The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is a major pest of food processing facilities and can be monitored using pitfall type traps. To determine how beetles interact with these traps under field situations, the behavior of individual beetles released in the vicinity of traps was observe...
The insecticidal pyrrol chlorfenapyr was applied to concrete, tile, and wood surfaces, at an application rate of 0.11mg AI/cm2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and adult T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, were exposed for 2 and 4 hours, removed, and held witho...
The insecticidal pyrrol chlorfenapyr was applied to concrete, tile, and wood surfaces, at an application rate of 0.11 mgAI/cm2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and adult T. confusum (DuVal), the confused flour beetle, were exposed for 2 and 4 hours, removed, and held witho...
A series of experiments were conducted in which adults, pupae, and 4-week-old larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed separately on concrete arenas partially treated (14.4 % of the total area) with the insecticide chlorfenapyr (Phantom®) at 1.1 g active ingredient/...
This study was conducted to evaluate deltamethrin-incorporated ZeroFly® Storage Bags for efficacy against stored-product insect pests. We evaluated response to deltamethrin concentrations for adults of three stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzoperth...
Experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of a single aerosol application of the insecticides methoprene and piperonyl butoxide-synergized pyrethrin, alone or in combination, and the insecticide carrier, Isopar M, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. The initial tes...
Angelini, David R.; Smith, Frank W.; Aspiras, Ariel C.; Kikuchi, Moto; Jockusch, Elizabeth L.
Specialized insect mouthparts, such as those of Drosophila, are derived from an ancestral mandibulate state, but little is known about the developmental genetics of mandibulate mouthparts. Here, we study the metamorphic patterning of mandibulate mouthparts of the beetle Tribolium castaneum, using RNA interference to deplete the expression of 13 genes involved in mouthpart patterning. These data were used to test three hypotheses related to mouthpart development and evolution. First, we tested the prediction that maxillary and labial palps are patterned using conserved components of the leg-patterning network. This hypothesis was strongly supported: depletion of Distal-less and dachshund led to distal and intermediate deletions of these structures while depletion of homothorax led to homeotic transformation of the proximal maxilla and labium, joint formation required the action of Notch signaling components and odd-skipped paralogs, and distal growth and patterning required epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. Additionally, depletion of abrupt or pdm/nubbin caused fusions of palp segments. Second, we tested hypotheses for how adult endites, the inner branches of the maxillary and labial appendages, are formed at metamorphosis. Our data reveal that Distal-less, Notch signaling components, and odd-skipped paralogs, but not dachshund, are required for metamorphosis of the maxillary endites. Endite development thus requires components of the limb proximal–distal axis patterning and joint segmentation networks. Finally, adult mandible development is considered in light of the gnathobasic hypothesis. Interestingly, while EGF activity is required for distal, but not proximal, patterning of other appendages, it is required for normal metamorphic growth of the mandibles. PMID:22135350
Chlorfenapyr, an insecticidal pyrrole, was applied to concrete arenas at concentrations of 1.1, 0.825, 0.55, and 0.275 g of active ingredient m2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle were exposed for 2, 4, or 8 hours at each concentration, then removed and held either with or w...
The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T...
Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki
Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of
Haas, Merrilee Susan; Beeman, Richard W
Cephalization and seamless fusion of the anterior body segments during development obscure the segmental boundaries of the insect head. Most of the visible seams are thought to reflect cuticular infolding for structural reinforcement rather than a merger of cuticular plate borders. Incomplete fusions and other modifications of the adult head found in eight Tribolium mutations indicate that the frontal and gular sutures likely are true sutures that mark borders between adjacent cuticular plates, and suggest that the anterior facial shelf is a composite of three independent cuticular surfaces: ocular, antennal, and clypeo-labral. Additionally, midline splits of the clypeo-labrum and gula, and membranous lesions on the lateral head capsule reveal probable borders of adjacent cuticular plates where visible sutures are normally absent. The anterior lateral lesions seen in the Lucifer mutation mark a border between ocular and antennal plates and appear to identify part of the postfrontal sutures. While revealing or clarifying possible intersegmental borders between ocular, antennal, and clypeo-labral plates, the various modified or unfused surfaces of the head neither reveal an additional acronal plate nor support the view that the clypeo-labrum is segmentally associated with ocular cuticle.
Paudyal, S; Opit, G P; Arthur, F H; Bingham, G V; Gautam, S G
This study was conducted at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, to evaluate the response to deltamethrin concentrations for adults of three stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). In insect toxicological studies, knockdown is the state of intoxication and partial paralysis as a result of exposure to an insecticide. Deltamethrin concentrations ranging from 0.48 to 140 mg/m(2) (1 to 3,000 ppm) were sprayed on glass Petri dishes. After the dishes dried, 20 adult insects of each species were placed on the treated dishes to determine the contact toxicity of deltamethrin. Assessments for knockdown were made at 15-min intervals for up to 8 h after initial exposure and then again after 24 or 48 h. Insects were then transferred to clean untreated Petri dishes with diet and observed from 0.5 to 72 h. Mortality was assessed 72 h after transfer to untreated dishes with food material. Deltamethrin was highly effective against all three species tested and achieved 99% knockdown of insects of all species within 4 h after exposure at concentrations ≥1.2 mg/m(2) Although some insects recovered from initial knockdown at concentrations ≤48 mg/m(2), nearly all the insects were killed at 140 mg/m(2) when exposed for 48 h. LC95 values for all species tested, for the 48-h exposure period, were <140 mg/m(2), the concentration of deltamethrin that could potentially be present in new ZeroFly Storage Bag fabric. ZeroFly bags are used for stored-product insect pest control.
The susceptibility of various life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), a pest of stored wheat, to flameless catalytic infrared radiation in the 3 to 7 µm range was evaluated in the laboratory. Immature stages were collected from flour infested with T. castaneum adults only ...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is primarily found associated with human structures such as wheat and rice mills, which are spatially isolated resource patches with apparently limited immigration that could produce genetically structured populations. We investigated genetic diversity and...
Campbell, J. F.; Runnion, C.
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the ‘Lack’ clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes. PMID:15841236
Campbell, J F; Runnion, C
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the 'Lack' clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes.
Stevenson, B J; Cai, L; Faucher, C; Michie, M; Berna, A; Ren, Y; Anderson, A; Chyb, S; Xu, W
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.
Studies were conducted by exposing different life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle, for different time intervals to -18°C. Assessments were made of direct mortality to eggs, larvae, and adults, and eventual adult e...
Experiments were performed to determine the relative impact of different mechanisms of horizontal transfer of methoprene by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. Insects exposed to 5 methoprene treated developmental stages (late-stage larvae, pupae, or adults) resulted in 100% mortalit...
We report that the abdomen and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and for the first time describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD...
The colonization of food processing plants by stored-product pests and their distribution within a facility depend, in part, on their dispersal ability. In this case study, we relied on self-mark recapture to evaluate the ability of Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, to move among floors wit...
Jiang, Hongbo; Kim, Hong Geun; Park, Yoonseong
Orcokinin and orcomyotropin were originally described as neuropeptides in crustaceans but have now been uncovered in many species of insects in which they are called orcokinin-A (OK-A) and orcokinin-B (OK-B), respectively. The two groups of mature peptides are products of alternatively spliced transcripts of the single copy gene orcokinin in insects. We investigated the expression patterns and the functions of OK-A and OK-B in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry using isoform-specific probes and antibodies for each OK-A and OK-B suggests that both peptides are co-expressed in 5-7 pairs of brain cells and in the midgut enteroendocrine cells, which contrasts to expression patterns in other insects in which the two peptides are expressed in different cells. We developed a novel behavioral assay to assess the phenotypes of orcokinin RNA interference (RNAi) in T. castaneum. RNAi of ok-a and ok-b alone or in combination resulted in higher frequencies and longer durations of death feigning in response to mechanical stimulation in the adult assay. In the larval behavioral assays, we observed longer recovery times from knockout induced by water submergence in the insects treated with RNAi for ok-a and ok-b alone or in combination. We conclude that both OK-A and OK-B have "awakening" activities and are potentially involved in the control of circadian rhythms.
Background A complex life cycle, such as complete metamorphosis, is a key innovation that can promote diversification of species. The evolution of a morphologically distinct larval stage is thought to have enabled insects to occupy broader ecological niches and become the most diverse metazoan taxon, yet the extent to which larval and adult morphologies can evolve independently remains unknown. Perturbation of larval limb regeneration allows us to generate larval legs and antennae with altered limb morphologies, which may be used to explore the developmental continuity that might exist between larval and adult appendages. In this study, we determined the roles of several appendage patterning transcription factors, abrupt (ab), dachshund (dac), Distal-less (Dll), and spineless (ss), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, during larval appendage regeneration. The functions of these genes in regenerating and non-regenerating limbs were compared using RNA interference. Results During limb regeneration, dac and ss were necessary to re-pattern the same larval structures as those patterned during embryogenesis. Removal of these two genes led to larval appendage patterning defects that were carried over to the adult legs. Surprisingly, even though maternal knockdown of ab had minimal effects on limb allocation and patterning in the embryo, it was necessary for blastema growth, an earlier phase of regeneration. Finally, knockdown of Dll prevented the blastema-like bumps from re-differentiating into appendages. Conclusions Our results suggest that, similar to vertebrates, the re-patterning phase of Tribolium larval limb regeneration relies on the same genes that are used during embryonic limb patterning. Thus, the re-patterning phase of regeneration is likely to be regulated by taxon-specific patterning mechanisms. Furthermore, Ab and Dll appear to play important roles during blastema proliferation and re-differentiation, respectively. Finally, our results show that
Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Brown, Susan J; Denell, Robin; Beeman, Richard W; Gibbs, Richard; Beeman, Richard W; Brown, Susan J; Bucher, Gregor; Friedrich, Markus; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Klingler, Martin; Lorenzen, Marce; Richards, Stephen; Roth, Siegfried; Schröder, Reinhard; Tautz, Diethard; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Chavez, Dean; Clerk-Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Cree, Andrew; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Chacko, Joseph; Dinh, Huyen; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fowler, Gerald; Garner, Toni T; Garnes, Jeffrey; Gnirke, Andreas; Hawes, Alica; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Jackson, LaRonda; Kovar, Christie; Kowis, Andrea; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Margolis, Jon; Morgan, Margaret; Nazareth, Lynne V; Nguyen, Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Parker, David; Richards, Stephen; Ruiz, San-Juana; Santibanez, Jireh; Savard, Joël; Scherer, Steven E; Schneider, Brian; Sodergren, Erica; Tautz, Diethard; Vattahil, Selina; Villasana, Donna; White, Courtney S; Wright, Rita; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W; Lord, Jeff; Oppert, Brenda; Lorenzen, Marce; Brown, Susan; Wang, Liangjiang; Savard, Joël; Tautz, Diethard; Richards, Stephen; Weinstock, George; Gibbs, Richard A; Liu, Yue; Worley, Kim; Weinstock, George; Elsik, Christine G; Reese, Justin T; Elhaik, Eran; Landan, Giddy; Graur, Dan; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter; Beeman, Richard W; Beidler, Jim; Brown, Susan J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Drury, Douglas W; Du, Yu-Zhou; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Lorenzen, Marce; Maselli, Vincenza; Osanai, Mizuko; Park, Yoonseong; Robertson, Hugh M; Tu, Zhijian; Wang, Jian-jun; Wang, Suzhi; Richards, Stephen; Song, Henry; Zhang, Lan; Sodergren, Erica; Werner, Doreen; Stanke, Mario; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Solovyev, Victor; Kosarev, Peter; Brown, Garth; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Ermolaeva, Olga; Hlavina, Wratko; Kapustin, Yuri; Kiryutin, Boris; Kitts, Paul; Maglott, Donna; Pruitt, Kim; Sapojnikov, Victor; Souvorov, Alexandre; Mackey, Aaron J; Waterhouse, Robert M; Wyder, Stefan; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Wyder, Stefan; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Bork, Peer; Aranda, Manuel; Bao, Riyue; Beermann, Anke; Berns, Nicola; Bolognesi, Renata; Bonneton, François; Bopp, Daniel; Brown, Susan J; Bucher, Gregor; Butts, Thomas; Chaumot, Arnaud; Denell, Robin E; Ferrier, David E K; Friedrich, Markus; Gordon, Cassondra M; Jindra, Marek; Klingler, Martin; Lan, Que; Lattorff, H Michael G; Laudet, Vincent; von Levetsow, Cornelia; Liu, Zhenyi; Lutz, Rebekka; Lynch, Jeremy A; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Posnien, Nico; Reuter, Rolf; Roth, Siegfried; Savard, Joël; Schinko, Johannes B; Schmitt, Christian; Schoppmeier, Michael; Schröder, Reinhard; Shippy, Teresa D; Simonnet, Franck; Marques-Souza, Henrique; Tautz, Diethard; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Trauner, Jochen; Van der Zee, Maurijn; Vervoort, Michel; Wittkopp, Nadine; Wimmer, Ernst A; Yang, Xiaoyun; Jones, Andrew K; Sattelle, David B; Ebert, Paul R; Nelson, David; Scott, Jeffrey G; Beeman, Richard W; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Beeman, Richard W; Zhu, Qingsong; Hogenkamp, David; Dixit, Radhika; Oppert, Brenda; Jiang, Haobo; Zou, Zhen; Marshall, Jeremy; Elpidina, Elena; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Oppert, Cris; Zou, Zhen; Evans, Jay; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Picheng; Sumathipala, Niranji; Altincicek, Boran; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Williams, Michael; Hultmark, Dan; Hetru, Charles; Jiang, Haobo; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Park, Yoonseong; Li, Bin; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Schachtner, Joachim; Verleyen, Peter; Raible, Florian; Bork, Peer; Friedrich, Markus; Walden, Kimberly K O; Robertson, Hugh M; Angeli, Sergio; Forêt, Sylvain; Bucher, Gregor; Schuetz, Stefan; Maleszka, Ryszard; Wimmer, Ernst A; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marce; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Miller, Sherry C; Grossmann, Daniela; Bucher, Gregor
Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example, Tribolium has retained more ancestral genes involved in cell-cell communication than Drosophila, some being expressed in the growth zone crucial for axial elongation in short-germ development. Systemic RNA interference in T. castaneum functions differently from that in Caenorhabditis elegans, but nevertheless offers similar power for the elucidation of gene function and identification of targets for selective insect control.
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Campbell, James F
The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in laboratory conditions. The effect of trap seeding, adding adults of the same or different species, was evaluated in order to determine possible effects of prior captures in the trap on each species' behavioral responses. The presence of seeded beetles of the same species resulted in an increase in beetle captures for both T. castaneum and T. confusum, but when traps were seeded with the opposite species, there was no increase in beetle captures for either species, and for T. castaneum overall captures in both seeded and unseeded traps was reduced. Overall, T. castaneum tended to have greater captures than T. confusum regardless of the treatment. When the two species were released together, this negated the increased response to seeded traps observed in the single-species treatments. These findings suggest the potential that the presence of beetles in a trap may be influencing the response of beetles in a nearby trap and that T. castaneum and T. confusum when they occur together may influence each other's response to traps.
Kharel, Kabita; Arthur, Frank H; Zhu, Kun Yan; Campbell, James F; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju
Aerosol insecticides are being used in flour mill pest management programs, but there is limited information on their efficacy on different insect life stages. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin applied as an aerosol against eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Effects of direct and indirect exposure were evaluated by exposing each life stage to the aerosol and then transferring to untreated flour, transferring untreated insects to treated flour, or exposing both the insects and the flour to the aerosol. The aerosol produced >88% mortality of both species and all life stages when insects were directly treated and transferred to either treated or untreated flour. Mortality was significantly reduced when insects were either treated together with flour or untreated insects were transferred to treated flour (indirect exposure to the aerosol). Larvae and adults of both species were more tolerant compared with eggs and pupae. Recovery of moribund adults in the indirect exposure treatments was greater compared with recovery of moribund insects in the direct exposure treatments. Good sanitation before aerosol application could facilitate direct exposure of insects and thus increase aerosol efficacy inside flour mills.
The juvenile hormone analog methoprene and the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron were evaluated by exposing late-stage larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) or Tribolium confusum (Jacqueline DuVal), with food material on concrete, plywood, and floor tile. Larvae of T. castaneum were more suscept...
Burns, Kevin A; Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Gebelein, Brian
Oenocytes are a specialized cell type required for lipid processing, pheromone secretion, and developmental signaling. Their development has been well characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, but it remains unknown whether the developmental program is conserved in other insect species. In this study, we compare and contrast the specification and development of larval oenocytes between Drosophila and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. First, we identify several useful reagents to label larval oenocytes, including both a Tribolium GFP enhancer trap line and a simple flurophore-conjugated streptavidin staining method that recognizes oenocytes across insect species. Second, we use these tools to describe oenocyte development in Tribolium embryos, and our findings provide evidence for conserved roles of MAP kinase signaling as well as the Spalt, Engrailed, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4, and ventral veins lacking factors in producing abdominal-specific oenocyte cells. However, Tribolium embryos produce four times as many oenocytes per abdominal segment as Drosophila, and unlike in Drosophila, these cells rapidly downregulate the expression of the Spalt transcription factor. Thus, these results provide new insight into the molecular pathways regulating oenocyte specification across insect species.
Li, Chengjun; Zhang, Yi; Yun, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanyun; Sang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Hu, Xingxing; Li, Bin
Methuselah (Mth) is associated with lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster, but Mth is not present in nondrosophiline insects. A number of methuselah-likes (mthls) have been identified in nondrosophiline insects, but it is unknown whether the functions of mth are shared by mthls or are divergent from them. Five mthls have been identified in Tribolium castaneum. Although they have different developmental expression patterns, they all enhance resistance to starvation. Only mthl1 and mthl2 enhance resistance to high temperature, whereas mthl4 and mthl5 negatively regulate oxidative stress in T. castaneum. Unlike in the fly with mth mutation, knockdown of mthls, except mthl3, shortens the lifespan of T. castaneum. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 are critical for Tribolium development. mthl1 plays important roles in larval and pupal development and adult eclosion, while mthl2 is required for eclosion. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 silencing reduces the fertility of T. castaneum, and mthl1 and mthl4 are also essential for embryo development. In conclusion, mthls have a significant effect on insect development, lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction. These results provide experimental evidence for functional divergence among mthls/mth and clues for the signal transduction of Mthls.
The effect of high temperatures (50-60°C) and two levels of sanitation (~0.5 and 43 g of flour), on mortality of eggs, young larvae, old larvae, pupae, and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were evaluated during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill at Kansas State University. The ...
The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...
Sang, Wen; Yu, Lin; He, Li; Ma, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is an important environmental factor. It is generally known that UVB exhibits high genotoxicity due to causing DNA damage, potentially leading to skin carcinogenesis and aging in mammals. However, little is known about the effects of UVB on the development and metamorphosis of insects, which are the most abundant terrestrial animals. In the present study, we performed dose-response analyses of the effects UVB irradiation on Tribolium castaneum metamorphosis, assessed the function of the T. castaneum prothoracicotropic hormone gene (Trcptth), and analyzed ecdysteroid pathway gene expression profile and ecdysterone titers post-UVB irradiation. The results showed that UVB not only caused death of T. castaneum larvae, but also delayed larval-pupal metamorphosis and reduced the size and emergence rate of pupae. In addition, we verified the function of Trcptth, which is responsible for regulating metamorphosis. It was also found that the expression profiles of Trcptth as well as ecdysteroidogenesis and response genes were influenced by UVB radiation. Therefore, a disturbance pulse of ecdysteroid may be involved in delaying development under exposure to irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that UVB can influence the metamorphosis of insects. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of UVB on signaling mechanisms in insect metamorphosis.
Sang, Wen; Yu, Lin; He, Li; Ma, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is an important environmental factor. It is generally known that UVB exhibits high genotoxicity due to causing DNA damage, potentially leading to skin carcinogenesis and aging in mammals. However, little is known about the effects of UVB on the development and metamorphosis of insects, which are the most abundant terrestrial animals. In the present study, we performed dose-response analyses of the effects UVB irradiation on Tribolium castaneum metamorphosis, assessed the function of the T. castaneum prothoracicotropic hormone gene (Trcptth), and analyzed ecdysteroid pathway gene expression profile and ecdysterone titers post-UVB irradiation. The results showed that UVB not only caused death of T. castaneum larvae, but also delayed larval-pupal metamorphosis and reduced the size and emergence rate of pupae. In addition, we verified the function of Trcptth, which is responsible for regulating metamorphosis. It was also found that the expression profiles of Trcptth as well as ecdysteroidogenesis and response genes were influenced by UVB radiation. Therefore, a disturbance pulse of ecdysteroid may be involved in delaying development under exposure to irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that UVB can influence the metamorphosis of insects. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of UVB on signaling mechanisms in insect metamorphosis. PMID:26986217
Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica
DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.
Li, Chengjun; Yun, Xiaopei; Li, Bin
Dusky-like (Dyl) is associated with the morphogenesis of embryonic denticle, adult sensory bristle and wing hair in Drosophila melanogaster. And whether Dyl involved in insect post-embryonic development and its signal transduction are poorly understood. Here, phylogenetic analysis revealed that dyl displayed one-to-one orthologous relationship among insects. In Tribolium castaneum, dyl is abundantly expressed at the late embryonic stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis at the late adult stage illustrated high expression of dyl in the fat body and ovary. Knockdown of dyl resulted in the defects in larval epidermal pigmentation and completely blocked the transitions from larval to pupal and pupal to adult stages of T. castaneum. We further discovered that dyl RNAi phenotypes were phenocopied by blimp-1 or shavenbaby (svb) silencing, and dyl was positively regulated by blimp-1 through svb in T. castaneum. These results suggest that Dyl functions downstream of Blimp-1 through Svb for larval epidermal pigmentation and metamorphosis. Moreover, ftz-f1 was down-regulated after RNA interference (RNAi) suppressing any of those three genes, indicating that Ftz-f1 works downstream of Dyl to mediate the effects of Blimp-1, Svb and Dyl on metamorphosis in T. castaneum. This study provides valuable insights into functions and signaling pathway of insect Dyl.
Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst H K
Insect development has contributed significantly to our understanding of metazoan development. However, most information has been obtained by analyzing a single species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum differs fundamentally from that of Drosophila in aspects such as short-germ development, embryonic leg development, extensive extra-embryonic membrane formation and non-involuted head development. Although Tribolium has become the second most important insect model organism, previous live imaging attempts have addressed only specific questions and no long-term live imaging data of Tribolium embryogenesis have been available. By combining light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy with a novel mounting method, we achieved complete, continuous and non-invasive fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium embryogenesis at high spatiotemporal resolution. The embryos survived the 2-day or longer imaging process, developed into adults and produced fertile progeny. Our data document all morphogenetic processes from the rearrangement of the uniform blastoderm to the onset of regular muscular movement in the same embryo and in four orientations, contributing significantly to the understanding of Tribolium development. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive chronological table of Tribolium embryogenesis, integrating most previous work and providing a reference for future studies. Based on our observations, we provide evidence that serosa window closure and serosa opening, although deferred by more than 1 day, are linked. All our long-term imaging datasets are available as a resource for the community. Tribolium is only the second insect species, after Drosophila, for which non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging has been achieved.
Goodman, Cynthia L; Stanley, David; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Beeman, Richard W; Silver, Kristopher; Park, Yoonseong
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a model organism for agricultural and medical research and its complete genome is sequenced. We established a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line to complement existing physiological, genetic, and genomic research tools. We set up trial cell cultures from egg, pupa, and adult stages as tissue sources and incubated them in six separate cell culture media to determine the optimal combination of tissue source and medium for cell replication. Our most promising culture was generated by co-culturing adult (∼75 %) and pupal tissues in EX-CELL 420 medium containing 9 % FBS. Our new cell culture is designated BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) and it has been subcultured more than 90 times. Amplification of genomic DNA with species-specific primers yielded DNA fragments of the expected sizes and with sequences identical to those from the published Tribolium genome. Additionally, we characterized this line using DNA fingerprinting (DAF-PCR) and compared it with three other coleopteran cell lines and its conspecific pupae to confirm identity. Its doubling time is 155.2 hr. Early passages consisted of attached cells and vesicles in suspension, whereas later passages consisted primarily of attached, spherical cells. Similar to other established cell lines, the ploidy of TcA cells was variable, ranging from 20 chromosomes/cell (diploid) to above 30 chromosomes/cell. TcA cells withstood incubation at 40°C for 1 h with no decrease in viability. We recorded increased levels of one heat shock protein (43 kDa) and of the hsp68a transcript following exposure to 40°C. Taken together, this represents the first report of a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line. We expect the BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 line will become a useful tool in Tribolium research.
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a model organism for agricultural and medical research and its complete genome is sequenced. We established a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line to complement existing physiological, genetic and genomic research tools. We set up trial cell ...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, has become a model organism for agricultural and medical research (e.g., Li et al., 2010). We are in the process of establishing a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line. Coupled with the recently completed genome sequence (Richards et al., 2008, ...
Zhou, Ying; Lin, Xian-Wen; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Yan-Ru; Yuan, Jing-Qun; Lin, Xin-Da; Xu, Ruijuan; Cheng, Jiaan; Mao, Cungui; Zhu, Zeng-Rong
Ceramidase plays an important role in regulating the metabolism of sphingolipids, such as ceramide, sphingosine (SPH), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), by controlling the hydrolysis of ceramide. Here we report the cloning and biochemical characterization of a neutral ceramidase from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum which is an important storage pest. The Tribolium castaneum neutral ceramidase (Tncer) is a protein of 696 amino acids. It shares a high degree of similarity in protein sequence to neutral ceramidases from various species. Tncer mRNA levels are higher in the adult stage than in pre-adult stages, and they are higher in the reproductive organs than in head, thorax, and midgut. The mature ovary has higher mRNA levels than the immature ovary. Tncer is localized to the plasma membrane. It uses various ceramides (D-erythro-C(6), C(12), C(16), C(18:1), and C(24:1)-ceramide) as substrates and has an abroad pH optimum for its in vitro activity. Tncer has an optimal temperature of 37 °C for its in vitro activity. Its activity is inhibited by Fe(2+). These results suggest that Tncer has distinct biochemical properties from neutral ceramidases from other species.
Descamps, Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa, Carolina; Ferrero, Adriana A
Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent, toxic and feeding deterrent properties against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and adults. A topical application assay was employed for the contact toxicity study and filter paper impregnation for the fumigant assay. A treated diet was also used to evaluate the repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay for the feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. The essential oil of the leaves contained mainly monoterpenoids, with alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and camphene predominant, whereas that from the fruits contained mainly alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and beta-myrcene. The leaf essential oil showed repellent effects, whereas that from the fruit was an attractant. Both oils produced mortality against larvae in topical and fumigant bioassays, but fumigant toxicity was not found against adults. Moreover, both essential oils produced some alterations in nutritional index. These results show that the essential oils from S. areira could be applicable to the management of populations of Tribolium castaneum.
Drury, Douglas W; Ehmke, Ross C; Jideonwo, Victoria N; Wade, Michael J
When hybrid inviability is an indirect by-product of local adaptation, we expect its degree of severity between pairs of populations to vary and to be sensitive to the environment. While complete reciprocal hybrid inviability is the outcome of the gradual process of local adaptation, it is not representative of the process of accumulation of incompatibility. In the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, some pairs of populations exhibit complete, reciprocal F1 hybrid incompatibility while other pairs are fully or partially compatible. We characterize this naturally occurring variation in the degree and timing of expression of the hybrid incompatible phenotype to better understand the number of genes or developmental processes contributing to speciation. We assessed the morphological and developmental variation in four Tribolium castaneum populations and their 12 possible F1 hybrids at each life-history stage from egg to adult. We find that the rate of hybrid larval development is affected in all interpopulation crosses, including those eventually producing viable, fertile adults. Hybrid incompatibility manifests early in development as changes in the duration of instars and diminished success in the transition between instars are relative to the parent populations. Parent populations with similar developmental profiles may produce hybrids with disrupted development. The degree and timing of expression of hybrid inviability depends upon populations crossed, direction of the cross, and environment in which hybrids are raised. Our findings suggest that the coordinated expression of genes involved in transitional periods of development is the underlying cause of hybrid incompatibility in this species. PMID:23919145
Moharramipour, S; Taghizadeh, A; Meshkatalsadat, M H; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y
Repellent and insecticidal activity of the essential oil extracted from Thymus persicus (Roniger ex Reach. F.) Jalas was evaluated against two stored-product beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Dry flowering aerial parts of the plant were subjected to hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The repellent and fumigant toxicity were tested against 1-7 days old adult beetles at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% RH in dark condition. The repellency on C. maculatus and T. castaneum at highest concentration (2 microL/mL acetone) was 82.40% and 70.40% respectively. Fumigation bioassays showed that C. maculatus adults were significantly more susceptible (LC50 = 2.39 microL/L air) to the essential oil than T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 234.42 microL/L air). It could be concluded that T. persicus may have potential for applications in management of stored-product pests because of its safety, strong repellency and fumigant toxicity.
Lu, Yujie; Beeman, Richard W.; Campbell, James F.; Park, Yoonseong; Aikins, Michael J.; Mori, Kenji; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Tamogami, Shigeyuki; Phillips, Thomas W.
We report that the abdominal epidermis and associated tissues are the predominant sources of male-produced pheromones in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and, for the first time, describe the stereoisomeric composition of the natural blend of isomers of the aggregation pheromone 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD) in this important pest species. Quantitative analyses via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the average amount of DMD released daily by single feeding males of T. castaneum was 878 ± 72 ng (SE). Analysis of different body parts identified the abdominal epidermis as the major source of aggregation pheromone; the thorax was a minor source, while no DMD was detectable in the head. No internal organs or obvious male-specific glands were associated with pheromone deposition. Complete separation of all four stereoisomers of DMD was achieved following oxidation to the corresponding acid, derivatization with (1 R, 2 R)- and (1 S, 2 S)-2-(anthracene-2,3-dicarboximido)cyclohexanol to diastereomeric esters, and their separation on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography at -54°C. Analysis of the hexane eluate from Porapak-Q-collected volatiles from feeding males revealed the presence of all four isomers (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S)/(4 S,8 R)/(4 S,8 S) at a ratio of approximately 4:4:1:1. A walking orientation bioassay in a wind tunnel with various blends of the four synthetic isomers further indicated that the attractive potency of the reconstituted natural blend of 4:4:1:1 was equivalent to that of the natural pheromone and greater than that of the 1:1 blend of (4 R,8 R)/(4 R,8 S) used in commercial lures.
King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry
Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution.
Knorr, Eileen; Bingsohn, Linda; Kanost, Michael R; Vilcinskas, Andreas
Coleopteran insects are a highly diverse and successful order, and many beetle species are significant agricultural pests. New biorational strategies for managing populations of beetles and other insect species are needed as pests develop resistance to chemical insecticides and Bt toxins. There is now an opportunity to use genome sequence data to identify genes that are essential for insect growth, development, or survival as new targets for designing control technology. This goal requires a method for high-throughput in vivo screening of thousands of genes to identify candidate genes that, when their expression is disrupted, have a phenotype that may be useful in insect pest control. Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, is a model organism that offers considerable advantages for such screening, including ease of rearing in large numbers, a sequenced genome, and a strong, systemic RNAi response for specific depletion of gene transcripts. The RNAi effect in T. castaneum can be elicited in any tissue and any stage by the injection of dsRNA into the hemocoel, and injection of dsRNA into adult females can even be used to identify phenotypes in offspring. A pilot RNAi screen (iBeetle) is underway. Several T. castaneum genes with promising RNAi phenotypes for further development as mechanisms for plant protection have been identified. These include heat shock protein 90, chitin synthase, the segmentation gene hairy, and a matrix metalloprotease. Candidate genes identified in T. castaneum screens can then be tested in agricultural pest species (in which screening is not feasible), to evaluate their effectiveness for use in potential plant-based RNAi control strategies. Delivery of dsRNA expressed by genetically modified crops to the midgut of phytophagous insects is under investigation as a new tool for very specific protection of plants from insect pest species. The T. castaneum screening platform offers a system for discovery of candidate genes with high potential
Wua, Yan; Chenb, Hai-Ping; Wei, Jian-Yu; Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Li, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Cai, Qian
The essential oil obtained from Citrus wilsonii Tanaka stem barks with hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be nerol acetate (44.5%), nerol (13.6%), citronellyl propionate (13.5%) and α-terpineol (3.6%). Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol. It was found that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks possessed strong repellency (86% and 92%, respectively, at 78.6 nL/cm2, after 2 and 4 h treatment) against Tribolium castaneum adults. Repellency of the four active compounds was also determined. Nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol were strongly repellent (100%, 100%, 90% and 96%, respectively, at 15.7 nL/cm2, after 2h treatment) against T. castaneum. Nerol exhibited the same level of repellency as the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks and its active compounds have the potential to be developed as natural repellents for control of T. castaneum.
Soliman, M H; Lints, F A
Longevity of eight laboratory strains of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, with various geographic backgrounds, was studied under constant laboratory conditions of 33 degrees C and 70% relative humidity in standard medium (95% whole wheat flour and 5% dried yeast) during a period of 227 days starting from the egg stage. The eggs were collected from the same parents, first a few days after emergence and afterwards at intervals of 13, 9, 10 and 11 days. Mean survival time (MST) was found to be strain-specified. It ranges from 128.6 days for KJ (Kyoto, Japan) to 174.2 days for ES (Edinburgh, Scotland). MST was highly correlated with the percentage of adults alive after 227 days, which did not change the ranking order of strain longevity. Parental age had no effect on longevity. The mean adult longevity of the strains was correlated with the available data on adult weight, growth rate, viability and productivity. There was no relationship between adult weight and longevity. LIfe span was found to depend on growth rate (measured as 13-day larval weight), percent viability (from 13-day larvae to adulthood) and productivity. Developmental time was also found to influence adult life span within certain limits (two extreme strains deviated). The data suggest that ageing and death in T. castaneum is under genetic control and support the idea that ageing, allied to development, is genetically controlled.
Elpidina, Elena N.; Oppert, Brenda
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major agricultural pest responsible for considerable loss of stored grain and cereal products worldwide. T. castaneum larvae have a highly compartmentalized gut, with cysteine peptidases mostly in the acidic anterior part of the midgut that are critical to the early stages of food digestion. In previous studies, we described 26 putative cysteine peptidase genes in T. castaneum (types B, L, O, F, and K) located mostly on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, and 10. In the present study, we hypothesized that specific cysteine peptidase genes could be associated with digestive functions for food processing based on comparison of gene expression profiles in different developmental stages, feeding and non-feeding. RNA-Seq was used to determine the relative expression of cysteine peptidase genes among four major developmental stages (egg, larvae, pupae, and adult) of T. castaneum. We also compared cysteine peptidase genes in T. castaneum to those in other model insects and coleopteran pests. By combining transcriptome expression, phylogenetic comparisons, response to dietary inhibitors, and other existing data, we identified key cysteine peptidases that T. castaneum larvae and adults use for food digestion, and thus new potential targets for biologically-based control products. PMID:26819843
Trostanetsky, A; Kostyukovsky, M; Quinn, E
The insect growth regulator novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim-Agan Ltd, Israel) is used against many field pests on corn, vegetables, orchards, forests, and cotton plantations. Previously, we studied various effects of novaluron on stored grain pests. Termination in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) eggs hatching after treating adults with novaluron and following restoration after adult transfer to untreated media was observed. The objective of this study was to investigate the restoration of T. castaneum egg hatch following transfer of adults from treated media to untreated favorable and unfavorable media. The time needed for hatching restoration of 50% of eggs laid by adults transferred from novaluron (1 ppm) treated flour to untreated flour (RT50) was 2.7 d. RT50 for those transferred to untreated wheat grain was 4.1 d. RT90 in flour was 3.6 d, in grain--6.1 d. Varieties of RTs in grain and in flour with nonoverlapping confidence intervals indicate that RTs were significantly different. Delay of eggs hatching restoration for adults transferred from treated flour to unfavorable media (Petri dishes with limited amount of flour, lying of eggs not detected) was observed. RT50 in flour was 2.1 d and RT90--3.1 d, while RT50 in the unfavorable media was 3.4 d and RT90 6.5 d. Delayed effect of egg hatching restoration after adult transfer to unfavorable media provides evidence of the significant role of insect physiological state in novaluron excretion and (or) degradation by T. castaneum females.
