue cells in both the corpus and antrum by three-dimensional culture. This embryonic stem cell-derived stomach tissue (e-ST) shared a similar gene expression profile with adult stomach, and secreted pepsinogen as well as gastric acid. Furthermore, TGFA overexpression in e-ST caused hypertrophic mucus and gastric anacidity, which mimicked Ménétrier disease in vitro. Thus, in vitro stomach tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells mimics in vivo development and can be used for stomach disease models.

  10. Prospect of Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Engineering: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra; James, Paul F.; Akbarzadeh, Rosa; Subramanian, Aswati; Flavin, Conor; Oudadesse, Hassane

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been the subject of many studies in recent years, ranging from basic science that looks into MSCs properties to studies that aim for developing bioengineered tissues and organs. Adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been the focus of most studies due to the inherent potential of these cells to differentiate into various cell types. Although, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of cellular differentiation. These cells are another attractive stem cell source because of their ability to be reprogramed, allowing the generation of multiple cell types from a single cell. This paper briefly covers various types of stem cell sources that have been used for tissue engineering applications, with a focus on bone regeneration. Then, an overview of some recent studies making use of MSC-seeded 3D scaffold systems for bone tissue engineering has been presented. The emphasis has been placed on the reported scaffold properties that tend to improve MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation outcomes. PMID:26880976

  11. Wnt signaling in adult intestinal stem cells and cancer.

    PubMed

    Krausova, Michaela; Korinek, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Signaling initiated by secreted glycoproteins of the Wnt family regulates many aspects of embryonic development and it is involved in homeostasis of adult tissues. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract the Wnt pathway maintains the self-renewal capacity of epithelial stem cells. The stem cell attributes are conferred by mutual interactions of the stem cell with its local microenvironment, the stem cell niche. The niche ensures that the threshold of Wnt signaling in the stem cell is kept in physiological range. In addition, the Wnt pathway involves various feedback loops that balance the opposing processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. Today, we have compelling evidence that mutations causing aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway promote expansion of undifferentiated progenitors and lead to cancer. The review summarizes recent advances in characterization of adult epithelial stem cells in the gut. We mainly focus on discoveries related to molecular mechanisms regulating the output of the Wnt pathway. Moreover, we present novel experimental approaches utilized to investigate the epithelial cell signaling circuitry in vivo and in vitro. Pivotal aspects of tissue homeostasis are often deduced from studies of tumor cells; therefore, we also discuss some latest results gleaned from the deep genome sequencing studies of human carcinomas of the colon and rectum. PMID:24308963

  12. [Heart tissue from embryonic stem cells].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, W-H

    2008-09-01

    Embryonic stem cells can give rise to all somatic cells, making them an attractive cell source for tissue engineering applications. The propensity of cells to form tissue-like structures in a culture dish has been well documented. We and others made use of this intrinsic property to generate bioartificial heart muscle. First proof-of-concept studies involved immature heart cells mainly from fetal chicken, neonatal rats and mice. They eventually provided evidence that force-generating heart muscle can be engineered in vitro. Recently, the focus shifted to the application of stem cells to eventually enable the generation of human heart muscle and reach following long-term goals: (1) development of a simplified in vitro model of heart muscle development; (2) generation of a human test-bed for drug screening and development; (3) allocation of surrogate heart tissue to myocardial repair applications. This overview will provide the background for cell-based myocardial repair, introduce the main myocardial tissue engineering concepts, discuss the use of embryonic and non-embryonic stem cells, and lays out the potential direct and indirect therapeutic use of human tissue engineered myocardium.

  13. Adult stem cells and their ability to differentiate.

    PubMed

    Tarnowski, Maciej; Sieron, Aleksander L

    2006-08-01

    This is a review of the current status of knowledge on adult stem cells as well as the criteria and evidence for their potential to transform into different cell types and cell lineages. Reports on stem cell sources, focusing on tissues from adult subjects, were also investigated. Numerous reports have been published on the search for early markers of both stem cells and the precursors of various cell lineages. The question is still open about the characteristics of the primary stem cell. The existing proofs and hypotheses have not yielded final solutions to this problem. From a practical point of view it is also crucial to find a minimal set of markers determining the phenotypes of the precursor cells of a particular cell lineage. Several lines of evidence seem to bring closer the day when we will be able to detect the right stem cell niche and successfully isolate precursor cells that are needed for the treatment of a particular disorder. Recent reports on cases of cancer in patients subjected to stem cell therapy are yet another controversial issue looked into in this review, although the pros and cons emerging from the results of published studies still do not provide satisfying evidence to fully understand this issue.

  14. The potential of nanofibers in tissue engineering and stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Shiva; Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Sara; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-08-01

    Electrospinning is a technique in which materials in solution are shaped into continuous nano- and micro-sized fibers. Combining stem cells with biomaterial scaffolds and nanofibers affords a favorable approach for bone tissue engineering, stem cell growth and transfer, ocular surface reconstruction, and treatment of congenital corneal diseases. This review seeks to describe the current examples of the use of scaffolds in stem cell therapy. Stem cells are classified as adult or embryonic stem (ES) cells, and the advantages and drawbacks of each group are detailed. The nanofibers and scaffolds are further classified in Tables I and II , which describe specific examples from the literature. Finally, the current applications of biomaterial scaffolds containing stem cells for tissue engineering applications are presented. Overall, this review seeks to give an overview of the biomaterials available for use in combination with stem cells, and the application of nanofibers in stem cell therapy.

  15. DNA damage response in adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Insinga, Alessandra; Cicalese, Angelo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    This review discusses the processes of DNA-damage-response and DNA-damage repair in stem and progenitor cells of several tissues. The long life-span of stem cells suggests that they may respond differently to DNA damage than their downstream progeny and, indeed, studies have begun to elucidate the unique stem cell response mechanisms to DNA damage. Because the DNA damage responses in stem cells and progenitor cells are distinctly different, stem and progenitor cells should be considered as two different entities from this point of view. Hematopoietic and mammary stem cells display a unique DNA-damage response, which involves active inhibition of apoptosis, entry into the cell-cycle, symmetric division, partial DNA repair and maintenance of self-renewal. Each of these biological events depends on the up-regulation of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21. Moreover, inhibition of apoptosis and symmetric stem cell division are the consequence of the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor p53, as a direct result of p21 up-regulation. A deeper understanding of these processes is required before these findings can be translated into human anti-aging and anti-cancer therapies. One needs to clarify and dissect the pathways that control p21 regulation in normal and cancer stem cells and define (a) how p21 blocks p53 functions in stem cells and (b) how p21 promotes DNA repair in stem cells. Is this effect dependent on p21s ability to inhibit p53? Such molecular knowledge may pave the way to methods for maintaining short-term tissue reconstitution while retaining long-term cellular and genomic integrity.

  16. Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration of the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic injury of the adult mammalian brain is often associated with persistent functional deficits as its potential for regeneration and capacity to rebuild lost neural structures is limited. However, the discovery that neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life in discrete regions of the brain, novel approaches to induce the formation of neuronal and glial cells, and recently developed strategies to generate tissue for exogenous cell replacement strategies opened novel perspectives how to regenerate the adult brain. Here, we will review recently developed approaches for brain repair and discuss future perspectives that may eventually allow for developing novel treatment strategies in acute and chronic brain injury. PMID:27781019

  17. Translational research of adult stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Gen

    2015-11-26

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to chronic coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Its prevalence is increasing despite advances in medical and device therapies. Cell based therapies generating new cardiomyocytes and vessels have emerged as a promising treatment to reverse functional deterioration and prevent the progression to CHF. Functional efficacy of progenitor cells isolated from the bone marrow and the heart have been evaluated in preclinical large animal models. Furthermore, several clinical trials using autologous and allogeneic stem cells and progenitor cells have demonstrated their safety in humans yet their clinical relevance is inconclusive. This review will discuss the clinical therapeutic applications of three specific adult stem cells that have shown particularly promising regenerative effects in preclinical studies, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell, heart derived cardiosphere-derived cell and cardiac stem cell. We will also discuss future therapeutic approaches.

  18. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Frese, Laura; Dijkman, Petra E.; Hoerstrup, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, adult stem cells are the most promising cell types for cell-based therapies. As a new source for multipotent stem cells, human adipose tissue has been introduced. These so called adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered to be ideal for application in regenerative therapies. Their main advantage over mesenchymal stem cells derived from other sources, e.g. from bone marrow, is that they can be easily and repeatable harvested using minimally invasive techniques with low morbidity. ADSCs are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types of the tri-germ lineages, including e.g. osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and hepatocytes. Interestingly, ADSCs are characterized by immunosuppressive properties and low immunogenicity. Their secretion of trophic factors enforces the therapeutic and regenerative outcome in a wide range of applications. Taken together, these particular attributes of ADSCs make them highly relevant for clinical applications. Consequently, the therapeutic potential of ADSCs is enormous. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the possible therapeutic applications of ADSCs with regard to their differentiation potential into the tri-germ lineages. Moreover, the relevant advancements made in the field, regulatory aspects as well as other challenges and obstacles will be highlighted. PMID:27721702

  19. Spatial control of adult stem cell fate using nanotopographic cues

    PubMed Central

    An, Steven S.; Afzal, Junaid; Lee, Suengwon; Kwak, Moonkyu; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Levchenko, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells hold great promise as a source of diverse terminally differentiated cell types for tissue engineering applications. However, due to the complexity of chemical and mechanical cues specifying differentiation outcomes, development of arbitrarily complex geometric and structural arrangements of cells, adopting multiple fates from the same initial stem cell population, has been difficult. Here, we show that the topography of the cell adhesion substratum can be an instructive cue to adult stem cells and topographical variations can strongly bias the differentiation outcome of the cells towards adipocyte or osteocyte fates. Switches in cell fate decision from adipogenic to osteogenic lineages were accompanied by changes in cytoskeletal stiffness, spanning a considerable range in the cell softness/rigidity spectrum. Our findings suggest that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) can respond to the varying density of nanotopographical cues by regulating their internal cytoskeletal network and use these mechanical changes to guide them toward making cell fate decisions. We used this finding to design a complex two-dimensional pattern of co-localized cells preferentially adopting two alternative fates, thus paving the road for designing and building more complex tissue constructs with diverse biomedical applications. PMID:24388388

  20. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Brignier, Anne C; Gewirtz, Alan M

    2010-02-01

    There are many types of stem cells. All share the characteristics of being able to self-renew and to give rise to differentiated progeny. Over the last decades, great excitement has been generated by the prospect of being able to exploit these properties for the repair, improvement, and/or replacement of damaged organs. However, many hurdles, both scientific and ethical, remain in the path of using human embryonic stem cells for tissue-engineering purposes. In this report we review current strategies for isolating, enriching, and, most recently, inducing the development of human pluripotent stem cells. In so doing, we discuss the scientific and ethical issues associated with this endeavor. Finally, progress in the use of stem cells as therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and various neurologic and immunohematologic disorders, and as vehicles for the delivery of gene therapy, is briefly discussed. PMID:20061008

  1. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke: Challenges and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:27733032

  2. Generating kidney tissue from pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Little, MH

    2016-01-01

    With the isolation of human pluripotent stem cells came the possibility of generating specific cell types for regenerative medicine. This has required the development of protocols for directed differentiation into many distinct cell types. One of the more complicated tissue types to recreate is the kidney. Here we review recent progress towards the recreation of not only specific kidney cell types but complex kidney organoids, models of the developing human organ, in vitro. We will also discuss potential short and long term applications of these approaches. PMID:27551541

  3. Immunological control of adult neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs only in discrete regions of adult central nervous system: the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone. These areas are populated by adult neural stem cells (aNSC) that are regulated by a number of molecules and signaling pathways, which control their cell fate choices, survival and proliferation rates. For a long time, it was believed that the immune system did not exert any control on neural proliferative niches. However, it has been observed that many pathological and inflammatory conditions significantly affect NSC niches. Even more, increasing evidence indicates that chemokines and cytokines play an important role in regulating proliferation, cell fate choices, migration and survival of NSCs under physiological conditions. Hence, the immune system is emerging is an important regulator of neurogenic niches in the adult brain, which may have clinical relevance in several brain diseases. PMID:20861925

  4. Adult neural stem cells stake their ground

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Daniel A.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The birth of new neurons in the walls of the adult brain lateral ventricles has captured the attention of many neuroscientists for over two decades, yielding key insights into the identity and regulation of neural stem cells (NSCs). In the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), NSCs are a specialized form of astrocyte that generates several types of neurons for the olfactory bulb. Here we discuss recent findings regarding the unique organization of the V-SVZ NSCs niche, the multiple regulatory controls of neuronal production, the distinct regional identities of adult NSCs, and the epigenetic mechanisms that maintain adult neurogenesis. Understanding how V-SVZ NSCs establish and maintain lifelong neurogenesis continues to provide surprising insights into the cellular and molecular regulation of neural development. PMID:25223700

  5. Long live the stem cell: the use of stem cells isolated from post mortem tissues for translational strategies.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Stuart I; Stagg, Kelda; Sturm, Marian; Edel, Michael; Blancafort, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    The "stem cell" has become arguably one of the most important biological tools in the arsenal of translational research directed at regeneration and repair. It remains to be seen whether every tissue has its own stem cell niche, although relatively recently a large amount of research has focused on isolating and characterizing tissue-specific stem cell populations, as well as those that are able to be directed to transdifferentiate into a variety of different lineages. Traditionally, stem cells are isolated from the viable tissue of embryonic, fetal, or adult living hosts; from "fresh" donated tissues that have been surgically or otherwise removed (biopsies), or obtained directly from tissues within minutes to several hours post mortem (PM). These human progenitor/stem cell sources remain potentially highly controversial, since they are accompanied by various still-unresolved ethical, social, moral and legal challenges. Due to the limited number of "live" donors, the small amount of material obtained from biopsies and difficulties during purification processes, harvesting from cadaveric material presents itself as an alternative strategy that could provide a hitherto untapped source of stem cells. However, PM stem cells are not without their own unique set of limitations including difficulty of obtaining samples, limited supply of material, variations in delay between death and sample collection, possible lack of medication history and suboptimal retrospective assignment of diagnostic and demographic data. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: The challenge of translation.

  6. Nano scaffolds and stem cell therapy in liver tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2015-08-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been constantly developing of late due to the major progress in cell and organ transplantation, as well as advances in materials science and engineering. Although stem cells hold great potential for the treatment of many injuries and degenerative diseases, several obstacles must be overcome before their therapeutic application can be realized. These include the development of advanced techniques to understand and control functions of micro environmental signals and novel methods to track and guide transplanted stem cells. A major complication encountered with stem cell therapies has been the failure of injected cells to engraft to target tissues. The application of nanotechnology to stem cell biology would be able to address those challenges. Combinations of stem cell therapy and nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have achieved significant advances. These combinations allow nanotechnology to engineer scaffolds with various features to control stem cell fate decisions. Fabrication of Nano fiber cell scaffolds onto which stem cells can adhere and spread, forming a niche-like microenvironment which can guide stem cells to proceed to heal damaged tissues. In this paper, current and emergent approach based on stem cells in the field of liver tissue engineering is presented for specific application. The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering opens new perspectives in tissue regeneration for stem cell therapy because of the potential to control stem cell behavior with the physical and chemical characteristics of the engineered scaffold environment.

  7. Differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells into insulin producing cells.

    PubMed

    Zulewski, H

    2008-03-01

    Replacement of insulin producing cells represents an almost ideal treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. Transplantation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans is successful in experienced centers. The wider application of this therapy, however, is limited by the lack of donor organs. Insulin producing cells generated from stem cells represent an attractive alternative. Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into insulin producing cells include embryonic stem cells (ESC) as well as adult stem cells from various tissues including the pancreas, liver, bone marrow and adipose tissue. The use of human ESC is hampered by ethical concerns but research with human ESC may help us to decipher important steps in the differentiation process in vitro since almost all information available on pancreas development are based on animal studies. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the development of insulin producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells with special emphasis on pancreatic, hepatic and human mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:18427390

  8. Recent advances in bone regeneration using adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zigdon-Giladi, Hadar; Rudich, Utai; Michaeli Geller, Gal; Evron, Ayelet

    2015-04-26

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal association between blood vessels and bone cells. Therefore, cells that participate in vasculogenesis and osteogenesis play a pivotal role in bone formation during prenatal and postnatal periods. Nevertheless, spontaneous healing of bone fracture is occasionally impaired due to insufficient blood and cellular supply to the site of injury. In these cases, bone regeneration process is interrupted, which might result in delayed union or even nonunion of the fracture. Nonunion fracture is difficult to treat and have a high financial impact. In the last decade, numerous technological advancements in bone tissue engineering and cell-therapy opened new horizon in the field of bone regeneration. This review starts with presentation of the biological processes involved in bone development, bone remodeling, fracture healing process and the microenvironment at bone healing sites. Then, we discuss the rationale for using adult stem cells and listed the characteristics of the available cells for bone regeneration. The mechanism of action and epigenetic regulations for osteogenic differentiation are also described. Finally, we review the literature for translational and clinical trials that investigated the use of adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and CD34(+) blood progenitors) for bone regeneration.

  9. Adult stem cells in neural repair: Current options, limitations and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Eric Domingos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi; Lepski, Guilherme

    2015-03-26

    Stem cells represent a promising step for the future of regenerative medicine. As they are able to differentiate into any cell type, tissue or organ, these cells are great candidates for treatments against the worst diseases that defy doctors and researchers around the world. Stem cells can be divided into three main groups: (1) embryonic stem cells; (2) fetal stem cells; and (3) adult stem cells. In terms of their capacity for proliferation, stem cells are also classified as totipotent, pluripotent or multipotent. Adult stem cells, also known as somatic cells, are found in various regions of the adult organism, such as bone marrow, skin, eyes, viscera and brain. They can differentiate into unipotent cells of the residing tissue, generally for the purpose of repair. These cells represent an excellent choice in regenerative medicine, every patient can be a donor of adult stem cells to provide a more customized and efficient therapy against various diseases, in other words, they allow the opportunity of autologous transplantation. But in order to start clinical trials and achieve great results, we need to understand how these cells interact with the host tissue, how they can manipulate or be manipulated by the microenvironment where they will be transplanted and for how long they can maintain their multipotent state to provide a full regeneration.

  10. Adipose-derived adult stem cells: available technologies for potential clinical regenerative applications in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Enrico; Cochis, Andrea; Varoni, Elena; Rimondini, Lia; Carrassi, Antonio; Azzimonti, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis depends closely on the activity and welfare of adult stem cells. These cells represent a promising tool for biomedical research since they can aid in treatment and promote the regeneration of damaged organs in many human disorders. Adult stem cells indefinitely preserve their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various phenotypes; this capacity could be promoted in vitro by particular culture conditions (differentiation media) or spontaneously induced in vivo by exploiting the biochemical and mechanical properties of the tissue in which the stem cells are implanted. Among the different sources of adult stem cells, adipose tissue is an attractive possibility thanks to its ready availability and the standard extraction techniques at our disposal today. This review discusses the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of human adipose-derived adult stem cells, as well as regeneration strategies, therapeutic uses, and adverse effects of their delivery. In particular, since oral disorders (e.g., trauma, erosion, and chronic periodontitis) often cause the loss of dental tissue along with functional, phonetic, and aesthetic impairment, this review focuses on the application of human adipose-derived adult stem cells, alone or in combination with biomaterials, in treating oral diseases.

  11. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate.

  12. Transcriptional Profiling of Adult Neural Stem-Like Cells from the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O.; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33–60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate. PMID

  13. Pre-transplantation specification of stem cells to cardiac lineage for regeneration of cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Maritza; Finan, Amanda; Penn, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a lead cause of mortality in the Western world. Treatment of acute MI is focused on restoration of antegrade flow which inhibits further tissue loss, but does not restore function to damaged tissue. Chronic therapy for injured myocardial tissue involves medical therapy that attempts to minimize pathologic remodeling of the heart. End stage therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF) involves inotropic therapy to increase surviving cardiac myocyte function or mechanical augmentation of cardiac performance. Not until the point of heart transplantation, a limited resource at best, does therapy focus on the fundamental problem of needing to replace injured tissue with new contractile tissue. In this setting, the potential for stem cell therapy has garnered significant interest for its potential to regenerate or create new contractile cardiac tissue. While to date adult stem cell therapy in clinical trials has suggested potential benefit, there is waning belief that the approaches used to date lead to regeneration of cardiac tissue. As the literature has better defined the pathways involved in cardiac differentiation, preclinical studies have suggested that stem cell pretreatment to direct stem cell differentiation prior to stem cell transplantation may be a more efficacious strategy for inducing cardiac regeneration. Here we review the available literature on pre-transplantation conditioning of stem cells in an attempt to better understand stem cell behavior and their readiness in cell-based therapy for myocardial regeneration.

  14. Concise review: The plasticity of stem cell niches: a general property behind tissue homeostasis and repair.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Ríos, Patricia; González-Reyes, Acaimo

    2014-04-01

    Stem cell activity is tightly regulated during development and in adult tissues through the combined action of local and systemic effectors. While stem cells and their microenvironments are capable of sustaining homeostasis in normal physiological circumstances, they also provide host tissues with a remarkable plasticity to respond to perturbations. Here, we review recent discoveries that shed light on the adaptive response of niches to systemic signals and aging, and on the ability of niches to modulate signaling upon local perturbations. These characteristics of stem cells and their niches give organs an essential advantage to deal with aging, injury or pathological conditions.

  15. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vineet; Johnson, Scott A.; Reing, Janet; Zhang, Li; Tottey, Stephen; Wang, Gang; Hirschi, Karen K.; Braunhut, Susan; Gudas, Lorraine J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor and stem cells to a site of injury. Bioactive molecules resulting from degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to recruit a variety of progenitor and stem cells in vitro in adult mammals. The ability to recruit multipotential cells to the site of injury by in vivo administration of chemotactic ECM degradation products in a mammalian model of digit amputation was investigated in the present study. Adult, 6- to 8-week-old C57/BL6 mice were subjected to midsecond phalanx amputation of the third digit of the right hind foot and either treated with chemotactic ECM degradation products or left untreated. At 14 days after amputation, mice treated with ECM degradation products showed an accumulation of heterogeneous cells that expressed markers of multipotency, including Sox2, Sca1, and Rex1 (Zfp42). Cells isolated from the site of amputation were capable of differentiation along neuroectodermal and mesodermal lineages, whereas cells isolated from control mice were capable of differentiation along only mesodermal lineages. The present findings demonstrate the recruitment of endogenous stem cells to a site of injury, and/or their generation/proliferation therein, in response to ECM degradation products. PMID:19966310

  16. Stem Cells and Scaffolds for Vascularizing Engineered Tissue Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, E.; Gerecht, S.

    The clinical impact of tissue engineering depends upon our ability to direct cells to form tissues with characteristic structural and mechanical properties from the molecular level up to organized tissue. Induction and creation of functional vascular networks has been one of the main goals of tissue engineering either in vitro, for the transplantation of prevascularized constructs, or in vivo, for cellular organization within the implantation site. In most cases, tissue engineering attempts to recapitulate certain aspects of normal development in order to stimulate cell differentiation and functional tissue assembly. The induction of tissue growth generally involves the use of biodegradable and bioactive materials designed, ideally, to provide a mechanical, physical, and biochemical template for tissue regeneration. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), derived from the inner cell mass of a developing blastocyst, are capable of differentiating into all cell types of the body. Specifically, hESCs have the capability to differentiate and form blood vessels de novo in a process called vasculogenesis. Human ESC-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells have substantial potential for microvessel formation, in vitro and in vivo. Human adult EPCs are being isolated to understand the fundamental biology of how these cells are regulated as a population and to explore whether these cells can be differentiated and reimplanted as a cellular therapy in order to arrest or even reverse damaged vasculature. This chapter focuses on advances made toward the generation and engineering of functional vascular tissue, focusing on both the scaffolds - the synthetic and biopolymer materials - and the cell sources - hESCs and hEPCs.

  17. Lin-28 promotes symmetric stem cell division and drives adaptive growth in the adult Drosophila intestine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Huan; Luhur, Arthur; Sokol, Nicholas

    2015-10-15

    Stem cells switch between asymmetric and symmetric division to expand in number as tissues grow during development and in response to environmental changes. The stem cell intrinsic proteins controlling this switch are largely unknown, but one candidate is the Lin-28 pluripotency factor. A conserved RNA-binding protein that is downregulated in most animals as they develop from embryos to adults, Lin-28 persists in populations of adult stem cells. Its function in these cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we report that Lin-28 is highly enriched in adult intestinal stem cells in the Drosophila intestine. lin-28 null mutants are homozygous viable but display defects in this population of cells, which fail to undergo a characteristic food-triggered expansion in number and have reduced rates of symmetric division as well as reduced insulin signaling. Immunoprecipitation of Lin-28-bound mRNAs identified Insulin-like Receptor (InR), forced expression of which completely rescues lin-28-associated defects in intestinal stem cell number and division pattern. Furthermore, this stem cell activity of lin-28 is independent of one well-known lin-28 target, the microRNA let-7, which has limited expression in the intestinal epithelium. These results identify Lin-28 as a stem cell intrinsic factor that boosts insulin signaling in intestinal progenitor cells and promotes their symmetric division in response to nutrients, defining a mechanism through which Lin-28 controls the adult stem cell division patterns that underlie tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  18. Lin-28 promotes symmetric stem cell division and drives adaptive growth in the adult Drosophila intestine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Huan; Luhur, Arthur; Sokol, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells switch between asymmetric and symmetric division to expand in number as tissues grow during development and in response to environmental changes. The stem cell intrinsic proteins controlling this switch are largely unknown, but one candidate is the Lin-28 pluripotency factor. A conserved RNA-binding protein that is downregulated in most animals as they develop from embryos to adults, Lin-28 persists in populations of adult stem cells. Its function in these cells has not been previously characterized. Here, we report that Lin-28 is highly enriched in adult intestinal stem cells in the Drosophila intestine. lin-28 null mutants are homozygous viable but display defects in this population of cells, which fail to undergo a characteristic food-triggered expansion in number and have reduced rates of symmetric division as well as reduced insulin signaling. Immunoprecipitation of Lin-28-bound mRNAs identified Insulin-like Receptor (InR), forced expression of which completely rescues lin-28-associated defects in intestinal stem cell number and division pattern. Furthermore, this stem cell activity of lin-28 is independent of one well-known lin-28 target, the microRNA let-7, which has limited expression in the intestinal epithelium. These results identify Lin-28 as a stem cell intrinsic factor that boosts insulin signaling in intestinal progenitor cells and promotes their symmetric division in response to nutrients, defining a mechanism through which Lin-28 controls the adult stem cell division patterns that underlie tissue homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:26487778

  19. Stem cells for regenerative medicine: advances in the engineering of tissues and organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringe, Jochen; Kaps, Christian; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Sittinger, Michael

    2002-07-01

    The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as mesenchymal stem or mesenchymal progenitor cells (MSC). These cells have the capacity to undergo extensive replication in an undifferentiated state ex vivo. In addition, MSC have the potential to develop either in vitro or in vivo into distinct mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma, which suggest these cells as an attractive cell source for tissue engineering approaches. The interest in modern biological technologies such as tissue engineering has dramatically increased since it is feasible to isolate living, healthy cells from the body, expand them under cell culture conditions, combine them with biocompatible carrier materials and retransplant them into patients. Therefore, tissue engineering gives the opportunity to generate living substitutes for tissues and organs, which may overcome the drawbacks of classical tissue reconstruction: lacking quality and quantity of autologous grafts, immunogenicity of allogenic grafts and loosening of alloplastic implants. Due to the prerequisite for tissue engineering to ensure a sufficient number of tissue specific cells without donor site morbidity, much attention has been drawn to multipotential progenitor cells such as embryonic stem cells, periosteal cells and mesenchymal stem cells. In this report we review the state of the art in tissue engineering with mesenchymal stem and mesenchymal progenitor cells with emphasis on bone and cartilage reconstruction. Furthermore, several issues of importance, especially with regard to the clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells, are discussed.

  20. Adult bone marrow: which stem cells for cellular therapy protocols in neurodegenerative disorders?

    PubMed

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cell technology using bioceramics: hard tissue regeneration towards clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Hiroe; Oda, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2010-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which show differentiation capabilities toward various cell lineages. We have already used MSCs for treatments of osteoarthritis, bone necrosis and bone tumor. For this purpose, culture expanded MSCs were combined with various ceramics and then implanted. Because of rejection response to allogeneic MSC implantation, we have utilized patients' own MSCs for the treatment. Bone marrow is a good cell source of MSCs, although the MSCs also exist in adipose tissue. When comparing osteogenic differentiation of these MSCs, bone marrow MSCs show more extensive bone forming capability than adipose MSCs. Thus, the bone marrow MSCs are useful for bone tissue regeneration. However, the MSCs show limited proliferation and differentiation capabilities that hindered clinical applications in some cases. Recent advances reveal that transduction of plural transcription factors into human adult cells results in generation of new type of stem cells called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). A drawback of the iPS cells for clinical applications is tumor formation after their in vivo implantation; therefore it is difficult to use iPS cells for the treatment. To circumvent the problem, we transduced a single factor of either SOX2 or NANOG into the MSCs and found high proliferation as well as osteogenic differentiation capabilities of the MSCs. The stem cells could be combined with bioceramics for clinical applications. Here, we summarize our recent technologies using adult stem cells in viewpoints of bone tissue regeneration.

  2. Adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Innovative developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded various implementation strategies and the possibility of functional tissue regeneration. Technologic advances in the combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and growth factors have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in vivo and in vitro. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are harvested from bone marrow and adipose tissue, has generated increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells have some advantages compared with other sources of stem cells, most notably that a large number of cells can be easily and quickly isolated from adipose tissue. In current clinical therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration, several methods have been developed and applied either alone or in combination, such as enamel matrix proteins, guided tissue regeneration, autologous/allogeneic/xenogeneic bone grafts, and growth factors. However, there are various limitations and shortcomings for periodontal tissue regeneration using current methods. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using MSCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because the various secreted growth factors from MSCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells are especially effective for neovascularization compared with other MSC sources. In this review, the possibility and potential of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine are introduced. Of particular interest, periodontal tissue regeneration with adipose-derived stem cells is discussed.

  3. Stem Cell-based Tissue Engineering Approaches for Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick T.; Handorf, Andrew M.; Jeon, Won Bae; Li, Wan-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is an ever evolving field that holds promise in treating numerous musculoskeletal diseases and injuries. An important impetus in the development of the field was the discovery and implementation of stem cells. The utilization of mesenchymal stem cells, and later embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, opens new arenas for tissue engineering and presents the potential of developing stem cell-based therapies for disease treatment. Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells can produce various lineage tissues, and allow for derivation of a tissue that may be comprised of multiple cell types. As the field grows, the combination of biomaterial scaffolds and bioreactors provides methods to create an environment for stem cells that better represent their microenvironment for new tissue formation. As technologies for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds advance, the ability of scaffolds to modulate stem cell behavior advances as well. The composition of scaffolds could be of natural or synthetic materials and could be tailored to enhance cell self-renewal and/or direct cell fates. In addition to biomaterial scaffolds, studies of tissue development and cellular microenvironments have determined other factors, such as growth factors and oxygen tension, that are crucial to the regulation of stem cell activity. The overarching goal of stem cell-based tissue engineering research is to precisely control differentiation of stem cells in culture. In this article, we review current developments in tissue engineering, focusing on several stem cell sources, induction factors including growth factors, oxygen tension, biomaterials, and mechanical stimulation, and the internal and external regulatory mechanisms that govern proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23432679

  4. Neural Crest Stem Cells from Dental Tissues: A New Hope for Dental and Neural Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ibarretxe, Gaskon; Crende, Olatz; Aurrekoetxea, Maitane; García-Murga, Victoria; Etxaniz, Javier; Unda, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Several stem cell sources persist in the adult human body, which opens the doors to both allogeneic and autologous cell therapies. Tooth tissues have proven to be a surprisingly rich and accessible source of neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), which may be employed to repair disease-affected oral tissues in advanced regenerative dentistry. Additionally, one area of medicine that demands intensive research on new sources of stem cells is nervous system regeneration, since this constitutes a therapeutic hope for patients affected by highly invalidating conditions such as spinal cord injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention. In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro. In this paper, we discuss some important aspects of tissue regeneration by cell therapy and point out some advantages that EMSCs provide for dental and neural regeneration. We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy. PMID:23093977

  5. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  6. Biomedical Application of Dental Tissue-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Seog-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The academic researches and clinical applications in recent years found interest in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs-) based regenerative medicine due to their pluripotency able to differentiate into any cell types in the body without using embryo. However, it is limited in generating iPSCs from adult somatic cells and use of these cells due to the low stem cell potency and donor site morbidity. In biomedical applications, particularly, dental tissue-derived iPSCs have been getting attention as a type of alternative sources for regenerating damaged tissues due to high potential of stem cell characteristics, easy accessibility and attainment, and their ectomesenchymal origin, which allow them to have potential for nerve, vessel, and dental tissue regeneration. This paper will cover the overview of dental tissue-derived iPSCs and their application with their advantages and drawbacks. PMID:26989423

  7. Flexible adult flatfoot: soft tissue procedures.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Classically, adult posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) was considered primarily a tendon rupture and was treated as such with soft tissue repair alone. The understanding that PTTD involves more than simply an inflammatory condition or tendon rupture but also a muscle imbalance, leading to a flatfoot, osteoarthritis, and peritalar subluxation, led to surgeons advocating osseous procedures as well. The advancements in knowledge of the pathomechanics of the deformity have modified the role that soft tissue repair plays in surgical treatment, but the importance of soft tissue restoration in flatfoot repair should not be overlooked.

  8. Flexible adult flatfoot: soft tissue procedures.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Classically, adult posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) was considered primarily a tendon rupture and was treated as such with soft tissue repair alone. The understanding that PTTD involves more than simply an inflammatory condition or tendon rupture but also a muscle imbalance, leading to a flatfoot, osteoarthritis, and peritalar subluxation, led to surgeons advocating osseous procedures as well. The advancements in knowledge of the pathomechanics of the deformity have modified the role that soft tissue repair plays in surgical treatment, but the importance of soft tissue restoration in flatfoot repair should not be overlooked. PMID:24980925

  9. Intrinsic Ability of Adult Stem Cell in Skeletal Muscle: An Effective and Replenishable Resource to the Establishment of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Machida, Masanao; Hidaka, Ryo; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells play an essential role in mammalian organ maintenance and repair throughout adulthood since they ensure that organs retain their ability to regenerate. The choice of cell fate by adult stem cells for cellular proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into multiple lineages is critically important for the homeostasis and biological function of individual organs. Responses of stem cells to stress, injury, or environmental change are precisely regulated by intercellular and intracellular signaling networks, and these molecular events cooperatively define the ability of stem cell throughout life. Skeletal muscle tissue represents an abundant, accessible, and replenishable source of adult stem cells. Skeletal muscle contains myogenic satellite cells and muscle-derived stem cells that retain multipotent differentiation abilities. These stem cell populations have the capacity for long-term proliferation and high self-renewal. The molecular mechanisms associated with deficits in skeletal muscle and stem cell function have been extensively studied. Muscle-derived stem cells are an obvious, readily available cell resource that offers promise for cell-based therapy and various applications in the field of tissue engineering. This review describes the strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells, focusing especially on satellite cells, and discusses their potential applications. PMID:23818907

  10. Robust G2 pausing of adult stem cells in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Crescenzi, Marco; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Hydra is a freshwater hydrozoan polyp that constantly renews its two tissue layers thanks to three distinct stem cell populations that cannot replace each other, epithelial ectodermal, epithelial endodermal, and multipotent interstitial. These adult stem cells, located in the central body column, exhibit different cycling paces, slow for the epithelial, fast for the interstitial. To monitor the changes in cell cycling in Hydra, we established a fast and efficient flow cytometry procedure, which we validated by confirming previous findings, as the Nocodazole-induced reversible arrest of cell cycling in G2/M, and the mitogenic signal provided by feeding. Then to dissect the cycling and differentiation behaviors of the interstitial stem cells, we used the AEP_cnnos1 and AEP_Icy1 transgenic lines that constitutively express GFP in this lineage. For the epithelial lineages we used the sf-1 strain that rapidly eliminates the fast cycling cells upon heat-shock and progressively becomes epithelial. This study evidences similar cycling patterns for the interstitial and epithelial stem cells, which all alternate between the G2 and S-phases traversing a minimal G1-phase. We also found interstitial progenitors with a shorter G2 that pause in G1/G0. At the animal extremities, most cells no longer cycle, the epithelial cells terminally differentiate in G2 and the interstitial progenitors in G1/G0. At the apical pole ~80% cells are post-mitotic differentiated cells, reflecting the higher density of neurons and nematocytes in this region. We discuss how the robust G2 pausing of stem cells, maintained over weeks of starvation, may contribute to regeneration.

  11. Cell reprogramming: a new chemical approach to stem cell biology and tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, L; Piccoli, M; Garatti, A; Conforti, E; Scaringi, R; Bergante, S; Castelvecchio, S; Venerando, B; Menicanti, L; Tettamanti, G

    2011-02-01

    Generation of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult fibroblasts starts a "new era" in stem cell biology, as it overcomes several key issues associated with previous approaches, including the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem cells. However, as the genetic approach for cell reprogramming has already shown potential safety issues, a chemical approach may be a safer and easier alternative. Moreover, a chemical approach could be advantageous not only for the de-differentiation phase, but also for inducing reprogrammed cells into the desired cell type with higher efficiency than current methodologies. Finally, a chemical approach may be envisioned to activate resident adult stem cells to proliferate and regenerate damaged tissues in situ, without the need for exogenous cell injections.

  12. Microfluidic systems for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Mirshekari, Hamed; Basri, Seyed Masoud Moosavi; Nik, Amirala Bakhshian; Aref, Amir R; Akbari, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Neural tissue engineering aims at developing novel approaches for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, by providing a permissive environment for the growth and differentiation of neural cells. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a closer biomimetic environment, and promote better cell differentiation and improved cell function, than could be achieved by conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. With the recent advances in the discovery and introduction of different types of stem cells for tissue engineering, microfluidic platforms have provided an improved microenvironment for the 3D-culture of stem cells. Microfluidic systems can provide more precise control over the spatiotemporal distribution of chemical and physical cues at the cellular level compared to traditional systems. Various microsystems have been designed and fabricated for the purpose of neural tissue engineering. Enhanced neural migration and differentiation, and monitoring of these processes, as well as understanding the behavior of stem cells and their microenvironment have been obtained through application of different microfluidic-based stem cell culture and tissue engineering techniques. As the technology advances it may be possible to construct a "brain-on-a-chip". In this review, we describe the basics of stem cells and tissue engineering as well as microfluidics-based tissue engineering approaches. We review recent testing of various microfluidic approaches for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells instruct oligodendrogenic fate decision on adult neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Francisco J; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Pedre, Xiomara; Ploetz, Sonja; Caioni, Massimiliano; Lois, Carlos; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Aigner, Ludwig

    2006-10-01

    Adult stem cells reside in different tissues and organs of the adult organism. Among these cells are MSCs that are located in the adult bone marrow and NSCs that exist in the adult central nervous system (CNS). In transplantation experiments, MSCs demonstrated neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects that were associated with functional improvements. The underlying mechanisms are largely unidentified. Here, we reveal that the interactions between adult MSCs and NSCs, mediated by soluble factors, induce oligodendrogenic fate decision in NSCs at the expense of astrogenesis. This was demonstrated (a) by an increase in the percentage of cells expressing the oligodendrocyte markers GalC and myelin basic protein, (b) by a reduction in the percentage of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells, and (c) by the expression pattern of cell fate determinants specific for oligodendrogenic differentiation. Thus, it involved enhanced expression of the oligodendrogenic transcription factors Olig1, Olig2, and Nkx2.2 and diminished expression of Id2, an inhibitor of oligodendrogenic differentiation. Results of (a) 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling of cells, (b) cell fate analysis, and (c) cell death/survival analysis suggested an inductive mechanism and excluded a selection process. A candidate factor screen excluded a number of growth factors, cytokines, and neurotrophins that have previously been shown to influence neurogenesis and neural differentiation from the oligodendrogenic activity derived from the MSCs. This work might have major implications for the development of future transplantation strategies for the treatment of degenerative diseases in the CNS. PMID:16763198

  14. [Progress in treating diabetes mellitus with adult stem cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Teng, Chunbo; An, Tiezhu

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic diseases, mainly including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Treatment for type 1 and part of type 2 often involves regular insulin injection. However, this treatment neither precisely controls the blood sugar levels, nor prevents the diabetes complications. Transplantation of islets of Langerhans offers an attractive strategy for diabetes therapies, but its wide application has been limited by donor shortage and immunological rejection after transplantation. Stem cells with strong proliferation capacity and multipotential may be potential cell sources in diabetes therapies. For this, adult stem cells are interesting because of absence of teratoma formation and ethnical problems. Adult pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) really exist and could produce insulin-secreting cells both under the condition of pancreatic injury and in vitro culture, but lack of effective markers to enrich PSCs hampers the studies of exploring the expanding and differentiating conditions in vitro. Some other adult stem cells, such as hepatic stem cells, marrow stem cells or intestine stem cells, were also suggested to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells under special culture conditions in vitro or by genetic modifications. Moreover, transplanting these adult stem cells-derived insulin-secreting cells into the diabetic mouse could cure diabetes. Thus, adult stem cells would supply the abundant beta-cell sources for cell replacement therapy of diabetes. PMID:18464596

  15. [Progress in treating diabetes mellitus with adult stem cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Teng, Chunbo; An, Tiezhu

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic diseases, mainly including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Treatment for type 1 and part of type 2 often involves regular insulin injection. However, this treatment neither precisely controls the blood sugar levels, nor prevents the diabetes complications. Transplantation of islets of Langerhans offers an attractive strategy for diabetes therapies, but its wide application has been limited by donor shortage and immunological rejection after transplantation. Stem cells with strong proliferation capacity and multipotential may be potential cell sources in diabetes therapies. For this, adult stem cells are interesting because of absence of teratoma formation and ethnical problems. Adult pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) really exist and could produce insulin-secreting cells both under the condition of pancreatic injury and in vitro culture, but lack of effective markers to enrich PSCs hampers the studies of exploring the expanding and differentiating conditions in vitro. Some other adult stem cells, such as hepatic stem cells, marrow stem cells or intestine stem cells, were also suggested to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells under special culture conditions in vitro or by genetic modifications. Moreover, transplanting these adult stem cells-derived insulin-secreting cells into the diabetic mouse could cure diabetes. Thus, adult stem cells would supply the abundant beta-cell sources for cell replacement therapy of diabetes.

  16. Engineered Biomaterials to Enhance Stem Cell-Based Cardiac Tissue Engineering and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Anwarul; Waters, Renae; Roula, Boustany; Dana, Rahbani; Yara, Seif; Alexandre, Toubia; Paul, Arghya

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Since adult cardiac cells are limited in their proliferation, cardiac tissue with dead or damaged cardiac cells downstream of the occluded vessel does not regenerate after myocardial infarction. The cardiac tissue is then replaced with nonfunctional fibrotic scar tissue rather than new cardiac cells, which leaves the heart weak. The limited proliferation ability of host cardiac cells has motivated investigators to research the potential cardiac regenerative ability of stem cells. Considerable progress has been made in this endeavor. However, the optimum type of stem cells along with the most suitable matrix-material and cellular microenvironmental cues are yet to be identified or agreed upon. This review presents an overview of various types of biofunctional materials and biomaterial matrices, which in combination with stem cells, have shown promises for cardiac tissue replacement and reinforcement. Engineered biomaterials also have applications in cardiac tissue engineering, in which tissue constructs are developed in vitro by combining stem cells and biomaterial scaffolds for drug screening or eventual implantation. This review highlights the benefits of using biomaterials in conjunction with stem cells to repair damaged myocardium and give a brief description of the properties of these biomaterials that make them such valuable tools to the field. PMID:26953627

  17. Therapeutics from Adult Stem Cells and the Hype Curve.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Greg

    2016-05-12

    The Gartner curve for regenerative and stem cell therapeutics is currently climbing out of the "trough of disillusionment" and into the "slope of enlightenment". Understanding that the early years of stem cell therapy relied on the model of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and then moved into a period of the overhype of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), instead of using the model of 40 years of success, i.e. adult stem cells used in bone marrow transplants, the field of stem cell therapy has languished for years, trying to move beyond the early and poorly understood success of bone marrow transplants. Recent studies in the lab and clinic show that adult stem cells of various types, and the molecules that they release, avoid the issues associated with ESCs and iPSCs and lead to better therapeutic outcomes and into the slope of enlightenment. PMID:27190588

  18. Therapeutics from Adult Stem Cells and the Hype Curve.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Greg

    2016-05-12

    The Gartner curve for regenerative and stem cell therapeutics is currently climbing out of the "trough of disillusionment" and into the "slope of enlightenment". Understanding that the early years of stem cell therapy relied on the model of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and then moved into a period of the overhype of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), instead of using the model of 40 years of success, i.e. adult stem cells used in bone marrow transplants, the field of stem cell therapy has languished for years, trying to move beyond the early and poorly understood success of bone marrow transplants. Recent studies in the lab and clinic show that adult stem cells of various types, and the molecules that they release, avoid the issues associated with ESCs and iPSCs and lead to better therapeutic outcomes and into the slope of enlightenment.

