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Sample records for adult vaccine quiz

  1. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Adolescent and Adult Vaccine Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Españ ... adolescentes y adultos Did you know that certain vaccines are recommended for adults and adolescents?* Take this ...

  2. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  3. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  4. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  5. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  6. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  7. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... next medical appointment. Staying Up-to-date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  8. Vaccinations for the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Gowrishankar; Biedenbender, Rex; Davidson, Harley Edward; Gravenstein, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Vaccine response declines with age, but currently recommended vaccines are safe and effective in reducing, if not preventing, disease altogether. Over the last decade, advancements in vaccine immunogenicity, either by increasing dose or conjugating vaccines to protein, have resulted in more immunogenic vaccines that also seem more effective in reducing clinical disease both for influenza and pneumococcus. Meanwhile, there is a resurgence in incident pertussis, exceeding prevalence from five decades ago, adding older adults to a recommended target vaccination group. This article discusses currently available vaccines, in the context of current epidemiology and recommendations, for older adults. PMID:27394026

  9. Sarcoidosis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Sarcoidosis Quiz Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown cause that leads ... various organs in the body. The outcome of sarcoidosis varies. The disease leads to organ damage in ...

  10. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » About the NHLBI » Organization » National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) » Patient & Public Information » Sleep Quiz National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Research Professional Education Patient & Public Information Communications ...

  11. Older Adults' Level of Knowledge about Old Age Using the Facts of Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Arleen J.

    The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been used in different studies to assess the level of knowledge about old age. It contains 25 factual statements concerning basic physical, mental, and social facts and the most common misconceptions about aging. One purpose of this study was to identify the most frequent misconceptions in a group of older adults…

  12. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  13. Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  14. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  15. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  16. [Pneumococcal vaccines. New conjugate vaccines for adults].

    PubMed

    Campins Martí, Magda

    2015-11-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and are one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Children under 2 years have a higher incidence rate, followed by adults over 64 years. The main risk group are individuals with immunodeficiency, and those with anatomical or functional asplenia, but can also affect immunocompetent persons with certain chronic diseases. Significant progress has been made in the last 10 years in the prevention of these infections. Until a few years ago, only the 23-valent non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was available. Its results were controversial in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, and with serious limitations on the type of immune response induced. The current possibility of using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in adults has led to greater expectations in improving the prevention of pneumococcal disease in these age groups.

  17. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low

  18. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  19. Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Vaccines are critical components for protecting HIV-infected adults from an increasing number of preventable diseases. However, missed opportunities for vaccination among HIV-infected persons persist, likely due to concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines, as well as the changing nature of vaccine guidelines. In addition, the optimal timing of vaccination among HIV-infected adults in regards to HIV stage and receipt of antiretroviral therapy remain important questions. This article provides a review of the current recommendations regarding vaccines among HIV-infected adults and a comprehensive summary of the evidence-based literature of the benefits and risks of vaccines among this vulnerable population. PMID:25029589

  20. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  1. Blood Pressure Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  2. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  3. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...

  4. 10 Practice Recommendations in Adult Vaccination Administration.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Stewart, Rosalyn W

    2016-02-01

    Although the provision of immunoprophylaxis to children has become routine in the practice of pediatric preventive care, the same is not true in adult primary care. Contributing to this problem is a lack of knowledge among providers of adult preventive care. This review aimed to bolster providers' understanding of adult vaccinations by highlighting changes in vaccination recommendations and addressing common knowledge gaps. This is not a comprehensive list of vaccination recommendations, but rather the "top 10" common misconceptions, advancements, and updates we have found in our reading of the vaccination literature and in our own experience in a training institution.

  5. 10 Practice Recommendations in Adult Vaccination Administration.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Stewart, Rosalyn W

    2016-02-01

    Although the provision of immunoprophylaxis to children has become routine in the practice of pediatric preventive care, the same is not true in adult primary care. Contributing to this problem is a lack of knowledge among providers of adult preventive care. This review aimed to bolster providers' understanding of adult vaccinations by highlighting changes in vaccination recommendations and addressing common knowledge gaps. This is not a comprehensive list of vaccination recommendations, but rather the "top 10" common misconceptions, advancements, and updates we have found in our reading of the vaccination literature and in our own experience in a training institution. PMID:26840962

  6. Adult Vaccinations | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 ... high-risk medical conditions had received a pneumococcal vaccination. Only about 1 out of 4 (24 percent) ...

  7. Noninfluenza vaccination coverage among adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2014-02-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and well below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2013, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2014. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, vaccinations recommended for adults target different populations based on age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, and vaccination target criteria). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2012-13 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2011, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged 19-64 years, herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years, and HPV vaccination among women aged 19-26 years; coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic gaps in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap, herpes zoster, and HPV vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. The Community Preventive Services Task Force and other authorities have recommended that health-care providers incorporate vaccination needs assessment, recommendation, and offer of

  8. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among HIV-infected adults: Conventional vaccine vs. intradermal vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported poor immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. This study sought to elicit more potent immunogenicity in HIV-infected adults using an intradermal vaccine compared with a conventional intramuscular vaccine. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted at 3 university hospitals during the 2011/2012 pre-influenza season. Three vaccines were used in HIV-infected adults aged 18 – 60 years: an inactivated intramuscular vaccine (Agrippal), a reduced-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu9μg) and a standard-content intradermal vaccine (IDflu15μg). Serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibodies and INF-γ ELISpot assay were measured at the time of vaccination and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were recorded for 7 d. A total of 28 Agrippal, 30 IDflu9μg, and 28 IDflu15μg volunteers were included in this analysis. One month after vaccination, the GMTs and differences in INF-γ ELISpot assay results were similar among the 3 groups. Seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates and mean fold increases (MFI) among the 3 groups were also similar, at approximately 80%, 50–60% and 2.5 – 10.0, respectively. All three vaccines satisfied the CHMP criteria for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains, but not those for the B strain. In univariate analysis, no demographic or clinical factors, including age, CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, ART status and vaccine type, were related to failure to achieve seroprotection. The three vaccines were all well-tolerated and all reported reactions were mild to moderate. However, there was a tendency toward a higher incidence of local and systemic reactions in the intradermal vaccine groups. The intradermal vaccine did not result in higher immunogenicity compared to the conventional intramuscular vaccine, even with increased antigen dose. PMID:26431466

  9. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  10. [Pneumococcal vaccination for children and adults].

    PubMed

    Albrich, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococci are the leading bacterial causes of respiratory tract infections, bacteremia and meningitis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are effective and safe in young children. Their introduction led to significant reductions of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, otitis media and antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal infections. Beyond these effects in the vaccinated age groups, there is a reduction in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and therefore in transmission. This in turn led to marked reductions in IPD and pneumonia in non-vaccinated age groups, particularly elderly adults as evidence of herd protection. Recently it was shown that the 13-valent PCV13 is effective and safe in adults leading to the age-independent recommendation of PCV13 in all persons with risk factors. PMID:27268445

  11. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  12. A Thanksgiving Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, John

    1991-01-01

    Observes that instruction about Pilgrim and American Indian life often is filled with misconceptions. Explains that the foods and dress of the era differed those usually portrayed in association with the "first" Thanksgiving, a continuation of an ancient harvest celebration. Offers a Thanksgiving quiz for teaching students the realities of early…

  13. Recommended routine vaccinations for older adults.

    PubMed

    Planton, Jonathan; Meyer, Jennifer O; Edlund, Barbara J

    2012-07-01

    A goal of primary prevention is to avoid the development of disease. Immunizations are one of several strategies used by clinicians in primary prevention. Influenza and pneumococcal disease--both preventable--cause significant morbidity and mortality in older adults who have an altered immune system, often have several chronic health problems, and are at higher risk for complications. Tetanus, while not as common in older adults, carries a high mortality rate in those 65 and older. These infections are associated with significant disability that results from hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, hip fracture, stroke, and pneumonia. The goal of immunizing older adults is to decrease functional decline and disability, as well as potential hospital admissions linked to these preventable diseases, which often exacerbate underlying health problems. Age-defined recommendations are available to guide clinicians on the appropriate vaccinations and schedules for administration to older adults. PMID:22715960

  14. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  15. The endocrine quiz

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Nagesh, V. Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject. PMID:24944922

  16. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306) or pen and paper (n = 56) questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity), intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications. PMID:21211000

  17. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian’an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55–2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22–1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12–2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21–1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04–1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48–2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01–1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64–1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41–4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended. PMID:27324884

  18. Vaccination of Adult Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Fontes, Maria Francisca; Antunes, Ana Margarida; Gruner, Heidi; Riso, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the Portuguese vaccination program 50th anniversary it seems appropriate to review vaccination in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Controversial issues as regards the association between autoimmune diseases, infections, and vaccines are discussed as well as vaccine safety and efficacy issues as regards chronic immunosuppressant (IS) drug therapy. After a brief overview of national policies, specific recommendations are made as regards vaccination for adult patients with SLE with a particular focus on current IS therapy and unmet needs. PMID:27069477

  19. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  20. Review of meningococcal vaccines with updates on immunization in adults.

    PubMed

    Zahlanie, Yorgo C; Hammadi, Moza M; Ghanem, Soha T; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious and global life-threatening disease. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) account for the majority of meningococcal disease worldwide. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines were introduced several decades ago and have led to the decline in the burden of disease. However, polysaccharide vaccines have several limitations, including poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers, short-lived protection, lack of immunologic memory, negligible impact on nasopharyngeal carriage, and presence of hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses. The chemical conjugation of plain polysaccharide vaccines has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines include the quadrivalent vaccines (MenACWY-DT, MenACWY-CRM, and MenACWY-TT) as well as the monovalent A and C vaccines. These conjugate vaccines were shown to elicit strong immune response in adults. This review addresses the various aspects of meningococcal disease, the limitations posed by polysaccharide vaccines, the different conjugate vaccines with their immunogenicity and reactogenicity in adults, and the current recommendations in adults. PMID:24500529

  1. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  2. Antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis among healthy adults vaccinated according to the French vaccination recommendations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Odile; Toneatti, Christine; Bernède, Claire; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Petitprez, Karine; Leblond, Annie; Larnaudie, Sylvie; Goujon, Catherine; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noelle; Ajana, Faïza; Raccurt, Christian; Beytout, Jean; Chidiac, Christian; Bouhour, Damien; Guillemot, Didier; Guiso, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    In this sero-epidemiological study, we investigated humoral immunity to three vaccine-preventable diseases--tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis--among 331 adults (aged 18-60 years) attending vaccination centres for travellers and who had been vaccinated according to national recommendations in France. Serological results showed that the percentage of subjects with antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus decreases with age. Results also confirmed surveillance data on vaccination in France, with 7.6% of the study population (13.4% of those aged 18-29 years) having recently acquired a pertussis infection. These results confirm the importance of following French recommendations for regular boosters for tetanus and diphtheria among adults. They also indicate the need for better implementation of the current recommendations for pertussis-vaccine boosters in adults.

  3. The response of hepatitis B vaccination on seronegative adults with different vaccination schedules.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Yongdi; Shan, Huan; Dai, Xue-wei; Yang, Lin-na; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Ren, Jing-jing; Xu, Kai-jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-gui; Wang, Bing; Xie, Tian-sheng; Li, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the response of hepatitis B vaccination with different vaccination schedules among seronegative adults, and to provide suitable vaccination schedules for floating and fixed population. The study included adults aged 20 to 39 y without prior history of vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine. The serum samples were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels. Out of all, 686 adults who were negative for anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg were vaccinated with 10 ug hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1 and 3, 6 or 12 month schedules, and their antibody titers were monitored. The rates of completion of the vaccination in floating and fixed population were 90.4% and 94.1% respectively (p = 0.061). The anti-HBs positive rates in adults vaccinated at 0, 1 and 3 ,6 or 12 month were 83.9%, 88.2% and 94.2% respectively (P = 0.0003). The corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 61.19 (95%CI:47.10-81.23) mIU/mL, 214.04(95%CI:157.14-291.61) mIU/mL and 345.78(95%CI:251.25-475.77) mIU/mL, respectively ( P < 0.0001). Vaccination of hepatitis B with both 0-1-6 and 0-1-12 month schedules in adults result in better level of immune responses. Also, a longer vaccination schedule (0-1-12 month) may be more suitable for floating population and 0-1-6 month schedule is recommended for the fixed population.

  4. The response of hepatitis B vaccination on seronegative adults with different vaccination schedules

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Yongdi; Shan, Huan; Dai, Xue-wei; Yang, Lin-na; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Ren, Jing-jing; Xu, Kai-jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-gui; Wang, Bing; Xie, Tian-sheng; Li, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the response of hepatitis B vaccination with different vaccination schedules among seronegative adults, and to provide suitable vaccination schedules for floating and fixed population. The study included adults aged 20 to 39 y without prior history of vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine. The serum samples were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels. Out of all, 686 adults who were negative for anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg were vaccinated with 10 ug hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1 and 3, 6 or 12 month schedules, and their antibody titers were monitored. The rates of completion of the vaccination in floating and fixed population were 90.4% and 94.1% respectively (p = 0.061). The anti-HBs positive rates in adults vaccinated at 0, 1 and 3 ,6 or12 month were 83.9%, 88.2% and 94.2% respectively (P = 0.0003). The corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 61.19 (95%CI:47.10-81.23) mIU/mL, 214.04(95%CI:157.14-291.61) mIU/mL and 345.78(95%CI:251.25-475.77) mIU/mL, respectively ( P < 0.0001). Vaccination of hepatitis B with both 0–1–6 and 0–1–12 month schedules in adults result in better level of immune responses. Also, a longer vaccination schedule (0–1–12 month) may be more suitable for floating population and 0–1–6 month schedule is recommended for the fixed population. PMID:25621975

  5. [Influenza, tetanus, and pertussis vaccination coverage among adults in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bödeker, Birte; Remschmidt, C; Müters, S; Wichmann, O

    2015-02-01

    In order to be adequately protected throughout life and to protect specific risk groups from particular diseases, regular booster or specific indicator vaccinations are also recommended during adulthood. Adults should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza (annually, e.g., persons with underlying chronic diseases and persons aged ≥ 60 years), tetanus (every 10 years), and pertussis (as a one-time vaccination with the next due tetanus vaccine and, e.g., when people have close contact to newborn babies). The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the current status of vaccination uptake among adults living in Germany, focusing on these three vaccines. In line with nationwide continuous health monitoring, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the representative study "German Health Update" (GEDA 2012) between 2012 and 2013. The survey is conducted regularly and adults are asked questions relating to their vaccination status through computer-assisted telephone interviews. Overall, 19,294 interviews were held. In 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, seasonal influenza uptake among persons aged ≥ 60 years was 54.3 and 52.6 % and among individuals with underlying chronic diseases 46.2 and 42.9 %. 7.6 and 75.6 % of participants reported up-to-date pertussis and tetanus vaccination, respectively. 22 % of people living with a baby in one household were vaccinated against pertussis. In general, vaccination rates against seasonal influenza, pertussis, and tetanus among adults are still low, but differ depending on the specific vaccination. The required aim of the European Commission to reach influenza vaccination coverage by the 2014/2015 winter season of 75 % of higher age groups has not yet been reached. The low pertussis vaccination coverage among persons in close household contact to infants poses a big challenge to the implementation of the cocooning strategy to protect the very vulnerable newborns. To emphasize the importance of a complete vaccination

  6. Live attenuated varicella vaccine use in immunocompromised children and adults.

    PubMed

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Gelb, L

    1986-10-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine has been administered to 307 children with leukemia in remission and to 86 healthy adults. The vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic. The major side effect in leukemic children receiving maintenance chemotherapy was development of a vaccine-associated rash. Vaccinees in whom a rash developed were potentially somewhat infectious to others about 1 month after immunization. Vaccination was not associated with an increase in the incidence of herpes zoster or in relapse of leukemia. Vaccination provided excellent protection against severe varicella. It was associated with a significant decrease in the attack rate of chickenpox following an intimate exposure to varicella-zoster virus, conferring about 80% protection in leukemic children. The cases of breakthrough varicella that occurred were mild. Thus, the vaccine may either prevent or modify varicella in high-risk individuals. It may also have use for prevention of nosocomial varicella.

  7. Nicotine Withdrawal; Measure Your Symptoms (Quiz)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  8. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Migraine 101 Quiz Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... the facts when it comes to headaches and migraines? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. True/ ...

  9. A "Quiz" on Italian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Giuseppe Antonio

    1940-01-01

    The cultural achievements of Italy are utilized to spur interest in the study of Italian. A weekly, multiple-choice type quiz posted on the Italian bulletin board questions curious passers-by in the areas of fine arts, literature, science, geography, history, and miscellaneous items. Sample items of this motivational device follow a description of…

  10. Serological response following re-vaccination with Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines in healthy adult travellers.

    PubMed

    Roggelin, Louise; Vinnemeier, Christof D; Fischer-Herr, Johanna; Johnson-Weaver, Brandi T; Rolling, Thierry; Burchard, Gerd D; Staats, Herman F; Cramer, Jakob P

    2015-08-01

    An injectable Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever is available but vaccine-induced immunity tends to wane over time. The phenomenon of immunotolerance or hyporesponsiveness has earlier been described for polysaccharide vaccines such as pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine and some publications also suggest a possible immunotolerance after revaccination with Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines. In this study, post-immunisation antibody concentrations in adult travellers first vaccinated with a Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine (primary vaccination group) were compared with those having received one or more vaccinations previously (multiple vaccinations group). Vaccines administered were Typherix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), Typhim Vi(®) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) or Hepatyrix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline). Blood samples were obtained prior to vaccination (day 0) and on day 28 (-1/+14) after vaccination. Serum Vi-Antigen IgG concentrations were measured by ELISA. Of the 85 subjects included in the per protocol data set, 45 (53%) belonged to the multiple vaccinations group. In both groups, geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) were significantly higher after vaccination than before vaccination. Pre-vaccination GMCs were lower in the primary vaccination group than in the multiple vaccinations group (3.40 μg/ml versus 6.13 μg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no significant difference in the post vaccination GMCs between groups (11.34 μg/ml versus 14.58 μg/ml, P=0.4). In the multiple vaccinations group, vaccination was performed 18 to 57 months after the last vaccination (median 38 months) and there was a negative correlation between time since last vaccination and antibody concentration on day 0. In conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate a relevant immunotolerance after multiple versus primary vaccination with S. typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines.

  11. Serological response following re-vaccination with Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines in healthy adult travellers.

    PubMed

    Roggelin, Louise; Vinnemeier, Christof D; Fischer-Herr, Johanna; Johnson-Weaver, Brandi T; Rolling, Thierry; Burchard, Gerd D; Staats, Herman F; Cramer, Jakob P

    2015-08-01

    An injectable Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever is available but vaccine-induced immunity tends to wane over time. The phenomenon of immunotolerance or hyporesponsiveness has earlier been described for polysaccharide vaccines such as pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine and some publications also suggest a possible immunotolerance after revaccination with Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines. In this study, post-immunisation antibody concentrations in adult travellers first vaccinated with a Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine (primary vaccination group) were compared with those having received one or more vaccinations previously (multiple vaccinations group). Vaccines administered were Typherix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), Typhim Vi(®) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) or Hepatyrix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline). Blood samples were obtained prior to vaccination (day 0) and on day 28 (-1/+14) after vaccination. Serum Vi-Antigen IgG concentrations were measured by ELISA. Of the 85 subjects included in the per protocol data set, 45 (53%) belonged to the multiple vaccinations group. In both groups, geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) were significantly higher after vaccination than before vaccination. Pre-vaccination GMCs were lower in the primary vaccination group than in the multiple vaccinations group (3.40 μg/ml versus 6.13 μg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no significant difference in the post vaccination GMCs between groups (11.34 μg/ml versus 14.58 μg/ml, P=0.4). In the multiple vaccinations group, vaccination was performed 18 to 57 months after the last vaccination (median 38 months) and there was a negative correlation between time since last vaccination and antibody concentration on day 0. In conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate a relevant immunotolerance after multiple versus primary vaccination with S. typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines. PMID:26144902

  12. Vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis in adult travellers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2010-05-01

    This paper reviews the risk and vaccine recommendations for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis for adult travellers. The travel clinic presents a unique opportunity to evaluate whether routine vaccinations are up-to-date. Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis occur worldwide but are more common in low resource countries due to incomplete childhood vaccination coverage, environmental and socio-economic factors. Diphtheria has been reported in travellers without adequate protection. A booster against tetanus and diphtheria is recommended for all adult travellers, regardless of travel destination and duration. The incidence of pertussis in general adult travellers has been poorly studied. Extrapolating from the reported high incidence in travellers to the Hajj, the risk may be more substantial than thought. There are no universal recommendations for pertussis vaccination for adult travellers, and studies are needed to develop evidence based guidelines. Poliomyelitis is well controlled and now only occurs in a small number of countries. Travellers to and from endemic and re-infected countries should be fully vaccinated against poliomyelitis.

  13. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  14. Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults: background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vellozzi, Claudia; Burwen, Dale R; Dobardzic, Azra; Ball, Robert; Walton, Kimp; Haber, Penina

    2009-03-26

    In preparation for pandemic vaccine safety monitoring, we assessed adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines among adults from 1990 through 2005. We calculated reporting rates for nonserious, serious, and neurological adverse events. We reviewed reports of recurrent events and deaths, as well as reports identified through advanced signal detection. The most frequently reported events were local reactions and systemic symptoms. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most frequently reported serious event (0.70 reports per million vaccinations). Adverse event reporting rates have been reasonably constant over time. No new safety concerns emerged after our review of 15 years of post-licensure surveillance data. These findings provide useful information if pandemic vaccine is rapidly distributed and pre-licensure data are limited.

  15. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults.

  16. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults. PMID:26187261

  17. Antibody Secreting Cell Responses following Vaccination with Bivalent Oral Cholera Vaccine among Haitian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Richelle C.; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M.; Teng, Jessica E.; Xu, Peng; Kováč, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Franke, Molly F.; Ivers, Louise C.; Harris, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The bivalent whole-cell (BivWC) oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) is effective in preventing cholera. However, evaluations of immune responses following vaccination with BivWC have been limited. To determine whether BivWC induces significant mucosal immune responses, we measured V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses following vaccination. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled 24 Haitian adults in this study, and administered doses of oral BivWC vaccine 14 days apart (day 0 and day 14). We drew blood at baseline, and 7 days following each vaccine dose (day 7 and 21). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and ASCs were enumerated using an ELISPOT assay. Significant increases in Ogawa (6.9 cells per million PBMCs) and Inaba (9.5 cells per million PBMCs) OSP-specific IgA ASCs were detected 7 days following the first dose (P < 0.001), but not the second dose. The magnitude of V. cholerae-specific ASC responses did not appear to be associated with recent exposure to cholera. ASC responses measured against the whole lipolysaccharide (LPS) antigen and the OSP moiety of LPS were equivalent, suggesting that all or nearly all of the LPS response targets the OSP moiety. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with the BivWC oral cholera vaccine induced ASC responses among a cohort of healthy adults in Haiti after a single dose. The second dose of vaccine resulted in minimal ASC responses over baseline, suggesting that the current dosing schedule may not be optimal for boosting mucosal immune responses to V. cholerae antigens for adults in a cholera-endemic area. PMID:27308825

  18. Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz | Alzheimer's disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of ... How many people in the United States have Alzheimer's disease? as many as 5.1 million as ...

  19. Change in settings for early-season influenza vaccination among US adults, 2012 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah J; Gebremariam, Acham; Cowan, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination in non-medical settings is recommended as a strategy to increase access to seasonal influenza vaccine. To evaluate change in early-season influenza vaccination setting, we analyzed data from the National Internet Flu Survey. Bivariate comparison of respondent characteristics by location of vaccination was assessed using chi-square tests. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to compare the predicted probability of being vaccinated in medical, retail, and mobile settings in 2012 vs 2013. In both 2012 and 2013, vaccination in medical settings was more likely among elderly adults, those with chronic conditions, and adults with a high school education or less. Adults 18-64 without a chronic condition had a lower probability of vaccination in the medical setting, and higher probability of vaccination in a retail or mobile setting, in 2013 compared to 2012. Adults 18-64 with a chronic condition had no change in their location of flu vaccination. Elderly adults had a lower probability of vaccination in the medical setting, and higher probability of vaccination in a retail setting, in 2013 compared to 2012. Non-medical settings continue to play an increasing role in influenza vaccination of adults, particularly for adults without a chronic condition and elderly adults. Retail and mobile settings should continue to be viewed as important mechanisms to ensure broad access to influenza vaccination. PMID:27486562

  20. Clinical benefits of routine varicella vaccination for adults.

    PubMed

    Germinario, Cinzia; Gallone, Maria Serena; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Tafuri, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Varicella is a highly contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. In children, it is generally a mild to moderate illness while it is often more severe in adults, with serious complications as dehydration, pneumonia, bleeding problems, infection or inflammation of the brain, secondary bacterial infections, sepsis, toxic shock syndrome, bone infections, joint infections and deaths. Some groups of adults are at major risk of complications, in particular immunocompromised persons as subjects with impaired humoral immunity and who is receiving systemic steroids, persons who live or work in environments in which transmission of varicella is likely, health-care personnel and pregnant women. After the introduction of Universal Mass Vaccination (UMV), the first mathematical models suggested that vaccination will lead to a shift in the average age at infection from children to adults with an increasing numbers of complicated forms, nevertheless new models predicted that, although an upward shift in the age at infection may occur, the overall morbidity due to varicella is likely to decrease. Current literature seems to suggest that for public health authorities the key action to prevent an increase of varicella incidence among adults is to achieve high vaccination coverage among babies and adolescents in countries who adopted UMV.

  1. How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) KidsHealth > For Teens > How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) Print A A A Text Size We hear a lot about the importance of self-esteem. Self-esteem can influence our happiness and success. ...

  2. The Pedagogic Potential of the Pub Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom; Heath, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an innovative approach to the induction of students on an Education Doctorate programme by exploring the value of the pub quiz as a pedagogic device to support learning. The quiz took relatively little time out of a two-day induction programme and had the dual benefits of providing a stimulating and entertaining way of…

  3. Quiz Today: Should I Skip Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zizler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    How does selective assessment, wherein one counts only the best "k" out of "n" quizzes set, impact grade inflation? Based on our analysis, a specific quantitative answer can be given to a student who plans to skip a quiz, depending, of course, on the student's quiz writing consistency or inconsistency.

  4. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and herpes zoster: immunization guidelines for adults.

    PubMed

    Hendriksz, Tami; Malouf, Philip; Foy, James E

    2011-10-01

    Although vaccinations are most commonly associated with the pediatric population, it is important for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the vaccines that are recommended for adults. The authors discuss 3 vaccines-the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, the varicella vaccine, and the herpes zoster vaccine-including information about the diseases and complications that they protect against. Two doses, separated by 4 weeks, of both the MMR and varicella vaccines are recommended for all adults who do not have immunization or contraindications. All adults aged 60 years or older should receive a single dose of the herpes zoster vaccine unless they have contraindications. These 3 vaccines offer protection from illnesses that can have serious sequelae and substantial public health implications.

  5. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  6. Comparison of HPV prevalence between HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young adult women (20-26 years).

    PubMed

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-01

    There is some concern about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine among young adult women due to the risk of prior HPV infection. This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 data to evaluate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination among women 20-26 years of age who were vaccinated after 12 years of age. This cross-sectional study examined 878 young adult women (20-26 years) with complete information on HPV prevalence and HPV vaccination status from NHANES 2007-2012. Vaginal swab specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were used to compare type-specific HPV prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. A total of 21.4% of young adult women surveyed through NHANES between 2007 and 2012 received the HPV vaccine. Vaccinated women had a lower prevalence of vaccine types than unvaccinated women (7.4% vs 17.1%, prevalence ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88). The prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types was higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (52.1% vs 40.4%, prevalence ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57), but this difference was attenuated after adjusting for sexual behavior variables (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43). HPV vaccination was effective against all 4 vaccine types in young women vaccinated after age 12. However, vaccinated women had a higher prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types, suggesting that they may benefit from newer vaccines covering additional types.

  7. The immunogenicity and safety of zoster vaccine in Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Liang-Kung; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2015-03-24

    The efficacy and safety of ZOSTAVAX in subjects 60 years of age and older was established in the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS) and in subjects 50 to 59 years of age in the ZOSTAVAX Efficacy and Safety Trial (ZEST). We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of ZOSTAVAX in a total of 150 Taiwanese subjects ≥50 years of age, who received a single dose of ZOSTAVAX. gpELISA was used to determine geometric mean titers (GMT) of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody. The geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) of the VZV antibody from the pre-vaccination to the 4 week post-vaccination time point was calculated. There was an overall increase in GMT from 128.45 to 391.85 at 4 weeks post-vaccination. The estimated GMFR was 3.05 (95% CI: 2.60 to 3.57).There were no serious adverse events for 28 days following vaccination. This study demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of ZOSTAVAX among healthy Taiwanese adults.

  8. Current status and uptake of influenza vaccination over time among senior adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng-jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Ding, Helen; Greby, Stacie M; Williams, Walter W

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults in the United States, who may also have chronic medical conditions that place them at high risk for complications from influenza. The U.S. Public Health Service recommended influenza vaccination of adults ≥65 y and chronically ill persons since 1961 and beginning with the 2010–11 influenza season, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has expanded its recommendation to vaccinate all persons 6 months of age and older. Medicare coverage for influenza vaccination began in 1993. However, despite the presence of a safe and effective vaccine, long-standing recommendations on vaccination, and federal financial support for vaccination, vaccination levels among adults ≥65 y are not optimal. Studies have shown that influenza vaccination coverage among U.S. adults ≥ 65 y steadily increased from 30.1% in 1989 to 64.2% in 1997, but plateaued near 65% from 1998 to 2013. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage among older adults in the United States will require more cooperation among health-care providers, professional organizations, vaccine manufacturers, and public health departments to raise public awareness about the benefits of influenza vaccination and to ensure continued administration of vaccinations throughout the influenza season. PMID:26697974

  9. Attitudes, knowledge and perceptions towards whooping cough and pertussis vaccine in hospitalized adults.

    PubMed

    Ridda, Iman; Gao, Zhanhai; Macintyre, C Raina

    2014-02-19

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for adults and children around the world. There has been a rise in pertussis-related deaths in the elderly; pertussis vaccination is not currently routinely recommended in adults, excepting new parents and other adults household members including grandparents and care-givers of young children. Currently, there is lack of clear vaccine recommendations after the age of 50 years. Given the increase in adult pertussis, adult vaccine recommendations are a policy consideration. The study surveyed a convenience sample of patients previously recruited in a case control study designed to examine the burden of influenza with and without AMI in adults aged ≥ 40 years. Our findings showed that only 9.6% had received the pertussis vaccination within the past five years and 79.4% of participants had no knowledge of the pertussis adult booster vaccine, and 30.7% of participants who had regular contact with children under the age of two years in the past 12 months. The results showed that even though there is general acceptance of prevention by vaccines, there is low awareness about pertussis vaccination. This lack of knowledge presents a barrier against pertussis vaccination thus it is imperative that any future adult immunisation policy recommendations around pertussis vaccine include awareness programs in the target population.

  10. Factors affecting the influenza vaccination of high risk adults in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Davis, James W; Fujimoto, Ronald Y; Chan, Henry; Juarez, Deborah T

    2009-04-01

    Influenza infections cause a substantial toll in respiratory infections, hospitalizations, and death; and immunization has proven effective in reducing these outcomes. This article describes a study to understand variations in influenza vaccination rates for a population ages 50 and older using data from a large insurer in Hawai'i. Vaccination rates were lower in adults without than with a chronic disease, and especially low in those without chronic disease of ages 50-64. People who had been vaccinated in the past year were likely to become vaccinated again, and people with a history of regular physician visits were more likely than others to become vaccinated. Having vaccine available at the worksite led to improved vaccination rates. By ethnicity Japanese, Koreans, and Chinese were most likely to obtain influenza vaccinations; the greatest ethnic differences occurred among adults ages 50 to 64 without a chronic disease. People seeing a physician during the influenza season were especially likely to become vaccinated during the week of the visit. Patients were more likely to become vaccinated by an existing physician than if seeing a new one. The percentage of office visits in weeks in which patients became vaccinated varied four-fold by physician specialty Internal medicine and family medicine physicians had the highest percentages whereas gynecologists and cardiologists had the lowest. The results suggest multiple reasons that high risk adults may fail to become vaccinated. Better understanding barriers may lead to improved strategies to improve influenza vaccination rates.

  11. The cell mediated and humoral immune response to vaccination with acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccine in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J W; Ibsen, P H; Bentzon, M W; Capiau, C; Heron, I

    1991-10-01

    The cell mediated immune response (CMI) against pertussis antigens following vaccination with the traditional Danish whole cell pertussis vaccine (WC-P) and the Japanese acellular pertussis vaccine (A-PV) JNIH-3 was studied in four adult human volunteers. Vaccination with the A-PV induced an in vitro proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to pertussis toxin (PT) subunits S2-S4, S3-S4 and S5 and the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and a better serological response to native PT, detoxified PT (dPT) and FHA than the WC-PV. The induced CMI and serological response were followed over a period of 17 weeks, and were not seen to decline during this period. Further, an in vitro proliferative response to Bordetella pertussis agglutinogen 2 and 3 were demonstrated using lymphocytes from recently and not-so-recently pertussis-vaccinated adults. PMID:1797049

  12. Determinants of tetanus and seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in adults living in Germany.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Merle M; Walter, Dietmar; Krause, Gérard; Müters, Stephan; Gösswald, Antje; Wichmann, Ole

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess determinants of vaccine uptake in adults living in Germany exemplified by one standard vaccination (tetanus) and one vaccination targeting specific risk-groups (seasonal influenza). Data from 21,262 telephone household-interviews representative of the adult population in Germany were collected in 2009 and analysed. A total 73.1% of the adult population had a sufficient tetanus vaccination status according to national recommendations (i.e. last tetanus shot ≤10 years ago). Influenza vaccination coverage in the target population (i.e. persons ≥60 years, chronically ill, healthcare workers) was 44.1%. Persons who received professional vaccination advice within the past five years were more frequently vaccinated against tetanus and influenza than persons without (p< 0.001). Private physicians were identified as the most important source for vaccination advice. Having a statutory health insurance, last physician contact < 1 year ago, and living in the eastern part of Germany were independently associated with higher tetanus and influenza vaccine uptake. Low socio-economic status, two-sided migration background, and the feeling of being insufficiently informed on the benefits of vaccination were independently associated with low uptake of tetanus but not influenza vaccines. Our results show that tetanus vaccination coverage in the general adult population and influenza vaccination coverage in the target population are unsatisfactorily low in Germany. Since physicians' advice has a major impact on the vaccination decision, physician reminder systems could provide a method to increase vaccination coverage in adults. For tetanus, information activities should target population groups with an increased risk of being undervaccinated.

  13. [Immunization strategy of hepatitis B vaccine among adults in China: evidence based-medicine and consideration].

    PubMed

    Xu, A Q; Zhang, L

    2016-06-01

    With the effective control of hepatitis B infection among children, the adults especial the young ones become the main population for new hepatitis B virus infection. Now the adults receive hepatitis B vaccination voluntarily and at their own expense in China and the coverage is low. The high immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine has been proven among healthy adults. Although the safety of hepatitis B vaccination has been documented among high-risk population such as HIV-infected people, injecting drug users and patients with chronic hepatitis disease, their antibody seroconversion rate after hepatitis B vaccination is lower than the healthy adults. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended to population at high risk officially in many countries and some effects have been achieved. It is urgent to improve the strategy of hepatitis B vaccination among adults to fasten the control of hepatitis B in China, along with the researches about the long-term efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine among adults, the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccination among high-risk adults and the economical evaluation about different adult immunization strategy of hepatitis B.

  14. Persistence of antibodies 3 years after booster vaccination of adults with combined acellular pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine.

    PubMed

    Weston, Wayde; Messier, Marc; Friedland, Leonard R; Wu, Xiangfeng; Howe, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    The duration of protection after vaccination with reduced antigen content diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) is not known. Long-term post-vaccination serological data will help to improve understanding of the duration of humoral immunity and guide vaccination policy for the timing of repeat dose administration. The persistence of antibodies to Tdap antigens was measured 3 years after vaccination of adults 19-64 years of age with one of 2 Tdap vaccines (Boostrix(®), GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; Tdap-B: or Adacel(®), Sanofi Pasteur; Tdap-A). In both groups, geometric mean concentrations for antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine antigens were decreased at year 3 relative to levels observed 1 month and 1 year following vaccination, but remained higher than pre-vaccination levels. Seroprotection rates for diphtheria and tetanus remained high for both Tdap vaccines (for diphtheria, 96.9% and 97.8% for the Tdap-B and Tdap-A groups, respectively; for tetanus, 98.1% and 99.6%, respectively).

  15. Quiz Making Activities Using the Multi-Mouse Quiz System in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Juan; Mori, Mikihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kita, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Mouse Quiz System is an application used to treat quizzes in a classroom or other learning environment. The system comprises the Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG), which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary computer. The…

  16. Patterns of pneumococcal vaccination and revaccination in elderly and non-elderly adults: a Vaccine Safety Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and for younger adults with high-risk conditions. While data from national surveys provide information on the proportion of adults 65 years of age and older reporting ever receipt of PPV they do not collect more detailed information, such as age at vaccination or the total number of vaccinations received. In addition, there is relatively little information available on PPV coverage in younger adults with chronic conditions. To assess contemporary patterns of pneumococcal vaccination and revaccination of adults, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adults enrolled in medical care organizations (MCOs) participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project. Methods The study population included 1.5 million adults 25 years of age and older enrolled in the four participating MCOs on December 1, 2006. PPVs administered to members of the study population prior to that date were identified from computerized immunization registries maintained by the MCOs. Results Among the general population of adults 25 through 64 years of age, vaccine coverage increased from 2% in the 25–29 year old age-group to 26% in the 60–64 year old age-group. In all age-groups, coverage was substantially higher in persons defined as having a chronic high risk condition. This was particularly true for diabetes mellitus, with vaccine coverage of over 50% in the lower age-groups and 75% in those 60–64 years of age. Among adults 65 years of age and older, 82% had received at least one PPV and 18% had received two or more PPVs. Conclusion We found higher levels of PPV coverage among adults 65 years of age and older and among younger adults with diabetes mellitus than reported by national surveys and for those groups PPV coverage approached the Healthy People 2010 national objectives. These results suggest that achieving those objectives for PPV is possible and that high vaccination coverage

  17. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gunjan L; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A; Ponce, Doris M; Young, James W; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N

    2015-12-01

    Because cord blood (CB) lacks memory T and B cells and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine-eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five patients (63%; engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8; range, 2 to 7/8) received protein conjugated vaccines, and 63 patients (median age, 34 years; range, .9 to 64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range, 7 to 45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19F, 23F) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, P = .555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86% to 100%) and adults (53% to 89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4(+)CD45RA(+) and CD19(+) cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side effects were identified, and all vaccinated patients survived (median follow-up, 57 months). Although GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients. PMID:26271191

  18. The challenge of vaccinating adults: attitudes and beliefs of the Canadian public and healthcare providers

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, Li; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Vaccine coverage for recommended vaccines is low among adults. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of adults and healthcare providers related to four vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, zoster, pneumococcus and influenza). Design We undertook a survey and focus groups of Canadian adults and healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, pharmacists). A total of 4023 adults completed the survey and 62 participated in the focus groups; 1167 providers completed the survey and 45 participated in the focus groups. Results Only 46.3% of adults thought they were up-to-date on their vaccines; 30% did not know. In contrast, 75.6% of providers reported being up-to-date. Only 57.5% of adults thought it was important to receive all recommended vaccines (compared to 87.1–91.5% of providers). Positive attitudes towards vaccines paralleled concern about the burden of illness and confidence in the vaccines, with providers being more aware of disease burden and confident in vaccine effectiveness than the public. Between 55.0% and 59.7% of adults reported willingness to be vaccinated if recommended by their healthcare provider. However, such recommendations were variable; while 77.4% of the public reported being offered and 52.8% reported being recommended the influenza vaccine by their provider, only 10.8% were offered and 5.6% recommended pertussis vaccine. Barriers and facilitators to improved vaccine coverage in adults, such as trust-mistrust of health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and national recommendations, autonomy versus the public good and logistical issues (such as insufficient time and lack of vaccination status tracking), were identified by both the public and providers. Conclusions Despite guidelines for adult vaccination, there are substantial gaps in knowledge and attitudes and beliefs among both the public and healthcare providers that lead to low vaccine

  19. Comparison between Siriraj mite allergen vaccine and standardized commercial mite vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Sripramong, Chaweewan; Sookrung, Nitat; Bunnag, Chaweewan

    2010-03-01

    House dust mite is a major cause of allergic asthma and rhinitis in Thai population. Skin prick test (SPT) is a useful tool for the diagnosis of the IgE-mediated reactions. The imported commercial mite vaccine for SPT is available but it is relatively expensive. Aim of this study is to compare Siriraj Mite Allergen Vaccine (SMAV) with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults. A double blind, self-controlled study between the SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine was performed by SPT in 17 normal Thai adult males and non-pregnant or non-lactating females aged 18-60 years. The study showed that 35.29 % of non atopic adults had positive SPT reaction to Dp and Df of both SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. Mean wheal and flare diameters from SPT of Dp and Df of SMAV showed strong correlation with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine (r= 0.768 and 0.897 in Dp and Df respectively, p <0.001). The intraclass correlation was also excellent (0.893 and 0.775 in Dp and Df respectively). There was no significant difference in wheal and flare diameter between SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. No systemic or large local reaction was found in any of the study cases.

  20. Compared effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with the 13-valent vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Gaillat, J

    2013-06-01

    13-valent-pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was recently approved in the USA and Europe for adults 50 years of age or more. But this approval was followed by recommendations limiting its use to immunocompromised and asplenic patients. The extension of indications to adults was based on the well-demonstrated clinical effectiveness in infants less than 2 years of age, and on a better immune response either quantitatively or qualitatively with conjugated vaccines compared to the immunogenicity of plain polysaccharide vaccines. Nevertheless, the issue was to know whether results observed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children are reproducible in adults with the 13-valent. The answer was given by comparing the epidemiological and physiopathological data, and the immunological response of the two populations. Very few clinical effectiveness studies in adults are available. We had for aim to assess these various issues in infants and adults. A lot of questions remain, such as the unknown impact of serotype replacement with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine on the clinical epidemiology and emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity, while waiting for the CAPITA study results expected in 2014.

  1. Validation of the male osteoporosis knowledge quiz.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Jean M; Marx, Katherine A; Narrett, Matthew; Caudill, JoAnn; Landsman, Jeffrey; Parrish, John M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the six-item Men's Osteoporosis Knowledge Quiz (MOKQ). The MOKQ asks questions about risk factors that are pertinent to men, such as the risk for developing low bone mass related to hormone treatment for prostate cancer and the importance of testosterone for bone mass. A survey was sent to 242 men with a mean age of 83.2 years. The mean number of questions answered correctly in response to the six-item MOKQ was 2.37. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the score achieved on the MOKQ with the score achieved on the total Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the MOKQ and the Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz was r = .76. Reliability was demonstrated by computing a Cronbach's alpha for the MOKQ (r = .72). The MOKQ was found to have adequate reliability and validity in assessing older men's knowledge about osteoporosis.

  2. Vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine to control brucellosis on dairy farms in endemic areas of India.

    PubMed

    Chand, Puran; Chhabra, Rajesh; Nagra, Juhi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease which seriously affects dairy farming by causing colossal losses. It can be controlled by practicing vaccination of animals with Brucella abortus S19 vaccine (S19 vaccine). In the present study, adult bovines were vaccinated on seven dairy farms with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine to control brucellosis. Serological screening of adult animals (N = 1,082) by Rose Bengal test (RBT) and ELISA prior to vaccination revealed the presence and absence of brucellosis on five and two farms, respectively. The positive animals (N = 171) were segregated and those which tested negative (N = 911) were vaccinated by conjunctival route with a booster after 4 months. The conjunctival vaccination induced weak antibody response in animals, which vanished within a period of 9 to 12 weeks. Abortion in 12 animals at various stages of pregnancy and post-vaccination was recorded, but none was attributed to S19 vaccine. However, virulent B. abortus was incriminated in six heifers, and the cause of abortion could not be established in six animals. The six aborted heifers perhaps acquired infection through in utero transmission or from the environment which remained undetected until abortion. These findings suggested that vaccination of adult animals with a reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route did not produce adverse effects like abortion in pregnant animals and persistent vaccinal antibody titers, which are the major disadvantages of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals.

  3. A Student-Centered Interactive Color Quiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrembeck, Edward P.

    2003-12-01

    This year I wanted to get my conceptual physics students more actively involved in their study of color addition and subtraction, so I decided to develop an interactive color quiz that I could use throughout the unit. I use the electron oscillator model to explain the emission, reflection, and absorption of light at the atomic level. My quiz is an extension of an activity I read about in The Physics Teacher on an "Interactive Spectra Demonstration." It requires only some spray-painted tennis balls (red, green, and blue) and whatever color of clothing the students wear to class.

  4. Antibody persistence and immune memory 4 years post-vaccination with combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in adults aged over 40 years.

    PubMed

    Chlibek, Roman; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Van Damme, Pierre; Smetana, Jan; Tichy, Petr; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of immune response was assessed in adults aged >40 years (N = 596) following primary vaccination with combined hepatitis A/B vaccine or concomitant monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Anti-hepatitis A virus antibody responses persisted for at least 4 years regardless of the vaccine used, with anti-hepatitis B surface antibody responses higher and more sustained in subjects who received the combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Response rates to an additional dose of the same vaccine(s) used for priming were high.

  5. Influenza vaccination coverage among adults in Korea: 2008-2009 to 2011-2012 seasons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jung; Cho, Sung-Il

    2014-11-25

    The aim of this study was to examine seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in adults from the 2008-2009 season to the 2011-2012 season, including pandemic and post-pandemic seasons in Korea. We collected data of self-reported vaccine use from the Korean Community Health Survey. We also collected information on socioeconomic status and health behaviors in subpopulations. We tested for linear trends among the data to investigate vaccine coverage before and after the pandemic; and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of obtaining the influenza vaccination. The results revealed a steady increase in vaccination coverage in every subgroup during four consecutive seasons. The highest rate of vaccine coverage (43.6%) occurred two years after the pandemic. Factors associated with vaccine receipt were: older age; lower education level; lower income; and health behaviors such as regular walking and receiving a health check-up. Smoking and drinking alcohol were inversely associated with vaccination. Having a chronic health condition was also a strong predictor of vaccine receipt. Though vaccination coverage rates were high in high-risk groups; disparities in coverage rates were substantial; particularly in young adults. Interventions are needed to minimize the coverage gaps among subgroups and to improve overall vaccination rates.