Ziaee, Masumeh; Safaralizadeh, Mohammad H; Shayesteh, Nouraddin
Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of SilicoSec against 7- 14-days-old adults of Tribolium castaneum; old and young larvae with the mean weight of 3.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 mg, respectively at 27 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% r.h in the dark. Wheat treated with four dose rates of SilicoSec with three replications. Adult's mortality was measured after 2, 7 and 14 days of exposure. After 14 days mortality count, all adults were removed and samples retained under the same conditions for a further 60 days to assess progeny production. In the case of larvae, mortality was counted after 1, 2 and 7 days. After 2 days of exposure no concentration achieved 11% mortality for adults, however; adult's mortality exceeds 89.65% when exposed for 7 days to SilicoSec. Mortality of old and young larvae at 0.6 g kg(-1) after 2 days were 28.88 and 22.22%, respectively and exceed to 60.71 and 69.04% at longer exposure of 7 days. Results indicated that mortality of T. castaneum was influenced by interval exposed to wheat treated with SilicoSec and over this exposure; the increases in application rate of SilicoSec had significant effect on the mortality. Young larvae of red flour beetle were more sensitive to SilicoSec than old larvae and adults were more tolerant. Reproductive potential of adults in the treated wheat was suppressed when compared with untreated wheat. The high retention level of SilicoSec (78.62%) was noted in wheat kernels.
Chymotrypsin-like peptidases (CTLPs) of insects are primarily secreted into the gut lumen where they act as digestive enzymes. We studied the gene family encoding CTLPs in the genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Using an extended search pattern, we identified 14 TcCTLP genes that e...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is the most important stored-product insect pest infesting rice mills in the U.S. Due to the phasing out of methyl bromide in accordance with the 1987 Montreal Protocol, the efficacy of alternative fumigants in controlli...
Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of horizontal transfer of the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on confined populations of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) either with or without hidden refugia. Multiple applications were made with the IGR alone or combined with synergized p...
A bioinformatics search of the genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, resulted in the identification of two genes encoding proteins closely related to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases (UAP), which provide the activated precursor, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, for the synthesis of ...
Enzymes belonging to the Beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) family cleave chitin oligosaccharides produced by the action of chitinases on chitin into the constituent N-acetylglucosamine monomer. Four genes encoding putative NAGs in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, namely TcNAG1, TcFDL, Tc...
The availability of sequenced insect genomes has allowed for discovery and functional characterization of novel genes and proteins. We report use of the Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (red flour beetle) genome to identify, clone, express, and characterize a novel endo-ß-1,4-glucanase we named TcEG1 (...
Cuticle tanning in insects involves simultaneous cuticular hardening and pigmentation. The dynamic mechanical properties of the highly modified and cuticle-rich forewings (elytra) from Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) body color mutant strains were investigated to determine the relationship b...
Querying the genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, with the Drosophila melanogaster Yellow-y (DmY-y) protein sequence identified fourteen Yellow homologs. One of these is an ortholog of DmY-y, which is required for cuticular pigmentation (melanization), and another is a ortholog of D...
Molting, or the replacement of the old exoskeleton with a new cuticle, is a complex developmental process that all insects must undergo to maintain growth. Our work has uncovered a major pathway involved in cuticular chitin maintenance wherein accumulation of the Tribolium castaneum knickkopf protei...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a functional genomics tool to validate phenotypes by delivering targeted, gene-specific, and complementary dsRNA into a host via injection, feeding, or other means in order to reduce gene expression. RNAi in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, has been successful du...
The expression profiles of nine genes encoding chitin deacetylase (CDA)-like proteins were studied during development and in various tissues of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, by RT-PCR. TcCDA1, TcCDA2 and TcCDA5 were expressed throughout all stages of development, while TcCDA6 – 9 were ...
BeetleBase (http://www.beetlebase.org) has been updated to provide more comprehensive genomic information for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. The database contains genomic sequence scaffolds mapped to 10 linkage groups (genome assembly release Tcas_3.0), genetic linkage maps, the official ...
Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.
Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor
The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.
Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor
In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.
Abou-Taleb, Hamdy K; Mohamed, Magdy I E; Shawir, Mohamed S; Abdelgaleil, Samir A M
Essential oils from 20 Egyptian plants were obtained by using hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the isolated oils was identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Fumigant and contact toxicities of the essential oils were evaluated against the adults of Tribolium castaneum. In fumigation assays, the oil of Origanum vulgare (LC50 = 9.97 mg/L air) displayed the highest toxicity towards the adults of T. castaneum. In contact assays, the oils of Artemisia monosperma (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) and O. vulgare (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) were the most potent toxicants against the adults of T. castaneum. Biochemical studies showed that the tested oils caused pronounced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) isolated from the larvae of T. castaneum. The oil Cupressus macrocarpa (IC50 = 12.3 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of AChE, while the oil of Calistemon viminals (IC50 = 4.4 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of ATPases.
Strobl, Frederic; Schmitz, Alexander; Stelzer, Ernst H K
Tribolium castaneum has become an important insect model organism for evolutionary developmental biology, genetics and biotechnology. However, few protocols for live fluorescence imaging of Tribolium have been reported, and little image data is available. Here we provide a protocol for recording the development of Tribolium embryos with light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy. The protocol can be completed in 4-7 d and provides procedural details for: embryo collection, microscope configuration, embryo preparation and mounting, noninvasive live imaging for up to 120 h along multiple directions, retrieval of the live embryo once imaging is completed, and image data processing, for which exemplary data is provided. Stringent quality control criteria for developmental biology studies are also discussed. Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy complements existing toolkits used to study Tribolium development, can be adapted to other insect species, and requires no advanced imaging or sample preparation skills.
We studied protein digestion the tenebrionids Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum, pests of stored grains and grain products, to identify potential targets for biopesticide development. Tenebrionid larvae have highly compartmentalized guts, with primarily cysteine peptidases in the acidic anter...
Li, Zhiqian; Jiang, Jianhao; Chen, Yazhou; You, Lang; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang; Li, Zhiqian; Jiang, Jianhao; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi
The PAR-domain protein 1 (PDP1) is essential for locomotor activity of insects. However, its functions in insect growth and development have not been studied extensively, which prompted our hypothesis that PDP1 acts in energy metabolism. Here we report identification of TcPDP1 in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and its functional analysis by RNAi. Treating larvae with dsTcPDP1 induced pupae developmental arrestment, accompanied by accelerated fat body degradation. dsTcPDP1 treatments in adults resulted in reduced female fecundity. Disruption of TcPDP1 expression affected the transcription of genes involved in insulin signaling transduction and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These results support our hypothesis that TcPDP1 acts in energy metabolism in T. castaneum.
Arakane, Yasuyuki; Dixit, Radhika; Begum, Khurshida; Park, Yoonseong; Specht, Charles A; Merzendorfer, Hans; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W
The expression profiles of nine genes encoding chitin deacetylase (CDA)-like proteins were studied during development and in various tissues of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, by RT-PCR. TcCDA1, TcCDA2 and TcCDA5 were expressed throughout all stages of development, while TcCDA6-9 were expressed predominantly during larval feeding stages. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that both TcCDA1 and TcCDA2 were expressed in epidermal cells. Polyclonal antibody to TcCDA1 detected an immunoreactive protein in larval tracheae. TcCDA6 through TcCDA9, which belong to a distinct subgroup of gut-specific CDAs, were transcribed in the cells lining the midgut, including epithelial cells. TcCDA3 was expressed in the thoracic muscles, whereas TcCDA4 was expressed in early imaginal appendages. To study the function(s) of individual TcCDA genes, double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) specific for each gene were injected into insects at different developmental stages and the phenotypes were monitored. No visible phenotypic changes were observed after injection of dsRNAs for TcCDA3 to 9, whereas injection of dsRNAs for TcCDA1 or TcCDA2 affected all types of molts, including larval-larval, larval-pupal and pupal-adult. Insects treated with these dsRNAs could not shed the old cuticle and were trapped in their exuviae. Interestingly, unique and very dissimilar adult phenotypes were observed after injection of dsRNAs that specifically down-regulated either of the two alternatively spliced transcripts of TcCDA2, namely TcCDA2a or TcCDA2b. These results reveal functional specialization among T. castaneum CDA genes and splice variants.
Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Park, Yoonseong; Li, Bin; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Schachtner, Joachim; Verleyen, Peter; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P
Insect neurohormones (biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and protein hormones) and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the control of behavior, reproduction, development, feeding and many other physiological processes. The recent completion of several insect genome projects has enabled us to obtain a complete inventory of neurohormone GPCRs in these insects and, by a comparative genomics approach, to analyze the evolution of these proteins. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is the latest addition to the list of insects with a sequenced genome and the first coleopteran (beetle) to be sequenced. Coleoptera is the largest insect order and about 30% of all animal species living on earth are coleopterans. Some coleopterans are severe agricultural pests, which is also true for T. castaneum, a global pest for stored grain and other dried commodities for human consumption. In addition, T. castaneum is a model for insect development. Here, we have investigated the presence of neurohormone GPCRs in Tribolium and compared them with those from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera) and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera). We found 20 biogenic amine GPCRs in Tribolium (21 in Drosophila; 19 in the honey bee), 48 neuropeptide GPCRs (45 in Drosophila; 35 in the honey bee), and 4 protein hormone GPCRs (4 in Drosophila; 2 in the honey bee). Furthermore, we identified the likely ligands for 45 of these 72 Tribolium GPCRs. A highly interesting finding in Tribolium was the occurrence of a vasopressin GPCR and a vasopressin peptide. So far, the vasopressin/GPCR couple has not been detected in any other insect with a sequenced genome (D. melanogaster and six other Drosophila species, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Bombyx mori, and A. mellifera). Tribolium lives in very dry environments. Vasopressin in mammals is the major neurohormone steering water reabsorption in the kidneys. Its presence in Tribolium, therefore, might be related to
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major agricultural pest responsible for considerable loss of stored grain and cereal products worldwide. T. castaneum larvae have a highly compartmentalized gut, with cysteine peptidases mostly in the acidic anterior part of the midgut. We have descri...
Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy
Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes.
Tonk, Miray; Knorr, Eileen; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Kollewe, Christian; Vilcinskas, Andreas
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a destructive insect pest of stored food and feed products, and a model organism for development, evolutionary biology and immunity. The insect innate immune system includes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Defensins are an evolutionarily-conserved class of AMPs and a potential new source of antimicrobial agents. In this context, we report the antimicrobial activity, phylogenetic and structural properties of three T. castaneum defensins (Def1, Def2 and Def3) and their relevance in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. All three recombinant defensins showed bactericidal activity against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi, but only Def1 and Def2 showed a bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus epidermidis. None of the defensins showed activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas entomophila or against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three defensins were transcriptionally upregulated following a bacterial challenge, suggesting a key role in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that defensins from T. castaneum, mealworms, Udo longhorn beetle and houseflies cluster within a well-defined clade of insect defensins. We conclude that T. castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria and that other AMPs may play a more prominent role against Gram-negative species.
Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang
The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.
Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor
Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality.
Wang, Suzhi; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Beeman, Richard W; Brown, Susan J
Background Insect genomes vary widely in size, a large fraction of which is often devoted to repetitive DNA. Re-association kinetics indicate that up to 42% of the genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is repetitive. Analysis of the abundance and distribution of repetitive DNA in the recently sequenced genome of T. castaneum is important for understanding the structure and function of its genome. Results Using TRF, TEpipe and RepeatScout we found that approximately 30% of the T. castaneum assembled genome is composed of repetitive DNA. Of this, 17% is found in tandem arrays and the remaining 83% is dispersed, including transposable elements, which in themselves constitute 5-6% of the genome. RepeatScout identified 31 highly repetitive DNA elements with repeat units longer than 100 bp, which constitute 7% of the genome; 65% of these highly repetitive elements and 74% of transposable elements accumulate in regions representing 40% of the assembled genome that is anchored to chromosomes. These regions tend to occur near one end of each chromosome, similar to previously described blocks of pericentric heterochromatin. They contain fewer genes with longer introns, and often correspond with regions of low recombination in the genetic map. Conclusion Our study found that transposable elements and other repetitive DNA accumulate in certain regions in the assembled T. castaneum genome. Several lines of evidence suggest these regions are derived from the large blocks of pericentric heterochromatin in T. castaneum chromosomes. PMID:18366801
Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson; de Oliveira, Carlos Jorge Logullo; Campos, Eldo; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes
Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.
Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson
Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237
Dias, Glenda; Lino-Neto, José; Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano
Previous studies on the spermatogenesis of tenebrionid beetles showed the unusual formation of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst. In this work we reported this feature also in Tribolium castaneum using light and transmission electron microscopy. The sperm structure of T. castaneum, similar to other tenebrionids, consists of a three-layered acrosome, an elongated nucleus and a flagellum with a 9+9+2 axoneme, two accessory bodies and two asymmetric mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst also in Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae suggests that it is a strong trait synapomorphic for Tenebrionoidea. The huge degeneration of whole sperm cells in several cysts of testes during spermiogenesis is also described.
Wang, Yanyun; Li, Chengjun; Sang, Ming; Li, Bin
Males absent on the first (MOF) was originally identified as an essential component of the X chromosome dosage compensation system in Drosophila melanogaster, and is also a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases. MOF has been extensively studied in D. melanogaster and mammals. However, whether MOF is involved in dosage compensation and/or other vital functions for newly emerging model insects such as Tribolium castaneum, is unclear. We cloned the mof from T. castaneum, named Tcmof. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mof is highly conserved in eukaryotes but lost in birds. qPCR showed that Tcmof was most highly expressed in the early embryo stage and equally expressed in males and females. Treating larvae with ds-Tcmof led 79.1% of the insects to arrest during its eclosion; the remaining insects died either in the larval stage or immediately following eclosion. Treating pupae with the same construct eliminated the fertility of T. castaneum. This effect was rescued by reciprocal crosses with wild-type females, but not males. We infer that the mof gene is essential for larval/pupal development and female fertility in T. castaneum.
Beeman, R. W.; Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
The powerful combination of genetic, developmental and molecular approaches possible with the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has led to a profound understanding of the genetic control of early developmental events. However, Drosophila is a highly specialized long germ insect, and the mechanisms controlling its early development may not be typical of insects or Arthropods in general. The beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a similar opportunity to integrate high resolution genetic analysis with the developmental/molecular approaches currently used in other organisms. Early results document significant differences between insect orders in the functions of genes responsible for establishing developmental commitments.
Beeman, R W; Stuart, J J; Brown, S J; Denell, R E
The powerful combination of genetic, developmental and molecular approaches possible with the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has led to a profound understanding of the genetic control of early developmental events. However, Drosophila is a highly specialized long germ insect, and the mechanisms controlling its early development may not be typical of insects or Arthropods in general. The beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a similar opportunity to integrate high resolution genetic analysis with the developmental/molecular approaches currently used in other organisms. Early results document significant differences between insect orders in the functions of genes responsible for establishing developmental commitments.
Walski, Tomasz; Van Damme, Els J M; Smagghe, Guy
In the last decades lectins have received a lot of attention as potential tools in pest control. Despite substantial progress in the field not all the factors determining insecticidal potency and selectivity of these proteins have been described. Recently, three lectins, RSA (Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin), SNA-I and SNA-II (Sambucus nigra agglutinin I and II) have been shown to be toxic to aphids and caterpillars. In this project we investigated if these lectins are also toxic against larvae and a cell line of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, a model organism and important pest of stored products. Furthermore, we analyzed the stability of the lectins in the larval gut and used confocal microscopy to compare their efficiency in passing through the peritrophic matrix (PM). We observed that all three lectins were toxic against the T. castaneum cell line and their effectiveness in vitro was in decreasing order SNA-II>SNA-I>RSA with the respective EC50 being 0.1, 0.5 and 3.6 μg/ml. Larvae feeding for 16 day on diets containing 2% RSA, 2% SNA-II and 2% SNA-I weighed 0.14 ± 0.07 mg, 0.67 ± 0.44 mg and 1.89 ± 0.38 mg, corresponding to approximately 7%, 36% and 80% of control larvae, respectively. As a consequence, RSA increased the time to adult emergence by over 3-fold, SNA-II by 1.9-fold and SNA-I by 1.2-fold. RSA and SNA-II were stable in the larval gut, while SNA-I was digested and excreted with the feces. Finally, confocal microscopy confirmed that RSA passed through the PM more efficiently than SNA-II. In conclusion, our data suggest that the lectin ability to pass through the PM, governed by molecule dimensions, charge and size of PM pores, is one of the features that determine the toxicity of these insecticidal proteins.
The phase out of methyl bromide for the treatment of structures where grain is milled and processed has triggered a need to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative structural treatments such as sulfuryl fluoride and heat. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)) (RFB) and confused flour...
Ming, Qing-Lei; Cheng, Chao
Tribolium beetles have evolved over several thousand years to colonize and exploit various food products that vary widely in their nutritional quality. Here Tribolium castaneum was used as a model organism to explore the effect of nutritional quality on male development and reproduction. The results showed, when tested across different qualities of nutritional diets, Tribolium males developed faster and their body size was larger on a high-quality diet, and there were significant correlations between male developmental traits. However, Tribolium males fed different nutritional diets did not show significant variation in olfactory attractiveness, mating rate, insemination rate, sperm defense (P1), sperm offense (P2), and reproductive success within a population context (RSPC). Moreover, there was no significant correlation of male reproductive performances except RSPC with developmental traits, and except for P2 and RSPC, no significant correlations between male reproductive performances. Therefore, although male developmental performance was significantly influenced by diet quality, reproductive performance was not. We discussed these findings and their sexual selection implications in light of its habitat.
Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir
The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P < 0.05. Phytotoxic activity showed that dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.
Verlinden, Heleen; Vleugels, Rut; Verdonck, Rik; Urlacher, Elodie; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Mercer, Alison
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite their evolutionary distance, striking parallels exist between deuterostomian and protostomian dopaminergic systems. In both, signalling is achieved via a complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated the sequence, pharmacology and tissue distribution of a D2-like dopamine receptor from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TricaDop3) and compared it with related G protein-coupled receptors in other invertebrate species. The TricaDop3 receptor-encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with members of the Dop3 receptor class. Real time qRT-PCR showed high expression in both the central brain and the optic lobes, consistent with the role of dopamine as neurotransmitter. Activation of TricaDop3 expressed in mammalian cells increased intracellular Ca(2+) signalling and decreased NKH-477 (a forskolin analogue)-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. We studied the pharmacological profile of the TricaDop3 receptor and demonstrated that the synthetic vertebrate dopamine receptor agonists, 2 - amino- 6,7 - dihydroxy - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydronaphthalene hydrobromide (6,7-ADTN) and bromocriptine acted as agonists. Methysergide was the most potent of the antagonists tested and showed competitive inhibition in the presence of dopamine. This study offers important information on the Dop3 receptor from Tribolium castaneum that will facilitate functional analyses of dopamine receptors in insects and other invertebrates.
Gilles, Anna F; Schinko, Johannes B; Averof, Michalis
Gene-editing techniques are revolutionizing the way we conduct genetics in many organisms. The CRISPR/Cas nuclease has emerged as a highly versatile, efficient and affordable tool for targeting chosen sites in the genome. Beyond its applications in established model organisms, CRISPR technology provides a platform for genetic intervention in a wide range of species, limited only by our ability to deliver it to cells and to select mutations efficiently. Here, we test the CRISPR technology in an emerging insect model and pest, the beetle Tribolium castaneum. We use simple assays to test CRISPR/Cas activity, we demonstrate efficient expression of guide RNAs and Cas9 from Tribolium U6 and hsp68 promoters and we test the efficiency of knockout and knock-in approaches in Tribolium. We find that 55-80% of injected individuals carry mutations (indels) generated by non-homologous end joining, including mosaic bi-allelic knockouts; 71-100% carry such mutations in their germ line and transmit them to the next generation. We show that CRISPR-mediated gene knockout of the Tribolium E-cadherin gene causes defects in dorsal closure, which is consistent with RNAi-induced phenotypes. Homology-directed knock-in of marker transgenes was observed in 14% of injected individuals and transmitted to the next generation by 6% of injected individuals. Previous work in Tribolium mapped a large number of transgene insertions associated with developmental phenotypes and enhancer traps. We present an efficient method for re-purposing these insertions, via CRISPR-mediated replacement of these transgenes by new constructs.
Toews, Michael D; Campbell, James F; Arthur, Franklin H; West, Mark
Pilot-scale warehouses, artificially infested with all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were used to evaluate the efficacy of two contact insecticides, (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin, and to determine the effect of insecticide treatments on insect captures in food- and pheromone-baited pitfall traps. Two application strategies were compared; insecticides were applied at the labeled rate either around the inside perimeter of the warehouse or in a band around the base of shelf units containing discrete food patches (10 g of wheat flour) infested with T. castaneum. Insect populations were assessed weekly for 6 wk by recording number of dead adults on the warehouse floor; number of larvae and adults captured in pitfall traps; and number of larvae, pupae, and adults recovered from food patch samples. There were significantly more dead adults in warehouses treated with cyfluthrin than with (S)-hydroprene or water (control treatment). However, food patch samples showed no detectable differences in quantity of larvae, pupae, or adults among any treatments. Pitfall traps detected fewer larvae starting the fourth week of the study in the warehouses treated with cyfluthrin around the shelf perimeter. Rate of larval capture in traps increased overall with increasing larval populations, but it was more pronounced in traps located closer to the food patches. Number of adults captured in pitfall traps reflected adult mortality in cyfluthrin-treated warehouses. Capture of larvae and adults was greater near the source of the infestation than elsewhere in the warehouse, suggesting that trapping data should be considered when precision targeting insecticide applications in the field.
Ninova, Maria; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Griffiths-Jones, Sam
MicroRNAs are well-established players in the development of multicellular animals. Most of our understanding of microRNA function in arthropod development comes from studies in Drosophila. Despite their advantages as model systems, the long germband embryogenesis of fruit flies is an evolutionary derived state restricted to several holometabolous insect lineages. MicroRNA evolution and expression across development in animals exhibiting the ancestral and more widespread short germband mode of embryogenesis has not been characterized. We sequenced small RNA libraries of oocytes and successive intervals covering the embryonic development of the short germband model organism, Tribolium castaneum. We analyzed the evolution and temporal expression of the microRNA complement and sequenced libraries of total RNA to investigate the relationships with microRNA target expression. We show microRNA maternal loading and sequence-specific 3' end nontemplate oligoadenylation of maternally deposited microRNAs that is conserved between Tribolium and Drosophila. We further uncover large clusters encoding multiple paralogs from several Tribolium-specific microRNA families expressed during a narrow interval of time immediately after the activation of zygotic transcription. These novel microRNAs, together with several early expressed conserved microRNAs, target a significant number of maternally deposited transcripts. Comparison with Drosophila shows that microRNA-mediated maternal transcript targeting is a conserved process in insects, but the number and sequences of microRNAs involved have diverged. The expression of fast-evolving and species-specific microRNAs in the early blastoderm of T. castaneum is consistent with previous findings in Drosophila and shows that the unique permissiveness for microRNA innovation at this stage is a conserved phenomenon.
Futo, Momir; Armitage, Sophie A. O.; Kurtz, Joachim
Animals are inhabited by a diverse community of microorganisms. The relevance of such microbiota is increasingly being recognized across a broad spectrum of species, ranging from sponges to primates, revealing various beneficial roles that microbes can play. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a well-established experimental model organism for studying questions in ecology and evolution, however, the relevance of its microbial community is still largely unknown. T. castaneum larvae orally exposed to bacterial components of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis showed increased survival upon a subsequent challenge with spores of this bacterium. To investigate whether T. castaneum microbiota plays a role in this phenomenon, we established a protocol for raising microbe-free larvae and subsequently tested whether they differ in their ability to mount such a priming response. Here we demonstrate that larvae with significantly lowered microbial loads, show decreased survival upon secondary challenge with B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis spores, compared to animals that were allowed to regain their microbiota before priming. Although the exact mechanism of oral immune priming is unclear, we here suggest that microbiota plays a crucial role in oral immune priming in this species. PMID:26779124
Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Stępień, Katarzyna
To predict internal metal concentrations in animals under specific environmental exposures, the relationship between the exposure concentrations and values of toxicokinetic parameters must be known. At high exposure levels, the availability of carriers transporting metal ions through cellular membranes may become limited, thereby decreasing the assimilation rates (k A ). Furthermore, increased metal concentrations in food may result in greater damage to the gut and reduce the assimilation efficiency and/or increase the elimination rate (k E ). Therefore, k A should decrease and k E should increase with increasing metal concentrations. In fact, our study on Tribolium castaneum exposed to Cu at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1) of dry flour showed that with increasing Cu concentrations, k A decreased from 0.0042 day(-1) at 500 mg kg(-1) to 0.0026 day(-1) at 4000 mg kg(-1) in females and from 0.0029 to 0.001 day(-1) in males and k E increased from 0.027 to 0.064 day(-1) and from 0.018 to 0.04 day(-1) in females and males, respectively. Significant differences in k A between the sexes were observed at 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1), whereas significant differences between treatments were found for k A in males. Copper was efficiently regulated by T. castaneum: an eightfold increase in exposure concentrations resulted in only a ca. twofold increase in the internal concentration. No Cu effect on the respiratory metabolism of T. castaneum was found.
Hepat, Rahul; Kim, Yonggyun
Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates diverse physiological processes in insects during entire developmental stages. Especially, the identification of Methoprene-tolerant (Met), a JH nuclear receptor, allows us to better understand molecular actions of JH to control gene expressions related with metamorphosis. However, several physiological processes including cellular immune response and some molecular actions of JH have been suspected to be mediated via its non-genomic actions. To prove its non-genomic action, JH nuclear signals were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) of Met or its downstream gene, Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. These RNAi-treated larvae failed to undergo a normal development and suffered precocious metamorphosis. Hemocytes of T. castaneum exhibited their spreading behavior on extracellular matrix and nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. When the larvae were treated with either RNAi of Met or Kr-h1, the hemocytes of the treated larvae were responsive to JH without any significant difference with those of control larvae. These results suggest that the response of hemocytes to JH is not mediated by its nuclear signal. On the other hand, the JH modulation of hemocyte behaviors of T. castaneum was significantly influenced by membrane and cytosolic protein activities, in which ethoxyzolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase), calphostin C (a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C) or ouabain (a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase) significantly suppressed the responsiveness of hemocytes to JH.
Freitak, Dalial; Knorr, Eileen; Vogel, Heiko; Vilcinskas, Andreas
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs mediating post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Addressing their role in regulation of physiological adaptations to environmental stress in insects, we selected the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model. Beetles were fed with the bacterial entomopathogen Pseudomonas entomophila (to mimic natural infection), injected with peptidoglycan (experimental setting of strong immune responses) or subjected to either mild heat shock or starvation. Differential expression of selected immunity- and stress-related genes was quantified using real-time PCR, and expression and induction of 455 mature arthropod miRNAs were determined using proprietary microarrays. We found that Tribolium exhibits both gender- and stressor-specific adjustment of immune gene and miRNA expression. Strikingly, we discovered that the number of stressor-induced miRNAs in females is remarkably higher than in males. This observation could support the hypothesis called Bateman's principle in immunity that predicts gender-specific immune responses because females gain fitness through increased longevity, whereas males gain fitness by increasing mating rates. Our results suggest that Tribolium males and females display differential regulatory elements, both pre- and post-transcriptional, likely resulting from different investment strategies in life-history traits.
Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (...
Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot-scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, ...
Ion transport peptide (ITP) and ITP-like (ITPL) are highly conserved neuropeptides in insects and crustaceans. We investigated the alternatively spliced variants of ITP/ITPL in Tribolium castaneum to understand their functions. We identified three alternatively spliced transcripts named itp, itpl-...
Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M
The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200 Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200 Gy were 12.6 and 38.8 Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8 Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2 Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species.
Vadivambal, R; Jayas, D S; White, N D G
Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., one of the important crops in Canada, is used in malting, feed, and food industries. Disinfestation of barley using microwaves can be an alternative to chemical methods used to kill insects. A pilot-scale industrial microwave system operating at 2.45 MHz was used in this study to determine the mortality of life stages (egg, larva, pupa, and adult) of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Barley samples of 50 g each at 14, 16, and 18% moisture content (MC; wet basis) were infested with various life stages of T. castaneum and exposed to microwave energy at different power levels and exposure times, and the mortality of the insects was determined. The average temperature of the 14% MC sample exposed to 28 s at 0, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W were 27.4, 42.6, 53.7, 66.9, and 73.0 degrees C, respectively, and those exposed to 56 s at 0, 200, 300, and 400 W were 27.4, 57.3, 75.5, and 91.2 degrees C, respectively. A similar range of temperature was observed for 16 and 18% MC barley. Complete mortality of all life stages of T. castaneum can be achieved at a power level of 400 W and an exposure time of 56 s or at 500 W for 28 s. Among the life stages of T. castaneum, eggs were the most susceptible to microwave energy and adults were the least susceptible. There was no significant difference in the mortality of larvae and adults at 14, 16, and 18% MC, but the mortality was significantly different for eggs and pupae at different MCs. There was a significant increase in the mortality with an increase in power level or exposure time or both. Germination capacity of the seeds was decreased with an increase in power level or exposure time or both. Quality characteristics such as alpha-amylase, diastatic power, soluble protein, viscosity, and density of the barley malt treated at 500 W for 28 s were same as the control sample, whereas the samples treated at 400 W for 56 s were significantly lower.
Zels, Sven; Verlinden, Heleen; Dillen, Senne; Vleugels, Rut; Nachman, Ronald J.; Broeck, Jozef Vanden
Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a substantial amount of functional data have already been reported on sulfakinins in different insect species, only little information is known regarding the properties of their respective receptors. In this study, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of two sulfakinin receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both receptor open reading frames show extensive sequence similarity with annotated sulfakinin receptors from other insects. Comparison of the sulfakinin receptor sequences with homologous vertebrate cholecystokinin receptors reveals crucial conserved regions for ligand binding and receptor activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR shows that transcripts of both receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system of the beetle. Pharmacological characterization using 29 different peptide ligands clarified the essential requirements for efficient activation of these sulfakinin receptors. Analysis of the signaling pathway in multiple cell lines disclosed that the sulfakinin receptors of T. castaneum can stimulate both the Ca2+ and cyclic AMP second messenger pathways. This in depth characterization of two insect sulfakinin receptors may provide useful leads for the further development of receptor ligands with a potential applicability in pest control and crop protection. PMID:24718573
Fedina, Tatyana Y
Sexual selection in both males and females promotes traits and behaviors that allow control over paternity when female mates with multiple males. Nonetheless, mechanisms of cryptic female choice have been consistently overlooked, due to traditional focus on sperm competition as well as difficulty in distinguishing male vs. female influence over processes occurring during and after mating. The first part of this study describes morphology and transformation of Tribolium castaneum spermatophores inferred from dissecting females immediately after normal or interrupted copulations. T. castaneum males are found to transfer spermatophores as an invaginated tube that everts inside the female bursa and which is filled with sperm during copulation. This sequence of events makes it feasible for females to control the sperm quantity transferred in each spermatophore. Through manipulation of the male phenotypic quality (by starvation) and manipulation of female control over sperm transfer (by killing a subset of females), the second part of this study examines whether females use control over transferred sperm quantity as a cryptic choice mechanism. Fed males transferred significantly more sperm per spermatophore than starved males but only when mating with live females. These results suggest an active differentiation by live females against starved males and provide an evidence for the proposed cryptic female choice mechanism.
Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Stashenko, Elena E
A tool for integrated pest management is the use of essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. In this study, EOs from Tagetes lucida , Lepechinia betonicifolia , Lippia alba , Cananga odorata , and Rosmarinus officinalis , species grown in Colombia, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These oils as well as several of their constituents were tested for repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum , using the area preference method. The main components (>10%) found in EOs were methylchavicol, limonene/α-pinene, carvone/limonene, benzyl acetate/linalool/benzyl benzoate, and α-pinene, for T. lucida, L. betonicifolia, L. alba, C. odorata, and R. officinalis, respectively. All EOs were repellent, followed a dose-response relationship, and had bioactivity similar to or better than that of commercial compound IR3535. EOs from C. odorata and L. alba were the most active. Compounds from EOs, such benzyl benzoate, β-myrcene, and carvone, showed good repellent properties. In short, EOs from plants cultivated in Colombia are sources of repellents against T. castaneum.
Michalczyk, Łukasz; Millard, Anna L; Martin, Oliver Y; Lumley, Alyson J; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G
Between-individual variance in potential reproductive rate theoretically creates a load in reproducing populations by driving sexual selection of male traits for winning competitions, and female traits for resisting the costs of multiple mating. Here, using replicated experimental evolution under divergent operational sex ratios (OSR, 9:1 or 1:6 ♀:♂) we empirically identified the parallel reproductive fitness consequences for females and males in the promiscuous flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results revealed clear evidence that sexual conflict resides within the T. castaneum mating system. After 20 generations of selection, females from female-biased OSRs became vulnerable to multiple mating, and showed a steep decrease in reproductive fitness with an increasing number of control males. In contrast, females from male-biased OSRs showed no change in reproductive fitness, irrespective of male numbers. The divergence in reproductive output was not explained by variation in female mortality. Parallel assays revealed that males also responded to experimental evolution: individuals from male-biased OSRs obtained 27% greater reproductive success across 7-day competition for females with a control male rival, compared to males from the female-biased lines. Subsequent assays suggest that these differences were not due to postcopulatory sperm competitiveness, but to precopulatory/copulatory competitive male mating behavior.
Li, Chengjun; Wu, Wei; Sang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Hu, Xingxing; Yun, Xiaopei; Li, Bin
Methuselah-like 1 of Tribolium castaneum (TcMthl1) has been reported to play crucial roles in development, lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction. However, the signaling system of TcMthl1 is unknown. Thus, we compare the transcriptome profile of RNAi treated larvae (ds-Tcmthl1) and control larvae of T. castaneum by RNA-sequencing, and obtained 14,613,514 sequence reads aligned with 13,533 genes; 812 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. These DEGs were classified into 47 GO functional groups, including such functions as the immune system process, the response to stimulus, the developmental process and reproduction. Interestingly, knock-down of Tcmthl1 suppressed both of Toll and IMD immunity pathways which most likely modulated the effects of Tcmthl1 on lifespan and stress resistance. Additionally, the DEGs encoding Blimp-1, Ftz-F1, E74 and Timeless may participate in the development and reproduction of ds-Tcmthl1 insects. The findings of these DEGs and pathways will provide valuable insight into TcMthl1 signaling and regulation system.
Progeny production by Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) on maize previously infested by Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).
Weston, P A; Rattlingourd, P L
A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of infestation of maize by Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) on progeny production by two common secondary colonizers of grain, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Adults of both secondary pest species were allowed to oviposit for 3 wk on intact kernels of 'DeKalb 689', mechanically split kernels, kernels that had been infested for 3 mo by S. cerealella, and kernels that had been infested for 6 mo. Progeny of both species reached highest numbers on 6-mo infested maize. Prior infestation for 6 mo by S. cerealella makes maize a more suitable medium for reproduction by T. castaneum and O. surinamensis, much more than can be accounted for by mere disruption of kernel integrity resulting from larval feeding. The results highlight the importance of limiting establishment by S. cerealella on maize in storage.
Aerosol insecticides have been used in flour mill pest management programs, but there is limited information on their efficacy on different insect life stages. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin applied as an aerosol against eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the red fl...