  19. In situ tissue regeneration through host stem cell recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ko, In Kap; Lee, Sang Jin; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2013-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering has made steady progress in translating various tissue applications. Although the classical tissue engineering strategy, which involves the use of culture-expanded cells and scaffolds to produce a tissue construct for implantation, has been validated, this approach involves extensive cell expansion steps, requiring a lot of time and laborious effort before implantation. To bypass this ex vivo process, a new approach has been introduced. In situ tissue regeneration utilizes the body's own regenerating capacity by mobilizing host endogenous stem cells or tissue-specific progenitor cells to the site of injury. This approach relies on development of a target-specific biomaterial scaffolding system that can effectively control the host microenvironment and mobilize host stem/progenitor cells to target tissues. An appropriate microenvironment provided by implanted scaffolds would facilitate recruitment of host cells that can be guided to regenerating structural and functional tissues. PMID:24232256

  20. Immobilized WNT Proteins Act as a Stem Cell Niche for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Molly; Rotherham, Michael; Price, Joshua C; El Haj, Alicia J; Habib, Shukry J

    2016-07-12

    The timing, location, and level of WNT signaling are highly regulated during embryonic development and for the maintenance of adult tissues. Consequently the ability to provide a defined and directed source of WNT proteins is crucial to fully understand its role in tissue development and to mimic its activity in vitro. Here we describe a one-step immobilization technique to covalently bind WNT3A proteins as a basal surface with easy storage and long-lasting activity. We show that this platform is able to maintain adult and embryonic stem cells while also being adaptable for 3D systems. Therefore, this platform could be used for recapitulating specific stem cell niches with the goal of improving tissue engineering. PMID:27411105

  1. Utilizing stem cells for three-dimensional neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Cho, Yongku; Li, Xue-Jun; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-05-26

    Three-dimensional neural tissue engineering has made great strides in developing neural disease models and replacement tissues for patients. However, the need for biomimetic tissue models and effective patient therapies remains unmet. The recent push to expand 2D neural tissue engineering into the third dimension shows great potential to advance the field. Another area which has much to offer to neural tissue engineering is stem cell research. Stem cells are well known for their self-renewal and differentiation potential and have been shown to give rise to tissues with structural and functional properties mimicking natural organs. Application of these capabilities to 3D neural tissue engineering may be highly useful for basic research on neural tissue structure and function, engineering disease models, designing tissues for drug development, and generating replacement tissues with a patient's genetic makeup. Here, we discuss the vast potential, as well as the current challenges, unique to integration of 3D fabrication strategies and stem cells into neural tissue engineering. We also present some of the most significant recent achievements, including nerve guidance conduits to facilitate better healing of nerve injuries, functional 3D biomimetic neural tissue models, physiologically relevant disease models for research purposes, and rapid and effective screening of potential drugs.

  2. Soft tissue problems in older adults.

    PubMed

    Holland, N W; Gonzalez, E B

    1998-08-01

    This article describes common soft tissue problems encountered in older adults, including fibromyalgia, selected bursitis/tendinitis syndromes, nerve entrapment syndromes, and miscellaneous topics such as Dupuytren's contractures, trigger fingers, palmar fasciitis, and reflex-sympathetic dystrophy. Clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment are emphasized. These are conditions that are frequently encountered but are generally diagnosed as arthritis or normal age-related problems. This article will hopefully enlighten the reader in distinguishing between these conditions.

  3. EMPOWERING ADULT STEM CELLS FOR MYOCARDIAL REGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Sadia; Siddiqi, Sailay; Collins, Brett; Sussman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment strategies for heart failure remain a high priority for ongoing research due to the profound unmet need in clinical disease coupled with lack of significant translational progress. The underlying issue is the same whether the cause is acute damage, chronic stress from disease, or aging: progressive loss of functional cardiomyocytes and diminished hemodynamic output. To stave off cardiomyocyte losses, a number of strategic approaches have been embraced in recent years involving both molecular and cellular approaches to augment myocardial structure and performance. Resultant excitement surrounding regenerative medicine in the heart has been tempered by realizations that reparative processes in the heart are insufficient to restore damaged myocardium to normal functional capacity and that cellular cardiomyoplasty is hampered by poor survival, proliferation, engraftment and differentiation of the donated population. To overcome these limitations, a combination of molecular and cellular approaches needs to be adopted involving use of genetic engineering to enhance resistance to cell death and increase regenerative capacity. This review will highlight biological properties of approached to potentiate stem cell-mediated regeneration to promote enhanced myocardial regeneration, persistence of donated cells, and long lasting tissue repair. Optimizing cell delivery and harnessing the power of survival signaling cascades for ex vivo genetic modification of stem cells prior to reintroduction into the patient will be critical to enhance the efficacy of cellular cardiomyoplasty. Once this goal is achieved, then cell-based therapy has great promise for treatment of heart failure to combat the loss of cardiac structure and function associated with acute damage, chronic disease or aging. PMID:22158649

  4. Plasticity of epithelial stem cells in tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Blanpain, Cédric; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Tissues rely upon stem cells for homeostasis and repair. Recent studies show that the fate and multilineage potential of epithelial stem cells can change depending on whether a stem cell exists within its resident niche and responds to normal tissue homeostasis, whether it is mobilized to repair a wound, or whether it is taken from its niche and challenged to de novo tissue morphogenesis after transplantation. In this Review, we discuss how different populations of naturally lineage-restricted stem cells and committed progenitors can display remarkable plasticity and reversibility and reacquire long-term self-renewing capacities and multilineage differentiation potential during physiological and regenerative conditions. We also discuss the implications of cellular plasticity for regenerative medicine and for cancer. PMID:24926024

  5. Putative population of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from mediastinal tissue during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amit N; Yockman, James; Vargas, Vanessa; Bull, David A

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been isolated from various adult human tissues and are valuable for not only therapeutic applications but for the study of tissue homeostasis and disease progression. Subcutaneous adipose depots have been shown to contain large amounts of stem cells. There is little information that has been reported to date describing the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from visceral adipose tissue. In this study, we describe a mesenchymal stem cell population isolated from mediastinal adipose depots. The cells express CD44, CD105, CD166, and CD90 and are negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. In addition, the cells have a multilineage potential, with the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cell types. The biological function of visceral adipose tissue remains largely unknown and uncharacterized. However, the proximity of adipose tissue to the heart suggests a potential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in obesity. In addition, with the ability of fat to regulate metabolic activity in humans, this novel stem cell source may be useful to further study the mechanisms involved in metabolic disorders.

  6. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  7. Stirred bioreactors for the expansion of adult pancreatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Leite, Sofia B; Gorjup, Erwin; von Briesen, Hagen; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Adult pluripotent stem cells are a cellular resource representing unprecedented potential for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Complementary to this promise, there is a need for efficient bioprocesses for their large scale expansion and/or differentiation. With this goal in mind, our work focused on the development of three-dimensional (3-D) culture systems for controlled expansion of adult pancreatic stem cells (PSCs). For this purpose, two different culturing strategies were evaluated, using spinner vessels: cell aggregated cultures versus microcarrier technology. The use of microcarrier supports (Cytodex 1 and Cytodex 3) rendered expanded cell populations which retained their self-renewal ability, cell marker, and the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. This strategy surmounted the drawbacks of aggregates in culture which were demonstrably unfeasible as cells clumped together did not proliferate and lost PSC marker expression. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that although both microcarriers tested here were suitable for sustaining cell expansion, Cytodex 3 provided a better substrate for the promotion of cell adherence and growth. For the latter approach, the potential of bioreactor technology was combined with the efficient Cytodex 3 strategy under controlled environmental conditions (pH-7.2, pO2-30% and temperature-37 degrees C); cell growth was more efficient, as shown by faster doubling time, higher growth rate and higher fold increase in cell concentration, when compared to spinner cultures. This study describes a robust bioprocess for the controlled expansion of adult PSC, representing an efficient starting point for the development of novel technologies for cell therapy.

  8. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xiaowen; Alt, Eckhard

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  9. Condensation of tissue and stem cells for fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Shinichiro; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-04-01

    Aspirated fat contains unnecessary components such as water, oil, and blood cells. For better outcomes, tissue purification and condensation are useful, especially when injection volume to the recipient site is limited. Because aspirated fat is relatively poor in adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), ASC condensation seems important for obtaining better regeneration and retention. Reducing tissue volume by removing some adipocytes or supplementation of stromal vascular fraction or ASCs can increase the ASC/adipocyte ratio in the graft. Clinical results of ASC supplementation remain controversial, but ASC condensation seems to lead to expanding applications of fat grafting into revitalization of stem cell-depleted tissue.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering for chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seogjin; Na, Kun

    2011-01-01

    In tissue engineering fields, recent interest has been focused on stem cell therapy to replace or repair damaged or worn-out tissues due to congenital abnormalities, disease, or injury. In particular, the repair of articular cartilage degeneration by stem cell-based tissue engineering could be of enormous therapeutic and economic benefit for an aging population. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can induce chondrogenic differentiation would provide an appropriate cell source to repair damaged cartilage tissues; however, we must first understand the optimal environmental conditions for chondrogenic differentiation. In this review, we will focus on identifying the best combination of MSCs and functional extracellular matrices that provides the most successful chondrogenesis.

  11. Wildtype adult stem cells, unlike tumor cells, are resistant to cellular damages in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meifang; Zhao, Hang; Zhao, Hanfei; Binari, Richard; Perrimon, Norbert; Li, Zhouhua

    2016-03-15

    Adult stem cells or residential progenitor cells are critical to maintain the structure and function of adult tissues (homeostasis) throughout the lifetime of an individual. Mis-regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation often leads to diseases including cancer, however, how wildtype adult stem cells and cancer cells respond to cellular damages remains unclear. We find that in the adult Drosophila midgut, intestinal stem cells (ISCs), unlike tumor intestinal cells, are resistant to various cellular damages. Tumor intestinal cells, unlike wildtype ISCs, are easily eliminated by apoptosis. Further, their proliferation is inhibited upon autophagy induction, and autophagy-mediated tumor inhibition is independent of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, inhibition of tumorigenesis by autophagy is likely through the sequestration and degradation of mitochondria, as compromising mitochondria activity in these tumor models mimics the induction of autophagy and increasing the production of mitochondria alleviates the tumor-suppression capacity of autophagy. Together, these data demonstrate that wildtype adult stem cells and tumor cells show dramatic differences in sensitivity to cellular damages, thus providing potential therapeutic implications targeting tumorigenesis. PMID:26845534

  12. Physicochemical Control of Adult Stem Cell Differentiation: Shedding Light on Potential Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Titushkin, Igor; Sun, Shan; Shin, Jennifer; Cho, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Realization of the exciting potential for stem-cell-based biomedical and therapeutic applications, including tissue engineering, requires an understanding of the cell-cell and cell-environment interactions. To this end, recent efforts have been focused on the manipulation of adult stem cell differentiation using inductive soluble factors, designing suitable mechanical environments, and applying noninvasive physical forces. Although each of these different approaches has been successfully applied to regulate stem cell differentiation, it would be of great interest and importance to integrate and optimally combine a few or all of the physicochemical differentiation cues to induce synergistic stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, elucidation of molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of multiple differentiation cues will enable the researcher to better manipulate stem cell behavior and response. PMID:20379388

  13. Strategies to Enhance the Effectiveness of Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart Diseases Affecting the Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khatiwala, Roshni

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarctions and chronic ischemic heart disease both commonly and disproportionately affect elderly patients more than any other patient population. Despite available treatments, heart tissue is often permanently damaged as a result of cardiac injury. This review aims to summarize recent literature proposing the use of modified autologous adult stem cells to promote healing of post-infarct cardiac tissue. This novel cellular treatment involves isolation of adult stem cells from the patient, in vitro manipulation of these stem cells, and subsequent transplantation back into the patient’s own heart to accelerate healing. One of the hindrances affecting this process is that cardiac issues are increasingly common in elderly patients, and stem cells recovered from their tissues tend to be pre-senescent or already in senescence. As a result, harsh in vitro manipulations can cause the aged stem cells to undergo massive in vivo apoptosis after transplantation. The consensus in literature is that inhibition or reversal of senescence onset in adult stem cells would be of utmost benefit. In fact, it is believed that this strategy may lower stem cell mortality and coerce aged stem cells into adopting more resilient phenotypes similar to that of their younger counterparts. This review will discuss a selection of the most efficient and most-recent strategies used experimentally to enhance the effectiveness of current stem cell therapies for ischemic heart diseases. PMID:26779896

  14. A single cell bioengineering approach to elucidate mechanisms of adult stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Penney M; Corbel, Stephane; Doyonnas, Regis; Havenstrite, Karen; Magnusson, Klas E G; Blau, Helen M

    2012-04-01

    The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged and aging tissues. Adult stem cells, present in tissues such as skeletal muscle, comprise a reservoir of cells with a remarkable capacity to proliferate and repair tissue damage. Muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, reside in a quiescent state in an anatomically distinct compartment, or niche, ensheathed between the membrane of the myofiber and the basal lamina. Recently, procedures for isolating satellite cells were developed and experiments testing their function upon transplantation into muscles revealed an extraordinary potential to contribute to muscle fibers and access and replenish the satellite cell compartment. However, these properties are rapidly lost once satellite cells are plated in culture. Accordingly, elucidating the role of extrinsic factors in controlling muscle stem cell fate, in particular self-renewal, is critical. Through careful design of bioengineered culture platforms, analysis of specific proteins presented to stem cells is possible. Critical to the success of the approach is single cell analysis, as more rapidly proliferating progenitors may mask the behavior of stem cells that proliferate slowly. Bioengineering approaches provide a potent means of gaining insight into the role of extrinsic factors in the stem cell microenvironment on stem cell function and the mechanisms that control their diverse fates. Ultimately, the multidisciplinary approach presented here will lead to novel therapeutic strategies for degenerative diseases. PMID:22327505

  15. Experimental biological research on stem cells in fascia tissue.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yinghua; Qu, Rongmei; Dai, Jingxing

    2013-06-01

    The fascia tissue, derived from the mesoderm, is distributed in all parts of the human body. It consists of connective tissues and stem cells. The fascia tissue is also believed to be a functional system, like the digestive system, in the human body, controlling self-inspection, self-maintenance, support, and storage. In addition, much of the research relevant to fascia tissue has focused on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which mainly exist in adipose tissues. The aim of this review is to summarize the current research on ADSCs, including a brief introduction of their biological characteristics, the isolation and expansion methods, a conclusion on their multidifferentiation potential, new clinical applications, and the therapeutic strategies for treating tumors.

  16. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17β-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17β-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  17. An insulin-like peptide regulates size and adult stem cells in planarians.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claire M; Newmark, Phillip A

    2012-01-01

    Animal growth depends on nutritional intake during development. In many animals, nutritional status is uncoupled from moderation of adult stature after adult size is achieved. However, some long-lived animals continue to regulate adult size and fertility in a nutrition-dependent manner. For example, the regenerating flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea becomes smaller, or degrows, during periods of starvation. These animals provide an opportunity to readily observe adult stem cell population dynamics in response to nutritional cues. We explored the role of insulin signaling in S. mediterranea. We disrupted insulin signaling via RNA interference and showed that animals, despite eating, degrew similarly to starved animals. Utilizing in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we assessed cellular changes in proliferative populations including the planarian adult stem cell population (neoblasts) and the germline. Both impaired insulin signaling and nutritional deprivation correlated with decreased neoblast proliferation. Additionally, insulin signaling played a role in supporting spermatogenesis that was distinct from the effects of starvation. In sum, we have demonstrated that insulin signaling is responsible for regulation of adult animal size and tissue homeostasis in an organism with plastic adult size. Importantly, insulin signaling continued to affect stem cell and germline populations in a mature organism. Furthermore, we have shown that adult organisms can differentially regulate specific cell populations as a result of environmental challenges.

  18. Maturing human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in human engineered cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Feric, Nicole T; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-15

    Engineering functional human cardiac tissue that mimics the native adult morphological and functional phenotype has been a long held objective. In the last 5 years, the field of cardiac tissue engineering has transitioned from cardiac tissues derived from various animal species to the production of the first generation of human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs), due to recent advances in human stem cell biology. Despite this progress, the hECTs generated to date remain immature relative to the native adult myocardium. In this review, we focus on the maturation challenge in the context of hECTs, the present state of the art, and future perspectives in terms of regenerative medicine, drug discovery, preclinical safety testing and pathophysiological studies.

  19. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  20. Somatic stem cells express Piwi and Vasa genes in an adult ctenophore: ancient association of "germline genes" with stemness.

    PubMed

    Alié, Alexandre; Leclère, Lucas; Jager, Muriel; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Chang, Patrick; Le Guyader, Hervé; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells are essential for animal development and adult tissue homeostasis, and the quest for an ancestral gene fingerprint of stemness is a major challenge for evolutionary developmental biology. Recent studies have indicated that a series of genes, including the transposon silencer Piwi and the translational activator Vasa, specifically involved in germline determination and maintenance in classical bilaterian models (e.g., vertebrates, fly, nematode), are more generally expressed in adult multipotent stem cells in other animals like flatworms and hydras. Since the progeny of these multipotent stem cells includes both somatic and germinal derivatives, it remains unclear whether Vasa, Piwi, and associated genes like Bruno and PL10 were ancestrally linked to stemness, or to germinal potential. We have investigated the expression of Vasa, two Piwi paralogues, Bruno and PL10 in Pleurobrachia pileus, a member of the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora, the probable sister group of cnidarians. These genes were all expressed in the male and female germlines, and with the exception of one of the Piwi paralogues, they showed similar expression patterns within somatic territories (tentacle root, comb rows, aboral sensory complex). Cytological observations and EdU DNA-labelling and long-term retention experiments revealed concentrations of stem cells closely matching these gene expression areas. These stem cell pools are spatially restricted, and each specialised in the production of particular types of somatic cells. These data unveil important aspects of cell renewal within the ctenophore body and suggest that Piwi, Vasa, Bruno, and PL10 belong to a gene network ancestrally acting in two distinct contexts: (i) the germline and (ii) stem cells, whatever the nature of their progeny.

  1. Ethylene effects in pea stem tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, D.A.; Chadwick, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The marked effects of ethylene on pea stem growth have been investigated. Low temperatures and colchicine, both known microtubule depolymerization agents, reverse the effects of ethylene in straight growth tests. Low temperature (6 C) also profoundly reduces the effects of gas in terms of swelling, hook curvature, and horizontal mutation. Deuterium oxide, an agent capable of rigidifying microtubular structure, mimics the effects of ethylene. Electron microscopy shows that microtubule orientation is strikingly altered by ethylene. These findings indicate that some of the ethylene responses may be due to a stabilizing effect on microtubules in plant cells.

  2. Multipotent stem cells in the Malpighian tubules of adult Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram; Hou, Steven X.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Excretion is an essential process of an organism's removal of the waste products of metabolism to maintain a constant chemical composition of the body fluids despite changes in the external environment. Excretion is performed by the kidneys in vertebrates and by Malpighian tubules (MTs) in Drosophila. The kidney serves as an excellent model organ to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying organogenesis. Mammals and Drosophila share common principles of renal development. Tissue homeostasis, which is accomplished through self-renewal or differentiation of stem cells, is critical for the maintenance of adult tissues throughout the lifetime of an animal. Growing evidence suggests that stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is controlled by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Deregulation of stem cell behavior results in cancer formation, tissue degeneration, and premature aging. The mammalian kidney has a low rate of cellular turnover but has a great capacity for tissue regeneration following an ischemic injury. However, there is an ongoing controversy about the source of regenerating cells in the adult kidney that repopulate injured renal tissues. Recently, we identified multipotent stem cells in the MTs of adult Drosophila and found that these stem cells are able to proliferate and differentiate in several types of cells in MTs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an autocrine JAK-STAT (Janus kinase–signal transducers and activators of transcription) signaling regulates stem cell self-renewal or differentiation of renal stem cells. The Drosophila MTs provide an excellent in vivo system for studying the renal stem cells at cellular and molecular levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal or differentiation in vivo is not only crucial to using stem cells for future regenerative medicine and gene therapy, but it also will increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cancer formation

  3. [Therapeutic use of stem cells. II. Adult stem cells].

    PubMed

    Uzan, Georges

    2004-09-30

    Many degenerative diseases are not curable by means of classical medicine. The long term objective of cell therapy is to treat the patients with their own stem cells that could be either purified from the diseased organ or from "reservoirs" of stem cells such as that constituted by the bone marrow. The existence of stem cells in the organs or reservoirs is now established in vitro and in some cases, in animal models. Numbers of technical problems linked to the scarcity of these cells still delay the clinical use of purified stem cells. However, clinical protocols using heterogeneous cell populations have already started to treat a growing number of diseases. In some case, autologous cells can be used, as it is the case for bone marrow transplantation in blood diseases. Mesenchymal cells, also purified from the bone marrow are currently used in orthopaedic diseases. Because these cells reveal a broad differentiation potential, active research programs explore their possible use for treatment of other diseases. Bone marrow also contains vascular stem cells that could be active in reappearing defective vessels responsible for ischaemic diseases. Indeed, clinical trials in which bone marrow cells are injected in the cardiac muscle of patients with myocardial infarction or in the leg muscle (gastrocnemius) of patients with hind limb ischaemia have already started. Artificial skin prepared from skin biopsies is used for the reconstitution of the derma of severely burned patients. Clinical trials have also started, using allogenic cells. The patients must be treated by immunosuppressive drugs. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson have been successfully treated by intra-cerebral injection of foetal neurones. Pancreatic islets implanted in the liver have shown to re-establish a normal glycaemia in diabetic patients. However, all these clinical trials use differentiated cells or at least progenitors which display differentiation potential and lifetime much more

  4. FDA regulation of adult stem cell therapies as used in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Chirba, Mary Ann; Sweetapple, Berkley; Hannon, Charles P; Anderson, John A

    2015-02-01

    In sports medicine, adult stem cells are the subject of great interest. Several uses of stem cells are under investigation including cartilage repair, meniscal regeneration, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and tendinopathy. Extensive clinical and basic science research is warranted as stem cell therapies become increasingly common in clinical practice. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for regulating the use of stem cells through its "Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products" regulations. This report provides a brief overview of FDA regulation of adult stem cells. Several common clinical case scenarios are then presented that highlight how stem cells are currently being used in sports medicine and how current FDA regulations are likely to affect the physicians who use them. In the process, it explains how a variety of factors in sourcing and handling these cells, particularly the extent of cell manipulation, will affect what a physician can and cannot do without first obtaining the FDA's express approval.

  5. Informing Stem Cell-Based Tendon Tissue Engineering Approaches with Embryonic Tendon Development.

    PubMed

    Okech, William; Kuo, Catherine K

    2016-01-01

    Adult tendons fail to regenerate normal tissue after injury, and instead form dysfunctional scar tissue with abnormal mechanical properties. Surgical repair with grafts is the current standard to treat injuries, but faces significant limitations including pain and high rates of re-injury. To address this, we aim to regenerate new, normal tendons to replace dysfunctional tendons. A common approach to tendon tissue engineering is to design scaffolds and bioreactors based on adult tendon properties that can direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. Despite significant progress, advances have been limited due, in part, to a need for markers and potent induction cues. Our goal is to develop novel tendon tissue engineering approaches informed by embryonic tendon development. We are characterizing structure-property relationships of embryonic tendon to identify design parameters for three-dimensional scaffolds and bioreactor mechanical loading systems to direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. We will review studies in which we quantified changes in the mechanical and biochemical properties of tendon during embryonic development and elucidated specific mechanisms of functional property elaboration. We then examined the effects of these mechanical and biochemical factors on embryonic tendon cell behavior. Using custom-designed bioreactors, we also examined the effects of dynamic mechanical loading and growth factor treatment on embryonic tendon cells. Our findings have established cues to induce tenogenesis as well as metrics to evaluate differentiation. We finish by discussing how we have evaluated the tenogenic differentiation potential of adult stem cells by comparing their responses to that of embryonic tendon cells in these culture systems.

  6. Advances in Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Isolation, Characterization, and Application in Regenerative Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wankhade, Umesh D.; Shen, Michael; Kolhe, Ravindra; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disease that has been extensively researched in recent times. Obesity is characterized by excess deposition of adipose tissue in response to surplus energy. Despite the negative connotations of adipose tissue (AT), it serves as a critical endocrine organ. Adipose tissue is a source of several adipokines and cytokines which have been deemed important for both normal metabolic function and disease formation. The discoveries of metabolically active brown AT in adult humans and adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) have been key findings in the past decade with potential therapeutic implications. ADSCs represent an enticing pool of multipotent adult stem cells because of their noncontroversial nature, relative abundance, ease of isolation, and expandability. A decade and a half since the discovery of ADSCs, the scientific community is still working to uncover their therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent developments in the field of ADSCs and examine their potential use in transplantation and cell-based therapies for the regeneration of diseased organs and systems. We also hope to provide perspective on how to best utilize this readily available, powerful pool of stem cells in the future. PMID:26981130

  7. Advances in Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Isolation, Characterization, and Application in Regenerative Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wankhade, Umesh D; Shen, Michael; Kolhe, Ravindra; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disease that has been extensively researched in recent times. Obesity is characterized by excess deposition of adipose tissue in response to surplus energy. Despite the negative connotations of adipose tissue (AT), it serves as a critical endocrine organ. Adipose tissue is a source of several adipokines and cytokines which have been deemed important for both normal metabolic function and disease formation. The discoveries of metabolically active brown AT in adult humans and adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSC) have been key findings in the past decade with potential therapeutic implications. ADSCs represent an enticing pool of multipotent adult stem cells because of their noncontroversial nature, relative abundance, ease of isolation, and expandability. A decade and a half since the discovery of ADSCs, the scientific community is still working to uncover their therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent developments in the field of ADSCs and examine their potential use in transplantation and cell-based therapies for the regeneration of diseased organs and systems. We also hope to provide perspective on how to best utilize this readily available, powerful pool of stem cells in the future.

  8. Induction of tissue-specific stem cells by reprogramming factors, and tissue-specific selection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Saitoh, I; Tsugata, T; Kataoka, H; Watanabe, M; Noguchi, Y

    2015-01-01

    Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have significant implications for overcoming most of the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells, there are still several unresolved issues related to the use of iPS cells for clinical applications, such as teratoma formation. In this study, we were able to generate tissue-specific stem (induced tissue-specific stem; iTS) cells from the pancreas (iTS-P) or liver (iTS-L) by transient overexpression of reprogramming factors, combined with tissue-specific selection. The generation of iTS cells was easier than that of iPS cells. The iTS-P/iTS-L cells express genetic markers of endoderm and pancreatic/hepatic progenitors and were able to differentiate into insulin-producing cells/hepatocytes more efficiently than ES cells. Subcutaneous transplantation of both types of iTS cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in no teratoma formation. The technology used for the transient overexpression of reprogramming factors and tissue-specific selection may be useful for the generation of other tissue-specific stem cells, and the generation of iTS cells could have important implications for the clinical application of stem cells.

  9. Induction of tissue-specific stem cells by reprogramming factors, and tissue-specific selection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Saitoh, I; Tsugata, T; Kataoka, H; Watanabe, M; Noguchi, Y

    2015-01-01

    Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have significant implications for overcoming most of the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells, there are still several unresolved issues related to the use of iPS cells for clinical applications, such as teratoma formation. In this study, we were able to generate tissue-specific stem (induced tissue-specific stem; iTS) cells from the pancreas (iTS-P) or liver (iTS-L) by transient overexpression of reprogramming factors, combined with tissue-specific selection. The generation of iTS cells was easier than that of iPS cells. The iTS-P/iTS-L cells express genetic markers of endoderm and pancreatic/hepatic progenitors and were able to differentiate into insulin-producing cells/hepatocytes more efficiently than ES cells. Subcutaneous transplantation of both types of iTS cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in no teratoma formation. The technology used for the transient overexpression of reprogramming factors and tissue-specific selection may be useful for the generation of other tissue-specific stem cells, and the generation of iTS cells could have important implications for the clinical application of stem cells. PMID:25190146

  10. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-03-31

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine.

  11. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Mersmann, Harry J.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. The dorsal white fat depot of porcine subcutaneous adipose tissues is sliced, minced and collagenase digested. These pADSC exhibit strong potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Moreover, the pADSC also possess multipotency, assessed by selective stem cell markers, to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell types including adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. These pADSC can be used for clarification of molecular switches in regulating classical adipocyte differentiation or in direction to other mesenchymal cell types of mesodermal origin. Furthermore, extended lineages into cells of ectodermal and endodermal origin have recently been achieved. Therefore, pADSC derived in this protocol provide an abundant and assessable source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with full multipotency for studying adipose development and application to tissue engineering of regenerative medicine. PMID:27077225

  12. GATAe regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and differentiation in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Takashi; Takeda, Koji; Kuchiki, Megumi; Akaishi, Marie; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Adult intestinal tissues, exposed to the external environment, play important roles including barrier and nutrient-absorption functions. These functions are ensured by adequately controlled rapid-cell metabolism. GATA transcription factors play essential roles in the development and maintenance of adult intestinal tissues both in vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the roles of GATAe, the Drosophila intestinal GATA factor, in adult midgut homeostasis with its first-generated knock-out mutant as well as cell type-specific RNAi and overexpression experiments. Our results indicate that GATAe is essential for proliferation and maintenance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Also, GATAe is involved in the differentiation of enterocyte (EC) and enteroendocrine (ee) cells in both Notch (N)-dependent and -independent manner. The results also indicate that GATAe has pivotal roles in maintaining normal epithelial homeostasis of the Drosophila adult midgut through interaction of N signaling. Since recent reports showed that mammalian GATA-6 regulates normal and cancer stem cells in the adult intestinal tract, our data also provide information on the evolutionally conserved roles of GATA factors in stem-cell regulation. PMID:26719127

  13. Pluripotency of adult stem cells derived from human and rat pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C.; Birth, M.; Rohwedel, J.; Assmuth, K.; Goepel, A.; Wedel, T.

    Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found within fully developed tissues or organs of an adult individuum. Until recently, these cells have been considered to bear less self-renewal ability and differentiation potency compared to embryonic stem cells. In recent studies an undifferentiated cell type was found in primary cultures of isolated acini from exocrine pancreas termed pancreatic stellate cells. Here we show that pancreatic stellate-like cells have the capacity of extended self-renewal and are able to differentiate spontaneously into cell types of all three germ layers expressing markers for smooth muscle cells, neurons, glial cells, epithelial cells, chondrocytes and secretory cells (insulin, amylase). Differentiation and subsequent formation of three-dimensional cellular aggregates (organoid bodies) were induced by merely culturing pancreatic stellate-like cells in hanging drops. These cells were developed into stable, long-term, in vitro cultures of both primary undifferentiated cell lines as well as organoid cultures. Thus, evidence is given that cell lineages of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal origin arise spontaneously from a single adult undifferentiated cell type. Based on the present findings it is assumed that pancreatic stellate-like cells are a new class of lineage uncommitted pluripotent adult stem cells with a remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency. The data emphasize the versatility of adult stem cells and may lead to a reappraisal of their use for the treatment of inherited disorders or acquired degenerative diseases.

  14. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-04-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of the complement cascade as a trigger for egress of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow into blood as well as the emerging role of novel homing factors and priming mechanisms that support stromal-derived factor 1-mediated homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after transplantation.

  15. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of the complement cascade as a trigger for egress of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow into blood as well as the emerging role of novel homing factors and priming mechanisms that support stromal-derived factor 1-mediated homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after transplantation. PMID:25486871

  16. Endothelial juxtaposition of distinct adult stem cells activates angiogenesis signaling molecules in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Elham; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Siavashi, Vahid; Araghi, Atefeh

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis needs a comprehensive understanding of endothelial cell (EC) function and biological factors and cells that interplay with ECs. Stem cells are considered the key components of pro- and anti-angiogenic milieu in a wide variety of physiopathological states, and interactions of EC-stem cells have been the subject of controversy in recent years. In this study, the potential effects of three tissue-specific adult stem cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs) and rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), on the endothelial activation of key angiogenic signaling molecules, including VEGF, Ang-2, VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and Tie2-pho, were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMECs) were cocultured with the stem cells or incubated with the stem cell-derived conditioned media on Matrigel. Following HUVEC-stem cell coculture, CD31-positive ECs were flow sorted and subjected to western blotting to analyze potential changes in the expression of the pro-angiogenic signaling molecules. Elongation and co-alignment of the stem cells were seen along the EC tubes in the EC-stem cell cocultures on Matrigel, with cell-to-cell dye communication in the EC-rBMSC cocultures. Moreover, rBMSCs and rADSCs significantly improved endothelial tubulogenesis in both juxtacrine and paracrine manners. These two latter stem cells dynamically up-regulated VEGF, Ang-2, VREGR-2, and Tie-2 but down-regulated Tie2-pho and the Tie2-pho/Tie-2 ratio in HUVECs. Induction of pro-angiogenic signaling in ECs by marrow- and adipose-derived MSCs further indicates the significance of stem cell milieu in angiogenesis dynamics. PMID:26068799

  17. Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

    2014-01-01

    Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

  18. Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J K P; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M; Benner, Jack S; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A

    2013-12-01

    Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5(m)C) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation.

  19. Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation☆

    PubMed Central

    Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J.K.P.; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M.; Benner, Jack S.; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A.

    2013-01-01

    Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation. PMID:24063805

  20. Stem Cells and Cartilage Development: Complexities of a Simple Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Anthony P; Dickinson, Sally C; Kafienah, Wael

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage is considered to be a simple tissue that should be easy to engineer because it is avascular and contains just one cell type, the chondrocyte. Despite this apparent simplicity, regenerating cartilage in a form that can function effectively after implantation in the joint has proven difficult. This may be because we have not fully appreciated the importance of different structural regions of articular cartilage or of understanding the origins of chondrocytes and how this cell population is maintained in the normal tissue. This review considers what is known about different regions of cartilage and the types of stem cells in articulating joints and emphasizes the potential importance of regeneration of the lamina splendens at the joint surface and calcified cartilage at the junction with bone for long-term survival of regenerated tissue in vivo. Stem Cells 2010;28:1992–1996 PMID:20882533

  1. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  3. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  4. Adult Human Nasal Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells Restore Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Neurons After Experimental Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Bas, Esperanza; Van De Water, Thomas R.; Lumbreras, Vicente; Rajguru, Suhrud; Goss, Garrett; Hare, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:24172073

  5. Injectable bone tissue engineering using expanded mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi; Nakamura, Sayaka; Ito, Kenji; Umemura, Eri; Hara, Kenji; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Abe, Akihiro; Baba, Shunsuke; Furuichi, Yasushi; Izumi, Yuichi; Klein, Ophir D; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-03-01

    Patients suffering from bone defects are often treated with autologous bone transplants, but this therapy can cause many complications. New approaches are therefore needed to improve treatment for bone defects, and stem cell therapy presents an exciting alternative approach. Although extensive evidence from basic studies using stem cells has been reported, few clinical applications using stem cells for bone tissue engineering have been developed. We investigated whether injectable tissue-engineered bone (TEB) composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma was able to regenerate functional bone in alveolar deficiencies. We performed these studies in animals and subsequently carried out large-scale clinical studies in patients with long-term follow-up; these showed good bone formation using minimally invasive MSC transplantation. All patients exhibited significantly improved bone volume with no side effects. Newly formed bone areas at 3 months were significantly increased over the preoperation baseline (p < .001) and reached levels equivalent to that of native bone. No significant bone resorption occurred during long-term follow-up. Injectable TEB restored masticatory function in patients. This novel clinical approach represents an effective therapeutic utilization of bone tissue engineering.

  6. Modulating the stem cell niche for tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Steven W; Williams, David A; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine holds considerable promise for treating diseases that are currently intractable. Although many researchers are adopting the strategy of cell transplantation for tissue repair, an alternative approach to therapy is to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment, or niche, to facilitate repair by endogenous stem cells. The niche is highly dynamic, with multiple opportunities for intervention. These include administration of small molecules, biologics or biomaterials that target specific aspects of the niche, such as cell-cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, to stimulate expansion or differentiation of stem cells, or to cause reversion of differentiated cells to stem cells. Nevertheless, there are several challenges in targeting the niche therapeutically, not least that of achieving specificity of delivery and responses. We envisage that successful treatments in regenerative medicine will involve different combinations of factors to target stem cells and niche cells, applied at different times to effect recovery according to the dynamics of stem cell–niche interactions. PMID:25093887

  7. Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Current developmental status and prospect

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun; Lee, Kee-Hang; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies using stem cell technologies have been developed for various neurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is an attractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and to recover neurological deficits, it is still under development so as not to show significant treatment effects in clinical settings. In this review, we discuss the scientific and clinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), and their current developmental status as cell therapeutics for neurological disease. Compared with other types of stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, such as limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potential into functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. In spite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolation from the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion, have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs. However, several groups have recently developed novel techniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normal adult brains, and showed successful applications of aNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologies for aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdles in stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could be overcome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerative stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25621112

  8. Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Current developmental status and prospect.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyun; Lee, Kee-Hang; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-26

    Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies using stem cell technologies have been developed for various neurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is an attractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and to recover neurological deficits, it is still under development so as not to show significant treatment effects in clinical settings. In this review, we discuss the scientific and clinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), and their current developmental status as cell therapeutics for neurological disease. Compared with other types of stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, such as limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potential into functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. In spite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolation from the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion, have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs. However, several groups have recently developed novel techniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normal adult brains, and showed successful applications of aNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologies for aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdles in stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could be overcome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerative stem cell therapeutics.

  9. Growth, homeostatic regulation and stem cell dynamics in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hannezo, E.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of cell growth in animal tissues is a question of critical importance: most tissues contain different types of cells in interconversion and the fraction of each type has to be controlled in a precise way, by mechanisms that remain unclear. Here, we provide a theoretical framework for the homeostasis of stem-cell-containing epithelial tissues using mechanical equations, which describe the size of the tissue and kinetic equations, which describe the interconversions of the cell populations. We show that several features, such as the evolution of stem cell fractions during intestinal development, the shape of a developing intestinal wall, as well as the increase in the proliferative compartment in cancer initiation, can be studied and understood from generic modelling which does not rely on a particular regulatory mechanism. Finally, inspired by recent experiments, we propose a model where cell division rates are regulated by the mechanical stresses in the epithelial sheet. We show that pressure-controlled growth can, in addition to the previous features, also explain with few parameters the formation of stem cell compartments as well as the morphologies observed when a colonic crypt becomes cancerous. We also discuss optimal strategies of wound healing, in connection with experiments on the cornea. PMID:24478279

  10. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  11. Current applications of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue replacement in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, Suzanne N; Hanson, Summer E; Hematti, Peiman; Thibeault, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    Cellular therapy utilizing adult mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) may very well revolutionize the treatment of a variety of head and neck diseases through the restoration of normal structure and function. Transplanting allogeneic or autologous MSCs into damaged tissues can serve multiple regenerative functions through their self-renewal, differentiation capacity, immune modulation and secretion of bioactive molecules. Further, trophic factors expressed by MSCs have been shown to influence their microenvironment through the promotion of extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and wound healing needed to regenerate or replace injured tissues. Although clinical applications of MSC based therapies in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery are still in their infancy, efforts are being made to understand and exploit MSCs for tissue repair as well as engineering strategies. In this review, we highlight pre clinical and clinical investigations employing MSC based therapies for the reconstruction of bone, cartilage, soft tissue and vocal fold defects. PMID:23671810

  12. Apple ethanol extract promotes proliferation of human adult stem cells, which involves the regenerative potential of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Mi Ok; Jang, Sunghee; Oh, Sae Woong; Kang, Mingyeong; Jung, Kwangseon; Park, Yong Seek; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-09-01

    Tissue regeneration using adult stem cells (ASCs) has significant potential as a novel treatment for many degenerative diseases. Previous studies have established that age negatively affects the proliferation status and differentiation potential of ASCs, suggesting a possible limitation in their potential therapeutic use. Therefore, we hypothesized that apple extract might exert beneficial effects on ASCs. The specific objectives were to investigate the proliferative effect of apple ethanol extract on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs), and identify the possible molecular mechanisms. Apple extract promoted proliferation of ADSCs and CB-MSCs as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Click-iT 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine flow cytometry assays. In addition, phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4B and eIF4E was induced stepwise in ADSCs. Furthermore, apple extract significantly induced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in both ADSCs and CB-MSCs. Similarly, apple extract-induced phosphorylation of the mTOR/p70S6K/S6RP/eIF4B/eIF4E pathway was blocked by pretreatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor. These results indicate that apple extract-induced proliferation of ADSCs under serum-free conditions is mediated by ERK-dependent cytokine production. Moreover, the beneficial effect of apple extract on proliferation of ASCs may overcome the limitation in therapeutic use of stem cells in tissue regeneration and maintenance of stem cell homeostasis. PMID:27632912

  13. Synovium-derived stem cells: a tissue-specific stem cell for cartilage engineering and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brendan A; Pei, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Articular cartilage is difficult to heal once injury or disease occurs. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation is a biological treatment with good prognosis, but donor site morbidity and limited cell source are disadvantages. Currently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising approach for cartilage regeneration. Despite there being various sources, the best candidate for cartilage regeneration is the one with the greatest chondrogenic potential and the least hypertrophic differentiation. These properties are able to insure that the regenerated tissue is hyaline cartilage of high quality. This review article will summarize relevant literature to justify synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) as a tissue-specific stem cell for chondrogenesis by comparing synovium and cartilage with respect to anatomical location and functional structure, comparing the growth characterization and chondrogenic capacity of SDSCs and MSCs, evaluating the application of SDSCs in regenerative medicine and diseases, and discussing potential future directions.

  14. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  15. Tissue engineering, stem cells and cloning: current concepts and changing trends.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony

    2005-07-01

    Organ damage or loss can occur from congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation, iatrogenic injuries or other conditions and often necessitates reconstruction or replacement. Replacement may take the form of organ transplant. At present, there is a severe shortage of donor organs that is worsening with the aging of the population. Tissue engineering follows the principles of cell transplantation, materials science and engineering towards the development of biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal tissue function. Therapeutic cloning involves the introduction of a nucleus from a donor cell into an enucleated oocyte to generate embryonic stem cell lines whose genetic material is identical to that of its source. These autologous stem cells have the potential to become almost any type of cell in the adult body, and thus would be useful in tissue and organ replacement applications. This paper reviews recent advances in stem cell research and regenerative medicine, and describes the clinical applications of these technologies as novel therapies for tissue or organ loss.

  16. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Zorzi, Alessandro R.; Amstalden, Eliane M. I.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.; Martins, Virginia C. A.; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S. S.; Luzo, Angela C. M.; Miranda, João B.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model. PMID:26569221

  17. Dental Stem Cells and their Applications in Dental Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lymperi, S; Ligoudistianou, C; Taraslia, V; Kontakiotis, E; Anastasiadou, E

    2013-01-01

    Tooth loss or absence is a common condition that can be caused by various pathological circumstances. The replacement of the missing tooth is important for medical and aesthetic reasons. Recently, scientists focus on tooth tissue engineering, as a potential treatment, beyond the existing prosthetic methods. Tooth engineering is a promising new therapeutic approach that seeks to replace the missing tooth with a bioengineered one or to restore the damaged dental tissue. Its main tool is the stem cells that are seeded on the surface of biomaterials (scaffolds), in order to create a biocomplex. Several populations of mesenchymal stem cells are found in the tooth. These different cell types are categorized according to their location in the tooth and they demonstrate slightly different features. It appears that the dental stem cells isolated from the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament are the most powerful cells for tooth engineering. Additional research needs to be performed in order to address the problem of finding a suitable source of epithelial stem cells, which are important for the regeneration of the enamel. Nevertheless, the results of the existing studies are encouraging and strongly support the belief that tooth engineering can offer hope to people suffering from dental problems or tooth loss.

  18. Cartilage tissue engineering identifies abnormal human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Liu, Shiying; Woltjen, Knut; Thomas, Bradley; Meng, Guoliang; Hotta, Akitsu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Ellis, James; Yamanaka, Shinya; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2013-01-01

    Safety is the foremost issue in all human cell therapies, but human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) currently lack a useful safety indicator. Studies in chimeric mice have demonstrated that certain lines of iPSCs are tumorigenic; however a similar screen has not been developed for human iPSCs. Here, we show that in vitro cartilage tissue engineering is an excellent tool for screening human iPSC lines for tumorigenic potential. Although all human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and most iPSC lines tested formed cartilage safely, certain human iPSCs displayed a pro-oncogenic state, as indicated by the presence of secretory tumors during cartilage differentiation in vitro. We observed five abnormal iPSC clones amoungst 21 lines derived from five different reprogramming methods using three cellular origins. We conclude that in vitro cartilage tissue engineering is a useful approach to identify abnormal human iPSC lines.