  6. Vaccination coverage in French 17-year-old young adults: an assessment of mandatory and recommended vaccination statuses.

    PubMed

    Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs.

  7. Hepatitis A/B vaccine completion among homeless adults with history of incarceration.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Marlow, Elizabeth; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Nandy, Karabi

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination rates for incarcerated adults remain low despite their high risk for infection. This study determined predictors of vaccine completion in homeless adults (N= 297) who reported histories of incarceration and who participated in one of three nurse-led hepatitis programs of different intensity. Moreover time since release from incarceration was also considered. Just over half of the former prisoners completed the vaccine series. Older age (≥40), having a partner, and chronic homelessness were associated with vaccine completion. Recent research has documented the difficulty in providing vaccine services to younger homeless persons and homeless males at risk for HBV. Additional strategies are needed to achieve HBV vaccination completion rates greater than 50% for formerly incarcerated homeless men.

  8. Priming for immunologic memory in adults by meningococcal group C conjugate vaccination.

    PubMed

    Vu, David M; de Boer, Alberdina W; Danzig, Lisa; Santos, George; Canty, Bridget; Flores, Betty M; Granoff, Dan M

    2006-06-01

    Meningococcal group C polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (MCV) prime infants and children for memory anticapsular responses upon subsequent exposure to unconjugated polysaccharide. The objective of this study was to determine whether MCV primes vaccine-naïve adults and adults previously vaccinated with meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV) for memory antibody responses. Meningococcal vaccine-naïve adults were randomized to receive either MCV (MCV/naïve group) (n = 35) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (PCV/naïve group) (n = 34). Participants with a history of receiving MPSV were given MCV (MCV/MPSV group) (n = 26). All subjects were challenged 10 months later with one-fifth of the usual dose of MPSV (10 mug of each polysaccharide). Sera were obtained before the conjugate vaccination and before and 7 days after the MPSV challenge and assayed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) anticapsular antibody concentrations and bactericidal titers. The MCV/naïve group had 7- to 10-fold-higher serum IgG and bactericidal responses after the MPSV challenge than the PCV/naïve group (P < 0.001). The increases (n-fold) in anticapsular antibody concentrations in the MCV/naïve group were greatest in subjects with antibody concentrations of 2 microg/ml before the challenge; P < 0.0001). Only 3 of 11 MCV-vaccinated subjects who had received MPSV before enrollment and who had antibody concentrations of vaccination of meningococcal vaccine-naïve adults primes for robust memory antibody responses. There was no evidence of induction of memory by MCV in adults previously vaccinated with MPSV.

  9. Using SMS Quiz in Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziden, Azidah Abu; Rahman, Muhammad Faizal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses the development of a system using SMS (short messaging system) to facilitate learning and also as a new method in the evaluation of teaching and learning. Design/methodology/approach: The design of a system that uses SMS for the quiz is proposed as an alternative for formative assessment of teaching and learning for…

  10. Frequent Collaborative Quiz Taking and Conceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali R.

    2015-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study reports on the effectiveness of three assessment strategies for students' performance. The primary goal was to determine whether there are any improvements in students' conceptual learning when a frequent (weekly) quiz is used for grading purposes compared to using midterm and final examinations only. Another goal was…

  11. Facts on Aging: A Short Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman

    1977-01-01

    A short, factual, and documented quiz is developed and tested which covers the basic facts and frequent misconceptions about aging. Its uses include stimulating discussion, measuring levels of information and anti-aged bias, identifying the most frequent misconceptions, measuring the effects of courses, and measuring changes in public information…

  12. Biochemistry Games: "AZ-Quiz" and "Jeopardy!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostejnska, Milada; Klimova, Helena

    2011-01-01

    "AZ-Quiz" and "Jeopardy!" are popular television shows and serve as the basis for in-class games designed to support and diversify chemistry instruction at the high school level. Both games were created in Microsoft PowerPoint, which is an easily accessible and controllable instrument that enables the creation of engaging animation. The use of…

  13. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

  14. Immunogenicity of the Bivalent Oral Cholera Vaccine Shanchol in Haitian Adults With HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Louise C; Charles, Richelle C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M; Teng, Jessica E; Jerome, J Gregory; Rychert, Jenna; LaRocque, Regina C; Xu, Peng; Kovácˇ, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Almazor, Charles P; Franke, Molly F; Harris, Jason B

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated immune responses following bivalent oral cholera vaccination (Shanchol [Shantha Biotechnics]; BivWC) in a cohort of 25 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Haiti. Compared with adults without HIV infection, vaccination in HIV-infected individuals resulted in lower vibriocidal responses against Vibrio cholerae O1, and there was a positive relationship between the CD4(+) T-cell count and vibriocidal responses following vaccination. Nevertheless, seroconversion occurred at a rate of 65% against the Ogawa serotype and 74% against the Inaba serotype in adults with HIV infection. These results suggest that the vaccine retains substantial immunogenicity in adults with HIV infection and may benefit this population by protecting against cholera.

  15. Immunization in the United States: Recommendations, Barriers, and Measures to Improve Compliance: Part 2: Adult Vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Ventola, C Lee

    2016-08-01

    Despite annual recommendations, American adults remain inadequately vaccinated. The author outlines how compliance may be improved through health care professional interventions, as well as government and community-based programs. PMID:27504066

  16. Adult vaccination: Now is the time to realize an unfulfilled potential.

    PubMed

    Tan, Litjen

    2015-01-01

    Each year, vaccine-preventable diseases kill thousands of adults, both in the United States and across the planet, causing a significant human toll and severe economic burden on the world's healthcare systems. In the United States, while immunization is recognized as one of the most effective primary prevention services that improves health and well-being, adult immunization rates remain low and large gaps exist between national adult immunization goals and actual adult immunization rates. Closing these gaps requires a commitment by national leaders to a multifaceted national strategy to: (1) establish the value of adult vaccines in the eyes of the public, payers, policy makers, and health care professionals; (2) improve access to recommended adult vaccinations by improving the adult vaccine infrastructure in the United States and developing public-private partnerships to facilitate effective immunization behaviors; and (3) ensure fair and appropriate payment for adult immunization. Many of the situations that result in low adult immunizations rates in the United States also exist in many other countries around the world. Successful strategies to improve adult immunization coverage rates will result in reductions in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. All medical and public health stakeholders must now collaborate to realize the significant health benefits that come with a strong adult immunization program. PMID:26091249

  17. Adult vaccination: Now is the time to realize an unfulfilled potential

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Litjen

    2015-01-01

    Each year, vaccine-preventable diseases kill thousands of adults, both in the United States and across the planet, causing a significant human toll and severe economic burden on the world's healthcare systems. In the United States, while immunization is recognized as one of the most effective primary prevention services that improves health and well-being, adult immunization rates remain low and large gaps exist between national adult immunization goals and actual adult immunization rates. Closing these gaps requires a commitment by national leaders to a multifaceted national strategy to: (1) establish the value of adult vaccines in the eyes of the public, payers, policy makers, and health care professionals; (2) improve access to recommended adult vaccinations by improving the adult vaccine infrastructure in the United States and developing public-private partnerships to facilitate effective immunization behaviors; and (3) ensure fair and appropriate payment for adult immunization. Many of the situations that result in low adult immunizations rates in the United States also exist in many other countries around the world. Successful strategies to improve adult immunization coverage rates will result in reductions in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. All medical and public health stakeholders must now collaborate to realize the significant health benefits that come with a strong adult immunization program. PMID:26091249

  18. Adult vaccination: Now is the time to realize an unfulfilled potential.

    PubMed

    Tan, Litjen

    2015-01-01

    Each year, vaccine-preventable diseases kill thousands of adults, both in the United States and across the planet, causing a significant human toll and severe economic burden on the world's healthcare systems. In the United States, while immunization is recognized as one of the most effective primary prevention services that improves health and well-being, adult immunization rates remain low and large gaps exist between national adult immunization goals and actual adult immunization rates. Closing these gaps requires a commitment by national leaders to a multifaceted national strategy to: (1) establish the value of adult vaccines in the eyes of the public, payers, policy makers, and health care professionals; (2) improve access to recommended adult vaccinations by improving the adult vaccine infrastructure in the United States and developing public-private partnerships to facilitate effective immunization behaviors; and (3) ensure fair and appropriate payment for adult immunization. Many of the situations that result in low adult immunizations rates in the United States also exist in many other countries around the world. Successful strategies to improve adult immunization coverage rates will result in reductions in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. All medical and public health stakeholders must now collaborate to realize the significant health benefits that come with a strong adult immunization program.

  19. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Carlos G; Wunderink, Richard G; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J; Balk, Robert; Fakhran, Sherene; Courtney, D Mark; Anderson, Evan J; Qi, Chao; Trabue, Christopher; Pavia, Andrew T; Moore, Matthew R; Jain, Seema; Edwards, Kathryn M; Self, Wesley H

    2015-12-01

    During an etiology study of adults hospitalized for pneumonia, in which urine specimens were examined for serotype-specific pneumococcal antigen detection, we observed that some patients received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine before urine collection. Some urine samples became positive for specific vaccine pneumococcal serotypes shortly after vaccination, suggesting false-positive test results. PMID:26512357

  20. Pneumococcal Disease Prevention Among Adults: Strategies for the Use of Pneumococcal Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Bennett, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines among children in the U.S. since 2000 has dramatically reduced pneumococcal disease burden among adults. Significant vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections still remains, especially among older adults. The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recently recommended the routine use of both pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23) for adults ≥65 years. These recommendations were based on the remaining burden of illness among adults and the importance of non-bacteremic pneumonia prevention in light of new evidence confirming the efficacy of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia among older adults. This paper reviews the evidence that led ACIP to make recommendations for PCV13 and PPSV23 use among adults, and highlights potential gaps to be addressed by future studies to inform adult vaccination policy. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia should be closely monitored to evaluate the effectiveness and continued utility of the current vaccination strategy, and to identify future directions for pneumococcal disease prevention among older adults.

  1. Pneumococcal disease prevention among adults: Strategies for the use of pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Bennett, Nancy M

    2015-11-27

    Use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines among children in the US since 2000 has dramatically reduced pneumococcal disease burden among adults. Significant vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections still remains, especially among older adults. The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recently recommended the routine use of both pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23) for adults ≥65 years. These recommendations were based on the remaining burden of illness among adults and the importance of non-bacteremic pneumonia prevention in light of new evidence confirming the efficacy of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia among older adults. This paper reviews the evidence that led the ACIP to make recommendations for PCV13 and PPSV23 use among adults, and highlights potential gaps to be addressed by future studies to inform adult vaccination policy. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia should be closely monitored to evaluate the effectiveness and continued utility of the current vaccination strategy, and to identify future directions for pneumococcal disease prevention among older adults.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Huijts, Susanne M; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Postma, Douwe F; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M M; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J M; Vissink, Conrad E; Bonten, Marc J M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2015-11-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65-74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750-17,100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65-74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65-74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100.PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Huijts, Susanne M.; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Postma, Douwe F.; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M.M.; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Vissink, Conrad E.; Bonten, Marc J.M.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2015-01-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65–74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750–17 100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65–74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65–74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100. PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries. PMID:26160871

  4. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Not Get Chickenpox Vaccine Types of Chickenpox Vaccine Child and Adult Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Also Known As & Abbreviations ...

  5. Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination of adults in the USA.

    PubMed

    Gidengil, Courtney A; Sandora, Thomas J; Lee, Grace M

    2008-07-01

    Pertussis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and its incidence has been increasing in adolescents and adults over the past two decades. Waning immunity in adolescents and adults may be partially responsible. Adults can suffer significant illness from pertussis and its complications, such as pneumonia, rib fractures and syncope. Moreover, adults serve as a source of disease for infants, who are more vulnerable to severe complications and even death. The economic burden of pertussis is substantial, in terms of both medical and nonmedical costs. Fortunately, the burden of pertussis disease can now be safely and effectively reduced by vaccinating adults with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of vaccination in pregnant women and those over 65 years of age, and also to determine whether further booster doses of Tdap are needed.

  6. Safety and effectiveness of MF-59 adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven

    2015-06-01

    The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly.

  7. Brucella abortus RB51 in milk of vaccinated adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Resende, Thiago Magalhães; Vaz, Adil Knackfuss; Ferraz, Sandra Maria; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shedding of Brucella abortus in the milk of cows vaccinated with a full dose of RB51 during lactation. Eighteen cows, nine previously vaccinated with S19 as calves and nine non-vaccinated, were immunized subcutaneously with 1.3×10(10)CFU of B. abortus RB51, 30-60days after parturition. Milk samples from all animals were collected daily until day 7, and at weekly interval for the next 9 weeks after vaccination. To evaluate the shedding of B. abortus, milk samples were submitted for culture and PCR. No B. abortus was isolated from any sample tested. Only one sample, collected on first day after vaccination from a cow previously vaccinated, was faintly positive in the PCR. In conclusion, the public health hazard associated with milk consumption from cows vaccinated with RB51 in post-partum is very low, despite vaccination with the full dose and regardless of previous S19 vaccination.

  8. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the adult tetanus-diphtheria vaccine. How many doses are necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Bayas, J. M.; Vilella, A.; Bertran, M. J.; Vidal, J.; Batalla, J.; Asenjo, M. A.; Salleras, L. L.

    2001-01-01

    The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the tetanus-diphtheria adult type vaccine was compared in two groups: group I (n = 201, 18-30 years old, presumably vaccinated with the DTP vaccine) and group II (n = 147, > or = 45 years old, without vaccination antecedents). Before vaccination, the seroprotection levels for tetanus were 90.5% (group I) and 30.6% (group II). These rose to 99.5% and 81.7%, respectively, after administration of one vaccine dose. For diphtheria, prevaccination seroprotection levels were 38.3% (group I) and 19.0% (group II). These rose to 85.8% and 65.7%, respectively, after vaccination. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between antibody titre and age. In group II, 3 doses of Td vaccine were needed to reach titres similar to those achieved in group I with a single dose. Stated reactogenicity was greater in: young subjects, women, those with higher titres of tetanus antibodies and those receiving other vaccines simultaneously. These results confirm the need for vaccination schedules adapted to the characteristics of each population age-group. PMID:11811878

  9. Stochastic modeling of imperfect Salmonella vaccines in an adult dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Hovingh, Ernest; Schukken, Ynte H

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Human salmonellosis results in significant public health concerns and a considerable economic burden. Dairy cattle are recognized as a key source of several Salmonella serovars that are a threat to human health. To lower the risk of Salmonella infection, reduction of Salmonella prevalence in dairy cattle is important. Vaccination as a control measure has been applied for reduction of preharvest Salmonella prevalence on dairy farms. Salmonella vaccines are usually imperfect (i.e., vaccines may provide a partial protection for susceptible animals, reduce the infectiousness and shedding level, shorten the infectious period of infected animals, and/or curb the number of clinical cases), and evaluation of the potential impacts of imperfect Salmonella vaccines at the farm level is valuable to design effective intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on the stochastic transmission dynamics in an adult dairy herd. To this end, we developed a semi-stochastic and individual-based continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) vaccination model with both direct and indirect transmission, and applied the CTMC vaccination model to Salmonella Cerro transmission in an adult dairy herd. Our results show that vaccines shortening the infectious period are most effective in reducing prevalence, and vaccines decreasing host susceptibility are most effective in reducing the outbreak size. Vaccines with multiple moderate efficacies may have the same effectiveness as vaccines with a single high efficacy in reducing prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size. Although the environment component has negligible contributions to the prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size for Salmonella Cerro in the herd, the relative importance of environment component was not assessed. This study indicates that an effective vaccination program against Salmonella Cerro

  10. Waning immunity against mumps in vaccinated young adults, France 2013.

    PubMed

    Vygen, Sabine; Fischer, Aurélie; Meurice, Laure; Mounchetrou Njoya, Ibrahim; Gregoris, Marina; Ndiaye, Bakhao; Ghenassia, Adrien; Poujol, Isabelle; Stahl, Jean Paul; Antona, Denise; Le Strat, Yann; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Rolland, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, 15 clusters of mumps were notified in France; 72% (82/114) of the cases had been vaccinated twice with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. To determine whether the risk of mumps increased with time since the last vaccination, we conducted a case-control study among clusters in universities and military barracks. A confirmed case had an inflammation of a salivary gland plus laboratory confirmation in 2013. A probable case presented with inflammation of a salivary gland in 2013 either lasting for > 2 days or with epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Controls had no mumps symptoms and attended the same university course, student party or military barracks. We collected clinical and vaccination data via web questionnaire and medical records. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using logistic regression. 59% (50/85) of cases and 62% (199/321) of controls had been vaccinated twice. The odds of mumps increased for twice-vaccinated individuals by 10% for every year that had passed since the second dose (aOR 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19; p = 0.02). Mumps immunity waned with increasing time since vaccination. Our findings contributed to the French High Council of Public Health's decision to recommend a third MMR dose during outbreaks for individuals whose second dose dates > 10 years. PMID:26987576

  11. [Vaccinations in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases--EULAR recommendations for pediatric and adult patients].

    PubMed

    Müller-Ladner, Claudia; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2012-10-01

    Since patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases are prone to infectious complications--on one hand due to the rheumatic disease itself, on the other hand due to the immunosuppressive therapy--vaccination is an essential tool to prevent these infectious complications. Although there exist several recommendations for the vaccination of immunocompromised patients, many questions still remain for the distinct clinical situations of patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In addition, there are several questions concerning the safety and efficacy of various vaccinations, especially with regard to live-attenuated vaccines. Therefore, EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) assembled two expert panels to clarify as much of these clinical problems as possible. After extensive literature review and evidence grading, the expert panels published recommendations for the vaccination of adult and pediatric patients, which are outlined in this review article.

  12. Renewed hope for a vaccine against the intestinal adult Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Hernández, Marisela; Hernándezt, Beatríz; Goldbaum, Fernando A; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Review of experimental and observational evidence about various cestode infections of mammalian hosts revives hope for the development of an effective vaccine against adult intestinal tapeworms, the central protagonists in their transmission dynamics. As for Taenia solium, there are abundant immunological data regarding cysticercosis in humans and pigs, but information about human taeniasis is scarce. A single publication reporting protection against T. solium taeniasis by experimental primo infection and by vaccination of an experimental foster host, the immunocompetent female hamster, kindles the hope of a vaccine against the tapeworm to be used in humans, its only natural definitive host.

  13. CpG Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Young Adult but Not Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Co, Mary; Mathew, Anuja

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced efficacy of influenza vaccines in the elderly compared to young adults. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) in young adult and aged mice. C57/BL6 mice were administered a single or double immunization of Fluzone® with or without CpG and challenged intranasally with H1N1 A/California/09 virus. A double immunization of Fluzone® adjuvanted with CpG elicited the highest level of protection in young adult mice which was associated with increases in influenza specific IgG, elevated HAI titres, reduced viral titres and lung inflammation. In contrast, the vaccine schedule which provided fully protective immunity in young adult mice conferred limited protection in aged mice. Antigen presenting cells from aged mice were found to be less responsive to in vitro stimulation by Fluzone and CpG which may partially explain this result. Our data are supportive of studies that have shown limited effectiveness of influenza vaccines in the elderly and provide important information relevant to the design of more immunogenic vaccines in this age group. PMID:26934728

  14. Hepatitis B and A vaccination in HIV-infected adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Mena, G; García-Basteiro, A L; Bayas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and A account for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis B and A. However, the immune response to both hepatitis vaccines seems to be reduced in HIV-infected subjects. The aim of this review was to analyze the immunogenicity, safety, long-term protection and current recommendations of hepatitis B and A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. The factors most frequently associated with a deficient level of anti-HBs or IgG anti-HAV after vaccination are those related to immunosuppression (CD4 level and HIV RNA viral load) and to the frequency of administration and/or the amount of antigenic load per dose. The duration of the response to both HBV and HAV vaccines is associated with suppression of the viral load at vaccination and, in the case of HBV vaccination, with a higher level of antibodies after vaccination. In terms of safety, there is no evidence of more, or different, adverse effects compared with HIV-free individuals. Despite literature-based advice on the administration of alternative schedules, revaccination after the failure of primary vaccination, and the need for periodic re-evaluation of antibody levels, few firm recommendations are found in the leading guidelines.

  15. Hepatitis B and A vaccination in HIV-infected adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Mena, G; García-Basteiro, A L; Bayas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and A account for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis B and A. However, the immune response to both hepatitis vaccines seems to be reduced in HIV-infected subjects. The aim of this review was to analyze the immunogenicity, safety, long-term protection and current recommendations of hepatitis B and A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. The factors most frequently associated with a deficient level of anti-HBs or IgG anti-HAV after vaccination are those related to immunosuppression (CD4 level and HIV RNA viral load) and to the frequency of administration and/or the amount of antigenic load per dose. The duration of the response to both HBV and HAV vaccines is associated with suppression of the viral load at vaccination and, in the case of HBV vaccination, with a higher level of antibodies after vaccination. In terms of safety, there is no evidence of more, or different, adverse effects compared with HIV-free individuals. Despite literature-based advice on the administration of alternative schedules, revaccination after the failure of primary vaccination, and the need for periodic re-evaluation of antibody levels, few firm recommendations are found in the leading guidelines. PMID:26208678

  16. Influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation with influenza in adults in Australia in 2014.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul M

    2015-12-16

    We provide estimates of the influenza vaccine protection against hospitalisation with laboratory-confirmed influenza in the 2014 Australian season where the A/H1N1/pdm09 strain predominated. This was performed using a case-test negative study design as part of a national sentinel surveillance system in Australia. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1-OR)×100% where the odds ratio of vaccination in cases vs test negative participants was estimated from a conditional logistic regression. Between April and November, 1692 adult patients were admitted with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated from 1283 patients with influenza and 1116 test negative patients where vaccination status was ascertained. Vaccination was associated with a reduction in the risk of hospitalisation with influenza of 51.5% (95% CI: 41.6%, 59.7%) in all patients, and a reduction of 50.7% (95% CI: 40.1%, 59.3%) in the target population for vaccination. We estimate that the influenza vaccine was moderately protective against hospitalisation with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2014 influenza season in Australia.

  17. Hepatitis B and A vaccination in HIV-infected adults: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mena, G; García-Basteiro, AL; Bayas, JM

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and A account for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis B and A. However, the immune response to both hepatitis vaccines seems to be reduced in HIV-infected subjects. The aim of this review was to analyze the immunogenicity, safety, long-term protection and current recommendations of hepatitis B and A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. The factors most frequently associated with a deficient level of anti-HBs or IgG anti-HAV after vaccination are those related to immunosuppression (CD4 level and HIV RNA viral load) and to the frequency of administration and/or the amount of antigenic load per dose. The duration of the response to both HBV and HAV vaccines is associated with suppression of the viral load at vaccination and, in the case of HBV vaccination, with a higher level of antibodies after vaccination. In terms of safety, there is no evidence of more, or different, adverse effects compared with HIV-free individuals. Despite literature-based advice on the administration of alternative schedules, revaccination after the failure of primary vaccination, and the need for periodic re-evaluation of antibody levels, few firm recommendations are found in the leading guidelines. PMID:26208678

  18. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination of adults: phase III comparison of an investigational conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the licensed vaccine, Menactra.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Keith S; Baxter, Roger; Block, Stanley L; Shah, Jina; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, with the highest case fatality rates reported for individuals > or = 15 years of age. This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, to those of the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, when administered to healthy adults. In this phase III multicenter study, 1,359 adults 19 to 55 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive a single dose of one of three lots of MenACWY-CRM or a single dose of Menactra. Serum samples obtained at baseline and 1 month postvaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA). The hSBA titers following vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and Menactra were compared in noninferiority and prespecified superiority analyses. Reactogenicity was similar in the MenACWY-CRM and Menactra groups, and neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. When compared with Menactra, MenACWY-CRM met the superiority criteria for the proportions of recipients achieving a seroresponse against serogroups C, W-135, and Y and the proportion of subjects achieving postvaccination titers of > or = 1:8 for serogroups C and Y. MenACWY-CRM's immunogenicity was statistically noninferior (the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was more than -10%) to that of Menactra for all four serogroups, with the postvaccination hSBA geometric mean titers being consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for Menactra. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra.

  19. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  20. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…

  1. Booster vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: insufficient protection against diphtheria in young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Grasse, Marco; Meryk, Andreas; Schirmer, Michael; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Weinberger, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that single shot vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria do not lead to long-lasting immunity against diphtheria in elderly persons despite administration at 5 year intervals. In the present study we have immunized a group of young adults against tetanus and diphtheria to compare the pre- and 28 days post-vaccination immune responses in the young group with results of the same vaccination performed in an elderly group of a previous study. We also studied protection in both groups 5 years after vaccination. We compared antibody titers at all three time points and also analyzed the T cell responses in both age groups 5 years after vaccination. Before vaccination 9 % of the elderly persons were not protected against tetanus, and 48 % did not have protection against diphtheria. In the young group all participants were protected against tetanus, but 52 % were also unprotected against diphtheria before vaccination. 28 days after vaccination 100 % of all participants had protective antibody concentrations against tetanus and only a small percentage in each age group (<10 %) was unprotected against diphtheria. 5 years later, 100 % of both cohorts were still protected against tetanus, but 24 % of the young and 54 % of the elderly group were unprotected against diphtheria. Antibody concentrations against diphtheria measured by ELISA correlated well with their neutralizing capacity. T cell responses to tetanus and diphtheria did not differ between young and old persons. We conclude that booster vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria according to present recommendations provide long-lasting protection only against tetanus, but not against diphtheria, independently of age. In elderly persons, the level of protection is even lower, probably due to intrinsic age-related changes within the immune system and/or insufficient vaccination earlier in life. PMID:27602049

  2. Booster vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: insufficient protection against diphtheria in young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Grasse, Marco; Meryk, Andreas; Schirmer, Michael; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Weinberger, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that single shot vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria do not lead to long-lasting immunity against diphtheria in elderly persons despite administration at 5 year intervals. In the present study we have immunized a group of young adults against tetanus and diphtheria to compare the pre- and 28 days post-vaccination immune responses in the young group with results of the same vaccination performed in an elderly group of a previous study. We also studied protection in both groups 5 years after vaccination. We compared antibody titers at all three time points and also analyzed the T cell responses in both age groups 5 years after vaccination. Before vaccination 9 % of the elderly persons were not protected against tetanus, and 48 % did not have protection against diphtheria. In the young group all participants were protected against tetanus, but 52 % were also unprotected against diphtheria before vaccination. 28 days after vaccination 100 % of all participants had protective antibody concentrations against tetanus and only a small percentage in each age group (<10 %) was unprotected against diphtheria. 5 years later, 100 % of both cohorts were still protected against tetanus, but 24 % of the young and 54 % of the elderly group were unprotected against diphtheria. Antibody concentrations against diphtheria measured by ELISA correlated well with their neutralizing capacity. T cell responses to tetanus and diphtheria did not differ between young and old persons. We conclude that booster vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria according to present recommendations provide long-lasting protection only against tetanus, but not against diphtheria, independently of age. In elderly persons, the level of protection is even lower, probably due to intrinsic age-related changes within the immune system and/or insufficient vaccination earlier in life.

  3. Predictors of tetanus-diphtheria- acellular pertussis vaccination among adults receiving tetanus vaccine in the United States: data from the 2008 national health interview survey.

    PubMed

    Johns, Tracy L; Roetzheim, Richard; Chen, Ren

    2013-04-01

    BACKGROUND . The incidence of pertussis in the United States has been increasing. Adult vaccination is important to reduce disease burden and prevent transmission to infants at high risk of complications. The tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been available in the United States since 2005 and is indicated as a one-time replacement for the routine tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster. However, among adults receiving tetanus vaccination, only about half receive Tdap. PURPOSE . To identify predictors of adult Tdap vaccination among individuals who receive tetanus vaccine. METHODS . National Health Interview Survey data from 2008 were analyzed in 2011. Respondents were 18 to 64 years old, received tetanus vaccination during 2005-2008, and were aware if it contained pertussis. Predictors of Tdap vaccination were identified with multivariate logistic regression using procedures for complex survey methods. RESULTS . Overall, 51.1% of respondents received Tdap. Vaccination was less likely for those 50 to 64 years old compared with those 18 to 24 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.96). Some college education was associated with higher odds of vaccination compared with lower education levels (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.16-2.07). Having 2 to 3 office visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.32-3.06) or 4 to 9 office visits (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.42) in the previous year increased the odds of vaccination compared with no visits. Individuals with functional limitation due to illness had lower odds compared with no limitation (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.91). CONCLUSIONS . In 2008, 51.1% of adult Td vaccinations included pertussis, suggesting continued efforts to remove barriers are needed. Interventions should target older, functionally impaired, and educationally disadvantaged populations.

  4. Screening Checklist for Contraindications to Vaccines for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may be given today. If you answer “yes” to any question, it does not necessarily mean you should ... during the next month? □ □ □ 10. Have you received any vaccinations ... you bring your immunization record card with you? yes □ no □ It is important for you to have ...

  5. Intradermal fractional booster dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine with a jet injector in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Soonawala, Darius; Verdijk, Pauline; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J; Boog, Claire J; Koedam, Patrick; Visser, Leo G; Rots, Nynke Y

    2013-08-12

    For global eradication of poliomyelitis, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) needs to become available in all countries. Using fractional-doses (reduced-doses) may impact affordability and optimize the utilization of the production capacity. Intradermal administration has the potential to lower the dose without reducing immunogenicity. A needle-free jet injector may be a reliable way to administer vaccines intradermally. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the immunogenicity and tolerability of fractional-dose intradermal IPV (Netherlands Vaccine Institute, NVI) booster vaccination administered with a jet injector (PharmaJet) to full-dose and fractional-dose intramuscular vaccination with a needle and syringe. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparing the differences in the post-vaccination log2 geometric mean concentrations of neutralizing antibodies (GMC) between the study groups. A total of 125 Dutch adult volunteers with a well-documented vaccination history were randomized to one of four groups: full-dose intramuscular needle (IM-NS-0.5), full-dose intramuscular jet injector (IM-JI-0.5), 1/5th dose intramuscular needle (IM-NS-0.1), 1/5th dose intradermal jet injector (ID-JI-0.1). Vaccination with the JI was less painful (87% no pain) than vaccination with a NS (60% no pain), but caused more transient erythema (JI 85%, NS 24%) and swelling (JI 50%, NS 5%). Intradermal vaccination caused less vaccination site soreness (ID 16%, IM 52%). At baseline all subjects had seroprotective antibody concentrations. After 28 days, GMC were slightly lower in the ID-JI-0.1 group than in the reference group (IM-NS-0.5). The differences were not statistically significant, but the stringent non-inferiority criterion (i.e. a difference of 1 serum dilution in the microneutralization assay) was not met. After one year, differences in GMC were no longer apparent. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a fractional dose administered with a

  6. Outbreak-related mumps vaccine effectiveness among a cohort of children and of young adults in Germany 2011.

    PubMed

    Takla, Anja; Böhmer, Merle M; Klinc, Christina; Kurz, Norbert; Schaffer, Alice; Stich, Heribert; Stöcker, Petra; Wichmann, Ole; Koch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose vaccination coverage and among young adults are increasingly reported. However, data on the duration of vaccine-induced protection conferred by mumps vaccines are scarce. As part of a supra-regional outbreak in Germany 2010/11, we conducted two retrospective cohort studies in a primary school and among adult ice hockey teams to determine mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE). Via questionnaires we collected information on demography, clinical manifestations, and reviewed vaccination cards. We estimated VE as 1-RR, RR being the rate ratio of disease among two-times or one-time mumps-vaccinated compared with unvaccinated persons. The response rate was 92.6% (100/108--children cohort) and 91.7% (44/48--adult cohort). Fourteen cases were identified in the children and 6 in the adult cohort. In the children cohort (mean age: 9 y), 2-dose VE was 91.9% (95% CI 81.0-96.5%). In the adult cohort (mean age: 26 y), no cases occurred among the 13 2-times vaccinated, while 1-dose VE was 50.0% (95% CI -9.4-87.1%). Average time since last vaccination showed no significant difference for cases and non-cases, but cases were younger at age of last mumps vaccination (children cohort: 2 vs. 3 y, P=0.04; adult cohort: 1 vs. 4 y, P=0.03). We did not observe signs of waning immunity in the children cohort. Due to the small sample size VE in the adult cohort should be interpreted with caution. Given the estimated VE, very high 2-dose vaccination coverage is required to prevent future outbreaks. Intervention efforts to increase coverage must especially target young adults who received<2 vaccinations during childhood.

  7. Safety and Immunogenicity of Cuban Antipneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine PCV7-TT in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    González, Nadezhda; Paredes, Beatriz; Pérez, Sonia; Mirabal, Mayelín; Rivero, Ivonne; González, Carlos A; Díaz, Alina; García, Dagmar; Rodríguez, Laura; Pérez, Amarilis; Soroa, Yamilka; Santana, Darielis; Alvarez, Alina; Valdés, Yury; Vérez, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and are associated with considerable economic burden on health systems. To prevent pneumococcal infections, 7-valent conjugate vaccines have been available for over a decade; more recently, 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccines have been formulated, which are more immunogenic than vaccines with capsular polysaccharides only. In Cuba, a new vaccine candidate has been developed, PCV7-TT, a conjugate of tetanus toxoid with antigens of seven of the serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae with highest circulation in Cuba and in the world: 1, 5, 6B, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. OBJECTIVE Assess the safety of the vaccine candidate PCV7-TT in healthy adults and conduct a preliminary assessment of its immunogenicity. METHODS A phase I, double-blind clinical trial was performed at the National Toxicology Center in Havana, Cuba. Healthy male volunteers aged 18-35 years were randomly assigned to two groups: 20 received the vaccine candidate PCV7-TT and 20 the polyvalent antipneumococcal vaccine PNEUMO-23 used as control, each in a single intramuscular dose. To assess safety, the occurrence of adverse events was monitored for 30 days following inoculation. To explore immunogenicity, concentrations of serotype-specific antibodies was quantified before and 30 days after inoculation, as well titers of opsonophagocytic antibodies. (National Clinical Trial Registry RPCEC00000133) RESULTS Local adverse events were pain, redness, induration, increased sensitivity to touch, and warmth in the injection area. Pain was registered in 70% of individuals who received PCV7-TT and in 75% of those vaccinated with PNEUMO-23. Reported systemic adverse events were general malaise, headache and drowsiness. All adverse events appeared in the first 72 hours post inoculation and lasted no longer than 3 days. One event was reported that was classified as severe in intensity and serious in consequences, but it was unrelated to

  8. The course of LCMV infection in gnotobiotic and conventional adult mice pretreated with attenuated NDV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Szeri, I; Csatáry, L K; Anderlik, P; Bános, Z; Nász, I; Barna, Z

    1990-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal treatment with two different doses of live Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) containing attenuated NDV vaccine one day before intracerebral inoculation with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) had no influence on the ratio and time of deaths after infection with a 100 LD50 dose of LCMV either in gnotobiotic or in conventional mice. There was no difference either in the LD50 values determined on the basis of three parallel LCMV titration performed on mice pretreated with two different doses of vaccine or untreated. NDV vaccine pretreatment thus did not influence the cellular immune response to LCMV infection either in gnotobiotic or in conventional adult mice. As the NDV vaccine increased the cellular immune response to LCMV infection in suckling mice according to earlier results, the present results reinforce our earlier statement that the direction of immunomodulatory effects can be influenced by age.

  9. A Safe and Stable Neonatal Vaccine Targeting GAPDH Confers Protection against Group B Streptococcus Infections in Adult Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Joana; Madureira, Pedro; Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Barros, Leandro; Oliveira, Liliana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Ribeiro, Adília; Vieira, Luís Mira; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix; Ferreira, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal organism, can turn into a life-threatening pathogen in neonates and elderly, or in adults with severe underlying diseases such as diabetes. We developed a vaccine targeting the GBS glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a glycolytic enzyme detected at the bacterial surface, which was proven to be effective in a neonatal mouse model of infection. Since this bacterium has emerged as an important pathogen in non-pregnant adults, here we investigated whether this vaccine also confers protection in an adult susceptible and in a diabetic mouse model of infection. For immunoprotection studies, sham or immunized adult mice were infected with GBS serotype Ia and V strains, the two most prevalent serotypes isolated in adults. Sham and vaccinated mice were also rendered diabetic and infected with a serotype V GBS strain. For toxicological (pre-clinical) studies, adult mice were vaccinated three times, with three concentrations of recombinant GAPDH adjuvanted with Allydrogel, and the toxicity parameters were evaluated twenty-four hours after the last immunization. For the stability tests, the vaccine formulations were maintained at 4°C for 6 and 12 months prior immunization. The results showed that all tested doses of the vaccine, including the stability study formulations, were immunogenic and that the vaccine was innocuous. The organs (brain, blood, heart, and liver) of vaccinated susceptible or diabetic adult mice were significantly less colonized compared to those of control mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the GAPDH-based vaccine is safe and stable and protects susceptible and diabetic adult mice against GBS infections. It is therefore a promising candidate as a global vaccine to prevent GBS-induced neonatal and adult diseases. PMID:26673420

  10. A Safe and Stable Neonatal Vaccine Targeting GAPDH Confers Protection against Group B Streptococcus Infections in Adult Susceptible Mice.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joana; Madureira, Pedro; Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Barros, Leandro; Oliveira, Liliana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Ribeiro, Adília; Vieira, Luís Mira; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix; Ferreira, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal organism, can turn into a life-threatening pathogen in neonates and elderly, or in adults with severe underlying diseases such as diabetes. We developed a vaccine targeting the GBS glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a glycolytic enzyme detected at the bacterial surface, which was proven to be effective in a neonatal mouse model of infection. Since this bacterium has emerged as an important pathogen in non-pregnant adults, here we investigated whether this vaccine also confers protection in an adult susceptible and in a diabetic mouse model of infection. For immunoprotection studies, sham or immunized adult mice were infected with GBS serotype Ia and V strains, the two most prevalent serotypes isolated in adults. Sham and vaccinated mice were also rendered diabetic and infected with a serotype V GBS strain. For toxicological (pre-clinical) studies, adult mice were vaccinated three times, with three concentrations of recombinant GAPDH adjuvanted with Allydrogel, and the toxicity parameters were evaluated twenty-four hours after the last immunization. For the stability tests, the vaccine formulations were maintained at 4°C for 6 and 12 months prior immunization. The results showed that all tested doses of the vaccine, including the stability study formulations, were immunogenic and that the vaccine was innocuous. The organs (brain, blood, heart, and liver) of vaccinated susceptible or diabetic adult mice were significantly less colonized compared to those of control mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the GAPDH-based vaccine is safe and stable and protects susceptible and diabetic adult mice against GBS infections. It is therefore a promising candidate as a global vaccine to prevent GBS-induced neonatal and adult diseases. PMID:26673420

  11. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992-2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld's Quellung method. Among children <16 years, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes among isolates from IPD cases decreased from 61.8% before vaccination (1997-2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007-2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010-2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups <2 years, 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among adults, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes decreased from 43.4% in the pre-vaccination period (1992-2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013-2014, as compared to 2010-2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing among adults. Eight

  12. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992–2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld’s Quellung method. Among children <16 years, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes among isolates from IPD cases decreased from 61.8% before vaccination (1997–2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007–2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010–2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups <2 years, 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among adults, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes decreased from 43.4% in the pre-vaccination period (1992–2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013–2014, as compared to 2010–2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing

  13. Are we missing an opportunity for cancer prevention? Human papillomavirus vaccination for survivors of pediatric and young adult cancers.

    PubMed

    Temkin, Sarah M; Seibel, Nita L

    2015-10-01

    Survivors of pediatric and young adult cancers remain at risk for subsequent diseases, including those related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Prevention of HPV acquisition through vaccination has become possible over the last decade. HPV vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective, yet rates of vaccination among childhood cancer survivors have remained low. Multiple factors, including stronger advocacy for this intervention from providers, could potentially increase vaccination and lead to lower HPV disease burdens for childhood cancer survivors. Health care providers for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancers should prioritize counseling for HPV vaccination at follow-up visits. Cancer 2015;121:3435-43. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Chimpanzee adenovirus- and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adults.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher A; Scarselli, Elisa; Sande, Charles J; Thompson, Amber J; de Lara, Catherine M; Taylor, Kathryn S; Haworth, Kathryn; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Angus, Brian; Siani, Loredana; Di Marco, Stefania; Traboni, Cinzia; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Capone, Stefania; Vitelli, Alessandra; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Nicosia, Alfredo; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-08-12

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection in annual epidemics, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. However, despite its importance, no vaccine exists. The chimpanzee adenovirus, PanAd3-RSV, and modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA-RSV, are replication-defective viral vectors encoding the RSV fusion (F), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M2-1) proteins for the induction of humoral and cellular responses. We performed an open-label, dose escalation, phase 1 clinical trial in 42 healthy adults in which four different combinations of prime/boost vaccinations were investigated for safety and immunogenicity, including both intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of the adenovirus-vectored vaccine. The vaccines were safe and well tolerated, with the most common reported adverse events being mild injection site reactions. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. RSV neutralizing antibody titers rose in response to IM prime with PanAd3-RSV and after IM boost for individuals primed by the IN route. Circulating anti-F immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) were observed after the IM prime and IM boost. RSV-specific T cell responses were increased after the IM PanAd3-RSV prime and were most efficiently boosted by IM MVA-RSV. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion after boost was from both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, without detectable T helper cell 2 (TH2) cytokines that have been previously associated with immune pathogenesis following exposure to RSV after the formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine. In conclusion, PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV are safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. These vaccine candidates warrant further clinical evaluation of efficacy to assess their potential to reduce the burden of RSV disease. PMID:26268313

  15. Immunological efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine strategies in HIV-infected adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sadlier, C; O'Dea, S; Bennett, K; Dunne, J; Conlon, N; Bergin, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-2.74, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.40-2.70, p < 0.01). Similarly, the prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15-2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27580688

  16. Chimpanzee adenovirus- and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adults.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher A; Scarselli, Elisa; Sande, Charles J; Thompson, Amber J; de Lara, Catherine M; Taylor, Kathryn S; Haworth, Kathryn; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Angus, Brian; Siani, Loredana; Di Marco, Stefania; Traboni, Cinzia; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Capone, Stefania; Vitelli, Alessandra; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Nicosia, Alfredo; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-08-12

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection in annual epidemics, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. However, despite its importance, no vaccine exists. The chimpanzee adenovirus, PanAd3-RSV, and modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA-RSV, are replication-defective viral vectors encoding the RSV fusion (F), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M2-1) proteins for the induction of humoral and cellular responses. We performed an open-label, dose escalation, phase 1 clinical trial in 42 healthy adults in which four different combinations of prime/boost vaccinations were investigated for safety and immunogenicity, including both intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of the adenovirus-vectored vaccine. The vaccines were safe and well tolerated, with the most common reported adverse events being mild injection site reactions. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. RSV neutralizing antibody titers rose in response to IM prime with PanAd3-RSV and after IM boost for individuals primed by the IN route. Circulating anti-F immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) were observed after the IM prime and IM boost. RSV-specific T cell responses were increased after the IM PanAd3-RSV prime and were most efficiently boosted by IM MVA-RSV. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion after boost was from both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, without detectable T helper cell 2 (TH2) cytokines that have been previously associated with immune pathogenesis following exposure to RSV after the formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine. In conclusion, PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV are safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. These vaccine candidates warrant further clinical evaluation of efficacy to assess their potential to reduce the burden of RSV disease.

  17. Immunological efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine strategies in HIV-infected adults: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sadlier, C.; O’Dea, S.; Bennett, K.; Dunne, J.; Conlon, N.; Bergin, C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46–2.74, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.40–2.70, p < 0.01). Similarly, the prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22–2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15–2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27580688

  18. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

    2014-01-23

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees.

  19. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

    2014-01-23

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees. PMID:24291539

  20. Diphtheria Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook ... Related Pages Pertussis Tetanus Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Abbreviations DTaP=Pediatric - Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis ...

  1. Comparison of pneumococcal polysaccharide and CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal oligosaccharide vaccines in young and elderly adults.

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, M A; Jacoby, H; Riley, G J; Graves, B T; Pichichero, M; Treanor, J J

    1997-01-01

    Conjugation of carbohydrate antigens to protein carriers significantly improves the immune response to many carbohydrates. In order to evaluate the potential for this approach to improve the performance of pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly, we evaluated pneumococcal polysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides conjugated to cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) (CRM-OS) in 49 older adults over 60 years of age (median age, 66 years) and compared the results to those from 50 younger adults under age 45 (median age, 27 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive licensed 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PS) which contain 25 micrograms of polysaccharide per serotype, or 5-valent CRM-OS, which contains 10 micrograms of oligosaccharide per serotype, in double-blind fashion. Both vaccines were associated with moderate local pain on administration. Antibody responses to type 14 were seen in the majority of both younger and older subjects following administration of both CRM-OS and PS, and there was no significant improvement of responses with CRM-OS in either age group. Antibody responses in young adults to the less immunogenic type 6B were seen in only 36% of subjects receiving PS and in 56% of subjects receiving CRM-OS (P = 0.15), and the geometric mean 6B titer 1 month after vaccination was higher in CRM-OS recipients (10.9 versus 3.7 micrograms/ml; P = 0.04). However, 6B responses were poor following the administration of either vaccine to elderly adults and there was no difference between results with CRM-OS and those with PS in this age group. Relatively few subjects developed measurable mucosal immunoglobulin A responses in nasal secretions following administration of either vaccine. Revaccination of CRM-OS recipients with PS at 2 months did not result in significant additional responses to 6B or 14. Though CRM-OS is possibly more immunogenic in young adults, the formulation of the pneumococcal glycoconjugate vaccine used in this study does not appear to offer

  2. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  3. Early-life and contemporaneous nutritional and environmental predictors of antibody response to vaccination in young Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sophie E.; Richards, Anna A.; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Szu, Shousun Chen; Prentice, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research links nutritional exposures early in life with alterations in functional immunity that persist beyond childhood. Here we investigate predictors of antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines in a cohort of Gambian adults with detailed records from birth and early infancy available. 320 adults were given a single dose of a Vi polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhi and a 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-Vi antibody levels and antibodies against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 14 and 23F) were measured in serum samples collected at baseline and then 14 days following vaccination and compared to data available from birth and early infancy. Post-vaccination antibody titres to serotype 14 of the pneumococcal vaccine were negatively associated with rate of growth from birth to three months of age, infant weight at 12 months of age and season of birth, but no other associations were observed with early-life exposures. The strongest predictor of antibody levels was pre-vaccination antibody titres, with adult height and serum neopterin levels at time of vaccination also implicated. The current study does not support the hypothesis that nutritional exposures early in life consistently compromise antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines administered in young adulthood. PMID:22609011

  4. Orthopedic Health: Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know (quiz)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... Javascript on. How much do you know about osteoarthritis, its causes, and its therapies? Take this quiz ...