Walski, Tomasz; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Christiaens, Olivier; De Pauw, Edwin; Smagghe, Guy
In holometabolous insects the transition from larva to adult requires a complete body reorganization and relies on N-glycosylated proteins. N-glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification that influences protein activity but its impact on the metamorphosis has not been studied yet. Here we used the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, to perform a first comprehensive study on the involvement of the protein N-glycosylation pathway in metamorphosis. The transcript levels for genes encoding N-glycan processing enzymes increased during later developmental stages and, in turn, transition from larva to adult coincided with an enrichment of more extensively modified paucimannose glycans, including fucosylated ones. Blockage of N-glycan attachment resulted in larval mortality, while RNAi of α-glucosidases involved in early N-glycan trimming and quality control disrupted the larva to pupa transition. Additionally, simultaneous knockdown of multiple genes responsible for N-glycan processing towards paucimannose structures revealed their novel roles in pupal appendage formation and adult eclosion. Our findings revealed that, next to hormonal control, insect post-embryonic development and metamorphosis depend on protein N-glycan attachment and efficient N-glycan processing. Consequently, disruption of these processes could be an effective new approach for insect control. PMID:27731363
Chaudhari, Sujata S; Noh, Mi Young; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam
Chitin, a homopolymer of β-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine synthesized by chitin synthase A (Chs-A), is organized in the procuticle of the postembryonic cuticle or exoskeleton, which is composed of laminae stacked parallel to the cell surface to give stability and integrity to the underlying insect epidermal and other tissues. Our previous work has revealed an important role for two proteins from Tribolium castaneum named Knickkopf (TcKnk) and Retroactive (TcRtv) in postembryonic cuticular chitin maintenance. TcKnk and TcRtv were shown to be required for protection and organization of newly synthesized procuticular chitin. To study the functions of TcKnk and TcRtv in serosal and larval cuticles produced during embryogenesis in T. castaneum, dsRNAs specific for these two genes were injected into two week-old adult females. The effects of dsRNA treatment on ovarial integrity, oviposition, egg hatching and adult survival were determined. Insects treated with dsRNA for chitin synthase-A (TcChs-A) and tryptophan oxygenase (TcVer) were used as positive and negative controls for these experiments, respectively. Like TcChs-A RNAi, injection of dsRNA for TcKnk or TcRtv into adult females exhibited no adult lethality and oviposition was normal. However, a vast majority of the embryos did not hatch. The remaining (∼10%) of the embryos hatched into first instar larvae that died without molting to the second instar. Chitin content analysis following TcKnk and TcRtv parental RNAi revealed approximately 50% reduction in chitin content of eggs in comparison with control TcVer RNAi, whereas TcChs-A dsRNA-treatment led to >90% loss of chitin. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of serosal cuticle from TcChs-A, TcKnk and TcRtv dsRNA-treated insects revealed a complete absence of laminar organization of serosal (and larval) procuticle in comparison with TcVer dsRNA-treated controls, which exhibited normal laminar organization of procuticular chitin. The
Toews, Michael D.; Campbell, James F.; Arthur, Franklin H.
Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, 1, or 2 g of flour were prepared with 25 eggs, 3rd instars, pupae, or adults and then immediately treated with aerosolized solvent, Pyrethrins, or esfenvalerate. Twenty-four h after insecticide exposure, the dishes were brought to the laboratory and placed in a growth chamber and held for a 3 day moribund (knockdown) assessment and a 21 day mortality assessment. Mortality in untreated controls was generally less than 10%, with the exception of the 21 day counts of adults and eggs. Solvent-treated replications followed similar trends, except that additional mortality was observed in exposed larvae and pupae. In the insecticide-treated dishes, mortality of T. castaneum provisioned with flour generally showed a linear decrease with increasing flour deposits. Regardless of life stage, mortality did not exceed 60% when individuals were exposed in petri dishes containing 2 g of flour. Exposure location also made a significant difference in observed mortality. While mortality never exceeded 75% in dishes positioned under pallets, there was never less than 80% mortality in dishes exposed in the open. Although there was a perceptible increase in mortality with esfenvalerate compared to Pyrethrins, these differences were considerably less than the variation observed among flour deposits. The study suggests that sanitation and preparation prior to aerosol insecticide treatments were more important than choice of a particular insecticide. PMID:21268701
Drury, Douglas W.; Whitesell, Matthew E.; Wade, Michael J.
We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution. PMID:27087697
Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuñez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F
The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods.
Brajković, Josip; Feliciello, Isidoro; Bruvo-Mađarić, Branka; Ugarković, Đurđica
In the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum the major TCAST satellite DNA accounts for 35% of the genome and encompasses the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Because of the presence of transcriptional regulatory elements and transcriptional activity in these sequences, TCAST satellite DNAs also have been proposed to be modulators of gene expression within euchromatin. Here, we analyze the distribution of TCAST homologous repeats in T. castaneum euchromatin and study their association with genes as well as their potential gene regulatory role. We identified 68 arrays composed of TCAST-like elements distributed on all chromosomes. Based on sequence characteristics the arrays were composed of two types of TCAST-like elements. The first type consists of TCAST satellite-like elements in the form of partial monomers or tandemly arranged monomers, up to tetramers, whereas the second type consists of TCAST-like elements embedded with a complex unit that resembles a DNA transposon. TCAST-like elements were also found in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the CR1-3_TCa retrotransposon, and therefore retrotransposition may have contributed to their dispersion throughout the genome. No significant difference in the homogenization of dispersed TCAST-like elements was found either at the level of local arrays or chromosomes nor among different chromosomes. Of 68 TCAST-like elements, 29 were located within introns, with the remaining elements flanked by genes within a 262 to 404,270 nt range. TCAST-like elements are statistically overrepresented near genes with immunoglobulin-like domains attesting to their nonrandom distribution and a possible gene regulatory role. PMID:22908042
Gorman, Maureen J.; Sullivan, Lucinda I.; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Dai, Huaien; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Dittmer, Neal T.; Syed, Lateef U.; Li, Jun; Hua, Duy H.; Kanost, Michael R.
Laccase-2 is a highly conserved multicopper oxidase that functions in insect cuticle pigmentation and tanning. In many species, alternative splicing gives rise to two laccase-2 isoforms. A comparison of laccase-2 sequences from three orders of insects revealed eleven positions at which there are conserved differences between the A and B isoforms. Homology modeling suggested that these eleven residues are not part of the substrate binding pocket. To determine whether the isoforms have different kinetic properties, we compared the activity of laccase-2 isoforms from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae. We partially purified the four laccases as recombinant enzymes and analyzed their ability to oxidize a range of laccase substrates. The predicted endogenous substrates tested were dopamine, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), N-β-alanyldopamine (NBAD) and dopa, which were detected in T. castaneum previously and in A. gambiae as part of this study. Two additional diphenols (catechol and hydroquinone) and one non-phenolic substrate (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) were also tested. We observed no major differences in substrate specificity between the A and B isoforms. Dopamine, NADA and NBAD were oxidized with catalytic efficiencies ranging from 51 – 550 min−1 mM−1. These results support the hypothesis that dopamine, NADA and NBAD are endogenous substrates for both isoforms of laccase-2. Catalytic efficiencies associated with dopa oxidation were low, ranging from 8 – 30 min−1 mM−1; in comparison, insect tyrosinase oxidized dopa with a catalytic efficiency of 201 min−1 mM−1. We found that dopa had the highest redox potential of the four endogenous substrates, and this property of dopa may explain its poor oxidation by laccase-2. We conclude that laccase-2 splice isoforms are likely to oxidize the same substrates in vivo, and additional experiments will be required to discover any isoform-specific functions. PMID:22198355
Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Đurđica
Non-coding repetitive DNAs have been proposed to perform a gene regulatory role, however for tandemly repeated satellite DNA no such role was defined until now. Here we provide the first evidence for a role of satellite DNA in the modulation of gene expression under specific environmental conditions. The major satellite DNA TCAST1 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum is preferentially located within pericentromeric heterochromatin but is also dispersed as single repeats or short arrays in the vicinity of protein-coding genes within euchromatin. Our results show enhanced suppression of activity of TCAST1-associated genes and slower recovery of their activity after long-term heat stress relative to the same genes without associated TCAST1 satellite DNA elements. The level of gene suppression is not influenced by the distance of TCAST1 elements from the associated genes up to 40 kb from the genes' transcription start sites, but it does depend on the copy number of TCAST1 repeats within an element, being stronger for the higher number of copies. The enhanced gene suppression correlates with the enrichment of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2/3 at dispersed TCAST1 elements and their flanking regions as well as with increased expression of TCAST1 satellite DNA. The results reveal transient, RNAi based heterochromatin formation at dispersed TCAST1 repeats and their proximal regions as a mechanism responsible for enhanced silencing of TCAST1-associated genes. Differences in the pattern of distribution of TCAST1 elements contribute to gene expression diversity among T. castaneum strains after long-term heat stress and might have an impact on adaptation to different environmental conditions.
Zhong, Daibin; Pai, Aditi; Wang, Mei-Hui; Keech, Naomi; Yan, Guiyun
Parasite infection impacts population dynamics through effects on fitness and fecundity of the individual host. In addition to the known roles of environmental factors, host susceptibility to parasites has a genetic basis that has not been well characterized. We previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for susceptibility to rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection in Tribolium castaneum using dominant AFLP markers; however, the resistance genes were not identified. Here, we refined the QTL locations and increased the marker density in the QTL regions using new microsatellite markers, sequence-tagged site markers, and single-strand conformational polymorphism markers. Resistance QTL in three linkage groups (LG3, LG6, and LG8) were each mapped to intervals <1.0 cM between two codominant markers. The effects of 21 genes in the three QTL regions were investigated by using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, and transcription profiles were obtained from the resistant TIW1 and the susceptible cSM strains. Based on transcription data, eight genes were selected for RNA interference analysis to investigate their possible roles in H. diminuta resistance, including cytochrome P450 (LOC657454) and Toll-like receptor 13 (TLR13, LOC662131). The transcription of P450 and TLR13 genes in the resistant TIW1 strains was reduced more than ninefold relative to the control. Moreover, the effects of gene knockdown of P450 and TLR13 caused resistant beetles to become susceptible to tapeworm infection, which strongly suggests an important role for each in T. castaneum resistance to H. diminuta infection.
Gorman, Maureen J; Sullivan, Lucinda I; Nguyen, Thi D T; Dai, Huaien; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Dittmer, Neal T; Syed, Lateef U; Li, Jun; Hua, Duy H; Kanost, Michael R
Laccase-2 is a highly conserved multicopper oxidase that functions in insect cuticle pigmentation and tanning. In many species, alternative splicing gives rise to two laccase-2 isoforms. A comparison of laccase-2 sequences from three orders of insects revealed eleven positions at which there are conserved differences between the A and B isoforms. Homology modeling suggested that these eleven residues are not part of the substrate binding pocket. To determine whether the isoforms have different kinetic properties, we compared the activity of laccase-2 isoforms from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae. We partially purified the four laccases as recombinant enzymes and analyzed their ability to oxidize a range of laccase substrates. The predicted endogenous substrates tested were dopamine, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), N-β-alanyldopamine (NBAD) and dopa, which were detected in T. castaneum previously and in A. gambiae as part of this study. Two additional diphenols (catechol and hydroquinone) and one non-phenolic substrate (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) were also tested. We observed no major differences in substrate specificity between the A and B isoforms. Dopamine, NADA and NBAD were oxidized with catalytic efficiencies ranging from 51 to 550 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹. These results support the hypothesis that dopamine, NADA and NBAD are endogenous substrates for both isoforms of laccase-2. Catalytic efficiencies associated with dopa oxidation were low, ranging from 8 to 30 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹; in comparison, insect tyrosinase oxidized dopa with a catalytic efficiency of 201 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹. We found that dopa had the highest redox potential of the four endogenous substrates, and this property of dopa may explain its poor oxidation by laccase-2. We conclude that laccase-2 splice isoforms are likely to oxidize the same substrates in vivo, and additional experiments will be required to discover any isoform-specific functions.
Bolognesi, Renata; Farzana, Laila; Fischer, Tamara D.; Brown, Susan J.
Summary wingless (wg)/Wnt family genes encode secreted glycoproteins essential for the development of virtually all metazoans. In short germ insects, including the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the segment-polarity function of wg is conserved . Wnt signalling is also implicated in posterior patterning and germband elongation [2–4], but despite its expression in the posterior growth zone, Wnt1/wg alone is not responsible for these functions; [1–3]. Tribolium contains additional Wnt family genes of unknown function that are also expressed in the growth zone . After depleting one of these, Tc-WntD/8, we found a small percentage of embryos lacking abdominal segments. Additional removal of Tc-Wnt1 significantly enhanced this phenotype, suggesting functional redundancy. Seeking alternative methods to deplete Wnt signal, we performed RNAi with other components of the Wnt pathway including wntless (wls) and porcupine (porc), which process Wnt ligands, and pangolin (pan), which transduces the signal to the nucleus. Tc-wls RNAi caused segmentation defects similar to Tc-Wnt1, but not Tc-WntD/8 RNAi, indicating that the effects of Tc-WntD/8 depletion are Tc-wls-independent. In contrast, depletion of Tc-porc and Tc-pan resulted in embryos resembling those of double Tc-Wnt1,Tc-WntD/8 RNAi, suggesting Tc-porc is essential for the function of both ligands and that they signal through the canonical pathway. Our results provide the first evidence of functional redundancy between Wnt ligands in posterior patterning in short germ insects. This Wnt function appears to be conserved in other arthropods  and vertebrates [7–9]. PMID:18926702
Koelzer, Stefan; Kölsch, Yvonne; Panfilio, Kristen A
The beetle Tribolium castaneum has increasingly become a powerful model for comparative research on insect development. One recent resource is a collection of piggyBac transposon-based enhancer trap lines. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of three selected lines and demonstrate their value for investigations in the second half of embryogenesis, which has thus far lagged behind research on early stages. Two lines, G12424 and KT650, show enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression throughout the extraembryonic serosal tissue and in a few discrete embryonic domains. Intriguingly, both lines show for the first time a degree of regionalization within the mature serosa. However, their expression profiles illuminate distinct aspects of serosal biology: G12424 tracks the tissue's rapid maturation while KT650 expression likely reflects ongoing physiological processes. The third line, G04609, is stably expressed in mesodermal domains, including segmental muscles and the heart. Genomic mapping followed by in situ hybridization for genes near to the G04609 insertion site suggests that the transposon has trapped enhancer information for the Tribolium orthologue of midline (Tc-mid). Altogether, our analyses provide the first live imaging, long-term characterizations of enhancer traps from this collection. We show that EGFP expression is readily detected, including in heterozygote crosses that permit the simultaneous visualization of multiple tissue types. The tissue specificity provides live, endogenous marker gene expression at key developmental stages that are inaccessible for whole mount staining. Furthermore, the nonlocalized EGFP in these lines illuminates both the nucleus and cytoplasm, providing cellular resolution for morphogenesis research on processes such as dorsal closure and heart formation. In future work, identification of regulatory regions driving these enhancer traps will deepen our understanding of late developmental control, including in the
Bioactivities of methyl allyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide from essential oil of garlic to two species of stored-product pests, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
Huang, Y; Chen, S X; Ho, S H
Two of the major constituents of the essential oil of garlic, Allium sativum L., methyl allyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, were tested against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) for contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity, and antifeedant activity. The contact and fumigant toxicities of diallyl trisulfide were greater than that of methyl allyl disulfide to the adults of these two species of insects. These two compounds were also more toxic to T. castaneum adults than to S. zeamais adults. Older T. castaneum larvae were more susceptible to the contact toxicity of the two compound, whereas younger larvae were more susceptible to the fumigant toxicity of these compounds. Both compounds reduced egg hatching of T. castaneum and subsequent emergence of progeny. Diallyl trisulfide totally suppressed egg hatching at 0.32 mg/cm2, and larval and adult emergence at 0.08 mg/cm2. Methyl allyl disulfide significantly decreased the growth rate, food consumption, and food utilization of adults of both insect species, with feeding deterrence indices of 44% at 6.08 mg/g food for S. zeamais and 1.52 mg/g food for T. castaneum. However, it did not affect any nutritional indices of T. castaneum larvae. Diallyl trisulfide significantly reduced all of the nutritional indices in all of the insects tested. Feeding deterrence indices of 27 and 51% were obtained in S. zeamais adults and T. castaneum larvae, respectively, at the concentration of 2.98 mg/g food, whereas feeding deterrence of 85% was achieved in T. castaneum adults at a much lower concentration of 0.75 mg/g food. Hence, diallyl trisulfide is a more potent contact toxicant, fumigant and feeding deterrent than methyl allyl disulfide.
Brown, S. J.; Hilgenfeld, R. B.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
The genetic control of embryonic organization is far better understood for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster than for any other metazoan. A gene hierarchy acts during oogenesis and embryogenesis to regulate the establishment of segmentation along the anterior-posterior axis, and homeotic selector genes define developmental commitments within each parasegmental unit delineated. One of the most intensively studied Drosophila segmentation genes is fushi tarazu (ftz), a pair-rule gene expressed in stripes that is important for the establishment of the parasegmental boundaries. Although ftz is flanked by homeotic selector genes conserved throughout the metazoa, there is no evidence that it was part of the ancestral homeotic complex, and it has been unclear when the gene arose and acquired a role in segmentation. We show here that the beetle Tribolium castaneum has a ftz homolog located in its Homeotic complex and expressed in a pair-rule fashion, albeit in a register differing from that of the fly gene. These and other observations demonstrate that a ftz gene preexisted the radiation of holometabolous insects and suggest that it has a role in beetle embryogenesis which differs somewhat from that described in flies.
Edvardsson, M; Arnqvist, G
Males of many animal species engage in courtship behaviours during and after copulation that appear to be solely aimed at stimulating the female. It has been suggested that these behaviours have evolved by cryptic female choice, whereby females are thought to impose biases on male postmating paternity success. Males of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum rub the lateral edges of the females' elytra with their tarsi during copulation. We manipulated female perception of this behaviour by tarsal ablation in males, thus preventing males from reaching the edge of the female elytra with their manipulated legs, and by subsequently performing a series of double-mating experiments where the copulatory behaviour was quantified. We found a positive relationship between the intensity of the copulatory courtship behaviour and relative fertilization success among unmanipulated males. This pattern, however, was absent in manipulated males, where female perception of male behaviour differed from that actually performed. Thus, female perception of male copulatory courtship behaviour, rather than male behaviour per se, apparently governs the fate of sperm competing over fertilizations within the female, showing that copulatory courtship is under selection by cryptic female choice.
Michalczyk, Łukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.
As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548
Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Brajković, Josip; Zlatar, Ivo; Ugarković, Đurđica
Tandemly repeated satellite DNAs are among most rapidly evolving sequences in eukaryotic genome, usually differing significantly among closely related species. By inducing changes in heterochromatin and/or centromere, satellite DNAs are expected to drive population and species divergence. However, despite high evolutionary dynamics, divergence of satellite DNA profiles at the level of natural population which precedes and possibly triggers speciation process is not readily detected. Here, we characterize minor TCAST2 satellite DNA of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and follow its dynamics among wild-type strains originating from diverse geographic locations. The investigation revealed presence of three distinct subfamilies of TCAST2 satellite DNA which differ in monomer size, genome organization, and subfamily specific mutations. Subfamilies Tcast2a and Tcast2b are tandemly arranged within pericentromeric heterochromatin whereas Tcast2c is preferentially dispersed within euchromatin of all chromosomes. Among strains, TCAST2 subfamilies are conserved in sequence but exhibit a significant content variability. This results in overrepresentation or almost complete absence of particular subfamily in some strains and enables discrimination between strains. It is proposed that homologous recombination, probably stimulated by environmental stress, is responsible for the emergence of TCAST2 satellite subfamilies, their copy number variation and dispersion within genome. The results represent the first evidence for the existence of population-specific satellite DNA profiles. Partial organization of TCAST2 satellite DNA in the form of single repeats dispersed within euchromatin additionally contributes to the genome divergence at the population level. PMID:25527837
Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Brajković, Josip; Zlatar, Ivo; Ugarković, Đurđica
Tandemly repeated satellite DNAs are among most rapidly evolving sequences in eukaryotic genome, usually differing significantly among closely related species. By inducing changes in heterochromatin and/or centromere, satellite DNAs are expected to drive population and species divergence. However, despite high evolutionary dynamics, divergence of satellite DNA profiles at the level of natural population which precedes and possibly triggers speciation process is not readily detected. Here, we characterize minor TCAST2 satellite DNA of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and follow its dynamics among wild-type strains originating from diverse geographic locations. The investigation revealed presence of three distinct subfamilies of TCAST2 satellite DNA which differ in monomer size, genome organization, and subfamily specific mutations. Subfamilies Tcast2a and Tcast2b are tandemly arranged within pericentromeric heterochromatin whereas Tcast2c is preferentially dispersed within euchromatin of all chromosomes. Among strains, TCAST2 subfamilies are conserved in sequence but exhibit a significant content variability. This results in overrepresentation or almost complete absence of particular subfamily in some strains and enables discrimination between strains. It is proposed that homologous recombination, probably stimulated by environmental stress, is responsible for the emergence of TCAST2 satellite subfamilies, their copy number variation and dispersion within genome. The results represent the first evidence for the existence of population-specific satellite DNA profiles. Partial organization of TCAST2 satellite DNA in the form of single repeats dispersed within euchromatin additionally contributes to the genome divergence at the population level.
Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G
As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated.
Triple-testcross experiments (Kearsey and Jinks 1968) were employed to investigate the mode of gene action affecting pupa weight in Tribolium castaneum. Their experimental design involves two inbred lines, the F1 progeny and a segregating population derived from the cross of the inbred lines. In the present experiments, four segregating populations were used. These populations included the F2 generation, a select line (SEL) and two relaxed select lines (RSI and RSII). In addition, all possible reciprocal crosses were made among the RSI, RSII, and SEL populations. It was observed that: (1) additive, dominant and epistatic gene effects all made significant contributions to the pupa weight of the progeny from all four segregating populations: (2) there was no evidence of either accumulation of epistasis as a result of selection in the SEL population or decline in epistasis as a result of removing selection pressure from the RSI and RSII populations; and (3) significant negative heterosis and maternal effects contributed to the pupa weight of the crossbred progeny of the RSI, RSII and SEL populations.
Linz, David M.; Hu, Alan W.; Sitvarin, Michael I.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori
Coleoptera (beetles) is a massively successful order of insects, distinguished by their evolutionarily modified forewings called elytra. These structures are often presumed to have been a major driving force for the successful radiation of this taxon, by providing beetles with protection against a variety of harsh environmental factors. However, few studies have directly demonstrated the functional significance of the elytra against diverse environmental challenges. Here, we sought to empirically test the function of the elytra using Tribolium castaneum (the red flour beetle) as a model. We tested four categories of stress on the beetles: physical damage to hindwings, predation, desiccation, and cold shock. We found that, in all categories, the presence of elytra conferred a significant advantage compared to those beetles with their elytra experimentally removed. This work provides compelling quantitative evidence supporting the importance of beetle forewings in tolerating a variety of environmental stresses, and gives insight into how the evolution of elytra have facilitated the remarkable success of beetle radiation. PMID:27708390
Hangartner, Sandra; Sbilordo, Sonja H; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Gage, Matthew J G; Martin, Oliver Y
Parasites impose strong selection on hosts to defend themselves, which is expected to result in trade-offs with other fitness traits such as reproduction. Here we test for genetic trade-offs between reproductive traits and immunity using Tribolium castaneum lines that were subject to experimental evolution. The lines have been exposed to contrasting sexual selection intensities via different sex ratios (female-biased, equal and male-biased). After 56 generations, the lines have significantly diverged and those experiencing high sexual selection have evolved males who are superior competitors for reproductive success, and females who are more resistant to multiple mating. All selected lines were assessed for both an immune measurement (phenoloxidase (PO) activity) and host resistance to the microsporidian Nosema whitei after two generations of relaxed selection. In contrast to our expectations we did not find any evidence for a genetic trade-off between investment in reproduction and immunity. Both PO and Nosema resistance did not differ between lines, despite their divergences in reproductive investment due to variation in sexual selection and conflict. Nevertheless, overall we found that females had higher PO activities and in the Nosema free control treatment survived longer than males, suggesting that females generally invest more in PO and survival under control conditions than males. This result fits the Bateman's principle, which states that females gain fitness through increased immunity and longevity, while males gain fitness through increased mating success.
Ellen, Esther D; Peeters, Katrijn; Verhoeven, Merel; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Wade, Michael J; Dicke, Marcel; Bijma, Piter
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are the basis of social interactions among conspecifics, and can affect genetic variation of nonsocial and social traits. We used flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) of two phenotypically distinguishable populations to estimate genetic (co)variances and the effect of IGEs on three life-history traits: development time (DT), growth rate (GR), and pupal body mass (BM). We found that GR was strongly affected by social environment with IGEs accounting for 18% of the heritable variation. We also discovered a sex-specific social effect: male ratio in a group significantly affected both GR and BM; that is, beetles grew larger and faster in male-biased social environments. Such sex-specific IGEs have not previously been demonstrated in a nonsocial insect. Our results show that beetles that achieve a higher BM do so via a slower GR in response to social environment. Existing models of evolution in age-structured or stage-structured populations do not account for IGEs of social cohorts. It is likely that such IGEs have played a key role in the evolution of developmental plasticity shown by Tenebrionid larvae in response to density. Our results document an important source of genetic variation for GR, often overlooked in life-history theory.
Irwin, K K; Carter, P A
Growth trajectories often impact individual fitness. They are continuous by nature and so are amenable to analysis using a function-valued (FV) trait framework to reveal their underlying genetic architecture. Previous studies have found high levels of standing additive genetic (co)variance for growth trajectories despite the expectation that growth should be responding to frequent strong directional selection. In this study, the FV framework is used to estimate the additive genetic covariance function for growth trajectories in larval Tribolium castaneum to address questions about standing additive genetic (co)variance and possible evolutionary constraints on growth and to predict responses to four plausible selection regimes. Results show that additive genetic (co)variance is high at the early ages, but decreases towards later ages in the larval period. A selection gradient function of the same size and in the same direction of the first eigenfunction of the G-function should give the maximal response. However, evolutionary constraints may be acting to keep this maximal response from being realized, through either conflicting effects on survivability and fecundity of larger body size, few evolutionary directions having sufficient additive variance for a response, genetic trade-offs with other traits or physiological regulatory mechanisms. More light may be shed on these constraints through the development of more sophisticated statistical approaches and implementation of additional empirical studies to explicitly test for specific types of constraints.
Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100 pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions.
Lin, Xianyu; Yu, Na; Smagghe, Guy
Insects obtain energy and nutrients via feeding to support growth and development. The insulin signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of feeding; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that insulin signaling regulates food intake via crosstalk with neuropeptide sulfakinin in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Silencing of the insulin receptor (InR) decreased the food intake in the penultimate and final instar stages, leading to a decrease of weight gain and mortality during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Interestingly, the knockdown of InR co-occurred with an increased expression of sulfakinin (sk), a gene encoding neuropeptide SK functioning as a satiety signal. In parallel, double silencing of sk and InR eliminated the inhibitory effect on food intake as induced by silencing of InR and the larvae died as prepupae. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that the insulin/InR signaling regulates food intake through the sulfakinin signaling pathway in the larval stages of this important model and pest insect, indicating a novel target for pest control.
Contact toxicity, feeding reduction, and repellency of essential oils from three plants from the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and their major components against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum.
Suthisut, Duangsamorn; Fields, Paul G; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn
The essential oils from rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera Griff, Zingiber zerumbet Smitt, Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe; their major compounds (camphene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha-humulene, isoborneol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and terpinen-4-ol); and synthetic essential oils comprised of mixtures of major pure compounds in the same ratios as the extracted essential oils were tested for contact, feeding reduction, and repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults. Via topical applications, the three extracted oils had similar toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 fiducial limits: 18-24 microg oil/mg insect). T. castaneum had similar sensitivity to all three oils (35-58 microg/mg), and it was less sensitive than S. zeamais. The LD50 values of synthetic A. conchigera and synthetic Z. zerumbet oils were similar to those of their corresponding extracted essential oils. The synthetic C. zedoaria oils showed lower contact toxicity than the extracted C. zedoaria oils to both insects. Sitophilus zeamais and T. castaneum were sensitive to terpinen-4-ol and isoborneol in contact toxicity tests. In antifeedant tests, the three extracted oils were able to decrease the consumption of flour disks, especially Z. zerumbet oils, whereas both insect species could feed on the flour disks treated with three synthetic essential oils. Only terpinen-4-ol deterred feeding in both insects. In repellency tests, A. conchigera oils at highest concentration repelled S. zeamais and T. castaneum. None of the synthetic essential oils repelled S. zeamais (315 microl/cm2) and T. castaneum (31 microl/cm2) Only terpinen-4-ol showed repellent activity against both insects.
Suzuki, Yuichiro; Truman, James W; Riddiford, Lynn M
The evolution of complete metamorphosis in insects is a key innovation that has led to the successful diversification of holometabolous insects, yet the origin of the pupa remains an enigma. Here, we analyzed the expression of the pupal specifier gene broad (br), and the effect on br of isoform-specific, double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing, in a basal holometabolous insect, the beetle Tribolium castaneum. All five isoforms are weakly expressed during the penultimate instar and highly expressed during the prepupal period of the final instar. Application of hydroprene, a juvenile hormone analog, during the penultimate instar caused a repeat of the penultimate br expression patterns, and the formation of supernumerary larvae. Use of dsRNA against the br core region, or against a pair of either the br-Z2 or br-Z3 isoform with the br-Z1 or br-Z4 isoform, produced mobile animals with well-differentiated adult-like appendages, but which retained larval-like urogomphi and epidermis. Disruption of either the br-Z2 or the br-Z3 isoform caused the formation of shorter wings. Disruption of both br-Z1 and br-Z4 caused the appearance of pupal traits in the adults, but disruption of br-Z5 had no morphological effect. Our findings show that the br isoform functions are broadly conserved within the Holometabola and suggest that evolution of br isoform expression may have played an important role in the evolution of the pupa in holometabolous insects.
Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis
Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional β-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments.
Vleugels, R; Lenaerts, C; Vanden Broeck, J; Verlinden, H
In the last decade, genome sequence data and gene structure information on invertebrate receptors has been greatly expanded by large sequencing projects and cloning studies. This information is of great value for the identification of receptors; however, functional and pharmacological data are necessary for an accurate receptor classification and for practical applications. In insects, an important group of neurotransmitter and neurohormone receptors, for which ample sequence information is available but pharmacological information is missing, are the biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the present study, we investigated the sequence information, pharmacology and signalling properties of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT7 ). The receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with cognate 5-HT7 receptors and phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptor within this 5-HT receptor group. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated high expression levels in the brain, indicating the possible importance of this receptor in neural processes. Trica5-HT7 was dose-dependently activated by 5-HT, which induced elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels but had no effect on calcium signalling. The synthetic agonists, α-methyl 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide, showed a response, although with a much lower potency and efficacy than 5-HT. Ketanserin and methiothepin were the most potent antagonists. Both showed characteristics of competitive inhibition on Trica5-HT7 . The signalling pathway and pharmacological profile offer important information that will facilitate functional and comparative studies of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacology of invertebrate 5-HT receptors differs considerably from that of vertebrates. The present study may therefore contribute to establishing a more
Khan, Imroze; Prakash, Arun; Agashe, Deepa
In most animals, ageing is associated with a decline in immune function (immune senescence). However, different components of the immune system seem to age differentially, and many studies do not measure the ultimate fitness consequences of immune function after infection. Previous work shows that immune function may be traded off with other fitness components such as reproduction. It is possible that age alters the nature of these trade-offs, particularly in conjunction with factors such as gender and mating that can also affect investment in immune function. We tested the impact of age, sex and mating on post-infection survivorship in Tribolium castaneum flour beetles, as well as the components of baseline constitutive innate immunity and external (secreted) immune function in uninfected individuals. We also tested whether the reproductive ability of uninfected females is traded off with immune function (baseline innate and external immunity) and post-infection survivorship across age groups. We found that age, sex and mating significantly affected immune components and infection outcome, although the magnitude and nature of the impact varied in each case. We found that older beetles were more susceptible to infection by the pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis even though major components of the constitutive innate immune defence (antibacterial and phenoloxidase activity) remained unchanged or improved with age. Thus, these aspects of innate immunity cannot explain the observed decline in post-infection survival of older beetles. We did not find trade-offs between the reproductive ability of uninfected females and their immune function. In contrast to innate immunity, external immunity showed an overall decline with age but was also affected by sex and mating. Finally, we show that bacterial infection alters external immunity via complex interactions between age, sex and mating status. Our work uncovers novel interactions between age, sex and mating that can
Sang, Ming; Li, Chengjun; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin
The insulin and insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway exists in a wide range of organisms from mammals to invertebrates and regulates several vital physiological functions. A phylogenetic analysis have indicated that insulin receptors have been duplicated at least twice among vertebrates, whereas only one duplication occurred in insects before the differentiation of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. Thus, we cloned two putative insulin receptor genes, T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2, from T. castaneum and determined that T.cas-ir1 is most strongly expressed during the late adult and early pupal stages, whereas T.cas-ir2 is most strongly expressed during the late larval stage. We found that larval RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 causes 100% and 42.0% insect death, respectively, and that parental RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 leads to 100% and 33.3% reductions in beetle fecundity, respectively. The hatching rate of ds-ir2 insects was 66.2%. Moreover, RNAi against these two genes increased the expression of the pkc, foxo, jnk, cdc42, ikk, and mekk genes but decreased erk gene expression. Despite these similarities, these two genes act via distinct regulatory pathways. These results indicate that these two receptors have functionally diverged with respect to the development and reproduction of T. castaneum, even though they retain some common regulatory signaling pathways.
Minakuchi, Chieka; Ishii, Fumika; Washidu, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Akio; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Miura, Ken; Shinoda, Tetsuro
Juvenile hormone (JH) is synthesized and secreted by the corpora allata. In the final two steps of JH biosynthesis, farnesoic acid (FA) is converted to JH through methylation by JH acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT) and epoxidation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP15. In the present study, we identified a homolog of CYP15 from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TcCYP15A1), and analyzed its expression as well as its role in JH biosynthesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the level of TcCYP15A1 mRNA was high in the embryonic stage as well as in the middle of the final larval instar. In the embryonic stage, the transcript level of TcCYP15A1 started to increase 30h after egg laying (AEL), peaked 54-60h AEL, and was followed by an increase of TcJHAMT mRNA, suggesting that JH biosynthesis started at this time point. TcCYP15A1 mRNA was present, but not exclusively so in the larval corpora allata. The recombinant TcCYP15A1 protein epoxidized both FA and methyl farnesoate (MF) in highly stereo-specific manners. These results confirmed that TcCYP15A1 is involved in JH biosynthesis. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcCYP15A1 in the pre-final larval instar did not result in precocious metamorphosis to pupa, indicating that MF may exhibit JH-like activity in order to maintain the larval status. The double knockdown of TcJHAMT and TcCYP15A1 resulted in pupae and adults with shorter wings, suggesting that the precursors of JH, JH acid and MF, may be essential for wing expansion.
Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Akinyemi, Adeyemi Oluseye; Usman, Lamidi Ajao; Odewole, Adeola Foluke; Sangodele, Abraham Opeola; Iyiola, Oluwaseun Olasupo; Olalere, Oluwatoyin Deborah
The insecticidal properties of Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) leaves' essential oil (EO) against Tribolium castaneum were investigated using contact toxicity and repellency bioassays. Mortality progressed with exposure period and ranged from 61.13% observed at 24 h after treatment (HAT) to 88.86% at 168 HAT. The LT50 (lethal time for 50% of treated adults) of H. opposita EO against T. castaneum was 10.42 h. Application of EO at 20-30 μL/30 cm(2) caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher percentage repellency than what was observed in control, 10 and 15 μL/30 cm(2) at 1 and 3 HAT, with significant repellency at 24 HAT regardless of dosage. Repellency class increased with EO dosage, with class V observed at 30 μL/30 cm(2), regardless of exposure duration. The RD50 (repellency dose for 50% of treated adults) of 15.88 and 13.37 μL/30 cm(2) for 1 and 2 HAT, respectively, was significantly higher than 0.09 μL/30 cm(2) at 24 HAT.
Haubruge, Eric; Amichot, Marcel; Cuany, André; Berge, Jean-Baptiste; Arnaud, Ludovic
Specific resistance to malathion in a strain of Tribolium castaneum is due to a 44-fold increase in malathion carboxylesterase (MCE) activity relative to a susceptible strain, whereas non-specific esterase levels are slightly lower. Unlike the overproduced esterase of some mosquito and aphid species, MCE in Tribolium castaneum accounts for only a small fraction (0.033-0.045%) of the total extractable protein respectively in resistant and susceptible strains. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity from these two strains and has a similar molecular weight of 62,000. However, preparative isoelectricfocusing indicated that resistant insects possess one MCE with pI of 7.3, while susceptible insects possess a MCE with a pI of 6.6. Purified MCE from both populations had different K(m) and V(m) values for hydrolysis of malathion as well as for alpha-naphthyl acetate. The kinetic analysis suggests that MCE of resistant insects hydrolyses malathion faster than the purified carboxylesterase from susceptible beetles and that this enzyme has greater affinity for malathion than for naphthyl esters. Malathion-specific resistance is due to the presence of a qualitatively different esterase in the resistant strain.