  19. Adult stem cells therapy for urine incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Stangel-Wójcikiewicz, Klaudia; Majka, Marcin; Basta, Antoni; Stec, Małgorzata; Pabian, Wojciech; Piwowar, Monika; Chancellor, Michael B

    2010-05-01

    The past few years brought high development in obtaining and culturing autologous adult stem cells. In this paper we review publications of experimental investigations and clinical trials of the muscle-derived cells and the application in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence among women. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from bone marrow but it is associated with a painful biopsy procedure. Collection of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) is less harmful because the skeletal muscle biopsy is performed with a small caliber needle in local anesthesia. The stem-based therapy could be the next step in the treatment of urinary incontinence. There are still many elements of therapy such as effectiveness or long-term side effects which need to be researched.

  20. Engineering human cells and tissues through pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2016-08-01

    The utility of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) depends on their ability to produce functional cells and tissues of the body. Two strategies have been developed: directed differentiation of enriched populations of cells that match a regional and functional profile and spontaneous generation of three-dimensional organoids that resemble tissues in the body. Genomic editing of hPSCs and their differentiated cells broadens the use of the hPSC paradigm in studying human cellular function and disease as well as developing therapeutics.

  1. Stem Cell Health and Tissue Regeneration in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Sato, Kevin; Almeida, Eduardo A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to microgravity causes significant mechanical unloading of mammalian tissues, resulting in rapid alterations of their physiology, which poses a significant risk for long-duration manned spaceflight. The immediate degenerative effects of spaceflight we understand best are those studied during short-term low-Earth-orbit experiments, and include rapid microgravity-adaptive bone and muscle loss, loss of cardiovascular capacity, defects in wound and bone fracture healing, and impaired immune function. Over the long-term, exposure to microgravity may cause severe deficits in mammalian stem cell-based tissue regenerative health, including, osteogenesis, hematopoiesis, and lymphopoeisis, as well as cause significant stem cell-based tissue degeneration in amphibian tail and lens regeneration. To address the needs for stem cell and other cell science research on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA has developed the new Bioculture System that will allow investigators to initiate and conduct on-orbit experiments that astronauts will be able to monitor and interact with during the course of cell cultures. This cell culture capability combined with advanced technologies for molecular biology and on-orbit measurement of gene expression (WetLab2) and other tools that are now coming online bring the ISS National Laboratory a step closer to becoming a fully functional space laboratory for advancing space biological sciences. PMID:25457968

  2. Stem cell health and tissue regeneration in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Sato, Kevin; Almeida, Eduardo A C

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes significant mechanical unloading of mammalian tissues, resulting in rapid alterations of their physiology, which poses a significant risk for long-duration manned spaceflight. The immediate degenerative effects of spaceflight we understand best are those studied during short-term low-Earth-orbit experiments, and include rapid microgravity-adaptive bone and muscle loss, loss of cardiovascular capacity, defects in wound and bone fracture healing, and impaired immune function. Over the long-term, exposure to microgravity may cause severe deficits in mammalian stem cell-based tissue regenerative health, including, osteogenesis, hematopoiesis, and lymphopoeisis, as well as cause significant stem cell-based tissue degeneration in amphibian tail and lens regeneration. To address the needs for stem cell and other cell science research on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA has developed the new Bioculture System that will allow investigators to initiate and conduct on-orbit experiments that astronauts will be able to monitor and interact with during the course of cell cultures. This cell culture capability combined with advanced technologies for molecular biology and on-orbit measurement of gene expression (WetLab2) and other tools that are now coming online bring the ISS National Laboratory a step closer to becoming a fully functional space laboratory for advancing space biological sciences.

  3. Perspectives of gene therapy in stem cell tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart; Riedel, Katrin; Hormann, Karl; Riedel, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. It is hoped that forming tissue de novo will overcome many problems in plastic surgery associated with such areas as wound healing and the immunogenicity of transplanted tissue that lead to dysfunctional repair. Gene therapy is the science of the transfer of genetic material into individuals for therapeutic purposes by altering cellular function or structure at the molecular level. Recently, tissue engineering has been used in conjunction with gene therapy as a hybrid approach. This combination of stem-cell-based tissue engineering with gene therapy has the potential to provide regenerative tissue cells within an environment of optimal regulatory protein expression and would have many benefits in various areas such as the transplantation of skin, cartilage or bone. The aim of this review is to outline tissue engineering and possible applications of gene therapy in the field of biomedical engineering as well as basic principles of gene therapy, vectors and gene delivery.

  4. Natural ECM as biomaterial for scaffold based cardiac regeneration using adult bone marrow derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sreejit, P; Verma, R S

    2013-04-01

    Cellular therapy using stem cells for cardiac diseases has recently gained much interest in the scientific community due to its potential in regenerating damaged and even dead tissue and thereby restoring the organ function. Stem cells from various sources and origin are being currently used for regeneration studies directly or along with differentiation inducing agents. Long term survival and minimal side effects can be attained by using autologous cells and reduced use of inducing agents. Cardiomyogenic differentiation of adult derived stem cells has been previously reported using various inducing agents but the use of a potentially harmful DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) has been found to be critical in almost all studies. Alternate inducing factors and conditions/stimulant like physical condition including electrical stimulation, chemical inducers and biological agents have been attempted by numerous groups to induce cardiac differentiation. Biomaterials were initially used as artificial scaffold in in vitro studies and later as a delivery vehicle. Natural ECM is the ideal biological scaffold since it contains all the components of the tissue from which it was derived except for the living cells. Constructive remodeling can be performed using such natural ECM scaffolds and stem cells since, the cells can be delivered to the site of infraction and once delivered the cells adhere and are not "lost". Due to the niche like conditions of ECM, stem cells tend to differentiate into tissue specific cells and attain several characteristics similar to that of functional cells even in absence of any directed differentiation using external inducers. The development of niche mimicking biomaterials and hybrid biomaterial can further advance directed differentiation without specific induction. The mechanical and electrical integration of these materials to the functional tissue is a problem to be addressed. The search for the perfect extracellular matrix for

  5. Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging

    PubMed Central

    Fukada, So-ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the “free radical theory of aging” to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

  6. Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration: Wnt signaling and stem cell control.

    PubMed

    Clevers, Hans; Loh, Kyle M; Nusse, Roel

    2014-10-01

    Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified, which constrains them to act as short-range cellular signals. The locality of Wnt signaling dictates that stem cells exiting the Wnt signaling domain differentiate, spatially delimiting the niche in certain tissues. In some instances, stem cells may act as or generate their own niche, enabling the self-organization of patterned tissues. In this Review, we discuss the various ways by which Wnt operates in stem cell control and, in doing so, identify an integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration.

  7. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: stem cell transplantation methods that enhance stemness.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Tajima, Satoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2015-11-05

    Because of their ease of isolation and relative abundance, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a particularly attractive autologous cell source for various therapeutic purposes. ASCs retain a high proliferation capacity in vitro and have the ability to undergo extensive differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, ASCs secrete a wide range of growth factors that can stimulate tissue regeneration. Therefore, the clinical use of ASCs is feasible. However, the potential of ASCs differs depending on the donor's medical condition, including diseases such as diabetes. Recent studies demonstrated that ASCs from diabetic donors exhibit reduced proliferative potential and a smaller proportion of stem cell marker-positive cells. Therefore, to ensure the success of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering methods must be improved by the incorporation of factors that increase the proliferation and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells when autologous cells are used. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which contains high levels of diverse growth factors that can stimulate stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation in the context of tissue regeneration, has recently been identified as a biological material that could be applied to tissue regeneration. Thus, co-transplantation of ASCs and PRP represents a promising novel approach for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. In this review, we describe the potential benefits of adding PRP to ASCs and preclinical and clinical studies of this approach in various medical fields. We also discuss the mechanisms of PRP action and future cell-based therapies using co-transplantation of ASCs and PRP.

  8. Aneuploidy impairs hematopoietic stem cell fitness and is selected against in regenerating tissues in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Sarah J; Silberman, Rebecca E; Knouse, Kristin A; Amon, Angelika

    2016-06-15

    Aneuploidy, an imbalanced karyotype, is a widely observed feature of cancer cells that has long been hypothesized to promote tumorigenesis. Here we evaluate the fitness of cells with constitutional trisomy or chromosomal instability (CIN) in vivo using hematopoietic reconstitution experiments. We did not observe cancer but instead found that aneuploid hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit decreased fitness. This reduced fitness is due at least in part to the decreased proliferative potential of aneuploid hematopoietic cells. Analyses of mice with CIN caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the gene Bub1b further support the finding that aneuploidy impairs cell proliferation in vivo. Whereas nonregenerating adult tissues are highly aneuploid in these mice, HSCs and other regenerative adult tissues are largely euploid. These findings indicate that, in vivo, mechanisms exist to select against aneuploid cells.

  9. Recents patents for isolating, delivering and tracking adult stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2010-06-01

    The field of regenerative medicine offers nowadays the potential to significantly impact a wide spectrum of healthcare issues, from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes, T1D) to cardiovascular disease. In tissue engineering biomaterials, biological factors, regeneration competent cells are used in the process of creating functional tissue. Regarding the type of stem or progenitor cells which represents the best candidate for therapy, embryonic stem cells have been considered the master cells capable of differentiating into every type of cells either in vitro or in vivo, in spite of serious ethical concerns. Nevertheless experimental evidence suggests that adult stem cells and even terminally differentiated somatic cells under appropriate microenvironmental treatments can be reprogrammed and contribute to a much wider spectrum of differentiated progeny than previously anticipated. One of the main goals is to exploit novel technologies aiming to isolate, expand and enrich sources of regeneration competent cells, especially adult somatic stem cells. Researchers are also trying to develop innovative strategies for effectively delivering regenerative cell populations and to implement 'tracking' tools to verify their engraftment and destiny in vivo. Here we review recent patents on the field issued over the past five years.

  10. Engineering tissue for the fetus: stem cells and matrix signalling.

    PubMed

    De Coppi, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Congenital malformations are major causes of disease and death during the first years of life and, most of the time, functional replacement of the missing or damaged organs remains an unmet clinical need. Particularly relevant for the treatment of congenital malformation would be to collect the stem cells at diagnosis, before birth, to be able to intervene during the gestation or in the neonatal period. Human AFSCs (amniotic fluid stem cells), which have characteristics intermediate between those of embryonic and adult stem cells, have been isolated. c-Kit+Lin- cells derived from amniotic fluid display a multilineage haemopoietic potential and they can be easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent status. Although, in the future, we hope to use cells derived from the amniotic fluid, we and others have proved recently that simple organs such as the trachea can be engineered using adult progenitors utilizing decellularized cadaveric matrices. A similar approach could be used in the future for more complex organs such as the muscles, intestines or lungs.

  11. Solutes in the free space of growing stem tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.; Cleland, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of osmotically active solutes in the cell wall free space of young stem tissues was studied using a variety of extraction methods. When the intercellular air spaces of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) internodes were perfused with distilled H/sub 2/O, the resulting solution contained a solute concentration of about 70 milliosmoles per kilogram. A second procedure involving vacuum infiltration of segments followed by centrifugation to collect the free space solution gave similar results. Apical stem segments yielded free space extracts about twice as concentrated as those from basal portions of the stem. After correcting for dilution of the free space solution by the infiltrated water, the osmotic pressure of the undiluted free space in pea stem tissue was estimated to be 2.9 bars for apical segments, 1.8 bars for basal regions. These values may be somewhat overestimated due to solute efflux from intracellular pools during the extraction procedure. Similar results were obtained for stem regions of etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. From measurements of the electrical conductivity and refractive index of free space extracts before and after ashing, it appears that 25% of the solutes are inorganic electrolytes and 75% are organic nonelectrolytes with an average size similar to that of glucose. A significant osmotic pressure in the wall space offers an explanation for the frequent observation that nontranspiring plants have negative water potentials. Calculations of hydraulic resistance from water potential data must take into account solutes in the free space, else apparent, but unreal, changes in resistance may be calculated. 27 references, 4 tables.

  12. Regulatory System for Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches in the Adult Rodent Pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue composed of five types of endocrine cells. Although the turnover rate of pituitary endocrine cells is as low as about 1.6% per day, recent studies have demonstrated that Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2)+-cells exist as pituitary stem/progenitor cells in the adult anterior lobe and contribute to cell regeneration. Notably, SOX2+-pituitary stem/progenitor cells form two types of niches in this tissue: the marginal cell layer (MCL-niche) and the dense cell clusters scattering in the parenchyma (parenchymal-niche). However, little is known about the mechanisms and factors for regulating the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches, as well as the functional differences between the two types of niches. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms in the niches might enable us to understand the cell regeneration system that acts in accordance with physiological demands in the adult pituitary. In this review, so as to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of the two types of niche, we summarize the regulatory factors and their roles in the adult rodent pituitary niches by focusing on three components: soluble factors, cell surface proteins and extracellular matrixes. PMID:26761002

  13. Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Adult Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Parmesar, Kevon; Raj, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a well-established treatment option for both hematological malignancies and nonmalignant conditions such as aplastic anemia and haemoglobinopathies. For those patients lacking a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor, haploidentical donors are an alternative expedient donor pool. Historically, haploidentical transplantation led to high rates of graft rejection and GVHD. Strategies to circumvent these issues include T cell depletion and management of complications thereof or T replete transplants with GVHD prophylaxis. This review is an overview of these strategies and contemporaneous outcomes for hematological malignancies in adult haploidentical stem cell transplant recipients. PMID:27313619

  14. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness

    PubMed Central

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung. PMID:24520532

  15. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness.

    PubMed

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-06-20

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung.

  16. Regenerative repair of damaged meniscus with autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Sang Hee

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as pluripotent cells found in numerous human tissues, including bone marrow and adipose tissue. Such MSCs, isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue, have been shown to differentiate into bone and cartilage, along with other types of tissues. Therefore, MSCs represent a promising new therapy in regenerative medicine. The initial treatment of meniscus tear of the knee is managed conservatively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy. When such conservative treatment fails, an arthroscopic resection of the meniscus is necessary. However, the major drawback of the meniscectomy is an early onset of osteoarthritis. Therefore, an effective and noninvasive treatment for patients with continuous knee pain due to damaged meniscus has been sought. Here, we present a review, highlighting the possible regenerative mechanisms of damaged meniscus with MSCs (especially adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs)), along with a case of successful repair of torn meniscus with significant reduction of knee pain by percutaneous injection of autologous ASCs into an adult human knee.

  17. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations.

  18. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations. PMID:27523415

  19. Donor age negatively impacts adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell expansion and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human adipose tissue is an ideal autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for various regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies. Aged patients are one of the primary target populations for many promising applications. It has long been known that advanced age is negatively correlated with an organism’s reparative and regenerative potential, but little and conflicting information is available about the effects of age on the quality of human adipose tissue derived MSCs (hAT-MSCs). Methods To study the influence of age, the expansion and in vitro differentiation potential of hAT-MSCs from young (<30 years), adult (35-50 years) and aged (>60 years) individuals were investigated. MSCs were characterized for expression of the genes p16INK4a and p21 along with measurements of population doublings (PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, cellular senescence and differentiation potential. Results Aged MSCs displayed senescent features when compared with cells isolated from young donors, concomitant with reduced viability and proliferation. These features were also associated with significantly reduced differentiation potential in aged MSCs compared to young MSCs. Conclusions In conclusion, advancing age negatively impacts stem cell function and such age related alterations may be detrimental for successful stem cell therapies. PMID:24397850

  20. Stem cells and cartilage development: complexities of a simple tissue.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anthony P; Dickinson, Sally C; Kafienah, Wael

    2010-11-01

    Cartilage is considered to be a simple tissue that should be easy to engineer because it is avascular and contains just one cell type, the chondrocyte. Despite this apparent simplicity, regenerating cartilage in a form that can function effectively after implantation in the joint has proven difficult. This may be because we have not fully appreciated the importance of different structural regions of articular cartilage or of understanding the origins of chondrocytes and how this cell population is maintained in the normal tissue. This review considers what is known about different regions of cartilage and the types of stem cells in articulating joints and emphasizes the potential importance of regeneration of the lamina splendens at the joint surface and calcified cartilage at the junction with bone for long-term survival of regenerated tissue in vivo. PMID:20882533

  1. Regenerative medicine using adult neural stem cells: the potential for diabetes therapy and other pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Asashima, Makoto

    2012-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs), which are responsible for continuous neurogenesis during the adult stage, are present in human adults. The typical neurogenic regions are the hippocampus and the subventricular zone; recent studies have revealed that NSCs also exist in the olfactory bulb. Olfactory bulb-derived neural stem cells (OB NSCs) have the potential to be used in therapeutic applications and can be easily harvested without harm to the patient. Through the combined influence of extrinsic cues and innate programming, adult neurogenesis is a finely regulated process occurring in a specialized cellular environment, a niche. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of adult NSCs and their cellular niche is not only important to understand the physiological roles of neurogenesis in adulthood, but also to provide the knowledge necessary for developing new therapeutic applications using adult NSCs in other organs with similar regulatory environments. Diabetes is a devastating disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. Numerous diabetic patients suffer increased symptom severity after the onset, involving complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Therefore, the development of treatments for fundamental diabetes is important. The utilization of autologous cells from patients with diabetes may address challenges regarding the compatibility of donor tissues as well as provide the means to naturally and safely restore function, reducing future risks while also providing a long-term cure. Here, we review recent findings regarding the use of adult OB NSCs as a potential diabetes cure, and discuss the potential of OB NSC-based pharmaceutical applications for neuronal diseases and mental disorders.

  2. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in neural regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Da-Chuan; Chan, Tzu-Min; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Lin, Zung-Sheng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have two essential characteristics with regard to regenerative medicine: the convenient and efficient generation of large numbers of multipotent cells and in vitro proliferation without a loss of stemness. The implementation of clinical trials has prompted widespread concern regarding safety issues and has shifted research toward the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in dealing with neural degeneration in cases such as stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, cavernous nerve injury, and traumatic brain injury. Most existing studies have reported that cell therapies may be able to replenish lost cells and promote neuronal regeneration, protect neuronal survival, and play a role in overcoming permanent paralysis and loss of sensation and the recovery of neurological function. The mechanisms involved in determining therapeutic capacity remain largely unknown; however, this concept can still be classified in a methodical manner by citing current evidence. Possible mechanisms include the following: 1) the promotion of angiogenesis, 2) the induction of neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis, 3) reductions in reactive gliosis, 4) the inhibition of apoptosis, 5) the expression of neurotrophic factors, 6) immunomodulatory function, and 7) facilitating neuronal integration. In this study, several human clinical trials using ADSCs for neuronal disorders were investigated. It is suggested that ADSCs are one of the choices among various stem cells for translating into clinical application in the near future.

  3. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in neural regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Da-Chuan; Chan, Tzu-Min; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Lin, Zung-Sheng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have two essential characteristics with regard to regenerative medicine: the convenient and efficient generation of large numbers of multipotent cells and in vitro proliferation without a loss of stemness. The implementation of clinical trials has prompted widespread concern regarding safety issues and has shifted research toward the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in dealing with neural degeneration in cases such as stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, cavernous nerve injury, and traumatic brain injury. Most existing studies have reported that cell therapies may be able to replenish lost cells and promote neuronal regeneration, protect neuronal survival, and play a role in overcoming permanent paralysis and loss of sensation and the recovery of neurological function. The mechanisms involved in determining therapeutic capacity remain largely unknown; however, this concept can still be classified in a methodical manner by citing current evidence. Possible mechanisms include the following: 1) the promotion of angiogenesis, 2) the induction of neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis, 3) reductions in reactive gliosis, 4) the inhibition of apoptosis, 5) the expression of neurotrophic factors, 6) immunomodulatory function, and 7) facilitating neuronal integration. In this study, several human clinical trials using ADSCs for neuronal disorders were investigated. It is suggested that ADSCs are one of the choices among various stem cells for translating into clinical application in the near future. PMID:25647067

  4. Intra-Operatively Obtained Human Tissue: Protocols and Techniques for the Study of Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaichana, Kaisorn; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Zamora-Berridi, Grettel; Achanta, Praganthi; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Jallo, George I.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The discoveries of neural (NSCs) and brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) in the adult human brain and in brain tumors, respectively, have led to a new era in neuroscience research. These cells represent novel approaches to studying normal phenomena such as memory and learning, as well as pathological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and brain tumors. This new paradigm stresses the importance of understanding how these cells behave in vitro and in vivo. It also stresses the need to use human-derived tissue to study human disease because animal models may not necessarily accurately replicate the processes that occur in humans. An important, but often underused, source of human tissue and, consequently, both NSCs and BTSCs, is the operating room. This study describes in detail both current and newly developed laboratory techniques, which in our experience are used to process and study human NSCs and BTSCs from tissue obtained directly from the operating room. PMID:19427538

  5. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-02-18

    Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncovers the key role this identity has in controlling organ size, reproductive plasticity and response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms that control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognized. PMID:26887495

  6. The sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells controls organ size and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hudry, Bruno; Khadayate, Sanjay; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realisation that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles1,2. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and significance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncover its key roles in controlling organ size, its reproductive plasticity and its response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms, which control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognised. PMID:26887495

  7. Arsenic, stem cells, and the developmental basis of adult cancer.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Erik J; Qu, Wei; Waalkes, Michael P

    2011-03-01

    That chemical insults or nutritive changes during in utero and/or postnatal life can emerge as diseases much later in life are now being accepted as a recurring phenomenon. In this regard, inorganic arsenic is a multisite human carcinogen found at high levels in the drinking water of millions of people, although it has been difficult until recently to produce tumors in rodents with this metalloid. A mouse transplacental model has been developed where maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic either acts as a complete carcinogen or enhances carcinogenic response to other agents given subsequently in the offspring, producing tumors during adulthood. Similarly, human data now have emerged showing that arsenic exposure during the in utero period and/or in early life is associated with cancer in adulthood. The mouse arsenic transplacental model produces tumors or enhances response to other agents in multiple strains and tissues, including sites concordant with human targets of arsenic carcinogenesis. It is now believed that cancer often is a stem cell (SC)-based disease, and there is no reason to think cancer induced by developmental chemical exposure is any different. Indeed, arsenic impacts human SC population dynamics in vitro by blocking exit into differentiation pathways and whereby creating more key targets for transformation. In fact, during in vitro malignant transformation, arsenic causes a remarkable survival selection of SCs, creating a marked overabundance of cancer SCs (CSCs) compared with other carcinogens once a cancer phenotype is obtained. In addition, skin cancers produced following in utero arsenic exposure in mice are highly enriched in CSCs. Thus, arsenic impacts key, long-lived SC populations as critical targets to cause or facilitate later oncogenic events in adulthood as a possible mechanism of developmental basis of adult disease.

  8. Arsenic, Stem Cells, and the Developmental Basis of Adult Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Erik J.; Qu, Wei; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    That chemical insults or nutritive changes during in utero and/or postnatal life can emerge as diseases much later in life are now being accepted as a recurring phenomenon. In this regard, inorganic arsenic is a multisite human carcinogen found at high levels in the drinking water of millions of people, although it has been difficult until recently to produce tumors in rodents with this metalloid. A mouse transplacental model has been developed where maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic either acts as a complete carcinogen or enhances carcinogenic response to other agents given subsequently in the offspring, producing tumors during adulthood. Similarly, human data now have emerged showing that arsenic exposure during the in utero period and/or in early life is associated with cancer in adulthood. The mouse arsenic transplacental model produces tumors or enhances response to other agents in multiple strains and tissues, including sites concordant with human targets of arsenic carcinogenesis. It is now believed that cancer often is a stem cell (SC)–based disease, and there is no reason to think cancer induced by developmental chemical exposure is any different. Indeed, arsenic impacts human SC population dynamics in vitro by blocking exit into differentiation pathways and whereby creating more key targets for transformation. In fact, during in vitro malignant transformation, arsenic causes a remarkable survival selection of SCs, creating a marked overabundance of cancer SCs (CSCs) compared with other carcinogens once a cancer phenotype is obtained. In addition, skin cancers produced following in utero arsenic exposure in mice are highly enriched in CSCs. Thus, arsenic impacts key, long-lived SC populations as critical targets to cause or facilitate later oncogenic events in adulthood as a possible mechanism of developmental basis of adult disease. PMID:21071725

  9. Adult Palatum as a Novel Source of Neural Crest-Related Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Darius; Zander, Christin; Heidbreder, Meike; Kasperek, Yvonne; Noll, Thomas; Seitz, Oliver; Saldamli, Belma; Sudhoff, Holger; Sader, Robert; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Somatic neural and neural crest stem cells are promising sources for cellular therapy of several neurodegenerative diseases. However, because of practical considerations such as inadequate accessibility of the source material, the application of neural crest stem cells is strictly limited. The secondary palate is a highly regenerative and heavily innervated tissue, which develops embryonically under direct contribution of neural crest cells. Here, we describe for the first time the presence of nestin-positive neural crest-related stem cells within Meissner corpuscles and Merkel cell-neurite complexes located in the hard palate of adult Wistar rats. After isolation, palatal neural crest-related stem cells (pNC-SCs) were cultivated in the presence of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor under serum-free conditions, resulting in large amounts of neurospheres. We used immunocytochemical techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression profile of pNC-SCs. In addition to the expression of neural crest stem cell markers such as Nestin, Sox2, and p75, we detected the expression of Klf4, Oct4, and c-Myc. pNC-SCs differentiated efficiently into neuronal and glial cells. Finally, we investigated the potential expression of stemness markers within the human palate. We identified expression of stem cell markers nestin and CD133 and the transcription factors needed for reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells: Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc. These data show that cells isolated from palatal rugae form neurospheres, are highly plastic, and express neural crest stem cell markers. In addition, pNC-SCs may have the ability to differentiate into functional neurons and glial cells, serving as a starting point for therapeutic studies. Stem Cells 2009;27:1899–1910 PMID:19544446

  10. Nano-regenerative medicine towards clinical outcome of stem cell and tissue engineering in humans

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pooja; Sindhu, Annu; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Chaudhury, Ashok; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing area of research that aims to create nanomaterials or nanostructures development in stem cell and tissue-based therapies. Concepts and discoveries from the fields of bio nano research provide exciting opportunities of using stem cells for regeneration of tissues and organs. The application of nanotechnology to stem-cell biology would be able to address the challenges of disease therapeutics. This review covers the potential of nanotechnology approaches towards regenerative medicine. Furthermore, it focuses on current aspects of stem- and tissue-cell engineering. The magnetic nanoparticles-based applications in stem-cell research open new frontiers in cell and tissue engineering. PMID:22260258

  11. Biology of the adult enteric neural stem cell.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Mondaca, Sandino; Carreón-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has accumulated in recent years supporting the existence of neural stem cells in the adult gut. There are at least three groups that have obtained them using different methodologies and have described them in vitro. There is a growing amount of knowledge on their biology, but many questions are yet unanswered. Among these questions is whether these cells are part of a permanent undifferentiated pool or are recruited in a regular basis; in addition, the factors and genes involved in their survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation are largely unknown. Finally, with between 10 and 20% of adults suffering from diseases involving the enteric nervous system, most notably irritable bowel syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux, what is the possible role of enteric nervous stem cells in health and disease?

  12. Neural stem cells in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    For decades, it was believed that the adult brain was a quiescent organ unable to produce new neurons. At the beginning of the1960's, this dogma was challenged by a small group of neuroscientists. To date, it is well-known that new neurons are generated in the adult brain throughout life. Adult neurogenesis is primary confined to the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus. In both the human and the rodent brain, the primary progenitor of adult SVZ is a subpopulation of astrocytes that have stem-cell-like features. The human SVZ possesses a peculiar cell composition and displays important organizational differences when compared to the SVZ of other mammals. Some evidence suggests that the human SVZ may be not only an endogenous source of neural precursor cells for brain repair, but also a source of brain tumors. In this review, we described the cytoarchitecture and cellular composition of the SVZ in the adult human brain. We also discussed some clinical implications of SVZ, such as: stem-cell-based therapies against neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a source of malignant cells. Understanding the biology of human SVZ and its neural progenitors is one of the crucial steps to develop novel therapies against neurological diseases in humans. PMID:23181200

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of adult stem cells: Comparison of random and immortal-strand segregation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Sherley, James L.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2005-04-01

    This paper develops a point-mutation model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a population of adult stem cells. Such a model may prove useful for quantitative studies of tissue aging and the emergence of cancer. We consider two modes of chromosome segregation: (1) random segregation, where the daughter chromosomes of a given parent chromosome segregate randomly into the stem cell and its differentiating sister cell and (2) “immortal DNA strand” co-segregation, for which the stem cell retains the daughter chromosomes with the oldest parent strands. Immortal strand co-segregation is a mechanism, originally proposed by [Cairns Nature (London) 255, 197 (1975)], by which stem cells preserve the integrity of their genomes. For random segregation, we develop an ordered strand pair formulation of the dynamics, analogous to the ordered strand pair formalism developed for quasispecies dynamics involving semiconservative replication with imperfect lesion repair (in this context, lesion repair is taken to mean repair of postreplication base-pair mismatches). Interestingly, a similar formulation is possible with immortal strand co-segregation, despite the fact that this segregation mechanism is age dependent. From our model we are able to mathematically show that, when lesion repair is imperfect, then immortal strand co-segregation leads to better preservation of the stem cell lineage than random chromosome segregation. Furthermore, our model allows us to estimate the optimal lesion repair efficiency for preserving an adult stem cell population for a given period of time. For human stem cells, we obtain that mispaired bases still present after replication and cell division should be left untouched, to avoid potentially fixing a mutation in both DNA strands.

  14. PW1 gene/paternally expressed gene 3 (PW1/Peg3) identifies multiple adult stem and progenitor cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Vanessa; Smeriglio, Piera; Wegener, Amélie; Relaix, Frédéric; Nait Oumesmar, Brahim; Sassoon, David A.; Marazzi, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    A variety of markers are invaluable for identifying and purifying stem/progenitor cells. Here we report the generation of a murine reporter line driven by Pw1 that reveals cycling and quiescent progenitor/stem cells in all adult tissues thus far examined, including the intestine, blood, testis, central nervous system, bone, skeletal muscle, and skin. Neurospheres generated from the adult PW1-reporter mouse show near 100% reporter-gene expression following a single passage. Furthermore, epidermal stem cells can be purified solely on the basis of reporter-gene expression. These cells are clonogenic, repopulate the epidermal stem-cell niches, and give rise to new hair follicles. Finally, we demonstrate that only PW1 reporter-expressing epidermal cells give rise to follicles that are capable of self-renewal following injury. Our data demonstrate that PW1 serves as an invaluable marker for competent self-renewing stem cells in a wide array of adult tissues, and the PW1-reporter mouse serves as a tool for rapid stem cell isolation and characterization. PMID:21709251

  15. Perivascular Stem Cells: A Prospectively Purified Mesenchymal Stem Cell Population for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    James, Aaron W.; Zara, Janette N.; Zhang, Xinli; Askarinam, Asal; Goyal, Raghav; Chiang, Michael; Yuan, Wei; Chang, Le; Corselli, Mirko; Shen, Jia; Pang, Shen; Stoker, David; Wu, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering: it is largely dispensable and readily accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which leads to unreliable bone formation. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from adipose tissue and compared their bone-forming capacity with that of traditionally derived SVF. PSCs are a population (sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) of pericytes (CD146+CD34−CD45−) and adventitial cells (CD146−CD34+CD45−), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we found that PSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation in vitro and formed bone after intramuscular implantation without the need for predifferentiation. We next sought to optimize PSCs for in vivo bone formation, adopting a demineralized bone matrix for osteoinduction and tricalcium phosphate particle formulation for protein release. Patient-matched, purified PSCs formed significantly more bone in comparison with traditionally derived SVF by all parameters. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 increased in vivo bone formation but with a massive adipogenic response. In contrast, recombinant Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL-1; a novel osteoinductive growth factor) selectively enhanced bone formation. These studies suggest that adipose-derived human PSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, PSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy. Finally, NELL-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce human PSC osteogenesis. PMID:23197855

  16. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria.

  17. Equal modulation of endothelial cell function by four distinct tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Zhou, Bin; Pu, William T; Melero-Martin, Juan M

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can generate multiple end-stage mesenchymal cell types and constitute a promising population of cells for regenerative therapies. Additionally, there is increasing evidence supporting other trophic activities of MSCs, including the ability to enable formation of vasculature in vivo. Although MSCs were originally isolated from the bone marrow, the presence of these cells in the stromal vascular fraction of multiple adult tissues has been recently recognized. However, it is unknown whether the capacity to modulate vasculogenesis is ubiquitous to all MSCs regardless of their tissue of origin. Here, we demonstrated that tissue-resident MSCs isolated from four distinct tissues have equal capacity to modulate endothelial cell function, including formation of vascular networks in vivo. MSCs were isolated from four murine tissues, including bone marrow, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and myocardium. In culture, all four MSC populations secreted a plethora of pro-angiogenic factors that unequivocally induced proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). In vivo, co-implantation of MSCs with ECFCs into mice generated an extensive network of blood vessels with ECFCs specifically lining the lumens and MSCs occupying perivascular positions. Importantly, there were no differences among all four MSCs evaluated. Our studies suggest that the capacity to modulate the formation of vasculature is a ubiquitous property of all MSCs, irrespective of their original anatomical location. These results validate multiple tissues as potential sources of MSCs for future cell-based vascular therapies.

  18. Localization and osteoblastic differentiation potential of neural crest-derived cells in oral tissues of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ono, Miki; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Gou; Hosono, Tomohiko; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Watahiki, Junichi; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Arata, Satoru; Mishima, Kenji; Nishida, Kohji; Osumi, Noriko; Maki, Koutaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2015-09-01

    In embryos, neural crest cells emerge from the dorsal region of the fusing neural tube and migrate throughout tissues to differentiate into various types of cells including osteoblasts. In adults, subsets of neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) reside as stem cells and are considered to be useful cell sources for regenerative medicine strategies. Numerous studies have suggested that stem cells with a neural crest origin persist into adulthood, especially those within the mammalian craniofacial compartment. However, their distribution as well as capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts in adults is not fully understood. To analyze the precise distribution and characteristics of NCDCs in adult oral tissues, we utilized an established line of double transgenic (P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP) mice in which NCDCs express green fluorescent protein (GFP) throughout their life. GFP-positive cells were scattered like islands throughout tissues of the palate, gingiva, tongue, and buccal mucosa in adult mice, with those isolated from the latter shown to form spheres, typical cell clusters composed of stem cells, under low-adherent conditions. Furthermore, GFP-positive cells had markedly increased alkaline phosphatase (a marker enzyme of osteoblast differentiation) activity and mineralization as shown by alizarin red staining, in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. These results suggest that NCDCs reside in various adult oral tissues and possess potential to differentiate into osteoblastic cells. NCDCs in adults may be a useful cell source for bone regeneration strategies.

  19. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a therapeutic tool for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsu; Fujita, Daishi; Takahashi, Masao; Oba, Shigeyoshi; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki

    2015-08-26

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are adult stem cells that can be easily harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Many studies have demonstrated that ADSCs differentiate into vascular endothelial cells (VECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. However, ADSCs may fuse with tissue-resident cells and obtain the corresponding characteristics of those cells. If fusion occurs, ADSCs may express markers of VECs, VSMCs, and cardiomyocytes without direct differentiation into these cell types. ADSCs also produce a variety of paracrine factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 that have proangiogenic and/or antiapoptotic activities. Thus, ADSCs have the potential to regenerate the cardiovascular system via direct differentiation into VECs, VSMCs, and cardiomyocytes, fusion with tissue-resident cells, and the production of paracrine factors. Numerous animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of ADSC implantation in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), dilated cardiomyopathy, hindlimb ischemia, and stroke. Clinical studies regarding the use of autologous ADSCs for treating patients with AMI and ICM have recently been initiated. ADSC implantation has been reported as safe and effective so far. Therefore, ADSCs appear to be useful for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the tumorigenic potential of ADSCs requires careful evaluation before their safe clinical application.

  20. Planarian regeneration involves distinct stem cell responses to wounds and tissue absence

    PubMed Central

    Wenemoser, Danielle; Reddien, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Regeneration requires signaling from a wound site for detection of the wound, and a mechanism that determines the nature of the injury to specify the appropriate regenerative response. Wound signals and tissue responses to wounds that elicit regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarians are able to regenerate from essentially any type of injury and present a novel system for the study of wound responses in regeneration initiation. Newly developed molecular and cellular tools now enable study of regeneration initiation using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian regeneration requires adult stem cells called neoblasts and amputation triggers two peaks in neoblast mitoses early in regeneration. We demonstrate that the first mitotic peak is a body-wide response to any injury and that a second, local, neoblast response is induced only when injury results in missing tissue. This second response was characterized by recruitment of neoblasts to wounds, even in areas that lack neoblasts in the intact animal. Subsequently, these neoblasts were induced to divide and differentiate near the wound, leading to formation of new tissue. We conclude that there exist two functionally distinct signaling phases of the stem cell wound response that distinguish between simple injury and situations that require the regeneration of missing tissue. PMID:20599901

  1. Hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells and leukemic stem cells in adult myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ashley P

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of myeloproliferative neoplasms has changed dramatically since Dameshek proposed his classification over 50 years ago. Our knowledge of the types of cells which constitute the hematopoietic system and of how they are regulated has also appreciated significantly over this time. This review relates what is currently known about the acquired genetic mutations associated with adult myeloproliferative neoplasms to how they lead to the hematopoietic perturbations of myeloproliferative disease. There is a particular focus on how stem and progenitor cell compartments are affected by BCR-ABL1 and JAK2V617F mutations, and the particular issue of resistance of leukemic stem cells to conventional and targeted therapies. PMID:23013358

  2. The effect of diabetes on the wound healing potential of adipose-tissue derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Yun Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Yoo, Gyeol; Rhie, Jong Won

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus affects the wound-healing-promoting potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells, we designed a wound-healing model using diabetic mice. We compared the degree of wound healing between wounds treated with normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells and wounds treated with diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells. We evaluated the wound-healing rate, the epithelial tongue distance, the area of granulation tissue, the number of capillary and the number of Ki-67-stained cells. The wound-healing rate was significantly higher in the normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells group than in the diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells group; it was also significantly higher in the normal adipose tissue-derived stem cells group than in the control group. Although the diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells group showed a better wound-healing rate than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. Similar trends were observed for the other parameters examined: re-epithelisation and keratinocyte proliferation; granulation tissue formation; and dermal regeneration. However, with regard to the number of capillary, diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells retained their ability to promote neovasculisation and angiogenesis. These results reflect the general impairment of the therapeutic potential of diabetic adipose tissue-derived stem cells in vivo.

  3. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhenhua; Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin; Chen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Y. Alex

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  4. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed

  5. A feedback amplification loop between stem cells and their progeny promotes tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Na; Huang, Huanwei; Cai, Tao; Xi, Rongwen

    2016-01-01

    Homeostatic renewal of many adult tissues requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of local stem cells, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we identified a novel feedback mechanism in controlling intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. Sox21a, a group B Sox protein, is preferentially expressed in the committed progenitor named enteroblast (EB) to promote enterocyte differentiation. In Sox21a mutants, EBs do not divide, but cannot differentiate properly and have increased expression of mitogens, which then act as paracrine signals to promote intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation. This leads to a feedback amplification loop for rapid production of differentiation-defective EBs and tumorigenesis. Notably, in normal intestine following damage, Sox21a is temporally downregulated in EBs to allow the activation of the ISC-EB amplification loop for epithelial repair. We propose that executing a feedback amplification loop between stem cells and their progeny could be a common mechanism underlying tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14330.001 PMID:27187149

  6. [Oro-maxillofacial bone tissue engineering combining biomaterials, stem cells, and gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Myon, L; Ferri, J; Chai, F; Blanchemain, N; Raoul, G

    2011-09-01

    Improvements have been made in regenerative medicine, due to the development of tissue engineering and cellular therapy. Bone regeneration is an ambitious project, leading to many applications involving skull, maxillofacial, and orthopaedic surgery. Scaffolds, stem cells, and signals support bone tissue engineering. The scaffold physical and chemical properties promote cell invasion, guide their differentiation, and enable signal transmission. Scaffold may be inorganic or organic. Their conception was improved by the use of new techniques: self-assembled nanofibres, electrospinning, solution-phase separation, micropatterned hydrogels, bioprinting, and rapid prototyping. Cellular biology processes allow us to choose between embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells for regenerative medicine. Finally, communication between cells and their environment is essential; they use various signals to do so. The study of signals and their transmission led to the discovery and the use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP). The development of cellular therapy led to the emergence of a specific field: gene therapy. It relies on viral vectors, which include: retroviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated vectors (AAV). Non-viral vectors include plasmids and lipoplex. Some BMP genes have successfully been transfected. The ability to control transfected cells and the capacity to combine and transfect many genes involved in osseous healing will improve gene therapy.

  7. Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wallenburg, Marika A.; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.

  8. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor...

  9. Human adipose CD34+ CD90+ stem cells and collagen scaffold constructs grafted in vivo fabricate loose connective and adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Giuseppe A; De Francesco, Francesco; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; Paino, Francesca; Desiderio, Vincenzo; Tirino, Virginia; D'Andrea, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues are of great interest for a high number of diseases. Adult stem cells, instead, are more available, abundant and harvested with minimally invasive procedures. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent progenitors, able to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and adipose tissues. Human adult adipose tissue seems to be the most abundant source of MSCs and, due to its easy accessibility; it is able to give a considerable amount of stem cells. In this study, we selected MSCs co-expressing CD34 and CD90 from adipose tissue. This stem cell population displayed higher proliferative capacity than CD34(-) CD90(-) cells and was able to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes (PPARγ(+) and adiponectin(+)) and endothelial cells (CD31(+) VEGF(+) Flk1(+)). In addition, in methylcellulose without VEGF, it formed a vascular network. The aim of this study was to investigate differentiation potential of human adipose CD34(+) /CD90(+) stem cells loaded onto commercial collagen sponges already used in clinical practice (Gingistat) both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that human adult adipose and loose connective tissues can be obtained in vivo, highlighting that CD34(+) /CD90 ASCs are extremely useful for regenerative medicine.

  10. Characteristics of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells and therapeutic comparisons between syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cell transplantation in experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Wha; Shin, Il Seob; Park, So Young; Yoon, Eun Ji; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we found that the intravenous administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells was a promising therapeutic option for autoimmune thyroiditis even when the cells were transplanted into a xenogeneic model without an immunosuppressant. Therefore, we explored the comparison between the therapeutic effects of syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells on an experimental autoimmune thyroiditis mouse model. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with porcine thyroglobulin. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells derived from C57BL/6 mice (syngeneic) or BALB/c mice (allogeneic) or saline as a vehicle control were administered intravenously four times weekly. Blood and tissue samples were collected 1 week after the last transplantation. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells from mice were able to differentiate into multiple lineages in vitro; however, mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells did not have immunophenotypes identical to those from humans. Syngeneic and allogeneic administrations of adipose tissue-derived stem cells reduced thyroglobulin autoantibodies and the inflammatory immune response, protected against lymphocyte infiltration into the thyroid, and restored the Th1/Th2 balance without any adverse effects. However, different humoral immune responses were observed for infused cells from different stem cell sources. The strongest humoral immune response was induced by xenogeneic transplantation, followed by allogeneic and syngeneic administration, in that order. The stem cells were mostly found in the spleen, not the thyroid. This migration might be because the stem cells primarily function in systemic immune modulation, due to being given prior to disease induction. In this study, we confirmed that there were equal effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in treating autoimmune thyroiditis between syngeneic and allogeneic transplantations.