  5. Nephrology quiz and questionnaire: renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Golper, Thomas A; Glassock, Richard J; Bleyer, Anthony J

    2012-08-01

    Presentation of the Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire has become an annual "tradition" at the meetings of the American Society of Nephrology. It is a very popular session judged by consistently large attendance. Members of the audience test their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. They can also compare their answers in real time, using audience response devices, with those of program directors of nephrology training programs in the United States, acquired through an Internet-based questionnaire. Topics presented here include fluid and electrolyte disorders, transplantation, and ESRD and dialysis. Cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared by a panel of experts (Drs. Palmer, Hricik, and Golper, respectively). After the audience responses, the "correct" and "incorrect" answers then were briefly discussed and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. This article aims to recapitulate the session and reproduce its educational value for a larger audience-readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Have fun.

  6. Predictors of the antibody response to influenza vaccination in older adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McElhaney, Janet E; Garneau, Hugo; Camous, Xavier; Dupuis, Gilles; Pawelec, Graham; Baehl, Sarra; Tessier, Daniel; Frost, Eric H; Frasca, Daniela; Larbi, Anis; Fulop, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases of the elderly. Its development is related to the alteration of the immune system with aging characterized by immunosenescence and inflamm-aging. In turn, T2DM also alters the immune response. As a consequence, older people with T2DM are more susceptible to influenza and to its complications as compared with healthy controls. Vaccination against influenza has shown poor efficacy in the older population and even less efficacy in patients with diabetes. We studied here the antibody response to vaccination in healthy and diabetic elderly participants. Research design and methods In 2 groups of elderly participants (healthy N=119 and T2DM N=102), we measured the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition assays. We assessed several blood and functional parameters as potential predictors of the vaccine efficacy. Results We found no difference between antibody responses in diabetic elderly compared with healthy elderly. Among the biological and functional determinants, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus played a more prominent role in determining the magnitude of response. We concluded that in addition to age and diabetic status, immunological history such as CMV status should be taken into account. None of the other biological or functional parameters studied could be reliably linked to the vaccine antibody response in older adults who are not frail including those with well-controlled diabetes. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that influenza vaccine should be administered to elderly patients with T2DM; however, the immune determinants of the antibody response to influenza vaccination should be further investigated. PMID:26504526

  7. Humoral and cellular immune responses in adult geese induced by an inactivated vaccine against new type gosling viral enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Cheng, A C; Wang, M S; Zhu, D K; Jia, R Y; Luo, Q H; Liu, F; Chen, X Y; Yang, J L

    2010-11-01

    To assess the immunogenicity of an inactivated new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) vaccine, we investigated 3 different doses of the inactivated vaccine and the inactivated vaccine in conjunction with 3 different doses of recombinant goose interleukin-2 (rGoIL-2) adjuvant. A virus concentration of 10(5) 50% embryo infective dose/mL was subcutaneously inoculated into adult geese divided into 6 groups. The dynamic changes of the humoral and cellular immunity responses elicited by the vaccines in the adult geese postvaccination (PV) were investigated using ELISA, virus neutralization test, and lymphocyte proliferation assay. The clearance of virus from the intestines of geese (175 d PV) was studied by histopathological examination and indirect immunofluorescence assay after virulent NGVEV challenge. This study showed that the inactivated NGVEV vaccine elicits strong humoral and cellular responses in the vaccinated adult geese. The absorbance values of specific anti-NGVEV antibodies, the neutralization antibody titer, and the lymphocyte proliferation index rapidly increased, peaked at about 28 d PV, progressed to the plateau stage, and then decreased slightly. The rGoIL-2 adjuvant enhanced the immune response, and this adjuvant in conjunction with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine induces a significantly higher specific anti-NGVEV antibody absorbance value, neutralization antibody titer, and lymphocyte proliferation index than the non-adjuvant-inactivated NGVEV vaccine (P < 0.05). The inactivated NGVEV vaccine conferred adequate efficient ability to clear NGVEV in vaccinated geese even in the last phase of the vaccination period (175 d PV). The inactivated NGVEV vaccine (0.5 mL/goose) with 1,000 units of rGoIL-2 adjuvant/goose is the most effective dose, thereby eliciting the strongest humoral and cellular immunity responses and providing the most efficacious clearance of NGVEV in vivo.

  8. A seroprevalence survey on varicella among adults in the vaccination era in Apulia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Tafuri, S; Gallone, M S; Cappelli, M G; Gallone, M F; Larocca, A M V; Germinario, C

    2014-11-12

    In 2006, the Apulia Region (Italy) introduced universal routine vaccination (URV) against varicella disease. The coverage for one dose of varicella vaccine at 24 month of age reached 91.1% in 2010 birth-cohort. Vaccination coverage for the second dose at 5-6 years was 64.8% for the cohort 2005, and 28.8% for adolescents born in 1997. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the pattern of immunity/susceptibility to varicella in Apulian adults by a seroprevalence survey carried out 6 years after the introduction of URV. The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 among blood donors of the Department of Transfusion Medicine of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sample. For each enrolled patient we collected a sample of serum of 5 ml. Anti-VZV IgG in collected sera were analyzed by chemiluminescence (CLIA). We enrolled 1769 subject; 1365 (77.2%) were male with a mean age of 38.4 ± 11.7 years. 93% (95% CI=91.7-94.1) of enrolled subject presented a titre of anti-VZV IgG >164 mIU/mL. GMT of anti-VZV IgG titre was 1063.4 mIU/ml and no difference was observed between different age group. According to our data, URV did not seem to have any impact on susceptibility among adults and in particular we did not note any cluster of susceptible subjects among young adults. Also in the vaccination era, we did not note that the average age of infection shifts among adults and then we could exclude an increase of case of complicated varicella related to the URV.

  9. A dose-response evaluation of inactivated influenza vaccine given intranasally and intramuscularly to healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Cate, Thomas R; Munoz, Flor M; Ruben, Fred; Couch, Robert B

    2007-07-20

    Epidemic influenza occurs annually throughout the world and is accompanied by excess morbidity and mortality. Increasing the antigen content and topical administration of vaccine are two strategies being explored to improve the immune responses to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of intramuscular (IM), intranasal (IN), or combined IM and IN administration of a contemporary US vaccine formulation at escalating dosage levels in young healthy adults. Two hundred forty three healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 45 years received 15, 30, or 60mcg of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine by either IN, IM or both routes, 120mcg of vaccine IM, or placebo IN and IM. All dosages and routes of vaccine administration were well-tolerated. A bad taste and mild nasal discomfort were more likely to be reported when influenza vaccine was administered IN, while arm tenderness was more common after IM administration. Significant increases in geometric mean serum antibody titers in both HAI and Nt assays were seen in all of the groups receiving influenza vaccine for all test antigens (Por=32 were higher following delivery of the study vaccines by an IM route than by the IN route, but significant increases in serum antibody were seen after IN vaccination. Nasal IgA antibody responses were more common when vaccine was administered IN; and, when the IN dosage was increased, the primary benefit from IN vaccine over IM vaccine appeared to be greater induction of nasal secretory antibody.

  10. Addressing the Vaccine Hesitancy Continuum: An Audience Segmentation Analysis of American Adults Who Did Not Receive the 2009 H1N1 Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Galarce, Ezequiel; Xuan, Ziming; Alexander-Molloy, Jaclyn; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of groups along the vaccine hesitancy continuum presents an opportunity to tailor and increase the impact of public engagement efforts with these groups. Audience segmentation can support these goals, as demonstrated here in the context of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. In March 2010, we surveyed 1569 respondents, drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults, with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities and persons living below the United States Federal Poverty Level. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to H1N1; communication outcomes; and social determinants. Among those who did not receive the vaccine (n = 1166), cluster analysis identified three vaccine-hesitant subgroups. Disengaged Skeptics (67%) were furthest from vaccine acceptance, with low levels of concern and engagement. The Informed Unconvinced (19%) were sophisticated consumers of media and health information who may not have been reached with information to motivate vaccination. The Open to Persuasion cluster (14%) had the highest levels of concern and motivation and may have required engagement about vaccination broadly. There were significant sociodemographic differences between groups. This analysis highlights the potential to use segmentation techniques to identify subgroups on the vaccine hesitancy continuum and tailor public engagement efforts accordingly. PMID:26350595

  11. Addressing the Vaccine Hesitancy Continuum: An Audience Segmentation Analysis of American Adults Who Did Not Receive the 2009 H1N1 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Galarce, Ezequiel; Xuan, Ziming; Alexander-Molloy, Jaclyn; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of groups along the vaccine hesitancy continuum presents an opportunity to tailor and increase the impact of public engagement efforts with these groups. Audience segmentation can support these goals, as demonstrated here in the context of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. In March 2010, we surveyed 1569 respondents, drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults, with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities and persons living below the United States Federal Poverty Level. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to H1N1; communication outcomes; and social determinants. Among those who did not receive the vaccine (n = 1166), cluster analysis identified three vaccine-hesitant subgroups. Disengaged Skeptics (67%) were furthest from vaccine acceptance, with low levels of concern and engagement. The Informed Unconvinced (19%) were sophisticated consumers of media and health information who may not have been reached with information to motivate vaccination. The Open to Persuasion cluster (14%) had the highest levels of concern and motivation and may have required engagement about vaccination broadly. There were significant sociodemographic differences between groups. This analysis highlights the potential to use segmentation techniques to identify subgroups on the vaccine hesitancy continuum and tailor public engagement efforts accordingly. PMID:26350595

  12. Use of Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccines in Adolescents and Young Adults: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; Folaranmi, Temitope; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Patel, Manisha; Martin, Stacey W

    2015-10-23

    At its June 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16–23 years may be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. This report summarizes the deliberations of ACIP, the rationale for its decision, and recommendations for use of MenB vaccines in adolescents and young adults. Two MenB vaccines have recently been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and approved for use in persons aged 10–25 years: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, Novartis Vaccines). Both MenB vaccines were licensed based on statutory regulations for accelerated approval, which enabled FDA to approve the MenB vaccines for serious or life-threatening diseases based on safety and demonstration that vaccine effectiveness, as measured by bactericidal antibody responses with assays using several MenB test strains that were representative of prevalent strains in the United States, is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. As a requirement for accelerated approval, confirmatory studies in the postmarketing period will be conducted to verify and further describe the effectiveness of the vaccines against an extended number of MenB strains that represent a broader diversity of endemic disease. Additional postlicensure safety data are also needed and will be reviewed by ACIP as they become available.

  13. Protection Provided by Hepatitis B Vaccine in Adult Population of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B vaccination has been integrated into National Expanded Program on Immunization in Iran since the year 1993 and young adult national vaccination project was done in 2008. So we have three subpopulations with vaccination coverage for hepatitis B and different antibody levels. Consisting of Subpopulation 1 born after 1993, subpopulation 2 born between 1989 and 1993 and receiving vaccination under adult national project, and subpopulation 3 born prior to the year 1989. Aim The present study was conducted to investigate community protection by hepatitis B vaccine in adult population in an accessible population in Iran and compare vaccination coverage, HBs Ab level, and its effective titration among the three above-mentioned subpopulations. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on a 3000-individual adult population from all seven counties of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province enrolled by clustering. After obtaining written consent and filling out a questionnaire of demographic data and history of hepatitis B vaccination by trained interviewers, necessary blood sample was taken and HBs Ab titration was checked. The data were analysed by chi-square in SPSS 19. The level of significance was considered as 0.05 and effective Ab titration as ≥ 10. Results The mean age of the participants was 38.4±16.3 years. Of the participants 48.2% had effective titration. For vaccination coverage, 77.4% were unvaccinated, 20% completely vaccinated, and 2.6% incompletely vaccinated with a significant association with effective titration (p<0.001). Eighty six percent of the subpopulation 1 and 79% of the subpopulation 2 were completely vaccinated, with a significant difference in effective titration between them (p<0.001). Vaccination coverage was higher in men and the single but equal in cities and villages. The effective titration was significantly associated with being married and residence place (p=0.003). There was a significant association

  14. Clinical Trial of an Oral Live Shigella sonnei Vaccine Candidate, WRSS1, in Thai Adults.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Islam, Dilara; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Luvira, Viravarn; Dhitavat, Jittima; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn

    2016-07-01

    Live attenuated Shigella sonnei vaccine candidate WRSS1, previously tested in U.S. and Israeli volunteers, was evaluated in a population of adult Thai volunteers in which the organism is endemic. In a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind design, inpatient participants received a single oral dose of 1.6 × 10(4) CFU of WRSS1. The vaccine was generally well tolerated, with equal numbers of vaccinees and placebo controls showing mild symptoms. Only 3 of 13 vaccinees (23%) had culture-positive stools, while a total of 9 vaccinees were positive by PCR. Lack of vaccine shedding in volunteers correlated with lack of clinical symptoms and immune responses, just as the duration of fecal shedding correlated directly with stronger immune responses. Two months following immunization, 10 vaccinees and 10 newly recruited naive controls received a challenge dose of 1,670 CFU of virulent S. sonnei strain 53G. This dose had previously demonstrated a 75% attack rate for dysentery in Thai volunteers. However, in this study the attack rate for dysentery in naive controls after challenge was 20%. Based on clinical record summaries, 3 vaccinees and 5 naive controls experienced clinically relevant illness (diarrhea/dysentery/fever/shigellosis), and a 40% vaccine efficacy was calculated. When these data are compared to those for the performance of this vaccine candidate in more naive populations, it is clear that a single oral dose of WRSS1 at 10(4) CFU failed to achieve its full potential in a population in which the organism is endemic. Higher doses and/or repeated immunizations may contribute to improved vaccine shedding and consequent elevation of protective immune responses in a population in which the organism is endemic. (The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01080716.). PMID:27146000

  15. Clinical Trial of an Oral Live Shigella sonnei Vaccine Candidate, WRSS1, in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Dilara; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Luvira, Viravarn; Dhitavat, Jittima; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; Mason, Carl J.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated Shigella sonnei vaccine candidate WRSS1, previously tested in U.S. and Israeli volunteers, was evaluated in a population of adult Thai volunteers in which the organism is endemic. In a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind design, inpatient participants received a single oral dose of 1.6 × 104 CFU of WRSS1. The vaccine was generally well tolerated, with equal numbers of vaccinees and placebo controls showing mild symptoms. Only 3 of 13 vaccinees (23%) had culture-positive stools, while a total of 9 vaccinees were positive by PCR. Lack of vaccine shedding in volunteers correlated with lack of clinical symptoms and immune responses, just as the duration of fecal shedding correlated directly with stronger immune responses. Two months following immunization, 10 vaccinees and 10 newly recruited naive controls received a challenge dose of 1,670 CFU of virulent S. sonnei strain 53G. This dose had previously demonstrated a 75% attack rate for dysentery in Thai volunteers. However, in this study the attack rate for dysentery in naive controls after challenge was 20%. Based on clinical record summaries, 3 vaccinees and 5 naive controls experienced clinically relevant illness (diarrhea/dysentery/fever/shigellosis), and a 40% vaccine efficacy was calculated. When these data are compared to those for the performance of this vaccine candidate in more naive populations, it is clear that a single oral dose of WRSS1 at 104 CFU failed to achieve its full potential in a population in which the organism is endemic. Higher doses and/or repeated immunizations may contribute to improved vaccine shedding and consequent elevation of protective immune responses in a population in which the organism is endemic. (The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01080716.) PMID:27146000

  16. Influenza Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among the Lebanese Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Ghada; Salameh, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a common preventable infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza, yet the vaccine uptake is known to be low. No previous studies have assessed the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination use among the Lebanese population, nor examined the knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 30 pharmacies randomly selected across Lebanon. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record influenza vaccination status, knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine among the Lebanese general population. Results: The survey response rate was 93%. Among the 640 study participants, the overall 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccination rate was 27.6%. The majority of participants (72.4%) reported irregular uptake of the vaccine. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that elderly people (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.08–4.71), with higher education (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.09–1.84), higher physical activity (OR significantly higher than 1 for all categories), and chronic respiratory disease (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.58–6.62) were more regularly vaccinated, while those who visit the doctor “only when needed” (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.34–0.88) and those who consume more than seven drinks/week (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.09–0.65) were less regularly vaccinated. When introducing knowledge and attitude variables to the model, “thinking that the vaccine was not needed” was the only correlate that demonstrated a significant inverse association with regular influenza vaccination (OR = 0.15; p = 0.017). Conclusions: Suboptimal vaccination rates exist among the Lebanese ambulatory adult population. Clear misinformation on the importance of regular influenza immunization is also highlighted. This evidence underscores a compelling need to raise public awareness regarding the efficacy of the influenza vaccine. PMID:26690189

  17. Phase III, randomized controlled trial to evaluate lot consistency of a trivalent subunit egg-based influenza vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Luis; Mazara, Sonia; Vargas, Maria; Fragapane, Elena; Casula, Daniela; Groth, Nicola

    2012-07-27

    Vaccination is the most effective preventive strategy to control influenza. The demonstration of lot-to-lot consistency to confirm the reliability of the manufacturing process has become a mandatory step in vaccine development. This phase III, observer-blind, controlled trial assessed lot-to-lot consistency, immunogenicity, and safety of a subunit trivalent influenza vaccine (Agrippal®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics) in healthy adults aged 18-49 years. The immunogenicity and safety profile of Agrippal was compared with a control vaccine (Fluvirin®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics). A total of 1507 subjects were randomized 2:2:2:1 to receive one vaccination of one of the three lots of influenza vaccine or control vaccine. Antibody levels were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay on days 1 and 22. Adverse reactions were solicited via diary cards for 7 days after vaccination, and unsolicited adverse events were collected throughout the study period. Equivalence of day 22 immune responses to the three lots was shown for each of the three strains. Robust immunogenic responses after one dose were observed for all vaccine groups, and both Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research criteria for licensure of influenza vaccines were met for all three virus strains. Both vaccines exhibited a robust safety profile and were well tolerated, with no differences in local and systemic solicited reactions or in unsolicited adverse events. The demonstration of consistency between manufacturing lots confirms for purposes of clinical development the reliability of the production process. The robust immunogenic responses and favorable safety profiles further support the use of trivalent subunit influenza vaccines Agrippal and Fluvirin for active immunization against influenza. PMID:22659448

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. Methods A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Results Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Conclusions Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective. PMID:27322384

  19. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV. PMID:26647277

  20. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults.  Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas.    Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV. PMID:26647277

  1. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV.

  2. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  3. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  4. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  5. Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine versus the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Unvaccinated HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot, Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Francesca; Belmonti, Simone; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Morandi, Matteo; Rossetti, Barbara; Tordini, Giacinta; Cauda, Roberto; De Luca, Andrea; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Montagnani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18–65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL. Eligible subjects were recruited into two parallel groups: group 1 (n = 50) received two doses of PCV13 eight weeks apart, and group 2 (n = 50) received one dose of PPSV23, as part of their standard of care. Anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G concentrations were quantified by ELISA at baseline, 8, 24 and 48 weeks. Clinical and viro-immunological follow-up was performed at the same time points. Unvaccinated, age-matched HIV-negative adults (n = 100) were also enrolled as baseline controls. Results Pre-vaccination specific IgG titers for each pneumococcal antigen did not differ between study groups but they were constantly lower than those from the HIV-negative controls. After immunization, significant increases in IgG titers were observed in both study groups at each time point compared to baseline, but response to serotype 3 was blunted in group 1. Antibody titers for each antigen did not differ between study groups at week 48. Overall, the proportion of subjects achieving seroprotection and seroconversion to all serotypes was comparable between groups. A marked decrease in IgG levels over time was observed with both vaccines. No relevant adverse reactions were reported in either group. Conclusions In this population with favorable immune profile, no relevant differences were observed in immunogenicity between PCV13 and PPSV23. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02123433 PMID:27258647

  6. Use of an Sm-p80-based therapeutic vaccine to kill established adult schistosome parasites in chronically infected baboons.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Souvik; Zhang, Weidong; Ahmad, Gul; Torben, Workineh; Alam, Mayeen U; Le, Loc; Damian, Raymond T; Wolf, Roman F; White, Gary L; Carey, David W; Carter, Darrick; Reed, Steven G; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2014-06-15

    No vaccines are available for human use for any parasitic infections, including the helminthic disease schistosomiasis. Sm-p80, the large subunit of Schistosoma mansoni calpain, is a leading antigen candidate for a schistosomiasis vaccine. Prophylactic and antifecundity efficacies of Sm-p80 have been tested using a variety of vaccine approaches in both rodent and nonhuman primate models. However, the therapeutic efficacy of a Sm-p80-based vaccine had not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Sm-p80 by using 2 different strategies and 3 Sm-p80-based vaccine formulations in baboons. Vaccine formulations were able to decrease established adult worms by 10%-36%, reduce retention of eggs in tissues by 10%-57%, and decrease egg excretion in feces by 13%-33%, compared with control formulations. Marked differences were observed in B and T cell immune correlates between vaccinated and control animals. This is the first report of killing of established adult schistosome worms by a vaccine. In addition to distinct prophylactic efficacy of Sm-p80, this study adds to the evidence that Sm-p80 is a potentially important antigen with both substantial prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies. These data reinforce that Sm-p80 should be moved forward along the path toward human clinical trials.

  7. Association of CMV, HBV, or HCV co-infection with vaccine response in adults with well-controlled HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Troy, S B; Rossheim, A E B; Siik, J; Cunningham, T D; Kerry, J A

    2016-05-01

    Even after CD4 count recovery on antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection is associated with decreased response to most vaccines compared to the general population. Chronic infections with viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which are more prevalent in HIV-infected populations, have been linked to immune dysfunction and decreased vaccine response in the general population. However, whether co-infection with these other viruses contributes to the decreased vaccine response seen in adults with well-controlled HIV infection is unknown. We conducted a secondary analysis of data and serum from adults with well-controlled HIV infection from an inactivated polio vaccine trial (224 subjects) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine study (128 subjects). We evaluated the association of CMV, HBV, or HCV co-infection with post-vaccination antibody levels using both univariate and multivariate analyses, controlling for factors such as age, race, CD4 count, comorbidities, smoking status, and baseline antibody levels. Ninety-three percent, 7%, and 14% of subjects were co-infected with CMV, HBV, and HCV respectively. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, neither CMV nor HCV co-infection were significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody levels to either vaccine. HBV co-infection was significantly associated with post-vaccination antibody concentrations for pneumococcal serotype 7F on univariate analysis and 6A on multivariate analysis, but the association was with higher antibody concentrations. In conclusion, co-infection with CMV, HBV, or HCV does not appear to contribute to the decreased vaccine response seen in adults with well-controlled HIV infection.

  8. Predicting young adults' intentions to get the H1N1 vaccine: an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z Janet

    2015-01-01

    Young adults 19 through 24 years of age were among the populations that had the highest frequency of infection from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. However, over the 2009-2010 flu season, H1N1 vaccine uptake among college students nationwide was around 8%. To explore the social cognitive factors that influenced their intentions to get the H1N1 vaccine, this study compares the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the health belief model (HBM), and an integrated model. The final model shows that several HBM variables influenced behavioral intentions through the TPB variables. The results suggest that even though the TPB seemed a superior model for behavior prediction, the addition of the HBM variables could inform future theory development by offering health-specific constructs that potentially enhance the predictive validity of TPB variables. PMID:24870976

  9. Development of a novel in-water vaccination protocol for DNA adenine methylase deficient Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine in adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohler, V L; Heithoff, D M; Mahan, M J; Hornitzky, M A; Thomson, P C; House, J K

    2012-02-14

    Intensive livestock production is associated with an increased incidence of salmonellosis. The risk of infection and the subsequent public health concern is attributed to increased pathogen exposure and disease susceptibility due to multiple stressors experienced by livestock from farm to feedlot. Traditional parenteral vaccine methods can further stress susceptible populations and cause carcass damage, adverse reactions, and resultant increased production costs. As a potential means to address these issues, in-water delivery of live attenuated vaccines affords a low cost, low-stress method for immunization of livestock populations that is not associated with the adverse handling stressors and injection reactions associated with parenteral administration. We have previously established that in-water administration of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium dam vaccine conferred significant protection in livestock. While these experimental trials hold significant promise, the ultimate measure of the vaccine will not be established until it has undergone clinical testing in the field wherein environmental and sanitary conditions are variable. Here we show that in-water administration of a S. Typhimurium dam attenuated vaccine was safe, stable, and well-tolerated in adult sheep. The dam vaccine did not alter water consumption or vaccine dosing; remained viable under a wide range of temperatures (21-37°C); did not proliferate within fecal-contaminated trough water; and was associated with minimal fecal shedding and clinical disease as a consequence of vaccination. The capacity of Salmonella dam attenuated vaccines to be delivered in drinking water to protect livestock from virulent Salmonella challenge offers an effective, economical, stressor-free Salmonella prophylaxis for intensive livestock production systems. PMID:22214887

  10. Cost of pneumococcal infections and cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal vaccination at risk adults and elderly in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Levent; Kaya, Mehmet; Altinel, Serdar; Durand, Laure

    2011-04-01

    Pneumococcal infections have a substantial burden in Turkey, particularly in the elderly (> 60 years) and at-risk adults (18-59 years). VCR are low at approximately 2%. The first aim of this study was the evaluation of the burden of pneumococcal infections (pneumonia and bacteremia) from a public payer perspective in elderly and at-risk adults. The second aim was the evaluation of cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in these populations. A decision tree model was employed using demographic and epidemiological input obtained from Turkish official sources and international literature. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% and 50% effectiveness against BPP in elderly and at-risk adults respectively. Vaccination effectiveness of 21% against NBPP was assumed for both populations. Costs input were obtained from a previous study conducted between 2002 and 2008 in a public university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Univariate sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo simulations were performed. The vaccination program was cost effective and cost saving compared to no vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination with 60% coverage led to a mean of 4,695 LYG in the elderly and 2,134 LYG in at-risk adults with 40% coverage. Mean incremental savings reached 45.4 million YTL in the elderly and 21.8 million YTL in at-risk adults. This analysis suggests that pneumococcal vaccination of elderly and at-risk adults is associated with a positive return on investment from a public payer perspective and supports the continued recommendation of pneumococcal vaccines, as well as their full funding in Turkey.

  11. Pharmacological and Combined Interventions to Reduce Vaccine Injection Pain in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Halperin, Scott A.; Noel, Melanie; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review assessed the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy and combined interventions for reducing vaccine injection pain in individuals across the lifespan. Design/Methods: Electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Self-reported pain and fear as well as observer-rated distress were critically important outcomes. Data were combined using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Fifty-five studies that examined breastfeeding (which combines sweet-tasting solution, holding, and sucking), topical anesthetics, sweet-tasting solutions (sucrose, glucose), vapocoolants, oral analgesics, and combination of 2 versus 1 intervention were included. The following results report findings of analyses of critical outcomes with the largest number of participants. Compared with control, acute distress was lower for infants breastfed: (1) during vaccination (n=792): SMD −1.78 (CI, −2.35, −1.22) and (2) before vaccination (n=100): SMD −1.43 (CI, −2.14, −0.72). Compared with control/placebo, topical anesthetics showed benefit on acute distress in children (n=1424): SMD −0.91 (CI, −1.36, −0.47) and self-reported pain in adults (n=60): SMD −0.85 (CI, −1.38, −0.32). Acute and recovery distress was lower for children who received sucrose (n=2071): SMD −0.76 (CI, −1.19, −0.34) or glucose (n=818): SMD −0.69 (CI, −1.03, −0.35) compared with placebo/no treatment. Vapocoolants reduced acute pain in adults [(n=185), SMD −0.78 (CI, −1.08, −0.48)] but not children. Evidence from other needle procedures showed no benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen. The administration of topical anesthetics before and breastfeeding during vaccine injections showed mixed results when compared with topical anesthetics alone. There were no additive benefits of combining glucose and non-nutritive sucking (pacifier) compared with

  12. Measles Outbreak Associated with Vaccine Failure in Adults--Federated States of Micronesia, February-August 2014.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Moturi, Edna; Helgenberger, Louisa; Gopalani, Sameer V; Hales, Craig; Lam, Eugene; Sharapov, Umid; Larzelere, Maribeth; Johnson, Eliaser; Masao, Carolee; Setik, Eleanor; Barrow, Lisa; Dolan, Samantha; Chen, Tai-Ho; Patel, Minal; Rota, Paul; Hickman, Carole; Bellini, William; Seward, Jane; Wallace, Greg; Papania, Mark

    2015-10-01

    On May 15, 2014, CDC was notified of two laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), after 20 years with no reported measles. FSM was assisted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and CDC in investigating suspected cases, identify contacts, conduct analyses to guide outbreak vaccination response, and review vaccine cold chain practices. During February–August, three of FSM’s four states reported measles cases: Kosrae (139 cases), Pohnpei (251), and Chuuk (3). Two thirds of cases occurred among adults aged ≥20 years; of these, 49% had received ≥2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Apart from infants aged <12 months who were too young for routine vaccination, measles incidence was lower among children than adults. A review of current cold chain practices in Kosrae revealed minor weaknesses; however, an absence of historical cold chain maintenance records precluded an evaluation of earlier problems. Each state implemented vaccination campaigns targeting children as young as age 6 months through adults up to age 57 years. The preponderance of cases in this outbreak associated with vaccine failure in adults highlights the need for both thorough case investigation and epidemiologic analysis to guide outbreak response vaccination. Routine childhood vaccination coverage achieved in recent years limited the transmission of measles among children. Even in areas where transmission has not occurred for years, maintaining high 2-dose MCV coverage through routine and supplemental immunization is needed to prevent outbreaks resulting from increased measles susceptibility in the population. PMID:26421903

  13. Measles Outbreak Associated with Vaccine Failure in Adults--Federated States of Micronesia, February-August 2014.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Lucy; Moturi, Edna; Helgenberger, Louisa; Gopalani, Sameer V; Hales, Craig; Lam, Eugene; Sharapov, Umid; Larzelere, Maribeth; Johnson, Eliaser; Masao, Carolee; Setik, Eleanor; Barrow, Lisa; Dolan, Samantha; Chen, Tai-Ho; Patel, Minal; Rota, Paul; Hickman, Carole; Bellini, William; Seward, Jane; Wallace, Greg; Papania, Mark

    2015-10-02

    On May 15, 2014, CDC was notified of two laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), after 20 years with no reported measles. FSM was assisted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and CDC in investigating suspected cases, identify contacts, conduct analyses to guide outbreak vaccination response, and review vaccine cold chain practices. During February–August, three of FSM’s four states reported measles cases: Kosrae (139 cases), Pohnpei (251), and Chuuk (3). Two thirds of cases occurred among adults aged ≥20 years; of these, 49% had received ≥2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Apart from infants aged <12 months who were too young for routine vaccination, measles incidence was lower among children than adults. A review of current cold chain practices in Kosrae revealed minor weaknesses; however, an absence of historical cold chain maintenance records precluded an evaluation of earlier problems. Each state implemented vaccination campaigns targeting children as young as age 6 months through adults up to age 57 years. The preponderance of cases in this outbreak associated with vaccine failure in adults highlights the need for both thorough case investigation and epidemiologic analysis to guide outbreak response vaccination. Routine childhood vaccination coverage achieved in recent years limited the transmission of measles among children. Even in areas where transmission has not occurred for years, maintaining high 2-dose MCV coverage through routine and supplemental immunization is needed to prevent outbreaks resulting from increased measles susceptibility in the population.

  14. HELPinKids&Adults Knowledge Synthesis of the Management of Vaccination Pain and High Levels of Needle Fear

    PubMed Central

    Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Chambers, Christine T.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    The HELPinKids&Adults knowledge synthesis for the management of vaccination-related pain and high levels of needle fear updated and expanded upon the 2010 HELPinKIDS knowledge synthesis and clinical practice guideline for pain mitigation during vaccine injections in childhood. Interventions for vaccine pain management in adults and treatment of individuals with high levels of needle fear, phobias, or both were included, thereby broadening the reach of this work. The present paper outlines the overarching limitations of this diverse evidence base and provides recommendations for future research. Consistent with the framing of clinical questions in the systematic reviews, the Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design (PICOAS) framework was used to organize these predominant issues and research directions. The major limitations we identified across systematic reviews were an overall dearth of trials on vaccination, lack of methodological rigor, failure to incorporate important outcomes, poor study reporting, and various sources of heterogeneity. Future research directions in terms of conducting additional trials in the vaccination context, improving methodological quality and rigor, assessment of global acceptability and feasibility of interventions, and inclusion of outcomes that stakeholders consider to be important (eg, compliance) are recommended. Given concerns about pain and fear are known contributors to vaccine hesitancy, improving and expanding this evidence base will be integral to broader efforts to improve vaccine compliance and public health worldwide. PMID:26352918

  15. Antibody Avidity in Humoral Immune Responses in Bangladeshi Children and Adults following Administration of an Oral Killed Cholera Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Leung, Daniel T.; Akhtar, Marjahan; Nazim, Mohammad; Akter, Sarmin; Uddin, Taher; Khanam, Farhana; Mahbuba, Deena Al; Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Antibody avidity for antigens following disease or vaccination increases with affinity maturation and somatic hypermutation. In this study, we followed children and adults in Bangladesh for 1 year following oral cholera vaccination and measured the avidity of antibodies to the T cell-dependent antigen cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and the T cell-independent antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison with responses in other immunological measurements. Children produced CTB-specific IgG and IgA antibodies of high avidity following vaccination, which persisted for several months; the magnitudes of responses were comparable to those seen in adult vaccinees. The avidity of LPS-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in vaccinees increased significantly shortly after the second dose of vaccine but waned rapidly to baseline levels thereafter. CTB-specific memory B cells were present for only a short time following vaccination, and we did not find significant memory B cell responses to LPS in any age group. For older children, there was a significant correlation between CTB-specific memory T cell responses after the second dose of vaccine and CTB-specific IgG antibody avidity indices over the subsequent year. These findings suggest that vaccination induces a longer-lasting increase in the avidity of antibodies to a T cell-dependent antigen than is measured by a memory B cell response to that antigen and that early memory T cell responses correlate well with the subsequent development of higher-avidity antibodies. PMID:23925888

  16. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults].

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-03-01

    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  17. The Buddy Quiz: A Collaborative Assessment and a Representation of the Scientific Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    The form and function of a collaborative assessment known as a "Buddy Quiz" is presented. The assessment is conducted in three successive phases over a contiguous 45-60 min class period. A portion of each quiz is completed in collaboration with one or two peers and a portion is completed without collaboration. The quiz is primarily summative and…

  18. Pneumococcal pneumonia prevention among adults: is the herd effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children as good a way as the active immunization of the elderly?

    PubMed

    Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The indirect protection of adults as a result of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants has been discussed from different epidemiological points of view. In some countries, including Italy, even after pediatric vaccination, vaccine serotypes are still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive diseases in the elderly. Although the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) produced encouraging results, it has not showed the efficacy of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia regardless of the number of episodes and serotype. Addressing these points by monitoring the direct impact of adult vaccination in real life distinguished from the effects of herd immunity will assist public health decision-making on the most effective adult pneumococcal vaccination strategies.

  19. Phase IV: randomized controlled trial to evaluate lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Lee, Jacob; Wie, Seong-Heon; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kee, Sae Yoon; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the primary method for preventing influenza and its complications. Considering the increasing demand for influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers are required to establish large-scale production systems. This phase IV randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines regarding immunogenicity and safety. A total of 1,023 healthy adults aged 18-64 y were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive the GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe or the GC FLU® Injection, and they were further randomized to one of 3 lots of each vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. In both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups, immune responses were equivalent between lots for each of the 3 vaccine strains on day 21. The 2-sided 95% CI of GMT ratios between pairs of lots were between 0.67 and 1.5, meeting the equivalence criteria. After vaccination, all 3 criteria of the European Medicines Agency were met in both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups. The vaccines showed tolerable safety profiles without serious adverse events. The demonstration of lot consistency, robust immunogenic responses and favorable safety profiles support the reliability of mass-manufacturing systems for the GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe.

  20. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  1. Evaluation of hepatitis B vaccine immunogenicity among older adults during an outbreak response in assisted living facilities☆

    PubMed Central

    Tohme, Rania A.; Awosika-Olumo, Debo; Nielsen, Carrie; Khuwaja, Salma; Scott, Jennifer; Xing, Jian; Drobeniuc, Jan; Hu, Dale J.; Turner, Cynthia; Wafeeg, Toni; Sharapov, Umid; Spradling, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background During the past decade, in the United States, an increasing number of hepatitis B outbreaks have been reported in assisted living facilities (ALFs) as a result of breaches in infection control practices. We evaluated the seroprotection rates conferred by hepatitis B vaccine among older adults during a response to an outbreak that occurred in multiple ALFs and assessed the influence of demographic and clinical factors on vaccine response. Methods Residents were screened for hepatitis B and C infection prior to vaccination and susceptible residents were vaccinated against hepatitis B with one dose of 20 μg Engerix-B™ (GSK) given at 0, 1, and 4 months. Blood samples were collected 80–90 days after the third vaccine dose to test for anti-HBs levels. Results Of the 48 residents who had post-vaccination blood specimens collected after the third vaccine dose, 16 (33.3%) achieved anti-HBs concentration ≥10 mIU/mL. Age was a significant determinant of seroprotection with rates decreasing from 88% among persons aged ≤60 years to 12% among persons aged ≤90 years (p = 0.001). Geometric mean concentrations were higher among non-diabetic than diabetic residents, however, the difference was not statistically significant (5.1 vs. 3.8 mIU/mL, p = 0.7). Conclusions These findings highlight that hepatitis B vaccination is of limited effectiveness when administered to older adults. Improvements in infection control and vaccination at earlier ages might be necessary to prevent spread of infection in ALFs. PMID:22015390

  2. Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurobehavioral impairments and neuroinflammation in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhua; Qi, Fangfang; Yao, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is routinely administered to human neonates worldwide. BCG has recently been identified as a neuroprotective immune mediator in several neuropathological conditions, exerting neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease and slowing the progression of clinically isolated syndrome in patients with multiple sclerosis. The immune system is significantly involved in brain development, and several types of neonatal immune activations exert influences on the brain and behavior following a secondary immune challenge in adulthood. However, whether the neonatal BCG vaccination affects the brain in adulthood remains to be elucidated. In the present study, newborn C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously with BCG (105 colony forming units) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A total of 12 weeks later, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with 330 µg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PBS. The present study reported that the neonatal BCG vaccination alleviated sickness, anxiety and depression-like behavior, lessened the impairments in hippocampal cell proliferation and downregulated the proinflammatory responses in the serum and brain that were induced by the adult LPS challenge. However, BCG vaccination alone had no evident influence on the brain and behavior in adulthood. In conclusion, the neonatal BCG vaccination alleviated the neurobehavioral impairments and neuroinflammation induced by LPS exposure in adult mice, suggesting a potential neuroprotective role of the neonatal BCG vaccination in adulthood. PMID:27357155

  3. Frailty is associated with impairment of vaccine-induced antibody response and increase in post-vaccination influenza infection in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xu; Hamilton, Robert G; Weng, Nan-ping; Xue, Qian-Li; Bream, Jay H; Li, Huifen; Tian, Jing; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Resnick, Barbara; Xu, Xiyan; Walston, Jeremy; Fried, Linda P; Leng, Sean X

    2011-07-12

    Annual immunization with a trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is considered efficacious for prevention of seasonal influenza in older adults. However, significant controversy exists in the current literature regarding the clinical effectiveness of TIV immunization in this highly heterogeneous population. Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to stressors. Using a validated set of frailty criteria, we conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate TIV-induced strain-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers and post-vaccination rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) and infection in frail and nonfrail older adults. The results indicate that frailty was associated with significant impairment in TIV-induced strain-specific HI titers and increased rates of ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. These findings suggest that assessing frailty status in the elderly may identify those who are less likely to respond to TIV immunization and be at higher risk for seasonal influenza and its complications.

  4. Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide and Protein-Conjugate Vaccines Singly or Sequentially in Adults who have Recovered from Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Musher, Daniel M.; Rueda, Adriana M.; Nahm, Moon H.; Graviss, Edward A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Controversy persists over the benefits of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in at-risk adults. We studied PPV, protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), or immunologic ‘priming’ with PCV followed by ‘boosting’ with PPV in adults who recovered from pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Subjects received PPV followed in 6 months by PCV, or vice-versa. IgG to capsular polysaccharide and opsonophagocytic killing activity (OPK) were studied at baseline, 4–8 weeks and 6 months after each vaccination. Results PPV and PCV stimulated similar IgG levels and OPK at 4–8 weeks. Six months post-PPV, antibody declined to baseline but remained modestly elevated post-PCV. PCV given 6 months post-PPV stimulated modest IgG increases that failed to reach post-PPV peaks. In contrast, PPV 6 months after PCV caused dramatic increases in IgG and OPK to all polysaccharides, consistent with a booster effect. Six months after the second vaccination, however, IgG and OPK in all patients fell precipitously, returning toward original baseline levels. Conclusions In high-risk subjects, the effect of PPV is short-lived; PCV stimulates a more prolonged response. PPV as a booster following PCV causes early antibody rises, but IgG declines rapidly thereafter, consistent with induction of suppressor cells or tolerance. Protein vaccines may be needed for high-risk adults. PMID:18710324

  5. A review of economic evaluations of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults and the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Dirmesropian, S; Wood, JG; MacIntyre, CR; Newall, AT

    2015-01-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) is already recommended for some adult groups and is being considered for wider use in many countries. In order to identify the strengths and limitations of the existing economic evaluation studies of PCV13 in adults and the elderly a literature review was conducted. The majority of the studies identified (9 out of 10) found that PCV13 was cost-effective in adults and/or the elderly. However, these results were based on assumptions that could not always be informed by robust evidence. Key uncertainties included the efficacy of PCV13 against non-invasive pneumonia and the herd immunity effect of childhood vaccination programs. Emerging trial evidence on PCV13 in adults from the Netherlands offers the ability to parameterize future economic evaluations with empirical efficacy data. However, it is important that these estimates are used thoughtfully when they are transferred to other settings. PMID:25933180

  6. Declining Effectiveness of Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Adults Aged ≥60 Years.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Harpaz, Rafael; Luo, Yi; Hales, Craig M; Sy, Lina S; Tartof, Sara Y; Bialek, Stephanie; Hechter, Rulin C; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2016-06-15

    Understanding long-term effectiveness of herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is critical for determining vaccine policy. 176 078 members of Kaiser Permanente ≥60 years vaccinated with HZ vaccine and three matched unvaccinated members were included. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with vaccination at each year following vaccination were estimated by Cox regression model. The effectiveness of HZ vaccine decreased from 68.7% (95% CI, 66.3%-70.9%) in the first year to 4.2% (95% CI, -24.0% to 25.9%) in the eighth year. This rapid decline in effectiveness of HZ vaccine suggests that a revaccination strategy may be needed, if feasible.

  7. Intention to receive influenza vaccination prior to the summer influenza season in adults of Hong Kong, 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Liao, Qiuyan

    2015-11-27

    Following a severe winter epidemic of drifted influenza A(H3N2) during January-March 2015, the Hong Kong government purchased vaccines of southern hemisphere formulation for administration prior to the anticipated summer influenza epidemic. This is the first time that seasonal influenza vaccines will be delivered twice within the same year in Hong Kong. We conducted a household telephone survey to investigate the acceptance of Hong Kong adults to pre-summer influenza vaccination. We found that the proportion of people reporting intention to receive vaccination was 37.8, 24.0, 31.4, and 34.4% in the age groups of 18-39, 40-59, 60-69, and 70 years or above. Only 31.3% of respondents who claimed they were parents or guardians said they would take their children to receive vaccination if the new vaccine was available. These findings suggested that intention to receive pre-summer vaccination was low even among the priority group of older people.

  8. Intention to receive influenza vaccination prior to the summer influenza season in adults of Hong Kong, 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Liao, Qiuyan

    2015-11-27

    Following a severe winter epidemic of drifted influenza A(H3N2) during January-March 2015, the Hong Kong government purchased vaccines of southern hemisphere formulation for administration prior to the anticipated summer influenza epidemic. This is the first time that seasonal influenza vaccines will be delivered twice within the same year in Hong Kong. We conducted a household telephone survey to investigate the acceptance of Hong Kong adults to pre-summer influenza vaccination. We found that the proportion of people reporting intention to receive vaccination was 37.8, 24.0, 31.4, and 34.4% in the age groups of 18-39, 40-59, 60-69, and 70 years or above. Only 31.3% of respondents who claimed they were parents or guardians said they would take their children to receive vaccination if the new vaccine was available. These findings suggested that intention to receive pre-summer vaccination was low even among the priority group of older people. PMID:26478202

  9. Low-dose aspirin use does not diminish the immune response to monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M L; Bellamy, A; Wolff, M; Hill, H; Jackson, L A

    2016-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit antibody production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells; one consequence of this could be decreased effectiveness of vaccines in NSAID users. Because many older adults use low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary prevention of coronary events, any inhibitory effect of aspirin on vaccine immune response could reduce the benefits of vaccination programmes in older adults. We tested whether immune response to vaccination differed between users vs. non-users of low-dose aspirin, using data from four randomized trials of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine. Geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres were not significantly lower in low-dose aspirin users compared to non-users. Our results provide reassurance that influenza vaccination effectiveness is probably not reduced in older adults taking chronic low-dose aspirin.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) intradermal influenza vaccine in South Korean adults: a multicenter, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hoon Han, Sang; Hee Woo, Jun; Weber, Francoise; Joo Kim, Woo; Ran Peck, Kyong; Il Kim, Sang; Hwa Choi, Young; Myung Kim, June

    2013-09-01

    Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is an intradermal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine developed as an alternative to intramuscular influenza vaccine. The objective of this study was to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of Intanza/IDflu in South Korean adults. In a phase IV multicenter trial, South Korean adults 18-59 y old (n = 120) and ≥ 60 y old (n = 120) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of Intanza/IDflu (9 µg for 18-59 y, 15 µg for ≥ 60 y) or trivalent intramuscular vaccine (Vaxigrip(®) 15 µg, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood was collected on pre-vaccination (day 0) and on day 21. Hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates were determined on day 21. Geometric mean titers, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were similar between the intradermal and intramuscular vaccines in both age groups for all three vaccine strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). Both vaccines met Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria for all three strains. Solicited systemic reactions of the intradermal groups were generally mild, transient, and similar to those of the intramuscular groups. Solicited injection site reactions were more frequent in the intradermal groups but were mostly mild, transient, and consisted mainly of pain, erythema, and pruritus. No treatment-related serious adverse events or other safety concerns were reported. These results confirm that Intanza/IDflu is an effective and well-tolerated alternative to IM influenza vaccination. (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ID: NCT01215669).