Contreras, Estefanía; Rausell, Carolina; Real, M. Dolores
Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae was determined against spore-crystal mixtures of five coleopteran specific and one lepidopteran specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin producing strains and those containing the structurally unrelated Cry3Ba and Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa proteins were found toxic (LC50 values 13.53 and 6.30 µg spore-crystal mixture/µL flour disc, respectively). Using iTRAQ combined with LC-MS/MS allowed the discovery of seven novel differentially expressed proteins in early response of Tc larvae to the two active spore-crystal mixtures. Proteins showing a statistically significant change in treated larvae compared to non-intoxicated larvae fell into two major categories; up-regulated proteins were involved in host defense (odorant binding protein C12, apolipophorin-III and chemosensory protein 18) and down-regulated proteins were linked to metabolic pathways affecting larval metabolism and development (pyruvate dehydrogenase Eα subunit, cuticular protein, ribosomal protein L13a and apolipoprotein LI-II). Among increased proteins, Odorant binding protein C12 showed the highest change, 4-fold increase in both toxin treatments. The protein displayed amino acid sequence and structural homology to Tenebrio molitor 12 kDa hemolymph protein b precursor, a non-olfactory odorant binding protein. Analysis of mRNA expression and mortality assays in Odorant binding protein C12 silenced larvae were consistent with a general immune defense function of non-olfactory odorant binding proteins. Regarding down-regulated proteins, at the transcriptional level, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cuticular genes were decreased in Tc larvae exposed to the Cry3Ba producing strain compared to the Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa producing strain, which may contribute to the developmental arrest that we observed with larvae fed the Cry3Ba producing strain. Results demonstrated a distinct host transcriptional regulation depending upon the Cry toxin treatment. Knowledge on how insects
Koyama, Hiroaki; Kato, Daiki; Minakuchi, Chieka; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Yokoi, Kakeru; Miura, Ken
We have previously demonstrated that the functional Toll and IMD innate immune pathways indeed exist in the model beetle, Tribolium castaneum while the beetle's pathways have broader specificity in terms of microbial activation than that of Drosophila. To elucidate the molecular basis of this broad microbial activation, we here focused on potential upstream sensors of the T. castaneum innate immune pathways, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). Our phenotype analyses utilizing RNA interference-based comprehensive gene knockdown followed by bacterial challenge suggested: PGRP-LA functions as a pivotal sensor of the IMD pathway for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; PGRP-LC acts as an IMD pathway-associated sensor mainly for Gram-negative bacteria; PGRP-LE also has some roles in Gram-negative bacterial recognition of the IMD pathway. On the other hand, we did not obtain clear phenotype changes by gene knockdown of short-type PGRP genes, probably because of highly inducible nature of these genes. Our results may collectively account for the promiscuous bacterial activation of the T. castaneum innate immune pathways at least in part.
Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W.; Lorenzen, Marcé D.
In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed whiteivory (wi) and scarletpearl (stp), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings. PMID:25555987
van der Zee, Maurijn; Benton, Matthew A; Vazquez-Faci, Tania; Lamers, Gerda E M; Jacobs, Chris G C; Rabouille, Catherine
In insects, the fertilized egg undergoes a series of rapid nuclear divisions before the syncytial blastoderm starts to cellularize. Cellularization has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but its thick columnar blastoderm is unusual among insects. We therefore set out to describe cellularization in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the embryos of which exhibit a thin blastoderm of cuboidal cells, like most insects. Using immunohistochemistry, live imaging and transmission electron microscopy, we describe several striking differences to cellularization in Drosophila, including the formation of junctions between the forming basal membrane and the yolk plasmalemma. To identify the nature of this novel junction, we used the parental RNAi technique for a small-scale screen of junction proteins. We find that maternal knockdown of Tribolium innexin7a (Tc-inx7a), an ortholog of the Drosophila gap junction gene Innexin 7, leads to failure of cellularization. In Inx7a-depleted eggs, the invaginated plasma membrane retracts when basal cell closure normally begins. Furthermore, transiently expressed tagged Inx7a localizes to the nascent basal membrane of the forming cells in wild-type eggs. We propose that Inx7a forms the newly identified junctions that stabilize the forming basal membrane and enable basal cell closure. We put forward Tribolium as a model for studying a more ancestral mode of cellularization in insects.
Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D
In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings.
Small-scale field sheds were infested with resident populations of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and either left untreated or treated every two or four weeks with an aerosol spray of esfenvalerate (Conquer ®). The sheds were infested by placing flour food patches underneath she...
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, is a major pest of food facilities and is typically monitored using traps that capture walking individuals. In flour mills the accumulation of residues of flour on surfaces has the potential to influence beetle movement and response to trap attract...
This study is focused on the characterization and expression of genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, encoding proteins that possess six-cysteine-containing chitin-binding domains (CBDs) related to the peritrophin A domain (ChtBD2). An exhaustive bioinformatics search of the genome of...
The residual efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (Diacon II), was evaluated in bioassays using larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) exposed on varnished wood or unsealed concrete treated with a liquid formulation and held at different temperatures. When these surfaces were stored...
Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum life stages exposed to elevated temperatures during heat treatments of a pilot flour mill: influence of sanitation, temperatures attained among mills floors, and costs
The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to three, 24 hour heat treatments using forced-air gas heaters. Two sanitation levels, dusting of wheat flour an...
Chen, Zhaorigetu; Schlipalius, David; Opit, George; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Phillips, Thomas W
Stored product beetles that are resistant to the fumigant pesticide phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) gas have been reported for more than 40 years in many places worldwide. Traditionally, determination of phosphine resistance in stored product beetles is based on a discriminating dose bioassay that can take up to two weeks to evaluate. We developed a diagnostic cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence method, CAPS, to detect individuals with alleles for strong resistance to phosphine in populations of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, according to a single nucleotide mutation in the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) gene. We initially isolated and sequenced the DLD genes from susceptible and strongly resistant populations of both species. The corresponding amino acid sequences were then deduced. A single amino acid mutation in DLD in populations of T. castaneum and R. dominica with strong resistance was identified as P45S in T. castaneum and P49S in R. dominica, both collected from northern Oklahoma, USA. PCR products containing these mutations were digested by the restriction enzymes MboI and BstNI, which revealed presence or absence, respectively of the resistant (R) allele and allowed inference of genotypes with that allele. Seven populations of T. castaneum from Kansas were subjected to discriminating dose bioassays for the weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Application of CAPS to these seven populations confirmed the R allele was in high frequency in the strongly resistant populations, and was absent or at a lower frequency in populations with weak resistance, which suggests that these populations with a low frequency of the R allele have the potential for selection of the strong resistance phenotype. CAPS markers for strong phosphine resistance will help to detect and confirm resistant beetles and can facilitate resistance management actions against a given pest population.
Biffar, Lucia; Stollewerk, Angelika
Insects are ideally suited for gaining insight into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms that have led to adaptive changes of the nervous system since the specific structure of the nervous system can be directly linked to the neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineages, which in turn can be traced back to the last common ancestor of insects. The recent comparative analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum neuroblast maps revealed substantial differences in the expression profiles of neuroblasts. Here we show that despite the overall conservation of the dorso-ventral expression domains of muscle segment homeobox, intermediate neuroblasts defective and ventral nervous system defective, the expression of these genes relative to the neuroblasts in the respective domains has changed considerably during insect evolution. Furthermore, functional studies show evolutionary changes in the requirement of ventral nervous system defective in the formation of neuroblast 1-1 and the correct differentiation of its presumptive progeny, the pioneer neurons aCC and pCC. The inclusion of the expression data of the dorso-ventral genes into the recently established T. castaneum neuroblast map further increases the differences in the neuroblast expression profiles between D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. Despite these molecular variations, the Even-skipped positive pioneer neurons show an invariant arrangement, except for an additional Even-skipped positive cluster that we discovered in T. castaneum. Given the importance of these pioneer neurons in establishing the intersegmental nerves and the longitudinal tracts, which are part of the conserved axonal scaffold of arthropods, we discuss internal buffering mechanisms that might ensure that neuroblast lineages invariantly generate pioneer neurons over a wide range of molecular variations.
Julio, Alison Henrique Ferreira; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Cardoso, Kátia Aparecida Kern; Drosdoski, Sandro Daniel; Kulza, Rodrigo Amaral; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Lapenta, Ana Silvia
Several recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms that confer insecticide resistance on insect pests. However, little is known about multiple resistance in red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) at molecular level. The multiple resistance is characterized as resistance to different classes of insecticides that have different target sites, and is mediated by several enzymatic systems. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in multiple resistance of T. castaneum to bifenthrin (pyrethroid [Pyr]) and pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate [Org]). We used artificial selection, biochemical and in silico approaches including structural computational biology. After five generations of artificial selection in the presence of bifenthrin (F5Pyr) or pirimiphos-methyl (F5Org), we found high levels of multiple resistance. The hierarchical enzymatic cluster revealed a pool of esterases (E), lipases (LIPs) and laccase2 (LAC2) potentially contributing to the resistance in different ways throughout development, after one or more generations in the presence of insecticides. The enzyme-insecticide interaction network indicated that E2, E3, LIP3, and LAC2 are enzymes potentially required for multiple resistance phenotype. Kinetic analysis of esterases from F5Pyr and F5Org showed that pirimiphos-methyl and specially bifenthrin promote enzyme inhibition, indicating that esterases mediate resistance by sequestering bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl. Our computational data were in accordance with kinetic results, indicating that bifenthrin has higher affinity at the active site of esterase than pirimiphos-methyl. We also report the capability of these insecticides to modify the development in T. castaneum. Our study provide insights into the biochemical mechanisms employed by T. castaneum to acquire multiple resistance.
Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki
Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down
Knorr, Eileen; Schmidtberg, Henrike; Arslan, Derya; Bingsohn, Linda; Vilcinskas, Andreas
Invertebrates can be primed to enhance their protection against pathogens they have encountered before. This enhanced immunity can be passed maternally or paternally to the offspring and is known as transgenerational immune priming. We challenged larvae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum by feeding them on diets supplemented with Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus or Pseudomonas entomophila, thus mimicking natural exposure to pathogens. The oral uptake of bacteria induced immunity-related genes in the offspring, but did not affect the methylation status of the egg DNA. However, we observed the translocation of bacteria or bacterial fragments from the gut to the developing eggs via the female reproductive system. Such translocating microbial elicitors are postulated to trigger bacterial strain-specific immune responses in the offspring and provide an alternative mechanistic explanation for maternal transgenerational immune priming in coleopteran insects.
Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Mei-Hui; Pai, Aditi; Yan, Guiyun
The flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an intermediate host for the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and has become an important genetic model to explore immune responses to parasite infection in insect hosts. The present study examined the immune responses to tapeworm infection in resistant (TIW1) and susceptible (cSM) strains of the red flour beetle, T. castaneum, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR on 29 immunity-related genes that exhibit antimicrobial properties. Thirteen of the 29 genes showed constitutive differences in expression between the two strains. Fourteen to fifteen of the 29 genes exhibited significant differences in transcription levels when beetles were challenged with tapeworm parasite in the resistant and susceptible strains. Nine genes (GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2 and serpin29) in cSM and 13 genes (lysozyme2, proPO1, GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2, proPO2/3, PGRP-LE and PGRP-SB) in TIW1 were up-regulated by infections or showed parasite infection-induced expression. Seven genes (attacin2, coleoptericin1, defensin1, defensin2, lysozyme2, PGRP-SA and PGRP-SB) were more than 10 folds higher in the resistant TIW1 strain than in the susceptible cSM strain after exposure to tapeworm parasites. This study demonstrated the effects of genetic background, the transcription profile to parasite infection, and identified the immunity-related genes that were significantly regulated by the infection of tapeworms in Tribolium beetles.
Beeman, R. W.; Thomson, M. S.; Clark, J. M.; DeCamillis, M. A.; Brown, S. J.; Denell, R. E.
A recently isolated, lethal mutation of the homeotic Abdominal gene of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is associated with an insertion of a novel retrotransposon into an intron. Sequence analysis indicates that this retrotransposon, named Woot, is a member of the gypsy family of mobile elements. Most strains of T. castaneum appear to harbor ~25-35 copies of Woot per genome. Woot is composed of long terminal repeats of unprecedented length (3.6 kb each), flanking an internal coding region 5.0 kb in length. For most copies of Woot, the internal region includes two open reading frames (ORFs) that correspond to the gag and pol genes of previously described retrotransposons and retroviruses. The copy of Woot inserted into Abdominal bears an apparent single frameshift mutation that separates the normal second ORF into two. Woot does not appear to generate infectious virions by the criterion that no envelop gene is discernible. The association of Woot with a recent mutation suggests that this retroelement is currently transpositionally active in at least some strains. PMID:8722793
Sang, Wen; He, Li; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Lei, Chao-Liang
Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a widely used technique to quantify gene expression. It is necessary to select appropriate reference genes for normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of seven candidate genes in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) irradiated by ultraviolet B (UVB) at different developmental stages for various irradiation time periods. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were applied to determine the stability of these candidate genes. Ribosomal protein genes RpS3, RpL13A, and β-actin gene (ActB) showed the highest stability across all UVB irradiation time points, whereas expression of other normally used reference genes, such as those encoding the β-tubulin gene TUBB and the E-cadherin gene CAD, varied at different developmental stages. This study will potentially provide more suitable reference gene candidates for RT-qPCR analysis in T. castaneum subjected to environmental stresses, particularly UV irradiation.
Vleugels, Rut; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Baumann, Arnd; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Verlinden, Heleen
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is known for its key role in modulating diverse physiological processes and behaviors by binding various 5-HT receptors. However, a lack of pharmacological knowledge impedes studies on invertebrate 5-HT receptors. Moreover, pharmacological information is urgently needed in order to establish a reliable classification system for invertebrate 5-HT receptors. In this study we report on the molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of a 5-HT1 receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT1). The Trica5-HT1 receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with members of the 5-HT1 receptor class. Real time PCR showed high expression in the brain (without optic lobes) and the optic lobes, consistent with the role of 5-HT as neurotransmitter. Activation of Trica5-HT1 in mammalian cells decreased NKH-477-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not influence intracellular Ca2+ signaling. We studied the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1 receptor and demonstrated that α-methylserotonin, 5-methoxytryptamine and 5-carboxamidotryptamine acted as agonists. Prazosin, methiothepin and methysergide were the most potent antagonists and showed competitive inhibition in presence of 5-HT. This study offers important information on a 5-HT1 receptor from T. castaneum facilitating functional research of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacological profiles may contribute to establish a reliable classification scheme for invertebrate 5-HT receptors. PMID:23741451
Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y
Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed.
Gigliolli, Adriana A Sinópolis; Lapenta, Ana Silva; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; Abrahão, Josielle; Conte, Hélio
Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a common pest of stored grains and byproducts and is normally infected by Gregarina cuneata (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinidae). The life cycle of this parasite includes the sporozoite, trophozoite, gamont, gametocyte, and oocyst stages, which occur between the epithelium and lumen of the host's midgut. This study aims to describe the morphofunctional alterations in the midgut and determine the esterase patterns in T. castaneum when parasitized by gregarines. To achieve this purpose, midguts of adult insects were isolated, processed, and analysed using light and electron microscopy. We determined total protein content, amylase activity, and the expression and related activities of the esterases by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The midgut of T. castaneum is formed by digestive, regenerative, and endocrine cells. The effects of parasitism on the digestive cells are severe, because the gregarines remain attached to these cells to absorb all the nutrients they need throughout their development. In these cells, the most common alterations observed include expansion and fragmentation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, changes in mitochondrial cristae, cytoplasmic vacuolization, formation of myelin structures, spherites, large intercellular spaces, autophagic vesicles, expansion of the basal labyrinth, and cytoplasmic protrusions. Deposits of glycogen granules were also observed. Amylase activity was reduced in parasitized insects. Regenerative cells were found in disorganized crypts and did not differentiate into new cells, thus, compromising the restoration of the damaged epithelium. Though few morphological alterations were observed in the endocrine cells, results suggest that the synthesis and/or release of hormones might be impaired. Nine esterases (EST-1 to 9) were identified in the midgut of T. castaneum and were expressed in varying levels in response
Suzuki, Yuichiro; Squires, Diego C.; Riddiford, Lynn M.
The dramatic transformation from a larva to an adult must be accompanied by a coordinated activity of genes and hormones that enable an orchestrated transformation from larval to pupal/adult tissues. The maintenance of larval appendages and their subsequent transformation to appendages in holometabolous insects remains elusive at the developmental genetic level. Here the role of a key appendage patterning gene Distal-less (Dll) was examined in mid- to late- larval stages of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. During late larval development, Dll was expressed in appendages in a similar manner as previously reported for the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Removal of this late Dll expression resulted in disruption of adult appendage patterning. Intriguingly, earlier removal resulted in dramatic loss of structural integrity and identity of larval appendages. A large amount of variability in appendage morphology was observed following Dll dsRNA injection, unlike larvae injected with dachshund dsRNA. These Dll dsRNA-injected larvae underwent numerous supernumerary molts, which could be terminated with injection of either JH methyltransferase or Methoprene-tolerant dsRNA. Apparently, the partial dedifferentiation of the appendages in these larvae acts to maintain high JH and, hence, prevents metamorphosis. PMID:19022238
Genomic and gene regulatory signatures of cryptozoic adaptation: Loss of blue sensitive photoreceptors through expansion of long wavelength-opsin expression in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum
Jackowska, Magdalena; Bao, Riyue; Liu, Zhenyi; McDonald, Elizabeth C; Cook, Tiffany A; Friedrich, Markus
Background Recent genome sequence analysis in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum indicated that this highly crepuscular animal encodes only two single opsin paralogs: a UV-opsin and a long wavelength (LW)-opsin; however, these animals do not encode a blue (B)-opsin as most other insects. Here, we studied the spatial regulation of the Tribolium single LW- and UV-opsin gene paralogs in comparison to that of the five opsin paralogs in the retina of Drosophila melanogaster. Results In situ hybridization analysis reveals that the Tribolium retina, in contrast with other insect retinas, constitutes a homogenous field of ommatidia that have seven LW-opsin expressing photoreceptors and one UV-/LW-opsin co-expressing photoreceptor per eye unit. This pattern is consistent with the loss of photoreceptors sensitive to blue wavelengths. It also identifies Tribolium as the first example of a species in insects that co-expresses two different opsins across the entire retina in violation of the widely observed "one receptor rule" of sensory cells. Conclusion Broader studies of opsin evolution in darkling beetles and other coleopteran groups have the potential to pinpoint the permissive and adaptive forces that played a role in the evolution of vision in Tribolium castaneum. PMID:18154648
Smith, Frank W; Jockusch, Elizabeth L
The establishment of segment identity is a key developmental process that allows for divergence along the anteroposterior body axis in arthropods. In Drosophila, the identity of a segment is determined by the complement of Hox genes it expresses. In many contexts, Hox transcription factors require the protein products of extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as cofactors to perform their identity specification functions. In holometabolous insects, segment identity may be specified twice, during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. To glean insight into the relationship between embryonic and metamorphic segmental identity specification, we have compared these processes in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which develops ventral appendages during embryogenesis that later metamorphose into adult appendages with distinct morphologies. At metamorphosis, comparisons of RNAi phenotypes indicate that Hox genes function jointly with Tc-hth and Tc-exd to specify several region-specific aspects of the adult body wall. On the other hand, Hox genes specify appendage identities along the anteroposterior axis independently of Tc-hth/Tc-exd and Tc-hth/Tc-exd specify proximal vs. distal identity within appendages independently of Hox genes during this stage. During embryogenesis, Tc-hth and Tc-exd play a broad role in the segmentation process and are required for specification of body wall identities in the thorax; however, contrasting with results from other species, we did not obtain homeotic transformations of embryonic appendages in response to Tc-hth or Tc-exd RNAi. In general, the homeotic effects of interference with the function of Hox genes and Tc-hth/Tc-exd during metamorphosis did not match predictions based on embryonic roles of these genes. Comparing metamorphic patterning in T. castaneum to embryonic and post-embryonic development in hemimetabolous insects suggests that holometabolous metamorphosis combines patterning processes of both late embryogenesis and
Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki
The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.
Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Farag, Mohamed A; Gayed, Sabah H El; Harraz, Fathalla M H
Fruit and leaf essential oils of Schinus molle showed insect repellent and insecticidal activity against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum. In these oils, 65 components were identified by GC-MS analysis. Hydrocarbons dominated the oil composition with monoterpenes occurring in the largest amounts in fruits and leaves, 80.43 and 74.84%, respectively. p-Cymene was identified as a major component in both oils. The high yield and efficacy of S. molle essential oil against T. granarium and T. castaneum suggest that it may provide leads for active insecticidal agents.
Intraspecific attraction depends both on the response of the attracted individual and on the cues provided by the attracting individual. These attracting cues are related not only to current conditions but are also a reflection of individual and population life history. By placing Tribolium castaneu...
Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N K
Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium castaneum, the essential oils of A. conyzoides and C. aromaticus completely checked the damage of wheat grains by the insect at 1000 ppm while essential oil of H. suaveolens checked the grain damage completely even at 500 ppm concentration. There was no adverse effect on seed germination as well as on seedling growth of EOs treated seeds showing non-phytotoxic nature of the oils. Hence, these EOs may be recommended as botanical insecticide against insect invasion of stored food commodities, thereby enhancing their shelf life.
Miller, Sherry C.; Miyata, Keita; Brown, Susan J.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori
The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic RNAi), has only been studied extensively in certain plants and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In recent years, RNAi has become a popular reverse genetic technique for gene silencing in many organisms. Although many RNAi techniques in non-traditional model organisms rely on the systemic nature of RNAi, little has been done to analyze the parameters required to obtain a robust systemic RNAi response. The data provided here show that the concentration and length of dsRNA have profound effects on the efficacy of the RNAi response both in regard to initial efficiency and duration of the effect in Tribolium castaneum. In addition, our analyses using a series of short dsRNAs and chimeric dsRNA provide evidence that dsRNA cellular uptake (and not the RNAi response itself) is the major step affected by dsRNA size in Tribolium. We also demonstrate that competitive inhibition of dsRNA can occur when multiple dsRNAs are injected together, influencing the effectiveness of RNAi. These data provide specific information essential to the design and implementation of RNAi based studies, and may provide insight into the molecular basis of the systemic RNAi response in insects. PMID:23133513
Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. Most are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad spectrum of substrates across lipid membranes. In insects, ABC transporters are of special interest because of their role in insecticide resistance. Results We have identified 73 ABC transporter genes in the genome of T. castaneum, which group into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H). This coleopteran ABC family is significantly larger than those reported for insects in other taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this increase is due to gene expansion within a single clade of subfamily ABCC. We performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to study the function of ABC transporters during development. In ten cases, injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into larvae caused developmental phenotypes, which included growth arrest and localized melanization, eye pigmentation defects, abnormal cuticle formation, egg-laying and egg-hatching defects, and mortality due to abortive molting and desiccation. Some of the ABC transporters we studied in closer detail to examine their role in lipid, ecdysteroid and eye pigment transport. Conclusions The results from our study provide new insights into the physiological function of ABC transporters in T. castaneum, and may help to establish new target sites for insect control. PMID:23324493
Carvalho, Klébea; Ribeiro, Lupis; Moraes, Jorge; Roberto da Silva, José; Costa, Evenilton P; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Logullo, Carlos; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Campos, Eldo
Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA), and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.
Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Nie, Wensheng; Brown, Susan J.; Denell, Robin E.
The Drosophila teashirt gene acts in concert with the homeotic selector (Hox) genes to specify trunk (thorax and abdomen) identity. There has been speculation that this trunk-specifying function might be very ancient, dating back to the common ancestor of insects and vertebrates. However, other evidence suggests that the role of teashirt in trunk identity is not well conserved even within the Insecta. To address this issue, we have analyzed the function of Tc-tiotsh, the lone teashirt family member in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Although Tc-tiotsh is important for aspects of both embryonic and imaginal development including some trunk features, we find no evidence that it acts as a trunk identity gene. We discuss this finding in the context of recent insights into the evolution and function of the Drosophila teashirt family genes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00427-008-0212-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18392876
Abd El Halim, Hesham M.; Alshukri, Baida M. H.; Ahmad, Munawar S.; Nakasu, Erich Y. T.; Awwad, Mohammed H.; Salama, Elham M.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Edwards, Martin G.
The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30–60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control. PMID:27411529
Carvalho, Klébea; Ribeiro, Lupis; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Logullo, Carlos; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Campos, Eldo
Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA), and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis. PMID:25811926
Matsumura, Kentarou; Miyatake, Takahisa
Individuals of both dispersal and non-dispersal types (disperser and non-disperser) are found in a population, suggesting that each type has both costs and benefits for fitness. However, few studies have examined the trade-off between the costs and benefits for the types. Here, we artificially selected for walking distance, i.e., an indicator of dispersal ability, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and established strains with longer (L-strains) or shorter (S-strains) walking distances. We then compared the frequency of predation by the assassin bug Amphibolus venator and the mating frequency of the selected strains. L-strain beetles suffered higher predation risk, than did S-strain beetles. L-strain males had significantly increased mating success compared to S-strain males, but females did not show a significant difference between the strains. The current results showed the existence of a trade-off between predation avoidance and mating success associated with dispersal types at a genetic level only in males. This finding can help to explain the maintenance of variation in dispersal ability within a population. PMID:25970585
Abd El Halim, Hesham M; Alshukri, Baida M H; Ahmad, Munawar S; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Awwad, Mohammed H; Salama, Elham M; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, Martin G
The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30-60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control.
Arthur, Frank H; Starkus, Laura A; Mckay, Tanja
Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2 gave effective control for 8 wks, regardless of whether or not the concrete was sealed prior to application or the presence of flour contamination. However, with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2, the flour apparently absorbed the insecticide residues from the treated surface, and sealing the concrete did not have a beneficial effect on efficacy. Two field studies with the low label rate were conducted during autumn of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2013, using only unsealed concrete. Accumulated milling debris caused a reduction in efficacy in the autumn studies, as shown by increased time to 100% knockdown, decreased mortality, and decreased residual efficacy. There was no such corresponding decrease in residual efficacy in the summer study. Overall, results of both studies show that accumulated food and milling debris can absorb residue of beta-cyfluthrin from a treated surface and have a negative impact on residual efficacy, particularly with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2.
Hangartner, Sandra; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Gage, Matthew J G; Martin, Oliver Y
Because of divergent selection acting on males and females arising from different life-history strategies, polyandry can be expected to promote sexual dimorphism of investment into immune function. In previous work we have established the existence of such divergence within populations where males and females are exposed to varying degrees of polyandry. We here test whether the removal of sexual selection via enforced monogamy generates males and females that have similar levels of investment in immune function. To test this prediction experimentally, we measured differences between the sexes in a key immune measurement (phenoloxidase (PO) activity) and resistance to the microsporidian Paranosema whitei in Tribolium castaneum lines that evolved under monogamous (sexual selection absent) vs polyandrous (sexual selection present) mating systems. At generation 49, all selected lines were simultaneously assessed for PO activity and resistance to their natural parasite P. whitei after two generations of relaxed selection. We found that the polyandrous regime was associated with a clear dimorphism in immune function: females had significantly higher PO activities than males in these lines. In contrast, there was no such difference between the sexes in the lines evolving under the monogamous regime. Survival in the infection experiment did not differ between mating systems or sexes. Removing sexual selection via enforced monogamy thus seems to erase intersexual differences in immunity investment. We suggest that higher PO activities in females that have evolved under sexual selection might be driven by the increased risk of infections and/or injuries associated with exposure to multiple males.
Tigreros, N; Lewis, S M
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a conspicuous yet poorly understood pattern across many organisms. Although artificial selection is an important tool for studying the evolution of SSD, previous studies have applied selection to only a single sex or to both sexes in the same direction. In nature, however, SSD likely arises through sex-specific selection on body size. Here, we use Tribolium castaneum flour beetles to investigate the evolution of SSD by subjecting males and females to sexually antagonistic selection on body size (sexes selected in opposite directions). Additionally, we examined correlated responses to body size selection in larval growth rates and development time. After seven generations, SSD remained unchanged in all selected lines; this observed lack of response to short-term selection may be attributed to evolutionary constraints arising from between-sex body size correlations. Developmental traits showed complex correlated responses under different selection treatments. These results suggest that sex-specific larval development patterns may facilitate the evolution of SSD.
Wheeler, Scott R.; Carrico, Michelle L.; Wilson, Beth A.; Brown, Susan J.; Skeath, James B.
The study of achaete-scute (ac/sc) genes has recently become a paradigm to understand the evolution and development of the arthropod nervous system. We describe the identification and characterization of the ac/sc genes in the coleopteran insect species Tribolium castaneum. We have identified two Tribolium ac/sc genes - achaete-scute homolog (Tc-ASH) a proneural gene and asense (Tc-ase) a neural precursor gene that reside in a gene complex. Focusing on the embryonic central nervous system we find that Tc-ASH is expressed in all neural precursors and the proneural clusters from which they segregate. Through RNAi and misexpression studies we show that Tc-ASH is necessary for neural precursor formation in Tribolium and sufficient for neural precursor formation in Drosophila. Comparison of the function of the Drosophila and Tribolium proneural ac/sc genes suggests that in the Drosophila lineage these genes have maintained their ancestral function in neural precursor formation and have acquired a new role in the fate specification of individual neural precursors. Furthermore, we find that Tc-ase is expressed in all neural precursors suggesting an important and conserved role for asense genes in insect nervous system development. Our analysis of the Tribolium ac/sc genes indicates significant plasticity in gene number, expression and function, and implicates these modifications in the evolution of arthropod neural development.
Li, Jianwei; Lehmann, Sabrina; Weißbecker, Bernhard; Ojeda Naharros, Irene; Schütz, Stefan; Joop, Gerrit; Wimmer, Ernst A.
Chemical defense is one of the most important traits, which endow insects the ability to conquer a most diverse set of ecological environments. Chemical secretions are used for defense against anything from vertebrate or invertebrate predators to prokaryotic or eukaryotic parasites or food competitors. Tenebrionid beetles are especially prolific in this category, producing several varieties of substituted benzoquinone compounds. In order to get a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of defensive secretions, we performed RNA sequencing in a newly emerging insect model, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). To detect genes that are highly and specifically expressed in the odoriferous gland tissues that secret defensive chemical compounds, we compared them to a control tissue, the anterior abdomen. 511 genes were identified in different subtraction groups. Of these, 77 genes were functionally analyzed by RNA interference (RNAi) to recognize induced gland alterations morphologically or changes in gland volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 29 genes (38%) presented strong visible phenotypes, while 67 genes (87%) showed alterations of at least one gland content. Three of these genes showing quinone-less (ql) phenotypes – Tcas-ql VTGl; Tcas-ql ARSB; Tcas-ql MRP – were isolated, molecularly characterized, their expression identified in both types of the secretory glandular cells, and their function determined by quantification of all main components after RNAi. In addition, microbe inhibition assays revealed that a quinone-free status is unable to impede bacterial or fungal growth. Phylogenetic analyses of these three genes indicate that they have evolved independently and specifically for chemical defense in beetles. PMID:23874211
Eggert, Hendrik; Diddens-de Buhr, Maike F; Kurtz, Joachim
Trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) describes the transfer of immune stimulation to the next generation. As stress and immunity are closely connected, we here address the question whether trans-generational effects on immunity and resistance can also be elicited by a nonpathogen stress treatment of parents. General stressors have been shown to induce immunity to pathogens within individuals. However, to our knowledge, it is as of yet unknown whether stress can also induce trans-generational effects on immunity and resistance. We exposed a parental generation (mothers, fathers, or both parents) of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a species where TGIP has been previously been demonstrated, to either a brief heat or cold shock and examined offspring survival after bacterial infection with the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. We also studied phenoloxidase activity, a key enzyme of the insect innate immune system that has previously been demonstrated to be up-regulated upon TGIP. We quantified parental fecundity and offspring developmental time to evaluate whether trans-generational priming might have costs. Offspring resistance was found to be significantly increased when both parents received a cold shock. Offspring phenoloxidase activity was also higher when mothers or both parents were cold-shocked. By contrast, parental heat shock reduced offspring phenoloxidase activity. Moreover, parental cold or heat shock delayed offspring development. In sum, we conclude that trans-generational priming for resistance could not only be elicited by pathogens or pathogen-derived components, but also by more general cues that are indicative of a stressful environment. The interaction between stress responses and the immune system might play an important role also for trans-generational effects. PMID:25859336
Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan
Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.
Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan
Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification. PMID:25607733
Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq
Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958
Sang, Wen; Ma, Wei-Hua; Qiu, Lin; Zhu, Zhi-Hui; Lei, Chao-Liang
Sunlight is an important environmental factor that affects all living organisms on Earth. Ultraviolet A (UV-A) is one of the many frequency bands found in sunlight. Many animals use UV-A to attain visual cues, for example, in foraging and mate selection. However, UV-A can also induce damage, such as oxidative stress, DNA lesions and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of UV-A on the survival, fecundity and expression profiles of several stress-responsive genes belonging to the heat shock protein (Hsp) and the cytochrome CYP6BQ families from the adult red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The results showed that short-term UV-A exposure (365 nm, <4h) did not influence the survival or fecundity of the beetles; however, Hsp27, Hsp68, Hsp83, CYP6BQ4 and CYP6BQ8 mRNA levels significantly increased during the first 2h of UV-A exposure. Among them, Hsp68 was the most highly up-regulated, increasing by 8.9-fold. These results indicate that these genes may participate in the defense against harmful UV-A radiation. In addition, we investigated the potential transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) in the promoter sequences of genes induced in similar pattern from the Hsp and P450 gene families; the results indicated that, these motifs are highly homologous to environmental stress transcription factor binding sites in mammals. Our experiments revealed that UV-A irradiation could influence the expression profile of stress-responsive genes, such as Hsps and P450s, which have universal TFBMs, and that these genes may be involved in reducing the ecological challenges posed by irradiation.
Bingsohn, Linda; Knorr, Eileen; Vilcinskas, Andreas
Pharmaceuticals are not currently tested for transgenerational and epigenetic side effects. The use of vertebrates as preclinical research models is limited by their long generation times, low numbers of progeny and ethical concerns. In contrast, invertebrates such as insects breed rapidly, produce many offspring and are more ethically acceptable, allowing them to be used for high-throughput screening. Here, we established Tribolium castaneum as a model to screen for the effect of drugs on complex fitness parameters and the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes. We tested diets supplemented with the psychoactive drug valproic acid (VPA), which is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, or the antioxidant curcumin, which is a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor. We found that VPA delayed development, reduced longevity, and increased female body weight compared to a control diet. Fertility and fecundity declined and the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes was induced in the untreated F1 generation. In contrast, curcumin did not affect development or body weight, but it increased longevity, caused a significant reduction in fertility, and induced the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes mostly in the treated F0 generation. VPA and curcumin administered to vertebrate models have similar effects to those we observed in T. castaneum, confirming that this beetle is potentially useful as an alternative model to screen for the epigenetic effect of drugs. T. castaneum also provides a valuable early warning system for transgenerational epigenetic risk factors that are difficult to detect in mammals.
Weissenberg, M; Levy, A; Svoboda, J A; Ishaaya, I
Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of a series of secondary plant compounds including steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was investigated. Larval growth was inhibited on artificial diets containing 1 mumol g-1 diet of the glycoalkaloids solamargine, solasonine and tomatine, whereas the corresponding aglycones solasodine and tomatidine, and also tomatidenol, were inactive. The inhibitory effect of solamargine and tomatine, but not of solasonine, was completely abolished by addition of 1 mumol g-1 diet cholesterol and/or sitosterol. Nonetheless, synthetic cholesteryl tomatide displayed significant activity at 2 mumol g-1 diet. Parallel studies with the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, showed marked inhibitory activity of tomatine at a dietary concentration of 1 mumol g-1, whereas the other compounds did not affect sterol metabolism or larval development. An appraisal of the factors influencing the mode of action of the active steroidal glycoalkaloids is attempted.
Juan Hikawczuk, Virgina E; López Verrilli, María A; Borkowski, Eduardo J; Sosa, Marta E; Giordano, Oscar S; Saad, José R; Tonn, Carlos E
In order to establish structure-activity relationships, nine neo-clerodane diterpenes isolated from the acetone extract of aerial parts of Baccharis flabellata Hook & Arn var. fabellata were assayed for antifeedant activity against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Compounds exhibiting maximal antifeedant activities showed an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group on the decalin portion and a furan ring at the side chain. Stereoelectronic studies indicate that the distance between the furan heteroatom and the more electrophilic carbon of the decaline moiety, as well as the electrostatic charge on that atom, were important features for antifeedant activity. Compounds possesing an alpha,beta,gamma,delta-unsaturated carbonyl group or an acetoxyl group at C-2, were inactive. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to find some structure-activity relationships.