  11. Quantitative lineage tracing strategies to resolve multipotency in tissue-specific stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Rulands, Steffen; Simons, Benjamin D; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Blanpain, Cédric

    2016-06-01

    Lineage tracing has become the method of choice to study the fate and dynamics of stem cells (SCs) during development, homeostasis, and regeneration. However, transgenic and knock-in Cre drivers used to perform lineage tracing experiments are often dynamically, temporally, and heterogeneously expressed, leading to the initial labeling of different cell types and thereby complicating their interpretation. Here, we developed two methods: the first one based on statistical analysis of multicolor lineage tracing, allowing the definition of multipotency potential to be achieved with high confidence, and the second one based on lineage tracing at saturation to assess the fate of all SCs within a given lineage and the "flux" of cells between different lineages. Our analysis clearly shows that, whereas the prostate develops from multipotent SCs, only unipotent SCs mediate mammary gland (MG) development and adult tissue remodeling. These methods offer a rigorous framework to assess the lineage relationship and SC fate in different organs and tissues. PMID:27284162

  12. Quantitative lineage tracing strategies to resolve multipotency in tissue-specific stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Rulands, Steffen; Simons, Benjamin D.; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Blanpain, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Lineage tracing has become the method of choice to study the fate and dynamics of stem cells (SCs) during development, homeostasis, and regeneration. However, transgenic and knock-in Cre drivers used to perform lineage tracing experiments are often dynamically, temporally, and heterogeneously expressed, leading to the initial labeling of different cell types and thereby complicating their interpretation. Here, we developed two methods: the first one based on statistical analysis of multicolor lineage tracing, allowing the definition of multipotency potential to be achieved with high confidence, and the second one based on lineage tracing at saturation to assess the fate of all SCs within a given lineage and the “flux” of cells between different lineages. Our analysis clearly shows that, whereas the prostate develops from multipotent SCs, only unipotent SCs mediate mammary gland (MG) development and adult tissue remodeling. These methods offer a rigorous framework to assess the lineage relationship and SC fate in different organs and tissues. PMID:27284162

  13. Quantitative lineage tracing strategies to resolve multipotency in tissue-specific stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Rulands, Steffen; Simons, Benjamin D; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Blanpain, Cédric

    2016-06-01

    Lineage tracing has become the method of choice to study the fate and dynamics of stem cells (SCs) during development, homeostasis, and regeneration. However, transgenic and knock-in Cre drivers used to perform lineage tracing experiments are often dynamically, temporally, and heterogeneously expressed, leading to the initial labeling of different cell types and thereby complicating their interpretation. Here, we developed two methods: the first one based on statistical analysis of multicolor lineage tracing, allowing the definition of multipotency potential to be achieved with high confidence, and the second one based on lineage tracing at saturation to assess the fate of all SCs within a given lineage and the "flux" of cells between different lineages. Our analysis clearly shows that, whereas the prostate develops from multipotent SCs, only unipotent SCs mediate mammary gland (MG) development and adult tissue remodeling. These methods offer a rigorous framework to assess the lineage relationship and SC fate in different organs and tissues.

  14. Cell growth characteristics, differentiation frequency, and immunophenotype of adult ear mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Frazier, Trivia P; Rowan, Brian G; Bunnell, Bruce A; Chiu, Ernest S; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Ear mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) represent a readily accessible population of stem-like cells that are adherent, clonogenic, and have the ability to self-renew. Previously, we have demonstrated that they can be induced to differentiate into adipocyte, osteocyte, chondrocyte, and myocyte lineages. The purpose of the current study was to characterize the growth kinetics of the cells and to determine their ability to form colonies of fibroblasts, adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. In addition, the immunophenotypes of freshly isolated and culture-expanded cells were evaluated. From 1 g of tissue, we were able to isolate an average of 7.8 x 10(6) cells exhibiting a cell cycle length of approximately 2-3 days. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays indicated high proliferation potential, and confirmed previously observed multipotentiality of the cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed that EMSCs were negative for hematopoietic markers (CD4, CD45), proving that they did not derive from circulating hematopoietic cells. The FACS analyses also showed high expression of stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) with only a minor population of cells expressing CD117, thus identifying Sca-1 as the more robust stem cell biomarker. Additionally, flow cytometry data revealed that the expression patterns of hematopoietic, stromal, and stem cell markers were maintained in the passaged EMSCs, consistent with the persistence of an undifferentiated state. This study indicates that EMSCs provide an alternative model for in vitro analyses of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further studies will be necessary to determine their utility for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. PMID:19400629

  15. Epidermal stem cells and skin tissue engineering in hair follicle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Balañá, María Eugenia; Charreau, Hernán Eduardo; Leirós, Gustavo José

    2015-05-26

    The reconstitution of a fully organized and functional hair follicle from dissociated cells propagated under defined tissue culture conditions is a challenge still pending in tissue engineering. The loss of hair follicles caused by injuries or pathologies such as alopecia not only affects the patients' psychological well-being, but also endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. It is then of great interest to find different strategies aiming to regenerate or neogenerate the hair follicle under conditions proper of an adult individual. Based upon current knowledge on the epithelial and dermal cells and their interactions during the embryonic hair generation and adult hair cycling, many researchers have tried to obtain mature hair follicles using different strategies and approaches depending on the causes of hair loss. This review summarizes current advances in the different experimental strategies to regenerate or neogenerate hair follicles, with emphasis on those involving neogenesis of hair follicles in adult individuals using isolated cells and tissue engineering. Most of these experiments were performed using rodent cells, particularly from embryonic or newborn origin. However, no successful strategy to generate human hair follicles from adult cells has yet been reported. This review identifies several issues that should be considered to achieve this objective. Perhaps the most important challenge is to provide three-dimensional culture conditions mimicking the structure of living tissue. Improving culture conditions that allow the expansion of specific cells while protecting their inductive properties, as well as methods for selecting populations of epithelial stem cells, should give us the necessary tools to overcome the difficulties that constrain human hair follicle neogenesis. An analysis of patent trends shows that the number of patent applications aimed at hair follicle regeneration and neogenesis has been increasing during the last decade. This

  16. Epidermal stem cells and skin tissue engineering in hair follicle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Balañá, María Eugenia; Charreau, Hernán Eduardo; Leirós, Gustavo José

    2015-01-01

    The reconstitution of a fully organized and functional hair follicle from dissociated cells propagated under defined tissue culture conditions is a challenge still pending in tissue engineering. The loss of hair follicles caused by injuries or pathologies such as alopecia not only affects the patients’ psychological well-being, but also endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. It is then of great interest to find different strategies aiming to regenerate or neogenerate the hair follicle under conditions proper of an adult individual. Based upon current knowledge on the epithelial and dermal cells and their interactions during the embryonic hair generation and adult hair cycling, many researchers have tried to obtain mature hair follicles using different strategies and approaches depending on the causes of hair loss. This review summarizes current advances in the different experimental strategies to regenerate or neogenerate hair follicles, with emphasis on those involving neogenesis of hair follicles in adult individuals using isolated cells and tissue engineering. Most of these experiments were performed using rodent cells, particularly from embryonic or newborn origin. However, no successful strategy to generate human hair follicles from adult cells has yet been reported. This review identifies several issues that should be considered to achieve this objective. Perhaps the most important challenge is to provide three-dimensional culture conditions mimicking the structure of living tissue. Improving culture conditions that allow the expansion of specific cells while protecting their inductive properties, as well as methods for selecting populations of epithelial stem cells, should give us the necessary tools to overcome the difficulties that constrain human hair follicle neogenesis. An analysis of patent trends shows that the number of patent applications aimed at hair follicle regeneration and neogenesis has been increasing during the last decade. This

  17. Epidermal stem cells and skin tissue engineering in hair follicle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Balañá, María Eugenia; Charreau, Hernán Eduardo; Leirós, Gustavo José

    2015-05-26

    The reconstitution of a fully organized and functional hair follicle from dissociated cells propagated under defined tissue culture conditions is a challenge still pending in tissue engineering. The loss of hair follicles caused by injuries or pathologies such as alopecia not only affects the patients' psychological well-being, but also endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. It is then of great interest to find different strategies aiming to regenerate or neogenerate the hair follicle under conditions proper of an adult individual. Based upon current knowledge on the epithelial and dermal cells and their interactions during the embryonic hair generation and adult hair cycling, many researchers have tried to obtain mature hair follicles using different strategies and approaches depending on the causes of hair loss. This review summarizes current advances in the different experimental strategies to regenerate or neogenerate hair follicles, with emphasis on those involving neogenesis of hair follicles in adult individuals using isolated cells and tissue engineering. Most of these experiments were performed using rodent cells, particularly from embryonic or newborn origin. However, no successful strategy to generate human hair follicles from adult cells has yet been reported. This review identifies several issues that should be considered to achieve this objective. Perhaps the most important challenge is to provide three-dimensional culture conditions mimicking the structure of living tissue. Improving culture conditions that allow the expansion of specific cells while protecting their inductive properties, as well as methods for selecting populations of epithelial stem cells, should give us the necessary tools to overcome the difficulties that constrain human hair follicle neogenesis. An analysis of patent trends shows that the number of patent applications aimed at hair follicle regeneration and neogenesis has been increasing during the last decade. This

  18. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  19. Clinical Trials of Adult Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bang, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is considered a potential regenerative strategy for patients with neurologic deficits. Studies involving animal models of ischemic stroke have shown that stem cells transplanted into the brain can lead to functional improvement. With current advances in the understanding regarding the effects of introducing stem cells and their mechanisms of action, several clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been conducted in patients with stroke since 2005, including studies using mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, several clinical trials of the use of adult stem cells to treat ischemic stroke are ongoing. This review presents the status of our understanding of adult stem cells and results from clinical trials, and introduces ongoing clinical studies of adult stem cell therapy in the field of stroke.

  20. Treatment of bladder dysfunction using stem cell or tissue engineering technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Lee, Hong Jun; Song, Yun Seob

    2014-04-01

    Tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation are two important options that may help overcome limitations in the current treatment strategy for bladder dysfunction. Stem cell therapy holds great promise for treating pathophysiology, as well as for urological tissue engineering and regeneration. To date, stem cell therapy in urology has mainly focused on oncology and erectile dysfunction. The therapeutic potency of stem cells (SCs) was originally thought to derive from their ability to differentiate into various cell types including smooth muscle. The main mechanisms of SCs in reconstituting or restoring bladder function are migration, differentiation, and paracrine effects. Nowadays, paracrine effects of stem cells are thought to be more prominent because of their stimulating effects on stem cells and adjacent cells. Studies of stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction have been limited to experimental models and have been less focused on tissue engineering for bladder regeneration. Bladder outlet obstruction is a representative model. Adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and skeletal muscle-derived stem cells or muscle precursor cells are used for transplantation to treat bladder dysfunction. The aim of this study is to review stem cell therapy and updated tissue regeneration as treatments for bladder dysfunction and to provide the current status of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering for bladder dysfunction including its mechanisms and limitations.

  1. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Significance Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it

  2. Concise review: Engineering myocardial tissue: the convergence of stem cells biology and tissue engineering technology.

    PubMed

    Buikema, Jan Willem; Van Der Meer, Peter; Sluijter, Joost P G; Domian, Ibrahim J

    2013-12-01

    Advanced heart failure represents a leading public health problem in the developed world. The clinical syndrome results from the loss of viable and/or fully functional myocardial tissue. Designing new approaches to augment the number of functioning human cardiac muscle cells in the failing heart serve as the foundation of modern regenerative cardiovascular medicine. A number of clinical trials have been performed in an attempt to increase the number of functional myocardial cells by the transplantation of a diverse group of stem or progenitor cells. Although there are some encouraging suggestions of a small early therapeutic benefit, to date, no evidence for robust cell or tissue engraftment has been shown, emphasizing the need for new approaches. Clinically meaningful cardiac regeneration requires the identification of the optimum cardiogenic cell types and their assembly into mature myocardial tissue that is functionally and electrically coupled to the native myocardium. We here review recent advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering and describe how the convergence of these two fields may yield novel approaches for cardiac regeneration.

  3. Endometrial adult/progenitor stem cells: pathogenetic theory and new antiangiogenic approach for endometriosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Pittatore, G; Moggio, A; Benedetto, C; Bussolati, B; Revelli, A

    2014-03-01

    The cyclical arrival of endometrial cells into the abdominal cavity through retrograde flux at menstruation represents the etiopathogenetic basis of endometriosis. The endometrium has peculiar regenerative properties linked to the presence of adult stem cells similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Once in the abdominal cavity, these MSCs could proliferate, invade, and differentiate into endometrial cells, finally generating ectopic implants. As only differentiated endometrial cells, and not endometrial MSCs, possess steroid hormone receptors, MSCs could be responsible for the high rate of persistence/recurrence of the disease after hypoestrogenism-inducing therapies. Even angiogenesis promoted by MSCs could play an important role, as survival and proliferation of endometriotic tissue depend on the formation of new blood vessels. Inhibition of angiogenesis represents, in fact, a new, promising therapeutic approach for the disease. Further, medications directly targeting endometriosis MSCs could be effective, alone or in association with hormonal treatments, in increasing the success of medical treatment.

  4. Inductive interactions mediated by interplay of asymmetric signalling underlie development of adult haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Souilhol, Céline; Gonneau, Christèle; Lendinez, Javier G.; Batsivari, Antoniana; Rybtsov, Stanislav; Wilson, Heather; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Hills, David; Taoudi, Samir; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge preferentially in the ventral domain of the aorta in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) region. Several signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Shh and RA are implicated in this process, yet how these interact to regulate the emergence of HSCs has not previously been described in mammals. Using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we report here that stage-specific reciprocal dorso–ventral inductive interactions and lateral input from the urogenital ridges are required to drive HSC development in the aorta. Our study strongly suggests that these inductive interactions in the AGM region are mediated by the interplay between spatially polarized signalling pathways. Specifically, Shh produced in the dorsal region of the AGM, stem cell factor in the ventral and lateral regions, and BMP inhibitory signals in the ventral tissue are integral parts of the regulatory system involved in the development of HSCs. PMID:26952187

  5. Application of Tissue Microarray Technology to Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Alberto La; Rainoldi, Barnaba; Blasio, Andrea De; Biunno, Ida

    2014-01-01

    There is virtually an unlimited number of possible Tissue Microarray (TMA) applications in basic and clinical research and ultimately in diagnostics. However, to assess the functional importance of novel markers, researchers very often turn to cell line model systems. The appropriate choice of a cell line is often a difficult task, but the use of cell microarray (CMA) technology enables a quick screening of several markers in cells of different origins, mimicking a genomic-scale analysis. In order to improve the morphological evaluations of the CMA slides we harvested the cells by conventional trypsinization, mechanical scraping and cells grown on coverslips. We show that mechanical scraping is a good evaluation method since keeps the real morphology very similar to those grown on coverslips. Immunofluorescence images are of higher quality, facilitating the reading of the biomarker cellular and subcellular localization. Here, we describe CMA technology in stem cell research.

  6. Isolation, culture and analysis of adult subependymal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, Germán; Domingo-Muelas, Ana; Ferrón, Sacri R; Morante-Redolat, José Manuel; Fariñas, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Individual cells dissected from the subependymal neurogenic niche of the adult mouse brain proliferate in medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) as mitogens, to produce multipotent clonal aggregates called neurospheres. These cultures constitute a powerful tool for the study of neural stem cells (NSCs) provided that they allow the analysis of their features and potential capacity in a controlled environment that can be modulated and monitored more accurately than in vivo. Clonogenic and population analyses under mitogen addition or withdrawal allow the quantification of the self-renewing and multilineage potency of these cells and the identification of the mechanisms involved in these properties. Here, we describe a set of procedures developed and/or modified by our group including several experimental options that can be used either independently or in combination for the ex vivo assessment of cell properties of NSCs obtained from the adult subependymal niche. PMID:27016251

  7. The Neurovascular Properties of Dental Stem Cells and Their Importance in Dental Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Jessica; Bronckaers, Annelies; Dillen, Yörg; Gervois, Pascal; Vangansewinkel, Tim; Driesen, Ronald B; Wolfs, Esther; Lambrichts, Ivo; Hilkens, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Given their straightforward and relatively easy isolation from extracted third molars, dental stem cells (DSCs) have become an attractive source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Over the past decade, there have been numerous studies supporting the angiogenic, neuroprotective, and neurotrophic effects of the DSC secretome. Together with their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and neural cell types, this makes DSCs suitable candidates for dental tissue engineering and nerve injury repair. PMID:27688777

  8. The Neurovascular Properties of Dental Stem Cells and Their Importance in Dental Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Jessica; Bronckaers, Annelies; Dillen, Yörg; Gervois, Pascal; Vangansewinkel, Tim; Driesen, Ronald B.; Wolfs, Esther; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Given their straightforward and relatively easy isolation from extracted third molars, dental stem cells (DSCs) have become an attractive source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Over the past decade, there have been numerous studies supporting the angiogenic, neuroprotective, and neurotrophic effects of the DSC secretome. Together with their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and neural cell types, this makes DSCs suitable candidates for dental tissue engineering and nerve injury repair. PMID:27688777

  9. The Neurovascular Properties of Dental Stem Cells and Their Importance in Dental Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Jessica; Bronckaers, Annelies; Dillen, Yörg; Gervois, Pascal; Vangansewinkel, Tim; Driesen, Ronald B.; Wolfs, Esther; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Given their straightforward and relatively easy isolation from extracted third molars, dental stem cells (DSCs) have become an attractive source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Over the past decade, there have been numerous studies supporting the angiogenic, neuroprotective, and neurotrophic effects of the DSC secretome. Together with their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and neural cell types, this makes DSCs suitable candidates for dental tissue engineering and nerve injury repair.

  10. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-10-12

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  11. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Freeman, Jennifer J.; Wieck, Minna M.; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Spence, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. PMID:26459240

  12. Stem cells for hepatic regeneration: the role of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Banas, Agnieszka; Hagiwara, Keitaro; Iwaguro, Hideki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2010-06-01

    Severe hepatic dysfunctions including hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma are life-threatening conditions for which effective medical treatments are needed. With the only effective treatment to date being orthotropic liver transplantation, alternative approaches are needed because of the limited number of donors and the possibility of immune-rejection. One alternative is regenerative medicine, which holds promise for the development of a cell-based therapy enabling hepatic regeneration through transplantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) or hepatocyte-like cells generated from AT-MSCs. When compared with embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, the use of AT-MSCs as regenerative cells would be advantageous in regard to ethical and safety issues since AT-MSCs are somatic cells and have the potential to be used without in vitro culture. These autologous cells are immuno-compatible and exhibit controlled differentiation and multi-functional abilities and do not undergo post-transplantation rejection or unwanted differentiation such as formation of teratomas. AT-MSC-based therapies may provide a novel approach for hepatic regeneration and hepatocyte differentiation and thereby support hepatic function in diseased individuals.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of amniotic membrane stem cells and adipose tissue stem cells in rats with chemically induced ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Hanan; Sabry, Dina; Elsetohy, Khaled; Fathy, Naglaa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare between the therapeutic efficacies of human amniotic membrane-derived stem cells (hAM-MSCs) vs. adipose tissue derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced ovarian failure in rats. Forty-eight adult female rats were included in the study; 10 rats were used as control group. Thirty-eight rats were injected with CTX to induce ovarian failure and divided into four groups: ovarian failure (IOF) (IOF group), IOF + phosphate buffer saline (PBS group), IOF + hAM-MSCs group and IOF + AD-MSCs group. Serum levels of FSH and estradiol (E2) were assessed. Histopathological examination of the ovarian tissues was performed and quantitative gene expressions of Oct-4, Stra8 and integrin beta-1 genes were conducted by quantitative real time PCR. Results showed that IOF and IOF + PBS rat groups exhibited decreased ovarian follicles, increased interstitial fibrosis with significant decrease of serum E2, significant increase serum FSH level and significant down-regulation of Stra8 and integrin beta-1. In hAM-MSCs and AD-MSCs rat groups, there were increased follicles and corpora with evident the presence of oocytes, significant increase in serum E2, significant decrease in serum FSH levels (in hAM-MSCs treated group only) and significant up-regulation of the three studied genes with higher levels in hAM-MSCs treated rats group when compared to AD-MSCs treated rats group. In Conclusion, administration of either hAM-derived MSCs or AD-MSCs exerts a significant therapeutic efficacy in chemotherapy induced ovarian insult in rats. hAM-MSCs exert higher therapeutic efficacy as compared to AD-MSCs. PMID:26966564

  14. The Jak-STAT target Chinmo prevents sex transformation of adult stem cells in the Drosophila testis niche

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing; Wawersik, Matthew; Matunis, Erika L.

    2014-01-01

    Local signals maintain adult stem cells in many tissues. Whether the sexual identity of adult stem cells must also be maintained was not known. In the adult Drosophila testis niche, local Jak-STAT signaling promotes somatic cyst stem cell (CySC) renewal through several effectors, including the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo). Here, we find that Chinmo also prevents feminization of CySCs. Chinmo promotes expression of the canonical male sex determination factor DoublesexM (DsxM) within CySCs and their progeny, and ectopic expression of DsxM in the CySC lineage partially rescues the chinmo sex transformation phenotype, placing Chinmo upstream of DsxM. The Dsx homologue DMRT1 prevents the male-to female conversion of differentiated somatic cells in the adult mammalian testis, but its regulation is not well understood. Our work indicates that sex maintenance occurs in adult somatic stem cells, and that this highly conserved process is governed by effectors of niche signals. PMID:25453558

  15. Enrichment of a bipotent hepatic progenitor cell from naive adult liver tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Natasha; Samuelson, Lisa; Walkup, Maggie H.; Chandrasekaran, Prakash; Gerber, David A.

    2008-02-08

    Background/Aim: Recent interest in the liver stem cell field has led to the identification and characterization of several hepatic progenitor cell populations from fetal and adult tissues. We isolated a hepatic progenitor cell from naive adult liver and the current studies focus on differentiation and growth. Results: A Sca-1{sup +} hepatic progenitor cell was identified within the liver parenchyma. This cell expresses numerous liver related genes and transcription found in the developing and/or adult liver. It is located in the peri-portal region and expresses markers associated with undifferentiated hepatic cell populations, mature hepatocytes and biliary cells which distinguish it from the Sca-1{sup -} fraction. Conclusion: This hepatic progenitor cell from uninjured liver has features of both hepatocytic and biliary populations and demonstrates proliferative potential. Further studies will focus on sca-HPC subsets and conditions that regulate differentiation towards hepatic or biliary lineages.

  16. Adult stem cells for cardiac repair: a choice between skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Haider, Husnain Kh; Sim, Eugene K W

    2006-01-01

    The real promise of a stem cell-based approach for cardiac regeneration and repair lies in the promotion of myogenesis and angiogenesis at the site of the cell graft to achieve both structural and functional benefits. Despite all of the progress and promise in this field, many unanswered questions remain; the answers to these questions will provide the much-needed breakthrough to harness the real benefits of cell therapy for the heart in the clinical perspective. One of the major issues is the choice of donor cell type for transplantation. Multiple cell types with varying potentials have been assessed for their ability to repopulate the infarcted myocardium; however, only the adult stem cells, that is, skeletal myoblasts (SkM) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMC), have been translated from the laboratory bench to clinical use. Which of these two cell types will provide the best option for clinical application in heart cell therapy remains arguable. With results pouring in from the long-term follow-ups of previously conducted phase I clinical studies, and with the onset of phase II clinical trials involving larger population of patients, transplantation of stem cells as a sole therapy without an adjunct conventional revascularization procedure will provide a deeper insight into the effectiveness of this approach. The present article discusses the pros and cons of using SkM and BMC individually or in combination for cardiac repair, and critically analyzes the progress made with each cell type.

  17. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marcos-Campos, Iván; Kahler, David John; Alsalman, Dana; Shang, Linshan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2013-01-01

    Congenital defects, trauma, and disease can compromise the integrity and functionality of the skeletal system to the extent requiring implantation of bone grafts. Engineering of viable bone substitutes that can be personalized to meet specific clinical needs represents a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling, and global gene expression analysis to identify the lines exhibiting strong osteogenic differentiation potential. We then engineered functional bone substitutes by culturing hiPSC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on osteoconductive scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors and confirmed their phenotype stability in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 wk. Molecular analysis confirmed that the maturation of bone substitutes in perfusion bioreactors results in global repression of cell proliferation and an increased expression of lineage-specific genes. These results pave the way for growing patient-specific bone substitutes for reconstructive treatments of the skeletal system and for constructing qualified experimental models of development and disease. PMID:23653480

  18. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marcos-Campos, Iván; Kahler, David John; Alsalman, Dana; Shang, Linshan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2013-05-21

    Congenital defects, trauma, and disease can compromise the integrity and functionality of the skeletal system to the extent requiring implantation of bone grafts. Engineering of viable bone substitutes that can be personalized to meet specific clinical needs represents a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling, and global gene expression analysis to identify the lines exhibiting strong osteogenic differentiation potential. We then engineered functional bone substitutes by culturing hiPSC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on osteoconductive scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors and confirmed their phenotype stability in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 wk. Molecular analysis confirmed that the maturation of bone substitutes in perfusion bioreactors results in global repression of cell proliferation and an increased expression of lineage-specific genes. These results pave the way for growing patient-specific bone substitutes for reconstructive treatments of the skeletal system and for constructing qualified experimental models of development and disease.

  19. TAp63 prevents premature aging by promoting adult stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaohua; Paris, Maryline; Gi, Young Jin; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Cho, Min Soon; Lin, Yu-Li; Biernaskie, Jeffrey A.; Sinha, Satrajit; Prives, Carol; Pevny, Larysa H.; Miller, Freda D.; Flores, Elsa R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The cellular mechanisms that regulate the maintenance of adult tissue stem cells are still largely unknown. We show here that the p53 family member, TAp63, is essential for maintenance of epidermal and dermal precursors and that, in its absence, these precursors senesce and skin ages prematurely. Specifically, we have developed a TAp63 conditional knockout mouse and used it to ablate TAp63 in the germline (TAp63−/−) or in K14-expressing cells in the basal layer of the epidermis (TAp63fl/fl;K14cre+). TAp63−/− mice age prematurely and develop blisters, skin ulcerations, senescence of hair follicle-associated dermal and epidermal cells, and decreased hair morphogenesis. These phenotypes are likely due to loss of TAp63 in dermal and epidermal precursors since both cell types show defective proliferation, early senescence, and genomic instability. These data indicate that TAp63 serves to maintain adult skin stem cells by regulating cellular senescence and genomic stability, thereby preventing premature tissue aging. PMID:19570515

  20. Single adult kidney stem/progenitor cells reconstitute three-dimensional nephron structures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Shinji; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hirofumi

    2015-03-01

    The kidneys are formed during development from two distinct primordial tissues, the metanephric mesenchyme and the ureteric bud. The metanephric mesenchyme develops into the kidney nephron, the minimal functional unit of the kidney. A nephron consists of several segments and regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis in addition to secreting certain hormones. It has been predicted that the kidney will be among the last organs successfully regenerated in vitro due to its complex structure and multiple functions. Here, we show that adult kidney stem/progenitor cells (KS cells), derived from the S3 segment of adult rat kidney nephrons, can reconstitute a three-dimensional kidney-like structure in vitro. Kidney-like structures were formed when a cluster of KS cells was suspended in an extracellular matrix gel and cultured in the presence of several growth factors. Morphological analyses revealed that these kidney-like structures contained every substructure of the kidney, including glomeruli, proximal tubules, the loop of Henle, distal tubules, and collecting ducts, but no vasculature. Our results demonstrate that a cluster of tissue stem/progenitor cells has the ability to reconstitute the minimum unit of its organ of origin by differentiating into specialized cells in the correct location. This process differs from embryonic kidney development, which requires the mutual induction of two different populations of progenitors, metanephric mesenchymal cells and ureteric bud cells.

  1. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Are the Major Source of Multilineage Hematopoiesis in Adult Animals.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Catherine M; Babovic, Sonja; Upadhaya, Samik; Knapp, David J H F; Lavin, Yonit; Lau, Colleen M; Goloborodko, Anton; Feng, Jue; Fujisaki, Joji; Ding, Lei; Mirny, Leonid A; Merad, Miriam; Eaves, Connie J; Reizis, Boris

    2016-09-20

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) sustain long-term reconstitution of hematopoiesis in transplantation recipients, yet their role in the endogenous steady-state hematopoiesis remains unclear. In particular, recent studies suggested that HSCs provide a relatively minor contribution to immune cell development in adults. We directed transgene expression in a fraction of HSCs that maintained reconstituting activity during serial transplantations. Inducible genetic labeling showed that transgene-expressing HSCs gave rise to other phenotypic HSCs, confirming their top position in the differentiation hierarchy. The labeled HSCs rapidly contributed to committed progenitors of all lineages and to mature myeloid cells and lymphocytes, but not to B-1a cells or tissue macrophages. Importantly, labeled HSCs gave rise to more than two-thirds of all myeloid cells and platelets in adult mice, and this contribution could be accelerated by an induced interferon response. Thus, classically defined HSCs maintain immune cell development in the steady state and during systemic cytokine responses. PMID:27590115

  2. Reserve stem cells: Reprogramming of differentiated cells fuels repair, metaplasia, and neoplasia in the adult gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jason C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that differentiated cells can switch fates, especially in vitro, but only recently has there been a critical mass of publications describing the mechanisms adult, post-mitotic cells use in vivo to reverse their differentiation state. We propose that this sort of cellular reprogramming is a fundamental cellular process akin to apoptosis or mitosis. Because reprogramming can invoke regenerative cells from mature cells, it is critical to the longterm maintenance of tissues like the pancreas, which encounter large insults during adulthood but lack constitutively active adult stem cells to repair the damage. However, even in tissues with adult stem cells, like stomach and intestine, reprogramming may allow mature cells to serve as reserve (“quiescent”) stem cells when normal stem cells are compromised. We propose that the potential downside to reprogramming is that it increases risk for cancers that occur late in adulthood. Mature, long-lived cells may have years of exposure to mutagens. Mutations that affect the physiological function of differentiated, post-mitotic cells may lead to apoptosis, but mutations in genes that govern proliferation might not be selected against. Hence, reprogramming with reentry into the cell cycle might unmask those mutations, causing an irreversible progenitor-like, proliferative state. We review recent evidence showing that reprogramming fuels irreversible metaplastic and precancerous proliferations in stomach and pancreas. Finally, we illustrate how we think reprogrammed differentiated cells are likely candidates as cells of origin for cancers of the intestine. PMID:26175494

  3. Autologous tissue patch rich in stem cells created in the subcutaneous tissue

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gomez, Ignacio; Gudehithlu, Krishnamurthy P; Arruda, Jose A L; Singh, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether we could create natural autologous tissue patches in the subcutaneous space for organ repair. METHODS: We implanted the following three types of inert foreign bodies in the subcutaneous tissue of rats to produce autologous tissue patches of different geometries: (1) a large-sized polyvinyl tube (L = 25 mm, internal diameter = 7 mm) sealed at both ends by heat application for obtaining a large flat piece of tissue patch for organ repair; (2) a fine polyvinyl tubing (L = 25 mm, internal diameter = 3 mm) for creating cylindrically shaped grafts for vascular or nerve repair; and (3) a slurry of polydextran particle gel for inducing a bladder-like tissue. Implantation of inert materials was carried out by making a small incision on one or either side of the thoracic-lumbar region of rats. Subcutaneous pockets were created by blunt dissection around the incision into which the inert bodies were inserted (1 or 2 per rat). The incisions were closed with silk sutures, and the animals were allowed to recover. In case of the polydextran gel slurry 5 mL of the slurry was injected in the subcutaneous space using an 18 gauge needle. After implanting the foreign bodies a newly regenerated encapsulating tissue developed around the foreign bodies. The tissues were harvested after 4-42 d of implantation and studied by gross examination, histology, and histochemistry for organization, vascularity, and presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (CD271+CD34+ cells). RESULTS: Implanting a large cylindrically shaped polyvinyl tube resulted in a large flat sheet of tissue that could be tailored to a specific size and shape for use as a tissue patch for repairing large organs. Implanting a smaller sized polyvinyl tube yielded a cylindrical tissue that could be useful for repairing nerves and blood vessels. This type of patch could be obtained in different lengths by varying the length of the implanted tube. Implanting a suspension of inert polydextran suspension

  4. Ultra-structural morphology of long-term cultivated white adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Varga, Ivan; Miko, Michal; Oravcová, Lenka; Bačkayová, Tatiana; Koller, Ján; Danišovič, Ľuboš

    2015-12-01

    White adipose tissue was long perceived as a passive lipid storage depot but it is now considered as an active and important endocrine organ. It also harbours not only adipocytes and vascular cells but also a wide array of immunologically active cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes, which may induce obesity-related inflammation. Recently, adipose tissue has been reported as a source of adult mesenchymal stem cells with wide use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Their relatively non-complicated procurement and collection (often performed as liposuction during aesthetic surgery) and grand plasticity support this idea even more. We focused our research on exploring the issues of isolation and long-term cultivation of mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adipose tissue. Ultra-structural morphology of the cells cultivated in vitro has been studied and analysed in several cultivation time periods and following serial passages--up to 30 passages. In the first passages they had ultra-structural characteristics of cells with high proteosynthetic activity. Within the cytoplasm, big number of small lipid droplets and between them, sparsely placed, small and inconspicuous, electron-dense, lamellar bodies, which resembled myelin figures were observed. The cells from the later passages contained high number of lamellar electron-dense structures, which filled out almost the entire cytoplasm. In between, mitochondria were often found. These bodies were sometimes small and resembled myelin figures, but several of them reached huge dimensions (more than 1 µm) and their lamellar structure was not distinguishable. We did not have an answer to the question about their function, but they probably represented the evidence of active metabolism of lipids present in the cytoplasm of these cells or represented residual bodies, which arise after the breakdown of cellular organelles, notably mitochondria during long-term cultivation.

  5. Dissimilar differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rebelatto, C K; Aguiar, A M; Moretão, M P; Senegaglia, A C; Hansen, P; Barchiki, F; Oliveira, J; Martins, J; Kuligovski, C; Mansur, F; Christofis, A; Amaral, V F; Brofman, P S; Goldenberg, S; Nakao, L S; Correa, A

    2008-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as promising candidates for use in new cell-based therapeutic strategies such as mesenchyme-derived tissue repair. MSCs are easily isolated from adult tissues and are not ethically restricted. MSC-related literature, however, is conflicting in relation to MSC differentiation potential and molecular markers. Here we compared MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and adipose tissue (AT). The isolation efficiency for both BM and AT was 100%, but that from UCB was only 30%. MSCs from these tissues are morphologically and immunophenotypically similar although their differentiation diverges. Differentiation to osteoblasts and chondroblasts was similar among MSCs from all sources, as analyzed by cytochemistry. Adipogenic differentiation showed that UCB-derived MSCs produced few and small lipid vacuoles in contrast to those of BM-derived MSCs and AT-derived stem cells (ADSCs) (arbitrary differentiation values of 245.57 +/- 943 and 243.89 +/- 145.52 mum(2) per nucleus, respectively). The mean area occupied by individual lipid droplets was 7.37 mum(2) for BM-derived MSCs and 2.36 mum(2) for ADSCs, a finding indicating more mature adipocytes in BM-derived MSCs than in treated cultures of ADSCs. We analyzed FAPB4, ALP, and type II collagen gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to confirm adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation, respectively. Results showed that all three sources presented a similar capacity for chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation and they differed in their adipogenic potential. Therefore, it may be crucial to predetermine the most appropriate MSC source for future clinical applications.

  6. Dissimilar differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rebelatto, C K; Aguiar, A M; Moretão, M P; Senegaglia, A C; Hansen, P; Barchiki, F; Oliveira, J; Martins, J; Kuligovski, C; Mansur, F; Christofis, A; Amaral, V F; Brofman, P S; Goldenberg, S; Nakao, L S; Correa, A

    2008-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as promising candidates for use in new cell-based therapeutic strategies such as mesenchyme-derived tissue repair. MSCs are easily isolated from adult tissues and are not ethically restricted. MSC-related literature, however, is conflicting in relation to MSC differentiation potential and molecular markers. Here we compared MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and adipose tissue (AT). The isolation efficiency for both BM and AT was 100%, but that from UCB was only 30%. MSCs from these tissues are morphologically and immunophenotypically similar although their differentiation diverges. Differentiation to osteoblasts and chondroblasts was similar among MSCs from all sources, as analyzed by cytochemistry. Adipogenic differentiation showed that UCB-derived MSCs produced few and small lipid vacuoles in contrast to those of BM-derived MSCs and AT-derived stem cells (ADSCs) (arbitrary differentiation values of 245.57 +/- 943 and 243.89 +/- 145.52 mum(2) per nucleus, respectively). The mean area occupied by individual lipid droplets was 7.37 mum(2) for BM-derived MSCs and 2.36 mum(2) for ADSCs, a finding indicating more mature adipocytes in BM-derived MSCs than in treated cultures of ADSCs. We analyzed FAPB4, ALP, and type II collagen gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to confirm adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation, respectively. Results showed that all three sources presented a similar capacity for chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation and they differed in their adipogenic potential. Therefore, it may be crucial to predetermine the most appropriate MSC source for future clinical applications. PMID:18445775

  7. Embryonic and adult stem cells as a source for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yossef S; Stroomza, Merav; Melamed, Eldad; Offen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The rationale behind the use of cells as therapeutic modalities for neurodegenerative diseases in general, and in Parkinson's disease (PD) in particular, is that they will improve patient's functioning by replacing the damaged cell population. It is reasoned that these cells will survive, grow neurites, establish functional synapses, integrate best and durably with the host tissue mainly in the striatum, renew the impaired wiring, and lead to meaningful clinical improvement. To increase the generation of dopamine, researchers have already transplanted non-neuronal cells, without any genetic manipulation or after introduction of genes such as tyrosine hydroxylase, in animal models of PD. Because these cells were not of neuronal origin, they developed without control, did not integrate well into the brain parenchyma, and their survival rates were low. Clinical experiments using cell transplantation as a therapy for PD have been conducted since the 1980s. Most of these experiments used fetal dopaminergic cells originating in the ventral mesencephalic tissue obtained from fetuses. Although it was shown that the transplanted cells survived and some patients benefited from this treatment, others suffered from severe dyskinesia, probably caused by the graft's excessive and uncontrolled production and release of dopamine. It is now recognized that cell-replacement strategy will be effective in PD only if the transplanted cells have the same abilities, such as dopamine synthesis and control release, reuptake, and metabolizing dopamine, as the original dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies on embryonic and adult stem cells have demonstrated that cells are able to both self-renew and produce differentiated tissues, including dopaminergic neurons. These new methods offer real hope for tissue replacement in a wide range of diseases, especially PD. In this review we summarize the evidence of dopaminergic neuron generation from embryonic and adult stem cells, and discuss their

  8. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. The net acid load from diets that are rich in acidogenic protein and cereal grains relative to their content of alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to reduced lean tissue mass in older adults. This analysis ...

  9. Tissue adaptations to gravitational stress - Newborn versus adult giraffes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R; Gershuni, David H.; Danzig, Larry A.; Millard, Ronald W.; Pettersson, Knut

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results on developmental alterations in load-bearing tissues of newborn and adult giraffes are presented. Attention is focused on vascular wall thickness in relation to local blood pressure, and on meniscal adaptations to increased load bearing in the developing giraffe. It is believed that the developing giraffe provides an excellent model for investigations of adaptive mechanisms of increased weight bearing.

  10. Axonal control of the adult neural stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D; Tecott, Laurence H; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-04-01

    The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSCs) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain's neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. PMID:24561083

  11. Axonal Control of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D.; Tecott, Laurence H.; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSC) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain’s neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. PMID:24561083

  12. Live Imaging of Adult Neural Stem Cells in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Felipe; Costa, Marcos R.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of cells of the neural lineage within the brain is not restricted to early development. New neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes are produced in the adult brain throughout the entire murine life. However, despite the extensive research performed in the field of adult neurogenesis during the past years, fundamental questions regarding the cell biology of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) remain to be uncovered. For instance, it is crucial to elucidate whether a single aNSC is capable of differentiating into all three different macroglial cell types in vivo or these distinct progenies constitute entirely separate lineages. Similarly, the cell cycle length, the time and mode of division (symmetric vs. asymmetric) that these cells undergo within their lineage progression are interesting questions under current investigation. In this sense, live imaging constitutes a valuable ally in the search of reliable answers to the previous questions. In spite of the current limitations of technology new approaches are being developed and outstanding amount of knowledge is being piled up providing interesting insights in the behavior of aNSCs. Here, we will review the state of the art of live imaging as well as the alternative models that currently offer new answers to critical questions. PMID:27013941

  13. Endogenous and exogenous stem cells: a role in lung repair and use in airway tissue engineering and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rapid repair of the denuded alveolar surface after injury is a key to survival. The respiratory tract contains several sources of endogenous adult stem cells residing within the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neuroendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, and within the alveolar epithelial surface, which contribute to the repair of the airway wall. Bone marrow-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells circulating in blood are also involved in tracheal regeneration. However, an organism is frequently incapable of repairing serious damage and defects of the respiratory tract resulting from acute trauma, lung cancers, and chronic pulmonary and airway diseases. Therefore, replacement of the tracheal tissue should be urgently considered. The shortage of donor trachea remains a major obstacle in tracheal transplantation. However, implementation of tissue engineering and stem cell therapy-based approaches helps to successfully solve this problem. To date, huge progress has been achieved in tracheal bioengineering. Several sources of stem cells have been used for transplantation and airway reconstitution in animal models with experimentally induced tracheal defects. Most tracheal tissue engineering approaches use biodegradable three-dimensional scaffolds, which are important for neotracheal formation by promoting cell attachment, cell redifferentiation, and production of the extracellular matrix. The advances in tracheal bioengineering recently resulted in successful transplantation of the world's first bioengineered trachea. Current trends in tracheal transplantation include the use of autologous cells, development of bioactive cell-free scaffolds capable of supporting activation and differentiation of host stem cells on the site of injury, with a future perspective of using human native sites as micro-niche for potentiation of the human body's site-specific response by sequential adding, boosting, permissive, and recruitment impulses

  14. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jisoo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair. PMID:27668035

  15. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jisoo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair.

  16. The next generation of burns treatment: intelligent films and matrix, controlled enzymatic debridement, and adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Drago, H; Marín, G H; Sturla, F; Roque, G; Mártire, K; Díaz Aquino, V; Lamonega, R; Gardiner, C; Ichim, T; Riordan, N; Raimondi, J C; Bossi, S; Samadikuchaksaraei, A; van Leeuwen, M; Tau, J M; Núñez, L; Larsen, G; Spretz, R; Mansilla, E

    2010-01-01

    We describe a novel technology based on nanoengineered multifunctional acellular biologic scaffolds combined with wound dressings and films of the same kind. This method allows selective delivery and release of shielded biomaterials and bioactive substances to a desired wound or damaged tissue while stimulating the selective anchoring and adhesion of endogenous circulating repairing cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, to obtain a faster and more physiologic healing process. We also present a new controlled enzymatic debridement process for more effective burned tissue scarolysis. In light of our preliminary in vitro and in vivo data, we are convinced that these approaches can include the use of other kinds of adult stem cells, such as endometrial regenerative cells, to improve the vascularization of the constructs, with great potential in the entire tissue and organ regeneration field but especially for the treatment of severely burned patients, changing the way these lesions may be treated in the future.

  17. Stem cell-based tissue engineering in veterinary orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Walter; Burk, Janina; Delling, Uta; Gittel, Claudia; Ribitsch, Iris

    2012-01-28

    Regenerative medicine is one of the most intensively researched medical branches, with enormous progress every year. When it comes to translating research from bench to bedside, many of the pioneering innovations are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists. The veterinary profession has an important role to play in this new and evolving technology, holding a great scientific potential, because animals serve widely as models for human medicine and results obtained from animals may serve as preclinical results for human medicine. Regenerative veterinary medicine utilizing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for the treatment of acute injuries as well as chronic disorders is gradually turning into clinical routine. As orthopaedic disorders represent a major part of all cases in veterinary clinical practice, it is not surprising that they are currently taking a leading role in MSC therapies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to give an overview on past and current achievements as well as future perspectives in stem cell-based tissue engineering in veterinary orthopaedics. PMID:22287044

  18. [Techniques for functional tissue and organ replacement using postnatal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Aigner, J; Eblenkamp, M; Wintermantel, E

    2005-05-01

    Postnatal stem cells play a decisive role in cell-based therapies due to their high proliferation activity and functional plasticity. On the one hand, basic research in cell biological processes of adult stem cells is crucial in order to establish them as therapeutic tools. On the other hand, development and enhancements of appropriate techniques are required: we need to establish defined technologies for extraction and differentiation of stem cells and to develop adequate cell carrier devices, scaffolds, and bioreactors for in vitro purposes. Furthermore, it is an interdisciplinary challenge to consider logistical aspects concerning isolation, transport, and storage of stem cells in order to use them in a wide range of activities in regenerative medicine. In this review we present the current methods of work and research on adult stem cells. We explain their therapeutic use and define requirements for future technological developments for work with postnatal stem cells.

  19. Composite Tissue Allotransplantation and Dysregulation in Tissue Repair and Regeneration: A Role for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Anuja K.; Rodby, Katherine; Tobin, Matthew K.; O’Connor, Megan I.; Pearl, Russell K.; DiPietro, Luisa A.; Breidenbach, Warren C.; Bartholomew, Amelia M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation is a rapidly evolving area that has brought technological advances to the forefront of plastic surgery, hand surgery, and transplant biology. Composite tissue allografts (CTAs) may have profound functional, esthetic, and psychological benefits, but carry with them the risks of life-long immunosuppression and the inadequate abilities to monitor and prevent rejection. Allografts may suffer from additional insults further weakening their overall benefits. Changes in local blood flow, lack of fully restored neurologic function, infection, inflammation with subsequent dysregulated regenerative activity, and paucity of appropriate growth factors may all be involved in reducing the potential of CTAs and therefore serve as new therapeutic targets to improve outcomes. Strategies involving minimized immunosuppression and pro-regenerative therapy may provide a greater path to optimizing long-term CTA function. One such strategy may include mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can provide unique anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative effects. Insights gained from new studies with MSCs on composite allografts, advances in tissue regeneration reported in other MSC-based clinical studies, as well as consideration of newly described capacities of MSCs, may provide new regenerative based strategies for the care of CTAs. PMID:23847625

  20. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yunfan; Lu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells.