  11. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What the Canadian public knows and wants to know.

    PubMed

    Halperin, B A; MacDougall, D; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-11-27

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in Canada but uptake is low. This study measured the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian adults to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. A survey was undertaken on a geographically representative sample of Canadian adults (n=4023) and 8 focus groups (62 participants) were conducted nationwide. The survey revealed that knowledge about pertussis and Tdap was low (38.3% correct answers). Only 36.0% of respondents reported being aware that all adults were recommended to receive Tdap and only 10.7% reported being immunized; 36.7% did not know whether they had received Tdap. Respondents who were aware of the immunization recommendations were twice as likely to be immunized (16.6% vs. 8.3%; p<0.001). Only 9.3% believed that their health care provider thought that Tdap was important for adults. The focus group data supported the survey results. Participants wanted information about pertussis and Tdap communicated through multiple modalities, but a recommendation by their family physician was most important to their decision to be immunized or not. This study demonstrates that current recommendations for universal adult vaccination with Tdap are not reaching the general public in Canada and an alternative strategy will be required to improve Tdap vaccine uptake.

  12. Clinical Studies of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Conjugate Vaccines in Adults and Young Children.

    PubMed

    Szu, Shousun Chen; Ahmed, Amina

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric immunization has been the most effective measure to prevent and reduce the burden of infectious diseases in children. The recent inclusion of pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide conjugates in infant immunization further reinforces their importance. Currently there is no human vaccine against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. This review focuses on the human EHEC vaccine that has been studied clinically, in particular, the polysaccharide conjugate against E. coli O157. The surface polysaccharide antigen, O-specific polysaccharide, was linked to rEPA, recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In adults and children 2 to 5 years old, O157-rEPA conjugates, shown to be safe, induced high levels of antilipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G with bactericidal activities against E. coli O157, a functional bioassay that mimics the killing of inoculum in vivo. A similar construct using the B subunit of Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 as the carrier protein elicited both bactericidal and toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice. So far there is no clinical study of Stx-based human vaccine. Passive immunization of Stx-specific antibodies with humanized, chimeric, or human monoclonal antibodies, produced in transgenic mice, showed promising data in animal models and offered high prospects. Demonstrations of their safety and effectiveness in treating hemolytic-uremic syndrome or patients with EHEC infections are under way, and results are much anticipated. For future development, other virulence factors such as the nontoxic Stx B subunit or intimin should be included, either as carrier protein in conjugates or as independent components. The additional antigens from O157 may provide broader coverage to non-O157 Stx-producing E. coli and facilitate both preventive and therapeutic treatment.

  13. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong-Jun; Lim, Jiseun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 20-25 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in

  14. Predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults with pneumonia: findings from the Community Acquired Pneumonia Impact Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) almost triples for older adults aged 65 years or older. In Canada, CAP is a leading cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Although CAP is very prevalent, complications due to CAP may be reduced with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among community-dwelling older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. Methods A telephone survey was used to collect detailed information from adults aged 60 years and older with clinically diagnosed CAP. This was a community wide study with participants being recruited from all radiology clinics in one Ontario community. Results The most important predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults included: getting an influenza vaccine within the past year (OR 14.5, 95% CI 4.27 to 49.0); at least weekly contact with a friend (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.71 to 9.24); having one or more co-morbidities/chronic conditions (OR 3.64, 95% CI 1.60 to 8.28); being 70 years of age or older (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.40); having health problems that limited physical activities (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.49 to 19.3); having little or no bodily pain (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.25 to 6.73); and reporting having spiritual values or religious faith (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.67). Conclusions A wide range of factors, including demographic, co-morbidity, quality of life, social support and lifestyle were found to be associated with pneumococcal vaccination status among older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. The findings from this study could inform future pneumococcal immunization strategies by identifying individuals who are least likely to receive the PPV. PMID:20591180

  15. The Merits of Giving an Extra Credit Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Ryall

    2014-01-01

    In the past, Ryall Carroll struggled to get students to arrive on time, read the material in advance of the class, and to start class on topic. In an attempt to address these issues, he started implementing an extra-credit two-question quiz at the beginning of every class, hoping it would provide a small incentive for students to at least come on…

  16. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells in African adults

    PubMed Central

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Langat, Robert; Indangasi, Jackton; Ogola, Simon; Onsembe, Brian; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Hayes, Peter; Borthwick, Nicola J; Ashraf, Ambreen; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Tillander, Annika; Gilmour, Jill; De Bont, Jan; Crook, Alison; Hannaman, Drew; Cox, Josephine H; Anzala, Omu; Fast, Patricia E; Reilly, Marie; Chinyenze, Kundai; Jaoko, Walter; Hanke, Tomáš; HIV-CORE 004 study group, the

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes) of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8+ T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy.

  17. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells in African adults

    PubMed Central

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Langat, Robert; Indangasi, Jackton; Ogola, Simon; Onsembe, Brian; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Hayes, Peter; Borthwick, Nicola J; Ashraf, Ambreen; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Tillander, Annika; Gilmour, Jill; De Bont, Jan; Crook, Alison; Hannaman, Drew; Cox, Josephine H; Anzala, Omu; Fast, Patricia E; Reilly, Marie; Chinyenze, Kundai; Jaoko, Walter; Hanke, Tomáš; HIV-CORE 004 study group, the

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes) of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8+ T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy. PMID:27617268

  18. Broad HIV-1 inhibition in vitro by vaccine-elicited CD8(+) T cells in African adults.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Farah, Bashir; Langat, Robert; Indangasi, Jackton; Ogola, Simon; Onsembe, Brian; Kopycinski, Jakub T; Hayes, Peter; Borthwick, Nicola J; Ashraf, Ambreen; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Tillander, Annika; Gilmour, Jill; De Bont, Jan; Crook, Alison; Hannaman, Drew; Cox, Josephine H; Anzala, Omu; Fast, Patricia E; Reilly, Marie; Chinyenze, Kundai; Jaoko, Walter; Hanke, Tomáš; Hiv-Core 004 Study Group, The

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a pan-clade HIV-1 T-cell vaccine HIVconsv, which could complement Env vaccines for prophylaxis and be a key to HIV cure. Our strategy focuses vaccine-elicited effector T-cells on functionally and structurally conserved regions (not full-length proteins and not only epitopes) of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most global variants and which, if mutated, cause a replicative fitness loss. Our first clinical trial in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Oxford demonstrated the principle that naturally mostly subdominant epitopes, when taken out of the context of full-length proteins/virus and delivered by potent regimens involving combinations of simian adenovirus and poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara, can induce robust CD8(+) T cells of broad specificities and functions capable of inhibiting in vitro HIV-1 replication. Here and for the first time, we tested this strategy in low risk HIV-1-negative adults in Africa. We showed that the vaccines were well tolerated and induced high frequencies of broadly HIVconsv-specific plurifunctional T cells, which inhibited in vitro viruses from four major clades A, B, C, and D. Because sub-Saharan Africa is globally the region most affected by HIV-1/AIDS, trial HIV-CORE 004 represents an important stage in the path toward efficacy evaluation of this highly rational and promising vaccine strategy. PMID:27617268

  19. Safety, immunogenicity, and tolerability of three influenza vaccines in older adults: results of a randomized, controlled comparison.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; McNeil, Shelly A; Ward, Brian J; Dionne, Marc; Cooper, Curtis; Coleman, Brenda; Loeb, Mark; Rubinstein, Ethan; McElhaney, Janet; Hatchette, Todd; Li, Yan; Montomoli, Emanuele; Schneeberg, Amy; Bettinger, Julie A; Halperin, Scott A

    2013-11-01

    To determine if newer influenza vaccines can safely improve seroprotection rates of older adults, we compared three licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized, controlled trial with evaluator blinding. Participants were non-frail adults ≥ 65 y old, annually TIV-immunized. Study vaccines included intradermal (IDV), MF59-adjuvanted (ADV) and subunit (TIV) formulations of equal potency and strain composition. Blood was obtained before vaccination (V1) and 21 (V2) and 180 d (V3) afterward and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Safety diaries were completed daily by participants and specific tolerability questions were posed regarding injections and symptoms. In total, 911 participants were immunized and 887 (97.4%) completed V3. Groups had similar demographics. General symptom rates post-vaccination were similar among groups. Rates of injection site redness after IDV/ADV/TIV were 75%/13%/13% and rates of pain were 29%/38%/20%, respectively, but each vaccine was well tolerated, with symptoms causing little bother. Baseline antibody titers did not differ significantly among groups but B/Brisbane titers were too high for meaningful response assessments. At V2, seroprotection rates (HAI titer ≥ 40) were highest after ADV, the rate advantage over IDV and TIV being significant at 11.8% and 11.4% for H3N2 and 10.2% and 12.5% for H1N1, respectively. At day 180, seroprotection rates had declined ~25% and no longer differed significantly among groups. While IDV and TIV were also well tolerated, ADV induced modestly higher antibody titers in seniors to influenza A strains at 3 weeks but not 6 mo post-vaccination. Immune responses to IDV and TIV were similar in this population.

  20. Chimpanzee adenovirus and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine is safe and expands humoral and cellular immunity in adults

    PubMed Central

    Green, CA; Scarselli, E; Sande, CJ; Thompson, AJ; de Lara, CM; Taylor, K; Haworth, K; Del Sorbo, M; Angus, B; Siani, L; Di Marco, S; Traboni, C; Folgori, A; Colloca, S; Capone, S; Vitelli, A; Cortese, R; Klenerman, P; Nicosia, A; Pollard, AJ

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection in annual epidemics, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. However, despite its importance, no vaccine exists. The chimpanzee adenovirus, PanAd3-RSV, and modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA-RSV, are replication defective viral vectors encoding the RSV proteins F, N and M2-1 for the induction of humoral and cellular responses. We performed an open-label, dose-escalation, phase 1 clinical trial in 42 healthy adults in which four different combinations of prime/boost vaccinations were investigated for safety and immunogenicity, including both intra-muscular and intra-nasal administration of the adenoviral vectored vaccine. The vaccines were safe and well tolerated, with the most common reported adverse events being mild injection site reactions. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. RSV neutralising antibody titres rose in response to intramuscular (IM) prime with PanAd3-RSV, and after IM boost for individuals primed by the intra-nasal (IN) route. Circulating anti-F IgG and IgA antibody secreting cells (ASCs) were observed after IM prime and IM boost. RSV-specific T-cell responses were increased after IM PanAd3-RSV prime and were most efficiently boosted by IM MVA-RSV. IFNγ secretion after boost was from both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, without detectable Th2 cytokines that have been previously associated with immune pathogenesis following exposure to RSV after formalin inactivated RSV vaccine. In conclusion, PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV are safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. These vaccine candidates warrant further clinical evaluation of efficacy to assess their potential to reduce the burden of RSV disease. PMID:26268313

  1. Mumps - Vaccine Q and A

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing vaccine, given as combination measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, separated by at least 28 days, are routinely ... been vaccinated should also receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine, but adults who work in healthcare, a school/ ...

  2. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p < 0.0001 for each statement). Focus group data supported the survey results and indicated that there are substantial gaps in knowledge of pertussis and Tdap among Canadian HCPs. Lack of public knowledge about adult immunization, lack of immunization registries, a costing differential between Td and Tdap, workload required to deliver the vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners.

  3. Elimination of Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms by Rhesus Macaques: Basis for a Therapeutic Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R. Alan; Langermans, Jan A. M.; van Dam, Govert J.; Vervenne, Richard A.; Hall, Stephanie L.; Borges, William C.; Dillon, Gary P.; Thomas, Alan W.; Coulson, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Among animal models of schistosomiasis, the rhesus macaque is unique in that an infection establishes but egg excretion rapidly diminishes, potentially due to loss of adult worms from the portal system via shunts or death by immune attack. Principal Findings To investigate this, six rhesus macaques were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the infection monitored until portal perfusion at 18 weeks. Despite a wide variation in worm numbers recovered, fecal egg output and circulating antigen levels indicated that a substantial population had established in all animals. Half the macaques had portal hypertension but only one had portacaval shunts, ruling out translocation to the lungs as the reason for loss of adult burden. Many worms had a shrunken and pallid appearance, with degenerative changes in intestines and reproductive organs. Tegument, gut epithelia and muscles appeared cytologically intact but the parenchyma was virtually devoid of content. An early and intense IgG production correlated with low worm burden at perfusion, and blood-feeding worms cultured in the presence of serum from these animals had stunted growth. Using immunoproteomics, gut digestive enzymes, tegument surface hydrolases and antioxidant enzymes were identified as targets of IgG in the high responder animals. Significance It appears that worms starve to death after cessation of blood feeding, as a result of antibody-mediated processes. We suggest that proteins in the three categories above, formulated to trigger the appropriate mechanisms operating in rhesus macaques, would have both prophylactic and therapeutic potential as a human vaccine. PMID:18820739

  4. Vaccination Interest and Trends in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake in Young Adult Women Aged 18 to 26 Years in the United States: An Analysis Using the 2008–2012 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Susanne; Parsons, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been approved since 2006, yet vaccination rates remain low. We investigated HPV vaccination trends, interest, and reasons for nonvaccination in young adult women. Methods. We used data from the 2008–2012 National Health Interview Survey to analyze HPV vaccine uptake trends (≥ 1 dose) in women aged 18 to 26 years. We used data from the 2008 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine HPV vaccination interest and reasons for nonvaccination among unvaccinated women. Results. We saw significant increases in HPV vaccination for all young women from 2008 to 2012 (11.6% to 34.1%); however, Hispanics and women with limited access to care continued to have lower vaccination rates. Logistic regression demonstrated lower vaccination interest among unvaccinated women in 2010 than 2008. Respondents in 2010 were significantly less likely to give lack of knowledge as a primary reason for nonvaccination. Conclusions. Uptake of HPV vaccine has increased from 2008 to 2012 in young women. Yet vaccination rates remain low, especially among women with limited access to care. However, unvaccinated women with limited health care access were more likely to be interested in receiving the vaccine. PMID:24625152

  5. HPV vaccination among lesbian and bisexual women: Findings from a national survey of young adults

    PubMed Central

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Katz, Mira L.; Paskett, Electra D.; Reiter, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated cervical disease are common among all women, regardless of sexual identity, yet limited research has examined HPV vaccination among lesbian and bisexual women. Methods A national sample of lesbian and bisexual women ages 18-26 (n=543) completed our online survey during Fall 2013. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of at least 1 dose) and completion (receipt of all 3 recommended doses among initiators). Results Overall, 45% of respondents had initiated HPV vaccine, and 70% of initiators reported completing the series. HPV vaccine initiation was higher among respondents who: were students, had received a healthcare provider's recommendation, perceived greater positive social vaccination norms, or anticipated greater regret if they did not get vaccinated and later got HPV. Initiation was lower among those who perceived greater HPV vaccine harms or greater barriers to getting the vaccine (all p<.05). HPV vaccine completion was higher among initiators who had a college degree while it was lower among those who perceived a greater likelihood of acquiring HPV or who anticipated greater regret if they got the vaccine and fainted (all p<.05). Among HPV vaccine initiators who had not yet completed the series, about half (47%) intended to get the remaining doses. Conclusions Many lesbian and bisexual women are not getting vaccinated against HPV. Healthcare provider recommendations and women's health beliefs may be important leverage points for increasing vaccination among this population. PMID:25038312

  6. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P < 0.001). The absolute decline was significant both for males (8.8%, P = 0.001) and females (12.1%, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in seropositivity by gender, years of education, country of birth or smoking status. Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries.

  7. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P < 0.001). The absolute decline was significant both for males (8.8%, P = 0.001) and females (12.1%, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in seropositivity by gender, years of education, country of birth or smoking status. Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries. PMID:25891446

  8. Anticipated HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Sexually Active African-American Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Julia; Cene-Kush, Clare; Conner, Alaina; Cwiak, Carrie; Haddad, Lisa; Mulligan, Mark; DiClemente, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    An HIV vaccine, once it becomes available, could reduce vulnerability to HIV among African-American women. The purpose of this study was to assess determinants of HIV vaccine acceptability among African-American women across hypothetical levels of vaccine efficacy. Participants were recruited from a hospital-based family planning clinic in Atlanta, GA serving low-income patients (N = 321). Data were collected from audio-computer assisted surveys administered in the clinic waiting room. Psychosocial survey items were guided by Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify determinants of acceptability for two hypothetical HIV vaccines with 50% and 90% efficacy. Overall, 63% of participants would accept a vaccine with 50% efficacy and 85% would accept a vaccine with 90% efficacy. In multivariate analyses, odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 50% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.13, p < 0.001) and lower among participants with more than high school education (AOR = 0.47, p = 0.033) and greater perceived costs of HIV vaccination (AOR = 0.95, p = 0.010). Odds of acceptability for a vaccine with 90% efficacy were higher among participants with greater perceived costs of unprotected sex (AOR = 1.08, p = 0.026), HIV vaccine benefits (AOR = 1.23, p < 0.001) and self-efficacy for sex refusal (AOR = 1.11, p = 0.044). HIV vaccine acceptability was high, particularly for a vaccine with 90% efficacy. Findings suggest that demographic and psychosocial factors may impact acceptability of an eventual HIV vaccine. Once an HIV vaccine is available, interventions to maximize uptake may benefit from using RHT and SCT constructs to target relevant psychosocial factors, such as perceived benefits and perceived costs of vaccination. PMID:26343960

  9. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) ... Related Pages Diphtheria Pertussis Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Also Known As & Abbreviations Tetanus = Lockjaw DTaP = ...

  10. Persistence of Th1/Tc1 responses one year after tetravalent dengue vaccination in adults and adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Harenberg, Anke; Begue, Sarah; Mamessier, Audrey; Gimenez-Fourage, Sophie; Ching Seah, Ching; Wei Liang, Ai; Li Ng, Jun; Yun Toh, Xue; Archuleta, Sophia; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shek, Lynette P; Wartel-Tram, Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Lang, Jean; Crevat, Denis; Caillet, Catherine; Guy, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    To characterize the cell mediated immunity (CMI) induced by the investigational CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV), we developed a whole-blood, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay and a multiplex assay, each requiring 3 mL of blood. We assessed CMI before and 28 d after a first and third injection of CYD-TDV and one year after the third injection in a subset of 80 adolescents and adults enrolled in a phase II trial in Singapore (ClinicalTrial.gov NCT NCT00880893). CD4/IFNγ/TNFα responses specific to dengue NS3 were detected before vaccination. Vaccination induced YF-17D-NS3-specific CD8/IFNγ responses, without significant TNFα, and a CYD-specific Th1/Tc1 cellular response in all participants, which was characterized by predominant IFNγ secretion compared with TNFα, associated with low level IL-13 secretion in multiplex analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) supernatants after restimulation with each the CYD vaccine viruses. Responses were directed mainly against CYD-4 after the first vaccination, and were more balanced against all four serotypes after the third vaccination. The same qualitative profile was observed one year after the third vaccination, with approximately 2-fold lower NS3-specific responses, and 3-fold lower serotype-specific cellular responses. These findings confirm previous observations regarding both the nature and specificity of cellular responses induced by CYD-TDV, and for the first time demonstrate the persistence of cellular responses after one year. We also established the feasibility of analyzing CMI with small blood samples, allowing such analysis to be considered for pediatric trials.

  11. Live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in a dengue endemic country: randomized controlled phase I trial in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Capeding, Rosario Z; Luna, Imelda A; Bomasang, Emily; Lupisan, Socorro; Lang, Jean; Forrat, Remi; Wartel, Anh; Crevat, Denis

    2011-05-17

    A recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) is safe and immunogenic in adults and children in dengue-naïve populations. Data are needed in dengue endemic populations. In a phase I, randomized, controlled, blind-observer study in the Philippines, groups of participants aged 2-5, 6-11, 12-17, and 18-45 years received either three TDV vaccinations at months 0, 3.5, and 12 (TDV-TDV-TDV group) or licensed typhoid vaccination at month 0 and TDV at months 3.5 and 12 (TyVi-TDV-TDV group) and were followed for safety (including biological safety and vaccine virus viremia) and immunogenicity. No serious adverse vaccine related events and no significant trends in biological safety parameters were reported. Injection site pain, headache, malaise, myalgia, fever, and asthenia were reported most frequently, as mild to moderate in most cases and transient. Reactogenicity did not increase with successive vaccinations and was no higher in children than in adults and adolescents. Low levels of vaccinal viremia were detected in both groups after each TDV vaccination. After three TDV vaccinations, the seropositivity rates against serotypes 1-4 were: 91%, 100%, 96%, 100%, respectively, in 2-5 year-olds; 88%, 96% 96%, 92% in 6-11 year-olds; 88%, 83%, 92%, 96% in adolescents; and 100% for all serotypes in adults. A similar response was observed after two doses for the TyVi-TDV-TDV group. The safety profile of TDV in a flavivirus endemic population was consistent with previous reports from flavivirus naïve populations. A vaccine regimen of either three TDV vaccinations administered over a year or two TDV vaccinations given more than 8 months apart resulted in a balanced antibody response to all four dengue serotypes in this flavivirus-exposed population, including children.

  12. Serotype Changes and Drug Resistance in Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Adults after Vaccinations in Children, Japan, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Naoko; Hanada, Shigeo; Morozumi, Miyuki; Wajima, Takeaki; Shouji, Michi; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) for children was introduced in Japan in November 2010, we examined changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and in genetic antimicrobial drug resistance of isolates from adults with invasive pneumococcal diseases. During April 2010–March 2013, a total of 715 isolates were collected from adults with invasive pneumococcal diseases. Seven-valent PCV serotypes in adults decreased from 43.3% to 23.8%, most noticeably for serotype 6B. Concomitantly, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) serotypes decreased from 82.2% to 72.2%; non-PPSV23 serotypes increased from 13.8% to 25.1%. Parallel with serotype changes, genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae decreased from 32.4% to 21.1%, and 6 non-PPSV23 serotypes emerged (6D, 15A, 15C, 16F, 23A, and 35B). Respective vaccine coverage rates for 13-valent PCV and PPSV23 differed by disease: 73.9% and 84.3% for patients with pneumonia, 56.4% and 69.2% for patients with bacteremia and sepsis, and 45.7% and 69.3% for patients with meningitis. PMID:26485679

  13. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population. PMID:27134491

  14. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2014: Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Perazella, Mark A.; Choi, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, program directors of United States nephrology training programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. They compared their answers in real time using audience response devices with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the audience responses and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for the readers of CJASN. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:25862775

  15. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Glomerular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bomback, Andrew S; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the annual Kidney Week meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories, along with single-best-answer questions, were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of United States nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an Internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using their cell phones with a special app with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology readers. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions.

  16. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Michelle A; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of US nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using their cell phones with a special application with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this highly educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology readers. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions.

  17. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Glomerular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bomback, Andrew S; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the annual Kidney Week meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories, along with single-best-answer questions, were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of United States nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an Internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using their cell phones with a special app with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology readers. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:26847362

  18. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Michelle A; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of US nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using their cell phones with a special application with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this highly educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology readers. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:26915914

  19. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2014: Glomerular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perazella, Mark A.; Choi, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, program directors of United States nephrology training programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions that were prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using audience response devices with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the audience responses, and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for the readers of CJASN. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:25667164

  20. Identification of Potential New Protein Vaccine Candidates through Pan-Surfomic Analysis of Pneumococcal Clinical Isolates from Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Obando, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J.

    2013-01-01

    Purified polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are widely used for preventing infections in adults and in children against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. However, these polysaccharide-based vaccines have some important limitations, such as being serotype-dependent, being subjected to losing efficacy because of serotype replacement and high manufacturing complexity and cost. It is expected that protein-based vaccines will overcome these issues by conferring a broad coverage independent of serotype and lowering production costs. In this study, we have applied the “shaving” proteomic approach, consisting of the LC/MS/MS analysis of peptides generated by protease treatment of live cells, to a collection of 16 pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults, representing the most prevalent strains circulating in Spain during the last years. The set of unique proteins identified in all the isolates, called “pan-surfome”, consisted of 254 proteins, which included most of the protective protein antigens reported so far. In search of new candidates with vaccine potential, we identified 32 that were present in at least 50% of the clinical isolates analyzed. We selected four of them (Spr0012, Spr0328, Spr0561 and SP670_2141), whose protection capacity has not yet been tested, for assaying immunogenicity in human sera. All of them induced the production of IgM antibodies in infected patients, thus indicating that they could enter the pipeline for vaccine studies. The pan-surfomic approach shows its utility in the discovery of new proteins that can elicit protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:23894641

  1. Identification of potential new protein vaccine candidates through pan-surfomic analysis of pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults.

    PubMed

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Obando, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J

    2013-01-01

    Purified polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are widely used for preventing infections in adults and in children against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. However, these polysaccharide-based vaccines have some important limitations, such as being serotype-dependent, being subjected to losing efficacy because of serotype replacement and high manufacturing complexity and cost. It is expected that protein-based vaccines will overcome these issues by conferring a broad coverage independent of serotype and lowering production costs. In this study, we have applied the "shaving" proteomic approach, consisting of the LC/MS/MS analysis of peptides generated by protease treatment of live cells, to a collection of 16 pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults, representing the most prevalent strains circulating in Spain during the last years. The set of unique proteins identified in all the isolates, called "pan-surfome", consisted of 254 proteins, which included most of the protective protein antigens reported so far. In search of new candidates with vaccine potential, we identified 32 that were present in at least 50% of the clinical isolates analyzed. We selected four of them (Spr0012, Spr0328, Spr0561 and SP670_2141), whose protection capacity has not yet been tested, for assaying immunogenicity in human sera. All of them induced the production of IgM antibodies in infected patients, thus indicating that they could enter the pipeline for vaccine studies. The pan-surfomic approach shows its utility in the discovery of new proteins that can elicit protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:23894641

  2. Using text messages to improve patient-doctor communication among racial and ethnic minority adults: an innovative solution to increase influenza vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ashley L; Kumar, Disha; Patel, Sajani; Arya, Monisha

    2014-12-01

    Despite the 2010 CDC recommendation that all adults receive influenza vaccinations, in the 2013-2014 influenza season, only 35% of Blacks and 37% of Hispanics were vaccinated, compared to 40% of Whites. This disparity could be due to poor patient-doctor communication, among other barriers. Doctors provide more health information to active communicators; unfortunately, they perceive minority patients to be poor communicators. A novel way to prompt minority patients to better communicate with their doctors is through mHealth. Text messaging is a simple, low cost, mHealth platform widely-used among racial and ethnic minorities. A text message campaign could be effective in providing vaccine education and prompting patients to converse with their doctors about influenza vaccinations. Text prompts could improve patient communication, thus increasing their likelihood of vaccination. This campaign could accomplish Healthy People 2020 goals: increase influenza vaccination, improve patient-doctor communication, increase use of mHealth, and reduce health disparities. PMID:25241643

  3. Web-Based Quiz-Game-Like Formative Assessment: Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to develop a multiple-choice Web-based quiz-game-like formative assessment system, named GAM-WATA. The unique design of "Ask-Hint Strategy" turns the Web-based formative assessment into an online quiz game. "Ask-Hint Strategy" is composed of "Prune Strategy" and "Call-in Strategy". "Prune Strategy" removes one incorrect option…

  4. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Kayoko C.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Using graduate social work students' data ("n" = 481) in the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) in the United States, the study examined psychometric properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz (KASW), a revision of the Facts on Aging Quiz, to evaluate biopsychosocial knowledge relevant to social…

  5. Measuring naturally acquired immune responses to candidate malaria vaccine antigens in Ghanaian adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To prepare field sites for malaria vaccine trials, it is important to determine baseline antibody and T cell responses to candidate malaria vaccine antigens. Assessing T cell responses is especially challenging, given genetic restriction, low responses observed in endemic areas, their variability over time, potential suppression by parasitaemia and the intrinsic variability of the assays. Methods In Part A of this study, antibody titres were measured in adults from urban and rural communities in Ghana to recombinant Plasmodium falciparum CSP, SSP2/TRAP, LSA1, EXP1, MSP1, MSP3 and EBA175 by ELISA, and to sporozoites and infected erythrocytes by IFA. Positive ELISA responses were determined using two methods. T cell responses to defined CD8 or CD4 T cell epitopes from CSP, SSP2/TRAP, LSA1 and EXP1 were measured by ex vivo IFN-γ ELISpot assays using HLA-matched Class I- and DR-restricted synthetic peptides. In Part B, the reproducibility of the ELISpot assay to CSP and AMA1 was measured by repeating assays of individual samples using peptide pools and low, medium or high stringency criteria for defining positive responses, and by comparing samples collected two weeks apart. Results In Part A, positive antibody responses varied widely from 17%-100%, according to the antigen and statistical method, with blood stage antigens showing more frequent and higher magnitude responses. ELISA titres were higher in rural subjects, while IFA titres and the frequencies and magnitudes of ex vivo ELISpot activities were similar in both communities. DR-restricted peptides showed stronger responses than Class I-restricted peptides. In Part B, the most stringent statistical criteria gave the fewest, and the least stringent the most positive responses, with reproducibility slightly higher using the least stringent method when assays were repeated. Results varied significantly between the two-week time-points for many participants. Conclusions All participants were positive for

  6. Facts about Measles for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... as part of a combination vaccine, called the MMR vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. Which adults should get vaccinated against measles with MMR vaccine? Adults born in 1957 or later who do ...

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent in older adults in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia. Methods A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs. Results PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine. Conclusion PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50 years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23. PMID:24679135

  8. Recommended Immunizations for Adults 50+

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Health Screenings and Immunizations Recommended Immunizations For Adults 50+ The content in this section ... out more, visit How Vaccines Prevent Disease . Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunizations Understanding the difference between vaccines, vaccinations, ...

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of management options for adults who respond poorly to hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    David, Michael C; Ha, Sung Hyun; Paynter, Stuart; Lau, Colleen

    2015-11-27

    An estimated 5-10% of adults do not seroconvert after a three-dose primary course of hepatitis B vaccines, and are considered non-responders. Many approaches have been used to induce immunity in healthy adult non-responders, but few studies have compared their relative effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of seroconversion rates after additional doses of four approaches: 20 mcg or 40 mcg intramuscular (IM), and 5 mcg or 20 mcg intradermal (ID). The search identified 13 articles encompassing 16 studies (N=1067) that met the eligibility criteria. Seroconversion rates after additional doses of each approach were pooled and estimated. After one additional dose, the four approaches produced very similar seroconversion rates and we did not find any evidence to support the use of 40 mcg IM in healthy adults.

  10. Rural School Employees' Status, Awareness, and Perceptions of Adult Vaccinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Thornton, Eli; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Macintosh, Janelle; Lakin, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    As key members of the school environment, it is important for school employees to be vaccinated. Employees are in direct contact with children in close quarters for long periods of time and such an environment can easily serve as an outbreak center for vaccine-preventable communicable diseases such as measles. Despite the fact that most school…

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Trabattoni, Daria; Viganò, Alessandra; Rainone, Veronica; Bernazzani, Giada; Bonardi, Claudia Maria; Clerici, Mario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2014-09-29

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and can lead to cancer; the development of safe and efficacious vaccines for HPV is a major public health concern. The two licensed HPV vaccines contain recombinant virus-like particles of HPV 16 and 18; one of such vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 which cause genital warts. We determined safety and immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults, aged 13-27 years. The seroconversion rate, assessed by antibody titers, 1 month after the administration of the third vaccine dose was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) in the HIV-infected group and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) in the HIV-negative subjects (p=0.52). The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated; the most common side effect was local pain and the most frequent systemic side effect was headache. This is the first report on response to HPV vaccination in both female and male HIV-infected adolescents and young adults and highlights that this population may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. Further studies are needed to examine the long term efficacy of this vaccine in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25149430

  12. Comparison of the safety, vaccine virus shedding, and immunogenicity of influenza virus vaccine, trivalent, types A and B, live cold-adapted, administered to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Treanor, J; Fast, P E; Wolff, M; Yan, L; Iacuzio, D; Readmond, B; O'Brien, D; Mallon, K; Highsmith, W E; Lambert, J S; Belshe, R B

    2000-02-01

    Fifty-seven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (CDC class A1-2) and 54 non-HIV-infected adults, not prescreened for influenza susceptibility, were randomized to receive trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo intranasally. LAIV was safe and well tolerated with no serious adverse events attributable to vaccine. Reactogenicity rates were similar in LAIV and placebo recipients except that runny nose/nasal congestion was significantly more common in LAIV recipients regardless of HIV status. No prolonged shedding of LAIV was observed in HIV-infected participants. HIV RNA levels were not increased and CD4 counts were not decreased in HIV-infected LAIV recipients compared with placebo recipients after immunization. Shedding of LAIV and increases in antibody titers were infrequent, consistent with prior experience in unscreened adults. The data suggest that inadvertent vaccination with LAIV in relatively asymptomatic HIV-infected adults would not be associated with frequent significant adverse events.

  13. Effects of Consideration of Future Consequences and Temporal Framing on Acceptance of the HPV Vaccine Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jarim; Nan, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    This study examines how individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) and temporal framing (i.e., present- vs. future-oriented message) interact to influence the persuasive outcomes of a health message promoting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young adults. Results of an experiment (N = 416) showed a significant interaction effect of CFC and temporal framing on persuasion. The nature of the interaction suggested that individuals with high CFC generally were more persuaded by the present-oriented messages, compared to the future-oriented messages. On the other hand, those with low CFC responded similarly to the present- and future-oriented messages. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26799968

  14. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved among different GAS strains, upregulated in host-pathogen interaction studies, and predicted to be extracellular or associated with the surface of the bacteria. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. The antigenicity of a selected group of antigens was further validated using a high-density peptide array technology that also identified the linear epitopes. Based on immunological recognition, four targets were selected and tested for protective capabilities in an experimental GAS infection model in mice. Shown for the first time, three of these targets (spy0469, spy1228 and spy1801) conferred significant protection whereas one (spy1643) did not. PMID:26911649

  15. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, John M; McGinnis, Justin J; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data. We then multiplied the estimated number of cases for a given population by age-specific, estimated medical and indirect (non-medical) costs per case. Adult VPDs examined were: (1) influenza, (2) pneumococcal disease (both invasive disease and pneumonia), (3) herpes zoster (shingles), and (4) pertussis (whooping cough). Sensitivity analyses simulated the impact of various epidemiological scenarios on the total estimated economic burden. Estimated US annual cost for the four adult VPDs was $26.5 billion (B) among adults aged 50 years and older, $15.3B (58 %) of which was attributable to those 65 and older. Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Among those 65 and older, they made up $8.3B (54 %), $3.8B (25 %), $3.0B (20 %), and 0.2B (1 %) of the cost, respectively. Most (80-85 %) pneumococcal costs stemmed from nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NPP). Cost attributable to adult VPD in the United States is substantial. Broadening adult immunization efforts beyond influenza only may help reduce the economic burden of adult VPD, and a pneumococcal vaccination effort, primarily focused on reducing NPP, may constitute a logical starting place. Sensitivity analyses revealed that a pandemic influenza season or change in size of the US elderly population

  16. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen J.; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Carletti, Isabelle; De La Barrera, Rafael; Dessy, Francis; Fernandez, Stefan; Putnak, Robert; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; Sun, Wellington; Bauer, Kristen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Innis, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    Two formulations of a new live tetravalent dengue virus (DENV) vaccine produced using re-derived master seeds from a precursor vaccine and that same precursor vaccine as a control were compared in a placebo-controlled, randomized, observer-blind, phase II trial of 86 healthy adults. Two vaccine doses were administered 6 months apart; a third dose was offered to a subset. Symptoms and signs of dengue-like illness reported after vaccination were mild to moderate, transient, and occurred with similar frequency among recipients of the new DENV vaccine and placebo, except for rash. Neither dengue nor vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The first DENV vaccine dose was moderately immunogenic; the second dose increased the potency and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response. Tetravalent response rates to the new formulations were 60% and 66.7% in unprimed subjects. A third dose did not increase tetravalent antibody rates. The new DENV vaccine candidates merit additional evaluation. PMID:23208878

  17. [Vaccination in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Kwetkat, A; Pletz, M W

    2013-10-01

    The aging immune system, so-called immunosenescence, is well documented as the cause of increased infection rates and severe, often complicated course of infections in the elderly with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it can lead to decreased efficacy of vaccination. The administration of more immunogenic vaccines can be beneficial in the elderly. Implementing vaccination recommendations for the elderly by STIKO can reduce burden of infectious diseases by prevention of infection or reduction of severity of infection. The following vaccinations are recommended by STIKO for all persons aged 60 and above: annual influenza vaccination (additionally all nursing home residents independently of age), once only pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, completion of tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccination as well as regular revaccination. All adults should be vaccinated against pertussis with Tdap vaccine once. Meanwhile, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is allowed for administration in adults but is not recommended by STIKO yet. A lifelong course of vaccination may help to attenuate the effect of immunosenescence.

  18. Adult immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults. PMID:24128707

  19. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... need this vaccine? Yes, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends 5 doses of diphtheria and ...

  20. Does Influenza Vaccination Modify Influenza Severity? Data on Older Adults Hospitalized With Influenza During the 2012−2013 Season in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Anderson, Evan J.; Baumbach, Joan; Bennett, Nancy; Bohm, Susan; Hill, Mary; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lung, Krista; Meek, James; Mermel, Elizabeth; Miller, Lisa; Monroe, Maya L.; Morin, Craig; Oni, Oluwakemi; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; Zansky, Shelley M.; Finelli, Lyn; Chaves, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some studies suggest that influenza vaccination might be protective against severe influenza outcomes in vaccinated persons who become infected. We used data from a large surveillance network to further investigate the effect of influenza vaccination on influenza severity in adults aged ≥50 years who were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Methods. We analyzed influenza vaccination and influenza severity using Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) data for the 2012−2013 influenza season. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, death, diagnosis of pneumonia, and hospital and ICU lengths of stay served as measures of disease severity. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression, parametric survival models, and propensity score matching (PSM). Results. Overall, no differences in severity were observed in the multivariable logistic regression model. Using PSM, adults aged 50−64 years (but not other age groups) who were vaccinated against influenza had a shorter length of ICU stay than those who were unvaccinated (hazard ratio for discharge, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.12−3.01). Conclusions. Our findings show a modest effect of influenza vaccination on disease severity. Analysis of data from seasons with different predominant strains and higher estimates of vaccine effectiveness are needed. PMID:25821227

  1. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Rederived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adults Living in Thailand: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Gibbons, Robert V.; Simasathien, Sriluck; Nisalak, Ananda; Jarman, Richard G.; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Tournay, Elodie; De La Barrerra, Rafael; Dessy, Francis; Toussaint, Jean-François; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Innis, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Safety and immunogenicity of two formulations of a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine produced using rederived master seeds from a precursor vaccine were tested against a placebo control in a phase II, randomized, double blind trial (NCT00370682). Two doses were administered 6 months apart to 120 healthy, predominantly flavivirus-primed adults (87.5% and 97.5% in the two vaccine groups and 92.5% in the placebo group). Symptoms and signs reported after vaccination were mild to moderate and transient. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events or dengue cases reported. Asymptomatic, low-level viremia (dengue virus type 2 [DENV-2], DENV-3, or DENV-4) was detected in 5 of 80 vaccine recipients. One placebo recipient developed a subclinical natural DENV-1 infection. All flavivirus-unprimed subjects and at least 97.1% of flavivirus-primed subjects were seropositive to antibodies against all four DENV types 1 and 3 months post-TDEN dose 2. The TDEN vaccine was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile in flavivirus-primed adults. PMID:24865677

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a rederived, live-attenuated dengue virus vaccine in healthy adults living in Thailand: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Gibbons, Robert V; Simasathien, Sriluck; Nisalak, Ananda; Jarman, Richard G; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Tournay, Elodie; De La Barrerra, Rafael; Dessy, Francis; Toussaint, Jean-François; Eckels, Kenneth H; Thomas, Stephen J; Innis, Bruce L

    2014-07-01

    Safety and immunogenicity of two formulations of a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine produced using rederived master seeds from a precursor vaccine were tested against a placebo control in a phase II, randomized, double blind trial (NCT00370682). Two doses were administered 6 months apart to 120 healthy, predominantly flavivirus-primed adults (87.5% and 97.5% in the two vaccine groups and 92.5% in the placebo group). Symptoms and signs reported after vaccination were mild to moderate and transient. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events or dengue cases reported. Asymptomatic, low-level viremia (dengue virus type 2 [DENV-2], DENV-3, or DENV-4) was detected in 5 of 80 vaccine recipients. One placebo recipient developed a subclinical natural DENV-1 infection. All flavivirus-unprimed subjects and at least 97.1% of flavivirus-primed subjects were seropositive to antibodies against all four DENV types 1 and 3 months post-TDEN dose 2. The TDEN vaccine was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile in flavivirus-primed adults.

  3. Correlates of HPV knowledge in the era of HPV vaccination: a study of unvaccinated young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus-the virus that causes cervical cancer-was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus knowledge now that human papillomavirus vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated human papillomavirus vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed human papillomavirus awareness, human papillomavirus knowledge, demographics, socio-political variables, sexual history, and health history variables. Over 97% of participants were aware of human papillomavirus prior to study enrollment; however, knowledge of human papillomavirus was only moderate. A multivariate regression analysis examining factors related to human papillomavirus knowledge revealed five independent correlates: Latina ethnicity, premarital sex values, number of lifetime sexual partners, history of cervical dysplasia, and HIV testing. These variables accounted for 14% of the variance in human papillomavirus knowledge. Less knowledge was observed for Latinas and women opposed to premarital sex. Greater knowledge was observed for women who had been tested for HIV and women with more sexual partners or a history of cervical dysplasia. These findings can inform future human papillomavirus vaccination campaigns and may be particularly useful in developing interventions for individuals with the largest deficits in human papillomavirus knowledge. PMID:21391159

  4. Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

  5. Vaccination coverage against 2009 seasonal influenza in chronically ill children and adults: analysis of population registries in primary care in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rieiro, Cristina; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Sánchez-Perruca, Luis; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro; Fornies, Domingo Iniesta; Ordoñez, Dolores Barranco; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2010-08-31

    Using electronic clinical records in primary care (ECRPC) of the entire population living in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (5,102,568 persons) as a data source, this study aimed to ascertain seasonal anti-influenza vaccination coverage in the chronically ill at-risk children (aged 6 months to 14 years) and adults (15-59 years). Of the total population aged 6 months to 59 years with a medical card in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, 10.3% (n=528,095 patients) had a chronic condition for which anti-influenza vaccination was indicated. In children with chronic conditions, coverage was 27.1% and it was particularly high among diabetics (41.1%) and particularly low in children with "other pulmonary conditions" (15.2%). In adults with chronic conditions, coverage was 22.1% and in patients with diagnosed heart failure coverage reached 39.1%; with the lowest coverage was observed in patients suffering neuromuscular diseases (12.8%). The factors associated with vaccination among children and adults suffering a chronic condition included: having been vaccinated during the previous campaign, national origin (lower among immigrants), and having more than one chronic condition. In conclusion, our study shows that vaccination coverage for 2009 seasonal influenza in children and adults with chronic conditions living in Madrid (Spain) was less than acceptable.

  6. Antigen selection for future anti-Trichuris vaccines: a comparison of cytokine and antibody responses to larval and adult antigen in a primary infection.

    PubMed

    Dixon, H; Johnston, C E; Else, K J

    2008-09-01

    Trichuriasis, caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, affecting approximately 1 billion people. Child anthelminthic treatment programmes are being implemented but repeated treatments are costly, may prevent the development of acquired immunity and can lead to the development of drug resistant parasites. Thus, the development of a vaccine which would lead to the acquisition of immunity at an earlier age and reduce community faecal egg output would be beneficial. Development of subunit vaccines requires the identification of protective antigens and their formulation in a suitable adjuvant. Trichuris muris is an antigenically similar laboratory model for T. trichiura. Subcutaneous vaccination with adult excretory-secretory products (ES) protects susceptible mouse strains from T. muris. Larval stages may contain novel and more relevant antigens which when incorporated in a vaccine induce worm expulsion earlier in infection than the adult worm products. This study finds negligible difference in the cellular and humoral immune response to T. muris adult and third stage larva(e) (L3) ES during a primary T. muris infection, but identifies high molecular weight proteins in both adult and L3 ES as potential vaccine candidates.

  7. Antigen selection for future anti-Trichuris vaccines: a comparison of cytokine and antibody responses to larval and adult antigen in a primary infection.