Yokoi, Kakeru; Koyama, Hiroaki; Minakuchi, Chieka; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Miura, Ken
Using Tribolium castaneum, we quantitatively investigated the induction of nine antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes by live gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae), gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis) and the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Then, five representative AMP genes were selected, and the involvement of the Toll and IMD pathways in their induction by E. coli, M. luteus and S. cerevisiae was examined by utilizing RNA interference of either MyD88 or IMD. Results indicated: Robust and acute induction of three genes by the two bacterial species was mediated mainly by the IMD pathway; slow and sustained induction of one gene by the two bacteria was mediated mainly by the Toll pathway; induction of the remaining one gene by the two bacteria was mediated by both pathways; induction of the five genes by the yeast was mediated by the Toll and/or IMD pathways depending on respective genes. These results suggest that more promiscuous activation and usage of the two pathways may occur in T. castaneum than in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, the IMD pathway was revealed to dominantly contribute to defense against two bacterial species, gram-negative E. cloacae and gram-positive B. subtilis that possesses DAP-type peptidoglycan. PMID:24371569
Gigliolli, A A S; Julio, A H F; Conte, H
Tribolium castaneum Herbst 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an important pest of stored grains and byproducts, is naturally infected by Gregarina cuneata Stein 1848 (Apicomplexa: Gregarinidae). Changes in the life cycle of insects caused by the parasite development in the midgut were studied. Trophozoites, gamonts (solitary and associated), and gametocysts were present in the midgut of the insects. In young trophozoites, the apical region differentiated into an epimerite that firmly attached the parasite to the host epithelial cells. With maturation, trophozoites developed in gamonts that were associated with the initiation of sexual reproduction in the cell cycle, culminating in the formation of the spherical gametocyst. Morpho-functional analyses indicated that gregarines absorb nutrients from infected cells and can occlude the midgut as they develop. Consequently, nutritional depletion may interfere with the host's physiology, causing decreased growth, delayed development, and high mortality rates of the parasitized insects. These results suggest G. cuneata could be an important biological agent for controlling T. castaneum in integrated pest management programs.
Contreras, Estefanía; Benito-Jardón, María; López-Galiano, M José; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina
In Tribolium castaneum larvae we have demonstrated by RNA interference knockdown that the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba toxin receptors Cadherin-like and Sodium solute symporter proteins are also functional receptors of the less active Cry3Aa toxin. Differences in susceptibility to B. thuringiensis infection might not only rely on toxin-receptor interaction but also on host defense mechanisms. We compared the expression of the immune related genes encoding Apolipophorin-III and two antimicrobial peptides, Defensin3 and Defensin2 after B. thuringiensis challenge. All three genes were up-regulated following Cry3Ba spore-crystal intoxication whereas only Defensins gene expression was induced upon Cry3Aa spore-crystal treatment, evidencing a possible association between host immune response and larval susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. We assessed the antimicrobial activity spectra of T. castaneum defensins peptide fragments and found that a peptide fragment of Defensin3 was effective against the human microbial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, being S. aureus the most susceptible one.
Wheeler, Scott R.; Carrico, Michelle L.; Wilson, Beth A.; Brown, Susan J.; Skeath, James B.
SUMMARY The study of achaete-scute (ac/sc) genes has recently become a paradigm to understand the evolution and development of the arthropod nervous system. We describe the identification and characterization of the ache genes in the coleopteran insect species Tribolium castaneum. We have identified two Tribolium ache genes - achaete-scute homolog (Tc-ASH) a proneural gene and asense (Tc-ase) a neural precursor gene that reside in a gene complex. Focusing on the embryonic central nervous system we fmd that Tc-ASH is expressed in all neural precursors and the proneural clusters from which they segregate. Through RNAi and misexpression studies we show that Tc-ASH is necessary for neural precursor formation in Triboliurn and sufficient for neural precursor formation in Drosophila. Comparison of the function of the Drosophila and Triboliurn proneural ac/sc genes suggests that in the Drosophila lineage these genes have maintained their ancestral function in neural precursor formation and have acquired a new role in the fate specification of individual neural precursors. Furthermore, we find that Tc-use is expressed in all neural precursors suggesting an important and conserved role for asense genes in insect nervous system development. Our analysis of the Triboliurn ache genes indicates significant plasticity in gene number, expression and function, and implicates these modifications in the evolution of arthropod neural development.
Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy
Previous studies suggested that a membrane receptor might be involved in mediating vitellogenin (Vg) uptake and juvenile hormone (JH)-regulated remodeling of follicular epithelium (also called ‘patency’). G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is one of the largest membrane receptor protein families and controls many key physiological processes. To investigate the role of GPCRs in insect reproduction and juvenile hormone-regulated Vg uptake, we performed a comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) screen targeting GPCRs in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of 112 GPCRs tested, knockdown of 41 GPCRs resulted in a reduction in fecundity. Interestingly, RNAi against two GPCRs (a Rhodopsin-like receptor and a Dopamine D2-like receptor) led to a significant reduction in Vg accumulation in developing oocytes. Functional assays of these two GPCRs showed that JH triggers a dose-dependent inhibition of intracellular cAMP levels in HEK293 cells expressing Tribolium Dopamine D2-like receptor. These data suggest that Dopamine D2-like receptor plays crucial roles in regulating Vg uptake and is a promising candidate membrane receptor mediating JH regulation of patency in the red flour beetle. PMID:27277501
Kim, Hong Geun; Margolies, David; Park, Yoonseong
To survive in variable or fluctuating temperature, organisms should show appropriate behavioral and physiological responses which must be mediated through properly attuned thermal sensory mechanisms. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) are a family of cation channels a number of which, called thermo-TRPs, are known to function as thermosensors. We investigated the potential role of thermo-TPRs that have been previously identified in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, in thermotaxis and thermal acclimation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analysis of the trp genes showed generally one-to-one orthology between those in D. melanogaster and in T. castaneum, although there are putative gene-losses in two TRP subfamilies of D. melanogaster. With RNA interference (RNAi) of T. castaneum thermo-TRP candidates painless, pyrexia and trpA1, we measured thermal avoidance behavior. RNAi of trpA1 resulted in reduced avoidance of high temperatures, 39 and 42 °C. We also measured the effects of RNAi on heat-induced knockout and death under a short exposure to high temperature (1min at 52 °C) either with or without a 10-min acclimation period at 42 °C. Relatively short exposure to high temperature was enough to induce high temperature thermal acclimation. RNAi of trpA1 led to faster knockout at 52 °C. RNAi of painless showed lower recovery rates from heat-induced knockout after thermal acclimation, and RNAi of pyrexia showed lower long-term survivorship without thermal acclimation. Therefore, we concluded that trpA1 is important in high temperature sensing and also in enhanced tolerance to high-temperature induced knockout; painless plays a role in rapid acclimation to high temperature; and pyrexia functions in protecting beetles from acute heat stress without acclimation.
Bolognesi, Renata; Fischer, Tamara D; Brown, Susan J
Wnt signaling has been implicated in posterior patterning in short-germ insects, including the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Bolognesi et al. Curr Biol 18:1624-1629, 2008b; Angelini and Kaufman Dev Biol 283:409-423, 2005; Miyawaki et al. Mech Dev 121:119-130, 2004). Specifically, depletion of Wnt ligands Tc-Wnt1 and Tc-WntD/8 produces Tribolium embryos lacking abdominal segments. Similar phenotypes are produced by depletion of Tc-porcupine (Tc-porc) or Tc-pangolin (Tc-pan), indicating that the signal is transmitted through the canonical Wnt pathway (Bolognesi et al. Curr Biol 18:1624-1629, 2008b). Here we show that RNAi for the receptor Tc-arrow produced similar truncated phenotypes, providing additional evidence supporting canonical signal transduction. Furthermore, since in Tribolium segments are defined sequentially by a pair-rule gene circuit that, when interrupted, produces truncated phenotypes (Choe et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6560-6564, 2006), we investigated the relationship between loss of Wnt signaling and this pair-rule gene circuit. After depletion of the receptor Tc-arrow, expression of Tc-Wnt1 was noticeably absent from the growth zone, while Tc-WntD/8 was restricted to a single spot of expression in what remained of the posterior growth zone. The primary pair-rule genes Tc-runt (Tc-run) and Tc-even-skipped (Tc-eve) were expressed normally in the anterior segments, but were reduced to a single spot in the remnants of the posterior growth zone. Thus, expression of pair-rule genes and Tc-WntD/8 are similarly affected by depletion of Wnt signal and disruption of the posterior growth zone.
Biological activity of volatile di-n-propyl disulfide from seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), to two species of stored grain pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).
Head space volatiles, including 73% di-n-propyl disulfide, were collected from freshly crushed neem seeds. This compound along with previously reported diallyl disulfide (di-2-propenyl disulfide) were toxic when applied topically or as a fumigant to Tribolium castaneum adults and 8-, 12-, and 16-d-old larvae, and Sitophilus oryzae adults. Di-n-propyl disulfide significantly decreased the growth rate and dietary utilization with moderate inhibition of food consumption in both insects. The total coefficient of deterrence for this compound ranged between 68.5 and 178.6, which suggests that it has medium to very good deterrent activity vis-à-vis the treatment concentration and instar. Di-n-propyl disulfide and diallyl disulfide presented a similar effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food, which is reduced 3-fold; this implies that both compounds are physiological toxicants. Present studies clearly demonstrate that di-n-propyl disulfide could be a potent toxicant, fumigant, and feeding deterrent for stored grain pests, if a suitable formulation and application procedure are developed.
Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori
The amazing array of diversity among insect wings offers a powerful opportunity to study the mechanisms guiding morphological evolution. Studies in Drosophila (the fruit fly) have identified dozens of genes important for wing development. These genes are often called candidate genes, serving as an ideal starting point to study wing development in other insects. However, we also need to explore beyond the candidate genes to gain a more comprehensive view of insect wing evolution. As a first step away from the traditional candidate genes, we utilized Tribolium (the red flour beetle) as a model and assessed the potential involvement of a group of developmental toolkit genes (embryonic patterning genes) in beetle wing development. We hypothesized that the highly pleiotropic nature of these developmental genes would increase the likelihood of finding novel wing genes in Tribolium. Through the RNA interference screening, we found that Tc-cactus has a less characterized (but potentially evolutionarily conserved) role in wing development. We also found that the odd-skipped family genes are essential for the formation of the thoracic pleural plates, including the recently discovered wing serial homologs in Tribolium. In addition, we obtained several novel insights into the function of these developmental genes, such as the involvement of mille-pattes and Tc-odd-paired in metamorphosis. Despite these findings, no gene we examined was found to have novel wing-related roles unique in Tribolium. These results suggest a relatively conserved nature of developmental toolkit genes and highlight the limited degree to which these genes are co-opted during insect wing evolution.
García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José
The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after one hour of exposure to 40 ºC and UV light. All three genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Haritos, Victoria S; Horne, Irene; Damcevski, Katherine; Glover, Karen; Gibb, Nerida
Desaturases catalyse modifications to fatty acids which are essential to homeostasis and for pheromone and defensive chemical production. All desaturases of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum were investigated via query of the sequenced genome which yielded 15 putative acyl-Coenzyme A genes. Eleven desaturase mRNA were obtained in full length and functionally expressed in yeast. Phylogenetic analysis separated the desaturases into 4 distinct clades; one clade contained conserved beetle Δ9 desaturases, second clade was Tribolium-specific having diverse activities including Δ5, Δ9 and Δ12 desaturation and the other 2 clades had mixed insect representatives. Three members of this clade contained unusual inserted sequences of ∼20 residues in the C-terminal region and were related to desaturases that all contained similar inserts. Deletion of the entirety of the insert in the flour beetle Δ12 desaturase abolished its activity but this was partially restored by the reintroduction of two histidine residues, suggesting the histidine(s) are required for activity but the full length insert is not. Five new desaturase activities were discovered: Δ9 desaturation of C12:0-C16:0 substrates; two unprecedented Δ5 enzymes acting on C18:0 and C16:0; Δ9 activity exclusively on C16:0 and a further stearate Δ9 desaturase. qPCR analysis ruled out a role in sex pheromone synthesis for the Δ5 and Δ9/C16:0 desaturases. The flour beetle genome has underpinned an examination of all transcribed desaturases in the organism and revealed a diversity of novel and unusual activities, an improved understanding of the evolutionary relationships among insect desaturases and sequence determinants of activity.
Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P.
Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058
Peel, Andrew D; Averof, Michalis
The localization of maternal mRNAs during oogenesis plays a central role in axial specification in some insects. Here we describe a polar body-associated asymmetry in maternal transcript distribution in pre-blastoderm eggs of the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Since the position of the polar body marks the future dorsal side of the embryo, we have investigated whether this asymmetry in mRNA distribution plays a role in dorsal-ventral axis specification. Whilst our results suggest polar body-associated transcripts do not play a significant role in specifying the DV axis, at least during early embryogenesis, we do find that the polar body is closely associated with a cortical microtubule network (CMN), which may play a role in the localization of transcripts during oogenesis. Transcripts of the gene T.c.pangolin co-localize with the CMN at the time of their anterior localization during oogenesis and their anterior localization is disrupted by the microtubule-depolymerizing agent colcemid.
Jbilou, R; Amri, H; Bouayad, N; Ghailani, N; Ennabili, A; Sayah, F
Bioinsecticidal effects of methanol extracts from seven plant species on Tribolium castaneum were investigated. Centaurium erythraea, Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Aristolochia baetica, Pteridium aquilinum and Raphanus raphanistrum extracts inhibit growth of larvae. C. erythraea was the most toxic with 63% mortality 10 days after treatment, followed by P. harmala with 58%. C. erythraea and P. aquilinum reduce the emergence rate respectively of 66% and 19%. The duration of larval period was shortened by Launaea arborescens, P. aquilinum and A. iva extracts, whereas R. raphanistrum and P. harmala extracts extend the larval period when compared to the control. Extracts of C. erythraea, P. harmala, A. iva and A. baetica inhibited F1 progeny production. Larvae possess three alpha-amylase isoforms as determined by SDS-PAGE. Larvae fed on treated diet had lower alpha-amylase activity than larvae feed on untreated diet. C. erythraea and P. harmala are the most potent extracts. These plant extracts could be useful to reduce seed damage caused by this pest species.
Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai
The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.
Grünwald, Stefanie; Gurmai, Ana-Maria; Schuierer, Kristina; Boll, Michael; Wenzel, Uwe
Acrylamide is a toxic ingredient generated as a by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at temperatures above 120°C. Here we used the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model organism to test the effects of acrylamide on fitness and survival. Beetles were fed on flour spiked with acrylamide between 0.5% and 10% at 32°C over 2 weeks. Fitness of the beetles was tested by measuring the running distance and survival was recorded after 2 weeks of feeding at increased temperatures at 42°C. Both parameters were dose-dependent reduced by acrylamide. Knockdown of gene homologues of ahr, the arylhydrocarbon receptor, and of nrf-2, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, both reduced fitness and survival. Application of 0.5% acrylamide under knockdown of each factor further reduced fitness and survival, suggesting that ahr and nrf-2 are important for an adequate response to the toxicant. RNA-interference for ahr blocked completely the increase in nrf-2 mRNA levels, suggesting that the actions of ahr on acrylamide detoxification are mediated via Nrf-2.
Kalsi, Megha; Palli, Subba Reddy
Insecticide resistance is a global problem that presents an ongoing challenge to control insects that destroy crops, trees and transmit diseases. Dramatic progress has been made during the last decade on identification of insecticide resistance-associated genes. In one of the most common resistance mechanisms, insects acquire resistance by increasing the levels of their detoxification enzymes especially the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450's). Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the pyrethroid resistance in QTC279 strain of Tribolium castaneum is achieved through constitutive overexpression of the P450 gene CYP6BQ9 by 200-fold higher in the resistant strain as compared to that in the susceptible strain. RNAi-aided knockdown in the expression of probable genes that regulate P450 gene expression in QTC279 identified cap 'n' collar C (CncC) and muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis (Maf) family transcription factors as the key regulator of these genes, CncC and Maf regulate expression of multiple genes in the CYP6BQ cluster. Studies on the promoters of these genes using reporter assays identified binding sites that mediate CncC and Maf regulation of CYP6BQ gene expression.
Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim
Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen.
Kramarz, Paulina E; Mordarska, Anna; Mroczka, Magdalena
We studied how copper toxicity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum changed as a result of infection by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. Measured traits were: respiration, growth and survival, as well as the concentrations of copper within beetle tissues and in its diet. By comparing F1 and F5 generation we were able to answer how long-term metal exposure changed the responses to both copper and the parasite. The beetles did accumulate copper; however, the results indicated that copper concentrations in beetle tissues were affected by nematode infection, the sex of the experimental animals, and the number of generations of exposure. Five generations of exposure to copper resulted in the highest dry body mass of infected beetles of both sexes; additionally, this group also had the lowest copper concentrations in their tissues. The only factor that had a significant effect on respiration was infection by nematodes: infected beetles of both sexes in both generational groups had significantly decreased respiration rates. Survival was lowest in nematode-infected animals of both sexes from both generations, regardless of exposure to copper. Our results confirm that an organism's response to metal pollution is dependent on its health status and sex. We also found that the history of exposure to metal was equally important-we found enhanced resistance to copper intoxication after only five generations of exposure.
Pavlek, Martina; Gelfand, Yevgeniy; Plohl, Miroslav; Meštrović, Nevenka
Although satellite DNAs are well-explored components of heterochromatin and centromeres, little is known about emergence, dispersal and possible impact of comparably structured tandem repeats (TRs) on the genome-wide scale. Our bioinformatics analysis of assembled Tribolium castaneum genome disclosed significant contribution of TRs in euchromatic chromosomal arms and clear predominance of satellite DNA-typical 170 bp monomers in arrays of ≥5 repeats. By applying different experimental approaches, we revealed that the nine most prominent TR families Cast1-Cast9 extracted from the assembly comprise ∼4.3% of the entire genome and reside almost exclusively in euchromatic regions. Among them, seven families that build ∼3.9% of the genome are based on ∼170 and ∼340 bp long monomers. Results of phylogenetic analyses of 2500 monomers originating from these families show high-sequence dynamics, evident by extensive exchanges between arrays on non-homologous chromosomes. In addition, our analysis shows that concerted evolution acts more efficiently on longer than on shorter arrays. Efficient genome-wide distribution of nine TR families implies the role of transposition only in expansion of the most dispersed family, and involvement of other mechanisms is anticipated. Despite similarities in sequence features, FISH experiments indicate high-level compartmentalization of centromeric and euchromatic tandem repeats.
Pridöhl, Fabian; Weißkopf, Matthias; Koniszewski, Nikolaus; Sulzmaier, Andreas; Uebe, Steffen; Ekici, Arif B; Schoppmeier, Michael
Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of the Torso-RTK pathway, which promotes the downregulation of Capicua. In the short-germ beetle Tribolium, the function of the terminal system appears to be rather different, as the pathway promotes axis elongation and, in addition, is required for patterning the extra-embryonic serosa at the anterior. Here, we show that Torso signalling also induces gene expression by relieving Capicua-mediated repression in Tribolium Given that the majority of Torso target genes remain to be identified, we established a differential gene-expression screen. A subset of 50 putative terminal target genes was screened for functions in early embryonic patterning. Of those, 13 genes show early terminal expression domains and also phenotypes were related to terminal patterning. Among others, we found the PIWI-interacting RNA factor Maelstrom to be crucial for early embryonic polarization. Tc-mael is required for proper serosal size regulation and head morphogenesis. Moreover, Tc-mael promotes growth-zone formation and axis elongation. Our results suggest that posterior patterning by Torso may be realized through Maelstrom-dependent activation of posterior Wnt domains.
Jasrapuria, Sinu; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Osman, Gamal; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam
This study is focused on the characterization and expression of genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, encoding proteins that possess one or more six-cysteine-containing chitin-binding domains related to the peritrophin A domain (ChtBD2). An exhaustive bioinformatics search of the genome of T. castaneum queried with ChtBD2 sequences yielded 13 previously characterized chitin metabolic enzymes and 29 additional proteins with signal peptides as well as one to 14 ChtBD2s. Using phylogenetic analyses, these additional 29 proteins were classified into three large families. The first family includes 11 proteins closely related to the peritrophins, each containing one to 14 ChtBD2s. These are midgut-specific and are expressed only during feeding stages. We propose the name "Peritrophic Matrix Proteins" (PMP) for this family. The second family contains eight proteins encoded by seven genes (one gene codes for 2 splice variants), which are closely related to gasp/obstructor-like proteins that contain 3 ChtBD2s each. The third family has ten proteins that are of diverse sizes and sequences with only one ChtBD2 each. The genes of the second and third families are expressed in non-midgut tissues throughout all stages of development. We propose the names "Cuticular Proteins Analogous to Peritophins 3" (CPAP3) for the second family that has three ChtBD2s and "Cuticular Proteins Analogous to Peritophins 1 (CPAP1) for the third family that has 1 ChtBD2. Even though proteins of both CPAP1 and CPAP3 families have the "peritrophin A" domain, they are expressed only in cuticle-forming tissues. We determined the exon-intron organization of the genes, encoding these 29 proteins as well as the domain organization of the encoded proteins with ChtBD2s. All 29 proteins have predicted cleavable signal peptides and ChtBD2s, suggesting that they interact with chitin in extracellular locations. Comparison of ChtBD2s-containing proteins in different insect species belonging to
Dixit, Radhika; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Specht, Charles A; Richard, Chad; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam
A bioinformatics investigation of four insect species with annotated genome sequences identified a family of genes encoding chitin deacetylase (CDA)-like proteins, with five to nine members depending on the species. CDAs (EC 126.96.36.199) are chitin-modifying enzymes that deacetylate the beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine homopolymer. Partial deacetylation forms a heteropolysaccharide that also contains some glucosamine residues, while complete deacetylation produces the homopolymer chitosan, consisting exclusively of glucosamine. The genomes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and the honey bee, Apis mellifera contain 9, 6, 5 and 5 genes, respectively, that encode proteins with a chitin deacetylase motif. The presence of alternative exons in two of the genes, TcCDA2 and TcCDA5, increases the protein diversity further. Insect CDA-like proteins were classified into five orthologous groups based on phylogenetic analysis and the presence of additional motifs. Group I enzymes include CDA1 and isoforms of CDA2, each containing in addition to a polysaccharide deacetylase-like catalytic domain, a chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (ChBD) and a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDLa). Group II is composed of CDA3 orthologs from each insect species with the same domain organization as group I CDAs, but differing substantially in sequence. Group III includes CDA4s, which have the ChBD domain but do not have the LDLa domain. Group IV comprises CDA5s, which are the largest CDAs because of a very long intervening region separating the ChBD and catalytic domains. Among the four insect species, Tribolium is unique in having four CDA genes in group V, whereas the other insect genomes have either one or none. Most of the CDA-like proteins have a putative signal peptide consistent with their role in modifying extracellular chitin in both cuticle and peritrophic membrane during
Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori
Despite accumulating efforts to unveil the origin of insect wings, it remains one of the principal mysteries in evolution. Currently, there are two prominent models regarding insect wing origin: one connecting the origin to the paranotal lobe and the other to the proximodorsal leg branch (exite). However, neither hypothesis has been able to surpass the other. To approach this conundrum, we focused our analysis on vestigial (vg), a critical wing gene initially identified in Drosophila. Our investigation in Tribolium (Coleoptera) has revealed that, despite the well-accepted view of vg as an essential wing gene, there are two groups of vg-dependent tissues in the "wingless" first thoracic segment (T1). We show that one of these tissues, the carinated margin, also depends on other factors essential for wing development (such as Wingless signal and apterous), and has nubbin enhancer activity. In addition, our homeotic mutant analysis shows that wing transformation in T1 originates from both the carinated margin and the other vg-dependent tissue, the pleural structures (trochantin and epimeron). Intriguingly, these two tissues may actually be homologous to the two proposed wing origins (paranotal lobes and exite bearing proximal leg segments). Therefore, our findings suggest that the vg-dependent tissues in T1 could be wing serial homologs present in a more ancestral state, thus providing compelling functional evidence for the dual origin of insect wings.
Smith, Frank W.; Angelini, David R.; Gaudio, Matthew; Jockusch, Elizabeth L.
The arthropod labrum is an anterior appendage-like structure that forms the dorsal side of the preoral cavity. Conflicting interpretations of fossil, nervous system and developmental data have led to a proliferation of scenarios for labral evolution. The best supported hypothesis is that the labrum is a novel structure that shares development with appendages as a result of co-option. Here, we use RNA interference in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum to compare metamorphic patterning of the labrum to previously published data on ventral appendage patterning. As expected under the co-option hypothesis, depletion of several genes resulted in similar defects in the labrum and ventral appendages. These include proximal deletions and proximal-to-distal transformations resulting from depletion of the leg gap genes homothorax and extradenticle, large-scale deletions resulting from depletion of the leg gap gene Distal-less, and smaller distal deletions resulting from knockdown of the EGF ligand Keren. However, depletion of dachshund and many of the genes that function downstream of the leg gap genes in the ventral appendages had either subtle or no effects on labral axis patterning. This pattern of partial similarity suggests that upstream genes act through different downstream targets in the labrum. We also discovered that many appendage axis patterning genes have roles in patterning the epipharyngeal sensillum array, suggesting that they have become integrated into a novel regulatory network. These genes include Notch, Delta, and decapentaplegic, and the transcription factors abrupt, bric à brac, homothorax, extradenticle and the paralogs apterous a and apterous b. PMID:24617987
Williford, Anna; Demuth, Jeffery P
Gene expression levels correlate with multiple aspects of gene sequence and gene structure in phylogenetically diverse taxa, suggesting an important role of gene expression levels in the evolution of protein-coding genes. Here we present results of a genome-wide study of the influence of gene expression on synonymous codon usage, amino acid composition, and gene structure in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Consistent with the action of translational selection, we find that synonymous codon usage bias increases with gene expression. However, the correspondence between tRNA gene copy number and optimal codons is weak. At the amino acid level, translational selection is suggested by the positive correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid usage, which is stronger for highly expressed genes. In addition, there is a clear trend for increased use of metabolically cheaper, less complex amino acids as gene expression increases. tRNA gene numbers also correlate negatively with amino acid size/complexity (S/C) score indicating the coupling between translational selection and selection to minimize the use of large/complex amino acids. Interestingly, the analysis of 10 additional genomes suggests that the correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid S/C score is widespread and might be explained by selection against negative consequences of protein misfolding. At the level of gene structure, three major trends are detected: 1) complete coding region length increases across low and intermediate expression levels but decreases in highly expressed genes; 2) the average intron size shows the opposite trend, first decreasing with expression, followed by a slight increase in highly expressed genes; and 3) intron density remains nearly constant across all expression levels. These changes in gene architecture are only in partial agreement with selection favoring reduced cost of biosynthesis.
Chen, Xuhong; Xiong, Wenfeng; Li, Chengjun; Gao, Shanshan; Song, Xiaowen; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large group of enzymes having both detoxification roles conferring insecticide resistance and specialist metabolic functions. Tribolium castaneum GST Delta 1 (TcGSTd1) has been found playing crucial role in insecticide resistance and biological processes in insect species. However, the regulatory system of TcGSTd1 has still rarely been known. Comparing the transcriptome profile of RNAi treated larvae (ds-TcGSTd1) and control larvae of T. canstaneum by using RNA-sequencing, we obtained 14,284,085 sequence reads aligned with 13,275 genes. And 512 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from ds-TcGSTd1 treated group. Est/CCE, CYP, MRPs were significantly down-regulated in ds-TcGSTd1 group when compared with control group, which illustrated that they cooperated with TcGSTd1 to reduce the activity of cellular metabolism system. While, SNO was up-regulated in ds-TcGSTd1 insects suggested it may also involve in detoxifying alkaloid of insect metabolism system. These results established that TcGSTd1 not only acts as a vital gene for phase II cellular detoxification but also participates in phase 0, I, and III cellular detoxification by cooperating with CSPs, OBPs, CYP9, ESTB1, CCE6, MRPs and other detoxification genes. Knockdown of TcGSTd1 also suppressed several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, e.g. CuZnSOD, Duox, Prx, HPX, CPO, and MCORP. Suggested that they may modulate the function of TcGSTd1 on lifespan, immune, development and reproduction. All these results shed the new insights into the regulatory mechanism of TcGSTd1 involved in insect physiology and could further facilitate the research of suitable and sustainable managements for the pest control.
Laskowski, Ryszard; Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Mendrok, Magdalena; Kramarz, Paulina
We reared large (1000 individuals) and small (20 individuals) populations of Tribolium castaneum on diet contaminated with copper in order to determine if the size of a population affects its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. After 10 generations, we used microsatellite markers to estimate and subsequently compare the genetic variability of the copper-treated populations with that of the control populations, which were reared on uncontaminated medium. Additionally, we conducted a full cross-factorial experiment which evaluated the effects of 10 generations of "pre-exposure" to copper on a population's fitness in control and copper-contaminated environments. In order to distinguish results potentially arising from genetic adaptation from those due to non-genetic effects associated to parental exposure to copper, we subjected also F11 generation, originating from parents not exposed to copper, to the same cross-factorial experiment. The effects of long-term exposure to copper depended on population size: the growth rates of small populations that were pre-exposed to copper were inhibited compared to those of small populations reared in uncontaminated environments. Large Cu-exposed populations had a higher growth rate in the F10 generation compared to the control groups, while the growth rate of the F11 generation was unaffected by copper exposure history. The only factor that had a significant effect on genetic variability was population size, but this was to be expected given the large difference in the number of individuals between large and small populations. Neither copper contamination nor its interaction with population size affected the number of microsatellite alleles retained in the F10 generation.
Smith, Frank W; Angelini, David R; Gaudio, Matthew S; Jockusch, Elizabeth L
The arthropod labrum is an anterior appendage-like structure that forms the dorsal side of the preoral cavity. Conflicting interpretations of fossil, nervous system, and developmental data have led to a proliferation of scenarios for labral evolution. The best supported hypothesis is that the labrum is a novel structure that shares development with appendages as a result of co-option. Here, we use RNA interference in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum to compare metamorphic patterning of the labrum to previously published data on ventral appendage patterning. As expected under the co-option hypothesis, depletion of several genes resulted in similar defects in the labrum and ventral appendages. These include proximal deletions and proximal-to-distal transformations resulting from depletion of the leg gap genes homothorax and extradenticle, large-scale deletions resulting from depletion of the leg gap gene Distal-less, and smaller distal deletions resulting from knockdown of the EGF ligand Keren. However, depletion of dachshund and many of the genes that function downstream of the leg gap genes in the ventral appendages had either subtle or no effects on labral axis patterning. This pattern of partial similarity suggests that upstream genes act through different downstream targets in the labrum. We also discovered that many appendage axis patterning genes have roles in patterning the epipharyngeal sensillum array, suggesting that they have become integrated into a novel regulatory network. These genes include Notch, Delta, and decapentaplegic, and the transcription factors abrupt, bric à brac, homothorax, extradenticle and the paralogs apterous a and apterous b.
Cephalization and seamless fusion of the anterior body segments during development obscure the segmental origins of the insect head. Most of the visible seams are thought to reflect infolding for structural reinforcement rather than a merger of segmental or cuticular plate borders. Incomplete fusion...
In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.
Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.
Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad
Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.
Sharma, Rahul; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard
Most insect embryos develop with two distinct extraembryonic membranes, the serosa and the amnion. In the insect beetle Tribolium the early origin of the serosa within the anterior blastoderm is well established but the origin of the amnion is still debated. It is not known whether this tissue develops from a blastodermal precursor or originates de novo later from embryonic tissue during embryogenesis. We undertook an in-depth analysis of the spatio-temporal expression pattern profile of important extraembryonic membrane marker genes with emphasis on early blastoderm development in Tribolium. The amnion marker iroquois (Tc-iro) was found co-expressed with the serosa marker zerknüllt1 (Tc-zen1) during early blastoderm formation in an anterior cap domain. This domain later resolved into two adjacent domains that likely represent the precursors of the serosa and the amnion. In addition, we found the hindsight ortholog in Tribolium (Tc-hnt) to be a serosa-specific marker. Surprisingly, decapentaplegic (Tc-dpp) expression was not seen as a symmetric cap domain but detected asymmetrically first along the DV- and later also along the AP-axis. Moreover, we found a previously undescribed domain of phosphorylated MAD (pMAD) protein in anterior ventral serosal cells. This is the first study showing that the anterior-lateral part of the amnion originates from the anterior blastoderm while the precursor of the dorsal amnion develops later de novo from a dorsal-posterior region within the differentiated blastoderm.
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yi-Jiao; Guo, Wei; Luo, Dan; Wu, Yi; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun; Li, Zhi-Hong
Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium Macleay (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are important stored product pests in China and worldwide. They are often found or are intercepted in grain depots, flour mills, and entry-exit ports, etc. Traditionally, Tribolium species are identified according to the morphological characteristics of the adult. However, it is almost impossible to rapidly identify adult fragments and non-adult stages based on external morphological characteristics. Molecular techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of Tribolium species are required, particularly for pest monitoring and the quarantine of stored products pests. Here, we establish DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR, and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six stored-product pest Tribolium species including T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani and T. brevicornis. We detected the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes for Tribolium from 18 geographic populations and 101 individuals, built a Tribolium DNA barcode library, and designed species-specific primers and TaqMan probes for the above six Tribolium species. The three techniques were applied to identify Tribolium collected from stored samples and samples captured from quarantine ports. The results demonstrated that three techniques were all able to identify the six species of Tribolium both rapidly and accurately.
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yi-Jiao; Guo, Wei; Luo, Dan; Wu, Yi; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun; Li, Zhi-Hong
Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium Macleay (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are important stored product pests in China and worldwide. They are often found or are intercepted in grain depots, flour mills, and entry-exit ports, etc. Traditionally, Tribolium species are identified according to the morphological characteristics of the adult. However, it is almost impossible to rapidly identify adult fragments and non-adult stages based on external morphological characteristics. Molecular techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of Tribolium species are required, particularly for pest monitoring and the quarantine of stored products pests. Here, we establish DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR, and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six stored-product pest Tribolium species including T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani and T. brevicornis. We detected the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes for Tribolium from 18 geographic populations and 101 individuals, built a Tribolium DNA barcode library, and designed species-specific primers and TaqMan probes for the above six Tribolium species. The three techniques were applied to identify Tribolium collected from stored samples and samples captured from quarantine ports. The results demonstrated that three techniques were all able to identify the six species of Tribolium both rapidly and accurately. PMID:27352804
Sharma, Rahul; Beer, Katharina; Iwanov, Katharina; Schmöhl, Felix; Beckmann, Paula Indigo; Schröder, Reinhard
The precise regulation of cell-cell communication by numerous signal-transduction pathways is fundamental for many different processes during embryonic development. One important signalling pathway is the evolutionary conserved fibroblast-growth-factor (FGF)-pathway that controls processes like cell migration, axis specification and mesoderm formation in vertebrate and invertebrate animals. In the model insect Drosophila, the FGF ligand / receptor combinations of FGF8 (Pyramus and Thisbe) / Heartless (Htl) and Branchless (Bnl) / Breathless (Btl) are required for the migration of mesodermal cells and for the formation of the tracheal network respectively with both the receptors functioning independently of each other. However, only a single fgf-receptor gene (Tc-fgfr) has been identified in the genome of the beetle Tribolium. We therefore asked whether both the ligands Fgf8 and Bnl could transduce their signal through a common FGF-receptor in Tribolium. Indeed, we found that the function of the single Tc-fgfr gene is essential for mesoderm differentiation as well as for the formation of the tracheal network during early development. Ligand specific RNAi for Tc-fgf8 and Tc-bnl resulted in two distinct non-overlapping phenotypes of impaired mesoderm differentiation and abnormal formation of the tracheal network in Tc-fgf8- and Tc-bnl(RNAi) embryos respectively. We further show that the single Tc-fgfr gene encodes at least two different receptor isoforms that are generated through alternative splicing. We in addition demonstrate through exon-specific RNAi their distinct tissue-specific functions. Finally, we discuss the structure of the fgf-receptor gene from an evolutionary perspective.