  1. Development of Synthetic and Natural Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications Using Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunfan; Lu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Adipose stem cells have prominent implications in tissue regeneration due to their abundance and relative ease of harvest from adipose tissue and their abilities to differentiate into mature cells of various tissue lineages and secrete various growth cytokines. Development of tissue engineering techniques in combination with various carrier scaffolds and adipose stem cells offers great potential in overcoming the existing limitations constraining classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, as most tissue engineering techniques are new and highly experimental, there are still many practical challenges that must be overcome before laboratory research can lead to large-scale clinical applications. Tissue engineering is currently a growing field of medical research; in this review, we will discuss the progress in research on biomaterials and scaffolds for tissue engineering applications using adipose stem cells. PMID:26977158

  2. Tissue tropism of recombinant coxsackieviruses in an adult mouse model.

    PubMed

    Harvala, Heli; Kalimo, Hannu; Bergelson, Jeffrey; Stanway, Glyn; Hyypiä, Timo

    2005-07-01

    Recombinant viruses, constructed by exchanging the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR), structural and non-structural protein coding sequences were used to investigate determinants responsible for differences between coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9) and coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3) infections in adult mice and two cell lines. Plaque assay titration of recombinant and parental viruses from different tissues from adult BALB/c mice demonstrated that the structural region of CBV3 determined tropism to the liver tissue due to receptor recognition, and the 5'NCR of CBV3 enhanced viral multiplication in the mouse pancreas. Infection with a chimeric virus, containing the structural region from CBV3 and the rest of the genome from CAV9, and the parental CBV3 strain, caused high levels of viraemia in adult mice. The ability of these viruses to infect the central nervous system suggested that neurotropism is associated with high replication levels and the presence of the CBV3 capsid proteins, which also enhanced formation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the appearance of neutralizing antibodies correlated directly with the clearance of the viruses from the tissues. These results demonstrate potential pathogenicity of intraspecies recombinant coxsackieviruses, and the complexity of the genetic determinants underlying tissue tropism.

  3. Advances in tissue engineering through stem cell-based co-culture.

    PubMed

    Paschos, Nikolaos K; Brown, Wendy E; Eswaramoorthy, Rajalakshmanan; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-05-01

    Stem cells are the future in tissue engineering and regeneration. In a co-culture, stem cells not only provide a target cell source with multipotent differentiation capacity, but can also act as assisting cells that promote tissue homeostasis, metabolism, growth and repair. Their incorporation into co-culture systems seems to be important in the creation of complex tissues or organs. In this review, critical aspects of stem cell use in co-culture systems are discussed. Direct and indirect co-culture methodologies used in tissue engineering are described, along with various characteristics of cellular interactions in these systems. Direct cell-cell contact, cell-extracellular matrix interaction and signalling via soluble factors are presented. The advantages of stem cell co-culture strategies and their applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are portrayed through specific examples for several tissues, including orthopaedic soft tissues, bone, heart, vasculature, lung, kidney, liver and nerve. A concise review of the progress and the lessons learned are provided, with a focus on recent developments and their implications. It is hoped that knowledge developed from one tissue can be translated to other tissues. Finally, we address challenges in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine that can potentially be overcome via employing strategies for stem cell co-culture use.

  4. Potential application of extracellular vesicles of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted attention as a versatile cell-cell communication mediator. The biological significance of EVs remains to be fully elucidated, but many reports have suggested that the functions of EVs mirror, at least in part, those of the cells from which they originate. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be isolated from connective tissue including bone marrow and adipose tissue and have emerged as an attractive candidate for cell therapy applications. Accordingly, an increasing number of reports have shown that EVs derived from MSCs have therapeutic potential in multiple diseases. We recently reported a novel therapeutic potential of EVs secreted from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hADSCs) (also known as adipose tissue-derived stem cells; ASCs) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that hADSCs secrete exosomes carrying enzymatically active neprilysin, the most important β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-degrading enzyme in the brain. In this chapter, we describe a method by which to evaluate the therapeutic potential of hADSC-derived EVs against AD from the point of view of their Aβ-degrading capacity.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Human Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from the Periodontal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou-Papaefthymiou, M; Papagerakis, P; Papagerakis, S

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel method for the isolation of adult human epithelial stem cells (hEpiSCs) from the epithelial component of the periodontal ligament-the human epithelial cell rests of Malassez (hERM). hEpiSC-rich integrin-α6(+ve) hERM cells derived by fluorometry can be clonally expanded, can grow organoids, and express the markers of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2), polycomb protein RING1B, and the hEpiSC supermarker LGR5. They maintain the growth profile of their originating hERM in vitro. Subcutaneous cotransplantation with mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp on poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds in nude mice gave rise to perfect heterotopic ossicles in vivo with ultrastructure of dentin, enamel, cementum, and bone. These remarkable fully mineralized ossicles underscore the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in tissue regeneration using human progenitor stem cells, which may have already committed to lineage despite maintaining hallmarks of pluripotency. In addition, we report the clonal expansion and isolation of human LGR5(+ve) cells from the hERM in xeno-free culture conditions. The genetic profile of LGR5(+ve) cells includes both markers of pluripotency and genes important for secretory epithelial and dental epithelial cell differentiation, giving us a first insight into periodontal ligament-derived hEpiSCs. PMID:26392003

  6. Establishment of long term cultures of neural stem cells from adult sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Servili, Arianna; Bufalino, Mary Rose; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Sanchez de Melo, Ivan; Muñoz-Cueto, Jose A; Lee, Lucy E J

    2009-02-01

    Long term cell cultures could be obtained from brains of adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) up to 5 days post mortem. On three different occasions, sea bass brain tissues were dissected, dispersed and cultured in Leibovitz's L-15 media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The resulting cellular preparations could be passaged within 2 or 3 weeks of growth. The neural cells derived from the first trial (SBB-W1) have now been passaged over 24 times within two years. These cells have been cryopreserved and thawed successfully. SBB-W1 cells are slow growing with doubling times requiring at least 7 days at 22 degrees C. These long term cell cultures could be grown in suspension as neurospheres that were immunopositive for nestin, a marker for neural stem cells, or grown as adherent monolayers displaying both glial and neural morphologies. Immunostaining with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (a glial marker) and anti-neurofilament (a neuronal marker), yielded positive staining in most cells, suggesting their possible identity as neural stem cells. Furthermore, Sox 2, a marker for neural stem cells, could be detected from these cell extracts as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker for proliferating cells. SBB-W1 could be transfected using pEGFP-N1 indicating their viability and suitability as convenient models for neurophysiological or neurotoxicological studies.

  7. Regulation of seminiferous tubule-associated stem Leydig cells in adult rat testes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoheng; Wang, Zhao; Jiang, Zhenming; Guo, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuxi; Li, Chenhao; Chung, Jinyong; Folmer, Janet; Liu, June; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Renshan; Zirkin, Barry R; Chen, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Testicular Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in males. Adult Leydig cells have been shown to arise from stem cells present in the neonatal testis. Once established, adult Leydig cells turn over only slowly during adult life, but when these cells are eliminated experimentally from the adult testis, new Leydig cells rapidly reappear. As in the neonatal testis, stem cells in the adult testis are presumed to be the source of the new Leydig cells. As yet, the mechanisms involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of these stem cells remain unknown. We developed a unique in vitro system of cultured seminiferous tubules to assess the ability of factors from the seminiferous tubules to regulate the proliferation of the tubule-associated stem cells, and their subsequent entry into the Leydig cell lineage. The proliferation of the stem Leydig cells was stimulated by paracrine factors including Desert hedgehog (DHH), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and activin. Suppression of proliferation occurred with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The differentiation of the stem cells was regulated positively by DHH, lithium- induced signaling, and activin, and negatively by TGF-β, PDGFBB, and FGF2. DHH functioned as a commitment factor, inducing the transition of stem cells to the progenitor stage and thus into the Leydig cell lineage. Additionally, CD90 (Thy1) was found to be a unique stem cell surface marker that was used to obtain purified stem cells by flow cytometry.

  8. Regulation of seminiferous tubule-associated stem Leydig cells in adult rat testes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoheng; Wang, Zhao; Jiang, Zhenming; Guo, Jingjing; Zhang, Yuxi; Li, Chenhao; Chung, Jinyong; Folmer, Janet; Liu, June; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Renshan; Zirkin, Barry R.; Chen, Haolin

    2016-01-01

    Testicular Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in males. Adult Leydig cells have been shown to arise from stem cells present in the neonatal testis. Once established, adult Leydig cells turn over only slowly during adult life, but when these cells are eliminated experimentally from the adult testis, new Leydig cells rapidly reappear. As in the neonatal testis, stem cells in the adult testis are presumed to be the source of the new Leydig cells. As yet, the mechanisms involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of these stem cells remain unknown. We developed a unique in vitro system of cultured seminiferous tubules to assess the ability of factors from the seminiferous tubules to regulate the proliferation of the tubule-associated stem cells, and their subsequent entry into the Leydig cell lineage. The proliferation of the stem Leydig cells was stimulated by paracrine factors including Desert hedgehog (DHH), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and activin. Suppression of proliferation occurred with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The differentiation of the stem cells was regulated positively by DHH, lithium- induced signaling, and activin, and negatively by TGF-β, PDGFBB, and FGF2. DHH functioned as a commitment factor, inducing the transition of stem cells to the progenitor stage and thus into the Leydig cell lineage. Additionally, CD90 (Thy1) was found to be a unique stem cell surface marker that was used to obtain purified stem cells by flow cytometry. PMID:26929346

  9. Genetic regulators of a pluripotent adult stem cell system in planarians identified by RNAi and clonal analysis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel E; Ho, Jaclyn J; Reddien, Peter W

    2012-03-01

    Pluripotency is a central, well-studied feature of embryonic development, but the role of pluripotent cell regulation in somatic tissue regeneration remains poorly understood. In planarians, regeneration of entire animals from tissue fragments is promoted by the activity of adult pluripotent stem cells (cNeoblasts). We utilized transcriptional profiling to identify planarian genes expressed in adult proliferating, regenerative cells (neoblasts). We also developed quantitative clonal analysis methods for expansion and differentiation of cNeoblast descendants that, together with RNAi, revealed gene roles in stem cell biology. Genes encoding two zinc finger proteins, Vasa, a LIM domain protein, Sox and Jun-like transcription factors, two candidate RNA-binding proteins, a Setd8-like protein, and PRC2 (Polycomb) were required for proliferative expansion and/or differentiation of cNeoblast-derived clones. These findings suggest that planarian stem cells utilize molecular mechanisms found in germ cells and other pluripotent cell types and identify genetic regulators of the planarian stem cell system.

  10. Genetic regulators of a pluripotent adult stem cell system in planarians identified by RNAi and clonal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel E.; Ho, Jaclyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pluripotency is a central, well-studied feature of embryonic development, but the role of pluripotent cell regulation in somatic tissue regeneration remains poorly understood. In planarians, regeneration of entire animals from tissue fragments is promoted by the activity of adult pluripotent stem cells (cNeoblasts). We utilized transcriptional profiling to identify planarian genes expressed in adult proliferating, regenerative cells (neoblasts). We also developed quantitative clonal analysis methods for expansion and differentiation of cNeoblast descendants that, together with RNAi, revealed gene roles in stem cell biology. Genes encoding two zinc finger proteins, Vasa, a LIM domain protein, Sox and Jun-like transcription factors, two candidate RNA-binding proteins, a Setd8-like protein, and PRC2 (Polycomb) were required for proliferative expansion and/or differentiation of cNeoblast-derived clones. These findings suggest that planarian stem cells utilize molecular mechanisms found in germ cells and other pluripotent cell types, and identify novel genetic regulators of the planarian stem cell system. PMID:22385657

  11. Metabolic regulation of stem cell function in tissue homeostasis and organismal ageing.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Navdeep S; Jasper, Heinrich; Ho, Theodore T; Passegué, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Many tissues and organ systems in metazoans have the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, which is driven and maintained largely by tissue-resident somatic stem cell populations. Ageing is accompanied by a deregulation of stem cell function and a decline in regenerative capacity, often resulting in degenerative diseases. The identification of strategies to maintain stem cell function and regulation is therefore a promising avenue to allay a wide range of age-related diseases. Studies in various organisms have revealed a central role for metabolic pathways in the regulation of stem cell function. Ageing is associated with extensive metabolic changes, and interventions that influence cellular metabolism have long been recognized as robust lifespan-extending measures. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the metabolic control of stem cell function, and how stem cell metabolism relates to homeostasis and ageing. PMID:27428307

  12. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental stem cells and amniotic stem cells, with respect to their differentiation lineages, passage numbers and animal model studies. Amniotic stem cells have a greater number of differentiation lineages than dental stem cells. On the contrary, dental stem cells showed the highest number of passages compared to amniotic stem cells. For tissue regeneration based on animal studies, amniotic stem cells showed the shortest time to regenerate in comparison with dental stem cells.

  13. Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?

    PubMed

    Liao, Song-Yan; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2013-12-24

    Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown. In this review, the potential pros and cons of different types of multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells that have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies are reviewed, and the future perspective of stem cell-based therapy for heart regeneration is discussed.

  14. Tendon and ligament engineering in the adult organism: mesenchymal stem cells and gene-therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Tendons and ligaments are elastic collagenous tissues with similar composition and hierarchical structure, contributing to motion. Their strength is related to the number and size of the collagen fibrils. Collagen fibrils increase in size during development and in response to increased physical demands or training. Tendon disorders are commonly seen in clinical practice and give rise to significant morbidity. Treatment is difficult and patients often suffer from the symptoms for quite a long time. Despite remodelling, the biochemical and mechanical properties of healed tendon tissue never match those of intact tendon. The prerequisite for focussed treatment strategies in the future will be an improved understanding of the molecular events both in the embryo and contributing to regeneration in the adult organism. Novel approaches include the local delivery of growth factors, stem- and tendon-cell-derived therapy, the application of mechanical load and gene-therapeutic approaches based on vehicles encoding selected factors, or combinations of these. Important factors are proteins of the extracellular matrix like the metalloproteinases, growth factors like the bone morphogenetic proteins but also intracellular signalling mediator proteins, such as the Smads and transcription factors from the helix–loop–helix and other families. In this review, we focus specifically on such molecular approaches based on mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:17634943

  15. Intrastriatal transplantation of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells improves functional outcome in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Müller, Janine; Ossig, Christiana; Greiner, Johannes F W; Hauser, Stefan; Fauser, Mareike; Widera, Darius; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Storch, Alexander; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered the second most frequent and one of the most severe neurodegenerative diseases, with dysfunctions of the motor system and with nonmotor symptoms such as depression and dementia. Compensation for the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons during PD using current pharmacological treatment strategies is limited and remains challenging. Pluripotent stem cell-based regenerative medicine may offer a promising therapeutic alternative, although the medical application of human embryonic tissue and pluripotent stem cells is still a matter of ethical and practical debate. Addressing these challenges, the present study investigated the potential of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells derived from the inferior turbinate (ITSCs) transplanted into a parkinsonian rat model. Emphasizing their capability to give rise to nervous tissue, ITSCs isolated from the adult human nose efficiently differentiated into functional mature neurons in vitro. Additional successful dopaminergic differentiation of ITSCs was subsequently followed by their transplantation into a unilaterally lesioned 6-hydroxydopamine rat PD model. Transplantation of predifferentiated or undifferentiated ITSCs led to robust restoration of rotational behavior, accompanied by significant recovery of DA neurons within the substantia nigra. ITSCs were further shown to migrate extensively in loose streams primarily toward the posterior direction as far as to the midbrain region, at which point they were able to differentiate into DA neurons within the locus ceruleus. We demonstrate, for the first time, that adult human ITSCs are capable of functionally recovering a PD rat model.

  16. Direct Activation of Amidohydrolase Domain-Containing 1 Gene by Thyroid Hormone Implicates a Role in the Formation of Adult Intestinal Stem Cells During Xenopus Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Morihiro; Miller, Thomas C; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2015-09-01

    The T3-dependent anuran metamorphosis resembles postembryonic development in mammals, the period around birth when plasma T3 levels peak. In particular, the remodeling of the intestine during metamorphosis mimics neonatal intestinal maturation in mammals when the adult intestinal epithelial self-renewing system is established. We have been using intestinal metamorphosis to investigate how the organ-specific adult stem cells are formed during vertebrate development. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that this process involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells. A tissue-specific microarray analysis of intestinal gene expression during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis has identified a number of candidate stem cell genes. Here we have carried out detailed analyses of one such gene, amidohydrolase domain containing 1 (AMDHD1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in the histidine catabolic pathway. We show that AMDHD1 is exclusively expressed in the proliferating adult epithelial stem cells during metamorphosis with little expression in other intestinal tissues. We further provide evidence that T3 activates AMDHD1 gene expression directly at the transcription level through T3 receptor binding to the AMDHD1 gene in the intestine. In addition, we have reported earlier that histidine ammonia-lyase gene, another gene in histidine catabolic pathway, is similarly regulated by T3 in the intestine. These results together suggest that histidine catabolism plays a critical role in the formation and/or proliferation of adult intestinal stem cells during metamorphosis.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign soft tissue neoplasms in adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, Eric A; Fenton, Michael E; Salesky, Joel S; Murphey, Mark D

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews a spectrum of benign soft tissue tumors found in adults. Rather than presenting a complete review, the focus of this article is on benign tumors for which the diagnosis may be confidently made or strongly suggested on the basis of imaging. Diagnoses presented include nodular fasciitis, superficial and deep fibromatosis, elastofibroma, lipomatous lesions, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, Morton neuroma, hemangioma, and myxoma.

  18. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ru; Wang, Zongjie; Samanipour, Roya; Koo, Kyo-in; Kim, Keekyoung

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a mesenchymal stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. Compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs can be derived from more sources and are harvested more easily. Three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds are better able to mimic the in vivo cellular microenvironment, which benefits the localization, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs. Therefore, tissue-engineered ASCs are recognized as an attractive substitute for tissue and organ transplantation. In this paper, we review the characteristics of ASCs, as well as the biomaterials and tissue engineering methods used to proliferate and differentiate ASCs in a 3D environment. Clinical applications of tissue-engineered ASCs are also discussed to reveal the potential and feasibility of using tissue-engineered ASCs in regenerative medicine. PMID:27057174

  19. Parthenogenesis-derived Multipotent Stem Cells Adapted for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Chester J.; Delo, Dawn M.; Lee, Jang Won; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Lanza, Robert P.; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J.; Atala, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are envisioned as a viable source of pluripotent cells for use in regenerative medicine applications when donor tissue is not available. However, most current harvest techniques for embryonic stem cells require the destruction of embryos, which has led to significant political and ethical limitations on their usage. Parthenogenesis, the process by which an egg can develop into an embryo in the absence of sperm, may be a potential source of embryonic stem cells that may avoid some of the political and ethical concerns surrounding embryonic stem cells. Here we provide the technical aspects of embryonic stem cell isolation and expansion from the parthenogenetic activation of oocytes. These cells were characterized for their stem-cell properties. In addition, these cells were induced to differentiate to the myogenic, osteogenic, adipogenic, and endothelial lineages, and were able to form muscle-like and bony-like tissue in vivo. Furthermore, parthenogenetic stem cells were able to integrate into injured muscle tissue. Together, these results demonstrate that parthenogenetic stem cells can be successfully isolated and utilized for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:18799133

  20. Of mice and women: a comparative tissue biology perspective of breast stem cells and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dontu, Gabriela; Ince, Tan A

    2015-06-01

    Tissue based research requires a background in human and veterinary pathology, developmental biology, anatomy, as well as molecular and cellular biology. This type of comparative tissue biology (CTB) expertise is necessary to tackle some of the conceptual challenges in human breast stem cell research. It is our opinion that the scarcity of CTB expertise contributed to some erroneous interpretations in tissue based research, some of which are reviewed here in the context of breast stem cells. In this article we examine the dissimilarities between mouse and human mammary tissue and suggest how these may impact stem cell studies. In addition, we consider the differences between breast ducts vs. lobules and clarify how these affect the interpretation of results in stem cell research. Lastly, we introduce a new elaboration of normal epithelial cell types in human breast and discuss how this provides a clinically useful basis for breast cancer classification.

  1. Enabling stem cell therapies for tissue repair: current and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Sorkin, Michael; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells embody the tremendous potential of the human body to develop, grow, and repair throughout life. Understanding the biologic mechanisms that underlie stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is key to harnessing this potential. Recent advances in molecular biology, genetic engineering, and material science have broadened our understanding of stem cells and helped bring them closer to widespread clinical application. Specifically, innovative approaches to optimize how stem cells are identified, isolated, grown, and utilized will help translate these advances into effective clinical therapies. Although there is growing interest in stem cells worldwide, this enthusiasm must be tempered by the fact that these treatments remain for the most part clinically unproven. Future challenges include refining the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells, validating these technologies in randomized clinical trials, and regulating the global expansion of regenerative stem cell therapies. PMID:23178704

  2. Perinatal stem cells: A promising cell resource for tissue engineering of craniofacial bone

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jia-Wen; Wang, Xu-Dong; Shen, Steve GF

    2015-01-01

    In facing the mounting clinical challenge and suboptimal techniques of craniofacial bone defects resulting from various conditions, such as congenital malformations, osteomyelitis, trauma and tumor resection, the ongoing research of regenerative medicine using stem cells and concurrent advancement in biotechnology have shifted the focus from surgical reconstruction to a novel stem cell-based tissue engineering strategy for customized and functional craniofacial bone regeneration. Given the unique ontogenetical and cell biological properties of perinatal stem cells, emerging evidence has suggested these extraembryonic tissue-derived stem cells to be a promising cell source for extensive use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we summarize the current achievements and obstacles in stem cell-based craniofacial bone regeneration and subsequently we address the characteristics of various types of perinatal stem cells and their novel application in tissue engineering of craniofacial bone. We propose the promising feasibility and scope of perinatal stem cell-based craniofacial bone tissue engineering for future clinical application. PMID:25621114

  3. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    PubMed

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell-based cartilage tissue engineering: cells, scaffold and biology.

    PubMed

    Song, L; Baksh, D; Tuan, R S

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage repair and regeneration by stem cell-based tissue engineering could be of enormous therapeutic and economic potential benefit for an aging population. However, to use stem cells effectively, their natural environment must be understood in order to expand them in vitro without compromising their multilineage potential and their specific differentiation program. Collaboration between diverse academic disciplines and between research and regulatory government agencies and industry is crucial before cell-based cartilage tissue engineering can achieve its full therapeutic potential.

  5. Cerebellar stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Xin; Guan, Wuqiang; Yu, Yong-Chun; Fu, Yinghui

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • No new neurons and astrocytes are generated in adult mouse cerebellum. • Very few mash1{sup +} or nestin{sup +} stem cells exist, and most of them are quiescent. • Cell proliferation rate is diversified among cerebellar regions and decreases over time. - Abstract: Although previous studies implied that cerebellar stem cells exist in some adult mammals, little is known about whether these stem cells can produce new neurons and astrocytes. In this study by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, we found that there are abundant BrdU{sup +} cells in adult mouse cerebellum, and their quantity and density decreases significantly over time. We also found cell proliferation rate is diversified in different cerebellar regions. Among these BrdU{sup +} cells, very few are mash1{sup +} or nestin{sup +} stem cells, and the vast majority of cerebellar stem cells are quiescent. Data obtained by in vivo retrovirus injection indicate that stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse cerebellum. Instead, some cells labeled by retrovirus are Iba1{sup +} microglia. These results indicate that very few stem cells exist in adult mouse cerebellum, and none of these stem cells contribute to neurogenesis and astrogenesis under physiological condition.

  6. The role of CD44 in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44(-/-) mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells.

  7. [Features of glutamate dehydrogenase in fetal and adult rumen tissue].

    PubMed

    Kalachniuk, H I; Fomenko, I S; Kalachniuk, L H; Kavai, Sh; Marounek, M; Savka, O H

    2001-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from rumen mucosa of cow fetus, liver and two forms from mucosa (bacterial and tissue) of the adult animal were partly purified and characterized. The activity of the bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend on qualities of a biomass of microbes, adhered on surface of rumen mucosa. All enzymes from tissues (GDHTRF, TRC, TLC), revealed the hypersensibility to increase in the concentration medium of Zn2+, guanosine triphosphate (GTP), acting here in a role of negative modulators, and also adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and leucine, which acted as activators. However, in the same concentrations these effectors do not influence the activity of the bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase. And if all tissues enzymes are highly specific to coenzyme NADH, the bacterial ones almost in 3 times is more active at NADPH use. PMID:11642036

  8. Immunological properties of embryonic and adult stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bifari, Francesco; Pacelli, Luciano; Krampera, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of treating degenerative diseases by stem cell-based approaches is a promising therapeutical option. Among major concerns for the clinical application of stem cells, some derive from the possibility that stem cells may be rejected by the immune system as a consequence of histoincompatibility and that stem cells themselves may interfere with the normal functions of host immune response. Therefore, the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of stem cells must be carefully addressed. Although these properties are common features of different stem cell types, some peculiarities can be recognized and characterized for their proper clinical use. PMID:21607122

  9. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-15

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer.

  10. In vivo sensitivity of the embryonic and adult neural stem cell compartments to low-dose radiation

    PubMed Central

    Barazzuol, Lara; Jeggo, Penny A.

    2016-01-01

    The embryonic brain is radiation-sensitive, with cognitive deficits being observed after exposure to low radiation doses. Exposure of neonates to radiation can cause intracranial carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the basis underlying these outcomes, we examined the response of the embryonic, neonatal and adult brain to low-dose radiation, focusing on the neural stem cell compartments. This review summarizes our recent findings. At E13.5–14.5 the embryonic neocortex encompasses rapidly proliferating stem and progenitor cells. Exploiting mice with a hypomorphic mutation in DNA ligase IV (Lig4Y288C), we found a high level of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at E14.5, which we attribute to the rapid proliferation. We observed endogenous apoptosis in Lig4Y288C embryos and in WT embryos following exposure to low radiation doses. An examination of DSB levels and apoptosis in adult neural stem cell compartments, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) revealed low DSB levels in Lig4Y288C mice, comparable with the levels in differentiated neuronal tissues. We conclude that the adult SVZ does not incur high levels of DNA breakage, but sensitively activates apoptosis; apoptosis was less sensitively activated in the SGZ, and differentiated neuronal tissues did not activate apoptosis. P5/P15 mice showed intermediate DSB levels, suggesting that DSBs generated in the embryo can be transmitted to neonates and undergo slow repair. Interestingly, this analysis revealed a stage of high endogenous apoptosis in the neonatal SVZ. Collectively, these studies reveal that the adult neural stem cell compartment, like the embryonic counterpart, can sensitively activate apoptosis. PMID:27125639

  11. Clonal analysis of the differentiation potential of human adipose-derived adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guilak, Farshid; Lott, Kristen E; Awad, Hani A; Cao, Qiongfang; Hicok, Kevin C; Fermor, Beverley; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Pools of human adipose-derived adult stem (hADAS) cells can exhibit multiple differentiated phenotypes under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. Because adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible, hADAS cells offer a promising source of cells for tissue engineering and other cell-based therapies. However, it is unclear whether individual hADAS cells can give rise to multiple differentiated phenotypes or whether each phenotype arises from a subset of committed progenitor cells that exists within a heterogeneous population. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that single hADAS are multipotent at a clonal level. hADAS cells were isolated from liposuction waste, and ring cloning was performed to select cells derived from a single progenitor cell. Forty-five clones were expanded through four passages and then induced for adipogenesis, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and neurogenesis using lineage-specific differentiation media. Quantitative differentiation criteria for each lineage were determined using histological and biochemical analyses. Eighty one percent of the hADAS cell clones differentiated into at least one of the lineages. In addition, 52% of the hADAS cell clones differentiated into two or more of the lineages. More clones expressed phenotypes of osteoblasts (48%), chondrocytes (43%), and neuron-like cells (52%) than of adipocytes (12%), possibly due to the loss of adipogenic ability after repeated subcultures. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that hADAS cells are a type of multipotent adult stem cell and not solely a mixed population of unipotent progenitor cells. However, it is important to exercise caution in interpreting these results until they are validated using functional in vivo assays.

  12. [The application progress of human urine derived stem cells in bone tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Jiang, Dapeng; Li, Zhaozhu

    2016-04-01

    The research of bone tissue engineering bases on three basic directions of seed cells, scaffold materials and growth information. Stem cells have been widely studied as seed cells. Human urine-derived stem cell (hUSC) is extracted from urine and described to be adhesion growth, cloning, expression of the majority of mesenchymal stem cell markers and peripheral cell markers, multi-potential and no tumor but stable karyotype with passaging many times. Some researches proposed that hUSC might be a new source of seed cells in tissue engineering because of their invasive and convenient obtention, stable culture and multiple differentiation potential. PMID:27029208

  13. Concise Review: Tailoring Bioengineered Scaffolds for Stem Cell Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cosson, Steffen; Otte, Ellen A.; Hezaveh, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    The potential for the clinical application of stem cells in tissue regeneration is clearly significant. However, this potential has remained largely unrealized owing to the persistent challenges in reproducibly, with tight quality criteria, and expanding and controlling the fate of stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Tissue engineering approaches that rely on reformatting traditional Food and Drug Administration-approved biomedical polymers from fixation devices to porous scaffolds have been shown to lack the complexity required for in vitro stem cell culture models or translation to in vivo applications with high efficacy. This realization has spurred the development of advanced mimetic biomaterials and scaffolds to increasingly enhance our ability to control the cellular microenvironment and, consequently, stem cell fate. New insights into the biology of stem cells are expected to eventuate from these advances in material science, in particular, from synthetic hydrogels that display physicochemical properties reminiscent of the natural cell microenvironment and that can be engineered to display or encode essential biological cues. Merging these advanced biomaterials with high-throughput methods to systematically, and in an unbiased manner, probe the role of scaffold biophysical and biochemical elements on stem cell fate will permit the identification of novel key stem cell behavioral effectors, allow improved in vitro replication of requisite in vivo niche functions, and, ultimately, have a profound impact on our understanding of stem cell biology and unlock their clinical potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25575526

  14. Concise review: tailoring bioengineered scaffolds for stem cell applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Steffen; Otte, Ellen A; Hezaveh, Hadi; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2015-02-01

    The potential for the clinical application of stem cells in tissue regeneration is clearly significant. However, this potential has remained largely unrealized owing to the persistent challenges in reproducibly, with tight quality criteria, and expanding and controlling the fate of stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Tissue engineering approaches that rely on reformatting traditional Food and Drug Administration-approved biomedical polymers from fixation devices to porous scaffolds have been shown to lack the complexity required for in vitro stem cell culture models or translation to in vivo applications with high efficacy. This realization has spurred the development of advanced mimetic biomaterials and scaffolds to increasingly enhance our ability to control the cellular microenvironment and, consequently, stem cell fate. New insights into the biology of stem cells are expected to eventuate from these advances in material science, in particular, from synthetic hydrogels that display physicochemical properties reminiscent of the natural cell microenvironment and that can be engineered to display or encode essential biological cues. Merging these advanced biomaterials with high-throughput methods to systematically, and in an unbiased manner, probe the role of scaffold biophysical and biochemical elements on stem cell fate will permit the identification of novel key stem cell behavioral effectors, allow improved in vitro replication of requisite in vivo niche functions, and, ultimately, have a profound impact on our understanding of stem cell biology and unlock their clinical potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  15. Engineering complex tissue-like microgel arrays for evaluating stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guermani, Enrico; Shaki, Hossein; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Development of tissue engineering scaffolds with native-like biology and microarchitectures is a prerequisite for stem cell mediated generation of off-the-shelf-tissues. So far, the field of tissue engineering has not full-filled its grand potential of engineering such combinatorial scaffolds for engineering functional tissues. This is primarily due to the many challenges associated with finding the right microarchitectures and ECM compositions for optimal tissue regeneration. Here, we have developed a new microgel array to address this grand challenge through robotic printing of complex stem cell-laden microgel arrays. The developed microgel array platform consisted of various microgel environments that where composed of native-like cellular microarchitectures resembling vascularized and bone marrow tissue architectures. The feasibility of our array system was demonstrated through localized cell spreading and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into complex tissue-like structures. In summary, we have developed a tissue-like microgel array for evaluating stem cell differentiation within complex and heterogeneous cell microenvironments. We anticipate that the developed platform will be used for high-throughput identification of combinatorial and native-like scaffolds for tissue engineering of functional organs. PMID:27465860

  16. Engineering complex tissue-like microgel arrays for evaluating stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Guermani, Enrico; Shaki, Hossein; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Development of tissue engineering scaffolds with native-like biology and microarchitectures is a prerequisite for stem cell mediated generation of off-the-shelf-tissues. So far, the field of tissue engineering has not full-filled its grand potential of engineering such combinatorial scaffolds for engineering functional tissues. This is primarily due to the many challenges associated with finding the right microarchitectures and ECM compositions for optimal tissue regeneration. Here, we have developed a new microgel array to address this grand challenge through robotic printing of complex stem cell-laden microgel arrays. The developed microgel array platform consisted of various microgel environments that where composed of native-like cellular microarchitectures resembling vascularized and bone marrow tissue architectures. The feasibility of our array system was demonstrated through localized cell spreading and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into complex tissue-like structures. In summary, we have developed a tissue-like microgel array for evaluating stem cell differentiation within complex and heterogeneous cell microenvironments. We anticipate that the developed platform will be used for high-throughput identification of combinatorial and native-like scaffolds for tissue engineering of functional organs. PMID:27465860

  17. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  18. Evolution of normal and neoplastic tissue stem cells: progress after Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Irving

    2015-10-19

    The appearance of stem cells coincides with the transition from single-celled organisms to metazoans. Stem cells are capable of self-renewal as well as differentiation. Each tissue is maintained by self-renewing tissue-specific stem cells. The accumulation of mutations that lead to preleukaemia are in the blood-forming stem cell, while the transition to leukaemia stem cells occurs in the clone at a progenitor stage. All leukaemia and cancer cells escape being removed by scavenger macrophages by expressing the 'don't eat me' signal CD47. Blocking antibodies to CD47 are therapeutics for all cancers, and are currently being tested in clinical trials in the US and UK. PMID:26416675

  19. Evolution of normal and neoplastic tissue stem cells: progress after Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Irving

    2015-10-19

    The appearance of stem cells coincides with the transition from single-celled organisms to metazoans. Stem cells are capable of self-renewal as well as differentiation. Each tissue is maintained by self-renewing tissue-specific stem cells. The accumulation of mutations that lead to preleukaemia are in the blood-forming stem cell, while the transition to leukaemia stem cells occurs in the clone at a progenitor stage. All leukaemia and cancer cells escape being removed by scavenger macrophages by expressing the 'don't eat me' signal CD47. Blocking antibodies to CD47 are therapeutics for all cancers, and are currently being tested in clinical trials in the US and UK.

  20. Evolution of normal and neoplastic tissue stem cells: progress after Robert Hooke

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Irving

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of stem cells coincides with the transition from single-celled organisms to metazoans. Stem cells are capable of self-renewal as well as differentiation. Each tissue is maintained by self-renewing tissue-specific stem cells. The accumulation of mutations that lead to preleukaemia are in the blood-forming stem cell, while the transition to leukaemia stem cells occurs in the clone at a progenitor stage. All leukaemia and cancer cells escape being removed by scavenger macrophages by expressing the 'don't eat me' signal CD47. Blocking antibodies to CD47 are therapeutics for all cancers, and are currently being tested in clinical trials in the US and UK. PMID:26416675

  1. Monitoring neurodegeneration in diabetes using adult neural stem cells derived from the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neurons have the intrinsic capacity to produce insulin, similar to pancreatic cells. Adult neural stem cells (NSCs), which give rise to functional neurons, can be established and cultured not only by intracerebral collection, which requires difficult surgery, but also by collection from the olfactory bulb (OB), which is relatively easy. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus (HPC) is significantly decreased in diabetes patients. As a result, learning and memory functions, for which the HPC is responsible, decrease. Methods In the present study, we compared the effect of diabetes on neurogenesis and insulin expression in adult NSCs. Adult NSCs were derived from the HPC or OB of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Comparative gene-expression analyses were carried out by using extracted tissues and established adult NSC cultures from the HPC or OB in diabetic rats. Results Diabetes progression influenced important genes that were required for insulin expression in both OB- and HPC-derived cells. Additionally, we found that the expression levels of several genes, such as voltage-gated sodium channels, glutamate transporters, and glutamate receptors, were significantly different in OB and HPC cells collected from diabetic rats. Conclusions By using identified diabetes-response genes, OB NSCs from diabetes patients can be used during diabetes progression to monitor processes that cause neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Because hippocampal NSCs and OB NSCs exhibited similar gene-expression profiles during diabetes progression, OB NSCs, which are more easily collected and established than HPC NSCs, may potentially be used for screening of effective drugs for neurodegenerative disorders that cause malignant damage to CNS functions. PMID:23673084

  2. Characterization and Differentiation of Stem Cells Isolated from Human Newborn Foreskin Tissue.

    PubMed

    Somuncu, Özge Sezin; Taşlı, Pakize Neslihan; Şişli, Hatice Burcu; Somuncu, Salih; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-11-01

    Circumcision is described as a cultural, medical, and religious process which states surgical removal of the foreskin either partly or fully. Cells isolated from the circumcised tissues are referred as foreskin cells. They have been thought as feeder cell lines for embryonic stem cells. Their fibroblastic properties were also utilized for several experiments. The waste tissues that remain after the circumcision thought to have stem cell properties. Therefore, there have been very few attempts to expose their stem cell properties without turning them into induced pluripotent stem cells. Although stem cell isolation from prepuce and their mesenchymal multilineage differentiation potential have been presented many times in the literature, the current study explored hematopoietical phenotype of newborn foreskin stem cells for the first time. According to the results, human newborn foreskin stem cells (hnFSSCs) were identified by their capability to turn into all three germ layer cell types under in vitro conditions. In addition, these cells have exhibited a stable phenotype and have remained as a monolayer in vitro. hnFSSCs suggested to carry different treatment potentials for bone damages, cartilage problems, nerve damages, lesion formations, and other diseases that are derive from mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal origins. Owing to the location of the tissue in the body and differentiation capabilities of hnFSSCs, these cells can be considered as easily obtainable and utilizable even better than the other stem cell sources. In addition, hnFSSCs offers a great potential for tissue engineering approaches due to exhibiting embryonic stem cell-like characteristics, not having any ethical issues, and teratoma induction as in embryonic stem cell applications.

  3. Surface functionalization of nanobiomaterials for application in stem cell culture, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Rana, Deepti; Ramasamy, Keerthana; Leena, Maria; Jiménez, Constanza; Campos, Javier; Ibarra, Paula; Haidar, Ziyad S; Ramalingam, Murugan

    2016-05-01

    Stem cell-based approaches offer great application potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine owing to their ability of sensing the microenvironment and respond accordingly (dynamic behavior). Recently, the combination of nanobiomaterials with stem cells has paved a great way for further exploration. Nanobiomaterials with engineered surfaces could mimic the native microenvironment to which the seeded stem cells could adhere and migrate. Surface functionalized nanobiomaterial-based scaffolds could then be used to regulate or control the cellular functions to culture stem cells and regenerate damaged tissues or organs. Therefore, controlling the interactions between nanobiomaterials and stem cells is a critical factor. However, surface functionalization or modification techniques has provided an alternative approach for tailoring the nanobiomaterials surface in accordance to the physiological surrounding of a living cells; thereby, enhancing the structural and functional properties of the engineered tissues and organs. Currently, there are a variety of methods and technologies available to modify the surface of biomaterials according to the specific cell or tissue properties to be regenerated. This review highlights the trends in surface modification techniques for nanobiomaterials and the biological relevance in stem cell-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:554-567, 2016.

  4. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  5. Epistatic adult plant resistance in wheat to stem rust cosegregates with Sr12 seedling resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat adult plant resistance (APR) to stem rust is desirable. Researchers have characterized the inheritance of APR in cultivar Thatcher as complex. In order to identify the loci providing APR in Thatcher, we evaluated 160 RILs derived from Thatcher/McNeal for stem rust reaction in the field in Keny...

  6. Tightly anchored tissue-mimetic matrices as instructive stem cell microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Prewitz, Marina C; Seib, F Philipp; von Bonin, Malte; Friedrichs, Jens; Stißel, Aline; Niehage, Christian; Müller, Katrin; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Waskow, Claudia; Hoflack, Bernard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Werner, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    A major obstacle in defining the exact role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in stem cell niches is the lack of suitable in vitro methods that recapitulate complex ECM microenvironments. Here we describe a methodology that permits reliable anchorage of native cell-secreted ECM to culture carriers. We validated our approach by fabricating two types of human bone marrow-specific ECM substrates that were robust enough to support human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vitro. We characterized the molecular composition, structural features and nanomechanical properties of the MSC-derived ECM preparations and demonstrated their ability to support expansion and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells. Our methodology enables the deciphering and modulation of native-like multicomponent ECMs of tissue-resident stem cells and will therefore prepare the ground for a more rational design of engineered stem cell niches. PMID:23793238

  7. Nanomaterial scaffolds for stem cell proliferation and differentiation in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Tan, Aaron; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a clinically driven field and has emerged as a potential alternative to organ transplantation. The cornerstone of successful tissue engineering rests upon two essential elements: cells and scaffolds. Recently, it was found that stem cells have unique capabilities of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation to serve as a versatile cell source, while nanomaterials have lately emerged as promising candidates in producing scaffolds able to better mimic the nanostructure in natural extracellular matrix and to efficiently replace defective tissues. This article, therefore, reviews the key developments in tissue engineering, where the combination of stem cells and nanomaterial scaffolds has been utilized over the past several years. We consider the high potential, as well as the main issues related to the application of stem cells and nanomaterial scaffolds for a range of tissues including bone, cartilage, nerve, liver, eye etc. Promising in vitro results such as efficient attachment, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells have been compiled in a series of examples involving different nanomaterials. Furthermore, the merits of the marriage of stem cells and nanomaterial scaffolds are also demonstrated in vivo, providing early successes to support subsequent clinical investigations. This progress simultaneously drives mechanistic research into the mechanotransduction process responsible for the observations in order to optimize the process further. Current understanding is chiefly reported to involve the interaction of stem cells and the anchoring nanomaterial scaffolds by activating various signaling pathways. Substrate surface characteristics and scaffold bulk properties are also reported to influence not only short term stem cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation, but also longer term lineage differentiation, functionalization and viability. It is expected that the combination of stem cells and nanomaterials will develop into an

  8. Role of nanotopography in the development of tissue engineered 3D organs and tissues using mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Shima; Kalaskar, Deepak M; Yoon, Wai-Weng; Blunn, Gordon W; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-03-26

    Recent regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies (using cells, scaffolds, medical devices and gene therapy) have led to fascinating progress of translation of basic research towards clinical applications. In the past decade, great deal of research has focused on developing various three dimensional (3D) organs, such as bone, skin, liver, kidney and ear, using such strategies in order to replace or regenerate damaged organs for the purpose of maintaining or restoring organs' functions that may have been lost due to aging, accident or disease. The surface properties of a material or a device are key aspects in determining the success of the implant in biomedicine, as the majority of biological reactions in human body occur on surfaces or interfaces. Furthermore, it has been established in the literature that cell adhesion and proliferation are, to a great extent, influenced by the micro- and nano-surface characteristics of biomaterials and devices. In addition, it has been shown that the functions of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells in particular, could be regulated through physical interaction with specific nanotopographical cues. Therefore, guided stem cell proliferation, differentiation and function are of great importance in the regeneration of 3D tissues and organs using tissue engineering strategies. This review will provide an update on the impact of nanotopography on mesenchymal stem cells for the purpose of developing laboratory-based 3D organs and tissues, as well as the most recent research and case studies on this topic.