    PubMed

    Dixon, H; Johnston, C E; Else, K J

    2008-09-01

    Trichuriasis, caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, affecting approximately 1 billion people. Child anthelminthic treatment programmes are being implemented but repeated treatments are costly, may prevent the development of acquired immunity and can lead to the development of drug resistant parasites. Thus, the development of a vaccine which would lead to the acquisition of immunity at an earlier age and reduce community faecal egg output would be beneficial. Development of subunit vaccines requires the identification of protective antigens and their formulation in a suitable adjuvant. Trichuris muris is an antigenically similar laboratory model for T. trichiura. Subcutaneous vaccination with adult excretory-secretory products (ES) protects susceptible mouse strains from T. muris. Larval stages may contain novel and more relevant antigens which when incorporated in a vaccine induce worm expulsion earlier in infection than the adult worm products. This study finds negligible difference in the cellular and humoral immune response to T. muris adult and third stage larva(e) (L3) ES during a primary T. muris infection, but identifies high molecular weight proteins in both adult and L3 ES as potential vaccine candidates. PMID:18565148

  8. An mRNA Vaccine Encoding Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Induces Protection against Lethal Infection in Mice and Correlates of Protection in Adult and Newborn Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Daniel; Petsch, Benjamin; Baumhof, Patrick; Kramps, Thomas; Stitz, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In unvaccinated or untreated subjects, rabies virus infection causes severe neurological symptoms and is invariably fatal. Despite the long-standing existence of effective vaccines, vaccine availability remains insufficient, with high numbers of fatal infections mostly in developing countries. Nucleic acid based vaccines have proven convincingly as a new technology for the fast development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens, diseases where no vaccine exists or for replacing already existing vaccines. We used an optimized non-replicating rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) to induce potent neutralizing antibodies (VN titers) in mice and domestic pigs. Functional antibody titers were followed in mice for up to one year and titers remained stable for the entire observation period in all dose groups. T cell analysis revealed the induction of both, specific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells by RABV-G mRNA, with the induced CD4+ T cells being higher than those induced by a licensed vaccine. Notably, RABV-G mRNA vaccinated mice were protected against lethal intracerebral challenge infection. Inhibition of viral replication by vaccination was verified by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are crucial for the generation of neutralizing antibodies. In domestic pigs we were able to induce VN titers that correlate with protection in adult and newborn pigs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a non-replicating mRNA rabies vaccine in small and large animals and highlights the promises of mRNA vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:27336830

  9. An mRNA Vaccine Encoding Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Induces Protection against Lethal Infection in Mice and Correlates of Protection in Adult and Newborn Pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Margit; Vogel, Annette B; Voss, Daniel; Petsch, Benjamin; Baumhof, Patrick; Kramps, Thomas; Stitz, Lothar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In unvaccinated or untreated subjects, rabies virus infection causes severe neurological symptoms and is invariably fatal. Despite the long-standing existence of effective vaccines, vaccine availability remains insufficient, with high numbers of fatal infections mostly in developing countries. Nucleic acid based vaccines have proven convincingly as a new technology for the fast development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens, diseases where no vaccine exists or for replacing already existing vaccines. We used an optimized non-replicating rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) to induce potent neutralizing antibodies (VN titers) in mice and domestic pigs. Functional antibody titers were followed in mice for up to one year and titers remained stable for the entire observation period in all dose groups. T cell analysis revealed the induction of both, specific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells by RABV-G mRNA, with the induced CD4+ T cells being higher than those induced by a licensed vaccine. Notably, RABV-G mRNA vaccinated mice were protected against lethal intracerebral challenge infection. Inhibition of viral replication by vaccination was verified by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are crucial for the generation of neutralizing antibodies. In domestic pigs we were able to induce VN titers that correlate with protection in adult and newborn pigs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a non-replicating mRNA rabies vaccine in small and large animals and highlights the promises of mRNA vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:27336830

  10. Suppression of the Insulin Receptors in Adult Schistosoma japonicum Impacts on Parasite Growth and Development: Further Evidence of Vaccine Potential

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Cai, Pengfei; Mou, Rong; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Fang, Guofu; Villinger, Francois; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can bind the L1 subdomain (insulin binding domain) of recombinant (r)SjIR1 and rSjIR2 (designated SjLD1 and SjLD2) produced using the Drosophila S2 protein expression system. We have then used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of the SjIRs in adult S. japonicum in vitro and show that, in addition to their reduced transcription, the transcript levels of other important downstream genes within the insulin pathway, associated with glucose metabolism and schistosome fecundity, were also impacted substantially. Further, a significant decrease in glucose uptake was observed in the SjIR-knockdown worms compared with luciferase controls. In vaccine/challenge experiments, we found that rSjLD1 and rSjLD2 depressed female growth, intestinal granuloma density and faecal egg production in S. japonicum in mice presented with a low dose challenge infection. These data re-emphasize the potential of the SjIRs as veterinary transmission blocking vaccine candidates against zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica in China and the Philippines. PMID:25961574

  11. Antibody Persistence in Adults Two Years after Vaccination with an H1N1 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus-Like Particle Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Valero-Pacheco, Nuriban; Pérez-Toledo, Marisol; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Núñez-Valencia, Adriana; Boscó-Gárate, Ilka; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Lara-Puente, Horacio; Espitia, Clara; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura C; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    The influenza virus is a human pathogen that causes epidemics every year, as well as potential pandemic outbreaks, as occurred in 2009. Vaccination has proven to be sufficient in the prevention and containment of viral spreading. In addition to the current egg-based vaccines, new and promising vaccine platforms, such as cell culture-derived vaccines that include virus-like particles (VLPs), have been developed. VLPs have been shown to be both safe and immunogenic against influenza infections. Although antibody persistence has been studied in traditional egg-based influenza vaccines, studies on antibody response durations induced by VLP influenza vaccines in humans are scarce. Here, we show that subjects vaccinated with an insect cell-derived VLP vaccine, in the midst of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic outbreak in Mexico City, showed antibody persistence up to 24 months post-vaccination. Additionally, we found that subjects that reported being revaccinated with a subsequent inactivated influenza virus vaccine showed higher antibody titres to the pandemic influenza virus than those who were not revaccinated. These findings provide insights into the duration of the antibody responses elicited by an insect cell-derived pandemic influenza VLP vaccine and the possible effects of subsequent influenza vaccination on antibody persistence induced by this VLP vaccine in humans.

  12. Antibody Persistence in Adults Two Years after Vaccination with an H1N1 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus-Like Particle Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Núñez-Valencia, Adriana; Boscó-Gárate, Ilka; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Lara-Puente, Horacio; Espitia, Clara; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    The influenza virus is a human pathogen that causes epidemics every year, as well as potential pandemic outbreaks, as occurred in 2009. Vaccination has proven to be sufficient in the prevention and containment of viral spreading. In addition to the current egg-based vaccines, new and promising vaccine platforms, such as cell culture-derived vaccines that include virus-like particles (VLPs), have been developed. VLPs have been shown to be both safe and immunogenic against influenza infections. Although antibody persistence has been studied in traditional egg-based influenza vaccines, studies on antibody response durations induced by VLP influenza vaccines in humans are scarce. Here, we show that subjects vaccinated with an insect cell-derived VLP vaccine, in the midst of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic outbreak in Mexico City, showed antibody persistence up to 24 months post-vaccination. Additionally, we found that subjects that reported being revaccinated with a subsequent inactivated influenza virus vaccine showed higher antibody titres to the pandemic influenza virus than those who were not revaccinated. These findings provide insights into the duration of the antibody responses elicited by an insect cell-derived pandemic influenza VLP vaccine and the possible effects of subsequent influenza vaccination on antibody persistence induced by this VLP vaccine in humans. PMID:26919288

  13. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  14. Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Too Much Salt Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents The body needs how much salt per day: ¼ teaspoon ½ teaspoon 1 teaspoon ...

  15. An Inactivated Ross River Virus Vaccine Is Well Tolerated and Immunogenic in an Adult Population in a Randomized Phase 3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, Maikel V. W.; Portsmouth, Daniel; Draxler, Wolfgang; O'Rourke, Maria; Richmond, Peter; Hall, Stephen; McBride, William J. H.; Redfern, Andrew; Aaskov, John; Barrett, P. Noel; Aichinger, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is endemic in Australia and several South Pacific Islands. More than 90,000 cases of RRV disease, which is characterized by debilitating polyarthritis, were reported in Australia in the last 20 years. There is no vaccine available to prevent RRV disease. A phase 3 study was undertaken at 17 sites in Australia to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole-virus Vero cell culture-derived RRV vaccine in 1,755 healthy younger adults aged 16 to 59 years and 209 healthy older adults aged ≥60 years. Participants received a 2.5-μg dose of Al(OH)3-adjuvanted RRV vaccine, with a second and third dose after 3 weeks and 6 months, respectively. Vaccine-induced RRV-specific neutralizing and total IgG antibody titers were measured after each immunization. Vaccine safety was monitored over the entire study period. The vaccine was safe and well-tolerated after each vaccination. No cases of arthritis resembling RRV disease were reported. The most frequently reported systemic reactions were headache, fatigue, and malaise; the most frequently reported injection site reactions were tenderness and pain. After the third immunization, 91.5% of the younger age group and 76.0% of the older age group achieved neutralizing antibody titers of ≥1:10; 89.1% of the younger age group and 70.9% of the older age group achieved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers of ≥11 PanBio units. A whole-virus Vero cell culture-derived RRV vaccine is well tolerated in an adult population and induces antibody titers associated with protection from RRV disease in the majority of individuals. (This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01242670.) PMID:25540268

  16. Hepatitis A/B vaccination of adults over 40 years old: comparison of three vaccine regimens and effect of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Van der Wielen, Marie; Van Damme, Pierre; Chlibek, Roman; Smetana, Jan; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2006-06-29

    Challenged by contrasting data on low immune responses in the elderly with a combined hepatitis A/B vaccine, a randomised, controlled study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity of three hepatitis A and B vaccination regimens (group 1: combined hepatitis A/B vaccine Twinrix [GSK]; group 2: co-administered hepatitis A vaccine, Havrix [GSK]+hepatitis B vaccine Engerix -B [GSK], group 3: co-administered hepatitis A vaccine, Vaqta [Sanofi-Pasteur MSD]+hepatitis B vaccine HB VAX PRO [Sanofi-Pasteur MSD]) and the effect of influencing factors in subjects >40 years. On completion of the full vaccination course, anti-HBs seroprotection (SP) rates were 92, 80 and 71% in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively; anti-HAV seropositivity (S+) rates were 97, 99 and 99%, respectively. In group 1, anti-HBs SP rate was non-inferior as well as superior and anti-HAV S+ rate was non-inferior to that in groups 2 and 3. Anti-HBs response was most significantly influenced by the vaccine regimen, followed by age, gender and BMI (stepwise multiple regression analysis). BMI had the most significant influence on HAV response followed by age, gender and vaccine regimen. In conclusion, Twinrix induced superior hepatitis B SP rates and similar hepatitis A S+ rates compared to concomitant administration of monovalent vaccines in subjects aged >40 years.

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  18. Effectiveness and harms of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines in children, adults and elderly: a critical review and re-analysis of 15 meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Manzoli, Lamberto; Ioannidis, John P A; Flacco, Maria Elena; De Vito, Corrado; Villari, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Fifteen meta-analyses have been published between 1995 and 2011 to evaluate the efficacy/effectiveness and harms of diverse influenza vaccines--seasonal, H5N1 and 2009 (H1N1)--in various age-classes (healthy children, adults or elderly). These meta-analyses have often adopted different analyses and study selection criteria. Because it is difficult to have a clear picture of vaccine benefits and harms examining single systematic reviews, we compiled the main findings and evaluated which could be the most reasonable explanations for some differences in findings (or their interpretation) across previously published meta-analyses. For each age group, we performed analyses that included all trials that had been included in at least one relevant meta-analysis, also exploring whether effect sizes changed over time. Although we identified several discrepancies among the meta-analyses on seasonal vaccines for children and elderly, overall most seasonal influenza vaccines showed statistically significant efficacy/effectiveness, which was acceptable or high for laboratory-confirmed cases and of modest magnitude for clinically-confirmed cases. The available evidence on parenteral inactivated vaccines for children aged < 2 y remains scarce. Pre-pandemic "avian" H5N1 and pandemic 2009 (H1N1) vaccines can achieve satisfactory immunogenicity, but no meta-analysis has addressed H1N1 vaccination impact on clinical outcomes. Data on harms are overall reassuring, but their value is diminished by inconsistent reporting.

  19. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits similar antibody response as standard 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adult patients with RA treated with immunomodulating drugs.

    PubMed

    Kapetanovic, Meliha Crnkic; Roseman, Carmen; Jönsson, Göran; Truedsson, Lennart

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare antibody response in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to that of RA patients and healthy controls vaccinated with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and to study the impact of disease and/or treatment characteristics and type of vaccine on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA. In total, 253 RA patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNF blockers as monotherapy or anti-TNF + MTX were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PCV7. In addition, 149 RA patients receiving corresponding treatments and 47 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PPV23. Serotype-specific IgG to 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using ELISA. Antibody response ratio (ARR), i.e. ratio between post-/prevaccination antibody levels, was compared between corresponding treatment groups. Differences in ARR were analysed using analysis of variance. Positive antibody response (posAR) was defined as equal to or greater than twofold increase in prevaccination antibody levels. Possible predictors of posAR were analysed using logistic regression model. Corresponding RA treatment groups showed similar ARR and posAR for both serotypes regardless of vaccine type. Higher age at vaccination and concomitant MTX were identified as predictors of impaired posAR for both serotypes tested, whereas type of vaccine did not influence posAR significantly. PCV7 elicits similar antibody response as PPV23 in patients with RA receiving immunosuppressive treatment. In RA patients, higher age and MTX treatment but not type of vaccine predicted impaired posAR.

  20. Comparison of Accelerated and Standard Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedules in High-Risk Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Zhao, Yueyuan; Liu, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Background Selecting the most efficient vaccination schedule is an important issue. Objective To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedules in high-risk healthy adults. Methods We searched controlled trial registers of The Cochrane Library as well as MEDLINE, EMBASE, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for randomized controlled trials published up to December 2013 that compared accelerated hepatitis B vaccine schedules to the standard schedule in adults. The results were presented as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Fixed or random effect models were used for analysis. Results We identified 10 randomized trials, all with one or more methodological weaknesses. Compared to the standard schedule, most accelerated schedules resulted in higher proportions of healthy vaccines more rapidly reaching anti-hepatitis B antibody levels >10 IU/L (P<0.05) initially and maintaining similar seroprotection rates after 6 months (P>0.05). Although accelerated schedules produced anti-hepatitis B levels higher than the standard schedule for the first month after the initial vaccine dose, they were significantly lower than the standard schedule after 6 months, except for an accelerated schedule that called for a fourth booster injection 12 months after the initial dose. Subjects administered accelerated vaccine schedules had similar compliance rate as those administered the standard schedule over the first 6 months of vaccination (relative risk = 1.00, 95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.21). Conclusion For rapid seroconversion and almost immediate short-term protection, accelerated vaccination schedules could be useful for at-risk groups. However, additional studies on the long-term protection and effectiveness of the primary doses of accelerated schedules are necessary. PMID:26196903

  1. Serum Samples From Middle-aged Adults Vaccinated Annually with Seasonal Influenza Vaccines Cross-neutralize Some Potential Pandemic Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Chen, Qiong; Anderson, Christine M; Scott, Dorothy; Vassell, Russell; Weiss, Carol D

    2016-02-01

    We examined serum samples from adults ages 48-64 who received multiple seasonal influenza vaccines from 2004 to 2009 for cross-neutralizing antibodies to potential pandemic strains. Using pseudoviruses bearing various hemagglutinins (HA-pseudoviruses), we found serum neutralization titers (≥160) in 100% against A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2), 53% against A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2), 56% against the H3N2 variant A/Indiana/08/11 (H3N2v), 11% against A/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2), and 36% A/chicken/Hong Kong/SF4/01 (H6N1). None had titers >160 to A/Shanghai/2/13 (H7N9) or A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7). Thirty-six percent to 0% had neutralization titers to various H5N1 strains. Titers to H9, H6, and H5 HA-pseudoviruses correlated with each other, but not with H3N2v, suggesting group-specific cross-neutralization.

  2. The Majority of Adult Pneumococcal Invasive Infections in Portugal Are Still Potentially Vaccine Preventable in Spite of Significant Declines of Serotypes 1 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Horácio, Andreia N.; Diamantino-Miranda, Jorge; Aguiar, Sandra I.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José

    2013-01-01

    In Portugal, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been administered to children outside of the national immunization plan since 2001. We determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of 1265 isolates responsible for adult invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) between 2009 and 2011 and compared the results with previously published data from 1999 to 2008. Serotypes 3 (12.6%), 7F (10.0%), 19A (9.1%), 14 (8.4%), 1 (6.9%) and 8 (6.2%) were the most frequent and together accounted for 53.2% of adult IPD. Serotypes 1 and 5 declined significantly while serotype 34, not included in any vaccine, increased. Taken together, the serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) peaked among adult IPD isolates in 2008 (70.2%) and declined since then reaching 53.5% in 2011. The decline in the serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2007 was also significant but much more modest with 79.2% of the isolates causing IPD in 2011 expressing these serotypes. Since the changes in serotypes causing IPD in adults coincided with the 10-valent and PCV13 introduction in children, it is unlikely that vaccination triggered these changes although it may have accelerated them. The proportion of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine remained stable (19.0%). Both penicillin non-susceptibility and erythromycin resistance increased in the study period, with serotypes 14 and 19A accounting for the majority of resistant isolates. PMID:24066064

  3. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  4. Vaccine Therapy Plus Biological Therapy in Treating Adults With Metastatic Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-19

    Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Melanoma (Skin); Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Recommended immunization schedules for adults: Clinical practice guidelines by the Escmid Vaccine Study Group (EVASG), European Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) and the World Association for Infectious Diseases and Immunological Disorders (WAidid).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bonanni, Paolo; Maggi, Stefania; Tan, Litjan; Ansaldi, Filippo; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Dagan, Ron; Michel, Jean-Pierre; van Damme, Pierre; Gaillat, Jacques; Prymula, Roman; Vesikari, Timo; Mussini, Cristina; Frank, Uwe; Osterhaus, Albert; Celentano, Lucia Pastore; Rossi, Marta; Guercio, Valentina; Gavazzi, Gaetan

    2016-07-01

    Rapid population aging has become a major challenge in the industrialized world and progressive aging is a key reason for making improvement in vaccination a cornerstone of public health strategy. An increase in age-related disorders and conditions is likely to be seen in the near future, and these are risk factors for the occurrence of a number of vaccine-preventable diseases. An improvement in infectious diseases prevention specifically aimed at adults and the elderly can therefore also decrease the burden of these chronic conditions by reducing morbidity, disability, hospital admissions, health costs, mortality rates and, perhaps most importantly, by improving the quality of life. Among adults, it is necessary to identify groups at increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases and highlight the epidemiological impact and benefits of vaccinations using an evidence-based approach. This document provides clinical practice guidance on immunization for adults in order to provide recommendations for decision makers and healthcare workers in Europe. Although immunization is considered one of the most impactful and cost-effective public health measures that can be undertaken, vaccination coverage rates among adults are largely lower than the stated goal of ≥ 95% among adults, and stronger efforts are needed to increase coverage in this population. Active surveillance of adult vaccine-preventable diseases, determining the effectiveness of the vaccines approved for marketing in the last 5 y, the efficacy and safety of vaccines in immunocompromised patients, as well as in pregnant women, represent the priorities for future research. PMID:27135390

  6. Concomitant administration of zoster and pneumococcal vaccines in adults ≥60 years old.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, C Raina; Egerton, Tony; McCaughey, Malcolm; Parrino, Janie; Campbell, Bernadette V; Su, Shu-Chih; Pagnoni, Marco F; Stek, Jon E; Xu, Jin; Annunziato, Paula W; Chan, Ivan S F; Silber, Jeffrey L

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluated safety & immunogenicity of ZOSTAVAX® (zoster vaccine: ZV) administered concomitantly versus nonconcomitantly with PNEUMOVAX® 23 (pneumococcal vaccine: PPV23). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 473 subjects ≥60 years old in 1:1 ratio to receive ZV & PPV23 concomitantly (Day 1) or nonconcomitantly (PPV23 Day 1, ZV Week 4). Blood samples obtained for pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPs) antibody (Ab) testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Ab testing by glycoprotein ELISA. Subjects followed for adverse experiences (AEs) for 28 days postvaccination. Mean baseline VZV geometric mean titers (GMT) in nonconcomitant group were lower than concomitant group. Four weeks postvaccination with ZV, VZV Ab response in concomitant group was not similar to nonconcomitant group; estimated VZV GMT ratio [concomitant/nonconcomitant] was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.61-0.80). VZV Ab response was acceptable in concomitant group; estimated geometric mean foldrise (GMFR) from baseline was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.7-2.1). PnPs serotype-specific Ab responses were similar in both groups. All 6 reported serious AEs were deemed not related to study vaccine. Postvaccination of ZV, incidence of injection-site AEs was similar in both groups; clinical AEs were numerically but not significantly higher in nonconcomitant group. In summary, VZV GMT Ab response induced by ZV administered concomitantly with PPV23 was inferior to that induced nonconcomitantly. These results indicate that, to avoid a potential decrease in ZV immunogenicity, ZV & PPV23 should not be given concomitantly. Concomitant administration did not affect response to PPV23 serotypes tested. When administered concomitantly, ZV & PPV23 vaccines were generally well tolerated.

  7. High prevalence of measles seronegativity in adults with HIV infection born in the era of measles vaccination in Northern France.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Dorothee; Dramé, Moustapha; Rouger, Christine; Brodard, Veronique; Nguyen, Yohan; Berger, Jean Luc; Kmiec, Isabelle; Hentzien, Maxime; Lebrun, Delphine; Jaussaud, Roland; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2015-01-14

    We investigated measles humoral immunity levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adult patients in France and attempted to identify risk factors for antimeasles antibodies seronegativity. Being born after 1983 [odds ratio (OR) 4.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-14.09; P = 0.0013] and a nadir CD4⁺ cell count below 100 cells/μl (OR 4.79; 95% CI 1.61-14.82; P = 0.0048) were the two factors independently associated with measles seronegativity. Systematic measles antibody screening should be performed in HIV-infected individuals born in the era of measles vaccination (after 1983 in France).

  8. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate versus inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine: a phase III, randomized trial in adults aged ≥18 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have co-circulated since the 1980s, yet inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) include strains of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and only one influenza B from either the Victoria or Yamagata lineage. This means that exposure to B-lineage viruses mismatched to the TIV is frequent, reducing vaccine protection. Formulations including both influenza B lineages could improve protection against circulating influenza B viruses. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages versus TIV in adults in stable health. Methods A total of 4659 adults were randomized 5:5:5:5:3 to receive one dose of QIV (one of three lots) or a TIV containing either a B/Victoria or B/Yamagata strain. Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed pre-vaccination and 21-days after vaccination. Lot-to-lot consistency of QIV was assessed based on geometric mean titers (GMT). For QIV versus TIV, non-inferiority against the three shared strains was demonstrated if the 95% confidence interval (CI) upper limit for the GMT ratio was ≤1.5 and for the seroconversion difference was ≤10.0%; superiority of QIV versus TIV for the alternate B lineage was demonstrated if the 95% CI lower limit for the GMT ratio was > 1.0 and for the seroconversion difference was > 0%. Reactogenicity and safety profile of each vaccine were assessed. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01204671. Results Consistent immunogenicity was demonstrated for the three QIV lots. QIV was non-inferior to TIV for the shared vaccine strains, and was superior for the added alternate-lineage B strains. QIV elicited robust immune responses against all four vaccine strains; the seroconversion rates were 77.5% (A/H1N1), 71.5% (A/H3N2), 58.1% (B/Victoria), and 61.7% (B/Yamagata). The reactogenicity and safety profile of QIV was consistent with TIV. Conclusions QIV provided superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain compared with

  9. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes on anti-HBs antibody production after hepatitis B vaccination in a Japanese young adult population.

    PubMed

    Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Sato, Shoichi; Oboshi, Wataru; Watanabe, Toru; Uzawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is one of the most efficient tools to prevent the transmission of the virus. Considerable variability exists in HB vaccine responses, with 5-10% of healthy Japanese adults demonstrating no response following a standard vaccination. Recently, polymorphisms of immune-regulatory genes, such as cytokine genes, have been reported to influence the immune response to HB vaccine. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the genetic association between several cytokine gene polymorphisms and the immune response to HB vaccination in a Japanese population. One hundred and twenty three vaccinated young adults were classified according to the level of antibody-titer (anti-HBs). Single nucleotide polymorphism typing for IFN-γ (+874, 3'-UTR), IL-10 (-591, -819, -1082), and TNF-α (-308, -857), was accomplished using the PCR-RFLP or SSP-PCR method. The TNF-α (-857) CC type and the IL-10 (-1082) AG type were present more frequently in the low titer group than in the high titer group. The TNF-α (-857) CC type was found to be significantly associated with low response of serum anti-HBs. The anti-HBs antibody was not readily produced in the IL-10 (-1082) AG and TNF-α (-857) CC haplotype. Conversely, the antibody was readily produced in the IL-10 (-1082) AA and TNF-α (-857) CC haplotype, and the IL-10 (-1082) AA and TNF-α (-857) CT haplotype, suggesting a high likelihood of the IL-10 (-1082) AG type to be included in the low anti-HBs group, and high anti-HBs antibody production in those with the TNF-α (-857) CT type. These SNPs may produce ethnically-specific differences in the immune response to HB vaccine in the Japanese population. J. Med. Invest. 63: 256-261, August, 2016. PMID:27644568

  10. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination in children on serotype distribution in adult community-acquired pneumonia using the serotype-specific multiplex urinary antigen detection assay.

    PubMed

    Pletz, Mathias W; Ewig, Santiago; Rohde, Gernot; Schuette, Hartwig; Rupp, Jan; Welte, Tobias; Suttorp, Norbert; Forstner, Christina

    2016-04-29

    The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of the vaccine-serotypes covered by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13) in adult patients with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in Germany between the periods 2002-2006 and 2007-2011 using a novel serotype-specific multiplex urinary antigen detection assay (SSUA). Vaccination of children started with PCV7 in 2007, which was replaced by PCV13 in 2010. Following confirmation of the accuracy of SSUA in long-term stored urine samples from 112 patients with confirmed pneumonia and known pneumococcal serotype, urine samples of 391 CAPNETZ patients with documented pneumococcal pneumonia (i.e. positive BinaxNOW) Streptococcus pneumoniae urine antigen test) but unknown serotype were tested for the 13 vaccine-serotypes using SSUA. The proportion of PCV7-serotypes significantly decreased in adult patients with pneumonia from 30.6% (2002-6) to 13.3% (2007-11, p < 0.001); in bacteremic pneumonia, PCV7-serotypes completely disappeared (3/14 versus 0/19, p = 0.058). Conversely, pneumococcal serotypes included by PCV13 remained stable during study period with a coverage of 61.5% (2002-06) and 59.7% (2007-11) in non-bacteremic pneumonia and 79% (for both periods) in bacteremic pneumonia, mainly due to an increase in pneumococcal serotypes 1, 3 and 7F during the second period. Thus, implementation of PCV7 in children in Germany in 2007 was associated with a significant decrease in vaccine-serotypes covered by PCV7 in adult patients with non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and with an elimination of PCV7 vaccine-serotypes in bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. PCV13 coverage remained high up to 2011, mainly due to an increase in serotypes 1, 3 and 7F.

  11. Safety and Immunogenicity of an Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Candidate Vaccine in HIV-Infected Adults: A Phase 1/2a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Elchonon M.; Moyle, Graeme; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Schürmann, Dirk; Kegg, Stephen; Stoll, Matthias; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Oostvogels, Lidia; Heineman, Thomas C.; Brockmeyer, Norbert; deJesus, Edwin; Esser, Stefan; Hawkins, Trevor; Lalezari, Jacob; Orkin, Chloe; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ), even in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Because concerns exist about the use of live-attenuated vaccines in immunocompromised individuals, a subunit vaccine may be an appropriate alternative. Methods. This phase 1/2, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational HZ subunit vaccine (HZ/su). Three cohorts of HIV-infected adults aged ≥18 years were enrolled: 94 ART recipients with a CD4+ T-cell count of ≥200 cells/mm3, 14 ART recipients with a CD4+ T-cell count of 50–199 cells/mm3, and 15 ART-naive adults with a CD4+ T-cell count of ≥500 cells/mm3. Subjects received 3 doses of HZ/su (50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] combined with AS01B adjuvant) or 3 doses of saline at months 0, 2, and 6. Results. One month after dose 3, serum anti-gE antibody concentrations and frequencies of gE-specific CD4+ T cells were higher following HZ/su vaccination than after receipt of saline (P < .0001). Median cell-mediated immune responses peaked after dose 2. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses persisted until the end of the study (month 18). No vaccination-related serious adverse events were reported. No sustained impact on HIV load or CD4+ T-cell count was noted following vaccinations. Conclusions. HZ/su was immunogenic and had a clinically acceptable safety profile in HIV-infected adults. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01165203. PMID:25371534

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of a cell culture-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine in adults: A Phase III, double-blind, multicenter, randomized, non-inferiority study

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Stephan; Cannon, Kevin; Herrington, Darrell; Mills, Richard; Forleo-Neto, Eduardo; Lindert, Kelly; Abdul Mateen, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs), which include both B lineage strains, are expected to provide broader protection than trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs). The non-inferiority, immunogenicity, and safety of a cell culture-based investigational QIVc and 2 TIVs (TIV1c, TIV2c), in adults (≥18 y), were evaluated in this Phase III, double-blind, multicenter study. A total of 2680 age-stratified subjects were randomized (2:1:1) to receive 1 dose of QIVc (n = 1335), TIV1c (n = 676), or TIV2c (n = 669). TIV1c (B/Yamagata) and TIV2c (B/Victoria) differed only in B strain lineage. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of the hemagglutinin-inhibition antibody responses of QIVc against TIVc, 22 d post-vaccination. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of immunogenicity of QIVc and TIVc in younger (≥18 – <65 y) and older (≥65 y) adults. Hemagglutinin inhibition assays were performed at days 1 and 22. Solicited local and systemic adverse events (AEs) were monitored for 7 d post-vaccination, and unsolicited AEs and serious AEs until day 181. QIVc met the non-inferiority criteria for all 4 vaccine strains and demonstrated superiority for both influenza B strains over the unmatched B strain included in the TIV1c and TIV2c, when geometric mean titers and seroconversion rates with TIVc were compared at day 22. Between 48%–52% of subjects experienced ≥1 solicited AE, the most common being injection-site pain and headache. Serious AEs were reported by ≤1% of subjects, none were vaccine-related. The results indicate that QIVc is immunogenic and well tolerated in both younger and older adults. The immunogenicity and safety profiles of QIVc and TIVc were comparable at all ages evaluated. PMID:27322354

  13. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine 638 in Cuban adults.

    PubMed

    Valera, Rodrigo; García, Hilda María; Jidy, Manuel Díaz; Mirabal, Mayelin; Armesto, Marlene Isabel; Fando, Rafael; García, Luis; Fernández, Roberto; Año, Gemma; Cedré, Bárbara; Ramírez, Margarita; Bravo, Laura; Serrano, Teresita; Palma, Sara; González, Daniel; Miralles, Fernando; Medina, Vilma; Nuñez, Felicita; Plasencia, Yilian; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Mandarioti, Aleyda; Lugones, Juan; Rodríguez, Boris Luis; Moreno, Arlenis; González, Domingo; Baro, Morelia; Solis, Rosa Lidia; Sierra, Gustavo; Barbera, Ramón; Domínguez, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Kouri, Gustavo; Campa, Concepción; Menéndez, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and the immunogenicity of a 2 x 10(9)CFU dose of the 638 lyophilized live attenuated cholera vaccine for oral administration, formulated and produced at Finlay Institute, City of Havana, Cuba. Thirty-six healthy female and male adult volunteers from 18 to 40 years old were involved, clinically examined and laboratory tested after the informed consent signature. Adverse events were monitored and seroconversion rates and geometrical mean titer (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies were tested in volunteer's sera samples. Neither serious adverse events nor other damages to the volunteers due to vaccine or placebo feeding were reported during the clinical follow-up period of this study; none of the adverse events registered within the first 72 h after inoculation were life-threatening for volunteers. Neither severe nor moderate adverse events were reported. Sixty-one percent of subjects showed mild expected adverse events in an interval lower than 24h up to the first 72 h, 75% of these in the vaccinated group and 18% in the placebo group. Fourteen days after inoculation the GMT of vibriocidal antibodies in the vaccine group significantly increased in comparison to the placebo group. All subjects in the vaccine group (24) seroconverted (100%). Results show that this vaccine is safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy female and male volunteers.

  14. A first-in-human phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A-IMX313, administered to BCG-vaccinated adults

    PubMed Central

    Minhinnick, Alice; Satti, Iman; Harris, Stephanie; Wilkie, Morven; Sheehan, Sharon; Stockdale, Lisa; Thomas, Zita-Rose Manjaly; Lopez-Ramon, Raquel; Poulton, Ian; Lawrie, Alison; Vermaak, Samantha; Le Vert, Alexandre; Del Campo, Judith; Hill, Fergal; Moss, Paul; McShane, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an urgent need for a new and effective tuberculosis vaccine because BCG does not sufficiently prevent pulmonary disease. IMX313 is a novel carrier protein designed to improve cellular and humoral immunity. MVA85A-IMX313 is a novel vaccine candidate designed to boost immunity primed by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that has been immunogenic in pre-clinical studies. This is the first evaluation of IMX313 delivered as MVA85A-IMX313 in humans. Methods In this phase 1, open-label first-in-human trial, 30 healthy previously BCG-vaccinated adults were enrolled into three treatment groups and vaccinated with low dose MVA85A-IMX313 (group A), standard dose MVA85A-IMX313 (group B), or MVA85A (group C). Volunteers were followed up for 6 months for safety and immunogenicity assessment. Results The majority of adverse events were mild and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. Both MVA85A-IMX313 and MVA85A induced a significant increase in IFN-γ ELISpot responses. There were no significant differences between the Ag85A ELISpot and intracellular cytokine responses between the two study groups B (MVA85A-IMX313) and C (MVA85A) at any time point post-vaccination. Conclusion MVA85A-IMX313 was well tolerated and immunogenic. There was no significant difference in the number of vaccine-related, local or systemic adverse reactions between MVA85A and MVA85A-IMX313 groups. The mycobacteria-specific cellular immune responses induced by MVA85A-IMX313 were not significantly different to those detected in the MVA85A group. In light of this encouraging safety data, further work to improve the potency of molecular adjuvants like IMX313 is merited. This trial was registered on clinicatrials.gov ref. NCT01879163. PMID:26854906

  15. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here's another chance to play geographical detective! This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following five questions: The large lagoon in the image is named for a particular type of bird. Name the bird. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. What did they call the river? A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. Which ONE of the following is most responsible for the formation of these cusps? Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion Wind and tide-driven sediment transport and circulation Tectonic folding associated with nearby mountain ridges Bathymetric effects of dredging operations True or false: Changes in regional precipitation associated with large scale atmospheric circulation patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered by this image? Ruppia maritima Chelonia mydas Tapirus bairdii Microcystis aeruginosa E-mail your answers, name (initials are acceptable if you prefer), and your hometown by Tuesday, February 19, 2002 to suggestions@mail-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. Answers will be published on the MISR web site in conjunction with the next weekly image release. The names and home towns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who did not win a prize in the last quiz will be sent a print of the image. A new 'Where on Earth...?' mystery appears as the MISR 'image of the week' approximately once per month. A new image of the week is released every

  16. Comparative Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Attenuated Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Strains in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Robin; Bourgeois, A. Louis; Engstrom, Fayette; Hall, Eric; Chang, H. Sunny; Gomes, Joseph G.; Kyle, Jennifer L.; Cassels, Fred; Turner, Arthur K.; Randall, Roger; Darsley, Michael; Lee, Cynthia; Bedford, Philip; Shimko, Janet; Sack, David A.

    2006-01-01

    A vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is needed to prevent diarrheal illness among children in developing countries and at-risk travelers. Two live attenuated ETEC strains, PTL002 and PTL003, which express the ETEC colonization factor CFA/II, were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 19 subjects ingested one dose, and 21 subjects ingested two doses (days 0 and 10) of PTL-002 or PTL-003 at 2 × 109 CFU/dose. Anti-CFA/II mucosal immune responses were determined from the number of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in blood measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, the antibody in lymphocyte supernatants (ALS) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels determined by ELISA. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) ELISA was more sensitive than standard colorimetric ELISA for measuring serum antibody responses to CFA/II and its components, CS1 and CS3. Both constructs were well tolerated. Mild diarrhea occurred after 2 of 31 doses (6%) of PTL-003. PTL-003 produced more sustained intestinal colonization than PTL-002 and better IgA response rates: 90% versus 55% (P = 0.01) for anti-CFA/II IgA-ASCs, 55% versus 30% (P = 0.11) for serum anti-CS1 IgA by TRF, and 65% versus 25% (P = 0.03) for serum anti-CS3 IgA by TRF. Serum IgG response rates to CS1 or CS3 were 55% in PTL-003 recipients and 15% in PTL-002 recipients (P = 0.02). Two doses of either strain were not significantly more immunogenic than one. Based on its superior immunogenicity, which was comparable to that of a virulent ETEC strain and other ETEC vaccine candidates, PTL-003 will be developed further as a component of a live, oral attenuated ETEC vaccine. PMID:16428745

  17. A cross-sectional observational study of pneumococcal carriage in children, their parents, and older adults following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A V; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N; Gould, Katherine A; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13.The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

  18. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

  19. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine.

  20. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults aged 65 years and older - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-06-29

    Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine booster dose for all adolescents aged 11 through 18 years (preferred at 11 through 12 years) and for those adults aged 19 through 64 years who have not yet received a dose. In October 2010, despite the lack of an approved Tdap vaccine for adults aged 65 years and older, ACIP recommended that unvaccinated adults aged 65 years and older be vaccinated with Tdap if in close contact with an infant, and that other adults aged 65 years and older may receive Tdap. In July 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved expanding the age indication for Boostrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) to aged 65 years and older. In February 2012, ACIP recommended Tdap for all adults aged 65 years and older. This recommendation supersedes previous Tdap recommendations regarding adults aged 65 years and older.

  1. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  2. Vaccination of mice with liposome-entrapped adult antigens of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    An immunization procedure was developed to induce protection of mice against the gastrointestinal helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Mice immunized by the oral route with antigens which were released by adult worms during their in vitro survival in a detergent-containing medium and which were entrapped in liposomes were protected against a challenge infection.

  3. Clinical outcomes of a novel therapeutic vaccine with Tax peptide-pulsed dendritic cells for adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma in a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Youko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Iino, Tadafumi; Sasada, Amane; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Matsuoka, Masao; Takamori, Ayako; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Utsunomiya, Atae; Choi, Ilseung; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Miura, Osamu; Takaishi, Shigeo; Teshima, Takanori; Akashi, Koichi; Kannagi, Mari; Uike, Naokuni; Okamura, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a human T cell leukaemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected T cell malignancy with poor prognosis. We herein developed a novel therapeutic vaccine designed to augment an HTLV-I Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that has been implicated in anti-ATL effects, and conducted a pilot study to investigate its safety and efficacy. Three previously treated ATL patients, classified as intermediate- to high-risk, were subcutaneously administered with the vaccine, consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with Tax peptides corresponding to the CTL epitopes. In all patients, the performance status improved after vaccination without severe adverse events, and Tax-specific CTL responses were observed with peaks at 16-20 weeks. Two patients achieved partial remission in the first 8 weeks, one of whom later achieved complete remission, maintaining their remission status without any additional chemotherapy 24 and 19 months after vaccination, respectively. The third patient, whose tumour cells lacked the ability to express Tax at biopsy, obtained stable disease in the first 8 weeks and later developed slowly progressive disease although additional therapy was not required for 14 months. The clinical outcomes of this pilot study indicate that the Tax peptide-pulsed DC vaccine is a safe and promising immunotherapy for ATL. PMID:25612920

  4. Serological evaluation of an influenza A virus cold-adapted reassortant live vaccine, CR-37 (H1N1), in Japanese adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yamane, N; Nakamura, Y; Yuki, M; Odagiri, T; Ishida, N

    1984-04-01

    A cold-adapted influenza A virus, CR-37 (H1N1), derived from genetic reassortment between A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted variant virus and A/California/10/78 (H1N1) wild-type virus, was tested in Japanese adult volunteer. The CR-37 live virus preparation induced only low-grade clinical reactions in volunteers for the first 3-4 days after inoculation. Two vaccinees who did not show any antibody changes became febrile (over 38.0 degrees C). Skin tests using the vaccine preparation and uninfected allantoic fluid were performed, and indicated that one of these two vaccines was positive for the CR-37 vaccine preparation. A high proportion of the vaccinees whose sera had a haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titre against the vaccine strain of less than or equal to 64 before inoculation, seroconverted in both HI and neuraminidase-inhibition (NAI) antibody titrations, and only a few seroconverted in the titration of antibody against type-specific internal antigens. The serological examinations against heterotypic H1N1 variants indicated that the cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine could induce a broad spectrum of HI antibody reactivity and immunity of long duration.

  5. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J; Quintero Del Rio, Ana I; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L

    2015-09-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1-50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2-4 years], 60% [5-20 years], and 93% [21-50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858.

  6. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O.; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J.; Quintero del Rio, Ana I.; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O.; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1–50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2–4 years], 60% [5–20 years], and 93% [21–50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858. PMID:26175027

  7. Clinical outcomes of a novel therapeutic vaccine with Tax peptide-pulsed dendritic cells for adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma in a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Youko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Iino, Tadafumi; Sasada, Amane; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Matsuoka, Masao; Takamori, Ayako; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Utsunomiya, Atae; Choi, Ilseung; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Miura, Osamu; Takaishi, Shigeo; Teshima, Takanori; Akashi, Koichi; Kannagi, Mari; Uike, Naokuni; Okamura, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a human T cell leukaemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected T cell malignancy with poor prognosis. We herein developed a novel therapeutic vaccine designed to augment an HTLV-I Tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that has been implicated in anti-ATL effects, and conducted a pilot study to investigate its safety and efficacy. Three previously treated ATL patients, classified as intermediate- to high-risk, were subcutaneously administered with the vaccine, consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with Tax peptides corresponding to the CTL epitopes. In all patients, the performance status improved after vaccination without severe adverse events, and Tax-specific CTL responses were observed with peaks at 16-20 weeks. Two patients achieved partial remission in the first 8 weeks, one of whom later achieved complete remission, maintaining their remission status without any additional chemotherapy 24 and 19 months after vaccination, respectively. The third patient, whose tumour cells lacked the ability to express Tax at biopsy, obtained stable disease in the first 8 weeks and later developed slowly progressive disease although additional therapy was not required for 14 months. The clinical outcomes of this pilot study indicate that the Tax peptide-pulsed DC vaccine is a safe and promising immunotherapy for ATL.

  8. The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey: Nurse Led Instrument Development and Psychometric Testing to Increase HPV Vaccine Series Completion in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tami L.; Dalmida, Safiya; Higgins, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey (SHPVS) was developed to examine students’ perceived benefits or barriers to HPV vaccination. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and results of the psychometric evaluation of the SHPVS developed in 2008. Methods Survey development included: 1) two-phase integrative literature reviews; 2) draft of survey items based on the literature; 3) critique of survey items by young adults, nursing and psychology faculty, and healthcare providers; and 4) pilot testing. The psychometric properties of the SHPVS were evaluated using classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among a sample of 527 university students’ ages 18 to 24 years. Results The estimated Cronbach’s alpha for the SHPVS is 0.74. Conclusions The SHPVS is a reliable measure of young adults HPV perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived barriers and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination. PMID:27535311

  9. Serotype 3 Remains the Leading Cause of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Adults in Portugal (2012–2014) Despite Continued Reductions in Other 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Horácio, Andreia N.; Silva-Costa, Catarina; Lopes, Joana P.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José; Vaz, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010 the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) as the leading pneumococcal vaccine used in children through the private sector. Although, neither of the PCVs were used significantly in adults, changes in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were expected due to herd protection. We characterized n = 1163 isolates recovered from IPD in adults in 2012–2014 with the goal of documenting possible changes in serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. Among the 54 different serotypes detected, the most frequent, accounting for half of all IPD, were serotypes: 3 (14%), 8 (11%), 19A (7%), 22F (7%), 14 (6%), and 7F (5%). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes remained stable during the study period (14%), but was smaller than in the previous period (19% in 2009–2011, p = 0.003). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes decreased from 51% in 2012 to 38% in 2014 (p < 0.001), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 7F and 19A. However, PCV13 serotype 3 remained relatively stable and the most frequent cause of adult IPD. Non-PCV13 serotypes continued the increase initiated in the late post-PCV7 period, with serotypes 8 and 22F being the most important emerging serotypes. Serotype 15A increased in 2012–2014 (0.7% to 3.5%, p = 0.011) and was strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance. However, the decreases in resistant isolates among serotypes 14 and 19A led to an overall decrease in penicillin non-susceptibility (from 17 to 13%, p = 0.174) and erythromycin resistance (from 19 to 13%, p = 0.034). Introduction of PCV13 in the NIP for children, as well as its availability for adults may further alter the serotypes causing IPD in adults in Portugal and lead to changes in the proportion of resistant isolates. PMID:27790208

  10. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  11. "UML Quiz": Automatic Conversion of Web-Based E-Learning Content in Mobile Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Franqué, Alexander; Tellioglu, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Many educational institutions use Learning Management Systems to provide e-learning content to their students. This often includes quizzes that can help students to prepare for exams. However, the content is usually web-optimized and not very usable on mobile devices. In this work a native mobile application ("UML Quiz") that imports…

  12. Gender differences in response to questions on the australian national chemistry quiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walding, Richard; Fogliani, Charles; Over, Ray; Bain, John D.

    In contrast to the attention given to the relative levels of achievement of boys and girls in mathematics, the question of whether there are sex differences in the solution of chemistry questions has not attracted much attention. This study compares the performance of boys and girls in the Australian National Chemistry Quiz (Chem Quiz), a multiple-choice test conducted by the Royal Australian Chemical Institute. The analyses were based on results from 27,000 students in Years 11 and 12 and 16,000 students in Year 10 who completed the Chem Quiz in 1991. Although some questions in the Chem Quiz were solved equally well by boys and girls, on many questions boys outperformed girls. The extreme case was a question answered correctly by 67% of Year 10 boys in contrast to 48% of Year 10 girls. Several reasons why boys and girls might differ in the rates they solve at least some chemistry questions are discussed, and directions for identifying the nature, extent, and basis for sex differences are outlined.

  13. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  14. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  15. What Happened Next? Making and Using an Interactive DVD Quiz Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluman, Jonny

    2013-01-01

    In this article Jonny Sluman describes how he adapted an interactive DVD quiz game at a Christmas family get-together into an exciting, creative science activity to teach his students. The rounds included: a "quick fire" question round, a "what happened next" round, a music round, and a "spot the difference" round.…

  16. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  17. The Marriage Quiz: College Students' Beliefs in Selected Myths about Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffry H.

    1988-01-01

    Administered Marriage Quiz to 279 college students to measure their beliefs in myths about marriage and family relations. Found that women missed significantly fewer items than did men; less romantic students missed significantly fewer items than did romantic students; and students who completed marriage and family course missed significantly…

  18. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: ESRD/RRT.