Janovy, J; Detwiler, J; Schwank, S; Bolek, M G; Knipes, A K; Langford, G J
The following new gregarine taxa are described from larvae of flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Awrygregarina billmani, n. gen., n. sp., from Tribolium brevicornis; Gregarina cloptoni, n. sp., from Tribolium freemani; Gregarina confusa, n. sp., from Tribolilum confusum; and Gregarina palori, n. sp., from Palorus subdepressus. In addition, the description of Gregarina minuta Ishii, 1914, from Tribolium castaneum, is emended. Scanning electron micrograph studies of these species' oocysts reveal differences in surface architecture. The Gregarina species have oocysts with longitudinal ridges, visible with SEM, whereas Awrygregarina billmani oocysts have fine circumferential striations; surface architecture is the main feature distinguishing the 2 gregarine genera. Although parasites from adult beetles are not included in the descriptions, adults of all host species can be infected experimentally using oocysts from the new taxa.
With its recently sequenced genome, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum became one of the few model organisms with all the main genetic tools. As a coleoptera, it belongs to the most species-rich order of animals. Tribolium is also a worldwide pest for stored dried foods. Regarding developmental biology, Tribolium offers a complementary model to the highly derived Drosophila. For example, the function of many gap and pair-rule segmentation genes is different in both species. These differences reveal the evolutionary plasticity between two modes of development, with a long germ band in fly and a short one in Tribolium. This beetle allowed the identification of a new type of ecdysone receptor for holometabolous insects. Finally, in the search for the juvenile hormone receptor, a crucial result was obtained with experiments that could be performed only with Tribolium, and not with Drosophila. Tribolium, in association with Drosophila, should help to understand the general rules of development in insects.
The universal availability of the complete Tribolium castaneum genome sequence assembly and annotation and concomitant development of the versatile Tribolium genome browser, BeetleBase (http://beetlebase.org/) open new realms of possibility for stored-product pest control by greatly simplifying the...
Liu, Zhenyi; Friedrich, Markus
While non-arthropod orthologues have been found for many Drosophila eye developmental genes, this has not been the case for the glass (gl) gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor required for photoreceptor cell specification, differentiation, and survival. This study reports sequence and expression analysis of the gl orthologue of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. A strongly conserved C-terminal zinc finger binding region and a moderately conserved N-terminal transcriptional activation domain characterize the putative Tribolium gl protein. Tribolium gl transcripts were detected in the developing photoreceptors of the larval and adult visual system, the corpora cardiaca, and subsets of cells in the developing brain. This suggests that the gl function of specifying predominantly neuronal cells is strongly conserved. Using gl as a marker for the onset of larval photoreceptor differentiation, we studied the embryonic development of the Tribolium visual system. We find that the Tribolium larval eyes originate at the posterior margin of the embryonic eye lobes as defined by eye-field-specific wingless expression domains. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the larval visual organs (stemmata) of holometabolous insects were derived from and are therefore homologous to the posterior-most ommatidia of the adult retina in primitive nonholometabolous insects.
Alabi, T; Dean, J; Michaud, JP; Verheggen, F; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E
The cuticular hydrocarbons of insects are species-specific and often function as semiochemicals. The activity of Tribolium brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons as feeding deterrents that ostensibly function to prevent pupal cannibalism and predation was evaluated. The cuticular hydrocarbons of T. brevicornis pupae were characterized and flour disk bioassays conducted with individual and combined extract components incorporated into artificial diets on which Tribolium adults fed for six days. Feeding by T. brevicornis and T. castaneum on flour disks containing cuticular extracts of T. brevicornis pupae resulted in reduced consumption and weight loss relative to feeding on control flour disks. In both cases, feeding deterrence indices exceeded 80% suggesting that T. brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons could function to deter cannibalism and predation of pupae by larvae and adult beetles. Sixteen different cuticular hydrocarbons were identified in T. brevicornis pupal extracts. Eight of the commercially available linear alkanes were tested individually in feeding trials with eight Tribolium species. One compound (C28) significantly reduced the amount of food consumed by three species compared to control disks, whereas the compounds C25, C26, and C27 elicited increased feeding in some species. Four other compounds had no effect on consumption for any species. When four hydrocarbon mixtures were tested for synergistic deterrence on T. brevicornis and T. castaneum, none significantly influenced consumption. Our results indicate that the cuticular chemistry of T. brevicornis pupae could serve to deter predation by conspecific and congeneric beetles. PMID:22224957
Alabi, T; Dean, J; Michaud, J P; Verheggen, F; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E
The cuticular hydrocarbons of insects are species-specific and often function as semiochemicals. The activity of Tribolium brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons as feeding deterrents that ostensibly function to prevent pupal cannibalism and predation was evaluated. The cuticular hydrocarbons of T. brevicornis pupae were characterized and flour disk bioassays conducted with individual and combined extract components incorporated into artificial diets on which Tribolium adults fed for six days. Feeding by T. brevicornis and T. castaneum on flour disks containing cuticular extracts of T. brevicornis pupae resulted in reduced consumption and weight loss relative to feeding on control flour disks. In both cases, feeding deterrence indices exceeded 80% suggesting that T. brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons could function to deter cannibalism and predation of pupae by larvae and adult beetles. Sixteen different cuticular hydrocarbons were identified in T. brevicornis pupal extracts. Eight of the commercially available linear alkanes were tested individually in feeding trials with eight Tribolium species. One compound (C28) significantly reduced the amount of food consumed by three species compared to control disks, whereas the compounds C25, C26, and C27 elicited increased feeding in some species. Four other compounds had no effect on consumption for any species. When four hydrocarbon mixtures were tested for synergistic deterrence on T. brevicornis and T. castaneum, none significantly influenced consumption. Our results indicate that the cuticular chemistry of T. brevicornis pupae could serve to deter predation by conspecific and congeneric beetles.
Aerosol applications of reduced risk insecticides such as pyrethrins, pyrethroids, and insect growth regulators are becoming more commonly used to manage stored-product insects in food facilities. However, these applications have a limited ability to penetrate into hidden refugia, where the majorit...
Background The Pax transcription factor gene eyegone (eyg) participates in many developmental processes in Drosophila, including the Notch signaling activated postembryonic growth of the eye primordium, global development of the adult head and the development of the antenna. In contrast to other Pax genes, the functional conservation of eyg in species other than Drosophila has not yet been explored. Results We investigated the role of eyg during the postembryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results indicate conserved roles in antennal but not in eye development. Besides segmentation defects in the antenna, Tribolium eyg knockdown animals were characterized by eye enlargement due to the formation of surplus ommatidia at the central anterior edge of the compound eye. This effect resulted from the failure of the developing gena to locally repress retinal differentiation, which underlies the formation of the characteristic anterior notch in the Tribolium eye. Neither varying the induction time point of eyg knockdown nor knocking down components of the Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription signaling pathway in combination with eyg reduced eye size like in Drosophila. Conclusions Taken together, expression and knockdown data suggest that Tribolium eyg serves as a competence factor that facilitates the repression of retinal differentiation in response to an unknown signal produced in the developing gena. At the comparative level, our findings reveal diverged roles of eyg associated with the evolution of different modes of postembryonic head development in endopterygote insects as well as diversified head morphologies in darkling beetles. PMID:21463500
Coleopteran insects comprise a highly successful taxon, representing more than 25% of eukaryotic species, many of which are economically important. One of these, the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is a major pest of stored grain and cereal products and is also an excellent genetic model for ...
Lewis, S M; Tigreros, N; Fedina, T; Ming, Q L
In Tribolium flour beetles and other organisms, individuals migrate between heterogeneous environments where they often encounter markedly different nutritional conditions. Under these circumstances, theory suggests that genotype-by-environment interactions (GEI) may be important in facilitating adaptation to new environments and maintaining genetic variation for male traits subject to directional selection. Here, we used a nested half-sib breeding design with Tribolium castaneum to partition the separate and joint effects of male genotype and nutritional environment on phenotypic variation in a comprehensive suite of life-history traits, reproductive performance measures across three sequential sexual selection episodes, and fitness. When male genotypes were tested across three nutritional environments, considerable phenotypic plasticity was found for male mating and insemination success, longevity and traits related to larval development. Our results also revealed significant additive genetic variation for male mating rate, sperm offence ability (P(2)), longevity and total fitness and for several traits reflecting both larval and adult resource use. In addition, we found evidence supporting GEI for sperm defence ability (P(1)), adult longevity and larval development; thus, no single male genotype outperforms others in every nutritional environment. These results provide insight into the potential roles of phenotypic plasticity and GEI in facilitating Tribolium adaptation to new environments in ecological and evolutionary time.
Fedina, Tatyana Y; Lewis, Sara M
Sexual selection is a major force driving the evolution of diverse reproductive traits. This evolutionary process is based on individual reproductive advantages that arise either through intrasexual competition or through intersexual choice and conflict. While classical studies of sexual selection focused mainly on differences in male mating success, more recent work has focused on the differences in paternity share that may arise through sperm competition or cryptic female choice whenever females mate with multiple males. Thus, an integrative view of sexual selection needs to encompass processes that occur not only before copulation (pre-mating), but also during copulation (peri-mating), as well as after copulation (post-mating), all of which can generate differences in reproductive success. By encompassing mechanisms of sexual selection across all of these sequential reproductive stages this review takes an integrative approach to sexual selection in Tribolium flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a particularly well-studied and economically important model organism. Tribolium flour beetles colonize patchily distributed grain stores, and juvenile and adult stages share the same food resources. Adults are highly promiscuous and female reproduction is distributed across an adult lifespan lasting approximately 1 year. While Tribolium males produce an aggregation pheromone that attracts both sexes, there appears to be little pre-mating discrimination among potential mates by either sex. However, recent work has revealed several peri-mating and post-mating mechanisms that determine how offspring paternity is apportioned among a female's mates. During mating, Tribolium females reject spermatophore transfer and limit sperm numbers transferred by males with low phenotypic quality. Although there is some conflicting evidence, male copulatory leg-rubbing appears to be associated with overcoming female resistance to insemination and does not influence a male
Methoprene is a commonly used insect growth regulator for aerosol sprays, residual surface treatments, and as a grain protectant. Methoprene has been impregnated into a polymer-based packing film to prevent insect infestations of packaged products. The objective of this study was to evaluate fecund...
Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Krogh-Meyer, Peter; Hansen, Karina K; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P
One year ago, we discovered a new family of insect RYamide neuropeptides, which has the C-terminal consensus sequence FFXXXRYamide, and which is widely occurring in most insects, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (F. Hauser et al., J. Proteome Res. 9 (2010) 5296-5310). Here, we identify a Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coded for by gene CG5811 and its Tribolium GPCR ortholog as insect RYamide receptors. The Drosophila RYamide receptor is equally well activated (EC(50), 1×10(-9)M) by the two Drosophila RYamide neuropeptides: RYamide-1 (PVFFVASRYamide) and RYamide-2 (NEHFFLGSRYamide), both contained in a preprohormone coded for by gene CG40733. The Tribolium receptor shows a somewhat higher affinity to Tribolium RYamide-2 (ADAFFLGPRYamide; EC(50), 5×10(-9)M) than to Tribolium RYamide-1 (VQNLATFKTMMRYamide; EC(50), 7×10(-8)M), which might be due to the fact that the last peptide does not completely follow the RYamide consensus sequence rule. There are other neuropeptides in insects that have similar C-terminal sequences (RWamide or RFamide), such as the FMRFamides, sulfakinins, myosuppressins, neuropeptides F, and the various short neuropeptides F. Amazingly, these neuropeptides show no cross-reactivity to the Tribolium RYamide receptor, while the Drosophila RYamide receptor is only very slightly activated by high concentrations (>10(-6)M) of neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F-1, showing that the two RYamide receptors are quite specific for activation by insect RYamides, and that the sequence FFXXXRYamide is needed for effective insect RYamide receptor activation. Phylogenetic tree analyses and other amino acid sequence comparisons show that the insect RYamide receptors are not closely related to any other known insect or invertebrate/vertebrate receptors, including mammalian neuropeptide Y and insect neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F receptors. Gene expression data published in
Fishman, E. L.; Jo, Kyoung; Ha, Andrew; Royfman, Rachel; Zinn, Ashtyn; Krishnamurthy, Malathi; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer
Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster, we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote. Whether the sperm of other insects has a second centriolar structure is unknown. Here, we characterized spermiogenesis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Electron microscopy suggests that Tribolium has one microtubule-based centriole at the tip of the axoneme and a structure similar to the PCL, which lacks microtubules and lies in a cytoplasmic invagination of the nucleus. Immunostaining against the orthologue of the centriole/PCL protein, Ana1, also recognizes two centrioles near the nucleus during spermiogenesis: one that is microtubule-based at the tip of the axoneme, suggesting it is the centriole; and another that is more proximal and appears during early spermiogenesis, suggesting it is the PCL. Together, these findings suggest that Tribolium sperm has one microtubule-based centriole and one microtubule-lacking centriole. PMID:28298310
Previously characterized selfish genes act prezygotically and are independent of cytotype. Selfish “Medea” (M) elements are unique in combining maternal and zygotic components to gain a postzygotic survival advantage. We show that Medea1 activity in Tribolium castaneum is associated with a composi...
Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on oat, rye, and triticale.
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Andris, Nickolas S
Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory to assess the effect of the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations Insecto, SilicoSec, and PyriSec, on stored oat, rye, and triticale, against adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. The DEs were tested at three dose rates, 0.75, 1, and 1.5 g of DE/kg of grain. Adults of the two aforementioned species were exposed to all combinations of grain-formulation-dose rate, at 26 degrees C and 60% RH. Mortality in DE-treated commodities was recorded after 24 h, 48 h, 7 d, and 14 d of exposure for S. oryzae and T. confusum and after 21 d for T. confusum. In S. oryzae, adult mortality was almost 100% after 7 d of exposure in all three grains examined. The mortality of T. confusum adults in DE-treated grains did not reach 100%, even after 21 d of exposure. Generally, the application of DE in rye caused higher adult mortality of T. confusum than in the other two products. All three dose rates tested provided the same mortality level of S. oryzae adults after 7 d of exposure. In contrast, 1.5 g of DE resulted in significant higher adult mortality of T. confusum, in comparison with the other dose rates, even after 21 d of exposure. All formulations were equally effective after 7 d of exposure against S. oryzae, but at 48 h of exposure, PyriSec caused significantly higher mortality than the other two formulations. For both species, progeny production in the treated grains was significantly reduced in comparison with the untreated grains, whereas significant differences were noted among commodities, formulations, and dose rates. No progeny were recorded in the treated rye for either species or in the treated triticale for S. oryzae.
Aerosol insecticides can be important components of insect management plans for mills, food warehouses, and processing plants. In the United States, synergized pyrethrin insecticide is used alone or combined with an insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticide, either methoprene or hydroprene. The pres...
Angelini, David R.; Jockusch, Elizabeth L.
Model species often provide initial hypotheses and tools for studies of development, genetics, and molecular evolution in closely related species. Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium MacLeay (1825) are one group with potential for such comparative studies. Tribolium castaneum (Herbst 1797) is an increasingly useful developmental genetic system. The convenience with which congeneric and other species of tenebrionid flour beetles can be reared in the laboratory makes this group attractive for comparative studies on a small phylogenetic scale. Here we present the results of phylogenetic analyses of relationships among the major pest species of Tribolium based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear markers (cytochrome oxidase 1, 16S ribosomal DNA, wingless, 28S ribosomal DNA, histone H3). The utility of partitioning the dataset in a manner informed by biological structure and function is demonstrated by comparing various partitioning strategies. In parsimony and partitioned Bayesian analyses of the combined dataset, the castaneum and confusum species groups are supported as monophyletic and as each other’s closest relatives. However, a sister group relationship between this clade and Tribolium brevicornis (Leconte 1859) is not supported. Therefore, we suggest transferring brevicornis group species to the genus Aphanotus Leconte (1862). The inferred phylogeny provides an evolutionary framework for comparative studies using flour beetles. PMID:18024090
Lynch, Jeremy A; El-Sherif, Ezzat; Brown, Susan J
Studying the embryogenesis of diverse insect species is crucial to understanding insect evolution. Here, we review current advances in understanding the development of two emerging model organisms: the wasp Nasonia vitripennis and the beetle Tribolium castaneum in comparison with the well-studied fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Although Nasonia represents the most basally branching order of holometabolous insects, it employs a derived long germband mode of embryogenesis, more like that of Drosophila, whereas Tribolium undergoes an intermediate germband mode of embryogenesis, which is more similar to the ancestral mechanism. Comparing the embryonic development and genetic regulation of early patterning events in these three insects has given invaluable insights into insect evolution. The similar mode of embryogenesis of Drosophila and Nasonia is reflected in their reliance on maternal morphogenetic gradients. However, they employ different genes as maternal factors, reflecting the evolutionary distance separating them. Tribolium, on the other hand, relies heavily on self-regulatory mechanisms other than maternal cues, reflecting its sequential nature of segmentation and the need for reiterated patterning.
Benton, Matthew A; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios
Development of multicellular organisms depends on patterning and growth mechanisms encoded in the genome, but also on the physical properties and mechanical interactions of the constituent cells that interpret these genetic cues. This fundamental biological problem requires integrated studies at multiple levels of biological organization: from genes, to cell behaviors, to tissue morphogenesis. We have recently combined functional genetics with live imaging approaches in embryos of the insect Tribolium castaneum, in order to understand their remarkable transformation from a uniform single-layered blastoderm into a condensed multi-layered embryo covered by extensive extra-embryonic tissues. We first developed a quick and reliable methodology to fluorescently label various cell components in entire Tribolium embryos. Live imaging of labeled embryos at single cell resolution provided detailed descriptions of cell behaviors and tissue movements during normal embryogenesis. We then compared cell and tissue dynamics between wild-type and genetically perturbed embryos that exhibited altered relative proportions of constituent tissues. This systematic comparison led to a qualitative model of the molecular, cellular and tissue interactions that orchestrate the observed epithelial rearrangements. We expect this work to establish the Tribolium embryo as a powerful and attractive model system for biologists and biophysicists interested in the molecular, cellular and mechanical control of tissue morphogenesis.
Ronshaugen, Matthew; Cande, Jessica; He, JianPing; Beeman, Richard W.; Levine, Michael; Brown, Susan J.; Denell, Robin E.
The remarkable conservation of Hox clusters is an accepted but little understood principle of biology. Some organizational constraints have been identified for vertebrate Hox clusters, but most of these are thought to be recent innovations that may not apply to other organisms. Ironically, many model organisms have disrupted Hox clusters and may not be well-suited for studies of structural constraints. In contrast, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a long history in Hox gene research, is thought to have a more ancestral-type Hox cluster organization. Here, we demonstrate that the Tribolium homeotic complex (HOMC) is indeed intact, with the individual Hox genes in the expected colinear arrangement and transcribed from the same strand. There is no evidence that the cluster has been invaded by non-Hox protein-coding genes, although expressed sequence tag and genome tiling data suggest that noncoding transcripts are prevalent. Finally, our analysis of several mutations affecting the Tribolium HOMC suggests that intermingling of enhancer elements with neighboring transcription units may constrain the structure of at least one region of the Tribolium cluster. This work lays a foundation for future studies of the Tribolium HOMC that may provide insights into the reasons for Hox cluster conservation. PMID:18392875
Benton, Matthew A.; Akam, Michael; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios
Studies on new arthropod models such as the beetle Tribolium castaneum are shifting our knowledge of embryonic patterning and morphogenesis beyond the Drosophila paradigm. In contrast to Drosophila, Tribolium embryos exhibit the short-germ type of development and become enveloped by extensive extra-embryonic membranes, the amnion and serosa. The genetic basis of these processes has been the focus of active research. Here, we complement genetic approaches with live fluorescence imaging of Tribolium embryos to make the link between gene function and morphogenetic cell behaviors during blastoderm formation and differentiation, germband condensation and elongation, and extra-embryonic development. We first show that transient labeling methods result in strong, homogeneous and persistent expression of fluorescent markers in Tribolium embryos, labeling the chromatin, membrane, cytoskeleton or combinations thereof. We then use co-injection of fluorescent markers with dsRNA for live imaging of embryos with disrupted caudal gene function caused by RNA interference. Using these approaches, we describe and compare cell and tissue dynamics in Tribolium embryos with wild-type and altered fate maps. We find that Tribolium germband condensation is effected by cell contraction and intercalation, with the latter being dependent on the anterior-posterior patterning system. We propose that germband condensation drives initiation of amnion folding, whereas expansion of the amniotic fold and closure of the amniotic cavity are likely driven by contraction of an actomyosin cable at the boundary between the amnion and serosa. Our methodology provides a comprehensive framework for testing quantitative models of patterning, growth and morphogenetic mechanisms in Tribolium and other arthropod species. PMID:23861059
Benton, Matthew A; Akam, Michael; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios
Studies on new arthropod models such as the beetle Tribolium castaneum are shifting our knowledge of embryonic patterning and morphogenesis beyond the Drosophila paradigm. In contrast to Drosophila, Tribolium embryos exhibit the short-germ type of development and become enveloped by extensive extra-embryonic membranes, the amnion and serosa. The genetic basis of these processes has been the focus of active research. Here, we complement genetic approaches with live fluorescence imaging of Tribolium embryos to make the link between gene function and morphogenetic cell behaviors during blastoderm formation and differentiation, germband condensation and elongation, and extra-embryonic development. We first show that transient labeling methods result in strong, homogeneous and persistent expression of fluorescent markers in Tribolium embryos, labeling the chromatin, membrane, cytoskeleton or combinations thereof. We then use co-injection of fluorescent markers with dsRNA for live imaging of embryos with disrupted caudal gene function caused by RNA interference. Using these approaches, we describe and compare cell and tissue dynamics in Tribolium embryos with wild-type and altered fate maps. We find that Tribolium germband condensation is effected by cell contraction and intercalation, with the latter being dependent on the anterior-posterior patterning system. We propose that germband condensation drives initiation of amnion folding, whereas expansion of the amniotic fold and closure of the amniotic cavity are likely driven by contraction of an actomyosin cable at the boundary between the amnion and serosa. Our methodology provides a comprehensive framework for testing quantitative models of patterning, growth and morphogenetic mechanisms in Tribolium and other arthropod species.
Jacobs, Chris G C; Braak, Nora; Lamers, Gerda E M; van der Zee, Maurijn
Insects have been extraordinary successful in colonizing terrestrial habitats and this success is partly due to a protective cuticle that mainly contains chitin and proteins. The cuticle has been well studied in larvae and adults, but little attention has been paid to the cuticle of the egg. This cuticle is secreted by the serosa, an extraembryonic epithelium that surrounds the yolk and embryo in all insect eggs, but was lost in the Schizophoran flies to which Drosophila belongs. We therefore set out to investigate serosal cuticle formation and function in a beetle (Tribolium castaneum) using RNAi-mediated knockdown of three candidate genes known to structure chitin in the adult cuticle, and we aimed to identify other serosal cuticle genes using RNA sequencing. Knockdown of Knickkopf (TcKnk-1) or Retroactive (TcRtv) affects the laminar structure of the serosal cuticle, as revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in knockdown eggs. In the absence of this laminar structure, significantly fewer eggs survive at low humidity compared to wild-type eggs. Survival in dry conditions is also adversely affected when cross-linking among proteins and chitin is prevented by Laccase2 (TcLac-2) RNAi. Finally, we compare the transcriptomes of wild-type eggs to serosa-less eggs and find serosa-biased expression of 21 cuticle-related genes including structural components, chitin deacetylases and chitinases. Our data indicate that the serosal cuticle utilizes the same machinery for structuring the cuticle as adults. We demonstrate that the structure of the cuticle is crucial for desiccation resistance, and we put forward the serosal cuticle of Tribolium as an excellent model to study the ecological properties of the insect cuticle.
El-Sherif, Ezzat; Zhu, Xin; Fu, Jinping; Brown, Susan J.
In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation. PMID:25329152
El-Sherif, Ezzat; Zhu, Xin; Fu, Jinping; Brown, Susan J
In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.
Concrete arenas with and without flour were placed in open, obstructed, and hidden positions inside a commercial flour mill and exposed to a combination treatment of pyrethrin + methoprene. Bioassays were conducted 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the arenas were treated by adding flour to those arenas th...
El-Sherif, Ezzat; Averof, Michalis; Brown, Susan J
In Drosophila, all segments form in the blastoderm where morphogen gradients spanning the entire anterior-posterior axis of the embryo provide positional information. However, in the beetle Tribolium castaneum and most other arthropods, a number of anterior segments form in the blastoderm, and the remaining segments form sequentially from a posterior growth zone during germband elongation. Recently, the cyclic nature of the pair-rule gene Tc-odd-skipped was demonstrated in the growth zone of Tribolium, indicating that a vertebrate-like segmentation clock is employed in the germband stage of its development. This suggests that two mechanisms might function in the same organism: a Drosophila-like mechanism in the blastoderm, and a vertebrate-like mechanism in the germband. Here, we show that segmentation at both blastoderm and germband stages of Tribolium is based on a segmentation clock. Specifically, we show that the Tribolium primary pair-rule gene, Tc-even-skipped (Tc-eve), is expressed in waves propagating from the posterior pole and progressively slowing until they freeze into stripes; such dynamics are a hallmark of clock-based segmentation. Phase shifts between Tc-eve transcripts and protein confirm that these waves are due to expression dynamics. Moreover, by tracking cells in live embryos and by analyzing mitotic profiles, we found that neither cell movement nor oriented cell division could explain the observed wave dynamics of Tc-eve. These results pose intriguing evolutionary questions, as Drosophila and Tribolium segment their blastoderms using the same genes but different mechanisms.
Fusarium species are common pathogens of plants, animals and insects worldwide, including Iran. The occurrence of entomopathogenic Fusarium species isolated from Tribolium species as one of the most important insect pests of stored grains were sampled from various provinces in western Iran. In total, 15 Tribolium species belonging to T. castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum (Du Val) (Col: Tenebrionidae) were detected and 8 isolates from Fusarium spp. were collected from them. Based on morphological features, the Fusarium isolates were classified into F. keratoplasticum and F. proliferatum. The phylogenetic trees based on tef1 dataset clearly separated all morphological taxa. DNA sequences of ITS regions and β-tubulin gene were also confirmed morphological taxa. All of the Fusarium isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on T. confusum. Maximum mortality rate was observed for F. keratoplasticum (isolate FSSCker2) and this isolate may be considered as a good candidate for biological control in the ecosystem of stored grains. This is the first report on molecular identification of Fusarium species isolated from insects in Iran and F. keratoplasticum and F. proliferatum were isolated for the first time from Tribolium species as two entomopathogenic fungi.
In insects, the boundary between the embryonic head and thorax is formed by the dorsal ridge, a fused structure composed of portions of the maxillary and labial segments. However, the mechanisms that promote development of this unusual structure remain a mystery. In Drosophila, mutations in the Hox ...
In food facilities the majority of insect populations typically occur within hidden locations with limited direct exposure to insecticides, but there is potential for dispersing insects to transport insecticides into hidden areas and transfer insecticide to other individuals (i.e., horizontal transf...
Aspartate 1-decarboxylase (ADC) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) provide b–alanine and dopamine used in insect cuticle tanning. Beta-alanine is conjugated with dopamine to yield N-b-alanyldopamine (NBAD), a substrate for the phenoloxidase laccase that catalyzes the synthesis of cuticle protein cross-li...
Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a subst...
Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the current production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Cost-effectiveness of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to increase by the combination of cellulose degradation (sacch...
Sanitation being an important component of chemical-free management of stored-products pests, the nutritional stress that results from a clean environment may prove advantageous to the use of microbial controls. Dietary stress by food deprivation or suboptimal diet increased susceptibility of the re...
Phosphine is a valuable fumigant to control pest populations in stored grains and grain products. However, recent studies indicate a substantial increase in phosphine resistance in major stored-cereal pests worldwide. To understand the molecular bases of phosphine resistance in insects, we used RNA-...
RNAi uses the host’s cellular machinery to degrade and reduce gene expression and has become a way to functionally test a gene of interest. RNAi technology is being used to develop pest control strategies in the agricultural community because it can be applied to non-model systems. However, there ha...
Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.
We evaluated the knockdown effect caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults. Furthermore, for the same species and insecticides, we developed a “lethality index”, to assess knockdown p...
Nowaczyk, K; Obrepalska-Steplowska, A; Gawlak, M; Throne, J E; Olejarski, P; Nawrot, J
The confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a stored-product pest that contaminates a wide range of food products, from flour and cereals to spices. The insect reduces food quality and is responsible for large economic losses every year. Although several methods for detection of stored-product pests are common and widely used, they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, establishing molecular methods of detection of stored-product pests could provide a useful alternative method. We have undertaken attempts to establish methods of detection of T. confusum based on molecular biology techniques of standard and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total DNA of T. confusum and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), used as a negative control, was isolated from insects and used as a template in standard and real-time PCR reactions. Specific primers have been designed on the basis of sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) fragment of rDNA and subunit I of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase of T. confusum available in the GenBank database. Standard PCR reactions with primers specific to the ITS fragment proved to be reliable and sensitive. Real-time PCR reactions with primers specific for mitochondrial DNA are considered to serve as a supplemental detection method for quantitative assessment of the infestation level.
Evans, Timothy A.; Bashaw, Greg J.
As the complexity of animal nervous systems has increased during evolution, developmental control of neuronal connectivity has become increasingly refined. How has functional diversification within related axon guidance molecules contributed to the evolution of nervous systems? To address this question, we explore the evolution of functional diversity within the Roundabout (Robo) family of axon guidance receptors. In Drosophila, Robo and Robo2 promote midline repulsion, while Robo2 and Robo3 specify the position of longitudinal axon pathways. The Robo family has expanded by gene duplication in insects; robo2 and robo3 exist as distinct genes only within dipterans, while other insects, like the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, retain an ancestral robo2/3 gene. Both Robos from Tribolium can mediate midline repulsion in Drosophila, but unlike the fly Robos cannot be down-regulated by Commissureless. The overall architecture and arrangement of longitudinal pathways are remarkably conserved in Tribolium, despite it having only two Robos. Loss of TcSlit causes midline collapse of axons in the beetle, a phenotype recapitulated by simultaneous knockdown of both Robos. Single gene knockdowns reveal that beetle Robos have specialized axon guidance functions: TcRobo is dedicated to midline repulsion, while TcRobo2/3 also regulates longitudinal pathway formation. TcRobo2/3 knockdown reproduces aspects of both Drosophila robo2 and robo3 mutants, suggesting that TcRobo2/3 has two functions that in Drosophila are divided between Robo2 and Robo3. The ability of Tribolium to organize longitudinal axons into three discrete medial-lateral zones with only two Robo receptors demonstrates that beetle and fly achieve equivalent developmental outcomes using divergent genetic programs. PMID:22245052
Evans, Timothy A; Bashaw, Greg J
As the complexity of animal nervous systems has increased during evolution, developmental control of neuronal connectivity has become increasingly refined. How has functional diversification within related axon guidance molecules contributed to the evolution of nervous systems? To address this question, we explore the evolution of functional diversity within the Roundabout (Robo) family of axon guidance receptors. In Drosophila, Robo and Robo2 promote midline repulsion, while Robo2 and Robo3 specify the position of longitudinal axon pathways. The Robo family has expanded by gene duplication in insects; robo2 and robo3 exist as distinct genes only within dipterans, while other insects, like the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, retain an ancestral robo2/3 gene. Both Robos from Tribolium can mediate midline repulsion in Drosophila, but unlike the fly Robos cannot be down-regulated by Commissureless. The overall architecture and arrangement of longitudinal pathways are remarkably conserved in Tribolium, despite it having only two Robos. Loss of TcSlit causes midline collapse of axons in the beetle, a phenotype recapitulated by simultaneous knockdown of both Robos. Single gene knockdowns reveal that beetle Robos have specialized axon guidance functions: TcRobo is dedicated to midline repulsion, while TcRobo2/3 also regulates longitudinal pathway formation. TcRobo2/3 knockdown reproduces aspects of both Drosophila robo2 and robo3 mutants, suggesting that TcRobo2/3 has two functions that in Drosophila are divided between Robo2 and Robo3. The ability of Tribolium to organize longitudinal axons into three discrete medial-lateral zones with only two Robo receptors demonstrates that beetle and fly achieve equivalent developmental outcomes using divergent genetic programs.
A series of laboratory studies were conducted to assess effect of droplet size on efficacy of pyrethrin aerosol against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, the confused flour beetle. A vertical flow aerosol exposure chamber that generated a standardized particle size diameter was used for...
Several benzoylphenyl urea-derived insecticides such as diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin®) are in wide use to control various insect pests. Although compounds in this class are known to disrupt molting and to affect chitin content, their precise mode of action is still not understood. To gain a broader i...
The synthesis of chitin, the Beta-1,4-linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is catalyzed by chitin synthase (CHS). Chitin is essential for the structural integrity of the exoskeletal cuticle and midgut peritrophic membrane (PM) of insects. To study the functions of the two chitin synthase genes, ...
Diapause hormone (DH) is an insect neuropeptide that is highly effective in terminating the overwintering pupal diapause in members of the Helicoverpa/Heliothis complex of agricultural pests, thus DH and related compounds have promise as tools for pest management. To augment our development of effec...
Integrated pest management strategies for cereal processing facilities often include both pheromone-baited pitfall traps and crack and crevice applications of a residual insecticide like cyfluthrin. In replicated pilot-scale warehouses, a 15-week long experiment was conducted to compare population ...
Sulfakinins (SK) are multifunctional neuropeptides widely found in insects that are structurally and functionally homologous to the mammalian gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK)neuropeptides. CCK is involved in various biological processes such as the feeding regulation where it induces satiety. In this p...
Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )
The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.
Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).
Ureña, Enric; Manjón, Cristina; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Martín, David
All immature animals undergo remarkable morphological and physiological changes to become mature adults. In winged insects, metamorphic changes either are limited to a few tissues (hemimetaboly) or involve a complete reorganization of most tissues and organs (holometaboly). Despite the differences, the genetic switch between immature and adult forms in both types of insects relies on the disappearance of the antimetamorphic juvenile hormone (JH) and the transcription factors Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) during the last juvenile instar. Here, we show that the transcription factor E93 is the key determinant that promotes adult metamorphosis in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects, thus acting as the universal adult specifier. In the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, BgE93 is highly expressed in metamorphic tissues, and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BgE93 in the nymphal stage prevented the nymphal-adult transition, inducing endless reiteration of nymphal development, even in the absence of JH. We also find that BgE93 down-regulated BgKr-h1 and BgBR-C expression during the last nymphal instar of B. germanica, a key step necessary for proper adult differentiation. This essential role of E93 is conserved in holometabolous insects as TcE93 RNAi in Tribolium castaneum prevented pupal-adult transition and produced a supernumerary second pupa. In this beetle, TcE93 also represses expression of TcKr-h1 and TcBR-C during the pupal stage. Similar results were obtained in the more derived holometabolous insect Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that winged insects use the same regulatory mechanism to promote adult metamorphosis. This study provides an important insight into the understanding of the molecular basis of adult metamorphosis.
We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...
Agrafioti, Paraskevi; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vassilakos, Thomas N; Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H
We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15-60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.
Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H.
We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15–60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery. PMID:26560316
In Drosophila, maintenance of parasegmental boundaries and formation of segmental grooves depend on interactions between segment polarity genes. Wingless and Engrailed appear to have similar roles in both short and long germ segmentation, but relatively little is known about the extent to which Hedgehog signaling is conserved. In a companion study to the Tribolium genome project, we analyzed the expression and function of hedgehog, smoothened, patched, and cubitus interruptus orthologs during segmentation in Tribolium. Their expression was largely conserved between Drosophila and Tribolium. Parental RNAi analysis of positive regulators of the pathway (Tc-hh, Tc-smo, or Tc-ci) resulted in small spherical cuticles with little or no evidence of segmental grooves. Segmental Engrailed expression in these embryos was initiated but not maintained. Wingless-independent Engrailed expression in the CNS was maintained and became highly compacted during germ band retraction, providing evidence that derivatives from every segment were present in these small spherical embryos. On the other hand, RNAi analysis of a negative regulator (Tc-ptc) resulted in embryos with ectopic segmental grooves visible during germband elongation but not discernible in the first instar larval cuticles. These transient grooves formed adjacent to Engrailed expressing cells that encircled wider than normal wg domains in the Tc-ptc RNAi embryos. These results suggest that the en–wg–hh gene circuit is functionally conserved in the maintenance of segmental boundaries during germ band retraction and groove formation in Tribolium and that the segment polarity genes form a robust genetic regulatory module in the segmentation of this short germ insect. PMID:18392879
Luan, Qing; Chen, Qing; Friedrich, Markus
The transcription factor gene Pax6 is widely considered a master regulator of eye development in bilaterian animals. However, the existence of visual organs that develop without Pax6 input and the considerable pleiotropy of Pax6 outside the visual system dictate further studies into defining ancestral functions of this important regulator. Previous work has shown that the combinatorial knockdown of the insect Pax6 orthologs eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy) perturbs the development of the visual system but also other areas of the larval head in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. To elucidate the role of Pax6 during Tribolium head development in more detail, we studied head cuticle morphology, brain anatomy, embryonic head morphogenesis, and developmental marker gene expression in combinatorial ey and toy knockdown animals. Our experiments reveal that Pax6 is broadly required for patterning the anterior embryonic head. One of the earliest detectable roles is the formation of the embryonic head lobes, which originate from within the ocular segment and give rise to large parts of the supraesophageal brain including the mushroom body, a part of the posterior head capsule cuticle, and the visual system. We present further evidence that toy continues to be required for the development of the larval eyes after formation of the embryonic head lobes in cooperation with the eye developmental transcription factor dachshund (dac). The sum of our findings suggests that Pax6 functions as a competence factor throughout the development of the insect ocular segment. Comparative evidence identifies this function as an ancestral aspect of bilaterian head development.