  9. Role of nanotopography in the development of tissue engineered 3D organs and tissues using mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Salmasi, Shima; Kalaskar, Deepak M; Yoon, Wai-Weng; Blunn, Gordon W; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Recent regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies (using cells, scaffolds, medical devices and gene therapy) have led to fascinating progress of translation of basic research towards clinical applications. In the past decade, great deal of research has focused on developing various three dimensional (3D) organs, such as bone, skin, liver, kidney and ear, using such strategies in order to replace or regenerate damaged organs for the purpose of maintaining or restoring organs’ functions that may have been lost due to aging, accident or disease. The surface properties of a material or a device are key aspects in determining the success of the implant in biomedicine, as the majority of biological reactions in human body occur on surfaces or interfaces. Furthermore, it has been established in the literature that cell adhesion and proliferation are, to a great extent, influenced by the micro- and nano-surface characteristics of biomaterials and devices. In addition, it has been shown that the functions of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells in particular, could be regulated through physical interaction with specific nanotopographical cues. Therefore, guided stem cell proliferation, differentiation and function are of great importance in the regeneration of 3D tissues and organs using tissue engineering strategies. This review will provide an update on the impact of nanotopography on mesenchymal stem cells for the purpose of developing laboratory-based 3D organs and tissues, as well as the most recent research and case studies on this topic. PMID:25815114

  10. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Suto, Nana; Suzue, Kazutomo; Kaminuma, Takuya; Nakano, Takashi; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2014-07-01

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Stem and Globally Comparison with Other Tissues in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Liyun; Zhang, Libin; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. However, there is currently no enough stem transcriptome information and comparative transcriptome analysis of different tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on B. napus. In this study, the stem transcriptome of B. napus was characterized by RNA-seq technology. Approximately 13.4 Gb high-quality clean reads with an average length of 100 bp were generated and used for comparative transcriptome analysis with the existing transcriptome sequencing data of roots, leaves, flower buds, and immature embryos of B. napus. All the transcripts were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. The common genes in five tissues, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the common genes between stems and other tissues, and tissue-specific genes were detected, and the main biochemical activities and pathways implying the common genes, DEGs and tissue-specific genes were investigated. Accordingly, the common transcription factors (TFs) in the five tissues and tissue-specific TFs were identified, and a TFs-based regulation network between TFs and the target genes involved in ‘Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis’ pathway were constructed to show several important TFs and key nodes in the regulation process. Collectively, this study not only provided an available stem transcriptome resource in B. napus, but also revealed valuable comparative transcriptome information of five tissues of B. napus for future investigation on specific processes, functions and pathways. PMID:27708656

  12. Use of magnetic forces to promote stem cell aggregation during differentiation, and cartilage tissue modeling.

    PubMed

    Fayol, D; Frasca, G; Le Visage, C; Gazeau, F; Luciani, N; Wilhelm, C

    2013-05-14

    Magnetic forces induce cell condensation necessary for stem cell differentiation into cartilage and elicit the formation of a tissue-like structure: Magnetically driven fusion of aggregates assembled by micromagnets results in the formation of a continuous tissue layer containing abundant cartilage matrix. PMID:23526452

  13. Regeneration of articular cartilage by adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: perspectives from stem cell biology and molecular medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Shu; Karperien, Marcel; Lin, Yunfeng

    2013-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been discovered for more than a decade. Due to the large numbers of cells that can be harvested with relatively little donor morbidity, they are considered to be an attractive alternative to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Consequently, isolation and differentiation of ASCs draw great attention in the research of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Cartilage defects cause big therapeutic problems because of their low self-repair capacity. Application of ASCs in cartilage regeneration gives hope to treat cartilage defects with autologous stem cells. In recent years, a lot of studies have been performed to test the possibility of using ASCs to re-construct damaged cartilage tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the most up-to-date articles utilizing ASCs for cartilage regeneration in basic and translational research. Our topic covers differentiation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, increased cartilage formation by co-culture of ASCs with chondrocytes and enhancing chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs by gene manipulation.

  14. Mature adipocytes may be a source of stem cells for tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Fernyhough, M.E.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Okine, E.; Moore, S.S.; Dodson, M.V.

    2008-04-11

    Adipose tissue contains a large portion of stem cells. These cells appear morphologically like fibroblasts and are primarily derived from the stromal cell fraction. Mature (lipid-filled) adipocytes possess the ability to become proliferative cells and have been shown to produce progeny cells that possess the same morphological (fibroblast-like) appearance as the stem cells from the stromal fraction. A closer examination of mature adipocyte-derived progeny cells may prove to be an emerging area of growth/metabolic physiology that may modify present thinking about adipose tissue renewal capabilities. Knowledge of these cells may also prove beneficial in cell-based therapies for tissue repair, regeneration, or engineering.

  15. Role of paracrine factors in stem and progenitor cell mediated cardiac repair and tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Burchfield, Jana S; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    A new era has begun in the treatment of ischemic disease and heart failure. With the discovery that stem cells from diverse organs and tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, and vessel wall, have the potential to improve cardiac function beyond that of conventional pharmacological therapy comes a new field of research aiming at understanding the precise mechanisms of stem cell-mediated cardiac repair. Not only will it be important to determine the most efficacious cell population for cardiac repair, but also whether overlapping, common mechanisms exist. Increasing evidence suggests that one mechanism of action by which cells provide tissue protection and repair may involve paracrine factors, including cytokines and growth factors, released from transplanted stem cells into the surrounding tissue. These paracrine factors have the potential to directly modify the healing process in the heart, including neovascularization, cardiac myocyte apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis, contractility, bioenergetics, and endogenous repair. PMID:19014650

  16. Detection, characterization, and spontaneous differentiation in vitro of very small embryonic-like putative stem cells in adult mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Parte, Seema; Bhartiya, Deepa; Telang, Jyoti; Daithankar, Vinita; Salvi, Vinita; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect, characterize, and study differentiation potential of stem cells in adult rabbit, sheep, monkey, and menopausal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Two distinct populations of putative stem cells (PSCs) of variable size were detected in scraped OSE, one being smaller and other similar in size to the surrounding red blood cells in the scraped OSE. The smaller 1-3 μm very small embryonic-like PSCs were pluripotent in nature with nuclear Oct-4 and cell surface SSEA-4, whereas the bigger 4-7 μm cells with cytoplasmic localization of Oct-4 and minimal expression of SSEA-4 were possibly the tissue committed progenitor stem cells. Pluripotent gene transcripts of Oct-4, Oct-4A, Nanog, Sox-2, TERT, and Stat-3 in human and sheep OSE were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The PSCs underwent spontaneous differentiation into oocyte-like structures, parthenote-like structures, embryoid body-like structures, cells with neuronal-like phenotype, and embryonic stem cell-like colonies, whereas the epithelial cells transformed into mesenchymal phenotype by epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 3 weeks of OSE culture. Germ cell markers like c-Kit, DAZL, GDF-9, VASA, and ZP4 were immuno-localized in oocyte-like structures. In conclusion, as opposed to the existing view of OSE being a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells, mammalian ovaries harbor distinct very small embryonic-like PSCs and tissue committed progenitor stem cells population that have the potential to develop into oocyte-like structures in vitro, whereas mesenchymal fibroblasts appear to form supporting granulosa-like somatic cells. Research at the single-cell level, including complete gene expression profiling, is required to further confirm whether postnatal oogenesis is a conserved phenomenon in adult mammals.

  17. Amniotic fluid stem cells and their application in cell-based tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo

    2012-10-01

    Advances in stem cell biotechnology hold great promise in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Of interest are marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In addition, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have attracted attention as a viable choice following the search for an alternative stem cell source. Investigators are interested in these cells because they come from the amniotic fluid that is routinely discarded after birth. There have been multiple investigations conducted worldwide in an attempt to better understand AF-SCs in terms of their potential use in regenerative medicine. In this review we give a brief introduction of amniotic fluid followed by a description of the cells present within this fluid. Their history related to stem cell discovery in the amniotic fluid as well as the main characteristics of AF-SCs are discussed. Finally, we elaborate on the potential for these cells to promote regeneration of various tissue defects, including fetal tissue, the nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys, bones, and cartilage.

  18. Paper-based bioactive scaffolds for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Ji; Yu, Seung Jung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Cho, Ann-Na; Kim, Jin; Lee, Bora; Yang, Hee Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    Bioactive, functional scaffolds are required to improve the regenerative potential of stem cells for tissue reconstruction and functional recovery of damaged tissues. Here, we report a paper-based bioactive scaffold platform for stem cell culture and transplantation for bone reconstruction. The paper scaffolds are surface-engineered by an initiated chemical vapor deposition process for serial coating of a water-repellent and cell-adhesive polymer film, which ensures the long-term stability in cell culture medium and induces efficient cell attachment. The prepared paper scaffolds are compatible with general stem cell culture and manipulation techniques. An optimal paper type is found to provide structural, physical, and mechanical cues to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). A bioactive paper scaffold significantly enhances in vivo bone regeneration of hADSCs in a critical-sized calvarial bone defect. Stacking the paper scaffolds with osteogenically differentiated hADSCs and human endothelial cells resulted in vascularized bone formation in vivo. Our study suggests that paper possesses great potential as a bioactive, functional, and cost-effective scaffold platform for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the feasibility of a paper material for stem cell application to repair tissue defects.

  19. Cell Supermarket: Adipose Tissue as a Source of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, M.V.; Wei, S.; Duarte, M.; Du, M.; Jiang, Z.; Hausman, G.J.; Bergen, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years this tissue has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical and scientific applications. The focus of this paper is to reflect on this area of research and to provide a list of potential (future) research areas. PMID:25031654

  20. Conversion of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Neural Stem Cell-Like Cells by a Single Transcription Factor, Sox2

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yiren; Zhou, Chikai; Wang, Nianhong; Yang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adipose tissue is an attractive source of easily accessible adult candidate cells for regenerative medicine. Adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have multipotency and strong proliferation and differentiation capabilities in vitro. However, as mesodermal multipotent stem cells, whether the ADSCs can convert into induced neural stem cells (NSCs) has so far not been demonstrated. In this study, we found that normally the naïve ADSCs cultured as either monolayer or spheres in NSC medium did not express Sox2 and Pax6 genes and proteins, and could not differentiate to neuron-like cells. However, when we introduced the Sox2 gene into ADSCs by retrovirus, they exhibited a typical NSC-like morphology, and could be passaged continuously, and expressed NSC specific markers Sox2 and Pax6. In addition, the ADSC-derived NSC-like cells displayed the ability to differentiate into neuron-like cells when switched to the differentiation culture medium, expressing neuronal markers, including Tuj1 and MAP2 genes and proteins. Our results suggest the ADSCs can be converted into induced NSC-like cells with a single transcription factor Sox2. This finding could provide another alternative cell source for cell therapy of neurological disorders. PMID:26053521

  1. Autonomous isolation, long-term culture and differentiation potential of adult salivary gland-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyunjung; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Joo Hee; Yeon, Soo-In; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

    2014-09-01

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells belong to the endodermal lineage and may serve as good candidates to replace their dysfunctional counterparts. The objective of this study was to isolate large numbers of salivary gland tissue-derived stem cells (SGSCs) from adult rats in order to develop a clinically applicable method that does not involve sorting or stem cell induction by duct ligation. We analysed SGSCs isolated from normal rat salivary glands to determine whether they retained the major characteristics of stem cells, self-renewal and multipotency, especially with respect to the various endodermal cell types. SGSCs expressed high levels of integrin α6β1 and c-kit, which are surface markers of SGSCs. In particular, the integrin α6β1(+) /c-kit(+) salivary gland cells maintained the morphology, proliferation activity and multipotency of stem cells for up to 92 passages in 12 months. Furthermore, we analysed the capacity of SGSCs to differentiate into endoderm lineage cell types, such as acinar-like and insulin-secreting cells. When cultured on growth factor reduced matrigel, the morphology of progenitor cells changed to acinar-like structures and these cells expressed the acinar cell-specific marker, α-amylase, and tight junction markers. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data showed increased expression of pancreatic cell markers, including insulin, Pdx1, pan polypeptide and neurogenin-3, when these cells formed pancreatic clusters in the presence of activin A, exendin-4 and retinoic acid. These data demonstrate that adult salivary stem/progenitor cells may serve as a potential source for cell therapy in salivary gland hypofunction and diabetes.

  2. Engineering personalized neural tissue by combining induced pluripotent stem cells with fibrin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Amy; Wong, Alix; Gabers, Nicole; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2015-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are generated from adult somatic cells through the induction of key transcription factors that restore the ability to become any cell type found in the body. These cells are of interest for tissue engineering due to their potential for developing patient-specific therapies. As the technology for generating iPSCs advances, it is important to concurrently investigate protocols for the efficient differentiation of these cells to desired downstream phenotypes in combination with biomaterial scaffolds as a way of engineering neural tissue. For such applications, the generation of neurons within three dimensional fibrin scaffolds has been well characterized as a cell-delivery platform for murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but has not yet been applied to murine iPSCs. Given that iPSCs have been reported to differentiate less effectively than ESCs, a key objective of this investigation is to maximize the proportion of iPSC-derived neurons in fibrin through the choice of differentiation protocol. To this end, this study compares two EB-mediated protocols for generating neurons from murine iPSCs and ESCs: an 8 day 4-/4+ protocol using soluble retinoic acid in the last 4 days and a 6 day 2-/4+ protocol using soluble retinoic acid and the small molecule sonic hedgehog agonist purmorphamine in the last 4 days. EBs were then seeded in fibrin scaffolds for 14 days to allow further differentiation into neurons. EBs generated by the 2-/4+ protocol yielded a higher percentage of neurons compared to those from the 4-/4+ protocol for both iPSCs and ESCs. The results demonstrate the successful translation of the fibrin-based cell-delivery platform for use with murine iPSCs and furthermore that the proportion of neurons generated from murine iPSC-derived EBs seeded in fibrin can be maximized using the 2-/4+ differentiation protocol. Together, these findings validate the further exploration of 3D fibrin-based scaffolds as a method of delivering

  3. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  4. Dental and Nondental Stem Cell Based Regeneration of the Craniofacial Region: A Tissue Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Declan; Song, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction may be a necessary treatment for those who have been affected by trauma, disease, or pathological developmental conditions. The use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering shows massive potential as a future treatment modality. Currently in the literature, there is a wide variety of published experimental studies utilising the different stem cell types available and the plethora of available scaffold materials. This review investigates different stem cell sources and their unique characteristics to suggest an ideal cell source for regeneration of individual craniofacial tissues. At present, understanding and clinical applications of stem cell therapy remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to overcome. In spite of this, the field displays immense capacity and will no doubt be utilised in future clinical treatments of craniofacial regeneration. PMID:27143979

  5. Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds for Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gelain, Fabrizio; Bottai, Daniele; Vescovi, Angleo; Zhang, Shuguang

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell contact interactions. In order to fully understand how cells behave in the 3-D body, it is important to develop a well-controlled 3-D cell culture system where every single ingredient is known. Here we report the development of a 3-D cell culture system using a designer peptide nanofiber scaffold with mouse adult neural stem cells. We attached several functional motifs, including cell adhesion, differentiation and bone marrow homing motifs, to a self-assembling peptide RADA16 (Ac-RADARADARADARADA-COHN2). These functionalized peptides undergo self-assembly into a nanofiber structure similar to Matrigel. During cell culture, the cells were fully embedded in the 3-D environment of the scaffold. Two of the peptide scaffolds containing bone marrow homing motifs significantly enhanced the neural cell survival without extra soluble growth and neurotrophic factors to the routine cell culture media. In these designer scaffolds, the cell populations with β-Tubulin+, GFAP+ and Nestin+ markers are similar to those found in cell populations cultured on Matrigel. The gene expression profiling array experiments showed selective gene expression, possibly involved in neural stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Because the synthetic peptides are intrinsically pure and a number of desired function cellular motifs are easy to incorporate, these designer peptide nanofiber scaffolds provide a promising controlled 3-D culture system for diverse tissue cells, and are useful as well for general molecular and cell biology. PMID:17205123

  6. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new host cell in latent leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N

    2011-09-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  7. Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells for Tissue-Engineered Solutions to Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Jacot, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic patches and fixed grafts currently used in the repair of congenital heart defects are nonliving, noncontractile, and not electrically responsive, leading to increased risk of complication, reoperation, and sudden cardiac death. Studies suggest that tissue-engineered patches made from living, functional cells could grow with the patient, facilitate healing, and help recover cardiac function. In this paper, we review the research into possible sources of cardiomyocytes and other cardiac cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, umbilical cord blood cells, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, and cardiac progenitor cells. Each cell source has advantages, but also has technical hurdles to overcome, including heterogeneity, functional maturity, immunogenicity, and pathogenicity. Additionally, biomaterials used as patch materials will need to attract and support desired cells and induce minimal immune responses. PMID:26379417

  8. Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells for Tissue-Engineered Solutions to Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Jacot, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic patches and fixed grafts currently used in the repair of congenital heart defects are nonliving, noncontractile, and not electrically responsive, leading to increased risk of complication, reoperation, and sudden cardiac death. Studies suggest that tissue-engineered patches made from living, functional cells could grow with the patient, facilitate healing, and help recover cardiac function. In this paper, we review the research into possible sources of cardiomyocytes and other cardiac cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, umbilical cord blood cells, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, and cardiac progenitor cells. Each cell source has advantages, but also has technical hurdles to overcome, including heterogeneity, functional maturity, immunogenicity, and pathogenicity. Additionally, biomaterials used as patch materials will need to attract and support desired cells and induce minimal immune responses. PMID:26379417

  9. Tissue Regeneration and Stem Cell Distribution in Adriamycin Induced Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Fattah, Marwa Mohamed Abdel; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Glomerulosclerosis develops secondary to various kidney diseases. It was postulated that adriamycin (ADR) induce chronic glomerulopathy. Treatment combinations for one year did not significantly modify renal function in resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Recurrence of FSGS after renal transplantation impacts long-term graft survival and limits access to transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the relation between the possible therapeutic effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs), isolated from cord blood on glomerular damage and their distribution by using ADR induced nephrotoxicity as a model in albino rat. Methods and Results Thirty three male albino rats were divided into control group, ADR group where rats were given single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 5 mg/kg adriamycin. The rats were sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days following confirmation of glomerular injury. In stem cell therapy group, rats were injected with HMSCs following confirmation of renal injury and sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 days after HMSCs therapy. Kidney sections were exposed to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and serological studies. In response to SC therapy multiple Malpighian corpuscles (MC) appeared with patent Bowman's space (Bs) 10 and 20 days following therapy. One month following therapy no remarkable shrunken glomeruli were evident. Glomerular area and serum creatinine were significantly different in ADR group in comparison to control and SC therapy groups. Conclusions ADR induced glomerulosclerosis regressed in response to cord blood HMSC therapy. A reciprocal relation was recorded between the extent of renal regeneration and the distribution of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:24298364

  10. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber–based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing. PMID:26090087

  11. FOXC1 maintains the hair follicle stem cell niche and governs stem cell quiescence to preserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kenneth; Kume, Tsutomu; Fuchs, Elaine

    2016-03-15

    Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which orchestrate SC behavior. SCs are typically used sparingly and exist in quiescence unless activated for tissue growth. Whether parsimonious SC use is essential to conserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential during normal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue by conditionally ablating a key transcription factor Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) expressed in hair follicle SCs (HFSCs). FOXC1-deficient HFSCs spend less time in quiescence, leading to markedly shortened resting periods between hair cycles. The enhanced hair cycling accelerates HFSC expenditure, and impacts hair regeneration in aging mice. Interestingly, although FOXC1-deficient HFs can still form a new bulge that houses HFSCs for the next hair cycle, the older bulge is left unanchored. As the new hair emerges, the entire old bulge, including its reserve HFSCs and SC-inhibitory inner cell layer, is lost. We trace this mechanism first, to a marked increase in cell cycle-associated transcripts upon Foxc1 ablation, and second, to a downstream reduction in E-cadherin-mediated inter-SC adhesion. Finally, we show that when the old bulge is lost with each hair cycle, overall levels of SC-inhibitory factors are reduced, further lowering the threshold for HFSC activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that HFSCs have restricted potential in vivo, which they conserve by coupling quiescence to adhesion-mediated niche maintenance, thereby achieving long-term tissue homeostasis.

  12. FOXC1 maintains the hair follicle stem cell niche and governs stem cell quiescence to preserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential.

    PubMed

    Lay, Kenneth; Kume, Tsutomu; Fuchs, Elaine

    2016-03-15

    Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which orchestrate SC behavior. SCs are typically used sparingly and exist in quiescence unless activated for tissue growth. Whether parsimonious SC use is essential to conserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential during normal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue by conditionally ablating a key transcription factor Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) expressed in hair follicle SCs (HFSCs). FOXC1-deficient HFSCs spend less time in quiescence, leading to markedly shortened resting periods between hair cycles. The enhanced hair cycling accelerates HFSC expenditure, and impacts hair regeneration in aging mice. Interestingly, although FOXC1-deficient HFs can still form a new bulge that houses HFSCs for the next hair cycle, the older bulge is left unanchored. As the new hair emerges, the entire old bulge, including its reserve HFSCs and SC-inhibitory inner cell layer, is lost. We trace this mechanism first, to a marked increase in cell cycle-associated transcripts upon Foxc1 ablation, and second, to a downstream reduction in E-cadherin-mediated inter-SC adhesion. Finally, we show that when the old bulge is lost with each hair cycle, overall levels of SC-inhibitory factors are reduced, further lowering the threshold for HFSC activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that HFSCs have restricted potential in vivo, which they conserve by coupling quiescence to adhesion-mediated niche maintenance, thereby achieving long-term tissue homeostasis. PMID:26912458

  13. FOXC1 maintains the hair follicle stem cell niche and governs stem cell quiescence to preserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Kenneth; Kume, Tsutomu; Fuchs, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which orchestrate SC behavior. SCs are typically used sparingly and exist in quiescence unless activated for tissue growth. Whether parsimonious SC use is essential to conserve long-term tissue-regenerating potential during normal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue by conditionally ablating a key transcription factor Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) expressed in hair follicle SCs (HFSCs). FOXC1-deficient HFSCs spend less time in quiescence, leading to markedly shortened resting periods between hair cycles. The enhanced hair cycling accelerates HFSC expenditure, and impacts hair regeneration in aging mice. Interestingly, although FOXC1-deficient HFs can still form a new bulge that houses HFSCs for the next hair cycle, the older bulge is left unanchored. As the new hair emerges, the entire old bulge, including its reserve HFSCs and SC-inhibitory inner cell layer, is lost. We trace this mechanism first, to a marked increase in cell cycle-associated transcripts upon Foxc1 ablation, and second, to a downstream reduction in E-cadherin–mediated inter-SC adhesion. Finally, we show that when the old bulge is lost with each hair cycle, overall levels of SC-inhibitory factors are reduced, further lowering the threshold for HFSC activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that HFSCs have restricted potential in vivo, which they conserve by coupling quiescence to adhesion-mediated niche maintenance, thereby achieving long-term tissue homeostasis. PMID:26912458

  14. Adipose-derived stem cell differentiation as a basic tool for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Huber, Birgit; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-01-01

    The development of in vitro adipose tissue constructs is highly desired to cope with the increased demand for substitutes to replace damaged soft tissue after high graded burns, deformities or tumor removal. To achieve clinically relevant dimensions, vascularization of soft tissue constructs becomes inevitable but still poses a challenge. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent a promising cell source for the setup of vascularized fatty tissue constructs as they can be differentiated into adipocytes and endothelial cells in vitro and are thereby available in sufficiently high cell numbers. This review summarizes the currently known characteristics of ASCs and achievements in adipogenic and endothelial differentiation in vitro. Further, the interdependency of adipogenesis and angiogenesis based on the crosstalk of endothelial cells, stem cells and adipocytes is addressed at the molecular level. Finally, achievements and limitations of current co-culture conditions for the construction of vascularized adipose tissue are evaluated. PMID:26976717

  15. Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells for musculoskeletal repair in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Arnhold, Stefan; Wenisch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells which can be obtained from different adipose tissue sources within the body. It is an abundant cell pool, which is easy accessible and the cells can be obtained in large numbers, cultivated and expanded in vitro and prepared for tissue engineering approaches, especially for skeletal tissue repair. In the recent years this cell population has attracted a great amount of attention among researchers in human as well as in veterinary medicine. In the meantime ASCs have been well characterized and their use in regenerative medicine is very well established. This review focuses on the characterization of ASCs for their use for tissue engineering approaches especially in veterinary medicine and also highlights a selection of clinical trials on the basis of ASCs as the relevant cell source. PMID:25973326

  16. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  17. Progress in the tissue engineering and stem cell industry "are we there yet?".

    PubMed

    Jaklenec, Ana; Stamp, Andrea; Deweerd, Elizabeth; Sherwin, Angela; Langer, Robert

    2012-06-01

    This report presents a detailed update to our 2008 publication on the tissue engineering (TE) and stem cell industry. Data are reported through mid 2011 showing an almost three-fold growth in commercial sales over the past 4 years. In addition, the number of companies selling products or offering services has increased over two-fold to 106, and they are generating a remarkable $3.5 billion in sales. Overall, the TE and stem cell sector is spending $3.6 billion and employing almost 14,000 employees. These data suggest the TE and stem cell industry has stabilized and is on a path pointing toward continued success.

  18. Vanillin attenuates negative effects of ultraviolet A on the stemness of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeol; Park, See-Hyoung; Kim, Mi Ok; Lim, Inhwan; Kang, Mingyeong; Oh, Sae Woong; Jung, Kwangseon; Jo, Dong Gyu; Cho, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation induces various changes in cell biology. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vanillin on UVA irradiation-induced damages in the stemness properties of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). UVA-antagonizing mechanisms of vanillin were also examined. The results revealed that vanillin attenuated UVA-induced reduction of the proliferative potential and stemness of hAMSCs evidenced by increased proliferative activity in BrdU incorporation assay and upregulation of stemness-related genes (OCT4, NANOG and SOX2) in response to vanillin treatment. UVA-induced reduction in mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by vanillin. In addition, the antagonizing effect of vanillin on UVA was found to be mediated by reduced production of PGE2 through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings showed that vanillin could improve the reduced stemness of hAMSCs induced by UVA. The effect of vanillin is mediated by upregulating HIF-1α via inhibiting PGE2-cAMP signaling. Therefore, vanillin might be used as an antagonizing agent to mitigate the effects of UVA. PMID:27470612

  19. Vanillin attenuates negative effects of ultraviolet A on the stemness of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeol; Park, See-Hyoung; Kim, Mi Ok; Lim, Inhwan; Kang, Mingyeong; Oh, Sae Woong; Jung, Kwangseon; Jo, Dong Gyu; Cho, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation induces various changes in cell biology. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vanillin on UVA irradiation-induced damages in the stemness properties of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). UVA-antagonizing mechanisms of vanillin were also examined. The results revealed that vanillin attenuated UVA-induced reduction of the proliferative potential and stemness of hAMSCs evidenced by increased proliferative activity in BrdU incorporation assay and upregulation of stemness-related genes (OCT4, NANOG and SOX2) in response to vanillin treatment. UVA-induced reduction in mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by vanillin. In addition, the antagonizing effect of vanillin on UVA was found to be mediated by reduced production of PGE2 through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings showed that vanillin could improve the reduced stemness of hAMSCs induced by UVA. The effect of vanillin is mediated by upregulating HIF-1α via inhibiting PGE2-cAMP signaling. Therefore, vanillin might be used as an antagonizing agent to mitigate the effects of UVA.

  20. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Functional Bone Tissue Engineering: Lessons from Bone Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Bodle, Josephine C.; Hanson, Ariel D.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the current and significant work in the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in functional bone tissue engineering framed through the bone mechanobiology perspective. Over a century of work on the principles of bone mechanosensitivity is now being applied to our understanding of bone development. We are just beginning to harness that potential using stem cells in bone tissue engineering. ASC are the primary focus of this review due to their abundance and relative ease of accessibility for autologous procedures. This article outlines the current knowledge base in bone mechanobiology to investigate how the knowledge from this area has been applied to the various stem cell-based approaches to engineering bone tissue constructs. Specific emphasis is placed on the use of human ASC for this application. PMID:21338267

  1. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  2. "The state of the heart": Recent advances in engineering human cardiac tissue from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sirabella, Dario; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-08-01

    The pressing need for effective cell therapy for the heart has led to the investigation of suitable cell sources for tissue replacement. In recent years, human pluripotent stem cell research expanded tremendously, in particular since the derivation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In parallel, bioengineering technologies have led to novel approaches for in vitro cell culture. The combination of these two fields holds potential for in vitro generation of high-fidelity heart tissue, both for basic research and for therapeutic applications. However, this new multidisciplinary science is still at an early stage. Many questions need to be answered and improvements need to be made before clinical applications become a reality. Here we discuss the current status of human stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes and the combined use of bioengineering approaches for cardiac tissue formation and maturation in developmental studies, disease modeling, drug testing, and regenerative medicine.

  3. Formation of electric dipoles in pea stem tissue due to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Farahani, Elham

    2016-07-01

    For examining the effect of an electrical field (DC) on pea seed, we exposed the pea seeds to electric fields with intensities 1, 4 and 7 kV/cm for 30, 230, 430 and 630 seconds. The tests were repeated three times, and each iteration had 5 seeds. Then, the seeds were moved to packaged plates. Finally, microscopic observation of the pea stem tissue showed that the application of a DC electrical field caused a deformation in the pea stem tissue. The results led us to examine the deformation of the tissue theoretically and to address that deformation as an electrostatic problem. In this regard, we modeled the pea stem based on the formation of electric dipoles. Then, theoretically, we calculated the force acting on each xylem section by coding, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  4. Generation of embryonic stem cells from mouse adipose-tissue derived cells via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yiren; Qin, Jilong; Zhou, Chikai; Li, Jinsong; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by nuclear transfer (NT-ESCs), or into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the "Yamanaka method." However, recent studies have indicated that mouse and human iPSCs are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations, and that NT-ESCs correspond more closely to ESCs derived from in vitro fertilized embryos than iPSCs. In addition, the procedure of NT-ESCs does not involve gene modification. Demonstration of generation of NT-ESCs using an easily-accessible source of adult cell types would be very important. Adipose tissue is a source of readily accessible donor cells and can be isolated from both males and females at different ages. Here we report that NT-ESCs can be generated from adipose tissue-derived cells (ADCs). At morphological, mRNA and protein levels, these NT-ESCs show classic ESC colonies, exhibit alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and display normal diploid karyotypes. Importantly, these cells express pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and SSEA-1. Furthermore, they can differentiate in vivo into various types of cells from 3 germinal layers by teratoma formation assays. This study demonstrates for the first time that ESCs can be generated from the adipose tissue by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and suggests that ADCs can be a new donor-cell type for potential therapeutic cloning.

  5. Generation of embryonic stem cells from mouse adipose-tissue derived cells via somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yiren; Qin, Jilong; Zhou, Chikai; Li, Jinsong; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by nuclear transfer (NT-ESCs), or into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the “Yamanaka method.” However, recent studies have indicated that mouse and human iPSCs are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations, and that NT-ESCs correspond more closely to ESCs derived from in vitro fertilized embryos than iPSCs. In addition, the procedure of NT-ESCs does not involve gene modification. Demonstration of generation of NT-ESCs using an easily-accessible source of adult cell types would be very important. Adipose tissue is a source of readily accessible donor cells and can be isolated from both males and females at different ages. Here we report that NT-ESCs can be generated from adipose tissue-derived cells (ADCs). At morphological, mRNA and protein levels, these NT-ESCs show classic ESC colonies, exhibit alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and display normal diploid karyotypes. Importantly, these cells express pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and SSEA-1. Furthermore, they can differentiate in vivo into various types of cells from 3 germinal layers by teratoma formation assays. This study demonstrates for the first time that ESCs can be generated from the adipose tissue by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and suggests that ADCs can be a new donor-cell type for potential therapeutic cloning. PMID:25692793

  6. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in aging and the malignant transformation of adult stem/progenitor cells and their therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2009-04-01

    Recent advancements in tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cell research have revealed that enhanced telomere attrition, oxidative stress, ultraviolet radiation exposure and oncogenic events leading to severe DNA damages and genomic instability may occur in these immature and regenerative cells during chronological aging. Particularly, the alterations in key signaling components controlling their self-renewal capacity and an up-regulation of tumor suppressor gene products such as p16(INK4A), p19(ARF), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, p53 and/or the forkhead box O (FOXOs) family of transcription factors may result in their dysfunctions, growth arrest and senescence or apoptotic death during the aging process. These molecular events may culminate in a progressive decline in the regenerative functions and the number of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells, and age-related disease development. Conversely, the telomerase re-activation and accumulation of numerous genetic and/or epigenetic alterations in adult stem/progenitor cells with advancing age may result in their immortalization and malignant transformation into highly leukemic or tumorigenic cancer-initiating cells and cancer initiation. Therefore, the cell-replacement and gene therapies and molecular targeting of aged and dysfunctional adult stem/progenitor cells including their malignant counterpart, cancer-initiating cells, hold great promise for treating and even curing diverse devastating human diseases. These diseases include premature aging diseases, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, ocular, urogenital, neurodegenerative and skin disorders and aggressive and recurrent cancers.

  7. Human embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages in contrast to their adult counterparts.

    PubMed

    Ramkisoensing, Arti A; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Askar, Saïd F A; Passier, Robert; Swildens, Jim; Goumans, Marie José; Schutte, Cindy I; de Vries, Antoine A F; Scherjon, Sicco; Mummery, Christine L; Schalij, Martin J; Atsma, Douwe E

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show unexplained differences in differentiation potential. In this study, differentiation of human (h) MSCs derived from embryonic, fetal and adult sources toward cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells was investigated. Labeled hMSCs derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs), fetal umbilical cord, bone marrow, amniotic membrane and adult bone marrow and adipose tissue were co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (nrCMCs) or cardiac fibroblasts (nrCFBs) for 10 days, and also cultured under angiogenic conditions. Cardiomyogenesis was assessed by human-specific immunocytological analysis, whole-cell current-clamp recordings, human-specific qRT-PCR and optical mapping. After co-culture with nrCMCs, significantly more hESC-MSCs than fetal hMSCs stained positive for α-actinin, whereas adult hMSCs stained negative. Furthermore, functional cardiomyogenic differentiation, based on action potential recordings, was shown to occur, but not in adult hMSCs. Of all sources, hESC-MSCs expressed most cardiac-specific genes. hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs contained significantly higher basal levels of connexin43 than adult hMSCs and co-culture with nrCMCs increased expression. After co-culture with nrCFBs, hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs did not express α-actinin and connexin43 expression was decreased. Conduction velocity (CV) in co-cultures of nrCMCs and hESC-MSCs was significantly higher than in co-cultures with fetal or adult hMSCs. In angiogenesis bioassays, only hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs were able to form capillary-like structures, which stained for smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers.Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role.

  8. Stem Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Benderitter, Marc; Caviggioli, Fabio; Chapel, Alain; Coppes, Robert P.; Guha, Chandan; Klinger, Marco; Malard, Olivier; Stewart, Fiona; Tamarat, Radia; Luijk, Peter Van

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Targeted irradiation is an effective cancer therapy but damage inflicted to normal tissues surrounding the tumor may cause severe complications. While certain pharmacologic strategies can temper the adverse effects of irradiation, stem cell therapies provide unique opportunities for restoring functionality to the irradiated tissue bed. Recent Advances: Preclinical studies presented in this review provide encouraging proof of concept regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for treating the adverse side effects associated with radiotherapy in different organs. Early-stage clinical data for radiation-induced lung, bone, and skin complications are promising and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate stem cell type to stimulate tissue regeneration. Critical Issues: While therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated in a variety of animal models and human trials, a range of additional concerns regarding stem cell transplantation for ameliorating radiation-induced normal tissue sequelae remain. Safety issues regarding teratoma formation, disease progression, and genomic stability along with technical issues impacting disease targeting, immunorejection, and clinical scale-up are factors bearing on the eventual translation of stem cell therapies into routine clinical practice. Future Directions: Follow-up studies will need to identify the best possible stem cell types for the treatment of early and late radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Additional work should seek to optimize cellular dosing regimes, identify the best routes of administration, elucidate optimal transplantation windows for introducing cells into more receptive host tissues, and improve immune tolerance for longer-term engrafted cell survival into the irradiated microenvironment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 338–355. PMID:24147585

  9. Core-shell fibrous stem cell carriers incorporating osteogenic nanoparticulate cues for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Olmos Buitrago, Jennifer; Perez, Roman A; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Singh, Rajendra K; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-12-01

    Moldable hydrogels that incorporate stem cells hold great promise for tissue engineering. They secure the encapsulated cells for required periods while allowing a permeable exchange of nutrients and gas with the surroundings. Core-shell fibrous structured hydrogel system represents these properties relevant to stem cell delivery and defect-adjustable tissue engineering. A designed dual concentric nozzle is used to simultaneously deposit collagen and alginate with a core-shell structured continuous fiber form in the ionic calcium bath. We aimed to impart extrinsic osteogenic cues in the nanoparticulate form, i.e., bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn), inside the alginate shell, while encapsulating rat mesenchymal stem cells in the collagen core. Ionic measurement in aqueous solution indicated a continuous release of calcium ions from the BGn-added and -free scaffolds, whereas silicon was only released from the BGn-containing scaffolds. The presence of BGn allowed higher number of cells to migrate into the scaffolds when implanted in subcutaneous tissues of rat. Cell viability was preserved in the presence of the BGn, with no significant differences noticed from the control. The presence of BGn enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of the encapsulated rat mesenchymal stem cells, presenting higher levels of alkaline phosphatase activity as well as bone related genes, including collagen type I, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Taken together, the incorporated BGn potentiated the capacity of the core-shell fibrous hydrogel system to deliver stem cells targeting bone tissue engineering.

  10. Self-renewal and multipotency coexist in a long-term cultured adult rat dental pulp stem cell line: an exception to the rule?

    PubMed

    Sprio, Andrea E; Di Scipio, Federica; Raimondo, Stefania; Salamone, Paolina; Pagliari, Francesca; Pagliari, Stefania; Folino, Anna; Forte, Giancarlo; Geuna, Stefano; Di Nardo, Paolo; Berta, Giovanni N

    2012-12-10

    The stemness state is characterized by self-renewal and differentiation properties. However, stem cells are not able to preserve these characteristics in long-term culture because of the intrinsic fragility of their phenotype easily undergoing senescence or neoplastic transformation. Furthermore, although isolated from the same original tissue using similar protocols, adult stem cells can display dissimilar phenotypes and important cell clone/species contamination. Finally, the lack of a clear standardization contributes to complicate the comprehension about the stemness condition. In this context, cell lines displaying a particularly stable phenotype must be identified to define one or multiple benchmarks against which other stem cell lines could be reliably assessed. The present paper demonstrates that it is possible to isolate from the rat dental pulp a stem cell line (MUR-1) that does not display neoplastic transformation in long-term culture. MUR-1 cells stably express a broad range of stemness markers and are able to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, and cardiomyogenic lineages independently of the culture passages. Moreover, serial in vitro passages have not changed their immunophenotype, proliferation capacity, or differentiation potential. The uniqueness of these characteristics candidates MUR-1 as a model to reliably improve the understanding of the mechanisms governing the stem cell fate in the same as well as in other stem cell populations.

  11. Application of stem cells derived from the periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources for tendon tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Xu, Xingtian; Chen, Chider; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Snead, Malcolm L; Shi, Songtao

    2014-03-01

    Tendon injuries are often associated with significant dysfunction and disability due to tendinous tissue's very limited self-repair capacity and propensity for scar formation. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material present an alternative therapeutic option for tendon repair/regeneration that may be advantageous compared to other current treatment modalities. The MSC delivery vehicle is the principal determinant for successful implementation of MSC-mediated regenerative therapies. In the current study, a co-delivery system based on TGF-β3-loaded RGD-coupled alginate microspheres was developed for encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) or gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). The capacity of encapsulated dental MSCs to differentiate into tendon tissue was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulated dental-derived MSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. Our results revealed that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, PDLSCs and GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to tendon regeneration (Scx, DCn, Tnmd, and Bgy) via qPCR measurement. In a corresponding in vivo animal model, ectopic neo-tendon regeneration was observed in subcutaneous transplanted MSC-alginate constructs, as confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining for protein markers specific for tendons. Interestingly, in our quantitative PCR and in vivo histomorphometric analyses, PDLSCs showed significantly greater capacity for tendon regeneration than GMSCs or hBMMSCs (P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings indicate that periodontal ligament and gingival tissues can be considered as suitable stem cell sources for tendon engineering. PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in TGF-β3-loaded RGD-modified alginate microspheres are promising candidates for tendon regeneration.

  12. Adult stem cells: simply a tool for regenerative medicine or an additional piece in the puzzle of human aging?

    PubMed

    Tollervey, James R; Lunyak, Victoria V

    2011-12-15

    Adult stem cells have taken center stage in current research related to regenerative medicine and pharmacogenomic studies seeking new therapeutic interventions. As we learn more about these cells, it is becoming apparent that the next big leap in our understanding of adult stem cell biology and adult stem cell aging will depend on the integration of approaches from various disciplines. Major advances and technological breakthroughs at the crossroad of fields such as biomaterials, genomics, epigenomics, and proteomics will enable the design of better tools to model human diseases, and warrant safe usage of adult stem cells in the clinic.

  13. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Kort, Daniel H; Prosser, Robert W; Paull, Daniel; Nestor, Michael W; Freeby, Matthew; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Leibel, Rudolph L; Solomon, Susan L; Benvenisty, Nissim; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2014-06-26

    The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.

  14. A planarian p53 homolog regulates proliferation and self-renewal in adult stem cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Bret J.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    The functions of adult stem cells and tumor suppressor genes are known to intersect. However, when and how tumor suppressors function in the lineages produced by adult stem cells is unknown. With a large population of stem cells that can be manipulated and studied in vivo, the freshwater planarian is an ideal system with which to investigate these questions. Here, we focus on the tumor suppressor p53, homologs of which have no known role in stem cell biology in any invertebrate examined thus far. Planaria have a single p53 family member, Smed-p53, which is predominantly expressed in newly made stem cell progeny. When Smed-p53 is targeted by RNAi, the stem cell population increases at the expense of progeny, resulting in hyper-proliferation. However, ultimately the stem cell population fails to self-renew. Our results suggest that prior to the vertebrates, an ancestral p53-like molecule already had functions in stem cell proliferation control and self-renewal. PMID:20040488

  15. Human Cardiac Tissue Engineering: From Pluripotent Stem Cells to Heart Repair

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Christopher P.; Shadrin, Ilya Y.; Carlson, Aaron L.; Bursac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Engineered cardiac tissues hold great promise for use in drug and toxicology screening, in vitro studies of human physiology and disease, and as transplantable tissue grafts for myocardial repair. In this review, we discuss recent progress in cell-based therapy and functional tissue engineering using pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and we describe methods for delivery of cells into the injured heart. While significant hurdles remain, notable advances have been made in the methods to derive large numbers of pure human cardiomyocytes, mature their phenotype, and produce and implant functional cardiac tissues, bringing the field a step closer to widespread in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:25599018

  16. Stem Cell-assisted Approaches for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Kyu; Cho, Chong-Su

    2010-05-01

    The regeneration of damaged articular cartilage remains challenging due to its poor intrinsic capacity for repair. Tissue engineering of articular cartilage is believed to overcome the current limitations of surgical treatment by offering functional regeneration in the defect region. Selection of proper cell sources and ECM-based scaffolds, and incorporation of growth factors or mechanical stimuli are of primary importance to successfully produce artificial cartilage for tissue repair. When designing materials for cartilage tissue engineering, biodegradability and biocompatibility are the key factors in selecting material candidates, for either synthetic or natural polymers. The unique environment of cartilage makes it suitable to use a hydrogel with high water content in the cross-linked or thermosensitive (injectable) form. Moreover, design of composite scaffolds from two polymers with complementary physicochemical and biological properties has been explored to provide residing chondrocytes with a combination of the merits that each component contributes.

  17. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p = 0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p = 0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells.

  18. Tissue engineering, stem cells, cloning, and parthenogenesis: new paradigms for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Jason; Atala, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Patients suffering from diseased and injured organs may be treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a severe shortage of donor organs which is worsening yearly due to the aging population. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, materials science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. Both therapeutic cloning (nucleus from a donor cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte), and parthenogenesis (oocyte is activated and stimulated to divide), permit extraction of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, and offer a potentially limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, opening new options for therapy. The present article reviews recent progress in tissue engineering and describes applications of these new technologies that may offer novel therapies for patients with end-stage organ failure. PMID:15588286

  19. Osteochondral tissue engineering: scaffolds, stem cells and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Salih, Vehid; Beier, Justus P; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondral tissue engineering has shown an increasing development to provide suitable strategies for the regeneration of damaged cartilage and underlying subchondral bone tissue. For reasons of the limitation in the capacity of articular cartilage to self-repair, it is essential to develop approaches based on suitable scaffolds made of appropriate engineered biomaterials. The combination of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics in a variety of composite structures is promising in this area, whereby the fabrication methods, associated cells and signalling factors determine the success of the strategies. The objective of this review is to present and discuss approaches being proposed in osteochondral tissue engineering, which are focused on the application of various materials forming bilayered composite scaffolds, including polymers and ceramics, discussing the variety of scaffold designs and fabrication methods being developed. Additionally, cell sources and biological protein incorporation methods are discussed, addressing their interaction with scaffolds and highlighting the potential for creating a new generation of bilayered composite scaffolds that can mimic the native interfacial tissue properties, and are able to adapt to the biological environment. PMID:22452848

  20. Stem cells and biopharmaceuticals: vital roles in the growth of tissue-engineered small intestine.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Gustavo Gross; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Grikscheit, Tracy Cannon

    2014-06-01

    Tissue engineering currently constitutes a complex, multidisciplinary field exploring ideal sources of cells in combination with scaffolds or delivery systems in order to form a new, functional organ to replace native organ lack or loss. Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a life-threatening condition with high morbidity and mortality rates in children. Current therapeutic strategies consist of costly and risky allotransplants that demand lifelong immunosuppression. A promising alternative is the implantation of autologous organoid units (OU) to create a tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI). This strategy is proven to be stem cell and mesenchyme dependent. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are located at the base of the crypt and are responsible for repopulating the cycling mucosa up to the villus tip. The stem cell niche governs the biology of ISCs and, together with the rest of the epithelium, communicates with the underlying mesenchyme to sustain intestinal homeostasis. Biopharmaceuticals are broadly used in the clinic to activate or enhance known signaling pathways and may greatly contribute to the development of a full-thickness intestine by increasing mucosal surface area, improving blood supply, and determining stem cell fate. This review will focus on tissue engineering as a means of building the new small intestine, highlighting the importance of stem cells and recombinant peptide growth factors as biopharmaceuticals.