    PubMed

    Lok, Charmaine E; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. During the 2015 meeting, the conference hall was once again overflowing with eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the experts included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD and dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories together with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows in the United States answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on the same series of case-oriented questions in a quiz. The audience compared their answers in real time using a cellphone application containing the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The results of the online questionnaire were displayed, and then, the quiz answers were discussed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this highly educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces selected content of educational value for the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:27094608

  19. T lymphocytes subsets and cytokine pattern induced by vaccination against bovine brucellosis employing S19 calfhood vaccination and adult RB51 revaccination.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2014-10-21

    The aims of this study were to address the protective immune response induced by S19 vaccination (n=10) and RB51 revaccination, in pregnant (n=9) and non-pregnant (n=10) S19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle as follows: evaluate the in vitro CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes specific proliferation, and in vitro expression of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells and IL-4 by CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD21(+) lymphocytes subset. Upon in vitro stimulation with γ-irradiated Brucella abortus 2308, blood mononuclear cells from S19 vaccinated and RB51 revaccinated cows exhibited significantly higher proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes and CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T-cells compared to non-vaccinated animals. RB51 revaccination, regardless of the pregnancy status, did not enhance the proliferation of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells nor IFN-γ or IL-4 production. Data from the present study suggest that cattle's cellular immune response induced after brucellosis vaccination and revaccination is due to CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, being CD4(+) T-cells the main source of IFN-γ.

  20. Neutropenia as an Adverse Event following Vaccination: Results from Randomized Clinical Trials in Healthy Adults and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Muturi-Kioi, Vincent; Lewis, David; Launay, Odile; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Anemona, Alessandra; Loulergue, Pierre; Bodinham, Caroline L.; Aerssens, Annelies; Groth, Nicola; Saul, Allan; Podda, Audino

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of early vaccine trials aimed at evaluating the safety profile of novel vaccines, abnormal haematological values, such as neutropenia, are often reported. It is therefore important to evaluate how these trials should be planned not to miss potentially important safety signals, but also to understand the implications and the clinical relevance. Methodology We report and discuss the results from five clinical trials (two with a new Shigella vaccine in the early stage of clinical development and three with licensed vaccines) where the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were evaluated before and after vaccination. Additionally, we have performed a systematic review of the literature on cases of neutropenia reported during vaccine trials to discuss our results in a more general context. Principal Findings Both in our clinical trials and in the literature review, several cases of neutropenia have been reported, in the first two weeks after vaccination. However, neutropenia was generally transient and had a benign clinical outcome, after vaccination with either multiple novel candidates or well-known licensed vaccines. Additionally, the vaccine recipients with neutropenia frequently had lower baseline ANC than non-neutropenic vaccinees. In many instances neutropenia occurred in subjects of African descent, known to have lower ANC compared to western populations. Conclusions It is important to include ANC and other haematological tests in early vaccine trials to identify potential safety signals. Post-vaccination neutropenia is not uncommon, generally transient and clinically benign, but many vaccine trials do not have a sampling schedule that allows its detection. Given ethnic variability in the level of circulating neutrophils, normal ranges taking into account ethnicity should be used for determination of trial inclusion/exclusion criteria and classification of neutropenia related adverse events. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017899

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of three 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults: a double-blind and randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng-Ji; Yang, Li-Qing; Ai, Xing; Bai, Yun-Hua; Wu, Jiang; Li, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Lu, Min; Li, Li; Wang, Zhao-Yun; Shi, Nian-Min

    2013-08-01

    The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010-2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6-36 mo), children (6-12 y) and older adults (≥60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68-71% in toddlers after two doses, 70-74% in children and 69-72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010-2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.

  2. Safety and Immunogenicity of Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel®, a Transmission Blocking Vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum: An Open Label Study in Malaria Naïve Adults

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Kawsar R.; Ellis, Ruth D.; Hurd, Janet; Hentrich, Autumn; Gabriel, Erin; Hynes, Noreen A.; Rausch, Kelly M.; Zhu, Daming; Muratova, Olga; Herrera, Raul; Anderson, Charles; Jones, David; Aebig, Joan; Brockley, Sarah; MacDonald, Nicholas J.; Wang, Xiaowei; Fay, Michael P.; Healy, Sara A.; Durbin, Anna P.; Narum, David L.; Wu, Yimin; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that target sexual stage parasite development could be an integral part of measures for malaria elimination. Pfs25 is a leading TBV candidate, and previous studies conducted in animals demonstrated an improvement of its functional immunogenicity after conjugation to EPA, a recombinant, detoxified ExoProtein A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this report, we describe results of an open-label, dose-escalating Phase 1 trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Pfs25-EPA conjugates formulated with Alhydrogel®. Thirty malaria-naïve healthy adults received up to four doses of the conjugate vaccine, with 8, 16, or 47 μg of conjugated Pfs25 mass, at 0, 2, 4, and 10 months. Vaccinations were generally well tolerated. The majority of solicited adverse events were mild in severity with pain at the injection site the most common complaint. Anemia was the most common laboratory abnormality, but was considered possibly related to the study in only a minority of cases. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. The peak geometric mean anti-Pfs25 antibody level in the highest dose group was 88 (95% CI 53, 147) μg/mL two weeks after the 4th vaccination, and declined to near baseline one year later. Antibody avidity increased over successive vaccinations. Transmission blocking activity demonstrated in a standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) also increased from the second to the third dose, and correlated with antibody titer and, after the final dose, with antibody avidity. These results support the further evaluation of Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel® in a malaria-endemic population. PMID:27749907

  3. CPG 7909, an immunostimulatory TLR9 agonist oligodeoxynucleotide, as adjuvant to Engerix-B HBV vaccine in healthy adults: a double-blind phase I/II study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Davis, H L; Morris, M L; Efler, S M; Adhami, M Al; Krieg, A M; Cameron, D W; Heathcote, J

    2004-11-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN) act as potent Th1-like immune enhancers with many antigens in animal models. We have extended these observations to the first clinical evaluation of the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of CPG 7909 when added to a commercial HBV vaccine. In a randomized, double-blind phase I dose escalation study, healthy volunteers aged 18-35 years were vaccinated at 0, 4 and 24 weeks by intramuscular injection with Engerix-B (GlaxoSmithKline). The regular adult dose of 20 microg recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) adsorbed to alum was administered mixed with saline (control) or with CPG 7909 at one of three doses (0.125, 0.5 or 1.0 mg). HBsAg-specific antibody responses (anti-HBs) appeared significantly sooner and were significantly higher at all timepoints up to and including 24 weeks in CPG 7909 recipients compared to control subjects (p< or = 0.001). Strikingly, most CpG 7909-vaccinated subjects developed protective levels of anti-HBs IgG within just two weeks of the priming vaccine dose. A trend towards higher rates of positive cytotoxic T cell lymphocyte responses was noted in the two higher dose groups of CPG 7909 compared to controls. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection site reactions, flu-like symptoms and headache. While these were more frequent in CPG 7909 groups than in the control group (p<0.0001), most were reported to be of mild to moderate intensity regardless of group. In summary, CPG 7909 as an adjuvant to Engerix-B was well-tolerated and enhanced vaccine immunogenicity. CPG 7909 may allow the development of a two-dose prophylactic HBV vaccine. PMID:15622454

  4. [A system for the mass combined vaccination of the adult population against influenza, viral hepatitis, typhoid, meningitis and diphtheria].

    PubMed

    Gapochko, K G; Titova, T S; Kharitonova, V A; Misnikov, O P; Savel'ev, A P; Stepanov, A V; Alliluev, A P; Bichurina, M A; Maksimova, N M; Ozeretskovskiĭ, N A

    1993-01-01

    A safe, moderately reactogenic and immunologically effective scheme of complex (combined) immunization against meningitis A, diphtheria, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis A and influenza has been developed as the result of experimental and clinico-immunological studies. Depending on the epidemiological situation, the newly developed scheme can be used in two variants. According to the first variant of this scheme, the following preparations are injected subcutaneously into three different sites: a mixture of group A meningococcal vaccine and diphtheria toxoid, typhoid vaccine and influenza vaccine. The second variant of the scheme differs from its first variant in using intramuscular injection of normal human immunoglobulin instead of injection of influenza vaccine. Moreover, in practical realization these variants may be altered by excluding vaccines, unnecessary under present conditions. The newly developed scheme of vaccinal prophylaxis is recommended for practical use. PMID:8067144

  5. Immunogenicity and safety after booster vaccination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis in young adults: an open randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hara, Megumi; Okada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Uno, Shingo; Otsuka, Yasuko; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Ozaki, Iwata; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase of pertussis in young adults in Japan is hypothesized to be due in part to waning protection from the acellular pertussis vaccine. While a booster immunization may prevent an epidemic of pertussis among these young adults, little is known about the safety and immunogenicity of such a booster with the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), which is currently available in Japan. One hundred and eleven medical students with a mean age of 19.4 years were randomly divided into 2 groups of 55 and 56 subjects and received, respectively, 0.2 or 0.5 ml of DTaP. Immunogenicity was assessed by performing the immunoassay using serum, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC), GMC ratio (GMCR), seropositive rate, and booster response rate were calculated. Adverse reactions and adverse events were monitored for 7 days after vaccination. After booster vaccination in the two groups, significant increases were found in the antibodies against pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid, and the booster response rates for all subjects reached 100%. The GMCs and GMCRs against all antigens were significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group than in the 0.2-ml group. No serious adverse events were observed. Frequencies of local reactions were similar in the 2 groups, although the frequency of severe local swelling was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group. These data support the acceptability of booster immunization using both 0.2 and 0.5 ml of DTaP for young adults for controlling pertussis. (This study was registered at UMIN-CTR under registration number UMIN000010672.).

  6. Efficacy profile of a bivalent Staphylococcus aureus glycoconjugated vaccine in adults on hemodialysis: Phase III randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Fattom, Ali; Matalon, Albert; Buerkert, John; Taylor, Kimberly; Damaso, Silvia; Boutriau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) hemodialysis patients, a single dose of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides (T5/T8) conjugated to nontoxic recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A investigational vaccine showed no efficacy against S. aureus bacteremia 1 year post-vaccination, but a trend for efficacy was observed over the first 40 weeks post-vaccination. Vaccine efficacy (VE) of 2 vaccine doses was therefore evaluated. In a double-blind trial 3359 ESRD patients were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at week 0 and 35. VE in preventing S. aureus bacteremia was assessed between 3–35 weeks and 3–60 weeks post-dose-1. Anti-T5 and anti-T8 antibodies were measured. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded for 42 days post-vaccination and deaths until study end. No significant difference in the incidence of S. aureus bacteremia was observed between vaccine and placebo groups between weeks 3–35 weeks post-dose 1 (VE -23%, 95%CI: -98;23, p = 0.39) or at 3–60 weeks post-dose-1 (VE -8%, 95%CI: -57;26, p = 0.70). Day 42 geometric mean antibody concentrations were 272.4 μg/ml and 242.0 μg/ml (T5 and T8, respectively) in vaccinees. SAEs were reported by 24%/25.3% of vaccinees/placebo recipients. These data do not show a protective effect of either 1 or 2 vaccine doses against S. aureus bacteremia in ESRD patients. The vaccine induced a robust immune response and had an acceptable safety profile. Further investigation suggested possible suboptimal vaccine quality (manufacturing) and a need to expand the antigen composition of the vaccine. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00071214. PMID:25483694

  7. Inflammatory Markers and Immune Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in HIV-Positive and -Negative Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, David J.; Ohtola, Jennifer A.; Saul-McBeth, Jessica L.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Westerink, M. A. Julie

    2016-01-01

    could contribute to the design of improved pneumococcal vaccines. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02515240 PMID:26930208

  8. Measles Outbreak Associated With Low Vaccine Effectiveness Among Adults in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hales, Craig M; Johnson, Eliaser; Helgenberger, Louisa; Papania, Mark J; Larzelere, Maribeth; Gopalani, Sameer V; Lebo, Emmaculate; Wallace, Greg; Moturi, Edna; Hickman, Carole J; Rota, Paul A; Alexander, Hinden S; Marin, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Background.  A measles outbreak in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia in 2014 affected many persons who had received ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). A mass vaccination campaign targeted persons aged 6 months to 49 years, regardless of prior vaccination. Methods.  We evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of MCV by comparing secondary attack rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts after household exposure to measles. Results.  Among 318 contacts, VE for precampaign MCV was 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -425 to 87.3) for 1 dose, 63.4% (95% CI, -103 to 90.6) for 2 doses, and 95.9% (95% CI, 45.0 to 100) for 3 doses. Vaccine effectiveness was 78.7% (95% CI, 10.1 to 97.7) for campaign doses received ≥5 days before rash onset in the primary case and 50.4% (95% CI, -52.1 to 87.9) for doses received 4 days before to 3 days after rash onset in the primary case. Vaccine effectiveness for most recent doses received before 2010 ranged from 51% to 57%, but it increased to 84% for second doses received in 2010 or later. Conclusions.  Low VE was a major source of measles susceptibility in this outbreak; potential reasons include historical cold chain inadequacies or waning of immunity. Vaccine effectiveness of campaign doses supports rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns in outbreak settings. PMID:27186587

  9. Measles Outbreak Associated With Low Vaccine Effectiveness Among Adults in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Craig M.; Johnson, Eliaser; Helgenberger, Louisa; Papania, Mark J.; Larzelere, Maribeth; Gopalani, Sameer V.; Lebo, Emmaculate; Wallace, Greg; Moturi, Edna; Hickman, Carole J.; Rota, Paul A.; Alexander, Hinden S.; Marin, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Background. A measles outbreak in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia in 2014 affected many persons who had received ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). A mass vaccination campaign targeted persons aged 6 months to 49 years, regardless of prior vaccination. Methods. We evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of MCV by comparing secondary attack rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts after household exposure to measles. Results. Among 318 contacts, VE for precampaign MCV was 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], −425 to 87.3) for 1 dose, 63.4% (95% CI, −103 to 90.6) for 2 doses, and 95.9% (95% CI, 45.0 to 100) for 3 doses. Vaccine effectiveness was 78.7% (95% CI, 10.1 to 97.7) for campaign doses received ≥5 days before rash onset in the primary case and 50.4% (95% CI, −52.1 to 87.9) for doses received 4 days before to 3 days after rash onset in the primary case. Vaccine effectiveness for most recent doses received before 2010 ranged from 51% to 57%, but it increased to 84% for second doses received in 2010 or later. Conclusions. Low VE was a major source of measles susceptibility in this outbreak; potential reasons include historical cold chain inadequacies or waning of immunity. Vaccine effectiveness of campaign doses supports rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns in outbreak settings. PMID:27186587

  10. Vaccine adjuvant systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 induce strong and persistent humoral and T cell responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vandepapelière, Pierre; Horsmans, Yves; Moris, Philippe; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Janssens, Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Van Belle, Pascale; Clement, Frédéric; Hanon, Emmanuel; Wettendorff, Martine; Garçon, Nathalie; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2008-03-01

    A randomised, double-blind study assessing the potential of four adjuvants in combination with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen has been conducted to evaluate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in healthy adults after three vaccine doses at months 0, 1 and 10. Three Adjuvant Systems (AS) contained 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and QS21, formulated either with an oil-in-water emulsion (AS02B and AS02V) or with liposomes (AS01B). The fourth adjuvant was CpG oligonucleotide. High levels of antibodies were induced by all adjuvants, whereas cell-mediated immune responses, including cytolytic T cells and strong and persistent CD4(+) T cell response were mainly observed with the three MPL/QS21-containing Adjuvant Systems. The CD4(+) T cell response was characterised in vitro by vigorous lymphoproliferation, high IFN-gamma and moderate IL-5 production. Antigen-specific T cell immune response was further confirmed ex vivo by detection of IL-2- and IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells, and in vivo by measuring increased levels of IFN-gamma in the serum and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The CpG adjuvanted vaccine induced consistently lower immune responses for all parameters. All vaccine adjuvants were shown to be safe with acceptable reactogenicity profiles. The majority of subjects reported local reactions at the injection site after vaccination while general reactions were recorded less frequently. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Importantly, no increase in markers of auto-immunity and allergy was detected over the whole study course. In conclusion, the Adjuvant Systems containing MPL/QS21, in combination with hepatitis B surface antigen, induced very strong humoral and cellular immune responses in healthy adults. The AS01B-adjuvanted vaccine induced the strongest and most durable specific cellular immune responses after two doses. These Adjuvant Systems, when added to recombinant protein antigens, can be

  11. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light (< 5 kg) group than in the Medium (10 to 19.9 kg) and Heavy (> 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers.

  12. The Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA): what is the future of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in elderly?

    PubMed

    van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (PCAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly. In the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 84,496 community-dwelling immunocompetent adults over 65 years of age, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) reduced the incidence of first episode of vaccine-type (VT) PCAP with 38 and of VT-IPD with 76% in the modified intention-to-treat population. In The Netherlands, where PCV7 immunization of newborns was introduced in 2007 and replaced by PCV10 in 2011, introduction of PCV13 immunization of elderly--based on 2012 data--would be highly cost effective. However, this is probably different in countries where the VT disease burden has declined more, for instance due to herd effects following child immunization with PCV13. Apart from cost-effectiveness analyses, ethical aspects of PCAP prevention should be taken into account in policy making for pneumococcal vaccination in elderly.

  13. Routine vaccination against chickenpox?

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster. In 1995 a varicella vaccine was licensed in the USA and was incorporated into the routine vaccination programme for children; a decline of varicella among children and adults, and a reduction in associated hospitalisation, complications and mortality, has resulted. In the UK, a policy of targeted vaccination of at-risk groups has been in place since the vaccine was introduced. Here we review the evidence for the different approaches to VZV vaccination policy.

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (DENVax) in flavivirus-naive healthy adults in Colombia: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Jorge E; Velez, Ivan D; Thomson, Cynthia; Lopez, Liliana; Jimenez, Alejandra; Haller, Aurelia A; Silengo, Shawn; Scott, Jaclyn; Boroughs, Karen L; Stovall, Janae L; Luy, Betty E; Arguello, John; Beatty, Mark E; Santangelo, Joseph; Gordon, Gilad S; Huang, Claire Y-H; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2015-01-01

    %) participants assigned to receive placebo. Both formulations were well tolerated with mostly mild and transient local or systemic reactions. No clinically meaningful differences were recorded in the overall incidence of local and systemic adverse events between patients in the vaccine and placebo groups; 68 (86%) of 79 participants in the vaccine groups had solicited systemic adverse events compared with 13 (76%) of 17 of those in the placebo groups. By contrast, 67 participants (85%) in the vaccine group had local solicited reactions compared with five (29%) participants in the placebo group. Immunisation with either high-dose or low-dose DENVax formulations induced neutralising antibody responses to all four dengue virus serotypes; 30 days after the second dose, 47 (62%) of 76 participants given vaccine seroconverted to all four serotypes and 73 (96%) participants seroconverted to three or more dengue viruses. Infectious DENVax viruses were detected in only ten (25%) of 40 participants in the low-dose group and 13 (33%) of 39 participants in the high-dose group. Interpretation Our findings emphasise the acceptable tolerability and immunogenicity of the tetravalent DENVax formulations in healthy, flavivirus-naive adults. Further clinical testing of DENVax in different age groups and in dengue-endemic areas is warranted. Funding Takeda Vaccines. PMID:25087476

  15. Human papilloma virus vaccination induces strong human papilloma virus specific cell-mediated immune responses in HIV-infected adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Rainone, Veronica; Giacomet, Vania; Penagini, Francesca; Fabiano, Valentina; Calascibetta, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Pisanelli, Stefania; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario; Trabattoni, Daria

    2015-03-27

    The ability of a quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18/6/11 virus-like particles vaccine (Gardasil) to elicit HPV-specific cell-mediated immune responses was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected young adults. Results showed that, after three doses of vaccine, central memory and effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, as well as HPV-specific interleukin (IL)2(+)/CD4(+), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+))/CD4(+), IFN-γ(+)/CD8(+) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes and Perforin and Granzyme B secreting CD8(+) T lymphocytes were significantly increased. Notably, results obtained in HIV-infected patients were comparable to those seen in HIV-uninfected age-matched healthy controls.

  16. Inactivated split-virion seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluarix): a review of its use in the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Curran, Monique P; Leroux-Roels, Isabel

    2010-08-20

    Fluarix is a trivalent, inactivated, split-virion influenza vaccine containing 15 microg haemagglutinin from each of the three influenza virus strains (including an H1N1 influenza A virus subtype, an H3N2 influenza A virus subtype and an influenza B virus) that are expected to be circulating in the up-coming influenza season. Fluarix is highly immunogenic in healthy adults and elderly, and exceeds the criteria that make it acceptable for licensure in various regions (including the US and Europe). In a large, phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted in the US (2004/2005) in subjects aged 18-64 years, postvaccination seroconversion rates against the H1N1, H3N2 and B antigens were 60-78% and respective postvaccination seroprotection rates were 97-99% in Fluarix recipients. Another phase III trial conducted in the US (2005/2006) established the noninferiority of Fluarix versus another trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine in subjects aged >or=18 years, including a subgroup of elderly subjects. In annual European registration trials, Fluarix has consistently exceeded the immunogenicity criteria set by the EU Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use for adults and the elderly. Fluarix demonstrated immunogenicity in small, open-label studies in at-risk subjects. During a year when the vaccine was well matched to the circulating strain, Fluarix demonstrated efficacy against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B in a placebo-controlled trial in adults aged 18-64 years. In addition, Fluarix vaccination of pregnant women demonstrated efficacy in reducing the rate of laboratory-confirmed influenza in the infants and reducing febrile respiratory illnesses in the mothers and their new-born infants in a randomized trial. Fluarix was generally well tolerated in adults and the elderly in well designed clinical trials and in the annual European registration trials, with most local and general adverse events being transient and mild to moderate in

  17. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  18. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  19. Intradermal vaccination of adults with three low doses (2 micrograms) of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. II. Persistence of immunity and induction of immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Elisbão, Maria do Carmo M; Baldy, José Luís da S; Bonametti, Ana Maria; Reiche, Edna Maria V; Morimoto, Helena K; Pontello, Rubens; Matsuo, Tiemi; Ferelle, Antônio; Neves, Jayme

    2003-12-01

    Of the 110 dentists who had presented seroconversion 50 days after the intradermal application of three 2 micrograms doses of the Belgian recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B (HB), administered eight years before at an interval of one month between the 1st and 2nd doses and of five months between the 2nd and 3rd doses, 51 were included for the assessment of the persistence of immunity. None of the dentists had hepatitis or had received HB vaccine during this period. All subjects were submitted to serological tests for the detection of the following markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBs, with no HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg or anti-HBe being detected. A microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) revealed the presence of anti-HBs at protective titers (> or = 10 mIU/ml) in 42 dentists (82.4%), with the anti-HBs titer being higher than 100 mIU/ml in 36 of them (70.6%) (good responders), between 10 and 100 mIU/ml in 6 (11.8%) (poor responders), and lower than 10 mIU/ml in 9 (17.6%) (non-responders). According to clinical data and serological tests, none of the dentists had presented disease or latent HBV infection during the eight years following the first vaccination. A 2 micrograms booster dose was administered intradermally to eight dentists with anti-HBs titers lower than 10 mIU/ml (non-responders) and to six dentists with titers ranging from 10 to 100 mIU/ml (poor responders); the determination of anti-HBs one month later demonstrated the occurrence of seroconversion in the eight non-responders and an increase in anti-HBs titer in the six poor responders. In summary, the present results demonstrated the prolonged persistence of protection against HBV infection and the development of immunologic memory provided by vaccination against HB--with intradermal application of three 2 micrograms doses of the Belgian recombinant vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months--carried out eight years before in 51 dentists.

  20. Phase 2 Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Inactivated Pandemic Monovalent H1N1 Vaccines in Adults as a Component of the U.S. Pandemic Preparedness Plan in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wilbur H.; Winokur, Patricia L.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Wald, Anna; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Noah, Diana L.; Wolff, Mark; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in 2009 created an urgent need to develop vaccines for mass immunization. To guide decisions regarding the optimal immunization dosage and schedule for adults, we evaluated two monovalent, inactivated, unadjuvanted H1N1 influenza vaccines in independent, but simultaneously conducted, multi-center Phase 2 trials of identical design. Methods Healthy adults, stratified by age (18 to 64 years and ≥65 years), were randomized (1:1 allocation), in a double-blind, parallel-group design, to receive two intramuscular doses (21 days apart) of vaccine containing approximately 15 μg or 30 μg of hemagglutinin (HA). Primary endpoints were safety (reactogenicity for 8 days after each vaccination and vaccine-associated serious adverse events during the 7 month study) and immunogenicity (proportion of subjects, stratified by age, achieving a serum hemagglutination inhibition [HI] antibody titer ≥1:40 or a ≥4-fold rise in titer after a single injection of either dosage). Results Both vaccines were well-tolerated. A single 15 μg dose induced HI titers ≥1:40 in 90% of younger adults (95% confidence interval [CI] 82%-95%) and 81% of elderly (95% CI 71%–88%) who received Sanofi-Pasteur vaccine (subsequently found to contain 24 μg HA in the standard potency assay), and in 80% of younger adults (95% CI 71%–88%) and 60% of elderly (95% CI 50%–70%) who received CSL vaccine. Both vaccines were significantly more immunogenic in younger compared with elderly adults by at least one endpoint measure. Increasing the dose to 30 μg raised the frequency of HI titers ≥1:40 in the elderly by approximately 10%. Higher dosage did not significantly enhance immunogenicity in younger adults and a second dose provided little additional benefit to either age group. Conclusion These trials provided evidence for policymakers that a single 15 μg dose of 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine would likely protect most U.S. adults and suggest a potential benefit of a 30

  1. Serotype 6B from a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine induces cross-functional antibody responses in adults to serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

    2016-09-01

    Cross-reactivity of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides is a key element for formulating pneumococcal vaccines and evaluating vaccine efficacy. This study examined whether 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), which only contains 6B, can elicit cross-functional immune responses against recently discovered serotypes (6C and 6D), as well as against 6A, in 2 adult age groups.Young adults (25-51 years; N = 28) and elderly subjects (over 65 years; N = 60) were immunized with PPSV23. Functional antibody responses were determined in pre- and postimmune sera via multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay against serotypes 6A/B/C/D.At postimmunization, the geometric mean opsonic indices (OIs) for 6B and nonvaccine serotypes (6A, 6C, and 6D) significantly increased in both age groups. The geometric fold increases of OIs for 6B/A/C/D significantly differed (18.2, 24.8, 3.1, and 7.1, respectively). Proportions of subjects with 4-fold increases in OIs for 6B/A/C/D were 73%, 70%, 31%, and 49%, respectively. Correlations of fold increases in OIs were highest between 6B and 6A, followed by 6B and 6D, then by 6B and 6C. Comparisons of young adults and the elderly revealed that most immunogenicity variables were higher in the former group.Our data demonstrated that 6B in PPSV23 induced cross-functional immune responses against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D, according to the degree of similarity in their capsular polysaccharide structures. In addition, we found significant age-related differences in PPSV23-induced cross-reactivity. PMID:27631247

  2. Vaccination perceptions and barriers of school employees: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Houle, Kim; Beckstrand, Renea L; Macintosh, Janelle; Lakin, Richard G

    2013-08-01

    Schools are where vaccine-preventable diseases can spread. Vaccination of school children has been studied; however, data are lacking on the vaccination status, perceptions, and barriers to vaccination for school employees. We surveyed school employees' vaccination perceptions, awareness of current vaccination status, and potential barriers to vaccinations. Adult vaccination knowledge is lacking in the school employee population. School employees were unaware of their vaccination status for diseases such as measles and pertussis. Most subjects believed vaccinations were safe and effective, although they believed vaccinations were more important for children than adults. Many believed vaccine mandates should exist for school employees. Knowledge gaps regarding adult vaccines can be positively influenced by school nurses. Gaps may be especially important to bridge regarding adults working in the school setting, an environment ideal for the spreading of communicable diseases.

  3. A Randomized, Controlled Safety, and Immunogenicity Trial of the M72/AS01 Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine in HIV-Positive Indian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Bollaerts, Anne; Moris, Philippe; Beulah, Faith Esther; Ayuk, Leo Njock; Demoitié, Marie-Ange; Jongert, Erik; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis is a major public health threat. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine M72/AS01 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Indian adults. Randomized, controlled observer-blind trial (NCT01262976). We assigned 240 adults (1:1:1) to antiretroviral therapy (ART)-stable, ART-naive, or HIV-negative cohorts. Cohorts were randomized 1:1 to receive M72/AS01 or placebo following a 0, 1-month schedule and followed for 12 months (time-point M13). HIV-specific and laboratory safety parameters, adverse events (AEs), and M72-specific T-cell-mediated and humoral responses were evaluated. Subjects were predominantly QuantiFERON-negative (60%) and Bacille Calmette–Guérin-vaccinated (73%). Seventy ART-stable, 73 ART-naive, and 60 HIV-negative subjects completed year 1. No vaccine-related serious AEs or ART-regimen adjustments, or clinically relevant effects on laboratory parameters, HIV-1 viral loads or CD4 counts were recorded. Two ART-naive vaccinees died of vaccine-unrelated diseases. M72/AS01 induced polyfunctional M72-specific CD4+ T-cell responses (median [interquartile range] at 7 days postdose 2: ART-stable, 0.9% [0.7–1.5]; ART-naive, 0.5% [0.2–1.0]; and HIV-negative, 0.6% [0.4–1.1]), persisting at M13 (0.4% [0.2–0.5], 0.09% [0.04–0.2], and 0.1% [0.09–0.2], respectively). Median responses were higher in the ART-stable cohort versus ART-naive cohort from day 30 onwards (P ≤ 0.015). Among HIV-positive subjects (irrespective of ART-status), median responses were higher in QuantiFERON-positive versus QuantiFERON-negative subjects up to day 30 (P ≤ 0.040), but comparable thereafter. Cytokine-expression profiles were comparable between cohorts after dose 2. At M13, M72-specific IgG responses were higher in ART-stable and HIV-negative vaccinees versus ART-naive vaccinees (P ≤ 0.001). M72/AS01 was well-tolerated and immunogenic in this population of

  4. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; ...

  5. Safe administration of a gelatin-containing vaccine in an adult with galactose-α-1,3-galactose allergy.

    PubMed

    Pinson, Michelle L; Waibel, Kirk H

    2015-03-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) are associated with delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian food products and gelatin-based foods (Commins et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123:426; Caponetto et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2013;1:302). We describe a patient with α-Gal allergy who successfully tolerated the live zoster vaccine and we review anaphylactic reactions reported to this vaccine. Our patient, who tolerated a vaccine containing the highest gelatin content, is reassuring but continued safety assessment of gelatin-containing vaccines for this patient cohort is recommended as there are multiple factors for this patient cohort that influence the reaction risk.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant poxvirus HIV-1 vaccines in young adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Thomas C.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Muresan, Petronella; McManus, Margaret; Persaud, Deborah; Fenton, Terry; Barker, Piers; Gaur, Aditya; Panicali, Dennis; Sullivan, John L.; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and fowlpox (FP) vectors expressing multiple HIV-1 proteins was conducted in twenty HIV-1 infected youth with suppressed viral replication on HAART. The MVA and FP-based multigene HIV-1 vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Increased frequencies of HIV-1 specific CD4+ proliferative responses and cytokine secreting cells were detected following immunization. Increased frequencies and breadth of HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses were also detected. Plasma HIV-1–specific antibody levels and neutralizing activity were unchanged following vaccination. Poxvirus based vaccines may merit further study in therapeutic vaccine protocols. PMID:18940219

  7. Addition of the immunostimulatory oligonucleotide IMT504 to a seasonal flu vaccine increases hemagglutinin antibody titers in young adult and elder rats, and expands the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Montaner, Alejandro Daniel; Denichilo, Analía; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo Agustin; Pontoriero, Andrea; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Frank, Ronald; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Elías, Fernanda

    2011-08-01

    Flu vaccines are partially protective in infants and elder people. New adjuvants such as immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs) are strong candidates to solve this problem, because a combination with several antigens has demonstrated effectiveness. Here, we report that IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunostimulatory ODNs, is a potent adjuvant of the influenza vaccine in young adult and elderly rats. Flu vaccines that use virosomes or whole viral particles as antigens were combined with IMT504 and injected in rats. Young adult and elderly animals vaccinated with IMT504-adjuvated preparations reached antibody titers 20-fold and 15-fold higher than controls, respectively. Antibody titers remained high throughout a 120 day-period. Animals injected with the IMT504-adjuvated vaccine showed expansion of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire and a significant increase in the antibody titer with hemagglutination inhibition capacity when confronted to viral strains included or not in the vaccine. This indicates that the addition of IMT504 in flu vaccines may contribute to the development of significant cross-protective immune response against shifted or drifted flu strains. PMID:21793787

  8. Addition of the immunostimulatory oligonucleotide IMT504 to a seasonal flu vaccine increases hemagglutinin antibody titers in young adult and elder rats, and expands the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Montaner, Alejandro Daniel; Denichilo, Analía; Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Fló, Juan; López, Ricardo Agustin; Pontoriero, Andrea; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Frank, Ronald; Zorzopulos, Jorge; Elías, Fernanda

    2011-08-01

    Flu vaccines are partially protective in infants and elder people. New adjuvants such as immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (ODNs) are strong candidates to solve this problem, because a combination with several antigens has demonstrated effectiveness. Here, we report that IMT504, the prototype of a major class of immunostimulatory ODNs, is a potent adjuvant of the influenza vaccine in young adult and elderly rats. Flu vaccines that use virosomes or whole viral particles as antigens were combined with IMT504 and injected in rats. Young adult and elderly animals vaccinated with IMT504-adjuvated preparations reached antibody titers 20-fold and 15-fold higher than controls, respectively. Antibody titers remained high throughout a 120 day-period. Animals injected with the IMT504-adjuvated vaccine showed expansion of the anti-hemagglutinin antibody repertoire and a significant increase in the antibody titer with hemagglutination inhibition capacity when confronted to viral strains included or not in the vaccine. This indicates that the addition of IMT504 in flu vaccines may contribute to the development of significant cross-protective immune response against shifted or drifted flu strains.

  9. Immunogenicity and Safety of Varying Dosages of a Monovalent 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Given With and Without AS03 Adjuvant System in Healthy Adults and Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lisa A.; Chen, Wilbur H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Wald, Anna; Brady, Rebecca C.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Winokur, Patricia; Mulligan, Mark J.; Keyserling, Harry L.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Rouphael, Nadine; Noah, Diana L.; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adjuvanted vaccines have the potential to improve influenza pandemic response. AS03 adjuvant has been shown to enhance the immune response to inactivated influenza vaccines. Methods. This trial was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine at varying dosages of hemagglutinin with and without extemporaneously mixed AS03 adjuvant system in adults ≥18 years of age. Adults were randomized to receive 2 doses of 1 of 5 vaccine formulations (3.75 µg, 7.5 µg, or 15 µg with AS03 or 7.5 µg or 15 µg without adjuvant). Results. The study population included 544 persons <65 years of age and 245 persons ≥65 years of age. Local adverse events tended to be more frequent in the adjuvanted vaccine groups, but severe reactions were uncommon. In both age groups, hemagglutination inhibition antibody geometric mean titers after dose one were higher in the adjuvanted groups, compared with the 15 µg unadjuvanted group, and this difference was statistically significant for the comparison of the 15 µg adjuvanted group with the 15 µg unadjuvanted group. Conclusions. AS03 adjuvant system improves the immune response to inactivated 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in both younger and older adults and is generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00963157 PMID:22782949

  10. Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults' oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections. PMID:22236342

  11. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Susan; Cohen, Cheryl; Quan, Vanessa; de Gouveia, Linda; Feldman, Charles; Karstaedt, Alan; Klugman, Keith P.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Rabie, Helene; Sriruttan, Charlotte; von Gottberg, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use. Methods National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES) hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2009. Results In South Africa, from 2003–2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734) of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000), with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190). HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV) than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544) vs. 19% (790/4190), p<0.001). During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7–1.1). Conclusion Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of an AS01-adjuvanted varicella zoster virus subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su): a phase-I, open-label study in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Lal, Himal; Zahaf, Toufik; Heineman, Thomas C

    2013-07-01

    An adjuvanted recombinant subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su) containing varicella zoster virus envelope glycoprotein E was developed for the prevention of herpes zoster and its complications. This study evaluated safety and reactogenicity of HZ/su in an ethnic Japanese population. This was a phase I, open-label and single-center study conducted between March and November of 2010 in Australia. Twenty healthy ethnic Japanese subjects, aged 18-30 y and 50-69 y (1:1) were enrolled. Subjects were administered two doses of HZ/su vaccine according to a 0, 2-mo schedule. Local and general solicited symptoms were recorded for 7 d post-vaccination. Unsolicited symptoms were recorded for 30 d post-vaccination. Serious adverse events (SAEs), new onset of autoimmune disease (NOAD), other potential immune mediated disorders and HZ cases were recorded throughout the study period. All 20 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for safety. A total of 18 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity: 10 in the 18-30 y age group and 8 in the 50-69 y age group. The most commonly reported local and general solicited symptoms were pain and fatigue in both groups. Back pain (in the 18-30 y age group) and chills (in the 50-69 y age group) were the most frequently reported unsolicited symptoms. There were no reports of death, SAEs, NOADs, other autoimmune mediated inflammatory disorder or suspected HZ cases. This study indicated that the two-dose regimen of HZ/su exhibited a clinically acceptable safety profile in healthy young and older ethnic Japanese adults.

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  14. A minimally invasive tracer protocol is effective for assessing the response of leucine kinetics and oxidation to vaccination in chronically energy-deficient adult males and children.

    PubMed

    Kurpad, A V; Jahoor, F; Borgonha, S; Poulo, S; Rekha, S; Fjeld, C R; Reeds, P J

    1999-08-01

    In disadvantaged populations, recurrent infections lead to a loss of body nitrogen and worsen nutritional status. The resulting malnutrition, in its turn, produces a greater susceptibility to infection. This study aimed to examine the ability of a new minimally invasive tracer protocol to measure leucine oxidation, and then to use it to quantify the effect of vaccination on leucine kinetics and oxidation. Undernourished men (n = 5; body mass index 16.3 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2)) and children (n = 9; age 4.1 +/- 0.6 y; weight-for-age Z-score -2.3 +/- 0.7) underwent metabolic studies 6 d before and 1 d after vaccination with diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT). The tracer protocol was performed in the fed state and involved two 3-h sequential periods of frequent (20 min) oral doses of NaH(13)CO(3) or [1-(13)C] leucine. Frequent breath samples and urine collections were made. Blood samples were obtained from the men and used for the determination of the isotopic enrichment of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid. The prevaccination oxidation of leucine (percentage of dose +/- SD) was 18.1 +/- 2.3 (men) and 16.7 +/- 3.8 (children). One day after vaccination, these values had risen to 19. 9 +/- 1.9 (P < 0.05) in the men and to 19.5 +/- 4.6 (P < 0.01) in the children. In the adults, vaccination was associated with a rise in whole-body protein breakdown [mg protein/(kg.h)] from 200 +/- 40 to 240 +/- 10 (P < 0.05). A minor simulated infection increases leucine catabolism in undernourished humans and this new, minimally invasive protocol is sufficiently sensitive to measure these changes.

  15. [Vaccination against hepatitis B on the Ivory Coast: study of the anti-HBs response in healthy adult subjects carrying only anti-HBc antibodies before vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, S A; Meite, M; Aron, Y

    1986-01-01

    A total of 103 volunteers, from 18 to 55 years of age, have received the hevac B Pasteur 5 micrograms vaccine subcutane on sly; one injection a month during three months and one booster injection after one year. The study of the anti-HBs reaction of the subjects, with regard to the serological status to the hepatite B virus before inoculation, has shown that only 78.8% of the subjects, who are only positive towards the anti-HBc antibody, will develop an anti-HBs response of primary type with a relatively low value. In contrast, all anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs subjects, who are positive before inoculation, react with relatively high anti-HBs values right after the first injection, of the seronegative subjects before inoculation. 93.3% will develop an anti-HBs seroconversion after the complete inoculation procedure.

  16. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  17. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces antibody-independent memory responses in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Offersen, Rasmus; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S

    2012-08-01

    HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/- a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. These findings suggests that CPG 7909 as adjuvant to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces cellular memory to pneumococcal polysaccharides in HIV-patients, independently of the humoral response. PMID:22854665

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy adults in India: A randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Narayan, Arun; Ganguly, Satyabrata; Wartel, T Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Menezes, Josemund

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in India. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Indian adults. In this observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II study, adults aged 18-45 years were randomized 2:1 to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months in sub-cutaneous administration. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) at baseline and 28 days after each study injection. 189 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV [n = 128]; placebo, [n = 61]). At baseline, seropositivity rates for dengue serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 77.0% to 86.9%. Seropositivity rates for each serotype increased after each CYD-TDV injection with a more pronounced increase after the first injection. In the CYD-TDV group, geometric mean titres (GMTs) were 2.38 to 6.11-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline but remained similar to baseline in the placebo group. In the CYD-TDV group, the GMTs were 1.66 to 4.95-fold higher and 9.23 to 24.6-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline in those who were dengue seropositive and dengue seronegative, respectively. Pain was the most commonly reported solicited injection site reaction after the first injection in both the CYD-TDV (6.3%) and placebo groups (4.9%), but occurred less frequently after subsequent injections. No serious adverse events were vaccine-related, no immediate unsolicited adverse events, and no virologically-confirmed cases of dengue, were reported during the study. The immunogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV was satisfactory in both dengue seropositive and seronegative Indian adults. PMID:26291554

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy adults in India: A randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Narayan, Arun; Ganguly, Satyabrata; Wartel, T Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Menezes, Josemund

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in India. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Indian adults. In this observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II study, adults aged 18-45 years were randomized 2:1 to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months in sub-cutaneous administration. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) at baseline and 28 days after each study injection. 189 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV [n = 128]; placebo, [n = 61]). At baseline, seropositivity rates for dengue serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 77.0% to 86.9%. Seropositivity rates for each serotype increased after each CYD-TDV injection with a more pronounced increase after the first injection. In the CYD-TDV group, geometric mean titres (GMTs) were 2.38 to 6.11-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline but remained similar to baseline in the placebo group. In the CYD-TDV group, the GMTs were 1.66 to 4.95-fold higher and 9.23 to 24.6-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline in those who were dengue seropositive and dengue seronegative, respectively. Pain was the most commonly reported solicited injection site reaction after the first injection in both the CYD-TDV (6.3%) and placebo groups (4.9%), but occurred less frequently after subsequent injections. No serious adverse events were vaccine-related, no immediate unsolicited adverse events, and no virologically-confirmed cases of dengue, were reported during the study. The immunogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV was satisfactory in both dengue seropositive and seronegative Indian adults.

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy adults in India: A randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Narayan, Arun; Ganguly, Satyabrata; Wartel, T Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Menezes, Josemund

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in India. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Indian adults. In this observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II study, adults aged 18–45 years were randomized 2:1 to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months in sub-cutaneous administration. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) at baseline and 28 days after each study injection. 189 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV [n = 128]; placebo, [n = 61]). At baseline, seropositivity rates for dengue serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 77.0% to 86.9%. Seropositivity rates for each serotype increased after each CYD-TDV injection with a more pronounced increase after the first injection. In the CYD-TDV group, geometric mean titres (GMTs) were 2.38 to 6.11-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline but remained similar to baseline in the placebo group. In the CYD-TDV group, the GMTs were 1.66 to 4.95-fold higher and 9.23 to 24.6-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline in those who were dengue seropositive and dengue seronegative, respectively. Pain was the most commonly reported solicited injection site reaction after the first injection in both the CYD-TDV (6.3%) and placebo groups (4.9%), but occurred less frequently after subsequent injections. No serious adverse events were vaccine-related, no immediate unsolicited adverse events, and no virologically-confirmed cases of dengue, were reported during the study. The immunogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV was satisfactory in both dengue seropositive and seronegative Indian adults. PMID:26291554

  1. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  2. COPD Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPD is: A. allergies B. cigarette smoke C. air pollution Question 4. Common signs and symptoms of COPD ... smoke B. avoid other lung irritants, such as air pollution, chemical fumes, and dust C. follow your treatment ...

  3. Pregnancy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... low-fat milk products, and low-fat protein sources, such as lean red meat, poultry without the skin, and beans will help your body do a good job of keeping both you and your baby healthy. You also should take a prenatal vitamin that contains folic acid every day. Talk to your doctor to ensure ...

  4. Asthma Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asthma is a chronic disease that requires ongoing management. Personalized plans for treatment may include medications, an asthma action plan, and environmental control measures to avoid your child's asthma triggers. ...

  5. Antibiotics Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Viruses b) Bacteria c) Viruses and Bacteria 2. Bacteria are germs that cause colds and flu. a) ... The Flu c) Cold d) Strep Throat 4. Bacteria that cause infections can become resistant to antibiotics. ...

  6. Anaphylaxis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  7. Polio Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... inactive polio vaccine OPV=oral polio vaccine Polio Vaccination Pronounced [PO-lee-oh] Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... handling and storage Related Pages Global Vaccines and Immunization Global Polio Also Known As & Abbreviations Polio=poliomyelitis ...

  8. Meeting the Challenges of Immunizing Adults.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Carolyn B; Hurley, Laura P; Williams, Walter W; Ramakrishnan, Aparna; Dean, Anna K; Groom, Amy V

    2015-11-27

    The overall burden of illness from diseases for which vaccines are available disproportionately falls on adults. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccine recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Vaccine use among U.S. adults is low. Although receipt of a provider (physician or other vaccinating healthcare provider) recommendation is a key predictor of vaccination, more often consumers report not receiving vaccine recommendations at healthcare provider visits. Although providers support the benefits of vaccination, they also report several barriers to vaccinating adults, including the cost of providing vaccination services, inadequate or inconsistent payment for vaccines and vaccine administration, and acute medical care taking precedence over preventive services. Despite these challenges, a number of strategies have been demonstrated to substantially improve adult vaccine coverage, including patient and provider reminders and standing orders for vaccination. Providers are encouraged to incorporate routine assessment of their adult patients' vaccination needs during all clinical encounters to ensure patients receive recommendations for needed vaccines and are either offered needed vaccines or referred for vaccination.