A series of field trials were conducted in a commercial field storage facility to evaluate exposure of stored-product insects to aerosol formulations of pyrethrin and the insect growth regulator methoprene. When adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and Tribolium confusum (Ja...
All four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (1) were synthesized from the enantiomers of 2-methyl-1-butanol and citronellal. Enantioselective GC analysis enabled separation of (4R,8R)-1 and (4R,8S)-1 from a mixture of (4S,8R)-1 and (4S,8S)-1, when octakis- (2,3-di-O-methoxymethyl-6-O-t-butyldimet...
The insect cuticle is a remarkable composite biomaterial made up primarily of chitin and proteins. The physical properties of the cuticle can vary greatly in different regions. Cuticle that is hard and rigid offers support for internal organs and protection from environmental stresses. Cuticle that ...
The insect sulfakinins (SKs) constitute a family of neuropeptides that display both structural and functional similarities to the mammalian hormones gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). As a multifunctional neuropeptide, SKs are involved in muscle contractions as well as food intake regulation in many...
A bioinformatics investigation of four insect species with annotated genome sequences identified a family of genes encoding chitin deacetylase (CDA)-like proteins, with 5-9 members depending on the species. CDAs (EC 188.8.131.52) are chitin-modifying enzymes that deacetylate the b-1,4-linked N-acetylgl...
The neuropeptidergic system in insects is considered to be an excellent target for pest control strategies. One promising biorational approach is the use of peptidomimetics modified from endogenous ligands to enhance biostability and bioavailability. In this study, we functionally characterized fiv...
Vayias, B J; Athanassiou, C G; Kavallieratos, N G; Buchelos, C Th
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of seven populations (strains) of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to five commercially available diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations: Insecto, Protect-It, Protector, PyriSec, and SilicoSec. These DEs were applied on wheat, Triticum durum Desf., at two dose rates, 500 and 1000 ppm. The six beetle strains were obtained from Denmark, United Kingdom, Greece, Germany, Italy, and Portugal, whereas a seventh strain came from the Greek strain after laboratory selection with SilicoSec-treated wheat for six generations. Adults of the above-mentioned strains were exposed for 7 d to wheat treated with each DE formulation, and mortality was assessed after exposure. For all DE-dose combinations, significant differences were noted in mortality levels among strains. Generally, the strains from Denmark, United Kingdom, and Germany were the most susceptible to the DEs used, whereas the strain from Portugal was the least susceptible. No significant differences were noted in susceptibility level between the initial Greek strain and the laboratory-selected Greek strain, with the exception of Protector, where the selected strain was significantly more tolerant than the initial strain for both dose rates tested.
Barra, Paula; Etcheverry, Miriam; Nesci, Andrea
Entomopathogenic fungi can regulate insect populations. They have extracellular enzymes that degrade cuticle components, mainly hydrocarbons, used as an energy source. The increase in insecticidal activity of fungi in a medium supplemented with cuticular hydrocarbons was assayed and the hydrolytic enzyme profiles of two strains of Purpureocillium lilacinum were evaluated. A spore suspension of P. lilacinum was inoculated in Petri plates with different values (0.99-0.97-0.95) of water activity (Aw) using the substrates gelatin, starch and tween-20. Growth rate on the different substrates and the enzymatic activity index for proteases, amylases and lipases at different incubation times, pH and Aw, was evaluated. Moreover, the insecticidal efficiency of strains grown in media supplemented with n-hexadecane and n-octacosane was analyzed. LT50 was calculated against adults of Tribolium confusum and showed that mortality increased about 15% when the strains grew in amended culture medium. High amylolytic activity was detected, but proteases were the main enzymes produced. Optimal protease production was observed in a range of acid and alkaline pH and lower Aw. The greatest growth rate was obtained in presence of gelatin. Lipase and amylase production was detected in small amounts. Fungal growth in media with hydrocarbon mixtures increased the pathogenicity of the two strains of P. lilacinum, with the strain JQ926223 being more virulent. The information obtained is important for achieving both an increase in insecticidal capacity and an understanding of physiological adaptation of the fungus.
Barra, Paula; Etcheverry, Miriam; Nesci, Andrea
Entomopathogenic fungi can regulate insect populations. They have extracellular enzymes that degrade cuticle components, mainly hydrocarbons, used as an energy source. The increase in insecticidal activity of fungi in a medium supplemented with cuticular hydrocarbons was assayed and the hydrolytic enzyme profiles of two strains of Purpureocillium lilacinum were evaluated. A spore suspension of P. lilacinum was inoculated in Petri plates with different values (0.99–0.97–0.95) of water activity (Aw) using the substrates gelatin, starch and tween-20. Growth rate on the different substrates and the enzymatic activity index for proteases, amylases and lipases at different incubation times, pH and Aw, was evaluated. Moreover, the insecticidal efficiency of strains grown in media supplemented with n-hexadecane and n-octacosane was analyzed. LT50 was calculated against adults of Tribolium confusum and showed that mortality increased about 15% when the strains grew in amended culture medium. High amylolytic activity was detected, but proteases were the main enzymes produced. Optimal protease production was observed in a range of acid and alkaline pH and lower Aw. The greatest growth rate was obtained in presence of gelatin. Lipase and amylase production was detected in small amounts. Fungal growth in media with hydrocarbon mixtures increased the pathogenicity of the two strains of P. lilacinum, with the strain JQ926223 being more virulent. The information obtained is important for achieving both an increase in insecticidal capacity and an understanding of physiological adaptation of the fungus. PMID:26463076
Sublethal doses of ionizing radiation increase longevity in a variety of insects suggesting that irradiation may retard the age-dependent decline of physiological functions. There have been no systematic investigations of the response of irradiated populations to stress, however. The authors have demonstrated that resistance of adult flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, to oxygen poisoning declines progressively with age. They have examined oxygen resistance of irradiated populations of T. confusum as a function of age at irradiation, of time after irradiation, and of radiation dose and of dose-modifying factors. Shortly after gamma-irradiation, flour beetles exhibited a decline in resistance to oxygen toxicity. Then, about two weeks after irradiation, the LD/sub 50/ exposure time in pure oxygen was much greater than that of nonirradiated beetles, and this enhanced resistance persisted for about 6 months. The magnitude of the enhancement was a function of dose, decreased with increasing age at irradiation, and was modified by radiation factors. Sublethal irradiation under anoxia, at low dose rate, or with dose fractionation reduced the development of oxygen resistance to approximately the same degree that it reduced acute radiation lethality . Radiation-enhanced resistance to stress may be an important factor in the increased longevity of irradiated insects.
Yoza, Koh-Ichi; Imamura, Taro; Kramer, Karl J; Morgan, Thomas D; Nakamura, Sumiko; Akiyama, Kohki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takaiwa, Fumio; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi
Rice (Oryza sativa var. Nipponbare) was transformed with an artificial avidin gene. The features of this construct are as follows: (1) a signal peptide sequence derived from barley alpha amylase was added at the N-terminal region, (2) codon usage of the gene was optimized for rice, and (3) the gene was driven by rice glutelin GluB-1, an endosperm-specific promoter. Avidin was produced in the grain of the transgenic rice but not in the leaves. The concentration of avidin in the kernels was about 1,800 ppm. All larvae of the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) died when fed transgenic avidin rice powder or kernels, respectively, whereas most of the test insects developed into adults when they were fed a nontransgenic rice control diet. Avidin extracted from the transgenic rice kernel lost most biotin-binding activity after 5 min heating at 95 degrees C.
Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Miller, Sherry C; Tomita, Shuichiro; Schoppmeier, Michael; Grossmann, Daniela; Bucher, Gregor
Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly conserved cellular mechanism. In some organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, the RNAi response can be transmitted systemically. Some insects also exhibit a systemic RNAi response. However, Drosophila, the leading insect model organism, does not show a robust systemic RNAi response, necessitating another model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in insects. Results We used Tribolium, which exhibits robust systemic RNAi, as an alternative model system. We have identified the core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in systemic RNAi, from the Tribolium genome. Both phylogenetic and functional analyses suggest that Tribolium has a somewhat larger inventory of core component genes than Drosophila, perhaps allowing a more sensitive response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). We also identified three Tribolium homologs of C. elegans sid-1, which encodes a possible dsRNA channel. However, detailed sequence analysis has revealed that these Tribolium homologs share more identity with another C. elegans gene, tag-130. We analyzed tag-130 mutants, and found that this gene does not have a function in systemic RNAi in C. elegans. Likewise, the Tribolium sid-like genes do not seem to be required for systemic RNAi. These results suggest that insect sid-1-like genes have a different function than dsRNA uptake. Moreover, Tribolium lacks homologs of several genes important for RNAi in C. elegans. Conclusion Although both Tribolium and C. elegans show a robust systemic RNAi response, our genome-wide survey reveals significant differences between the RNAi mechanisms of these organisms. Thus, insects may use an alternative mechanism for the systemic RNAi response. Understanding this process would assist with rendering other insects amenable to systemic RNAi, and may influence pest control approaches. PMID:18201385
Shostak, Allen W.
Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism
Shostak, Allen W
Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0-4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism studies.
Orozco, Fernando; Bell, A. E.
A replicated comparison of reciprocal recurrent selection (rrs) based on crossbred performance and within strain-selection (wss) based on purebred performance was made in three diverse environments over ten generations for the improvement of a heterotic trait, 4-day virgin egg lay of Tribolium castaneum. A selection intensity of 20% based on performance in either an optimum (33°), a mild stress (38°), or a severe stress (28°) environment was applied uniformly. Periodically, the performance of each population was measured in all three environments to provide both direct and correlated responses.—Heritability of egg lay in the base population ranged from 0.36 ± 0.03 in optimum to 0.26 ± 0.03 in severe stress. Estimates of dominance effects assumed significant proportions in severe stress only. Genetic correlations for egg lay in diverse environments were large and positive (.6 to.8).—Only in severe stress did the rrs response significantly exceed that for wss. Quadratic adjustments fitted to response curves revealed that small initial genetic gains under rrs were followed by significantly increasing rates of gain in late generations of selection. The reverse was true for wss. This and evidence from realized heritabilities and genetic correlations suggested that rrs had utilized both additive and dominance effects, but wss response was limited to additive effects.—These results agree with selection theory in demonstrating that purebred selection is more efficient than crossbred selection in utilizing additive gene effects. The latter method has merit when non-additive effects assume significant proportions, and this is the more probable case for severe stress conditions. PMID:17248651
Cheng, Chihing Christina.
With appropriate doses of ionizing radiation, both the acute, or lethal-midlethal, dose-independent pattern of mortality, and the hyperacute, dose-dependent pattern, were demonstrated within a single insect genus (Tribolium). This demonstration provides resolution of apparently contradictory reports of insect radiation responses in terms of doses required to cause lethality and those based on survival time as a function of dose. A dose-dependent mortality pattern was elicited in adult Tribolium receiving high doses, viz., 300 Gy or greater; its time course was complete in 10 days, before the dose-independent pattern of mortality began. Visual observations of heavily-irradiated Tribolium suggested neural and/or neuromuscular damage, as had been previously proposed by others for lethally-irradiated wasps, flies, and mosquitoes. Results of experiments using fractionated high doses supported the suggestion that the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death is the result of damage to nonproliferative tissues. Relative resistance of a strain to the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death was not correlated with resistance to the midlethal mode, which is believed to be the result of damage to the proliferative cells of the midgut. Using the high-dose mode of death as a model of radiation damage to nonproliferative tissues, the effects of age, and of a moderate priming dose were assessed. Beetles showed age-related increase in sensitivity to the high-dose mode of death, suggesting a decline in capacity to repair radiation damage to postmitotic tissue. This correlated with a decrease (50%) in the amount of repair reflected in the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (SDF) between the age of 1 to 3 months. The age related increase in radiosensitivity was reduced by a moderate priming dose (40 or 65 Gy) given at a young age.
Yang, C. H.; Tobias, C. A.
The development of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, was studied through all stages of its life cycle. The results show that for each environmental factor there is a limited range of values within which the organisms are able best to survive and that this optimum range of survival becomes smaller when additional stresses are imposed upon the organism. This has been shown for external temperature, oxygen content of the atmosphere, gravity compensation, and radiation. On Biosatellite II it was shown that Tribolium pupae irradiated in spaceflight exhibited more wing abnormalities than ground controls. Later it was shown that gravity compensation, when combined with irradiation, can induce a similar effect at ground level.
Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere
The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365
Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere
The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides.
Ming, Qing-Lei; Shen, Jia-Fei; Cheng, Chao; Liu, Chan-Min; Feng, Zhao-Jun
Wolbachia interact with their hosts in a broad variety of relationships that range from parasitism to mutualism. To improve the understanding of complex relationships between Wolbachia and host, we performed not only mating and crossing experiments to investigate effects of Wolbachia on mate choice, mating performance, and reproduction in the confused flour beetles Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), but also quantitative PCR to determine Wolbachia spatiotemporal infection density dynamics within beetles. Wolbachia induced strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, but had no effects on male mate choice and mating performance. Compared with Wolbachia-uninfected females, infected females had very high fecundity irrespective of male's infection status. Wolbachia infection densities in beetles were higher in eggs and adults and in the reproductive tissues and abdomens, whereas Wolbachia density in adults did not differ between sexes and among different ages. These results suggest that Wolbachia have evolved mutualistic interactions with T. confusum, which provides the first evidence of Wolbachia mutualisms in this beetle species. We discussed these findings and their evolutionary implications in light of Wolbachia-host interactions.
Sharma, Rahul; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling plays a key role in early embryonic development and cell migration in vertebrates and in invertebrates. To gain novel insights into FGF signalling in an arthropod, we characterized the fgf1b ortholog in the beetle Tribolium that is not represented in the Drosophila genome. We found that FGF1b dependent signalling organizes the anterior to posterior axis of the early embryo. The loss of Tc-fgf1b function in Tribolium by RNA interference resulted in the reduction of the anteriormost extraembryonic fate, in an anterior shift of embryonic fate and in the loss or malformation of anterior embryonic structures. Without intact extraembryonic membranes the serosa and the amnion, Tc-fgf1b(RNAi) embryos did not undergo morphogenetic movements and remained posteriorly localized throughout embryogenesis. Only weakly affected embryos developed into a cuticle that show dorsally curved bodies with head defects and a dorsal opening. Except for the posterior dorsal amnion, the overall topology of the dorsal-ventral axis seemed unaffected. Moreover, FGF signalling was not required for the onset of mesoderm formation but for fine-tuning this tissue during later development. We also show that in affected embryos the dorsal epidermis was expanded and expressed Tc-dpp at a higher level. We conclude that in the Tribolium blastoderm embryo, FGF1-signalling organizes patterning along the AP-axis and also balances the expression level of Dpp in the dorsal epidermis, a tissue critically involved in dorsal closure.
The effect of short exposures to spinosad-treated wheat and maize was evaluated against adults of four stored-product insects: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the psocid Lepinotus reti...
The efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to clean, concrete floors of empty bins prior to grain storage against field strains of stored-grain insects is unknown. We exposed adults of 16 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); 8 strains ...
Enfield, F D; Hartung, N; Hefeneider, S H
Full-sib matings in two populations of Tribolium which had been selected for increased pupa weight for more than 85 generations resulted in a significant inbreeding depression in male progeny but showed no effect in the female progeny. An analysis of variance of a population produced by backcrossing the selected populations to the inbred lines originally used to establish the select populations (Design-III) indicated some genes were still segregating which produce dominance effects in males but not in females. The data support the hypothesis that a class of genes exists, associated with the autosomes, that differ in their dominance effects of pupa weight in the two sexes.
Environmental and human health problems associated with the use of synthetic pesticides have prompted the demand for non-polluting, biologically specific insecticides. The current study tested the use and action of diatomaceous earth against several stored product pests. Fossil Shield(R) applied to wooden plates was lethal to adult Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium confusum, but larvae of the mealworm were unaffected. Beetles died within 14 days exposure in the absence of food to a dose of 2 and 4 g/m(2), but mortality was reduced in those fed grain bran. Fossil Shield(R) was lethal to first instar larvae of Plodia interpunctella, but not lethal to older larval stages. Two-week old larvae of T. confusum were more sensitive to diatomaceous earth than P. interpunctella at the same age. Contact with diatomaceous earth caused adult Sitophilus granarius, T. molitor and T. confusum to lose weight and reduced their water content, suggesting disruption of "the water barrier". Death of stored product insects treated with diatomaceous earth decreased with increased r.h., due to reduced transpiration through the cuticle. High r.h. delays, or above 60% can prevent, the drying action of diatomaceous earth.
Ou, Jing; Liu, Jin-Bo; Yao, Fu-Jiao; Wang, Xin-Guo; Wei, Zhao-Ming
Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium are all pests of stored products and cause severe economic losses every year. The American black flour beetle Tribolium audax is one of the important pest species of flour beetle, and it is also an important quarantine insect. Here we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of T. audax, which was intercepted by Huangpu Custom in maize from America. The complete circular mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of T. audax was 15,924 bp in length, containing 37 typical coding genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome of T. audax exhibits a gene arrangement and content identical to the most common type in insects. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1, which use AAC as its start codon instead of ATN. Eleven genes use standard complete termination codon (nine TAA, two TAG), whereas the nad4 and nad5 genes end with single T. Except for trnS1 (AGN), all tRNA genes display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. The sizes of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1288 and 780 bp, respectively. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 81.36%. The 5 bp conserved motif TACTA was found in the intergenic region between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1.
Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier
Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent.
Gebauer, Roman; Řepka, Radomír; Šmudla, Radek; Mamoňová, Miroslava; Ďurkovič, Jaroslav
Abstract Although spine variation within cacti species or populations is assumed to be large, the minimum sample size of different spine anatomical and morphological traits required for species description is less studied. There are studies where only 2 spines were used for taxonomical comparison amnog species. Therefore, the spine structure variation within areoles and individuals of one population of Gymnocalycium kieslingii subsp. castaneum (Ferrari) Slaba was analyzed. Fifteen plants were selected and from each plant one areole from the basal, middle and upper part of the plant body was sampled. A scanning electron microscopy was used for spine surface description and a light microscopy for measurements of spine width, thickness, cross-section area, fiber diameter and fiber cell wall thickness. The spine surface was more visible and damaged less in the upper part of the plant body than in the basal part. Large spine and fiber differences were found between upper and lower parts of the plant body, but also within single areoles. In general, the examined traits in the upper part had by 8–17% higher values than in the lower parts. The variation of spine and fiber traits within areoles was lower than the differences between individuals. The minimum sample size was largely influenced by the studied spine and fiber traits, ranging from 1 to 70 spines. The results provide pioneer information useful in spine sample collection in the field for taxonomical, biomechanical and structural studies. Nevertheless, similar studies should be carried out for other cacti species to make generalizations. The large spine and fiber variation within areoles observed in our study indicates a very complex spine morphogenesis. PMID:27698579
Fialho, R F; Stevens, L
Infections with the rickettsial microorganism Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited and occur in a wide range of insect species and several other arthropods. Wolbachia infection often results in unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): crosses between infected males and uninfected females are incompatible and show a reduction of progeny or complete inviability. Unidirectional CI can also occur when males harbouring two incompatible Wolbachia strains are crossed with females infected with only one of the two strains. In the flour beetle Tribolium confusum, Wolbachia infections are of particular interest because of the severity of incompatibility. Typically, no progeny results from the incompatible cross, whereas only partial incompatibility is observed in most other hosts. Werren et al. (1995a) reported that Wolbachia infections in T. confusum consist of two bacterial strains belonging to distinct phylogenic groups, based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the bacterial cell division gene ftsZ. However, Fialho & Stevens (1996) showed that eight strains of T. confusum were infected with a single and common incompatibility type. Here we report analysis of the ftsZ gene by specific PCR amplification. Diagnostic restriction enzyme assays revealed no evidence of double infections in 11 geographic strains of T. confusum, including the strain examined by Werren et al. (1995a). Further, sequence analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in two of these strains displayed no nucleotide variation or evidence of polymorphisms. Results suggest that T. confusum is infected with B-group Wolbachia only. PMID:9263471
Irwin, K K; Carter, P A
Body size is often constrained from evolving. Although artificial selection on body size in insects frequently results in a sizable response, these responses usually bear fitness costs. Further, these experiments tend to select only on size at one landmark age, rather than selecting for patterns of growth over the whole larval life stage. To address whether constraints may be caused by larval growth patterns rather than final size, we implemented a function-valued (FV) trait method of selection, in which entire larval growth curves from Tribolium were artificially selected. The selection gradient function used was previously predicted to give the maximal response and was implemented using a novel selection index in the FV framework. Results indicated a significant response after one generation of selection, but no response in subsequent generations. Correlated responses included increased mortality, increased critical weight, and decreased development time (DT). The lack of response in size and development time after the first generation was likely caused by increased mortality suffered in selected lines; we demonstrated that the selection criterion caused both increased body size and increased mortality. We conclude that artificial selection on continuous traits using FV methods is very efficient and that the constraint of body size evolution is likely caused by a suite of trade-offs with other traits.
Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A
Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of
Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Douglas K
Pests that infest stored food products are an important problem worldwide. In addition to causing loss and consumer rejection of products, these pests can elicit allergic reactions and perhaps spread disease-causing microorganisms. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), grain mites (Acarus siro), and flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) are common stored-product pests that have previously been identified in our laboratory animal facility. These pests traditionally are described as harmless to our animals, but their presence can be cause for concern in some cases. Here we discuss the biology of these species and their potential effects on human and animal health. Occupational health risks are covered, and common monitoring and control methods are summarized.
Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed at 1 day, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-treatment on sealed and unsealed concrete arenas treated with chlorfenapyr at rates of 2.8, 6.9, 13.5, 20.6, 27.5 mg active ingredient/m2. Beetles were held either with or without flour, and a...
Ravisankar, Padmapriyadarshini; Lai, Yi-Ting; Sambrani, Nagraj; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori
Morphological innovation is a fundamental process in evolution, yet its molecular basis is still elusive. Acquisition of elytra, highly modified beetle forewings, is an important innovation that has driven the successful radiation of beetles. Our RNAi screening for candidate genes has identified abrupt (ab) as a potential key player in elytron evolution. In this study, we performed a series of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in both Tribolium and Drosophila to understand the contributions of ab to the evolution of beetle elytra. We found that (i) ab is essential for proper wing vein patterning both in Tribolium and Drosophila, (ii) ab has gained a novel function in determining the unique elytron shape in the beetle lineage, (iii) unlike Hippo and Insulin, other shape determining pathways, the shape determining function of ab is specific to the elytron and not required in the hindwing, (iv) ab has a previously undescribed role in the Notch signal-associated wing formation processes, which appears to be conserved between beetles and flies. These data suggest that ab has gained a new function during elytron evolution in beetles without compromising the conserved wing-related functions. Gaining a new function without losing evolutionarily conserved functions may be a key theme in the evolution of morphologically novel structures.
Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F
Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, which is a repellent produced by the beetles. We determined the effect of five different levels of flour conditioning on cannibalism of red flour beetle eggs and pupae by adult and larval stages. Larvae had the highest rates of egg cannibalism (12 eggs eaten over the 4-d period) followed by female adults (seven eggs consumed). Adult males had the lowest rates of cannibalism with only two eggs consumed. Cannibalism of eggs by females was correlated negatively with the level of flour conditioning. There was no effect of flour conditioning on egg or pupal cannibalism by larvae or adult males. Cannibalism by adult females may decrease as the level of flour conditioning increases because females may spend less time tunneling in highly conditioned flour and more time trying to disperse to other areas that are better for oviposition.
Persistence and efficacy of two diatomaceous earth formulations and a mixture of diatomaceous earth with natural pyrethrum against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat and maize.
Vayias, Basileios J; Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Tsesmeli, Catherine D; Th Buchelos, Constantin
Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the insecticidal and residual effects of three diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations, Insecto, PyriSec and SilicoSec, against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val on wheat and maize. Quantities of wheat and maize were treated with the above formulations at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg kg(-1) and stored at 25 degrees C and 55% relative humidity (RH). Samples were taken on the day of storage and every 30 days until completion of a 360 day period of storage. Adults of T. confusum were exposed to these samples at 25 degrees C and 55% RH and the mortality was measured after 24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 days of exposure. Adult mortality was higher on wheat than on maize. At the beginning of the storage period, mortalities after 14 day exposure on maize treated with the highest rate were 60, 63 and 81% for Insecto, PyriSec and SilicoSec respectively, while on wheat the mortality was 100% for all DEs. On the same commodities 360 days after treatment the respective mortality figures for wheat were 99, 98 and 100%, while in the case of maize they did not exceed 7%. Generally, mortality at exposures < or =48 h decreased with increasing storage time. Furthermore, although mortality on wheat increased with dose, the increase in DE dose from 1000 to 1500 mg kg(-1) resulted in only a small increase in mortality. Thus a DE treatment of 1000 mg kg(-1) was shown to provide long-term protection of wheat against T. confusum, although higher DE application rates and exposure intervals are needed for a satisfactory level of protection of maize against this pest.
Liang, Jun-Yu; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Di; Wang, Jun-Long; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji
The chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia anethoides and the bioactivities of essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. The main components of the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (36.54%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one (10.40%), terpinen-4-ol (8.58%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.20) and pinocarveol (5.08%). The essential oil of A. anethoides possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 28.80 μg/adult and LC50 = 13.05 mg/L air, respectively) and against L. serricorne (LD50 = 24.03 μg/adult and LD50 = 8.04 mg/L air, respectively). The crude oil showed repellent activity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne. Especially, the percentage repellency of essential oil was same level with DEET (positive control) against T. castaneum. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. anethoides had the potential to be developed as insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. serricorne.
Shostak, Allen W
The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently.
Gregarines on a diet: the effects of host starvation on Gregarina confusa Janovy et al., 2007 (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) in Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart, 1933 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae.
Schreurs, Jodi; Janovy, John
This study was designed to explore the nutritional relationship between Gregarina confusa (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) parasites and its coleopteran host, Tribolium destructor, by measuring the cytoplasmic density of gregarines in continuously fed larvae, starved larvae, and larvae refed after starvation. Cultures were maintained in a standard media (whole wheat flour:commercial wheat germ:yeast [30:10:1]). Larvae from control and experimental groups were dissected daily for 3 days then allowed to feed or starve for an additional 3 days. On day 6, the remaining experimental larvae were divided and placed into 2 groups; 1 group remained starved while larvae from the second group were fed a Wheaties flake. Photographs were taken of the parasites daily and analyzed using ScionImage. Gregarines from starved larvae were significantly longer and skinnier than those from fed controls, and there was also a significant difference between gregarine deutomerite cytoplasmic densities. Parasites from refed larvae regained cytoplasmic density within 24 hr and showed morphological similarities to those from fed larvae. This study shows that the Tribolium destructor-Gregarina confusa relationship can be manipulated easily through alterations of host diet and thus is an excellent model for use in the study of chemical relationships between parasites and their hosts.
Prince, Eldon G; Kirkland, Donna; Demuth, Jeffery P
A genome's ability to produce two separate sexually dimorphic phenotypes is an intriguing biological mystery. Microarray-based studies of a handful of model systems suggest that much of the mystery can be explained by sex-biased gene expression evolved in response to sexually antagonistic selection. We present the first whole-genome study of sex-biased expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Tribolium is a model for the largest eukaryotic order, Coleoptera, and we show that in whole-body adults, approximately 20% of the transcriptome is differentially regulated between the sexes. Among T. castaneum, Drosophila melanogaster, and Anopheles gambiae, we identify 416 1:1:1 orthologs with conserved sex-biased expression. Overrepresented functional categories among sex-biased genes are primarily those involved in gamete production and development. The genomic distribution of sex-biased genes in T. castaneum is distinctly nonrandom, with the strongest deficit of male-biased genes on the X chromosome (9 of 793) of any species studied to date. Tribolium also shows a significant enrichment of X-linked female-biased genes (408 of 793). Our analyses suggest that the extensive female bias of Tribolium X chromosome gene expression is due to hyperexpression of X-linked genes in both males and females. We propose that the overexpression of X chromosomes in females is an evolutionary side effect of the need to dosage compensate in males and that mechanisms to reduce female X chromosome gene expression to autosomal levels are sufficient but imperfect.
Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning
The chemical composition of the essential oil of Etlingera yunnanensis rhizomes and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel) were investigated. The essential oil obtained from E. yunnanensis rhizomes with hydrodistillation was performed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be estragole (65.2%), β-caryophyllene (6.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), limonene (5.2%), and α-pinene (2.4%). It was found that the essential oil of E. yunnanensis rhizomes possessed contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 23.33 μg/adult and LD50 = 47.38 μg/cm², respectively). Estragole, 1,8-cineole, and limonene exhibited stronger contact toxicity (LD50 values of 20.41, 18.86, and 13.40 μg/adult, respectively) than β-caryophyllene (LD50 = 41.72 μg/adult) against T. castaneum adults. Estragole possessed stronger contact toxicity (LD50 = 30.22 µg/cm²) than β-caryophyllene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene (LD50 values of 74.11, 321.20, and 239.62 μg/adult, respectively) against L. bostrychophila adults. Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. The essential oil and constituents possessed strong repellent activity against T. castaneum adults. The four individual constituents showed weaker repellent activity than the essential oil against L. bostrychophila adults. The results indicated that the essential oil of E. yunnanensis rhizomes and the individual constituents had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for the control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.
Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning
Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be β-pinene (23.39%), β-caryophyllene (16.43%), α-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and ç-cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 μg/adult and LC(50) = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD(50) = 67.46 μg/cm(2)). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm(2) against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm(2) against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.
A microsporidium isolated from Cryptolestes ferrugineus closely resembled Paranosema whitei and Nosema oryzaephili. Its identity as N. oryzaephili was confirmed by spore size, greater infectivity for Oryzaephilus surinamensis than for Tribolium castaneum and infectivity for Ephestia kuhniella. Whi...
Crawling or running, scraping or shuffling, and wriggling activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanic...
Wang, Ying; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei
The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.
... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...
Accumulated grain dust and flour residues in flour mills can potentially decrease the efficacy of contact insecticides used for control of adult and immature stages of stored product insects. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flour residues on the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin aero...
Guo, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; You, Chunxue; Geng, Zhufeng; Wang, Chengfang; Du, Shushan
The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%), 4-terpineol (11.25%), limonene (11.00%) and β-phellandrene (6.63%). The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm², respectively). The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult). In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm², the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V) of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664) against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm² after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.
Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...
The development, relative retention, and fecundity of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), on six different types of starches, flour, and flour plus yeast was investigated in the laboratory. The viability of T. castaneum eggs was checked initially by placin...
chart as an increasing ramp function. Three species of stored product insects were used as test specimens; the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum...facility can contain a maximum of six insects per pound of product unless the infestation involves Tribolium or Trogoderma insects, the limits of which are
Smith, Frank W; Angelini, David R; Jockusch, Elizabeth L
The antenna was the first arthropod ventral appendage to evolve non-leg identity. Models of antennal evolution have been based on comparisons of antennal and leg identity specification mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which appendages develop from highly derived imaginal discs during the larval period. We test for conservation of the Drosophila antennal identity specification mechanism at metamorphosis in Tribolium castaneum and three other flour beetle species (Tribolium confusum, Tribolium brevicornis and Latheticus oryzae) in the family Tenebrionidae. In Drosophila, loss of function of four transcription factors-homothorax, extradenticle, Distal-less, and spineless-causes large-scale transformations of the antenna to leg identity. Distal-less and spineless function similarly during metamorphosis in T. castaneum. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting homothorax (hth) or extradenticle (exd) caused transformation of the proximal antenna to distal leg identity in flour beetles, but did not affect the identity of the distal antenna. This differs from the functional domain of these genes in early instar Drosophila, where they are required for identity specification throughout the antenna, but matches their functional domain in late instar Drosophila. The similarities between antennal identity specification at metamorphosis in flour beetles and in late larval Drosophila likely reflect the conservation of an ancestral metamorphic developmental mechanism. There were two notable differences in hth/exd loss of function phenotypes between flies and beetles. Flour beetles retained all of their primary segments in both the antenna and legs, whereas flies undergo reduction and fusion of primary segments. This difference in ground state appendage morphology casts doubt on interpretations of developmental ground states as evolutionary atavisms. Additionally, adult Tribolium eyes were transformed to elytron-like structures; we provide a developmental hypothesis for
flour beetles of which the Tribolium sm. are the most prominent food pests (1). The major components of the odoriferous secretion have been identified as...explanation for the p-benzoquinone toxicity to animals. Synthetic EBQ and quinone mix- tures isolated from Tribolium castaneum are known to form...A. SOKOLOFF. Odorus secretions of normal and mutant Tribolium confusum. Science 150:632-633, 1965 4. WIRTZ, R.A., S.L. TAYLOR, and H.G. SEMEY
detoxifi cation of insecticides by cer- tain types of paint used on ships.13 In that study, the red fl our beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), was...Postexposure percentage of surviving Tribolium castaneaum after confi nement for one hour on 20 cm by 20 cm steel plates which had been treated with...were alive or knocked down. Table 4. Postexposure percentage of surviving Tribolium castaneaum after con- fi nement for one hour on 20 cm by 20 cm steel
Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H
Stored-product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of three species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were exposed for 1, 4, 8, and 24 h on brown rice treated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin at the label rate of 0.5 ppm, then removed and placed on untreated rice. Adults of these same species plus the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were exposed on treated brown rice mixed with varying amounts of untreated rice to assess progeny production. Immediate and delayed mortality of exposed adults did not exceed 7% for any exposure interval, but progeny production for T. castaneum was generally lower in comparison with that for the other species. Increasing the amount of treated rice decreased progeny production of R. dominica but not for any Sitophilus species. Mixed results were obtained for T. castaneum and T. variabile. Results show that long exposure times and treatment of an entire rice mass may be necessary to give complete control of stored-product beetles.