  1. Immediate differentiation of neuronal cells from stem/progenitor-like cells in the avian iris tissues.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Tamami; Fujihara, Ai; Royall, Lars; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Kosaka, Mitsuko; Araki, Masasuke

    2014-06-01

    A simple culture method that was recently developed in our laboratory was applied to the chick iris tissues to characterize neural stem/progenitor-like cells. Iris tissue is a non-neuronal tissue and does not contain any neuronal cells. In the present study we isolated iris tissues from chick embryos just prior to hatching. The isolated iris pigmented epithelium (IPE) or the stroma was embedded in Matrigel and cultured in Dulbecco's MEM supplemented with either fetal bovine serum or the synthetic serum replacement solution B27. Within 24 h of culture, elongated cells with long processes extended out from the explants of both tissues and were positively stained for various neuronal markers such as transitin, Tuj-1 and acetylated tubulin. After a longer culture period, cells positive for photoreceptor markers like rhodopsin, iodopsin and visinin were found, suggesting that the iris tissues contain retinal stem/progenitor-like cells. Several growth factors were examined to determine their effects on neuronal differentiation. EGF was shown to dramatically enhance neuronal cell differentiation, particularly the elongation of neuronal fibers. The addition of exogenous FGF2, however, did not show any positive effects on neuronal differentiation, although FGF signaling inhibitor, SU5402, suppressed neuronal differentiation. The results show that neuronal stem/progenitor-like cells can differentiate into neuronal cells immediately after they are transferred into an appropriate environment. This process did not require any exogenous factors, suggesting that neural stem/progenitor-like cells are simply suppressed from neuronal differentiation within the tissue, and isolation from the tissue releases the cells from the suppression mechanism.

  2. Enteroendocrine cells are generated from stem cells through a distinct progenitor in the adult Drosophila posterior midgut

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiankun; Hou, Steven X.

    2015-01-01

    Functional mature cells are continually replenished by stem cells to maintain tissue homoeostasis. In the adult Drosophila posterior midgut, both terminally differentiated enterocyte (EC) and enteroendocrine (EE) cells are generated from an intestinal stem cell (ISC). However, it is not clear how the two differentiated cells are generated from the ISC. In this study, we found that only ECs are generated through the Su(H)GBE+ immature progenitor enteroblasts (EBs), whereas EEs are generated from ISCs through a distinct progenitor pre-EE by a novel lineage-tracing system. EEs can be generated from ISCs in three ways: an ISC becoming an EE, an ISC becoming a new ISC and an EE through asymmetric division, or an ISC becoming two EEs through symmetric division. We further identified that the transcriptional factor Prospero (Pros) regulates ISC commitment to EEs. Our data provide direct evidence that different differentiated cells are generated by different modes of stem cell lineage specification within the same tissues. PMID:25670791

  3. Using Stem Cells to Grow Artificial Tissue for Peripheral Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bhangra, Kulraj Singh; Busuttil, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury continues to pose a clinical hurdle despite its frequency and advances in treatment. Unlike the central nervous system, neurons of the peripheral nervous system have a greater ability to regenerate. However, due to a number of confounding factors, this is often both incomplete and inadequate. The lack of supportive Schwann cells or their inability to maintain a regenerative phenotype is a major factor. Advances in nervous system tissue engineering technology have led to efforts to build Schwann cell scaffolds to overcome this and enhance the regenerative capacity of neurons following injury. Stem cells that can differentiate along a neural lineage represent an essential resource and starting material for this process. In this review, we discuss the different stem cell types that are showing promise for nervous system tissue engineering in the context of peripheral nerve injury. We also discuss some of the biological, practical, ethical, and commercial considerations in using these different stem cells for future clinical application. PMID:27212954

  4. Assessment of stem cell carriers for tendon tissue engineering in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tendon injuries are prevalent and problematic, especially among young and otherwise healthy individuals. The inherently slow innate healing process combined with the inevitable scar tissue formation compromise functional recovery, imposing the need for the development of therapeutic strategies. The limited number of low activity/reparative capacity tendon-resident cells has directed substantial research efforts towards the exploration of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells in tendon injuries and pathophysiologies. Severe injuries require the use of a stem cell carrier to enable cell localisation at the defect site. The present study describes advancements that injectable carriers, tissue grafts, anisotropically orientated biomaterials, and cell-sheets have achieved in preclinical models as stem cell carriers for tendon repair. PMID:25157898

  5. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Ahmet; Peak, Taylor C; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Hellstrom, Wayne J

    2016-02-01

    Although a spectrum of options is available for erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment, ED in diabetics, post-prostatectomy patients, and those with Peyronie's disease (PD) may be more severe in degree and less likely to respond to conventional medical therapies. Unfortunately, there have been limited breakthroughs in therapeutic options for severe ED during the past decade. However, one of the more fascinating strategies in preclinical development to treat ED is stem cell transplantation. Depending on the cell type, recent research has demonstrated that with transplantation, these stem cells can exert a paracrine effect on surrounding penile tissues and differentiate into smooth muscle, endothelium, and neurons. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have become a valuable resource because of their abundance and ease of isolation. It is evident that ADSCs may provide a realistic, therapeutic modality for the treatment of ED. In this review, we will cover the literature that has evaluated ADSCs in the treatment of ED.

  6. Nanodentistry: combining nanostructured materials and stem cells for dental tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Woloszyk, Anna; Jiménez-Rojo, Lucia

    2012-11-01

    Regenerative dentistry represents an attractive multidisciplinary therapeutic approach that complements traditional restorative/surgery techniques and benefits from recent advances in stem cell biology, molecular biology, genomics and proteomics. Materials science is important in such advances to move regenerative dentistry from the laboratory to the clinic. The design of novel nanostructured materials, such as biomimetic matrices and scaffolds for controlling cell fate and differentiation, and nanoparticles for diagnostics, imaging and targeted treatment, is needed. The combination of nanotechnology, which allows the creation of sophisticated materials with exquisite fine structural detail, and stem cell biology turns out to be increasingly useful in regenerative medicine. The administration to patients of dynamic biological agents comprising stem cells, bioactive scaffolds and/or nanoparticles will certainly increase the regenerative impact of dental pathological tissues. This overview briefly describes some of the actual benefits and future possibilities of nanomaterials in the emerging field of stem cell-based regenerative dentistry.

  7. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  8. Biomimetic extracellular matrix mediated somatic stem cell differentiation: applications in dental pulp tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most widely prevalent infectious diseases in the world. It affects more than half of the world's population. The current treatment for necrotic dental pulp tissue arising from dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality making it prone for secondary infections. Over the past decade, several tissue-engineering approaches have attempted regeneration of the dental pulp tissue. Although several studies have highlighted the potential of dental stem cells, none have transitioned into a clinical setting owing to limited availability of dental stem cells and the need for growth factor delivery systems. Our strategy is to utilize the intact ECM of pulp cells to drive lineage specific differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. From a clinical perspective, pulp ECM scaffolds can be generated using cell lines and patient specific somatic stem cells can be used for regeneration. Our published results have shown the feasibility of using pulp ECM scaffolds for odontogenic differentiation of non-dental mesenchymal cells. This focused review discusses the issues surrounding dental pulp tissue regeneration and the potential of our strategy to overcome these issues.

  9. Growing Kidney Tissue from Stem Cells: How Far from "Party Trick" to Medical Application?

    PubMed

    Little, Melissa H

    2016-06-01

    The successful generation of kidney-like structures from human pluripotent stem cells, although slower to come than other tissue types, brings the hope of new therapies. While the demand for alternative treatments for kidney failure is acute, huge challenges remain to move these exciting but preliminary results toward clinical use.

  10. Biomimetic extracellular matrix mediated somatic stem cell differentiation: applications in dental pulp tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most widely prevalent infectious diseases in the world. It affects more than half of the world's population. The current treatment for necrotic dental pulp tissue arising from dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality making it prone for secondary infections. Over the past decade, several tissue-engineering approaches have attempted regeneration of the dental pulp tissue. Although several studies have highlighted the potential of dental stem cells, none have transitioned into a clinical setting owing to limited availability of dental stem cells and the need for growth factor delivery systems. Our strategy is to utilize the intact ECM of pulp cells to drive lineage specific differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. From a clinical perspective, pulp ECM scaffolds can be generated using cell lines and patient specific somatic stem cells can be used for regeneration. Our published results have shown the feasibility of using pulp ECM scaffolds for odontogenic differentiation of non-dental mesenchymal cells. This focused review discusses the issues surrounding dental pulp tissue regeneration and the potential of our strategy to overcome these issues. PMID:25954205

  11. Testing for Starch, Respiring Tissues, and Vascular Bundles: Inquiry-Based Seed and Stem Anatomy Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florine, Sara; Hammond, Paul; Pomart, Katrina; Balschweid, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes some inquiry-based labs in which students identify starch in popped popcorn, then determine whether starch is present in the kernels prior to them being cooked. Students distinguish monocot and dicot stems as well as determining whether boiling kills tissues in seeds that have been soaked in water. (DDR)

  12. Encapsulation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells within collagen-agarose microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Batorsky, Anna; Liao, Jiehong; Lund, Amanda W; Plopper, George E; Stegemann, Jan P

    2005-11-20

    Reliable control over the process of cell differentiation is a major challenge in moving stem cell-based therapies forward. The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to play an important role in modulating differentiation. We have developed a system to encapsulate adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) within spherical three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments consisting of a defined mixture of collagen Type I and agarose polymers. These protein-based beads were produced by emulsification of liquid hMSC-matrix suspensions in a silicone fluid phase and subsequent gelation to form hydrogel beads, which were collected by centrifugation and placed in culture. Bead size and size distribution could be varied by changing the encapsulation parameters (impeller speed and blade separation), and beads in the range of 30-150 microns in diameter were reliably produced. Collagen concentrations up to 40% (wt/wt) could be incorporated into the bead matrix. Visible light and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that the collagen matrix was uniformly distributed throughout the beads. Cell viability post-encapsulation was in the range of 75-90% for all bead formulations (similar to control slab gels) and remained at this level for 8 days in culture. Fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton revealed that hMSC spreading increased with increasing collagen concentration. This system of producing 3D microenvironments of defined matrix composition therefore offers a way to control cell-matrix interactions and thereby guide hMSC differentiation. The bead format allows the use of small amounts of matrix proteins, and such beads can potentially be used as a cell delivery vehicle in tissue repair applications.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: is the cure for connective tissue diseases within connective tissue?

    PubMed

    Carrion, Flavio A; Figueroa, Fernando E

    2011-05-11

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now known to display not only adult stem cell multipotency but also robust anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. After widespread in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing in several autoimmune disease models, allogenic MSCs have been successfully applied in patients with severe treatment-refractory systemic lupus erythematosus. The impressive results of these uncontrolled phase I and II trials - mostly in patients with non-responding renal disease - point to the need to perform controlled multicentric trials. In addition, they suggest that there is much to be learned from the basic and clinical science of MSCs in order to reap the full potential of these multifaceted progenitor cells in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  14. In vitro cartilage tissue engineering with 3D porous aqueous-derived silk scaffolds and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzhong; Kim, Ung-Jin; Blasioli, Dominick J; Kim, Hyeon-Joo; Kaplan, David L

    2005-12-01

    Adult cartilage tissue has limited self-repair capacity, especially in the case of severe damages caused by developmental abnormalities, trauma, or aging-related degeneration like osteoarthritis. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of different lineages including bone, cartilage, and fat. In vitro cartilage tissue engineering using autologous MSCs and three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffolds has the potential for the successful repair of severe cartilage damage. Ideally, scaffolds designed for cartilage tissue engineering should have optimal structural and mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, controlled degradation rate, and good handling characteristics. In the present work, a novel, highly porous silk scaffold was developed by an aqueous process according to these criteria and subsequently combined with MSCs for in vitro cartilage tissue engineering. Chondrogenesis of MSCs in the silk scaffold was evident by real-time RT-PCR analysis for cartilage-specific ECM gene markers, histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of cartilage-specific ECM components. Dexamethasone and TGF-beta3 were essential for the survival, proliferation and chondrogenesis of MSCs in the silk scaffolds. The attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of MSCs in the silk scaffold showed unique characteristics. After 3 weeks of cultivation, the spatial cell arrangement and the collagen type-II distribution in the MSCs-silk scaffold constructs resembles those in native articular cartilage tissue, suggesting promise for these novel 3-D degradable silk-based scaffolds in MSC-based cartilage repair. Further in vivo evaluation is necessary to fully recognize the clinical relevance of these observations.

  15. MKP-1 coordinates ordered macrophage-phenotype transitions essential for stem cell-dependent tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Perdiguero, Eusebio; Kharraz, Yacine; Serrano, Antonio L; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2012-03-01

    Re-establishing tissue homoeostasis in response to injury requires infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of resident stem cells. However, full tissue recovery also requires that the inflammation is resolved. While it is known that disturbing the interactions between inflammatory cells and tissue resident cells prevents successful healing, the molecular mechanisms underlying the paracrine interactions between these cell types are practically unknown. Here, and in a recent study, we provide mechanistic evidence that macrophages control stem cell-dependent tissue repair. In particular, we found that the temporal spacing of the pro- to anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization switch is controlled by the balance of p38 MAPK (termed here p38) and the MAPK phosphatase MKP-1 during the muscle healing process. Moreover, we demonstrate a new function for MKP-1-regulated p38 signaling in deactivating macrophages during inflammation resolution after injury. Specifically, at advanced stages of regeneration, MKP-1 loss caused an unscheduled "exhaustion-like" state in muscle macrophages, in which neither pro- nor anti-inflammatory cytokines are expressed despite persistent tissue damage, leading to dysregulated reparation by the tissue stem cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that p38 and MKP-1 control the AKT pathway through a miR-21-dependent PTEN regulation. Importantly, both genetic and pharmacological interference with the individual components of this pathway restored inflammation-dependent tissue homeostasis in MKP-1-deficient mice and delayed inflammation resolution and tissue repair dysregulation in wild-type mice. Because the process of tolerance to bacterial infection involves a progressive attenuation of pro-inflammatory gene expression, we discuss here the potential similarities between the mechanisms underlying inflammation resolution during tissue repair and those controlling endotoxin tolerance. PMID:22361726

  16. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  17. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    PubMed

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns.

  18. Comparative potential of juvenile and adult human articular chondrocytes for cartilage tissue formation in three-dimensional biomimetic hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Piera; Lai, Janice H; Dhulipala, Lakshmi; Behn, Anthony W; Goodman, Stuart B; Smith, Robert L; Maloney, William J; Yang, Fan; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of human articular cartilage is inherently limited and extensive efforts have focused on engineering the cartilage tissue. Various cellular sources have been studied for cartilage tissue engineering including adult chondrocytes, and embryonic or adult stem cells. Juvenile chondrocytes (from donors below 13 years of age) have recently been reported to be a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration. Previous studies have compared the potential of adult and juvenile chondrocytes or adult and osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. To comprehensively characterize the comparative potential of young, old, and diseased chondrocytes, here we examined cartilage formation by juvenile, adult, and OA chondrocytes in three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic hydrogels composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and chondroitin sulfate. All three human articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the 3D biomimetic hydrogels and cultured for 3 or 6 weeks to allow maturation and extracellular matrix formation. Outcomes were analyzed using quantitative gene expression, immunofluorescence staining, biochemical assays, and mechanical testing. After 3 and 6 weeks, juvenile chondrocytes showed a greater upregulation of chondrogenic gene expression than adult chondrocytes, while OA chondrocytes showed a downregulation. Aggrecan and type II collagen deposition and glycosaminoglycan accumulation were high for juvenile and adult chondrocytes but not for OA chondrocytes. Similar trend was observed in the compressive moduli of the cartilage constructs generated by the three different chondrocytes. In conclusion, the juvenile, adult and OA chondrocytes showed differential responses in the 3D biomimetic hydrogels. The 3D culture model described here may also provide a useful tool to further study the molecular differences among chondrocytes from different stages, which can help elucidate the mechanisms for age-related decline in the intrinsic capacity for cartilage repair. PMID:25054343

  19. Time-dependent processes in stem cell-based tissue engineering of articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Gadjanski, Ivana; Spiller, Kara; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC), situated in diarthrodial joints at the end of the long bones, is composed of a single cell type (chondrocytes) embedded in dense extracellular matrix comprised of collagens and proteoglycans. AC is avascular and alymphatic and is not innervated. At first glance, such a seemingly simple tissue appears to be an easy target for the rapidly developing field of tissue engineering. However, cartilage engineering has proven to be very challenging. We focus on time-dependent processes associated with the development of native cartilage starting from stem cells, and the modalities for utilizing these processes for tissue engineering of articular cartilage. PMID:22016073

  20. Directing Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Differentiate into Adipocytes for Engineering Injectable Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Xingyuan; Yan, Xingrong; Cui, Jihong; Liu, Wenguang; Sun, Mei; Rao, Yang; Chen, Fulin

    2014-01-01

    The selection of appropriate seed cells is crucial for adipose tissue engineering. Here, we reported the stepwise induction of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) to differentiate into adipogenic cells and its application in engineering injectable adipose tissue with Pluronic F-127. pESCs had pluripotent differentiation capacity and could form teratomas that include the three primary germ layers. Cells that migrated from the embryoid bodies (EBs) were selectively separated and expanded to obtain embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs). The eMSCs exhibited similar cell surface marker expression profiles with bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and had multipotent differentiation capacity. Under the induction of dexamethasone, indomethacin, and insulin, eMSCs could differentiate into adipogenic cells with increased expression of adipose-specific genes and oil droplet depositions within the cytoplasm. To evaluate their suitability as seed cells for adipose tissue engineering, the CM-Dil labelled adipogenic cells derived from eMSCs were seeded into Pluronic F-127 hydrogel and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Four weeks after injection, glistering and semitransparent constructs formed in the subcutaneous site. Histological observations demonstrated that new adipose tissue was successfully fabricated in the specimen by the labelled cells. The results of the current study indicated that pESCs have great potential in the fabrication of injectable adipose tissue. PMID:25587287

  1. Generating human intestinal tissue from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kyle W; Howell, Jonathan C; Wells, James M; Spence, Jason R

    2011-12-01

    Here we describe a protocol for generating 3D human intestinal tissues (called organoids) in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). To generate intestinal organoids, pluripotent stem cells are first differentiated into FOXA2(+)SOX17(+) endoderm by treating the cells with activin A for 3 d. After endoderm induction, the pluripotent stem cells are patterned into CDX2(+) mid- and hindgut tissue using FGF4 and WNT3a. During this patterning step, 3D mid- or hindgut spheroids bud from the monolayer epithelium attached to the tissue culture dish. The 3D spheroids are further cultured in Matrigel along with prointestinal growth factors, and they proliferate and expand over 1-3 months to give rise to intestinal tissue, complete with intestinal mesenchyme and epithelium comprising all of the major intestinal cell types. To date, this is the only method for efficiently directing the differentiation of hPSCs into 3D human intestinal tissue in vitro. PMID:22082986

  2. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Timper, Katharina; Seboek, Dalma; Eberhardt, Michael; Linscheid, Philippe; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Keller, Ulrich; Mueller, Beat; Zulewski, Henryk . E-mail: henryk.zulewski@unibas.ch

    2006-03-24

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

  3. Repair of Cartilage Defects in Arthritic Tissue with Differentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Olee, Tsaiwei; Grogan, Shawn P.; Lotz, Martin K.; Colwell, Clifford W.

    2014-01-01

    Chondrocytes have been generated in vitro from a range of progenitor cell types and by a number of strategies. However, achieving reconstitution of actual physiologically relevant, appropriately-laminated cartilage in situ that would be applicable to conditions, such as arthritis and cartilage degeneration remains elusive. This lack of success is multifactorial and includes limited cell source, decreased proliferation rate of mature chondrocytes, lack of maintenance of phenotype, reduced matrix synthesis, and poor integration with host tissue. We report an efficient approach for deriving mesenchymal chondroprogenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells. These cells generated tissue containing cartilage-specific matrix proteins that integrated in situ in a partial-thickness defect in ex vivo articular cartilage harvested from human arthritic joints. Given that stem cells provide a virtually inexhaustible supply of starting material and that our technique is easily scalable, cartilaginous tissue primed and grafted in this manner could be suitable for clinical translation. PMID:24028447

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell aging: Mechanisms and influences on skeletal and non-skeletal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huijuan; Xia, Xuechun

    2015-01-01

    The aging population and the incidence of aging-related diseases such as osteoporosis are on the rise. Aging at the tissue and organ levels usually involves tissue stem cells. Human and animal model studies indicate that aging affects two aspects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC): a decrease in the bone marrow MSC pool and biased differentiation into adipocyte at the cost of osteoblast, which underlie the etiology of osteoporosis. Aging of MSC cells is also detrimental to some non-skeletal tissues, in particular the hematopoietic system, where MSCs serve as a niche component. In addition, aging compromises the therapeutic potentials of MSC cells, including cells isolated from aged individuals or cells cultured for many passages. Here we discuss the recent progress on our understanding of MSC aging, with a focus on the effects of MSC aging on bone remodeling and hematopoiesis and the mechanisms of MSC aging. PMID:26088863

  5. Potential Reparative Role of Resident Adult Renal Stem/Progenitor Cells in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sallustio, Fabio; Serino, Grazia; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human kidney is particularly susceptible to ischemia and toxins with consequential tubular necrosis and activation of inflammatory processes. This process can lead to the acute renal injury, and even if the kidney has a great capacity for regeneration after tubular damage, in several circumstances, the normal renal repair program may not be sufficient to achieve a successful regeneration. Resident adult renal stem/progenitor cells could participate in this repair process and have the potentiality to enhance the renal regenerative mechanism. This could be achieved both directly, by means of their capacity to differentiate and integrate into the renal tissues, and by means of paracrine factors able to induce or improve the renal repair or regeneration. Recent genetic fate-tracing studies indicated that tubular damage is instead repaired by proliferative duplication of epithelial cells, acquiring a transient progenitor phenotype and by fate-restricted clonal cell progeny emerging from different nephron segments. In this review, we discuss about the properties and the reparative characteristics of high regenerative CD133+/CD24+ cells, with a view to a future application of these cells for the treatment of acute renal injury. PMID:26309808

  6. Bone tissue engineering via nanostructured calcium phosphate biomaterials and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is promising to meet the increasing need for bone regeneration. Nanostructured calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials/scaffolds are of special interest as they share chemical/crystallographic similarities to inorganic components of bone. Three applications of nano-CaP are discussed in this review: nanostructured calcium phosphate cement (CPC); nano-CaP composites; and nano-CaP coatings. The interactions between stem cells and nano-CaP are highlighted, including cell attachment, orientation/morphology, differentiation and in vivo bone regeneration. Several trends can be seen: (i) nano-CaP biomaterials support stem cell attachment/proliferation and induce osteogenic differentiation, in some cases even without osteogenic supplements; (ii) the influence of nano-CaP surface patterns on cell alignment is not prominent due to non-uniform distribution of nano-crystals; (iii) nano-CaP can achieve better bone regeneration than conventional CaP biomaterials; (iv) combining stem cells with nano-CaP accelerates bone regeneration, the effect of which can be further enhanced by growth factors; and (v) cell microencapsulation in nano-CaP scaffolds is promising for bone tissue engineering. These understandings would help researchers to further uncover the underlying mechanisms and interactions in nano-CaP stem cell constructs in vitro and in vivo, tailor nano-CaP composite construct design and stem cell type selection to enhance cell function and bone regeneration, and translate laboratory findings to clinical treatments. PMID:26273526

  7. Bone tissue engineering via nanostructured calcium phosphate biomaterials and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is promising to meet the increasing need for bone regeneration. Nanostructured calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials/scaffolds are of special interest as they share chemical/crystallographic similarities to inorganic components of bone. Three applications of nano-CaP are discussed in this review: nanostructured calcium phosphate cement (CPC); nano-CaP composites; and nano-CaP coatings. The interactions between stem cells and nano-CaP are highlighted, including cell attachment, orientation/morphology, differentiation and in vivo bone regeneration. Several trends can be seen: (i) nano-CaP biomaterials support stem cell attachment/proliferation and induce osteogenic differentiation, in some cases even without osteogenic supplements; (ii) the influence of nano-CaP surface patterns on cell alignment is not prominent due to non-uniform distribution of nano-crystals; (iii) nano-CaP can achieve better bone regeneration than conventional CaP biomaterials; (iv) combining stem cells with nano-CaP accelerates bone regeneration, the effect of which can be further enhanced by growth factors; and (v) cell microencapsulation in nano-CaP scaffolds is promising for bone tissue engineering. These understandings would help researchers to further uncover the underlying mechanisms and interactions in nano-CaP stem cell constructs in vitro and in vivo, tailor nano-CaP composite construct design and stem cell type selection to enhance cell function and bone regeneration, and translate laboratory findings to clinical treatments.

  8. Different Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: A Comparison of Neural Differentiation Capability

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Gabriele; Chamayou, Sandrine; Liprino, Annalisa; Guglielmino, Antonino; Fichera, Michele; Caruso, Massimo; Barcellona, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Stem cells are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into a wide range of cell types with multiple clinical and therapeutic applications. Stem cells are providing hope for many diseases that currently lack effective therapeutic methods, including strokes, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. However, the paucity of suitable cell types for cell replacement therapy in patients suffering from neurological disorders has hampered the development of this promising therapeutic approach. Aim The innovative aspect of this study has been to evaluate the neural differentiation capability of different tissue-derived stem cells coming from different tissue sources such as bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, human endometrium and amniotic fluid, cultured under the same supplemented media neuro-transcription factor conditions, testing the expression of neural markers such as GFAP, Nestin and Neurofilaments using the immunofluorescence staining assay and some typical clusters of differentiation such as CD34, CD90, CD105 and CD133 by using the cytofluorimetric test assay. Results Amniotic fluid derived stem cells showed a more primitive phenotype compared to the differentiating potential demonstrated by the other stem cell sources, representing a realistic possibility in the field of regenerative cell therapy suitable for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26517263

  9. Stem Cell Differentiation Toward the Myogenic Lineage for Muscle Tissue Regeneration: A Focus on Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Shi, Xuetao; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Salehi, Sahar; Fujie, Toshinori; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is one of the important ways for regenerating functionally defective muscles. Among the myopathies, the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive disease due to mutations of the dystrophin gene leading to progressive myofiber degeneration with severe symptoms. Although current therapies in muscular dystrophy are still very challenging, important progress has been made in materials science and in cellular technologies with the use of stem cells. It is therefore useful to review these advances and the results obtained in a clinical point of view. This article focuses on the differentiation of stem cells into myoblasts, and their application in muscular dystrophy. After an overview of the different stem cells that can be induced to differentiate into the myogenic lineage, we introduce scaffolding materials used for muscular tissue engineering. We then described some widely used methods to differentiate different types of stem cell into myoblasts. We highlight recent insights obtained in therapies for muscular dystrophy. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on stem cell technology. We discussed in parallel the benefits brought by the evolution of the materials and by the expansion of cell sources which can differentiate into myoblasts. We also discussed on future challenges for clinical applications and how to accelerate the translation from the research to the clinic in the frame of DMD.

  10. Hypoxia Created Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet for Prevascularized 3D Tissue Construction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Xing, Qi; Qian, Zichen; Tahtinen, Mitchell; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Shearier, Emily; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2016-02-01

    3D tissue based on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) sheets offers many interesting opportunities for regenerating multiple types of connective tissues. Prevascularizing hMSC sheets with endothelial cells (ECs) will improve 3D tissue performance by supporting cell survival and accelerating integration with host tissue. It is hypothesized that hypoxia cultured hMSC sheets can promote microvessel network formation and preserve stemness of hMSCs. This study investigates the vascularization of hMSC sheets under different oxygen tensions. It is found that the HN condition, in which hMSC sheets formed under physiological hypoxia (2% O2 ) and then cocultured with ECs under normoxia (20% O2 ), enables longer and more branched microvessel network formation. The observation is corroborated by higher levels of angiogenic factors in coculture medium. Additionally, the hypoxic hMSC sheet is more uniform and less defective, which facilitates fabrication of 3D prevascularized tissue construct by layering the prevascularized hMSC sheets and maturing in rotating wall vessel bioreactor. The hMSCs in the 3D construct still maintain multilineage differentiation ability, which indicates the possible application of the 3D construct for various connective tissues regeneration. These results demonstrate that hypoxia created hMSC sheets benefit the microvessel growth and it is feasible to construct 3D prevascularized tissue construct using the prevascularized hMSC sheets.

  11. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuechao; Walboomers, X Frank; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Mingwen; Jansen, John A

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor subpopulation from primary dental pulp-derived stem cells. In the current study, these cells were cultured with three different media: "BMP-plus" medium containing dexamethasone and 100 ng/mL of rhBMP-2, "odontogenic" medium containing dexamethasone, and "control" medium without supplements. The cell-scaffold complexes were cultured in these media for 1, 4, or 8 days before implantation. Histological analysis demonstrated that the cultures with BMP-plus and 4 days of culture gave the highest percentage of hard tissue formation per implant (36 +/- 9% of pore area). Real-time PCR confirmed these results. In conclusion, STRO-1-selected dental pulp stem cells show effective hard tissue formation in vivo, and a short in vitro culture period and addition of BMP-2 can enhance this effect. PMID:18652538

  12. Defects in ErbB-dependent establishment of adult melanocyte stem cells reveal independent origins for embryonic and regeneration melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Keith A; Budi, Erine H; Teasley, Daniel C; Gottlieb, Andrew Y; Parichy, David M; Johnson, Stephen L

    2009-07-01

    Adult stem cells are responsible for maintaining and repairing tissues during the life of an organism. Tissue repair in humans, however, is limited compared to the regenerative capabilities of other vertebrates, such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio). An understanding of stem cell mechanisms, such as how they are established, their self-renewal properties, and their recruitment to produce new cells is therefore important for the application of regenerative medicine. We use larval melanocyte regeneration following treatment with the melanocytotoxic drug MoTP to investigate these mechanisms in Melanocyte Stem Cell (MSC) regulation. In this paper, we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase, erbb3b, is required for establishing the adult MSC responsible for regenerating the larval melanocyte population. Both the erbb3b mutant and wild-type fish treated with the ErbB inhibitor, AG1478, develop normal embryonic melanocytes but fail to regenerate melanocytes after MoTP-induced melanocyte ablation. By administering AG1478 at different time points, we show that ErbB signaling is only required for regeneration prior to MoTP treatment and before 48 hours of development, consistent with a role in establishing MSCs. We then show that overexpression of kitla, the Kit ligand, in transgenic larvae leads to recruitment of MSCs, resulting in overproliferation of melanocytes. Furthermore, kitla overexpression can rescue AG1478-blocked regeneration, suggesting that ErbB signaling is required to promote the progression and specification of the MSC from a pre-MSC state. This study provides evidence that ErbB signaling is required for the establishment of adult MSCs during embryonic development. That this requirement is not shared with the embryonic melanocytes suggests that embryonic melanocytes develop directly, without proceeding through the ErbB-dependent MSC. Moreover, the shared requirement of larval melanocyte regeneration and metamorphic melanocytes that develops at the larval-to-adult

  13. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qian; Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Wenkai; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bin; Ni, Longxing

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA) plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs) behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation) of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation. PMID:27648074

  14. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qian; Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Wenkai; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA) plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs) behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation) of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation.

  15. Corneal stem cells and tissue engineering: Current advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Aline Lütz; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2015-06-26

    Major advances are currently being made in regenerative medicine for cornea. Stem cell-based therapies represent a novel strategy that may substitute conventional corneal transplantation, albeit there are many challenges ahead given the singularities of each cellular layer of the cornea. This review recapitulates the current data on corneal epithelial stem cells, corneal stromal stem cells and corneal endothelial cell progenitors. Corneal limbal autografts containing epithelial stem cells have been transplanted in humans for more than 20 years with great successful rates, and researchers now focus on ex vivo cultures and other cell lineages to transplant to the ocular surface. A small population of cells in the corneal endothelium was recently reported to have self-renewal capacity, although they do not proliferate in vivo. Two main obstacles have hindered endothelial cell transplantation to date: culture protocols and cell delivery methods to the posterior cornea in vivo. Human corneal stromal stem cells have been identified shortly after the recognition of precursors of endothelial cells. Stromal stem cells may have the potential to provide a direct cell-based therapeutic approach when injected to corneal scars. Furthermore, they exhibit the ability to deposit organized connective tissue in vitro and may be useful in corneal stroma engineering in the future. Recent advances and future perspectives in the field are discussed.

  16. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qian; Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Wenkai; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA) plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs) behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation) of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation. PMID:27648074

  17. Engineering three-dimensional stem cell morphogenesis for the development of tissue models and scalable regenerative therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Melissa A.; Hookway, Tracy A.; Wang, Yun; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    The physiochemical stem cell microenvironment regulates the delicate balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The three-dimensional assembly of stem cells facilitates cellular interactions that promote morphogenesis, analogous to the multicellular, heterotypic tissue organization that accompanies embryogenesis. Therefore, expansion and differentiation of stem cells as multicellular aggregates provides a controlled platform for studying the biological and engineering principles underlying spatiotemporal morphogenesis and tissue patterning. Moreover, three-dimensional stem cell cultures are amenable to translational screening applications and therapies, which underscores the broad utility of scalable suspension cultures across laboratory and clinical scales. In this review, we discuss stem cell morphogenesis in the context of fundamental biophysical principles, including the three-dimensional modulation of adhesions, mechanics, and molecular transport and highlight the opportunities to employ stem cell spheroids for tissue modeling, bioprocessing, and regenerative therapies. PMID:24297495

  18. CHD7 maintains neural stem cell quiescence and prevents premature stem cell depletion in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kieran M; Sarić, Nemanja; Russell, John P; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Scambler, Peter J; Basson, M Albert

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the hippocampus produce new neurons throughout adult life. NSCs are maintained in a state of reversible quiescence and the failure to maintain the quiescent state can result in the premature depletion of the stem cell pool. The epigenetic mechanisms that maintain this quiescent state have not been identified. Using an inducible knockout mouse model, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) is essential for maintaining NSC quiescence. CHD7 inactivation in adult NSCs results in a loss of stem cell quiescence in the hippocampus, a transient increase in cell divisions, followed by a significant decline in neurogenesis. This loss of NSC quiescence is associated with the premature loss of NSCs in middle-aged mice. We find that CHD7 represses the transcription of several positive regulators of cell cycle progression and is required for full induction of the Notch target gene Hes5 in quiescent NSCs. These findings directly link CHD7 to pathways involved in NSC quiescence and identify the first chromatin-remodeling factor with a role in NSC quiescence and maintenance. As CHD7 haplo-insufficiency is associated with a range of cognitive disabilities in CHARGE syndrome, our observations may have implications for understanding the basis of these deficits.

  19. Bioceramic-collagen scaffolds loaded with human adipose-tissue derived stem cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Daei-Farshbaf, Neda; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Piryaei, Abbas; Fadaei Fathabady, Fatemeh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Salehi, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud; Nazarian, Hamid; Moradi, Sadegh-Lotfalah; Norouzian, Mohsen

    2014-02-01

    The combination of bioceramics and stem cells has attracted the interest of research community for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present study, a combination of Bio-Oss(®) and type 1 collagen gel as scaffold were loaded with human adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) after isolation and characterization, and the capacity of them for bone regeneration was investigated in rat critical size defects using digital mammography, multi-slice spiral computed tomography imaging and histological analysis. 8 weeks after implantation, no mortality or sign of inflammation was observed in the site of defect. According to the results of imaging analysis, a higher level of bone regeneration was observed in the rats receiving Bio-Oss(®)-Gel compared to untreated group. In addition, MSC-seeded Bio-Oss-Gel induced the highest bone reconstruction among all groups. Histological staining confirmed these findings and impressive osseointegration was observed in MSC-seeded Bio-Oss-Gel compared with Bio-Oss-Gel. On the whole, it was demonstrated that combination of AT-MSCs, Bio-Oss and Gel synergistically enhanced bone regeneration and reconstruction and also could serve as an appropriate structure to bone regenerative medicine and tissue engineering application.

  20. Neural stem cells in the adult ciliary epithelium express GFAP and are regulated by Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ani V.; Zhao Xing; James, Jackson; Kim, Min; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Ahmad, Iqbal . E-mail: iahmad@unmc.edu

    2006-01-13

    The identification of neural stem cells with retinal potential in the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult mammals is of considerable interest because of their potential for replacing or rescuing degenerating retinal neurons in disease or injury. The evaluation of such a potential requires characterization of these cells with regard to their phenotypic properties, potential, and regulatory mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that rat CE stem cells/progenitors in neurosphere culture display astrocytic nature in terms of expressing glial intermediate neurofilament protein, GFAP. The GFAP-expressing CE stem cells/progenitors form neurospheres in proliferating conditions and generate neurons when shifted to differentiating conditions. These cells express components of the canonical Wnt pathway and its activation promotes their proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway influences neuronal differentiation of CE stem cells/progenitors in a context dependent manner. Our observations suggest that CE stem cells/progenitors share phenotypic properties and regulatory mechanism(s) with neural stem cells elsewhere in the adult CNS.

  1. Isolation and Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived from Human Placenta Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Sardesai, Varda S.; Futrega, Kathryn; Lott, William B.; Kuhn, Michael; Doran, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are promising candidates for use in cell-based therapies. In most cases, therapeutic response appears to be cell-dose dependent. Human term placenta is rich in MSC and is a physically large tissue that is generally discarded following birth. Placenta is an ideal starting material for the large-scale manufacture of multiple cell doses of allogeneic MSC. The placenta is a fetomaternal organ from which either fetal or maternal tissue can be isolated. This article describes the placental anatomy and procedure to dissect apart the decidua (maternal), chorionic villi (fetal), and chorionic plate (fetal) tissue. The protocol then outlines how to isolate MSC from each dissected tissue region, and provides representative analysis of expanded MSC derived from the respective tissue types. These methods are intended for pre-clinical MSC isolation, but have also been adapted for clinical manufacture of placental MSC for human therapeutic use. PMID:27340821

  2. Stem cells in urology.

    PubMed

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  3. Genomic selection for quantitative adult plant stem rust resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative adult plant resistance (APR) to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is an important breeding target in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a potential target for genomic selection (GS). To evaluate the relative importance of known APR loci in applying genomic selection, we charact...

  4. Oversight for clinical uses of autologous adult stem cells: lessons from international regulations.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Tamra; Kerridge, Ian; Sipp, Douglas; Porter, Gerard; Capps, Benjamin J

    2013-12-01

    Autologous adult stem cells (ASCs) are being administered by physicians for indications that have not been demonstrated as safe and effective in formal clinical trials. Examination of regulatory frameworks across five countries suggests that balancing the demands of research with clinical freedom has created structural weaknesses that are being exploited.

  5. Role of astrocytes as neural stem cells in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, bona fide neural stem cells were discovered in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the largest neurogenic niche lining the striatal wall of the lateral ventricles of the brain. In this region resides a subpopulation of astrocytes that express the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin and LeX. Astonishingly, these GFAP-expressing progenitors display stem-cell-like features both in vivo and in vitro. Throughout life SVZ astrocytes give rise to interneurons and oligodendrocyte precursors, which populate the olfactory bulb and the white matter, respectively. The role of the progenies of SVZ astrocytes has not been fully elucidated, but some evidence indicates that the new neurons play a role in olfactory discrimination, whereas oligodendrocytes contribute to myelinate white matter tracts. In this chapter, we describe the astrocytic nature of adult neural stem cells, their organization into the SVZ and some of their molecular and genetic characteristics. PMID:23619383

  6. Recapitulation of endochondral bone formation using human adult mesenchymal stem cells as a paradigm for developmental engineering.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Celeste; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Scherberich, Arnaud; Schaeren, Stefan; Schauerte, Alexandra; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Zeller, Rolf; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2010-04-20

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are typically used to generate bone tissue by a process resembling intramembranous ossification, i.e., by direct osteoblastic differentiation. However, most bones develop by endochondral ossification, i.e., via remodeling of hypertrophic cartilaginous templates. To date, endochondral bone formation has not been reproduced using human, clinically compliant cell sources. Here, we aimed at engineering tissues from bone marrow-derived, adult human MSC with an intrinsic capacity to undergo endochondral ossification. By analogy to embryonic limb development, we hypothesized that successful execution of the endochondral program depends on the initial formation of hypertrophic cartilaginous templates. Human MSC, subcutaneously implanted into nude mice at various stages of chondrogenic differentiation, formed bone trabeculae only when they had developed in vitro hypertrophic tissue structures. Advanced maturation in vitro resulted in accelerated formation of larger bony tissues. The underlying morphogenetic process was structurally and molecularly similar to the temporal and spatial progression of limb bone development in embryos. In particular, Indian hedgehog signaling was activated at early stages and required for the in vitro formation of hypertrophic cartilage. Subsequent development of a bony collar in vivo was followed by vascularization, osteoclastic resorption of the cartilage template, and appearance of hematopoietic foci. This study reveals the capacity of human MSC to generate bone tissue via an endochondral program and provides a valid model to study mechanisms governing bone development. Most importantly, this process could generate advanced grafts for bone regeneration by invoking a "developmental engineering" paradigm.

  7. Stroke Increases Neural Stem Cells and Angiogenesis in the Neurogenic Niche of the Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui Lan; Chopp, Michael; Roberts, Cynthia; Liu, Xianshuang; Wei, Min; Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P.; Wang, Xinli; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2014-01-01

    The unique cellular and vascular architecture of the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ) neurogenic niche plays an important role in regulating neural stem cell function. However, the in vivo identification of neural stem cells and their relationship to blood vessels within this niche in response to stroke remain largely unknown. Using whole-mount preparation of the lateral ventricle wall, we examined the architecture of neural stem cells and blood vessels in the V/SVZ of adult mouse over the course of 3 months after onset of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke substantially increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive neural stem cells that are in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via their apical processes at the center of pinwheel structures formed by ependymal cells residing in the lateral ventricle. Long basal processes of these cells extended to blood vessels beneath the ependymal layer. Moreover, stroke increased V/SVZ endothelial cell proliferation from 2% in non-ischemic mice to 12 and 15% at 7 and 14 days after stroke, respectively. Vascular volume in the V/SVZ was augmented from 3% of the total volume prior to stroke to 6% at 90 days after stroke. Stroke-increased angiogenesis was closely associated with neuroblasts that expanded to nearly encompass the entire lateral ventricular wall in the V/SVZ. These data indicate that stroke induces long-term alterations of the neural stem cell and vascular architecture of the adult V/SVZ neurogenic niche. These post-stroke structural changes may provide insight into neural stem cell mediation of stroke-induced neurogenesis through the interaction of neural stem cells with proteins in the CSF and their sub-ependymal neurovascular interaction. PMID:25437857

  8. Fetal programming of adult Leydig cell function by androgenic effects on stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Karen R.; Smith, Lee B.; Atanassova, Nina; Macpherson, Sheila; McKinnell, Chris; van den Driesche, Sander; Jobling, Matthew S.; Chambers, Thomas J. G.; De Gendt, Karel; Verhoeven, Guido; O’Hara, Laura; Platts, Sophie; Renato de Franca, Luiz; Lara, Nathália L. M.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal growth plays a role in programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders, which in men, are associated with lowered testosterone levels. Fetal growth and fetal androgen exposure can also predetermine testosterone levels in men, although how is unknown, because the adult Leydig cells (ALCs) that produce testosterone do not differentiate until puberty. To explain this conundrum, we hypothesized that stem cells for ALCs must be present in the fetal testis and might be susceptible to programming by fetal androgen exposure during masculinization. To address this hypothesis, we used ALC ablation/regeneration to identify that, in rats, ALCs derive from stem/progenitor cells that express chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II. These stem cells are abundant in the fetal testis of humans and rodents, and lineage tracing in mice shows that they develop into ALCs. The stem cells also express androgen receptors (ARs). Reduction in fetal androgen action through AR KO in mice or dibutyl phthalate (DBP) -induced reduction in intratesticular testosterone in rats reduced ALC stem cell number by ∼40% at birth to adulthood and induced compensated ALC failure (low/normal testosterone and elevated luteinizing hormone). In DBP-exposed males, this failure was probably explained by reduced testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, which is associated with increased histone methylation (H3K27me3) in the proximal promoter. Accordingly, ALCs and ALC stem cells immunoexpressed increased H3K27me3, a change that was also evident in ALC stem cells in fetal testes. These studies highlight how a key component of male reproductive development can fundamentally reprogram adult hormone production (through an epigenetic change), which might affect lifetime disease risk. PMID:24753613

  9. Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue-specific and gender-related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-06-01

    Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

  10. The novel steroidal alkaloids dendrogenin A and B promote proliferation of adult neural stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, Shaden A.M.; Medina, Philippe de; Erlandsson, Anna; El-Seedi, Hesham R.; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Dendrogenin A and B are new aminoalkyl oxysterols. • Dendrogenins stimulated neural stem cells proliferation. • Dendrogenins induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres. • Dendrogenins provide new therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. - Abstract: Dendrogenin A (DDA) and dendrogenin B (DDB) are new aminoalkyl oxysterols which display re-differentiation of tumor cells of neuronal origin at nanomolar concentrations. We analyzed the influence of dendrogenins on adult mice neural stem cell proliferation, sphere formation and differentiation. DDA and DDB were found to have potent proliferative effects in neural stem cells. Additionally, they induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres during in vitro cultivation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for dendrogenins A and B in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which further increases their likely importance to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the brain.