  9. Meeting the Challenges of Immunizing Adults.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Carolyn B; Hurley, Laura P; Williams, Walter W; Ramakrishnan, Aparna; Dean, Anna K; Groom, Amy V

    2015-12-01

    The overall burden of illness from diseases for which vaccines are available disproportionately falls on adults. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccine recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Vaccine use among U.S. adults is low. Although receipt of a provider (physician or other vaccinating healthcare provider) recommendation is a key predictor of vaccination, more often consumers report not receiving vaccine recommendations at healthcare provider visits. Although providers support the benefits of vaccination, they also report several barriers to vaccinating adults, including the cost of providing vaccination services, inadequate or inconsistent payment for vaccines and vaccine administration, and acute medical care taking precedence over preventive services. Despite these challenges, a number of strategies have been demonstrated to substantially improve adult vaccine coverage, including patient and provider reminders and standing orders for vaccination. Providers are encouraged to incorporate routine assessment of their adult patients' vaccination needs during all clinical encounters to ensure patients receive recommendations for needed vaccines and are either offered needed vaccines or referred for vaccination.

  10. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study

    PubMed Central

    Koram, Kwadwo A.; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S.; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C.; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246 PMID:27644034

  11. Effect of recombinant canine distemper vaccine on antibody titers in previously vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Larson, L J; Hageny, T L; Haase, C J; Schultz, R D

    2006-01-01

    Two canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine types are currently commercially available: modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines and a canarypox recombinant CDV (rCDV) vaccine (Recombitek, Merial). This study compared the ability of the rCDV vaccine and MLV vaccines to significantly enhance (boost) the antibody response of previously immunized adult and juvenile dogs. A significant (fourfold or greater) increase in titer occurred in significantly more dogs revaccinated with Recombitek C-4 or Recombitek C-6 than with the MLV-CDV vaccines. This study demonstrates that Recombitek, the only vaccine for dogs containing rCDV, is more likely to significantly boost the CDV antibody response in previously vaccinated dogs than are the MLV-CDV vaccines. Because rCDV vaccine can boost the antibody titer of dogs previously vaccinated with an MLV vaccine, it can and should be used when core vaccines are readministered. PMID:16871492

  12. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2014: Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, in 2014 the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and transplantation. Complex cases from each of these categories along with single-best-answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, program directors of United States nephrology training programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions using an Internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using audience response devices with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the audience responses and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the acid-base and electrolyte disorders portion of the session and reproduces its educational value for the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:25617429

  13. Year-and-a-Half Old, Dried Echinacea Roots Retain Cytokine-Modulating Capabilities in an in vitro Human Older Adult Model of Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Senchina, David S.; Wu, Lankun; Flinn, Gina N.; Konopka, Del N.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrelechner, Mark P.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Kohut, Marian L.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol tinctures prepared from aged Echinacea roots are typically taken for preventing or treating upper respiratory infections, as they are purported to stimulate immunity in this context. The effects of long-term (> 1 year) dry storage on the capabilities of Echinacea spp. roots from mature individuals to modulate cytokine production are unknown. Using an older human adult model of influenza vaccination, we collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects 6 months post-vaccination and stimulated them in vitro with the two Type A influenza viruses contained in the trivalent 2004–2005 vaccine with a 50% alcohol tincture prepared from the roots of one of seven Echinacea species: E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, E. sanguinea, E. simulata, and E. tennesseensis. Before being processed into extracts, all roots had been stored under dry conditions for sixteen months. Cells were cultured for 48 hours; following incubation, supernatants were collected and assayed for interleukin-2, interleukin-10, and interferon-γ production, cytokines important in the immune response to viral infection. Four species (E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. simulata, E. tennesseensis) augmented IL-10 production, diminished IL-2 production, and had no effect on IFN-γ production. Echinacea pallida suppressed production of all cytokines; E. paradoxa and E. sanguinea behaved similarly, although to a lesser extent. The results from these in vitro bioactivity assays indicate that dried Echinacea roots stored for sixteen months maintain cytokine-modulating capacities. Our data support and extend previous research and indicate that tinctures from different Echinacea species have different patterns of immune modulation; further, they indicate that certain species may be efficacious in the immune response to viral infection. PMID:17021999

  14. Lack of Interference by Zoster Vaccine With the Immune Response to Yellow Fever Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Stier, David M.; Weber, Ingrid B.; Staples, J. Erin

    2015-01-01

    Concerns exist about the serologic response to yellow fever (YF) vaccine when given within 28 days of another live virus vaccine. We report the case of a healthy adult who received 17D YF vaccine 21 days following administration of another live viral vaccine, and developed a protective level of immunity against YF virus. PMID:22414038

  15. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older, Denmark, 2015/16 - a rapid epidemiological and virological assessment.

    PubMed

    Emborg, Hanne Dorthe; Krause, Tyra Grove; Nielsen, Lene; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Weinreich, Lenette Sandborg; Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Rønn, Jesper; Trebbien, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B co-circulated in the 2015/16 season. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the trivalent influenza vaccine in patients 65 years and older using the test-negative case-control design. The adjusted VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1-52.4) and against influenza B 4.1% (95% CI: -22.0 to 24.7). The majority of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulating in 2015/16 belonged to the new genetic subgroup subclade 6B.1.

  16. Influenza Vaccines: Unmet Needs and Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Yun

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a worldwide public health concern. Since the introduction of trivalent influenza vaccine in 1978, vaccination has been the primary means of prevention and control of influenza. Current influenza vaccines have moderate efficacy, good safety, and acceptable tolerability; however, they have unsatisfactory efficacy in older adults, are dependent on egg supply for production, and are time-consuming to manufacture. This review outlines the unmet medical needs of current influenza vaccines. Recent developments in influenza vaccines are also described. PMID:24475351

  17. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  18. Bivalent influenza vaccination with inactivated vaccines administered by nasal or oral route.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, A; Mihail, A; Popescu, A; Cojiţă, M; Sternberg, I; Steiner, N; Hondor, C

    1976-01-01

    Influenza vaccinations were performed either by administration of a bivalent A2 + B vaccine, or by successive application of monovalent B and A2 vaccines. During an influenza epidemic caused by an A2 strain, the following observations could be made: a) the best efficiency (no influenza cases) was recorded in adults and aged persons (over 65 years) irrespective of the vaccination scheme; b) in schoolchildren the best results (no influenza cases) were obtained in the lot having received monovalent A2 vaccine, and in the lot vaccinated nasally with monovalent B vaccine and 14 days later with monovalent A vaccine. PMID:941402

  19. Comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of a herpes zoster live-attenuated vaccine in adults aged ≥50 years: a randomised non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; Weinke, Thomas; Garcia de Lomas, Juan; Meyer, Claudius U; Bertrand, Isabelle; Eymin, Cécile; Thomas, Stéphane; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Zostavax(®) is a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine developed specifically for the prevention of HZ and PHN in individuals aged ≥50 years. During the clinical development of Zostavax, which was mainly in the US, the vaccine was administrated by the subcutaneous (SC) route. In Europe, many healthcare professionals prefer administering vaccines by the intramuscular (IM) route. This was an open-label, randomised trial conducted in 354 subjects aged ≥50 years. The primary objectives were to demonstrate that IM administration is both non-inferior to SC administration in terms of 4-week post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs), and elicits an acceptable geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of antibody titres measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pre-specified non-inferiority was set as the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the GMT ratio (IM/SC) being >0.67. An acceptable GMFR for the IM route was pre-specified as the lower bound of its 95% CI being >1.4. Description of the VZV immune response using the interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT) assay and of the safety were secondary objectives. Participants were randomised to IM or SC administration (1:1). The baseline demographics were comparable between groups; mean age: 62.6 years (range: 50.0-90.5). The primary immunogenicity objectives were met (per protocol analysis): GMT ratio (IM/SC): 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93-1.18); GMFR: 2.7 (2.4-3.0). VZV immune response using IFN-γ ELISPOT were comparable between groups. Frequencies of systemic adverse events were comparable between groups. Injection-site reactions were less frequent with IM than SC route: erythema (15.9% versus 52.5%), pain (25.6% versus 39.5%) and swelling (13.6% versus 37.3%), respectively. In adults aged ≥50 years, IM administration of Zostavax elicited similar immune responses to SC administration and was well tolerated, with fewer injection-site reactions than with SC

  20. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Monovalent 2009 Influenza A/H1N1v Vaccine Adjuvanted With AS03A or Unadjuvanted in HIV-Infected Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Desaint, Corinne; Durier, Christine; Loulergue, Pierre; Duval, Xavier; Jacomet, Christine; Pialoux, Gilles; Ghosn, Jade; Raffi, François; Rey, David; Ajana, Faiza; Colin de Verdière, Nathalie; Reynes, Jacques; Foubert, Valérie; Roman, François; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Aboulker, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients have decreased immune response to vaccines. Few data are available about pandemic flu vaccination in this population. Methods. We conducted a multicenter, patient-blinded, randomized trial in a cohort of HIV-infected adults. Patients received 2 injections 21 days apart of a AS03A-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine containing 3.75 μg hemagglutinin (HA) or a nonadjuvanted H1N1v vaccine containing 15 μg HA to assess hemagglutination inhibition (HI) response and safety. Results. A total of 309 patients were randomized, and 306 were vaccinated. After the first vaccine dose, HI titers ≥1:40 were observed in 93.4% of the patients in the adjuvanted group (A group) (n = 155) and in 75.5% in the nonadjuvanted group (B group) (n = 151) (P < .001); seroconversion rates were 88.8% and 71.2%, and factor increases in geometric mean titers (GMT) of 21.9 and 15.1, respectively. After 2 injections, 98.6% of patients of the A group and 92.1% of the B group demonstrated HI titers ≥1:40 (P = .018); seroconversion rates were 96.5% and 87.1%, respectively, and factor increases in GMT were 45.5 and 21.2, respectively. The majority of adverse events were mild to moderate in severity; no impact on CD4+ cell count or viral load has been detected. Conclusions. In HIV-1–infected adults, the AS03A-adjuvanted H1N1v vaccine yielded a higher immune response than did the nonadjuvanted one, with no impact on HIV infection. PMID:21628666

  1. The Effect of Response Cards on Participation and Weekly Quiz Scores of University Students Enrolled in Introductory Psychology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael C.; Woodard, Camille

    2007-01-01

    Increasing student participation in college classrooms is an overlooked yet socially valid endeavor. The present study attempted to increase student participation, accuracy of responding, and weekly quiz scores, by incorporating student response-cards. Measures of social validity were also addressed. One hundred twenty university students in two…

  2. The Additive Effects of Scripted Lessons Plus Guided Notes on Science Quiz Scores of Students with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Bree A.; Lo, Ya-yu; Saunders, Alicia F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of scripted lessons (SLs) alone and in combination with guided notes during science instruction on science quiz scores of three elementary students with moderate to severe intellectual disability and autism. This study used a multiple probe across three science units design with replication across students and…

  3. What Do Students Do when Asked to Diagnose Their Mistakes? Does It Help Them? II. A More Typical Quiz Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Cohen, Elisheva; Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    "Self-diagnosis tasks" aim at fostering students' learning in an examination context by requiring students to present diagnoses of their solutions to quiz problems. We examined the relationship between students' learning from self-diagnosis and the typicality of the problem situation. Four recitation groups in an introductory physics class…

  4. Teaching Baroreflex Physiology to Medical Students: A Comparison of Quiz-Based and Conventional Teaching Strategies in a Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Ronan M. G.; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Damgaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Quiz-based and collaborative teaching strategies have previously been found to be efficient for the improving meaningful learning of physiology during lectures. These approaches have, however, not been investigated during laboratory exercises. In the present study, we compared the impact of solving quizzes individually and in groups with…

  5. The Effects of Certain and Uncertain Reinforcement Procedures on the Quiz Submission and Performance of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovits, Shira Melody

    2011-01-01

    College instructors often provide homework so that their students can review class material; however some students do not take advantage of these review opportunities. This study compared the effects of a certain reward and a lottery reward on the quiz submission rates and accuracy of 112 college students. In Baseline, quizzes were for practice…

  6. [What vaccination has brought].

    PubMed

    Bégué, Pierre

    2004-03-15

    The vaccines have improved obviously and constantly the struggle against infectious diseases. When the immunisations have been well applied some diseases fell down dramatically: i.e. diphtheria, poliomyelitis and smallpox which was eradicated. Actually some efficacious vaccines as measles or rubella vaccines could eliminate the diseases. Nevertheless in many developed countries the immunisation coverage is not properly reached and the diseases are always circulating, with a shift of age towards adults, with more severe diseases or new epidemiology (i.e. pertussis). However measles have been eliminated from some countries as Finland, Sweden, United States. The adverse events of vaccines are nowadays enhanced and discourage immunisation among some doctors or patients. The benefit-risk ratio has to be made very clear to avoid a lack or a denial of immunisation after false fears about risk of some vaccines. An improvement of surveillance and of correct information is highly required.

  7. Vaccination against cestode parasites.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Rickard, M D

    1993-10-01

    Cestodes are tapeworm parasites. Infection in the intermediate host with larval (metacestode) parasites causes medically and economically important diseases known as hydatidosis and cysticercosis. Immunization against experimental infection with metacestode parasites has been highly successful, in marked contrast with the relative ineffectiveness of vaccines against infection with most parasitic organisms. High levels of immunity against a challenge infection with taeniid cestode eggs can be stimulated by immunization with extracts of the parasites, particularly with extracts of the oncosphere life-cycle stage. This led to the production of a recombinant antigen vaccine against infection in sheep with the parasite Taenia ovis, the first highly effective, non-living vaccine against a parasitic infection in animals or humans. This paper reviews immunity to the adult and metacestode life-cycle stages of cestode parasites, development and application of the T. ovis vaccine, and prospects for vaccines against other cestode infections.

  8. Racial and ethnic differences in HPV knowledge, attitudes, and vaccination rates among low-income African-American, Haitian, Latina and Caucasian young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jack A.; Mercilus, Glory; Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Figaro, Jean; Perkins, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccine uptake in African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women ages 18–22 and to determine vaccination completion rates among participants over 5 years. Design Using semi-structured interviews and medical record review, we assessed HPV knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among young women. We then determined their subsequent HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates. We used constructs from the Health Belief Model and methods based in grounded theory and content analysis to identify attitudes towards HPV vaccination cues to initiate vaccination, perception of HPV, and how communication about issues of sexuality may impact vaccine uptake. Participants We enrolled 132 African-American, Haitian, Latina, and White women aged 18–22 years who visited an urban academic medical center and two affiliated community health centers between the years 2007 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures Intent to vaccinate and actual vaccination rates Results Of 132 participants, 116 (90%) stated that they were somewhat or very likely to accept HPV vaccination if offered by their physician, but only 51% initiated the vaccination over the next 5 years. Seventy-eight percent of those who initiated vaccination completed the 3 doses of the HPV vaccine series. Forty-five percent (45%, n=50) of the adolescents who started the series completed three doses over a five year period: forty-two percent African-American (n=16), thirty-three percent Haitian (n=13), sixty-three percent Latina (n=10), and sixty-five White young women (n=11) completed the three-dose series. Despite low knowledge, they reported high levels of trust in physicians and were willing to vaccinate if recommended by their physicians. Conclusion Desire for HPV vaccination is high among older adolescents, physician recommendation and use of every clinic visit opportunity may improve vaccine uptake in young women. More White young women completed the HPV

  9. Communicating vaccine safety during the development and introduction of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the best defense available against infectious diseases. Vaccine safety is of major focus for regulatory bodies, vaccine manufacturers, public health authorities, health care providers and the public as vaccines are often given to healthy children and adults as well as to pregnant woman. Safety assessment is critical at all stages of vaccine development. Effective, clear and consistent communication of the risks and benefits of vaccines and advocacy during all stages of clinical research (including the preparation, approvals, conduct of clinical trials through the post marketing phase) is critically important. This needs to be done for all major stakeholders (e.g. community members, Study Team, Health Care Providers, Ministry of Health, Regulators, Ethics Committee members, Public Health Authorities and Policy Makers). Improved stakeholder alignment would help to address some of the concerns that may affect the clinical research, licensing of vaccines and their wide-spread use in immunization programs around the world.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of Vi conjugate vaccines for typhoid fever in adults, teenagers, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kossaczka, Z; Lin, F Y; Ho, V A; Thuy, N T; Van Bay, P; Thanh, T C; Khiem, H B; Trach, D D; Karpas, A; Hunt, S; Bryla, D A; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1999-11-01

    The capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, Vi, is an essential virulence factor and a protective vaccine for people older than 5 years. The safety and immunogenicity of two investigational Vi conjugate vaccines were evaluated in adults, 5- to 14-year-old children, and 2- to 4-year-old children in Vietnam. The conjugates were prepared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA) as the carrier, using either N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate (SPDP; Vi-rEPA(1)) or adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH; Vi-rEPA(2)) as linkers. None of the recipients experienced a temperature of >38.5 degrees C or significant local reactions. One injection of Vi-rEPA(2) into adults elicited a geometric mean (GM) increase in anti-Vi immunoglobulin G (IgG) from 9.62 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/ml (EU) to 465 EU at 6 weeks; this level fell to 119 EU after 26 weeks. In the 5- to 14-year-old children, anti-Vi IgG levels at 6 weeks elicited by Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 169, 22.8, and 18.9 EU, respectively (P = 0.0001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)). At 26 weeks, the anti-Vi IgG levels for recipients of Vi-rEPA(2), Vi-rEPA(1), and Vi were 30.0, 10.8, and 13.4 EU, respectively (P < 0.001 for Vi-rEPA(1) and Vi with respect to Vi-rEPA(2)); all were higher than the preinjection levels (P = 0. 0001). Vi-rEPA(2) also elicited the highest anti-Vi IgM and IgA levels of the three vaccines. In the 2- to 4-year-old children at 6 weeks following the first injection, Vi-rEPA(2) elicited an anti-Vi IgG level of 69.9 EU compared to 28.9 EU for Vi-rEPA(1) (P = 0.0001). Reinjection increased Vi antibody levels from 69.9 to 95.4 EU for Vi-rEPA(2) and from 28.9 to 83.0 EU for Vi-rEPA(1). At 26 weeks, anti-Vi IgG levels remained higher than those at preinjection (30.6 versus 0.18 for Vi-rEPA(2) and 12.8 versus 0.33 for Vi-rEPA(1); P = 0.0001 for both). Vi vaccine is recommended for individuals of 5 years of age or older. In the present study, the GM

  11. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  12. Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  13. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  14. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  15. [Vaccination perspectives].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Plotkin, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of vaccinology is to improve the available vaccines and to develop new ones in the light of progress in immunology, molecular biology and biotechnologies. But it must go beyond this, and aim to protect all populations and control diseases, even eradicate them where possible. New vaccine strategies must be developed taking into account the epidemiology of diseases and the inherent logistic problems of implementing these strategies under local conditions. There are three major thrusts to the progress of the discipline. The improvement of the vaccines available. One of the drives of vaccinology is not only to deliver vaccines of increasing safety (replacement of the current vaccine for whooping cough with an acellular vaccine for example), but also to improve vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (in particular for flu, tuberculosis, cholera and rabies vaccines). The optimisation of vaccination programmes and strategies for vaccinations. The ideal is to protect against the greatest possible number of diseases with the smallest number of vaccinations. The development of combinations of vaccines is central to this goal. The objective for the year 2000 is a hexavalent vaccine DTPP Hib HB. The development of new vaccines. Classic techniques continue to be successfully used (inactivated hepatitis A vaccine; attenuated live vaccines for chicken pox and dengue fever; conjugated polyosidic bacterial vaccines for meningococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae). However, it will become possible to prepare vaccines against most transmissible diseases using genetic engineering techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  17. A randomized and controlled Phase 1 study of the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel + CPG 7909 vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in semi-immune Malian adults.

    PubMed

    Sagara, Issaka; Ellis, Ruth D; Dicko, Alassane; Niambele, Mohamed B; Kamate, Beh; Guindo, Ousmane; Sissoko, Mahamadou S; Fay, Michael P; Guindo, Merepen A; Kante, Ousmane; Saye, Renion; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole; Mullen, Gregory E D; Pierce, Mark; Martin, Laura B; Rausch, Kelly; Dolo, Amagana; Diallo, Dapa A; Miller, Louis H; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2009-12-01

    A double blind, randomized and controlled Phase 1 clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and immunogenicity in malaria-exposed adults of the Plasmodium falciparum blood stage vaccine candidate Apical Membrane Antigen 1-Combination 1 (AMA1-C1)/Alhydrogel with and without the novel adjuvant CPG 7909. Participants were healthy adults 18-45 years old living in the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. A total of 24 participants received 2 doses one month apart of either 80 microg AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel or 80 microg AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel + 564 microg CPG 7909. The study started in October 2007 and completed follow up in May 2008. Both vaccines were well tolerated, with only mild local adverse events and no systemic adverse events judged related to vaccination. The difference in antibody responses were over 2-fold higher in the group receiving CPG 7909 for all time points after second vaccination and the differences are statistically significant (all p<0.05). This is the first use of the novel adjuvant CPG 7909 in a malaria-exposed population. PMID:19874925

  18. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is already infected.Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and adults) from all three ... Who should get MMR vaccine and when?Children should get 2 doses of MMR vaccine: First Dose: 12 to 15 months of age Second ...

  19. Safety and Tolerability of Conserved Region Vaccines Vectored by Plasmid DNA, Simian Adenovirus and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Administered to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Uninfected Adults in a Randomized, Single-Blind Phase I Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayton, Emma-Jo; Rose, Annie; Ibrahimsa, Umar; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Capone, Stefania; Crook, Alison; Black, Antony P.; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Trial Design HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. Methods Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. Results Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1) and predominantly transient (<48 hours). Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range) of 633 (231-1533) post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. Conclusions These data demonstrate safety and good

  20. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  1. Vaccine Therapy for Unresectable Chordoma

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase II clinical trial, adult patients with inoperable chordoma who are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to receive a yeast-based vaccine that targets a protein called brachyury or a placebo injection.

  2. 10 Reasons to Get Vaccinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... to provide protection from tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Only about 1 out of 5 (20%) adults ... disease can be contagious, like influenza, meningitis, and whooping cough. Receiving your recommended vaccines can reduce the risk ...

  3. Vaccination of adult and newborn mice of a resistant strain (C57BL/6J) against challenge with leukemias induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guerin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. A single injection of formalin-treated isogenic leukemia cells admixed with C. parvum provided between 1.7 and 2.8 logs of protection. These results demonstrate that a single vaccination of newborn animals against a highly antigenic virally induced leukemia produces strong protection against a subsequent challenge with viable leukemia cells.

  4. Vaccines against nicotine.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Erich H; Cerny, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Medications against any dependence-inducing drug face a dilemma: if they are efficient, they will induce withdrawal symptoms and the patient is likely to stop taking his medication. Anti drug vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections far beyond the critical phase of acute withdrawal symptoms. Interacting rather with the drug in the blood than with a receptor in the brain, the vaccines are, in addition, free of side effects due to central interaction. For drugs like nicotine interacting with different types of receptors in many organs, this is a further advantage. There are three reasons that anti drug vaccines have first been developed against nicotine. Firstly, in most parts of the world 20 to 50% of the adult population smoke and any smoking cessation treatment will have an important impact on public health and be commercially a very attractive product. The second reason are the smokers themselves, who would like to quit in significant numbers and who have shown good compliance for any form of treatment. Thirdly, the quantities of cocaine or heroine taken by dependant persons are higher than the quantity of nicotine per cigarette, which makes an anti nicotine vaccine the easier vaccine project. Three anti nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation. We report here how those vaccines work, on the progress of the trials and future developments to expect. Results show that the efficiency of the vaccines is directly related to the antibody levels of the probates, a fact which will help to optimize further the vaccine effect. We expect the vaccines to appear on the market during a time window between 2009 and 2011. PMID:19276649

  5. A Review of Pneumococcal Vaccines: Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations and Future Protein Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Calvin C.; Rogers, P. David

    2016-01-01

    This review describes development of currently available pneumococcal vaccines, provides summary tables of current pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in children and adults, and describes new potential vaccine antigens in the pipeline. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteremia, remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Introductions of unconjugated and conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have each reduced the rate of pneumococcal infections caused by the organism S. pneumoniae. The first vaccine developed, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), protected adults and children older than 2 years of age against invasive disease caused by the 23 capsular serotypes contained in the vaccine. Because PPSV23 did not elicit a protective immune response in children younger than 2 years of age, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) containing seven of the most common serotypes from PPSV23 in pediatric invasive disease was developed for use in children younger than 2 years of age. The last vaccine to be developed, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), contains the seven serotypes in PCV7, five additional serotypes from PPSV23, and a new serotype not contained in PPSV23 or PCV7. Serotype replacement with virulent strains that are not contained in the polysaccharide vaccines has been observed after vaccine implementation and stresses the need for continued research into novel vaccine antigens. We describe eight potential protein antigens that are in the pipeline for new pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:26997927

  6. Immunogenicity and Safety of Trivalent Split Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Korean Adults with Low Pre-Existing Antibody Levels: An Open Phase I Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyuri; Han, Seunghoon; Hong, Taegon; Jeon, Sangil; Paek, Jeongki; Kang, Jin Han

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A phase I clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of newly developed egg-cultivated trivalent inactivated split influenza vaccine (TIV) in Korea. Materials and Methods The TIV was administered to 43 healthy male adults. Subjects with high pre-existing titers were excluded in a screening step. Immune response was measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Results The seroprotection rates against A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) and B/Brisbane/60/2009 were 74.42% [95% confidence interval (CI): 61.38–87.46], 72.09% (95% CI: 58.69–85.50), and 86.05% (95% CI: 75.69–96.40), respectively. Calculated seroconversion rates were 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), 74.42% (95% CI: 61.38–87.46), and 79.07% (95% CI: 66.91–91.23), respectively. There were 25 episodes of solicited local adverse events in 21 subjects (47.73%), 21 episodes of solicited general adverse events in 16 subjects (36.36%) and 5 episodes of unsolicited adverse events in 5 subjects (11.36%). All adverse events were grade 1 or 2 and disappeared within three days. Conclusion The immunogenicity and safety of TIV established in this phase I trial are sufficient to plan a larger scale clinical trial. PMID:27593862

  7. Prototype of a Questionnaire and Quiz System for Supporting Increase of Health Awareness During Wait Time in Dispensing Pharmacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Takeshi; Chen, Poa-Min; Ozaki, Shinya; Ideguchi, Naoko; Miyaki, Tomoko; Nanbu, Keiko; Ikeda, Keiko

    For quit-smoking clinic and its campaign, there was a need for pharmacists to investigate pediatric patient's parent consciousness to tobacco harm utilizing wait time in a pediatric dispensing pharmacy. In this research, we developed the questionnaire and quiz total system using the tablet for user interface, in which people can easily answer the questionnaire/quiz and quickly see the total results on the spot in order to enhance their consciousness to the tobacco harm. The system also provides their tobacco dependence level based on the questionnaire results and some advice for their health and dietary habits due to the tobacco dependence level. From a field trial with one hundred four examinees in the pediatric dispensing pharmacy, the user interface was useful compared to conventional questionnaire form. The system could enhance their consciousness to tobacco harm and make their beneficial use of waiting time in dispensing pharmacy. Some interesting suggestions for improvement and new services were also obtained.

  8. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is already infected. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and adults) from all three ... stopped vaccinating they would return. Who should get MMR vaccine and when? Children should get 2 doses of ...

  9. [Vaccinations 1979].

    PubMed

    Herzog, C; Just, M

    1980-05-17

    On the basis of the Federal Health Department's "Swiss Vaccination Scheme" of 1976, some up to data additions and alterations are proposed mainly with regard to combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during the second year of life together with the first tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis booster. Oral vaccination against poliomyelitis is not contraindicated during pregnancy. Among the inoculations not considered in the official vaccination scheme, regular influenza vaccination is only indicated for certain chronically ill people. Whether this is also true of the pneumococcal vaccine newly licensed in Switzerland remains uncertain. The (likewise new) meningococcal vaccine is only effective against type A and C and not against the type B meningococci prevalent in Switzerland. In view of its safety, only HDC vaccine produced with human tissue cultures should be used for anti-rabies vaccination. For counselling prior to travel abroad, a simple vaccination scheme is provided and the importance of other prophylactic measures is emphasized. PMID:7394495

  10. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2013: Electrolyte and Acid-Base

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire (NQ&Q) remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the annual meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. As in past years, the conference hall was overflowing with interested audience members. Topics covered by expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories along with single-best-answer questions were prepared by a panel of experts. Prior to the meeting, program directors of United States nephrology training programs answered questions through an Internet-based questionnaire. A new addition to the NQ&Q was participation in the questionnaire by nephrology fellows. To review the process, members of the audience test their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. Their answers are compared in real time using audience response devices with the answers of nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers are then briefly discussed after the audience responses, and the results of the questionnaire are displayed. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for the readers of CJASN. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:24558051

  11. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2012: Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Glassock, Richard J.; Bleyer, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Presentation of the Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire has become an annual tradition at the meetings of the American Society of Nephrology. It is a very popular session judged by consistently large attendance. Members of the audience test their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. They can also compare their answers in real time, using audience response devices, with the answers of program directors of nephrology training programs in the United States acquired through an Internet-based questionnaire. Topics presented here include fluid and electrolyte disorders, glomerular diseases, transplantation, and ESRD and dialysis. Cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared by a panel of experts (Drs. Palmer, Fervenza, and Brennan and Mehrotra, respectively). The correct and incorrect answers then were briefly discussed after the audience responses, and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. This article tries to recapitulate the session and reproduce its educational value for a larger audience—the readers of the CJASN. PMID:23559678

  12. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Live Oral Recombinant Cholera Vaccine VA1.4: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial in Healthy Adults in a Cholera Endemic Area in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Kanungo, Suman; Sen, Bandana; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sur, Dipika; Manna, Byomkesh; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Jhunjhunwala, Puja; Nandy, Ranjan K.; Koley, Hemanta; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay; Goel, Gaurav; Dey, Bindu; M, Thungapathra; Nair, G. Balakrish; Ghosh, Amit; Mahalanabis, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Background A live oral cholera vaccine VA 1.4 developed from a non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain using ctxB gene insertion was further developed into a clinical product following cGMP and was evaluated in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group two arm trial with allocation ratio of 1∶1 for safety and immunogenicity in men and women aged 18–60 years from Kolkata, India. Method A lyophilized dose of 1.9×109 CFU (n = 44) or a placebo (n = 43) reconstituted with a diluent was administered within 5 minutes of drinking 100 ml of a buffer solution made of sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid and a second dose on day 14. Result The vaccine did not elicit any diarrhea related adverse events. Other adverse events were rare, mild and similar in two groups. One subject in the vaccine group excreted the vaccine strain on the second day after first dose. The proportion of participants who seroconverted (i.e. had 4-folds or higher rise in reciprocal titre) in the vaccine group were 65.9% (95% CI: 50.1%–79.5%) at both 7 days (i.e. after 1st dose) and 21 days (i.e. after 2nd dose). None of the placebo recipients seroconverted. Anti-cholera toxin antibody was detected in very few recipients of the vaccine. Conclusion This study demonstrates that VA 1.4 at a single dose of 1.9×109 is safe and immunogenic in adults from a cholera endemic region. No additional benefit after two doses was seen. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry-India, National Institute of Medical Statistics (Indian Council of Medical Research) CTRI/2012/04/002582 PMID:24983989

  13. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  14. A Phase I, Open-Label Trial, Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccines AERAS-402 and MVA85A, Administered by Prime-Boost Regime in BCG-Vaccinated Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Satti, Iman; Hokey, David A.; Dheenadhayalan, Veerabadran; Stockdale, Lisa; Manjaly Thomas, Zita-Rose; Minhinnick, Alice; Wilkie, Morven; Vermaak, Samantha; Meyer, Joel; O’Shea, Matthew K.; Pau, Maria Grazia; Versteege, Isabella; Douoguih, Macaya; Hendriks, Jenny; Sadoff, Jerald; Landry, Bernard; Moss, Paul; McShane, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background MVA85A and AERAS-402 are two clinically advanced viral vectored TB vaccine candidates expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens designed to boost BCG-induced immunity. Clinical trials with candidate malaria vaccines have demonstrated that adenoviral vector based priming immunisation, followed by MVA vector boost, induced high levels of immunity. We present the safety and immunogenicity results of the first clinical trial to evaluate this immunisation strategy in TB. Methods In this phase 1, open-label trial, 40 healthy previously BCG-vaccinated participants were enrolled into three treatment groups and vaccinated with 1 or 2 doses of AERAS-402 followed by MVA85A; or 3 doses of AERAS-402. Results Most related adverse events (AEs) were mild and there were no vaccine related serious AEs. Boosting AERAS-402 with MVA85A significantly increased Ag85A-specific T-cell responses from day of vaccination. Two priming doses of AERAS-402 followed by MVA85A boost, resulted in a significantly higher AUC post-peak Ag85A response compared to three doses of AERAS-402 and historical data with MVA85A vaccination alone. The frequency of CD8+ T-cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 was highest in the group receiving two priming doses of AERAS-402 followed by MVA85A. Conclusions Vaccination with AERAS-402 followed by MVA85A was safe and increased the durability of antigen specific T-cell responses and the frequency and polyfunctionality of CD8+ T-cells, which may be important in protection against TB. Further clinical trials with adenoviral prime-MVA85A boost regimens are merited to optimise vaccination intervals, dose and route of immunisation and to evaluate this strategy in the target population in TB high burden countries. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683773. PMID:26529238

  15. Gamma-Irradiated Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccination Does Not Modulate the Innate Immune Response during Experimental Human Endotoxemia in Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Hamers, Linda A. C.; Kox, Matthijs; Arts, Rob J. W.; Blok, Bastiaan; Leentjens, Jenneke; Netea, Mihai G.; Pickkers, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine exerts nonspecific immunostimulatory effects and may therefore represent a novel therapeutic option to treat sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. We investigated whether BCG vaccination modulates the systemic innate immune response in humans in vivo during experimental endotoxemia. We used inactivated gamma-irradiated BCG vaccine because of the potential risk of disseminated disease with the live vaccine in immunoparalyzed patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, healthy male volunteers were vaccinated with gamma-irradiated BCG (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) and received 1 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenously on day 5 after vaccination to assess the in vivo immune response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with various related and unrelated pathogens 5, 8 to 10, and 25 to 35 days after vaccination to assess ex vivo immune responses. BCG vaccination resulted in a scar in 90% of vaccinated subjects. LPS administration elicited a profound systemic immune response, characterized by increased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hemodynamic changes, and flu-like symptoms. However, BCG modulated neither this in vivo immune response, nor ex vivo leukocyte responses at any time point. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated BCG is unlikely to represent an effective treatment option to restore immunocompetence in patients with sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. This trial is registered with NCT02085590. PMID:25883989

  16. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for adults and children in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 end-of-season results.

    PubMed

    Pebody, Richard; Warburton, Fiona; Ellis, Joanna; Andrews, Nick; Potts, Alison; Cottrell, Simon; Johnston, Jillian; Reynolds, Arlene; Gunson, Rory; Thompson, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Robertson, Chris; Byford, Rachel; Gallagher, Naomh; Sinnathamby, Mary; Yonova, Ivelina; Pathirannehelage, Sameera; Donati, Matthew; Moore, Catherine; de Lusignan, Simon; McMenamin, Jim; Zambon, Maria

    2016-09-22

    The United Kingdom (UK) is in the third season of introducing universal paediatric influenza vaccination with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The 2015/16 season in the UK was initially dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and then influenza of B/Victoria lineage, not contained in that season's adult trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.0-61.6) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultation, 54.5% (95% CI: 41.6-64.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 54.2% (95% CI: 33.1-68.6) against influenza B. In 2-17 year-olds, adjusted VE for LAIV was 57.6% (95% CI: 25.1 to 76.0) against any influenza, 81.4% (95% CI: 39.6-94.3) against influenza B and 41.5% (95% CI: -8.5 to 68.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. These estimates demonstrate moderate to good levels of protection, particularly against influenza B in children, but relatively less against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Despite lineage mismatch in the trivalent IIV, adults younger than 65 years were still protected against influenza B. These results provide reassurance for the UK to continue its influenza immunisation programme planned for 2016/17. PMID:27684603

  17. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for adults and children in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 end-of-season results.

    PubMed

    Pebody, Richard; Warburton, Fiona; Ellis, Joanna; Andrews, Nick; Potts, Alison; Cottrell, Simon; Johnston, Jillian; Reynolds, Arlene; Gunson, Rory; Thompson, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Robertson, Chris; Byford, Rachel; Gallagher, Naomh; Sinnathamby, Mary; Yonova, Ivelina; Pathirannehelage, Sameera; Donati, Matthew; Moore, Catherine; de Lusignan, Simon; McMenamin, Jim; Zambon, Maria

    2016-09-22

    The United Kingdom (UK) is in the third season of introducing universal paediatric influenza vaccination with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The 2015/16 season in the UK was initially dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and then influenza of B/Victoria lineage, not contained in that season's adult trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.0-61.6) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultation, 54.5% (95% CI: 41.6-64.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 54.2% (95% CI: 33.1-68.6) against influenza B. In 2-17 year-olds, adjusted VE for LAIV was 57.6% (95% CI: 25.1 to 76.0) against any influenza, 81.4% (95% CI: 39.6-94.3) against influenza B and 41.5% (95% CI: -8.5 to 68.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. These estimates demonstrate moderate to good levels of protection, particularly against influenza B in children, but relatively less against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Despite lineage mismatch in the trivalent IIV, adults younger than 65 years were still protected against influenza B. These results provide reassurance for the UK to continue its influenza immunisation programme planned for 2016/17.

  18. Safety and Immunogenicity of Improved Shigella O-Specific Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines in Adults in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Passwell, Justen H.; Harlev, Efrat; Ashkenazi, Shai; Chu, Chiayung; Miron, Dan; Ramon, Reut; Farzan, Naheed; Shiloach, Joseph; Bryla, Dolores A.; Majadly, Fathy; Roberson, Robin; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Data suggest that the O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Shigella species is both an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen and that a critical level of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) to this antigen will confer immunity to shigellosis. Because covalent attachment of polysaccharides to proteins increases their immunogenicity, especially in infants and in young children, the O-SP of Shigella species were bound to medically useful proteins, and the safety and immunogenicity of the resultant conjugates were confirmed in adults and 4- to 7-year-old children. Succinylation of the carrier protein improved the immunogenicity of Shigella conjugates in mice and increased their yield. Based on these results, a clinical trial of O-SP conjugates of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a bound to succinylated mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rEPAsucc) or native or succinylated Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin mutant (CRM9 or CRM9succ) was conducted in healthy adults. The conjugates were safe and immunogenic. S. sonnei-CRM9, S. sonnei-CRM9succ, and S. sonnei-rEPAsucc elicited significant rises of geometric mean (GM) IgG anti-LPS within 1 week of injection (P < 0.001). At 26 weeks, the GM anti-LPS levels elicited by these three conjugates were similar and higher than their prevaccination levels (P < 0.0001). GM IgG anti-LPS levels elicited by S. flexneri 2a-rEPAsucc were significantly higher than those elicited by S. flexneri 2a-rCRM9succ at all intervals after injection. At 26 weeks, the levels of IgG anti-LPS in vaccinees were higher than their prevaccination levels (P < 0.0001). The serum antibody responses were specific, as there was no significant rise of anti-LPS to the heterologous O-SP in any vaccinee. Both conjugates elicited statistically significant rises of serum antibodies to the injected carrier protein. At 6 months, these five Shigella conjugates elicited higher fold rises than similar conjugates (D. N

  19. Safety and reactogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 viral-like-particle vaccine in older adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Goldstone, Stephen; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron; Coutlee, Francois; Vardas, Eftyhia; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth IO

    2011-01-01

    Background Prophylactic vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine (qHPV) has been shown to prevent infection with HPV 6/11/16/18 and associated disease in women and more recently, in men. Here we report on the safety and reactogenicity of the qHPV vaccine in males. A total of 4,065 healthy males aged 16–26 years were enrolled into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive qHPV vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2 and month 6. Safety and tolerability were assessed via the collection of reported adverse experiences (AEs). All serious AEs (vaccine- or procedure-related or not) and all deaths occurring during the study were recorded. Safety analyses were conducted in all subjects who received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. The proportion of subjects who reported at least one injection-site AE was higher in the qHPV vaccine group versus the placebo group (60.1% vs. 53.7%, respectively), however most of these AEs were mild/moderate in intensity. The incidence of at least one systemic AE was comparable between the vaccine and placebo groups (31.7% vs. 31.4%, respectively). There were no vaccine-related serious AEs or deaths. The occurrence of AEs did not increase with each successive injection, and among trial participants who were seropositive for at least one vaccine HPV type at enrollment, the profile of adverse events was similar to that of the entire study cohort. The qHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in males aged 16–26 years and had a favorable safety profile. PMID:21712645

  20. Antibody persistence and immune memory in adults, 15 years after a three-dose schedule of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, P; Leroux-Roels, G; Crasta, P; Messier, M; Jacquet, J-M; Van Herck, K

    2012-01-01

    A combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is available since 1996. Two separate open-label primary studies evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of this hepatitis A and B vaccine (720 EI.U of HAV and 20 µg of HBsAg) in 306 healthy subjects aged 17-43 years who received three doses of the vaccine following a 0, 1, and 6 months schedule. These subjects were followed up annually for the next 15 years to evaluate long-term persistence of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies. The subjects whose antibody concentrations fell below the cut-offs between Year 11 and Year 15 (anti-HAV: <15 mIU/ml; anti-HBs: <10 mIU/ml) were offered an additional dose of the appropriate monovalent hepatitis A and/or B vaccine. In subjects who received the additional vaccine dose, a blood sample was collected 1 month after vaccination. At the Year 15 time point, all subjects in Study A and Study B were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies and 89.3% and 92.9% of subjects in the respective studies had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10 mIU/ml. Four subjects (two in each study) received an additional dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine and mounted anamnestic responses to vaccination. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. This study confirms the long-term immunogenicity of the three-dose regimen of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine, as eliciting long-term persistence of antibodies and immune memory against hepatitis A and B for up to at least 15 years after a primary vaccination.

  1. [Dengue vaccines].

    PubMed

    Morita, Kouichi

    2008-10-01

    Dengue is the most important mosquito borne virus infection in the tropics. Based on the effects of global warming, it is expected that dengue epidemic areas will further expand in the next decades unless effective and affordable vaccines are made available soon. At the moment, several vaccine developers have utilized live-attenuated live tetravalent vaccines and two of them have already completed phase two trials. However, the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement infection is not well elucidated and thus further and careful evaluation of the safety on proposed candidate vaccines are essential. At the moment, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation strongly support the vaccine development through the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative.

  2. Vitamin E, vitamin A and zinc status are not releated to serologic response to influenza vaccine in older adults: an observational prospective cohort study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that micronutrient levels play a role in the immune 2 response to vaccination. However, population-level research on the association between 3 micronutrient levels and immune response to influenza vaccination is needed. To determine whether serum vitamin A, vitamin E, or zin...

  3. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the varicella (chickenpox) vaccine are examples. Killed (inactivated) vaccines are made from ... countries. Some countries require this record. COMMON VACCINES ... DTaP immunization (vaccine) Hepatitis A vaccine Hepatitis B ...