Flinn, P W; Subramanyam, Bh; Arthur, F H
Field studies were conducted from July 2002 to January 2003 for evaluating the effects of controlled aeration and a commercial biological insecticide, spinosad, in suppressing insect populations in stored wheat. Six cylindrical steel bins were filled with newly harvested (2002 crop year) hard red winter wheat on 9 and 10 July 2002. Each bin contained 30.7 metric tons (1,100 bu) of wheat. Wheat in two bins was left untreated (control), whereas wheat in two bins was treated with spinosad, and in another two bins was subjected to aeration by using aeration controllers. Spinosad was applied to wheat at the time of bin filling to obtain a rate of 1 mg ([AI])/kg. Aeration controllers were set to run the fans when ambient air temperature fell below 23.9, 18.3, and 7.2 degrees C for the first, second, and third cooling cycles, respectively. We added 400 adults each of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), to the grain at monthly intervals between July and October 2002. Insect density in the bins was estimated monthly by taking 3-kg grain samples from 21 locations within each bin by using a pneumatic grain sampler. No live T. castaneum or C. ferrugineus and very low densities of R. dominica (<0.008 adults per kilogram) were found in wheat treated with spinosad during the 6-mo sampling period. Density of C. ferrugineus and T. castaneum in aerated bins did not exceed two adults per kilogram (the Federal Grain Inspection Service standard for infested wheat), whereas R. dominica increased to 12 adults per kilogram in November 2002, which subsequently decreased to three adults per kilogram in January 2003. In the untreated (control) bins, R. dominica density increased faster than that of C. ferrugineus or T. castaneum. Density of R. dominica peaked at 58 adults per kilogram in October 2002 and decreased subsequently, whereas T. castaneum density was 10 adults
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Liu, Peng; Liu, Xin-Chao; Dong, Hui-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei
The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essential oil being trans-ρ-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (24.56%), D-limonene (9.79%), caryophyllene oxide (9.32%), and cis-carveol (5.26%) followed by β-caryophyllene (4.63%) and bornyl acetate. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated and identified as trans-ρ-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, D-limonene and caryophyllene oxide. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, with LD(50) values of 17.33 μg/adult and 28.94 μg/adult, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (LD(50) = 8.66 μg/adult and 13.66 μg/adult, respectively) exhibited stronger acute toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults than either caryophyllene oxide (LD(50) = 34.09 μg/adult and 45.56 μg/adult) and D-limonene (LD(50) = 29.86 μg/adult and 20.14 μg/adult). The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC(50) values of 11.49 mg/L and 15.08 mg/L, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, respectively, with LC(50) values of 6.01 mg/L and 8.14 mg/L, than caryophyllene oxide (LC(50) = 17.02 mg/L and 15.98 mg/L) and D-limonene (LC(50) = 33.71 mg/L and 21.24 mg/L). The results indicate that the essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for the
Niu, B-L; Shen, W-F; Liu, Y; Weng, H-B; He, L-H; Mu, J-J; Wu, Z-L; Jiang, P; Tao, Y-Z; Meng, Z-Q
Laccase, a member of a group of proteins collectively known as multicopper oxidases, is hypothesized to play an important role in insect cuticle sclerotization by oxidizing catechols in the cuticle to their corresponding quinones, which then catalyze protein cross-linking reactions. Laccase 2 has been proved as the gene required for beetle cuticle tanning through RNA interference (RNAi) experiments on red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptero: Cerambycidae) is the insect serving as a major vector of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causative agent for pine wilt disease. The cDNA of MaLac2 was cloned from the insect in this study. The conceptual amino-acid sequence deduced was much conserved with other known insect laccases, particularly with the enzyme of Tribolium castaneum. Injection in hemolymph of pine sawyer larva of dsRNA targeting the laccase 2 mRNA leads to important alterations of the tanning, hardening and sclerotization of the pupal and adult cuticles. Defaults appear in a dose-dependent manner and high loads of dsRNA are lethal. The decrease of the endogenous laccase 2 mRNA affects the procuticle which is thinner and without the characteristic piling up of successive layers. The observations reinforce the role of laccase 2 as an essential phenoloxidase for making cuticle.
Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Su, Yang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan
Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. is a perennial herb commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. In this work, we took Dendranthema indicum as a target plant and two stored insects which include Tribolium castaneum and Stegobium paniceum adults as target insects. Essential oil obtained from Dendranthema indicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 components representing 92.44% of the oil were identified and the main compounds were found to be chamazulene (15.93%), β-caryophyllene (13.78%), germacrene D (9.11%), and b-cis-farnesene (6.59%). With a further isolation, three constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as chamazulene, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol. Significantly, in the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil and chamazulene exhibited stronger insecticidal and repellent activities against Stegobium paniceum than Tribolium castaneum. The results indicate that additional to its traditional use as Chinese medicinal herb, the essential oil of Dendranthema indicum aerial parts and isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored grains.
Bischof, Ledford J.
This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…
BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS
UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…
Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi
During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool (12.93%), and germacrene D (5.35%). Bioactivities-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of two compounds: safrole and linalool. Safrole showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species and (LD50 = 8.54 for S. zeamais; 4.67 µg/adult for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than linalool (LD50 = 24.88 for S. zeamais; 8.12 µg/adult for T. castaneum). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 13.83 and 6.33 µg/adult, respectively. Linalool also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 10.02 for S. zeamais; 9.34 mg/L for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than safrole (LD50 = 32.96 and 38.25 mg/L), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 14.62 and 16.22 mg/L, respectively. These results suggest that the essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests. PMID:22236213
Huang, Fangneng; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Toews, Michael D
Two field strains of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); and lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and one field strain of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), were collected from hard red winter wheat stored on farms in northeastern Kansas. Fifty eggs of P. interpunctella and 25 beetle adults of each species were exposed to 100 g of untreated wheat or wheat treated with various rates of spinosad, to determine susceptibility of the field and corresponding insecticide-susceptible laboratory strains. Mortality of beetle adults and P. interpunctella larvae was assessed after 7 and 21 d postinfestation, respectively. Field strains of P. interpunctella, C. ferrugineus, and T. castaneum were less susceptible to spinosad than the corresponding laboratory strains. The LD50 and LD95 values for P. interpunctella and C. ferrugineus field strains were 1.7-2.5 times greater than values for corresponding laboratory strains. Adults of both laboratory and field strains of T. castaneum were tolerant to spinosad, resulting in <88% mortality at 8 mg/kg. The LD50 and LD95 values for the field strains of T. castaneum were 2.0-7.5 times greater compared with similar values for the laboratory strain. The field and laboratory strains of R. dominica were highly susceptible to spinosad, and one of the field strains was relatively less susceptible to spinosad than the laboratory strain. Our results confirm a range of biological variability in field populations, which is consistent with findings for other compounds, and underscores the need to adopt resistance management programs with stored grain insect pests. The baseline data generated on the susceptibility of the four insect species to spinosad will be useful for monitoring resistance development and for setting field rates.
Chu, Sha Sha; Wang, Cheng Fang; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Shao Liang; Liu, Zhi Long
During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool (12.93%), and germacrene D (5.35%). Bioactivities-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of two compounds: safrole and linalool. Safrole showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species and (LD₅₀ = 8.54 for S. zeamais; 4.67 µg/adult for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than linalool (LD₅₀ = 24.88 for S. zeamais; 8.12 µg/adult for T. castaneum). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD₅₀ values of 13.83 and 6.33 µg/adult, respectively. Linalool also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC₅₀ = 10.02 for S. zeamais; 9.34 mg/L for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than safrole (LD₅₀ = 32.96 and 38.25 mg/L), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC₅₀ values of 14.62 and 16.22 mg/L, respectively. These results suggest that the essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.
... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...
Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.
This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…
Grabowski, Stanley M.; And Others
Model programs are described for two areas of adult education--the preparation of adult educators and the training conducted by adult educators. In Chapter One, Phyllis Caldwell reviews the literature concerning the preservice training of adult educators, concentrating on the competencies of adult education administrators and teachers. In Chapter…
... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...
... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide care and ... adults who need assistance or supervision during the day. Programs offer relief to family members and caregivers, ...
Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...
Fang, Rui; Jiang, Cai Hong; Wang, Xiu Yi; Zhang, Hai Ming; Liu, Zhi Long; Zhou, Ligang; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei
During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Carum carvi fruits was found to possess strong contact toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD₅₀ values of 3.07 and 3.29 μg/adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC₅₀ values of 3.37 and 2.53 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be (R)-carvone (37.98%) and D-limonene (26.55%) followed by α-pinene (5.21), cis-carveol (5.01%) and β-myrcene (4.67%). (R)-Carvone and D-limonene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. (R)-Carvone and D-limonene showed strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD₅₀ = 2.79 and 29.86 μg/adult) and T. castaneum (LD₅₀ = 2.64 and 20.14 μg/adult). (R)-Carvone and D-limonene also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC₅₀ = 2.76 and 48.18 mg/L) and T. castaneum adults (LC₅₀ = 1.96 and 19.10 mg/L).
Shufran, A A; Mulder, P G; Payton, M E; Shufran, K A
A no-choice test was performed to determine survival and reproductive capacity of stored-product insect pests on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) Koch. Insects used were Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); and rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Fifty adults of each beetle species or 10 reproductive pairs of P. interpunctella adults were placed in 0.5-liter containers with either whole-shell pecans, cracked-shell pecans, randomly selected in-shell pecans, pecan nutmeats, cracked wheat, or glass beads and held at 28 degrees C, 60-70% relative humidity, and 16:8 (L:D) photoperiod for 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk. Four replications of each insect-diet-interval combination were performed. Larvae of P. interpunctella, O. surinamensis, T. castaneum, C. ferrugineus, and adult P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis developed on cracked and nutmeat pecan diets. R. dominica did not complete reproduction on pecans. Knowledge that these pests can reproduce on stored pecan will assist pecan growers, accumulators, and storage facilities in preventing insect outbreaks on their product.
Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Yang, Kai; Huang, Dong-Ye; Wei, Jian-Yu; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Bai, Jia-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan
In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15%) and safrole (17.15%), followed by myristicin (14.18%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%). After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.
Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others
Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…
Riddiford, Lynn M
In insects juvenile hormone (JH) regulates both metamorphosis and reproduction. This lecture focuses on our current understanding of JH action at the molecular level in both of these processes based primarily on studies in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The roles of the JH receptor complex and the transcription factors that it regulates during larval molting and metamorphosis are summarized. Also highlighted are the intriguing interactions of the JH and insulin signaling pathways in both imaginal disc development and vitellogenesis. Critical actions of JH and its receptor in the timing of maturation of the adult optic lobe and of female receptivity in Drosophila are also discussed.
Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna
Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)
Gill, Sam D.
Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…
Gui, S-H; Jiang, H-B; Liu, X-Q; Xu, L; Wang, J-J
Initially, natalisin (NTL) was identified from three holometabolous insect species, Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Bombyx mori, and was documented to regulate reproductive behaviours in D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. In this study, we report the sequences of the NTL precursor and its receptor (NTLR) from an important agricultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). NTLR is a typical G-protein coupled receptor and phylogenetic analysis showed that B. dorsalis NTLR was closely related to insect natalisin receptors from other species. A functional assay of NTLR transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that it was activated by putative natalisin mature peptides in a concentration-dependent manner, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50 ) at nanomolar or micromolar levels. As indicated by quantitative real-time PCR, both NTL and NTLR had the highest expression in the central nervous system of B. dorsalis compared with the other tested tissues. Three pairs of adult brain neurones of B. dorsalis were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against D. melanogaster NTL4, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Moreover, RNA interference mediated by double-stranded RNA injection in adults provided evidence for the important roles of NTL in regulating both male and female mating frequencies in this fly.
Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan
During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects.
Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel
Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.
Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.
The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.
... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...
Hall, Clyde W.
Summarized are speeches dealing with adult education's stiff-necked adherence to middle-class values; the need for upgraded management skills; and a report of a study of adult education in area vocational schools in Georgia. (Author/AJ)
Miller, Harry; And Others
Folk high schools, study circles, labor market training, union education, and municipal adult schools are the major providers of adult education in Sweden. For the most part, these programs are financed by the government and are tuition free. Folk high schools, which are the oldest type, were founded to provide young adults with a general civic…
The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…
Walsko, Gregory M.
The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…
Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.
Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…
Short, W. Fisher
The impact of urbanization, the main tasks facing the adult educator in an urban context, identifying the casualties of urbanization, recognizing and dealing with social deprivation, and the various agencies involved in adult education are relevant considerations for adult educators. (MW)
Foley, Griff, Ed.
This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…
Sutherland, Peter, Ed.
This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…
Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; And Others
This volume contains 13 articles that reflect the development of adult education in Israel during recent years. The material relates to the principal areas with which the Division of Adult Education deals: formal and nonformal education for adults, language and cultural absorption of new immigrants, and training of facilitators for parental…
Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon
Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…
The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…
Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.
A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…
Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.
A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…
Cora, Marie T., Ed.; Wood, Nicole R., Ed.
This handbook was written specifically for volunteer tutors but is appropriate for teachers, student interns, coordinators, and others working with Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) adult learners. It presents an overview of adult and non-traditional education models, some principles of reading and writing, a…
Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.
"Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…
Boegen, Anne, Ed.
Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…
Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned…
South Carolina Literacy Resource Center, Columbia.
This curriculum framework for adult literacy was written by 21 South Carolina adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructors, as submitted to the South Carolina Literacy Resource Center. It is based on current theories in the fields of adult education and second language acquisition and is designed to be flexible so that it may be adapted to…
... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder ...
Arthur, Frank H
The insect growth regulator methoprene can be mixed into the matrix used to comprise bags and other packaging materials. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate the efficacy of different types of methoprene-treated packaging towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum Jacquelin duVal, the confused flour beetle, two common insect species that infest stored products. Tests were conducted by creating arenas in which larvae were exposed on the packaging surface along with a flour food source, and assessments were made on adults emerging from the exposed progeny. Tests were also done by exposing adults, again with a flour food source, removing the adults after one week, and assessing adult emergence of progeny from those parental adults. In tests with larvae exposed on methoprene-treated birdseed bags, the outside surface had more activity compared to the inside surface, especially on T. confusum. In other studies with different types of packaging materials, there was generally 100% inhibition of adult emergence of exposed larvae or of progeny adults when parental adults were exposed on the methoprene-treated packaging. The best technique for evaluation was to expose late-stage larvae as the test life stage. Results show the potential of using methoprene-treated packaging for bagged storage of processed grains and grain products.
Arthur, Frank H.
The insect growth regulator methoprene can be mixed into the matrix used to comprise bags and other packaging materials. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate the efficacy of different types of methoprene-treated packaging towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum Jacquelin duVal, the confused flour beetle, two common insect species that infest stored products. Tests were conducted by creating arenas in which larvae were exposed on the packaging surface along with a flour food source, and assessments were made on adults emerging from the exposed progeny. Tests were also done by exposing adults, again with a flour food source, removing the adults after one week, and assessing adult emergence of progeny from those parental adults. In tests with larvae exposed on methoprene-treated birdseed bags, the outside surface had more activity compared to the inside surface, especially on T. confusum. In other studies with different types of packaging materials, there was generally 100% inhibition of adult emergence of exposed larvae or of progeny adults when parental adults were exposed on the methoprene-treated packaging. The best technique for evaluation was to expose late-stage larvae as the test life stage. Results show the potential of using methoprene-treated packaging for bagged storage of processed grains and grain products. PMID:27399784
Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji
The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50 = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.
The insect growth regulator methoprene has been impregnated onto various packaging materials to control stored product insects, and is labeled for use in this manner in the United States. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate efficacy towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour b...
Eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were imaged with scanning electron microscopy to explore how respiratory openings on the chorion surface may be related to the efficacy of fumigants. Each P. interpunctella eg...
Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat was evaluated against 11 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grai...
A benchtop flameless catalytic infrared emitter was evaluated in the laboratory to disinfest wheat containing different life stages (ages) of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica; rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae; and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The emitter produces infrared in the ...
An effective monitoring program is the foundation of good Integrated Pest Management programs for food facilities such as mills, processing plants, warehouses, and retail stores. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major stored-product pest of food facilities, especially mills, and a nu...
The insect vasopressin-like peptide (AVPL) is of special interest because of its potential function in the regulation of diuresis. Genome sequences of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum yielded the genes encoding AVPL and AVPL receptor, whereas the homologous sequences are absent in the genome...
Effects of age, sex, presence or absence of food, mating status, quantity of food, and food deprivation on rate of and time of flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were determined. Flight initiation declined with increasing age in both presence and absence of food...
Despite their fundamental importance for growth, the mechanisms that regulate food intake are poorly understood. Our previous work demonstrated that insect sulfakinin (SK) signaling is involved in inhibiting feeding in an important model and pest insect, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. B...
We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...
A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...
Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan
This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.
Peuß, Robert; Wensing, Kristina U; Woestmann, Luisa; Eggert, Hendrik; Milutinović, Barbara; Sroka, Marlene G U; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives.
Wensing, Kristina U.; Eggert, Hendrik; Scharsack, Jörn P.
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives. PMID:27152227
Lomakin, Joseph; Huber, Patricia A; Eichler, Christian; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Gehrke, Stevin H
We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytra (modified forewings that are composed primarily of highly sclerotized dorsal and less sclerotized ventral cuticles) from the beetles Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) and Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm). Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult eclosion, the elytron of Tenebrio is ductile and soft with a Young's modulus (E) of 44 ± 8 MPa, but it becomes brittle and stiff with an E of 2400 ± 1100 MPa when fully tanned. With increasing tanning, dynamic elastic moduli (E') increase nearly 20-fold, whereas the frequency dependence of E' diminishes. These results support the hypothesis that cuticle tanning involves cross-linking of components, while drying to minimize plasticization has a lesser impact on cuticular stiffening and frequency dependence. Suppression of the tanning enzymes laccase-2 (TcLac2) or aspartate 1-decarboxylase (TcADC) in Tribolium altered mechanical characteristics consistent with hypotheses that (1) ADC suppression favors formation of melanic pigment with a decrease in protein cross-linking and (2) Lac2 suppression reduces both cuticular pigmentation and protein cross-linking.
California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015
For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…
The Bookmark, 1985
Eight articles in this Spring 1985 issue of The Bookmark focus on young adult library services. In addition to these thematic articles, an introduction and three reports are presented. The issue contains: (1) "In Perspective" (E. J. Josey); (2) "Young Adult Literature in the 1980's--Awesome!" (Ellin Chu); (3) "Young Adult…
As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…
A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...
For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…
This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…
Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.
As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…
Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…
Saadat, Ahmed H.
The philosophy behind adult literacy in Zanzibar is that adult literacy is a process whereby the illiterate is empowered to become aware of his or her potential. Literacy activities emphasize a relation to work, sometimes known as functional literacy. Specific objectives of literacy programs are to improve living conditions, impart self-reliant…
Proposes a "spatial-temporal" model conceiving adult vocational development as a complex and constant readjustment in always changing perception of personal space-time, based on interviews of 786 adults. Presents two propositions of this model: the continuous alternation between states of instability and interaction of influences.…
This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…
Flint, Thomas A.; Frey, Ruth
The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning is currently cataloguing alternative programming features that are most effective with adult students in a best practices inventory organized around a framework of high-level descriptive principles of effectiveness. This chapter identifies a few interesting features from a quick survey of this…
Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.
This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education);…
Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…
The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…
Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C
Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.
Allahvaisi, Somayeh; Purmirza, Ali Asghar; Safaralizade, Mohamad Hasan
Despite modern methods of packaging, stored agricultural products are still under attack by stored-insect pests. Therefore, determination of the best polymer and appropriate thickness inhibiting the penetration of the insects must be considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of penetration and the rates of contamination by nine important stored product pest insects for three conventional flexible polymers (polyethylene, cellophane and polypropylene) at two thicknesses (16.5 and 29 microm), which are used as pouches for packing of agricultural products. We used adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera), S. granarius (Coleoptera), R. dominica (Coleoptera), C. maculates (Coleoptera), O. surinamensis (Coleoptera), and larvae of P. interpunctella (Lepidoptera), E. kuehniella (Lepidoptera), S. cerealella (Lepidoptera) and T. granarium (Coleoptera). Results showed that for most of the species penetration occurred between 4 days and 2 weeks, but there were significant differences (p < or = 0.05) in the penetration of three polymers (cellophane, polyethylene and polypropylene) by the insects. Among the polymers, polyethylene with a thickness of 16.5 microm showed the highest degree of penetration and was the most unsuitable polymer for packaging of foodstuffs. Application of this polymer led to a complete infestation of the product and a lot of punctures were created by the insects. In contrast, no penetration was observed in polypropylene polymer with a thickness of 29 microm. Furthermore, adults and larvae of all species showed a much lower penetration when there was no food present in the pouches and this was the case for all polymers tested.
Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret
Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033
Pimentel, Marco Aurélio G; Faroni, Lêda Rita D'A; Tótola, Marcos R; Guedes, Raul Narciso C
Resistance to fumigants has been frequently reported in insect pests of stored products and is one of the obstacles in controlling these pests. The authors studied phosphine resistance and its physiological basis in adult insects of 12 populations of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae), ten populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Bostrichidae) and eight populations of Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae) from Brazil, and the possible existence of fitness costs associated with phosphine resistance in the absence of this fumigant. The bioassays for the detection of phosphine resistance followed the FAO standard method. The production of carbon dioxide and the instantaneous rate of population increase (r(i)) of each population of each species were correlated with their resistance ratios at the LC(50). The resistance ratio at LC(50) in T. castaneum ranged from 1.0- to 186.2-fold, in R. dominica from 2.0- to 71.0-fold and in O. surinamensis from 1.9- to 32.2-fold. Ten populations of T. castaneum, nine populations of R. dominica and seven populations of O. surinamensis were resistant to phosphine. In all three species there was significant association (P < 0.05) between respiration rate and phosphine resistance. The populations with lower carbon dioxide production showed a higher resistance ratio, suggesting that the lower respiration rate is the physiological basis of phosphine resistance by reducing the fumigant uptake in the resistant insects. Conversely, populations with higher r(i) showed lower resistance ratios, which could indicate a lower rate of reproduction of the resistant populations compared with susceptible populations. Thus, management strategies based on the interruption of phosphine fumigation may result in reestablishment of susceptibility, and shows good potential for more effective management of phosphine-resistant populations.
This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...
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The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)
Taylor, J. Rodney
The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)
... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...
Epstein, Connie C.
Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)
This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.
Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.
Kuitert, R B
The number of adults undergoing orthodontic treatment has increased strongly and the average age that adult patients undergo orthodontic treatment increased steadily although 3/4 is still younger than 27 years. In adults the facial skeletal pattern can only be changed in a very confined way, consequently in case of an abnormal skeletal pattern one has to choose between a combined orthodontic-surgical approach (which is the case in 18% of the patients) and a compromised orthodontic treatment, if necessary combined with other disciplines. It is still controversial whether tooth movement in adults is slower and more difficult than in adolescents. The same holds true for the risk for loss of periodontal support, for root resorption, for gnathologic problems and for relapse. As related to these variables there appears to be a large individual variation. Many adults show one or more problems in their dentition that may influence their orthodontic treatment. About 60% of the adult patients need a multidisciplinary approach. The development of implantology and of bone regeneration and bone grafting has lead to more combined treatments. The risks of such complex treatment plans are generally larger than those for more simple kinds of treatment. A very careful treatment planning and good communication between the different specialists is essential. Moreover the treatment plan with all its (dis)advantages has to be extensively discussed with the patient.
In this paper, the author looks at the state of adult education in Ireland. He is suggesting that the state here means both the condition in which one now finds adult education and the role of the Irish State in adult education. He briefly outlines some recent developments in adult education, makes some critical comments on the state of adult…
According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…
Intended for planners of adult education curriculums, this literature review explains the concepts involved in designing an adult education program, provides information about the roles of the people involved in the adult education process, cites some program planning models, and applies the program planning principles to an Adult Basic Education…
Lucas, John A., Ed.
Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of…
Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…
Perez-Mendoza, Joel; Throne, James E; Dowell, Floyd E; Baker, James E
The accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for predicting the chronological age of adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.); the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), three pests of stored grain, was examined. NIRS-predicted age correlated well with actual age of these three species. Age predictions in S. oryzae by using the NIRS method are not dependent upon adult sex or temperatures to which adult weevils are exposed. Results indicated that water content decreased with increasing age in rice weevil adults, and excluding wavelengths at which water absorbs NIR radiation reduced the accuracy of correct classification. Additionally, removing cuticular lipids from insects resulted in a significant decrease in classification accuracy of weevils, indicating that these compounds may be partly responsible for the ability of NIRS to differentiate young from old beetles. NIRS is a nondestructive technique that can be used to age-grade large numbers of adult stored-product beetles, information that could help to increase the accuracy of population models for these pest species.
Kanwar, Amrinder Jit
Adult-onset atopic dermatitis is still an under recognized condition as there are only few studies regarding this entity. As compared to childhood onset atopic dermatitis, clinical features of adult onset atopic dermatitis are still not categorized. Adult atopic dermatitis can present for the first time in adult age with atypical morphology or may progress from childhood onset. This article reviews the characteristic clinical features of adult atopic dermatitis, associated risk factors and management. PMID:27904186
Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192
Rao, N Madhusudhana; Rambabu, K Murali; Rao, S Harinarayana
We generated transient transgenic zebrafish by applying electrical pulses subsequent to injection of DNA into muscle tissue of 3-6-month old adult zebrafish. Electroporation parameters, such as number of pulses, voltage, and amount of plasmid DNA, were optimized and found that 6 pulses of 40 V/cm at 15 mug/fish increased the luciferase expression by 10-fold compared with those in controls. By measuring the expression of luciferase, in vivo by electroporation in adult zebrafish and in vitro using fish cell line (Xiphophorus xiphidium A2 cells), the strength of three promoters (CMV, human EF-1alpha, and Xenopus EF-1alpha) was compared. Subsequent to electroporation after injecting DNA in the mid region of zebrafish, expression of green fluorescent protein was found far away from the site of injection in the head and the tail sections. Thus, electroporation in adult zebrafish provides a rapid way of testing the behavior of gene sequences in the whole organism.
Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R
This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed.
Cabral Rodríguez, R; Arrieta Blanco, F J; Vicente Sánchez, F; Cordobés Martín, F J; Moreno Caballero, B
Coeliac disease is a chronic pathology of the small intestine. The pathogenic mechanism is caused by gluten intolerance. This disease present a characteristic and unspecific injury that causes nutrients and vitamins malabsorption. In adults is an underdiagnosed entity due to atypical forms. To make a premature diagnosis is basic because gluten-free diet prevent the complications after long-term like the intestinal T lymphoma and other digestives malignancies, and decrease the mortality of these patients. We present a case of adult oligosymptomatic coeliac disease in a patient with iron deficiency anaemia and vaginal bleeding. We study the clinic-nutrition and the alterations evolution of the patient.
Adults Learning, 2009
The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…
Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…
House, John W.
This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)
In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…
Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).
The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…
The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…
Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others
Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)
The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…
Rogers, Alan; Illeris, Knud
This dialog between Alan Rogers and Knud Illeris debates arguments Rogers made in a previous article about the differences between adult and child learning. Rogers emphasizes differences in teacher-learner relationships. Illeris believes the differences result from different motivations for learning. (SK)
Kastenbaum, Robert, Ed.
This encyclopedia contains 106 articles on adult development that were written by more than 75 specialists in such diverse fields as anthropology, communication, education, health sciences, history, and psychology. In a guide to related topics that is presented at the beginning of the encyclopedia, the 106 articles are grouped under the following…
This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…
Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz
Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…
Illinois State Library, Springfield.
Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…
Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.
This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected…
... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...
MILLER, JUSTIN H.
TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA…
... Children Newly Diagnosed: Older Adults Related Topics on AIDS.gov Aging with HIV/AIDS National HIV/AIDS ... an Emerging Challenge Last revised: 07/10/2015 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...
Identity and importance: I 15 a. Confused flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, 25 specimens (Condemn @ levels > 3/1 lb sample). b. Saw-toothed grain beetles... Tribolium castancum, 21 larvae, 2- adults (Condemn @ levels represented). b. Saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, 1-adult. c. ? flour...beetles, Tribolium spp., 3-adult. (Too damaged to identify to species). The Medical Zoology Branch was visited at least once per week by personnel
Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.
Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…
Crowe, Chris, Ed.
Outlines some of the many confusions about young adult literature. Sheds some light on what young adult literature is (defining it as all genres of literature published since 1967 that are written for and marketed to young adults). Discusses briefly how it can be used in schools. Offers a list of the author's 20 favorite books for teenagers. (SR)
Chen, Joseph C.
As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…
Belles, Xavier; Santos, Carolina G
Recent studies on transcription factor E93 revealed that it triggers adult morphogenesis in Blattella germanica, Tribolium castaneum and Drosophila melanogaster. Moreover, we show here that Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a transducer of the antimetamorphic action of juvenile hormone (JH), represses E93 expression. Kr-h1 is upstream of E93, and upstream of Kr-h1 is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), the latter being the JH receptor in hemimetabolan and holometabolan species. As such, the Met - Kr-h1 - E93 pathway (hereinafter named "MEKRE93 pathway") appears to be central to the status quo action of JH, which switch adult morphogenesis off and on in species ranging from cockroaches to flies. The decrease in Kr-h1 mRNA and the rise of E93 expression that triggers adult morphogenesis occur at the beginning of the last instar nymph or in the prepupae of hemimetabolan and holometabolan species, respectively. This suggests that the hemimetabolan last nymph (considering the entire stage, from the apolysis to the last instar until the next apolysis that gives rise to the adult) is ontogenetically homologous to the holometabolan pupa (also considered between two apolyses, thus comprising the prepupal stage).
... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...
Suggests some ideas that could stimulate and be incentives for defining programs of adult education in the future. These involve changing priorities, developing a framework which allows adult education programs to be established, and managing decision-making processes. (CT)
... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Age & Young Adults College Addiction Studies Programs Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ...
... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...
... Vaccination Recommendations Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...
Kemper, Susan; And Others
Investigates older adults' reading comprehension skills through syntactic measures and measures of sentence content. Analyzes the apparent reading difficulties of older adults. Provides guidelines for the preparation of prose materials for older readers. (HB)
Heffernan, James M.
Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…
Tsai, Kuan Chen
Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…
National Languages and Literacy Inst. of Australia, Melbourne. Adult Education Resource and Information Service.
This information sheet provides a summary of general observations regarding adult learners. Adults from different walks of life may seek out learning at different times in their lives, for different reasons, and for vastly different purposes. Adult learning groups may include students of different ages, cultures, and educational and socioeconomic…
Shefrin, Carol; Shafer, Dehra; Forlizzi, Lori
The Assessment Tools for Adult Education project was designed to provide training and support to staff of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education (ABLE) funded programs to help them use assessment tools and procedures to document the learning gains of the adult students they serve. The following candidate assessment…
All educational levels have been attacked by politicians and haunted by suspicion, and adult education has drawn more than its share. Interest groups have had a large effect on adult education. The construction of a theoretical model of the politics of adult education is suggested. (DS)
Costanzo, Meg Ryback
In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…
Worthington, Robert M.
The Associate Commissioner of the Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education is responsible for two broad and important programs, career education and broader and better services in adult education. Career education is a lifelong educational process beginning in kindergarten and extending through adult and continuing education. Career…
Adult Education and Development, 1994
The publication is a half-yearly journal for adult education in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Issue 42 includes the following: "Adult Education for Self-Reliance in Community Health Education Programmes" (Kweka); "Promoting Good Nutrition" (Mangvwat); "Incorporating Health-Improvement Activities in Adult Education…
This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning…
Cassara, Beverly Benner, Ed.
This book contains the following papers about development/delivery of adult education through the efforts of multinational and bilateral government donors and the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE): "Preface" (Beverly Benner Cassara); "Introduction: Adult Education and Democracy" (Francisco Vio Grossi);…
Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555
... Problem More adults with disabilities need to get physical activity. Adults with disabilities who get no physical activity ... Adults with disabilities are more likely to get physical activity if doctors recommend it. Only 44% of adults ...
Williams, Robert B.
An aspect of an undergraduate psychology course on adult development was the preparation of case records on adults who consented to be studied. Participants (1) developed their abilities to observe and accurately record adult behavior across a variety of ages and contexts; (2) withheld judgments about behavior when evidence was lacking; (3)…
Scharf, Inon; Braf, Hila; Ifrach, Naama; Rosenstein, Shai; Subach, Aziz
The effects of different temperatures and diets experienced during distinct life stages are not necessarily similar. The silver-spoon hypothesis predicts that developing under favorable conditions will always lead to better performing adults under all adult conditions. The environment-matching hypothesis suggests that a match between developmental and adult conditions will lead to the best performing adults. Similar to the latter hypothesis, the beneficial-acclimation hypothesis suggests that either developing or acclimating as adults to the test temperature will improve later performance under such temperature. We disentangled here between the effect of growth, adult, and mating conditions (temperature and diet) on reproduction in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), in reference to the reproduction success rate, the number of viable offspring produced, and the mean offspring mass 13 days after mating. The most influential stage affecting reproduction differed between the diet and temperature experiments: adult temperature vs. parental growth diet. Generally, a yeast-rich diet or warmer temperature improved reproduction, supporting the silver-spoon hypothesis. However, interactions between life stages made the results more complex, also fitting the environment-matching hypothesis. Warm growth temperature positively affected reproduction success, but only when adults were kept under the same warm temperature. When the parental growth and adult diets matched, the mean offspring mass was greater than in a mismatch between the two. Additionally, a match between warm adult temperature and warm offspring growth temperature led to the largest offspring mass. These findings support the environment-matching hypothesis. Our results provide evidence for all these hypotheses and demonstrate that parental effects and plasticity may be induced by temperature and diet. PMID:26348929
Scharf, Inon; Braf, Hila; Ifrach, Naama; Rosenstein, Shai; Subach, Aziz
The effects of different temperatures and diets experienced during distinct life stages are not necessarily similar. The silver-spoon hypothesis predicts that developing under favorable conditions will always lead to better performing adults under all adult conditions. The environment-matching hypothesis suggests that a match between developmental and adult conditions will lead to the best performing adults. Similar to the latter hypothesis, the beneficial-acclimation hypothesis suggests that either developing or acclimating as adults to the test temperature will improve later performance under such temperature. We disentangled here between the effect of growth, adult, and mating conditions (temperature and diet) on reproduction in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), in reference to the reproduction success rate, the number of viable offspring produced, and the mean offspring mass 13 days after mating. The most influential stage affecting reproduction differed between the diet and temperature experiments: adult temperature vs. parental growth diet. Generally, a yeast-rich diet or warmer temperature improved reproduction, supporting the silver-spoon hypothesis. However, interactions between life stages made the results more complex, also fitting the environment-matching hypothesis. Warm growth temperature positively affected reproduction success, but only when adults were kept under the same warm temperature. When the parental growth and adult diets matched, the mean offspring mass was greater than in a mismatch between the two. Additionally, a match between warm adult temperature and warm offspring growth temperature led to the largest offspring mass. These findings support the environment-matching hypothesis. Our results provide evidence for all these hypotheses and demonstrate that parental effects and plasticity may be induced by temperature and diet.
Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Adult scoliosis can be separated into four major groups: Type 1: Primary degenerative scoliosis, mostly on the basis of a disc and/or facet joint arthritis, affecting those structures asymmetrically with predominantly back pain symptoms, often accompanied either by signs of spinal stenosis (central as well as lateral stenosis) or without. These curves are often classified as "de novo" scoliosis. Type 2: Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine which progresses in adult life and is usually combined with secondary degeneration and/or imbalance. Some patients had either no surgical treatment or a surgical correction and fusion in adolescence in either the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. Those patients may develop secondary degeneration and progression of the adjacent curve; in this case those curves belong to the type 3a. Type 3: Secondary adult curves: (a) In the context of an oblique pelvis, for instance, due to a leg length discrepancy or hip pathology or as a secondary curve in idiopathic, neuromuscular and congenital scoliosis, or asymmetrical anomalies at the lumbosacral junction; (b) In the context of a metabolic bone disease (mostly osteoporosis) combined with asymmetric arthritic disease and/or vertebral fractures. Sometimes it is difficult to decide, what exactly the primary cause of the curve was, once it has significantly progressed. However, once an asymmetric load or degeneration occurs, the pathomorphology and pathomechanism in adult scoliosis predominantly located in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine is quite predictable. Asymmetric degeneration leads to increased asymmetric load and therefore to a progression of the degeneration and deformity, as either scoliosis and/or kyphosis. The progression of a curve is further supported by osteoporosis, particularly in post-menopausal female
Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.
Burmeister, L A; Valdivia, T; Nuttall, F Q
Hereditary fructose intolerance was diagnosed in a 69-year-old man on the basis of his medical history and the response to an intravenous fructose tolerance test. Three men of the same age as our patient were used as control subjects. Since the severity may vary and affected individuals self-impose fructose and sucrose restriction, they are essentially symptom free. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history. The prevalence of this condition in adults is unknown. It is rare but is likely to be more common than data in the literature would indicate.
Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael
Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial
Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz
Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its
Eshraghi, Adrien A; Frachet, Bruno; Van De Water, Tom R; Eter, Elias
The management of hearing loss in adults depends of etiology and its severity. It can be as simple as treating an external otitis, removing an impacted cerumen or a more complex one such as a surgery for otosclerosis. The hearing loss is managed mainly by new advances in hearing aids technology and implantable hearing devices which include BAHA, middle ear implant and cochlear implants. The research is focused on developing new molecules for intracochlear drug therapy to treat noise induced hearing loss, drug ototoxicity as well as hearing loss related to cochlear implant insertion trauma. Antioxidant molecules, molecules against apoptosis are at this time the most promising molecules than need further investigations.
Fraga, Felipe B; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Tavares, Marcelo T
We observed the viability of extruded starch products used as impact protector for fragile packing as a food source of the following stored grains pests: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera). Cryptolestes ferrugineus, L. serricorne and T. castaneum were found in these products, which are used by them as shelter and food. Under experimentation, we observed the development of O. surinamensis, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella feeding on this food source. Thus, it is recorded the viability of such material to be a potential dispersal vehicle to spread insect pests.