  11. Large-scale live imaging of adult neural stem cells in their endogenous niche

    PubMed Central

    Dray, Nicolas; Bedu, Sébastien; Vuillemin, Nelly; Alunni, Alessandro; Coolen, Marion; Krecsmarik, Monika; Supatto, Willy; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Live imaging of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) in vivo is a technical challenge in the vertebrate brain. Here, we achieve long-term imaging of the adult zebrafish telencephalic neurogenic niche and track a population of >1000 aNSCs over weeks, by taking advantage of fish transparency at near-infrared wavelengths and of intrinsic multiphoton landmarks. This methodology enables us to describe the frequency, distribution and modes of aNSCs divisions across the entire germinal zone of the adult pallium, and to highlight regional differences in these parameters. PMID:26395477

  12. Biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells and influence of donor age on cell replication in culture.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Liao, WeiMing; Sheng, PuYi; Fu, Ming; He, AiShan; Huang, Gang

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (hADAS cells) when cultured in vitro and the relationship between hADAS cell's replication activity and the donor's age factor, and to assess the stem cells as a new source for tissue engineering. hADAS cells are isolated from human adipose tissue of different age groups (from adolescents to olds: <20 years old, 21-40 years old, 41-60 years old and >61 years old groups). The protein markers (CD29, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD49d, HLA-DR, CD106) of hADAS cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) to identify the stem cell, and the cell cycle was examined for P20 hADAS cells to evaluate the safety of the subculture in vitro. The generative activity of hADAS cells in different age groups was also examined by MTT method. The formula "TD = t x log2/logNt - logN0" was used to get the time doubling (TD) of the cells. The results showed that the cells kept heredity stabilization by chromosome analysis for at least 20 passages. The TD of these cells increased progressively by ageing, and the TD of the <20 years old group was lower than that of the >61 years old group (statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), P=0.002, P<0.05). These findings suggested that a higher level of hADAS cells replication activity was found in the younger donators, and they represent novel and valuable seed cells for studies of tissue engineering.

  13. Pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes: using materials to define cellular differentiation and tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lucendo-Villarin, B.; Rashidi, H.; Cameron, K.

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived liver cells (hepatocytes) represent a promising alternative to primary tissue for biological and clinical applications. To date, most hepatocyte maintenance and differentiation systems have relied upon the use of animal derived components. This serves as a significant barrier to large scale production and application of stem cell derived hepatocytes. Recently, the use of defined biologics has overcome those limitations in two-dimensional monolayer culture. In order to improve the cell phenotype further, three-dimensional culture systems have been employed to better mimic the in vivo situation, drawing upon materials chemistry, engineering and biology. In this review we discuss efforts in the field, to differentiate pluripotent stem cells towards hepatocytes under defined conditions. PMID:27746914

  14. Ectodermal Differentiation of Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications.

    PubMed

    Jadalannagari, Sushma; Aljitawi, Omar S

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the human umbilical cord are perinatal stem cells that have self-renewal ability, extended proliferation potential, immunosuppressive properties, and are accordingly excellent candidates for tissue engineering. These MSCs are unique, easily accessible, and a noncontroversial cell source of regeneration in medicine. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) are multipotent and capable of multilineage differentiation into cells like adipocytes, bone, cartilage, and skeletal muscle upon exposure to appropriate conditions. The ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers found in the very early embryo that differentiates into the epidermis, nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves, brain), and exocrine glands (mammary, sweat, salivary, and lacrimal glands). Accumulating evidence shows that MSCs obtained from WJ have an ectodermal differentiation potential. The current review examines this differentiation potential of WJMSC into the hair follicle, skin, neurons, and sweat glands along with discussing the potential utilization of such differentiation in regenerative medicine.

  15. Persistent production of neurons from adult brain stem cells during recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Thored, Pär; Arvidsson, Andreas; Cacci, Emanuele; Ahlenius, Henrik; Kallur, Therése; Darsalia, Vladimer; Ekdahl, Christine T; Kokaia, Zaal; Lindvall, Olle

    2006-03-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of adult rodents produce new striatal neurons that may replace those that have died after stroke; however, the neurogenic response has been considered acute and transient, yielding only small numbers of neurons. In contrast, we show herein that striatal neuroblasts are generated without decline at least for 4 months after stroke in adult rats. Neuroblasts formed early or late after stroke either differentiate into mature neurons, which survive for several months, or die through caspase-mediated apoptosis. The directed migration of the new neurons toward the ischemic damage is regulated by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and its receptor CXCR4. These results show that endogenous neural stem cells continuously supply the injured adult brain with new neurons, which suggests novel self-repair strategies to improve recovery after stroke. PMID:16210404

  16. C-Myb(+) erythro-myeloid progenitor-derived fetal monocytes give rise to adult tissue-resident macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, Guillaume; Chen, Jinmiao; Lavin, Yonit; Low, Donovan; Almeida, Francisca F; See, Peter; Beaudin, Anna E; Lum, Josephine; Low, Ivy; Forsberg, E Camilla; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Ng, Lai Guan; Chan, Jerry K Y; Greter, Melanie; Becher, Burkhard; Samokhvalov, Igor M; Merad, Miriam; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-04-21

    Although classified as hematopoietic cells, tissue-resident macrophages (MFs) arise from embryonic precursors that seed the tissues prior to birth to generate a self-renewing population, which is maintained independently of adult hematopoiesis. Here we reveal the identity of these embryonic precursors using an in utero MF-depletion strategy and fate-mapping of yolk sac (YS) and fetal liver (FL) hematopoiesis. We show that YS MFs are the main precursors of microglia, while most other MFs derive from fetal monocytes (MOs). Both YS MFs and fetal MOs arise from erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) generated in the YS. In the YS, EMPs gave rise to MFs without monocytic intermediates, while EMP seeding the FL upon the establishment of blood circulation acquired c-Myb expression and gave rise to fetal MOs that then seeded embryonic tissues and differentiated into MFs. Thus, adult tissue-resident MFs established from hematopoietic stem cell-independent embryonic precursors arise from two distinct developmental programs.

  17. Direct Mechanical Stimulation of Stem Cells: A Beating Electromechanically Active Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Gelmi, Amy; Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur; de Muinck, Ebo; Los, Marek; Rafat, Mehrdad; Jager, Edwin W H

    2016-06-01

    The combination of stem cell therapy with a supportive scaffold is a promising approach to improving cardiac tissue engineering. Stem cell therapy can be used to repair nonfunctioning heart tissue and achieve myocardial regeneration, and scaffold materials can be utilized in order to successfully deliver and support stem cells in vivo. Current research describes passive scaffold materials; here an electroactive scaffold that provides electrical, mechanical, and topographical cues to induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is presented. The poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) fiber scaffold coated with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) is capable of delivering direct electrical and mechanical stimulation to the iPS. The electroactive scaffolds demonstrate no cytotoxic effects on the iPS as well as an increased expression of cardiac markers for both stimulated and unstimulated protocols. This study demonstrates the first application of PPy as a supportive electroactive material for iPS and the first development of a fiber scaffold capable of dynamic mechanical actuation.

  18. Metal debris concentrations in soft tissues adjacent to loosened femoral stems is higher in uncemented than cemented implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are still many questions related to aseptic femoral stem loosening. Systemic and local immune responses to the implanted “foreign body” is one of the reasons for loosening. The purpose of the study was to measure metal ion concentration (Ti, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al) around loosened femoral stems and compare their levels around uncemented and cemented implants. Methods This paper reports 50 hips operated for isolated stem loosening, in 50 patients at the mean age of 57 years (from 21 to 87). There were 25 cemented (Co,Cr29,Mo,Ni) and 25 uncemented (Ti, Al) stems. The mean follow-up from primary hip replacement to revision was 10.1 years (from 0.5 to 17). During the procedure, scar tissue around the stem was taken for analysis of metal ions. Results The concentrations of titanium and aluminium in soft tissues around uncemented loosened stems were higher than cemented ones (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between both types of stems in terms of ions of the metal of which cemented implants had been made of (Co, Cr, Mo, Ni). Conclusions In soft tissue around a loosened stem, the concentrations of metal ions from implants are much higher in case of uncemented stems than of cemented ones. Metal ions from vitalium femoral heads were found around uncemented stems in similar values to cemented streams. PMID:25098913

  19. Adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: the keys to functional periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Numerous different types of periodontal tissue regeneration therapies have been developed clinically with variable outcomes and serious limitations. A key goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate the destroyed periodontal tissues including alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. The critical factors in attaining successful periodontal tissue regeneration are the correct recruitment of cells to the site and the production of a suitable extra cellular matrix consistent with the periodontal tissues. Adipose tissue, from which mesenchymal stem cells can be harvested easily and safely, is an especially attractive stem cell source, because adipose-derived stem cells have a strong potential for cell differentiation and growth factor secretion. Meanwhile, the usefulness of platelet-rich plasma in the field of dental surgery has attracted attention. Therapeutic effects of platelet-rich plasma are believed to occur through the provision of concentrated levels of platelet-derived growth factors. Further, recent reports suggested the effect of platelet-rich plasma on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, differentiation and survival rate. Therefore, the admixture of mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma may indicate the great potential for tissue regenerations including periodontal tissue regeneration. In this review, the potential of adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma is introduced. Of particular interest, the usefulness in periodontal tissue regeneration and future perspective is discussed.

  20. Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Janel L; Grompe, Markus; Sander, Maike

    2016-03-01

    Cell replacement in adult organs can be achieved through stem cell differentiation or the replication or transdifferentiation of existing cells. In the adult liver and pancreas, stem cells have been proposed to replace tissue cells, particularly following injury. Here we review how specialized cell types are produced in the adult liver and pancreas. Based on current evidence, we propose that the plasticity of differentiated cells, rather than stem cells, accounts for tissue repair in both organs.

  1. Stem cells versus plasticity in liver and pancreas regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Janel L; Grompe, Markus; Sander, Maike

    2016-03-01

    Cell replacement in adult organs can be achieved through stem cell differentiation or the replication or transdifferentiation of existing cells. In the adult liver and pancreas, stem cells have been proposed to replace tissue cells, particularly following injury. Here we review how specialized cell types are produced in the adult liver and pancreas. Based on current evidence, we propose that the plasticity of differentiated cells, rather than stem cells, accounts for tissue repair in both organs. PMID:26911907

  2. Microinjection of membrane-impermeable molecules into single neural stem cells in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fong Kuan; Haffner, Christiane; Huttner, Wieland B; Taverna, Elena

    2014-05-01

    This microinjection protocol allows the manipulation and tracking of neural stem and progenitor cells in tissue at single-cell resolution. We demonstrate how to apply microinjection to organotypic brain slices obtained from mice and ferrets; however, our technique is not limited to mouse and ferret embryos, but provides a means of introducing a wide variety of membrane-impermeable molecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, hydrophilic compounds) into neural stem and progenitor cells of any developing mammalian brain. Microinjection experiments are conducted by using a phase-contrast microscope equipped with epifluorescence, a transjector and a micromanipulator. The procedure normally takes ∼2 h for an experienced researcher, and the entire protocol, including tissue processing, can be performed within 1 week. Thus, microinjection is a unique and versatile method for changing and tracking the fate of a cell in organotypic slice culture.

  3. Spontaneous aneuploidy and clone formation in adipose tissue stem cells during different periods of culturing.

    PubMed

    Buyanovskaya, O A; Kuleshov, N P; Nikitina, V A; Voronina, E S; Katosova, L D; Bochkov, N P

    2009-07-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of 13 mesenchymal stem cell cultures isolated from normal human adipose tissue was carried out at different stages of culturing. The incidence of chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and X aneuploidy and polyploidy was studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization. During the early passages, monosomal cells were more often detected than trisomal ones. A clone with chromosome 6 monosomy was detected in three cultures during late passages.

  4. Stem cell therapy and tissue engineering for correction of congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Elisa; Caputo, Massimo; Madeddu, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This review article reports on the new field of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering and its potential on the management of congenital heart disease. To date, stem cell therapy has mainly focused on treatment of ischemic heart disease and heart failure, with initial indication of safety and mild-to-moderate efficacy. Preclinical studies and initial clinical trials suggest that the approach could be uniquely suited for the correction of congenital defects of the heart. The basic concept is to create living material made by cellularized grafts that, once implanted into the heart, grows and remodels in parallel with the recipient organ. This would make a substantial improvement in current clinical management, which often requires repeated surgical corrections for failure of implanted grafts. Different types of stem cells have been considered and the identification of specific cardiac stem cells within the heterogeneous population of mesenchymal and stromal cells offers opportunities for de novo cardiomyogenesis. In addition, endothelial cells and vascular progenitors, including cells with pericyte characteristics, may be necessary to generate efficiently perfused grafts. The implementation of current surgical grafts by stem cell engineering could address the unmet clinical needs of patients with congenital heart defects. PMID:26176009

  5. The Modulatable Stem Cell Niche: Tissue Interactions during Hair and Feather Follicle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Plikus, Maksim V; Tang, Pin-Chi; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2016-04-10

    Hair and feathers are unique because (1) their stem cells are contained within a follicle structure, (2) they undergo cyclic regeneration repetitively throughout life, (3) regeneration occurs physiologically in healthy individuals and (4) regeneration is also induced in response to injury. Precise control of this cyclic regeneration process is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of living organisms. While stem cells are regulated by the intra-follicle-adjacent micro-environmental niche, this niche is also modulated dynamically by extra-follicular macro-environmental signals, allowing stem cells to adapt to a larger changing environment and physiological needs. Here we review several examples of macro-environments that communicate with the follicles: intradermal adipose tissue, innate immune system, sex hormones, aging, circadian rhythm and seasonal rhythms. Related diseases are also discussed. Unveiling the mechanisms of how stem cell niches are modulated provides clues for regenerative medicine. Given that stem cells are hard to manipulate, focusing translational therapeutic applications at the environments appears to be a more practical approach.

  6. Comparison of in vitro mineralization by murine embryonic and adult stem cells cultured in an osteogenic medium.

    PubMed

    Shimko, Daniel A; Burks, Chris A; Dee, Kay C; Nauman, Eric A

    2004-01-01

    Nearly half a million bone-grafting procedures occurred in the United States in the year 2000. Tissue-engineered bone substitutes may mitigate difficulties associated with current grafting options. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could be a potential cell source for bone substitutes; however, direct comparisons between ESCs and other cell sources are lacking. Here we provide a direct, long-term, in vitro comparison of mineralization processes in adult, marrow-derived, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and ESCs from the 129/Sv+c/+p mouse strain. MSCs were observed to grow at a slower rate than ESCs. MSCs expressed seven times more alkaline phosphatase (AP) per cell than did ESCs and immediately showed type I collagen and osteocalcin production. ESCs also produced type I collagen and osteocalcin, but production was delayed. Mineral deposition by ESCs was nearly 50 times higher than by MSCs. Spectroscopic analysis showed the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) of the ESC mineral (1.26:1) to be significantly higher than that of the MSCs (0.29:1), but still 25% lower than hydroxyapatite (1.67:1). Addition of basic fibroblast growth factor significantly inhibited AP expression, mineral deposition, and Ca:P ratios in MSCs and had little effect on ESCs. These functional characteristics may assist with cell selection for purposes of bone tissue engineering.

  7. Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Larissa V.; Alfonso, Zeni; Zhang, Rong; Leung, Joanne; Wu, Benjamin; Ignarro, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal function of a multitude of organs including the intestine, urinary tract and the vascular system. The use of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising alternative for smooth muscle repair. For such strategies to succeed, a reliable source of smooth muscle precursor cells must be identified. Adipose tissue provides an abundant source of multipotent cells. In this study, the capacity of processed lipoaspirate (PLA) and adipose-derived stem cells to differentiate into phenotypic and functional smooth muscle cells was evaluated. To induce differentiation, PLA cells were cultured in smooth muscle differentiation medium. Smooth muscle differentiation of PLA cells induced genetic expression of all smooth muscle markers and further confirmed by increased protein expression of smooth muscle cell-specific α actin (ASMA), calponin, caldesmon, SM22, myosin heavy chain (MHC), and smoothelin. Clonal studies of adipose derived multipotent cells demonstrated differentiation of these cells into smooth muscle cells in addition to trilineage differentiation capacity. Importantly, smooth muscle-differentiated cells, but not their precursors, exhibit the functional ability to contract and relax in direct response to pharmacologic agents. In conclusion, adipose-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells and, thus, adipose tissue can be a useful source of cells for treatment of injured tissues where smooth muscle plays an important role. PMID:16880387

  8. The simplest method for in vitro β-cell production from human adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Dilli Ram; Seo, Kwang-Won; Sun, Bo; Seo, Min-Soo; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Seo, Yoo-Jin; Marcin, Jurga; Forraz, Nicolas; Roy, Helene Le; Larry, Denner; Colin, McGuckin; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a challenging autoimmune disease. Biomedical researchers are currently exploring efficient and effective ways to solve this challenge. The potential of stem cell therapies for treating diabetes represents one of the major focuses of current research on diabetes treatment. Here, we have attempted to differentiate adult stem cells from umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal cells (UCB-MSC), Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) and amniotic epithelial stem cells (AE-SC) into insulin-producing cells. The serum-free protocol developed in this study resulted in the differentiation of cells into definitive endoderm, pancreatic foregut, pancreatic endoderm and, finally, pancreatic endocrine cells, which expressed the marker genes SOX17, PDX1, NGN3, NKX6.1, INS, GCG, and PPY, respectively. Detection of the expression of the gap junction-related gene connexin-36 (CX36) using RT-PCR provided conclusive evidence for insulin-producing cell differentiation. In addition to this RT-PCR result, insulin and C-peptide protein were detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Glucose stimulation test results showed that significantly greater amounts of C-peptide and insulin were released from differentiated cells than from undifferentiated cells. In conclusion, the methods investigated in this study can be considered an effective and efficient means of obtaining insulin-producing cells from adult stem cells within a week.

  9. Micropatterning control of tubular commitment in human adult renal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sciancalepore, Anna G; Portone, Alberto; Moffa, Maria; Persano, Luana; De Luca, Maria; Paiano, Aurora; Sallustio, Fabio; Schena, Francesco P; Bucci, Cecilia; Pisignano, Dario

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of renal injury by autologous, patient-specific adult stem cells is still an unmet need. Unsolved issues remain the spatial integration of stem cells into damaged areas of the organ, the commitment in the required cell type and the development of improved bioengineered devices. In this respect, biomaterials and architectures have to be specialized to control stem cell differentiation. Here, we perform an extensive study on micropatterned extracellular matrix proteins, which constitute a simple and non-invasive approach to drive the differentiation of adult renal progenitor/stem cells (ARPCs) from human donors. ARPCs are interfaced with fibronectin (FN) micropatterns, in the absence of exogenous chemicals or cellular reprogramming. We obtain the differentiation towards tubular cells of ARPCs cultured in basal medium conditions, the tubular commitment thus being specifically induced by micropatterned substrates. We characterize the stability of the tubular differentiation as well as the induction of a polarized phenotype in micropatterned ARPCs. Thus, the developed cues, driving the functional commitment of ARPCs, offer a route to recreate the microenvironment of the stem cell niche in vitro, that may serve, in perspective, for the development of ARPC-based bioengineered devices. PMID:27105437

  10. Conditionally reprogrammed cells represent a stem-like state of adult epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Suprynowicz, Frank A.; Upadhyay, Geeta; Krawczyk, Ewa; Kramer, Sarah C.; Hebert, Jess D.; Liu, Xuefeng; Yuan, Hang; Cheluvaraju, Chaitra; Clapp, Phillip W.; Boucher, Richard C.; Kamonjoh, Christopher M.; Randell, Scott H.; Schlegel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The combination of irradiated fibroblast feeder cells and Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, conditionally induces an indefinite proliferative state in primary mammalian epithelial cells. These conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) are karyotype-stable and nontumorigenic. Because self-renewal is a recognized property of stem cells, we investigated whether Y-27632 and feeder cells induced a stem-like phenotype. We found that CRCs share characteristics of adult stem cells and exhibit up-regulated expression of α6 and β1 integrins, ΔNp63α, CD44, and telomerase reverse transcriptase, as well as decreased Notch signaling and an increased level of nuclear β-catenin. The induction of CRCs is rapid (occurs within 2 d) and results from reprogramming of the entire cell population rather than the selection of a minor subpopulation. CRCs do not overexpress the transcription factor sets characteristic of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells (e.g., Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, or Klf4). The induction of CRCs is also reversible, and removal of Y-27632 and feeders allows the cells to differentiate normally. Thus, when CRCs from ectocervical epithelium or tracheal epithelium are placed in an air–liquid interface culture system, the cervical cells form a well differentiated stratified squamous epithelium, whereas the tracheal cells form a ciliated airway epithelium. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities afforded by a method that can generate adult stem-like cells in vitro without genetic manipulation. PMID:23169653

  11. [Application Prospect of Stem Cell-derived Microvesicles in Regeneration of Injured Tissues].

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong

    2015-06-01

    More and more evidence indicates that microvesicles (MVs) play a key role in cell-to-cell communication. The MVs are circular fragments of membrane released from the endosomal compartment as exosomes or shed from the cell surface membranes of most types. Components of donor cells are incorporated into MVs that contain bioactive lipids, proteins, genetic cargoes. MVs derived from stem cells may reprogram cells that survived in injury tissue and favor tissue regeneration by delivering their bioactive cargoes to influence the behaviors of recipient cells. Compared with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), MVs derived from MSCs were found to mimic the beneficial effects of these cells. These proregenerative effects mediated by MVs can be explained by the fact that MVs are enriched in bioactive lipids, anti-apoptotic and pro-stimulatory growth factors or cytokines, and deliver mRNAs, regulatory miRNAs and proteins that improve overall cell function. Therefore, it opens novel perspectives in exploiting these MVs in tissue regeneration and repair. In addition, the use of MVs instead of stem cells could represent a safe and potentially more advantageous alternative to cell-therapy approaches.

  12. Isolation and characterisation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vellasamy, Shalini; Sandrasaigaran, Pratheep; Vidyadaran, Sharmili; George, Elizabeth; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of placenta tissue as a reliable and efficient source for generating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). METHODS: MSC were generated from human placenta tissue by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation. The placenta MSC (PLC-MSC) were characterized for expression of cell surface markers, embryonic stem cell (ECS) gene expression and their differentiation ability into adipocytes and osteocytes. The immunosuppressive properties of PLC-MSC on resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated allogenic T cells were assessed by means of cell proliferation via incorporation of tritium thymidine (3H-TdR). RESULTS: The generated PLC-MSC appeared as spindle-shaped cells, expressed common MSC surface markers and ESC transcriptional factors. They also differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages when induced. However, continuous cultivation up to passage 15 caused changes in morphological appearance and cellular senescence, although the stem cell nature of their protein expression was unchanged. In terms of their immunosuppressive properties, PLC-MSC were unable to stimulate resting T cell proliferation; they inhibited the PHA stimulated T cells in a dose dependent manner through cell to cell contact. In our study, MSC generated from human placenta exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers; MSC-like gene expression pattern and MSC-like differentiation potential were comparable to other sources of MSC. CONCLUSION: We suggest that placenta tissues can serve as an alternative source of MSC for future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:22993662

  13. Mechanical modulation of nascent stem cell lineage commitment in tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Song, Min Jae; Dean, David; Knothe Tate, Melissa L

    2013-07-01

    Taking inspiration from tissue morphogenesis in utero, this study tests the concept of using tissue engineering scaffolds as delivery devices to modulate emergent structure-function relationships at early stages of tissue genesis. We report on the use of a combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, advanced manufacturing methods, and experimental fluid mechanics (micro-piv and strain mapping) for the prospective design of tissue engineering scaffold geometries that deliver spatially resolved mechanical cues to stem cells seeded within. When subjected to a constant magnitude global flow regime, the local scaffold geometry dictates the magnitudes of mechanical stresses and strains experienced by a given cell, and in a spatially resolved fashion, similar to patterning during morphogenesis. In addition, early markers of mesenchymal stem cell lineage commitment relate significantly to the local mechanical environment of the cell. Finally, by plotting the range of stress-strain states for all data corresponding to nascent cell lineage commitment (95% CI), we begin to "map the mechanome", defining stress-strain states most conducive to targeted cell fates. In sum, we provide a library of reference mechanical cues that can be delivered to cells seeded on tissue engineering scaffolds to guide target tissue phenotypes in a temporally and spatially resolved manner. Knowledge of these effects allows for prospective scaffold design optimization using virtual models prior to prototyping and clinical implementation. Finally, this approach enables the development of next generation scaffolds cum delivery devices for genesis of complex tissues with heterogenous properties, e.g., organs, joints or interface tissues such as growth plates.

  14. Inflammatory cues acting on the adult intestinal stem cells and the early onset of cancer (Review)

    PubMed Central

    DE LERMA BARBARO, A.; PERLETTI, G.; BONAPACE, I.M.; MONTI, E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation that cancer often arises at sites of chronic inflammation has prompted the idea that carcinogenesis and inflammation are deeply interwoven. In fact, the current literature highlights a role for chronic inflammation in virtually all the steps of carcinogenesis, including tumor initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present article is to review the current literature on the involvement of chronic inflammation in the initiation step and in the very early phases of tumorigenesis, in a type of cancer where adult stem cells are assumed to be the cells of origin of neoplasia. Since the gastrointestinal tract is regarded as the best-established model system to address the liaison between chronic inflammation and neoplasia, the focus of this article will be on intestinal cancer. In fact, the anatomy of the intestinal epithelial lining is uniquely suited to study adult stem cells in their niche, and the bowel crypt is an ideal developmental biology system, as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration are all distributed linearly along the long axis of the crypt. Moreover, crypt stem cells are regarded today as the most likely targets of neoplastic transformation in bowel cancer. More specifically, the present review addresses the molecular mechanisms whereby a state of chronic inflammation could trigger the neoplastic process in the intestine, focusing on the generation of inflammatory cues evoking enhanced proliferation in cells not initiated but at risk of neoplastic transformation because of their stemness. Novel experimental approaches, based on triggering an inflammatory stimulus in the neighbourhood of adult intestinal stem cells, are warranted to address some as yet unanswered questions. A possible approach, the targeted transgenesis of Paneth cells, may be aimed at ‘hijacking’ the crypt stem cell niche from a status characterized by the maintenance of homeostasis to local chronic inflammation, with the prospect of initiating

  15. Analysis of cell growth and gene expression of porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as nuclear donor cell.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Rhee, Sang Ho; Lim, Sang Hyun; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-12-01

    In several laboratory animals and humans, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) are of considerable interest because they are easy to harvest and can generate a huge proliferation of cells from a small quantity of fat. In this study, we investigated: (i) the expression patterns of reprogramming-related genes in porcine ASC; and (ii) whether ASC can be a suitable donor cell type for generating cloned pigs. For these experiments, ASC, adult skin fibroblasts (AF) and fetal fibroblasts (FF) were derived from a 4-year-old female miniature pig. The ASC expressed cell-surface markers characteristic of stem cells, and underwent in vitro differentiation when exposed to specific differentiation-inducing conditions. Expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 in ASC was similar to that in AF, but the highest expression of the DNMT3B gene was observed in ASC. The expression of OCT4 was significantly higher in FF and ASC than in AF (P < 0.05), and SOX2 showed significantly higher expression in ASC than in the other two cell types (P < 0.05). After somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the development rate of cloned embryos derived from ASC was comparable to the development of those derived using FF. Total cell numbers of blastocysts derived using ASC and FF were significantly higher than in embryos made with AF. The results demonstrated that ASC used for SCNT have a potential comparable to those of AF and FF in terms of embryo in vitro development and blastocyst formation.

  16. Vital roles of stem cells and biomaterials in skin tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering essentially refers to technology for growing new human tissue and is distinct from regenerative medicine. Currently, pieces of skin are already being fabricated for clinical use and many other tissue types may be fabricated in the future. Tissue engineering was first defined in 1987 by the United States National Science Foundation which critically discussed the future targets of bioengineering research and its consequences. The principles of tissue engineering are to initiate cell cultures in vitro, grow them on scaffolds in situ and transplant the composite into a recipient in vivo. From the beginning, scaffolds have been necessary in tissue engineering applications. Regardless, the latest technology has redirected established approaches by omitting scaffolds. Currently, scientists from diverse research institutes are engineering skin without scaffolds. Due to their advantageous properties, stem cells have robustly transformed the tissue engineering field as part of an engineered bilayered skin substitute that will later be discussed in detail. Additionally, utilizing biomaterials or skin replacement products in skin tissue engineering as strategy to successfully direct cell proliferation and differentiation as well as to optimize the safety of handling during grafting is beneficial. This approach has also led to the cells’ application in developing the novel skin substitute that will be briefly explained in this review. PMID:25815126

  17. Vital roles of stem cells and biomaterials in skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-03-26

    Tissue engineering essentially refers to technology for growing new human tissue and is distinct from regenerative medicine. Currently, pieces of skin are already being fabricated for clinical use and many other tissue types may be fabricated in the future. Tissue engineering was first defined in 1987 by the United States National Science Foundation which critically discussed the future targets of bioengineering research and its consequences. The principles of tissue engineering are to initiate cell cultures in vitro, grow them on scaffolds in situ and transplant the composite into a recipient in vivo. From the beginning, scaffolds have been necessary in tissue engineering applications. Regardless, the latest technology has redirected established approaches by omitting scaffolds. Currently, scientists from diverse research institutes are engineering skin without scaffolds. Due to their advantageous properties, stem cells have robustly transformed the tissue engineering field as part of an engineered bilayered skin substitute that will later be discussed in detail. Additionally, utilizing biomaterials or skin replacement products in skin tissue engineering as strategy to successfully direct cell proliferation and differentiation as well as to optimize the safety of handling during grafting is beneficial. This approach has also led to the cells' application in developing the novel skin substitute that will be briefly explained in this review. PMID:25815126

  18. A Novel Biopsy Method for Isolating Neural Stem Cells from the Subventricular Zone of the Adult Rat Brain for Autologous Transplantation in CNS Injuries.

    PubMed

    Aligholi, Hadi; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Gorji, Ali; Azari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Despite all attempts the problem of regeneration in damaged central nervous system (CNS) has remained challenging due to its cellular complexity and highly organized and sophisticated connections. In this regard, stem cell therapy might serve as a viable therapeutic approach aiming either to support the damaged tissue and hence to reduce the subsequent neurological dysfunctions and impairments or to replace the lost cells and re-establish damaged circuitries. Adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) are one of the outstanding cell sources that can be isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. These cells can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Implanting autologous NS/PCs will greatly benefit the patients by avoiding immune rejection after implantation, better survival, and integration with the host tissue. Developing safe and efficient methods in small animal models will provide us with the opportunity to optimize procedures required to achieve successful human autologous NS/PC transplantation in near future. In this chapter, a highly controlled and safe biopsy method for harvesting stem cell containing tissue from the SVZ of adult rat brain is introduced. Then, isolation and expansion of NS/PCs from harvested specimen as well as the techniques to verify proliferation and differentiation capacity of the resulting NS/PCs are discussed. Finally, a method for assessing the biopsy lesion volume in the brain is described. This safe biopsy method in rat provides a unique tool to study autologous NS/PC transplantation in different CNS injury models. PMID:27604747

  19. Quiescent adult neural stem cells are exceptionally sensitive to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Encinas, Juan M; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Switzer, Robert C; Chamberland, Dennis W; Nick, Harry; Levine, Howard G; Scarpa, Philip J; Enikolopov, Grigori; Steindler, Dennis A

    2008-03-01

    Generation of new neurons in the adult brain, a process that is likely to be essential for learning, memory, and mood regulation, is impaired by radiation. Therefore, radiation exposure might have not only such previously expected consequences as increased probability of developing cancer, but might also impair cognitive function and emotional stability. Radiation exposure is encountered in settings ranging from cancer therapy to space travel; evaluating the neurogenic risks of radiation requires identifying the at-risk populations of stem and progenitor cells in the adult brain. Here we have used a novel reporter mouse line to find that early neural progenitors are selectively affected by conditions simulating the space radiation environment. This is reflected both in a decrease in the number of these progenitors in the neurogenic regions and in an increase in the number of dying cells in these regions. Unexpectedly, we found that quiescent neural stem cells, rather than their rapidly dividing progeny, are most sensitive to radiation. Since these stem cells are responsible for adult neurogenesis, their death would have a profound impact on the production of new neurons in the irradiated adult brain. Our finding raises an important concern about cognitive and emotional risks associated with radiation exposure.

  20. Empowering Adult Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration V2.0: Success in Small Steps.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Kathleen M; Sussman, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Much has changed since our survey of the landscape for myocardial regeneration powered by adult stem cells 4 years ago.(1) The intervening years since that first review has witnessed an explosive expansion of studies that advance both understanding and implementation of adult stem cells in promoting myocardial repair. Painstaking research from innumerable laboratories throughout the world is prying open doors that may lead to restoration of myocardial structure and function in the wake of pathological injury. This global effort has produced deeper mechanistic comprehension coupled with an evolving appreciation for the complexity of myocardial regeneration in the adult context. Undaunted by both known and (as yet) unknown challenges, pursuit of myocardial regenerative medicine mediated by adult stem cell therapy has gathered momentum fueled by tantalizing clues and visionary goals. This concise review takes a somewhat different perspective than our initial treatise, taking stock of the business sector that has become an integral part of the field while concurrently updating state of affairs in cutting edge research. Looking retrospectively at advancement over the years as all reviews eventually must, the fundamental lesson to be learned is best explained by Jonatan Mårtensson: "Success will never be a big step in the future. Success is a small step taken just now."

  1. Artificial Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

  2. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beating cardiac tissues on paper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xu, Cong; Zhu, Yujuan; Yu, Yue; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Feng, Ke; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-11-21

    There is a growing interest in using paper as a biomaterial scaffold for cell-based applications. In this study, we made the first attempt to fabricate a paper-based array for the culture, proliferation, and direct differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into functional beating cardiac tissues and create "a beating heart on paper." This array was simply constructed by binding a cured multi-well polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold with common, commercially available paper substrates. Three types of paper material (print paper, chromatography paper and nitrocellulose membrane) were tested for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human-derived iPSCs. We found that hiPSCs grew well on these paper substrates, presenting a three-dimensional (3D)-like morphology with a pluripotent property. The direct differentiation of human iPSCs into functional cardiac tissues on paper was also achieved using our modified differentiation approach. The cardiac tissue retained its functional activities on the coated print paper and chromatography paper with a beating frequency of 40-70 beats per min for up to three months. Interestingly, human iPSCs could be differentiated into retinal pigment epithelium on nitrocellulose membrane under the conditions of cardiac-specific induction, indicating the potential roles of material properties and mechanical cues that are involved in regulating stem cell differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that different grades of paper could offer great opportunities as bioactive, low-cost, and 3D in vitro platforms for stem cell-based high-throughput drug testing at the tissue/organ level and for tissue engineering applications.

  3. Advanced Properties of Urine Derived Stem Cells Compared to Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells in Terms of Cell Proliferation, Immune Modulation and Multi Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye Suk; Choi, Seock Hwan; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Jae Young; Park, Gang-Baek; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Chun, So Young

    2015-12-01

    Adipose tissue stem cells (ADSCs) would be an attractive autologous cell source. However, ADSCs require invasive procedures, and has potential complications. Recently, urine stem cells (USCs) have been proposed as an alternative stem cell source. In this study, we compared USCs and ADSCs collected from the same patients on stem cell characteristics and capacity to differentiate into various cell lineages to provide a useful guideline for selecting the appropriate type of cell source for use in clinical application. The urine samples were collected via urethral catheterization, and adipose tissue was obtained from subcutaneous fat tissue during elective laparoscopic kidney surgery from the same patient (n = 10). Both cells were plated for primary culture. Cell proliferation, colony formation, cell surface markers, immune modulation, chromosome stability and multi-lineage differentiation were analyzed for each USCs and ADSCs at cell passage 3, 5, and 7. USCs showed high cell proliferation rate, enhanced colony forming ability, strong positive for stem cell markers expression, high efficiency for inhibition of immune cell activation compared to ADSCs at cell passage 3, 5, and 7. In chromosome stability analysis, both cells showed normal karyotype through all passages. In analysis of multi-lineage capability, USCs showed higher myogenic, neurogenic, and endogenic differentiation rate, and lower osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation rate compared to ADSCs. Therefore, we expect that USC can be an alternative autologous stem cell source for muscle, neuron and endothelial tissue reconstruction instead of ADSCs.

  4. Advanced Properties of Urine Derived Stem Cells Compared to Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells in Terms of Cell Proliferation, Immune Modulation and Multi Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue stem cells (ADSCs) would be an attractive autologous cell source. However, ADSCs require invasive procedures, and has potential complications. Recently, urine stem cells (USCs) have been proposed as an alternative stem cell source. In this study, we compared USCs and ADSCs collected from the same patients on stem cell characteristics and capacity to differentiate into various cell lineages to provide a useful guideline for selecting the appropriate type of cell source for use in clinical application. The urine samples were collected via urethral catheterization, and adipose tissue was obtained from subcutaneous fat tissue during elective laparoscopic kidney surgery from the same patient (n = 10). Both cells were plated for primary culture. Cell proliferation, colony formation, cell surface markers, immune modulation, chromosome stability and multi-lineage differentiation were analyzed for each USCs and ADSCs at cell passage 3, 5, and 7. USCs showed high cell proliferation rate, enhanced colony forming ability, strong positive for stem cell markers expression, high efficiency for inhibition of immune cell activation compared to ADSCs at cell passage 3, 5, and 7. In chromosome stability analysis, both cells showed normal karyotype through all passages. In analysis of multi-lineage capability, USCs showed higher myogenic, neurogenic, and endogenic differentiation rate, and lower osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation rate compared to ADSCs. Therefore, we expect that USC can be an alternative autologous stem cell source for muscle, neuron and endothelial tissue reconstruction instead of ADSCs. PMID:26713051

  5. Stem cell-derived vasculature: A potent and multidimensional technology for basic research, disease modeling, and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Justin; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    Proper blood vessel networks are necessary for constructing and re-constructing tissues, promoting wound healing, and delivering metabolic necessities throughout the body. Conversely, an understanding of vascular dysfunction has provided insight into the pathogenesis and progression of diseases both common and rare. Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine - including advances in stem cell technologies and related progress in bioscaffold design and complex tissue engineering - have allowed rapid advances in the field of vascular biology, leading in turn to more advanced modeling of vascular pathophysiology and improved engineering of vascularized tissue constructs. In this review we examine recent advances in the field of stem cell-derived vasculature, providing an overview of stem cell technologies as a source for vascular cell types and then focusing on their use in three primary areas: studies of vascular development and angiogenesis, improved disease modeling, and the engineering of vascularized constructs for tissue-level modeling and cell-based therapies.

  6. Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    Direct-write printing of stem cells within biomaterials presents an opportunity to engineer tissue for in vitro modeling and regenerative medicine. Here, a first example of constructing neural tissue by printing human neural stem cells that are differentiated in situ to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia is reported. The supporting biomaterial incorporates a novel clinically relevant polysaccharide-based bioink comprising alginate, carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. The printed bioink rapidly gels by stable cross-linking to form a porous 3D scaffold encapsulating stem cells for in situ expansion and differentiation. Differentiated neurons form synaptic contacts, establish networks, are spontaneously active, show a bicuculline-induced increased calcium response, and are predominantly gamma-aminobutyric acid expressing. The 3D tissues will facilitate investigation of human neural development, function, and disease, and may be adaptable for engineering other 3D tissues from different stem cell types. PMID:27028356

  7. Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    Direct-write printing of stem cells within biomaterials presents an opportunity to engineer tissue for in vitro modeling and regenerative medicine. Here, a first example of constructing neural tissue by printing human neural stem cells that are differentiated in situ to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia is reported. The supporting biomaterial incorporates a novel clinically relevant polysaccharide-based bioink comprising alginate, carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. The printed bioink rapidly gels by stable cross-linking to form a porous 3D scaffold encapsulating stem cells for in situ expansion and differentiation. Differentiated neurons form synaptic contacts, establish networks, are spontaneously active, show a bicuculline-induced increased calcium response, and are predominantly gamma-aminobutyric acid expressing. The 3D tissues will facilitate investigation of human neural development, function, and disease, and may be adaptable for engineering other 3D tissues from different stem cell types.

  8. Stem cells supporting other stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Leatherman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches – the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow – one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells. PMID:24348512

  9. Development of human nervous tissue upon differentiation of embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Suter, David M; Tirefort, Diderik; Turchi, Laurent; Virolle, Thierry; Chneiweiss, Herve; Foti, Michelangelo; Lobrinus, Johannes-Alexander; Stoppini, Luc; Feki, Anis; Dubois-Dauphin, Michel; Krause, Karl Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Researches on neural differentiation using embryonic stem cells (ESC) require analysis of neurogenesis in conditions mimicking physiological cellular interactions as closely as possible. In this study, we report an air-liquid interface-based culture of human ESC. This culture system allows three-dimensional cell expansion and neural differentiation in the absence of added growth factors. Over a 3-month period, a macroscopically visible, compact tissue developed. Histological coloration revealed a dense neural-like neural tissue including immature tubular structures. Electron microscopy, immunochemistry, and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated a dense network of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes able to propagate signals. Within this tissue, tubular structures were niches of cells resembling germinal layers of human fetal brain. Indeed, the tissue contained abundant proliferating cells expressing markers of neural progenitors. Finally, the capacity to generate neural tissues on air-liquid interface differed for different ESC lines, confirming variations of their neurogenic potential. In conclusion, this study demonstrates in vitro engineering of a human neural-like tissue with an organization that bears resemblance to early developing brain. As opposed to previously described methods, this differentiation (a) allows three-dimensional organization, (b) yields dense interconnected neural tissue with structurally and functionally distinct areas, and (c) is spontaneously guided by endogenous developmental cues.

  10. True MRI assessment of stem cell chondrogenesis in a tissue engineered matrix.

    PubMed

    Pothirajan, Padmabharathi; Dorcemus, Deborah; Nukavarapu, Syam; Kotecha, Mrignayani

    2014-01-01

    Developing a non-invasive method to monitor the growth of tissue-engineered cartilage is of utmost importance for tracking the progress and predicting the success or failure of tissue-engineering approaches. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a leading non-invasive technique suitable for follow-through in preclinical and clinical stages. As complex tissue-engineering approaches are being developed for cartilage tissue engineering, it is important to develop strategies for true non-invasive MRI monitoring that can take into account contributions of the scaffold, cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) using MR parameters. In the current study, we present the preliminary MRI assessment of chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived stem cells seeded onto a specially designed osteochondral matrix system. We performed water relaxation times (T1 and T2) MRI measurements at 7, 14 and 28 days after cell seeding. The MRI experiments were performed for the tissue-engineered cartilage as well as for acellular scaffolds. We identified that the contribution of the scaffold is the dominant contribution in MR parameters of engineered cartilage and that it hinders observation of the tissue growth. An attempt is made to filter out this contribution, for the first time, in order to make a true observation of tissue growth using MRI. PMID:25570852

  11. Single-cell in vivo imaging of adult neural stem cells in the zebrafish telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana S; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Götz, Magdalena; Ninkovic, Jovica

    2016-08-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) in zebrafish produce mature neurons throughout their entire life span in both the intact and regenerating brain. An understanding of the behavior of aNSCs in their intact niche and during regeneration in vivo should facilitate the identification of the molecular mechanisms controlling regeneration-specific cellular events. A greater understanding of the process in regeneration-competent species may enable regeneration to be achieved in regeneration-incompetent species, including humans. Here we describe a protocol for labeling and repetitive imaging of aNSCs in vivo. We label single aNSCs, allowing nonambiguous re-identification of single cells in repetitive imaging sessions using electroporation of a red-reporter plasmid in Tg(gfap:GFP)mi2001 transgenic fish expressing GFP in aNSCs. We image using two-photon microscopy through the thinned skull of anesthetized and immobilized fish. Our protocol allows imaging every 2 d for a period of up to 1 month. This methodology allowed the visualization of aNSC behavior in vivo in their natural niche, in contrast to previously available technologies, which rely on the imaging of either dissociated cells or tissue slices. We used this protocol to follow the mode of aNSC division, fate changes and cell death in both the intact and injured zebrafish telencephalon. This experimental setup can be widely used, with minimal prior experience, to assess key factors for processes that modulate aNSC behavior. A typical experiment with data analysis takes up to 1.5 months. PMID:27362338