  4. Phase 1/2a Trial of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Candidate VMP001/AS01B in Malaria-Naive Adults: Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jason W.; Yadava, Anjali; Tosh, Donna; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Komisar, Jack; Ware, Lisa A.; McCarthy, William F.; Cowden, Jessica J.; Regules, Jason; Spring, Michele D.; Paolino, Kristopher; Hartzell, Joshua D.; Cummings, James F.; Richie, Thomas L.; Lumsden, Joanne; Kamau, Edwin; Murphy, Jittawadee; Lee, Cynthia; Parekh, Falgunee; Birkett, Ashley; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Polhemus, Mark E.; Vanloubbeeck, Yannick F.; Vekemans, Johan; Ockenhouse, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A vaccine to prevent infection and disease caused by Plasmodium vivax is needed both to reduce the morbidity caused by this parasite and as a key component in efforts to eradicate malaria worldwide. Vivax malaria protein 1 (VMP001), a novel chimeric protein that incorporates the amino- and carboxy- terminal regions of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and a truncated repeat region that contains repeat sequences from both the VK210 (type 1) and the VK247 (type 2) parasites, was developed as a vaccine candidate for global use. Methods We conducted a first-in-human Phase 1 dose escalation vaccine study with controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) of VMP001 formulated in the GSK Adjuvant System AS01B. A total of 30 volunteers divided into 3 groups (10 per group) were given 3 intramuscular injections of 15μg, 30μg, or 60μg respectively of VMP001, all formulated in 500μL of AS01B at each immunization. All vaccinated volunteers participated in a P. vivax CHMI 14 days following the third immunization. Six non-vaccinated subjects served as infectivity controls. Results The vaccine was shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic. All volunteers generated robust humoral and cellular immune responses to the vaccine antigen. Vaccination did not induce sterile protection; however, a small but significant delay in time to parasitemia was seen in 59% of vaccinated subjects compared to the control group. An association was identified between levels of anti-type 1 repeat antibodies and prepatent period. Significance This trial was the first to assess the efficacy of a P. vivax CSP vaccine candidate by CHMI. The association of type 1 repeat-specific antibody responses with delay in the prepatency period suggests that augmenting the immune responses to this domain may improve strain-specific vaccine efficacy. The availability of a P. vivax CHMI model will accelerate the process of P. vivax vaccine development, allowing better selection of candidate vaccines for

  5. Phase I/II Randomized Double-Blind Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Nonadjuvanted Vero Cell Culture-Derived Whole-Virus H9N2 Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann-Izay, Barbara; van der Velden, Maikel V. W.; Fritsch, Sandor; Koska, Manuela; Portsmouth, Daniel; Hart, Mary Kate; El-Amin, Wael; Kistner, Otfried; Barrett, P. Noel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on candidate pandemic vaccines against avian influenza viruses have focused on H5N1, but viruses of other subtypes, such as A/H9N2, are also considered to have pandemic potential. We investigated the safety and immunogenicity of two immunizations with one of five different antigen doses (ranging from 3.75 to 45 μg of hemagglutinin antigen) of a nonadjuvanted whole-virus G9 lineage H9N2 influenza virus vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 to 49 years. The antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN), and single radial hemolysis (SRH) assays. To investigate a hypothesis that previous exposure to H2N2 viruses in subjects born in or before 1968 might prime for more robust antibody responses to H9N2 vaccination than that in subjects born after 1968, a post hoc age-stratified analysis of antibody responses was done. Both vaccinations in all dose groups were safe and well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported, and the majority of the adverse reactions were rated as mild. The rates of injection site reactions were lower in the 3.75-μg- and 7.5-μg-dose groups than those in the higher-dose groups; the rates of systemic reactions were similar across all dose groups. The seroprotection rates among the different dose groups 21 days after the second immunization ranged from 52.8% to 88.9% as measured by HI assay, from 88.7% to 98.1% or 82.7% to 96.2% as measured by MN assay (MN titer cutoffs, 1:40 and 1:80, respectively), and from 94.2% to 100% as measured by SRH assay. Higher antibody responses were not induced in subjects born in or before 1968. These data indicate that a nonadjuvanted whole-virus H9N2 vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy adults. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01320696.) PMID:25355797

  6. Phase I/II randomized double-blind study of the safety and immunogenicity of a nonadjuvanted vero cell culture-derived whole-virus H9N2 influenza vaccine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Gerald; Grohmann-Izay, Barbara; van der Velden, Maikel V W; Fritsch, Sandor; Koska, Manuela; Portsmouth, Daniel; Hart, Mary Kate; El-Amin, Wael; Kistner, Otfried; Barrett, P Noel

    2015-01-01

    Studies on candidate pandemic vaccines against avian influenza viruses have focused on H5N1, but viruses of other subtypes, such as A/H9N2, are also considered to have pandemic potential. We investigated the safety and immunogenicity of two immunizations with one of five different antigen doses (ranging from 3.75 to 45 μg of hemagglutinin antigen) of a nonadjuvanted whole-virus G9 lineage H9N2 influenza virus vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 to 49 years. The antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN), and single radial hemolysis (SRH) assays. To investigate a hypothesis that previous exposure to H2N2 viruses in subjects born in or before 1968 might prime for more robust antibody responses to H9N2 vaccination than that in subjects born after 1968, a post hoc age-stratified analysis of antibody responses was done. Both vaccinations in all dose groups were safe and well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported, and the majority of the adverse reactions were rated as mild. The rates of injection site reactions were lower in the 3.75-μg- and 7.5-μg-dose groups than those in the higher-dose groups; the rates of systemic reactions were similar across all dose groups. The seroprotection rates among the different dose groups 21 days after the second immunization ranged from 52.8% to 88.9% as measured by HI assay, from 88.7% to 98.1% or 82.7% to 96.2% as measured by MN assay (MN titer cutoffs, 1:40 and 1:80, respectively), and from 94.2% to 100% as measured by SRH assay. Higher antibody responses were not induced in subjects born in or before 1968. These data indicate that a nonadjuvanted whole-virus H9N2 vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy adults. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01320696.). PMID:25355797

  7. Phase I/II randomized double-blind study of the safety and immunogenicity of a nonadjuvanted vero cell culture-derived whole-virus H9N2 influenza vaccine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Gerald; Grohmann-Izay, Barbara; van der Velden, Maikel V W; Fritsch, Sandor; Koska, Manuela; Portsmouth, Daniel; Hart, Mary Kate; El-Amin, Wael; Kistner, Otfried; Barrett, P Noel

    2015-01-01

    Studies on candidate pandemic vaccines against avian influenza viruses have focused on H5N1, but viruses of other subtypes, such as A/H9N2, are also considered to have pandemic potential. We investigated the safety and immunogenicity of two immunizations with one of five different antigen doses (ranging from 3.75 to 45 μg of hemagglutinin antigen) of a nonadjuvanted whole-virus G9 lineage H9N2 influenza virus vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 to 49 years. The antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN), and single radial hemolysis (SRH) assays. To investigate a hypothesis that previous exposure to H2N2 viruses in subjects born in or before 1968 might prime for more robust antibody responses to H9N2 vaccination than that in subjects born after 1968, a post hoc age-stratified analysis of antibody responses was done. Both vaccinations in all dose groups were safe and well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported, and the majority of the adverse reactions were rated as mild. The rates of injection site reactions were lower in the 3.75-μg- and 7.5-μg-dose groups than those in the higher-dose groups; the rates of systemic reactions were similar across all dose groups. The seroprotection rates among the different dose groups 21 days after the second immunization ranged from 52.8% to 88.9% as measured by HI assay, from 88.7% to 98.1% or 82.7% to 96.2% as measured by MN assay (MN titer cutoffs, 1:40 and 1:80, respectively), and from 94.2% to 100% as measured by SRH assay. Higher antibody responses were not induced in subjects born in or before 1968. These data indicate that a nonadjuvanted whole-virus H9N2 vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy adults. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01320696.).

  8. Vaccination of sheep against haemonchosis with H11, a gut membrane-derived protective antigen from the adult parasite: prevention of the periparturient rise and colostral transfer of protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S J; Hole, N J; Munn, E A; Rolph, T P

    1995-07-01

    Pregnant ewes were immunised with a fraction highly enriched in the membrane glycoprotein antigen H11, isolated from the intestinal brush border of adult Haemonchus contortus. Immunity induced by immunisation was able to abolish almost completely (98-99%) the worm egg output from pregnant ewes challenged with ca. 10,000 infective larvae of H. contortus during the last trimester. Furthermore, lambs born and reared on vaccinated ewes had substantial antibody levels to H11 derived from maternal transfer. This antibody conferred moderate protection against a bolus challenge of ca. 3000 infective larvae of H. contortus in 5-week-old lambs.

  9. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  10. Active and Passive Immunization in the Adult Rabbit Ileal Loop Model as an Assay for Production of Antitoxin Immunity by Cholera Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Wiley H.; Ahmed, Ansaruddin

    1969-01-01

    Three field trial cholera vaccines did not induce antitoxic immunity. A choleragenic toxin induced high-serum neutralizing antibody, but protection to loop challenge with toxin was minimal. PMID:5344118

  11. Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategies. An Update and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Berical, Andrew C; Harris, Drew; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Possick, Jennifer D

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important global pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical disease in children and adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia is by far the common presentation of noninvasive and invasive pneumococcal disease and affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised disproportionately. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are also at higher risk for pneumococcal infections. Substantial progress over the century has been made in the understanding of pneumococcal immunobiology and the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease through vaccination. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are available for individuals at risk of pneumococcal disease: the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The goal of pneumococcal vaccination is to stimulate effective antipneumococcal antibody and mucosal immunity response and immunological memory. Vaccination of infants and young children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has led to significant decrease in nasal carriage rates and pneumococcal disease in all age groups. Recent pneumococcal vaccine indication and schedule recommendations on the basis of age and risk factors are outlined in this Focused Review. As new pneumococcal vaccine recommendations are being followed, continued efforts are needed to address the vaccine efficacy in the waning immunity of the ever-aging population, the implementation of vaccines using two different vaccines under very specific schedules and their real world clinical and cost effectiveness, and the development of next generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:27088424

  12. Experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    The lengthy history of efforts to understand the pathogenesis and means of preventing and controlling both hepatitis A and B is noteworthy for many exceptional scientific achievements. Among these are the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of infection through induction of active immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The first plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1981 and was replaced by recombinant hepatitis B vaccines in 1986 and 1989. Vaccines to prevent HAV infection were licensed in the United States in 1995 and 1996. Subsequently, combination vaccines that included both hepatitis A and B vaccine components, or the hepatitis B component in combination with other commonly administered vaccines, were licensed in the United States. Despite significant reductions in hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality that have resulted from widespread use of these vaccines, vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality still occur. The purposes of this article are to review clinical trial and other experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic liver disease, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or requiring hemodialysis; describe the impact that these vaccines and national recommendations for vaccination have had on reducing the incidence of HAV and HBV infection; and recommend expansion of these recommendations to include universal vaccination of adults as a means of further reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a phase II, open-label, uncontrolled trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsurudome, Yukari; Kimachi, Kazuhiko; Okada, Yusuke; Matsuura, Kenta; Ooyama, Yusuke; Ibaragi, Kayo; Kino, Yoichiro; Ueda, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Two antigenically distinct B strain lineages of influenza virus have co-circulated since the mid-1980s; however, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines contain only one B lineage. The mismatch between the circulating and vaccine lineages has been a worldwide issue. In this study, an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) candidate containing two B lineages was manufactured and its immunogenicity and safety evaluated in an open-label, uncontrolled trial. In this phase II trial, 50 subjects aged 20-64 years received two doses of QIV s.c. 1 to 4 weeks apart. Sera were collected pre- and post-vaccination and safety assessed from the first vaccination to 21 ± 7 days after the second vaccination. After the first vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition titers against each strain increased markedly; the seroconversion rate, geometric mean titer ratio and seroprotection rate being 94.0%, 24.93, and 100.0%, respectively, for the A/H1N1pdm09 strain; 94.0%, 12.47, and 98.0%, respectively, for the A/H3N2 strain; 54.0%, 4.99, and 66.0%, respectively, for B/Yamagata strain, and 72.0%, 6.23 and 80.0%, respectively, for the B/Victoria strain, thus fulfilling the criteria of the European Medical Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Also, the QIV induced sufficient single radial hemolysis and neutralizing antibodies against all four vaccine strains. No noteworthy adverse events were noted. The results of this trial demonstrate that QIV is well tolerated and immunogenic for each strain, suggesting that QIV potentially improves protection against influenza B by resolving the issue of B lineage mismatch.

  14. Hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Heidary, Noushin; Cohen, David E

    2005-09-01

    Vaccines are responsible for the control of many infectious diseases that were once common in the United States, including polio, measles, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), rubella (German measles), mumps, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. National efforts to generate collaboration between federal, state, and local governments and public and private health care providers have resulted in record high levels of vaccination coverage in the United States. The high rate of US vaccinations is paralleled by growing concerns about the safety of their delivery. The variety of substances used in vaccines sometimes causes the development of cutaneous reactions in susceptible adults and children. This article will review adverse cutaneous events consistent with hypersensitivity reactions to the following ingredients in vaccines: aluminum, thimerosal, 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, and neomycin.

  15. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  16. Influenza vaccination and Guillain Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark R; Geier, David A; Zahalsky, Arthur C

    2003-05-01

    Acute and severe Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) cases reported following influenza vaccine to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database from 1991 through 1999 were examined. Endotoxin concentrations were measured using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay in influenza vaccines. There were a total of 382 cases of GBS reported to the VAERS database following influenza vaccination (male/female ratio, 1.2). The median onset of GBS following influenza vaccine was 12 days (interquartile range, 7 days to 21 days). There was an increased risk of acute GBS (relative risk, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 6.4) and severe GBS (relative risk, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 18.9) in comparison to an adult tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine control group. There were maximums in the incidence of GBS following influenza vaccine that occurred approximately every third year (1993, 1996, and 1998) and statistically significant variation in the incidence of GBS among different influenza manufacturers. Influenza vaccines contained from a 125- to a 1250-fold increase in endotoxin concentrations in comparison to an adult Td vaccine control and endotoxin concentrations varied up to 10-fold among different lots and manufacturers of influenza vaccine. The biologic mechanism for GBS following influenza vaccine may involve the synergistic effects of endotoxin and vaccine-induced autoimmunity. There were minimal potential reporting biases in the data reported to the VAERS database in this study. Patients should make an informed consent decision on whether to take this optional vaccine based upon its safety and efficacy and physicians should vigilantly report GBS following influenza vaccination to the VAERS in the United States so that continued evaluation of the safety of influenza vaccine may be undertaken.

  17. Delivery of Chlamydia vaccines.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph; Eko, Francis; He, Qing; Bandea, Claudiu; Lubitz, Werner; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Black, Carolyn

    2005-05-01

    The plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases of Chlamydia, including nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, conjunctivitis, blinding trachoma and interstitial pneumonia, and chronic diseases that may include atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, adult onset asthma and Alzheimer's disease, still pose a considerable public health challenge to many nations. Although antibiotics are effective against Chlamydia when effectively diagnosed, asymptomatic infections are rampart, making clinical presentation of complications often the first evidence of an infection. Consequently, the current medical opinion is that an effective prophylactic vaccine would constitute the best approach to protect the human population from the most severe consequences of these infections. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstration that Chlamydia immunity in animals and humans is mediated by T cells and a complementary antibody response, and the completion of the genome sequencing of several isolates of Chlamydia is broadening our knowledge of the immunogenic antigens with potential vaccine value. Thus, major advances have been made in defining the essential elements of a potentially effective subunit vaccine design and parameters for evaluation. However, the challenge to develop effective delivery systems and human compatible adjuvants that would boost the immune response to achieve long-lasting protective immunity remains an elusive objective in chlamydial vaccine research. In response to evolving molecular and cellular technologies and novel vaccinology approaches, considerable progress is being made in the construction of novel delivery systems, such as DNA and plasmid expression systems, viral vectors, living and nonliving bacterial delivery systems, the use of chemical adjuvants, lipoprotein constructs and the codelivery of vaccines and specific immuno-modulatory biological agonists targeting

  18. Long-term immune responses and comparative effectiveness of one or two doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in HIV-positive adults in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aristine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Tsai, Mao-Song; Su, Yi-Ching; Liu, Wen-Chun; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection impairs maintenance of immunological memory, yet few studies of HIV-positive adults receiving 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) have followed them beyond the first year. We determined and compared the durability of serological responses and the clinical outcomes of HIV-positive adults annually for five years following vaccination with one or two doses of PCV7. Methods In this non-randomized clinical trial, 221 pneumococcal vaccine-naïve HIV-positive adults receiving one (n=109) or two doses four weeks apart (n=112) of PCV7 between 2008 and 2010 were longitudinally followed for evaluation of significant serological response and for episodes of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Results At the time of vaccination, the two groups were well matched for age, risk factors, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) coverage, CD4 count and plasma HIV RNA load (PVL). At the end of five years, the CD4 counts for the one- and two-dose groups had increased from 407 and 406 to 550 and 592 cells/µL, respectively, and 82.4 and 81.6% of the participants had fully suppressed PVL. Significant immune responses to ≥2 serotypes persisted for 67.9 vs 78.6%, 64.2 vs 71.4%, 66.1 vs 71.4%, 57.8 vs 69.6% in the second, third, fourth and fifth years after one and two doses of PCV7 in the intention-to-treat analysis, respectively. In multivariate analysis, immunization with two doses of PCV7 (odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.65, p=0.016), concurrent cART (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16 to 4.00, p=0.015) and CD4 proliferation (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27, p=0.031) were predictive of persistent serological responses in the fifth year. Only one patient in the one-dose group had documented pneumococcal pneumonia (non-bacteraemic) and none had invasive pneumococcal disease in the 6.5 years of follow-up. Conclusions One or two doses of PCV7 achieve durable seroprotective responses in HIV-treated participants; however, two

  19. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  20. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Used in Children on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children and Adults in the United States: Analysis of Multisite, Population-based Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew R.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Schaffner, William; Lynfield, Ruth; Lexau, Catherine; Bennett, Nancy M.; Petit, Susan; Zansky, Shelley M.; Harrison, Lee H.; Reingold, Arthur; Miller, Lisa; Scherzinger, Karen; Thomas, Ann; Farley, Monica M.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pondo, Tracy; Rodgers, Loren; McGee, Lesley; Beall, Bernard; Jorgensen, James H.; Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background In 2000, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. and resulted in dramatic reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and modest increases in non-PCV7-type IPD. In 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the U.S. immunization schedule. We evaluated the effect of PCV13 use in children on IPD in children and adults in the U.S. Methods We used laboratory- and population-based data on incidence of IPD from CDC’s Emerging Infections Program / Active Bacterial Core surveillance in a time-series model to estimate the impact of vaccination. Cases of IPD during July 2004–June 2013 were classified as being caused by the PCV13 serotypes against which PCV7 has no effect (PCV13/nonPCV7). Findings Compared with incidence expected among children <5 years old if PCV7 alone had been continued, incidence of IPD overall and IPD caused by PCV13/nonPCV7 serotypes declined by 64% (95% interval estimate [IE] 59–68 %) and 93% (95%IE 91–94), respectively, by July 2012–June 2013. Among adults, incidence of IPD overall and PCV13/nonPCV7-type IPD also declined by 12–32% and 58–72%, respectively, depending on age. In all age groups, reductions were driven principally by changes in incidence of serotypes 19A and 7F. We estimate that over 30,000 cases of IPD and 3,000 deaths were averted in the first 3 years following PCV13 introduction. Interpretation PCV13 has reduced IPD among all ages when used routinely in children in the U.S. Serotypes 19A and 7F, which emerged after PCV7 introduction, have been effectively controlled. PMID:25656600

  1. Meningococcal Vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Sullivan, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium, is a common asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonizer that may infrequently lead to invasive disease in the form of meningitis or bacteremia. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for the majority of invasive infections. Increased risk of disease occurs in specific population groups including infants, adolescents, those with asplenia or complement deficiencies, and those residing in crowded living conditions such as in college dormitories. The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease varies geographically with some countries (e.g., in the African meningitis belt) having both high endemic disease rates and ongoing epidemics, with annual rates reaching 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with meningococcal disease, it remains a major global health threat best prevented by vaccination. Several countries have implemented vaccination programs with the selection of specific vaccine(s) based on locally prevalent serogroup(s) of N. meningitidis and targeting population groups at highest risk. Polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines became available over 40 years ago, but are limited by their inability to produce immunologic memory responses, poor immunogenicity in infants/children, hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses, and lack of efficacy against nasopharyngeal carriage. In 1999, the first meningococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced and have been successful in overcoming many of the shortcomings of polysaccharide vaccines. The implementation of meningococcal conjugate vaccination programs in many areas of the world (including the massive campaign in sub-Saharan Africa using a serogroup A conjugate vaccine) has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of meningococcal disease by both individual and population protection. Progressive advances in vaccinology have led to the recent licensure of two effective vaccines against serogroup B

  2. Deaths following vaccination: What does the evidence show?

    PubMed

    Miller, Elaine R; Moro, Pedro L; Cano, Maria; Shimabukuro, Tom T

    2015-06-26

    Vaccines are rigorously tested and monitored and are among the safest medical products we use. Millions of vaccinations are given to children and adults in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are rare. However, because of the high volume of use, coincidental adverse events including deaths, that are temporally associated with vaccination, do occur. When death occurs shortly following vaccination, loved ones and others might naturally question whether it was related to vaccination. A large body of evidence supports the safety of vaccines, and multiple studies and scientific reviews have found no association between vaccination and deaths except in rare cases. During the US multi-state measles outbreak of 2014-2015, unsubstantiated claims of deaths caused by measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine began circulating on the Internet, prompting responses by public health officials to address common misinterpretations and misuses of vaccine safety surveillance data, particularly around spontaneous reports submitted to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We summarize epidemiologic data on deaths following vaccination, including examples where reasonable scientific evidence exists to support that vaccination caused or contributed to deaths. Rare cases where a known or plausible theoretical risk of death following vaccination exists include anaphylaxis, vaccine-strain systemic infection after administration of live vaccines to severely immunocompromised persons, intussusception after rotavirus vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome after inactivated influenza vaccine, fall-related injuries associated with syncope after vaccination, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease or associated neurologic disease, serious complications from smallpox vaccine including eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, postvaccinal encephalitis, myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy, and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis from oral

  3. Deaths following vaccination: What does the evidence show?

    PubMed

    Miller, Elaine R; Moro, Pedro L; Cano, Maria; Shimabukuro, Tom T

    2015-06-26

    Vaccines are rigorously tested and monitored and are among the safest medical products we use. Millions of vaccinations are given to children and adults in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are rare. However, because of the high volume of use, coincidental adverse events including deaths, that are temporally associated with vaccination, do occur. When death occurs shortly following vaccination, loved ones and others might naturally question whether it was related to vaccination. A large body of evidence supports the safety of vaccines, and multiple studies and scientific reviews have found no association between vaccination and deaths except in rare cases. During the US multi-state measles outbreak of 2014-2015, unsubstantiated claims of deaths caused by measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine began circulating on the Internet, prompting responses by public health officials to address common misinterpretations and misuses of vaccine safety surveillance data, particularly around spontaneous reports submitted to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We summarize epidemiologic data on deaths following vaccination, including examples where reasonable scientific evidence exists to support that vaccination caused or contributed to deaths. Rare cases where a known or plausible theoretical risk of death following vaccination exists include anaphylaxis, vaccine-strain systemic infection after administration of live vaccines to severely immunocompromised persons, intussusception after rotavirus vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome after inactivated influenza vaccine, fall-related injuries associated with syncope after vaccination, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease or associated neurologic disease, serious complications from smallpox vaccine including eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, postvaccinal encephalitis, myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy, and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis from oral

  4. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated?Chickenpox (also called varicella) is a common childhood disease. It is usually mild, but it can be serious, especially in ...

  5. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. Reduction of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus in eggs from chickens once or twice vaccinated with an oil-emulsified inactivated H5 avian influenza vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...

  7. Public health perspective on vaccine-preventable hepatitis: integrating hepatitis A and B vaccines into public health settings.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Jody H; Schowalter, Laurie; Bailey, Stephanie B C

    2005-10-01

    Hepatitis A and B vaccinations can and should be integrated into public health settings that serve adults at high risk for infection (e.g., sexually transmitted disease and/or human immunodeficiency virus clinics, criminal justice settings), and a policy of universal immunization may be the best way to accomplish this goal in these settings. Although hepatitis vaccines should be given to all susceptible persons at risk, many opportunities to vaccinate adults at high risk are missed, and there are several barriers and challenges to vaccination of adults. These challenges and barriers can be overcome. Successful integration of hepatitis vaccination for adults into existing public health services and clinics has been accomplished across the United States at both state and local levels. Additional funds must be provided for the infrastructure and purchase of vaccines for adults in these settings.

  8. [HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed. PMID:27268446

  9. Immunogenicity and Safety of Four Different Dosing Regimens of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for Anthrax in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I.; Jackson, Lisa; Patel, Shital M.; El Sahly, Hana M.; Spearman, Paul; Rouphael, Nadine; Rudge, Thomas L.; Hill, Heather; Goll, Johannes B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Strategies to implement post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in case of an anthrax bioterror event are needed. To increase the number of doses of vaccine available we evaluated reducing the amount of vaccine administered at each of the vaccinations, and reducing the number of doses administered. Methods Healthy male and non-pregnant female subjects between the ages of 18 and 65 were enrolled and randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of four study arms to receive 0.5 mL (standard dose) of vaccine subcutaneously (SQ) at: A) days 0, 14; B) days 0 and 28; C) days 0, 14, and 28; or D) 0.25 ml at days 0, 14, and 28. A booster was provided on day 180. Safety was assessed after each dose. Blood was obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 84, 100, 180, and 201 and both Toxin Neutralizing antibody and anti-PA IgG antibody measured. Results Almost all subjects developed some local reactions with 46% to 64% reported to be of moderate severity and 3.3% severe during the primary series. Vaccine groups that included a day 14 dose induced a ≥4 fold antibody rise in more subjects on days 21, 28 and 35 than the arm without a day 14 dose. However, schedules with a full day 28 dose induced higher peak levels of antibody that persisted longer. The half dose regimen did not induce antibody as well as the full dose study arms. Conclusion Depending on the extent of the outbreak, effectiveness of antibiotics and availability of vaccine, the full dose 0, 28 or 0, 14, 28 schedules may have advantages. PMID:25239484

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a vaccination program for the prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults aged 50 and over in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Préaud, Emmanuelle; Uhart, Mathieu; Böhm, Katharina; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Anger, Delphine; Bianic, Florence; Largeron, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) is a common viral disease that affects the nerves and surrounding skin causing a painful dermatomal rash and leading to debilitating complications such as, mainly, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HZ and PHN. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a HZ vaccination program in Germany. An existing Markov Model was adapted to the German healthcare setting to compare a vaccination policy to no vaccination on a lifetime time-horizon, considering 2 scenarios: vaccinating people starting at the age of 50 or at the age of 60 years, from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) and the societal perspective. According to the perspective, vaccinating 20% of the 60+ German population resulted in 162,713 to 186,732 HZ and 31,657 to 35,793 PHN cases avoided. Corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were 39,306 €/QALY from the SHI perspective and 37,417 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Results for the 50+ German population ranged from 336,468 to 394,575 HZ and from 48,637 to 56,087 PHN cases avoided from the societal perspective. Corresponding ICER were 39,782 €/QALY from a SHI perspective and 32,848 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are mainly impacted by discount rates, utility values and use of alternative epidemiological data.The model indicated that a HZ vaccination policy in Germany leads to significant public health benefits and could be a cost-effective intervention. The results were robust and consistent with local and international existing literature. PMID:25933182

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a vaccination program for the prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults aged 50 and over in Germany.

    PubMed

    Préaud, Emmanuelle; Uhart, Mathieu; Böhm, Katharina; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Anger, Delphine; Bianic, Florence; Largeron, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) is a common viral disease that affects the nerves and surrounding skin causing a painful dermatomal rash and leading to debilitating complications such as, mainly, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HZ and PHN. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a HZ vaccination program in Germany. An existing Markov Model was adapted to the German healthcare setting to compare a vaccination policy to no vaccination on a lifetime time-horizon, considering 2 scenarios: vaccinating people starting at the age of 50 or at the age of 60 years, from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) and the societal perspective. According to the perspective, vaccinating 20% of the 60+ German population resulted in 162,713 to 186,732 HZ and 31,657 to 35,793 PHN cases avoided. Corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were 39,306 €/QALY from the SHI perspective and 37,417 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Results for the 50+ German population ranged from 336,468 to 394,575 HZ and from 48,637 to 56,087 PHN cases avoided from the societal perspective. Corresponding ICER were 39,782 €/QALY from a SHI perspective and 32,848 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are mainly impacted by discount rates, utility values and use of alternative epidemiological data.The model indicated that a HZ vaccination policy in Germany leads to significant public health benefits and could be a cost-effective intervention. The results were robust and consistent with local and international existing literature.

  12. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  13. [Pretravel vaccination].

    PubMed

    Koch, Claus

    2005-10-17

    Vaccination is a simple and effective way to protect against certain infectious diseases and is nearly always to be recommended when one is travelling to countries with lesser hygienic standards. This report provides guidance on immunization concerns and describes the individual vaccines most commonly used in travel medicine.

  14. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause problems like genital warts and some kinds of cancer, a vaccine is an important step in preventing infection and protecting against the spread of HPV. That's why doctors recommend that all girls and guys get the vaccine at these ages: ...

  15. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  16. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be given at least 2 weeks before travel to allow the vaccine time to work. A booster dose is needed every ... should be given at least 1 week before travel to allow the vaccine time to work. Swallow each dose about an hour ...

  17. Dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Simasathien, Sriluck; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai

    2005-11-01

    Dengue is an expanding health problem. About two-fifths of the world population are at risk for acquiring dengue with 50-100 million cases of acute febrile illness yearly including about 500,000 cases of DHF/DSS. No antiviral drugs active against the flavivirus exist. Attempts to control mosquito vector has been largely unsuccessful. Vaccination remains the most hopeful preventive measure. Dengue vaccine has been in development for more than 30 years, yet none has been licensed. The fact that enhancing antibody from previous infection and high level of T cell activation during secondary infection contribute to immunopathology of DHF, the vaccine must be able to induce protective response to four dengue serotypes simultaneously. Inactivated vaccine is safe but needs a repeated booster thus, development is delayed. Tetravalent live attenuated vaccine and chimeric vaccine using yellow fever or dengue viruses as a backbone are being carried out in human trials. DNA vaccine and subunit vaccine are being carried out in animal trials.

  18. Self-reported hepatitis A vaccination as a predictor of hepatitis A virus antibody protection in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Denniston, Maxine M.; Klevens, R. Monina; Jiles, Ruth B.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the predictive value of self-reported hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) receipt for the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody (anti-HAV) from either past infection or vaccination, as an indicator of HAV protection. Methods Using 2007–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we assigned participants to 4 groups based on self-reported HepA receipt and anti-HAV results. We compared characteristics across groups and calculated three measures of agreement between self-report and serologic status (anti- HAV): percentage concordance, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values. Using logistic regression we investigated factors associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. Results Demographic and other characteristics varied significantly across the 4 groups. Overall agreement between self-reported HepA receipt and serological results was 63.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.9–65.2); PPV and NPV of self-reported vaccination status for serological result were 47.0% (95% CI 44.2–49.8) and 69.4% (95% CI 67.0–71.8), respectively. Mexican American and foreign-born adults had the highest PPVs (71.5% [95% CI 65.9–76.5], and 75.8% [95% CI 71.4–79.7]) and the lowest NPVs (21.8% [95% CI 18.5–25.4], and 20.0% [95% CI 17.2–23.1]), respectively. Young (ages 20–29 years), US-born, and non-Hispanic White adults had the lowest PPVs (37.9% [95% CI 34.5–41.5], 39.1% [95% CI, 36.0–42.3], and 39.8% [36.1–43.7]), and the highest NPVs (76.9% [95% CI 72.2–81.0, 78.5% [95% CI 76.5–80.4)], and 80.6% [95% CI 78.2–82.8), respectively. Multivariate logistic analyses found age, race/ethnicity, education, place of birth and income to be significantly associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. Conclusions When assessing hepatitis A protection, self-report of not having received HepA was most likely to identify persons at risk

  19. Combination Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Skibinski, David AG; Baudner, Barbara C; Singh, Manmohan; O’Hagan, Derek T

    2011-01-01

    The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B); and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines. PMID:21572611

  20. Research for a Swan Vaccine Serves as the Impetus for the Development of a Science and Reading Curriculum for K-16 and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Fanchon F.; Bolin, Sheila A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, investigators from Florida's Regal Swan Project researched the care of captive swans in hotels, resorts, educational settings, and municipalities. This led to a vaccine to mitigate swan deaths from botulism and a book with standards and guidelines for swan keepers worldwide. Research was shared through a science and reading curriculum…

  1. The Impact of Order Set Use on Pneumococcal Vaccination at the Time of Admission and at the Time of Discharge for Adult Patients in an Acute Inpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal vaccination (PV) is important as Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for one third of all hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia. In 2009, 1.1 million people in the U.S. were hospitalized with pneumonia and more than 50,000 people died from the disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that…

  2. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

  3. Evaluation of the immune response to RTS,S/AS01 and RTS,S/AS02 adjuvanted vaccines: randomized, double-blind study in malaria-naïve adults.

    PubMed

    Leroux-Roels, Geert; Leroux-Roels, Isabel; Clement, Frédéric; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua; Lievens, Marc; Jongert, Erik; Moris, Philippe; Ballou, W Ripley; Cohen, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This phase II, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the immunogenicity of RTS,S vaccines containing Adjuvant System AS01 or AS02 as compared with non-adjuvanted RTS,S in healthy, malaria-naïve adults (NCT00443131). Thirty-six subjects were randomized (1:1:1) to receive RTS,S/AS01, RTS,S/AS02, or RTS,S/saline at months 0, 1, and 2. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) and hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigens were assessed and cell-mediated immune responses evaluated by flow cytometry using intracellular cytokine staining on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Anti-CS antibody avidity was also characterized. Safety and reactogenicity after each vaccine dose were monitored. One month after the third vaccine dose, RTS,S/AS01 (160.3 EU/mL [95%CI: 114.1-225.4]) and RTS,S/AS02 (77.4 EU/mL (95%CI: 47.3-126.7)) recipients had significantly higher anti-CS antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) than recipients of RTS,S/saline (12.2 EU/mL (95%CI: 4.8-30.7); P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0011, respectively). The anti-CS antibody GMT was significantly higher with RTS,S/AS01 than with RTS,S/AS02 (P = 0.0135). Anti-CS antibody avidity was in the same range in all groups. CS- and HBs-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were greater for both RTS,S/AS groups than for the RTS,S/saline group. Reactogenicity was in general higher for RTS,S/AS compared with RTS,S/saline. Most grade 3 solicited adverse events (AEs) were of short duration and grade 3 solicited general AEs were infrequent in the 3 groups. No serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, in comparison with non-adjuvanted RTS,S, both RTS,S/AS vaccines exhibited better CS-specific immune responses. The anti-CS antibody response was significantly higher with RTS,S/AS01 than with RTS,S/AS02. The adjuvanted vaccines had acceptable safety profiles.

  4. Increasing Active Student Responding in a University Applied Behavior Analysis Course: The Effect of Daily Assessment and Response Cards on End of Week Quiz Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malanga, Paul R.; Sweeney, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The study compared the effects of daily assessment and response cards on average weekly quiz scores in an introduction to applied behavior analysis course. An alternating treatments design (Kazdin 1982, "Single-case research designs." New York: Oxford University Press; Cooper et al. 2007, "Applied behavior analysis." Upper Saddle River:…

  5. Meta-Analysis of the Research on Response Cards: Effects on Test Achievement, Quiz Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2007-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, the author analyzed 18 response card articles, theses, or dissertations to determine the magnitude of effect that response card strategies have on test achievement, quiz achievement, class participation, and intervals of off-task behavior. The author also determined whether the type of response cards used or the presence or…

  6. [Influenza vaccination present and future].

    PubMed

    Eich, G

    2007-11-01

    In healthy adults younger than 65 years the effectiveness of influenza vaccination is up to 90% for laboratory confirmed influenza, but is far less in elderly individuals over 65 years and those with comorbidities. However the vaccination in elderly people is effective in preventing complications of influenza infection: pneumonia, hospital admission and death from influenza or pneumonia. This effect is larger for elderly individuals living in nursing homes than in those living in the community. Recommendations at present include vaccination of all people over the age of 65, of high-risk groups, and of those who can transmit influenza to high-risk individuals (healthcare workers). Since 2005 it is recommended that people with occupational contact with wild or domestic birds should be vaccinated to reduce the risk of simultaneous infection with a human and an avian influenza virus. Influenza vaccination is considered to be safe: side effects are reversible within 1-2 days, severe complications are exceedingly rare. Most frequently inactivated vaccines are used, but in the USA there is also an attenuated live vaccine available. They all contain surface antigens of two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. The world health organization (WHO) selects every year the strains to be included in the vaccine and the viruses are then grown on embryonated chicken eggs. This process requires detailed planning up to 6 months. Because a pandemic event cannot be predicted, this period is too long and there is an urgent need to develop techniques to reduce the vaccine production time and enhance its efficacy. Additionally, several researchers are exploring the possibility of generating a universal vaccine against influenza A virus that does not require reformulation on an annual basis.

  7. Teaching resources for dermatology on the WWW--quiz system and dynamic lecture scripts using a HTTP-database demon.

    PubMed Central

    Bittorf, A.; Diepgen, T. L.

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is becoming the major way of acquiring information in all scientific disciplines as well as in business. It is very well suitable for fast distribution and exchange of up to date teaching resources. However, to date most teaching applications on the Web do not use its full power by integrating interactive components. We have set up a computer based training (CBT) framework for Dermatology, which consists of dynamic lecture scripts, case reports, an atlas and a quiz system. All these components heavily rely on an underlying image database that permits the creation of dynamic documents. We used a demon process that keeps the database open and can be accessed using HTTP to achieve better performance and avoid the overhead involved by starting CGI-processes. The result of our evaluation was very encouraging. Images Figure 3 PMID:8947625

  8. A randomized clinical trial in adults and newborns in South Africa to compare the safety and immunogenicity of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine administration via a disposable-syringe jet injector to conventional technique with needle and syringe

    PubMed Central

    Geldenhuys, Hennie D.; Mearns, Helen; Foster, Jennifer; Saxon, Eugene; Kagina, Benjamin; Saganic, Laura; Jarrahian, Courtney; Tameris, Michele D.; Dintwe, One B.; Van Rooyen, Michele; Luabeya, Kany-Kany A.; Hussey, Gregory; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hatherill, Mark; Zehrung, Darin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intradermal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination by needle-free, disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJI) is an alternative to the Mantoux method using needle and syringe (NS). We compared the safety and immunogenicity of BCG administration via the DSJI and NS techniques in adults and newborn infants at the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (SATVI) research site in South Africa. Method Thirty adults and 66 newborn infants were randomized 1:1 to receive intradermal BCG vaccine (0.1 mL in adults; 0.05 mL in infants) via DSJI or NS. Wheal diameter (mm) and skin fluid deposition at the site of injection (SOI) were measured immediately post-vaccination. Adverse events and SOI reactogenicity data were collected 30 min and 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after vaccination for adults and at 30 min and 4, 10, and 14 weeks for infants. Blood was collected in infants at 10 and 14 weeks to assess BCG-specific T-cell immune responses. Results More infant BCG vaccinations by DSJI deposited >5 μL fluid on the skin surface, compared to NS (49% versus 9%, p = 0.001). However, all 12 infant vaccinations that did not produce any SOI wheal occurred in the NS group (36%, p < 0.001). Median wheal diameter, in participants for which an SOI wheal formed, did not differ significantly between groups in infants (combined 3.0 mm IQR 2.0 to 4.0, p = 0.59) or in adults (combined 9.0 mm IQR 7.0 to 10.0, p = 0.13). Adverse events were similar between study arms. Proportion of participants with BCG scars after three months did not differ in adults (combined 97%, p = 0.67) or infants (combined 62%, p = 0.13). Frequencies of BCG-specific clusters of differentiation 4 (CD4) and clusters of differentiation 8 (CD8) T-cells co-expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and/or IL-17 were not different in the DSJI and NS groups. Conclusion BCG vaccination of newborn infants via DSJI was more likely to deliver an appropriate intradermal wheal at the SOI as compared to NS

  9. Tuberculosis: from genome to vaccine.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Marien I; Brosch, Roland; Brodin, Priscille; Demangel, Caroline; Cole, Stewart T

    2005-08-01

    The availability of mycobacterial genome sequences has paved the way to identifying potential tuberculosis vaccine candidates in order to replace the currently used bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines that show variable protective efficacy in adults. Genomics provides the basis for bioinformatic, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis, increases screening efficiency and enables valuable information concerning the biology and virulence of the mycobacterial species to be extracted by comparative genomics. Although in silico results must be confirmed in vitro and in vivo, bioinformatic analysis of the genomes is highlighting candidates for testing. For designing subunit vaccines, attenuated or improved recombinant whole-cell live vaccines, information from the genomes of the human host and pathogenic mycobacterial species is of great help.

  10. Rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging results have been reported from several large trials of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine, with efficacy of 70-80% against severe disease. A recent Venezuelan study showed similar results to trials in USA and Europe. The vaccine may soon be licensed in USA. It provides the exciting prospect of a strategy to prevent one of the world's major child killers. Other candidate vaccines are under development including human-bovine reassortants, neonatal strains, non-replicating rotaviruses, vector vaccines and other genetically engineered products. Second and third generation rotavirus vaccines are on the horizon. The need for a rotavirus vaccine is well accepted by paediatricians, but public health authorities need to be lobbied. Other issues which need to be addressed include relative importance of non-group A rotaviruses, possible administration with OPV, the influence of breast feeding, and most importantly, cost. It is essential that rotavirus vaccine is somehow made available to all of the world's children, not just those in developed countries. PMID:9553287

  11. A historically-controlled Phase III study in adults to characterize the acceptability of a process change for manufacturing inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) was recently licenced in the US as a thimerosal-free formulation presented in a pre-filled syringe. A multidose presentation is preferred in some settings due to reduced acquisition and cold storage costs. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a thimerosal-containing QIV formulated using a new manufacturing process for presentation in multidose vials. Methods Two Phase III non-randomized studies separately evaluated inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV; 2010–2011; historical control) and a QIV (2011–2012). The QIV contained the same strains as the TIV plus an additional B strain. Both vaccines contained thimerosal to allow multidose presentation: this preservative was added to the QIV during the final formulation step using a new process, whereas it was added to the TIV early in the manufacturing process using an established method. The TIV study included 50 and 70 subjects aged 18–60 and >60 years, respectively; the QIV study included 56 subjects in each age stratum. Immunogenicity was assessed using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays. Reactogenicity was assessed during the 4-day post-vaccination periods and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were assessed during the 21-day post-vaccination periods. Results The TIV and QIV were immunogenic in both age strata. With the QIV and TIV respectively, the seroconversion rates were 48.2–62.7% and 71.4–83.7% for influenza A, and 33.9–62.5% and 67.3–72.9% for influenza B. With the QIV and TIV respectively, the seroprotection rates were 92.9–98.2% and 98.2–100% for influenza A, and 88.6–100% and 95.9–98.6% for influenza B. Pre-vaccination titers were higher in the QIV versus TIV study which confounds a direct comparison and likely explains the lower seroconversion rates observed in the QIV study. There were no safety concerns raised with TIV or QIV. Conclusions The thimerosal-containing QIV formulated using a new process

  12. Role of vaccination in economic growth

    PubMed Central

    Quilici, Sibilia; Smith, Richard; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The health of a population is important from a public health and economic perspective as healthy individuals contribute to economic growth. Vaccination has the potential to contribute substantially to improving population health and thereby economic growth. Childhood vaccination programmes in Europe can offer protection against 15 important infectious diseases, thus preventing child fatalities and any serious temporary and permanent sequelae that can occur. Healthy children are more able to participate in education, thus preparing them to become healthy and productive adults. Vaccination programmes can also prevent infectious diseases in adolescents, thus allowing them to continue their development towards a healthy adulthood. Protecting adults against infectious diseases ensures that they can fully contribute to productivity and economic development by avoiding sick leave and lower productivity. Vaccination in older adults will contribute to the promotion of healthy ageing, enabling them to assist their familiy with, for instance, childcare, and also help them avoid functional decline and the related impacts on health and welfare expenditure. Effective vaccination programmes for all ages in Europe will thus contribute to the European Union's 2020 health and economic strategies. Indeed, beyond their impact on healthcare resources and productivity, reductions in mortality and morbidity also contribute to increased consumption and gross domestic product. Therefore, assessment of the value of vaccines and vaccination needs to consider not just the direct impact on health and healthcare but also the wider impact on economic growth, which requires a macroeconomic analysis of vaccination programmes. PMID:27123174

  13. Role of vaccination in economic growth.

    PubMed

    Quilici, Sibilia; Smith, Richard; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The health of a population is important from a public health and economic perspective as healthy individuals contribute to economic growth. Vaccination has the potential to contribute substantially to improving population health and thereby economic growth. Childhood vaccination programmes in Europe can offer protection against 15 important infectious diseases, thus preventing child fatalities and any serious temporary and permanent sequelae that can occur. Healthy children are more able to participate in education, thus preparing them to become healthy and productive adults. Vaccination programmes can also prevent infectious diseases in adolescents, thus allowing them to continue their development towards a healthy adulthood. Protecting adults against infectious diseases ensures that they can fully contribute to productivity and economic development by avoiding sick leave and lower productivity. Vaccination in older adults will contribute to the promotion of healthy ageing, enabling them to assist their familiy with, for instance, childcare, and also help them avoid functional decline and the related impacts on health and welfare expenditure. Effective vaccination programmes for all ages in Europe will thus contribute to the European Union's 2020 health and economic strategies. Indeed, beyond their impact on healthcare resources and productivity, reductions in mortality and morbidity also contribute to increased consumption and gross domestic product. Therefore, assessment of the value of vaccines and vaccination needs to consider not just the direct impact on health and healthcare but also the wider impact on economic growth, which requires a macroeconomic analysis of vaccination programmes.

  14. Meningococcal Vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Sullivan, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium, is a common asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonizer that may infrequently lead to invasive disease in the form of meningitis or bacteremia. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for the majority of invasive infections. Increased risk of disease occurs in specific population groups including infants, adolescents, those with asplenia or complement deficiencies, and those residing in crowded living conditions such as in college dormitories. The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease varies geographically with some countries (e.g., in the African meningitis belt) having both high endemic disease rates and ongoing epidemics, with annual rates reaching 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with meningococcal disease, it remains a major global health threat best prevented by vaccination. Several countries have implemented vaccination programs with the selection of specific vaccine(s) based on locally prevalent serogroup(s) of N. meningitidis and targeting population groups at highest risk. Polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines became available over 40 years ago, but are limited by their inability to produce immunologic memory responses, poor immunogenicity in infants/children, hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses, and lack of efficacy against nasopharyngeal carriage. In 1999, the first meningococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced and have been successful in overcoming many of the shortcomings of polysaccharide vaccines. The implementation of meningococcal conjugate vaccination programs in many areas of the world (including the massive campaign in sub-Saharan Africa using a serogroup A conjugate vaccine) has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of meningococcal disease by both individual and population protection. Progressive advances in vaccinology have led to the recent licensure of two effective vaccines against serogroup B

  15. [Rabbies vaccination].

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    With very few exceptions, rabies is occurring around the globe. The clinical course of this mammal-transmitted infection is almost universally fatal. Thus, the disease is causing more human deaths than any other zoonosis. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, pre- or post-exposure vaccination remains the only effective means to avoid development of fatal disease. Save and highly effective cell culture vaccines which have been available for decades provide long-lasting protection. Various vaccination schedules have been tested and are being recommended. PMID:27268449

  16. Current vaccination status regarding measles among university students in Dresden, Germany.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, Henna; Schübel, Jeannine; Bergmann, Antje; Kugler, Joachim; Voigt, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Germany aimed to eliminate measles by 2015, but vaccination coverage is still insufficient, especially in respect to adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional survey with 711 students studying a range of subjects showed a high acceptance regarding vaccination. Actual self-reported vaccination rates were lower; only 65.5% of medical students and 25.3%-39.4% of other student groups reported complete vaccination against measles. Of the students, 12.6%-45% did not know their vaccination status. Vaccination acceptance did not correlate with vaccination behavior: accessible vaccination opportunities at universities should be offered.

  17. The immunogenicity in humans of a botulinum type F vaccine.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, V A; Makuch, R S; Brown, J E; Hack, D C

    1999-11-12

    A purified monovalent botulinum type F toxoid vaccine was administered to 35 healthy adult volunteers in a phase I clinical trial. Serum samples from the vaccinated volunteers were evaluated for an antibody response at various time intervals over 1 year by mouse bioassay and ELISA. The antibody response was measured for varying doses of vaccine (2, 5, or 10 microg), and after single or multiple (two or three doses @ 10 microg) vaccinations. Six out of 15 (40%) individuals developed antibody titers after receiving a single dose. After two and three vaccinations, there was a 90% (18/20) and 100% (10/10) seroconversion rate, respectively. Eight months after initial injection, 57 and 63% of individuals were antibody positive following two or three vaccinations, respectively. Single vaccinations, at any of the tested dosages, elicited lower, if any, antibody response than did multiple vaccinations. After the third vaccination, ELISA titers positively correlated with mouse neutralization bioassay titers (r(2)=0.86).

  18. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    Khurana, S K; Talib, V H

    1996-12-01

    Recently it has become evident that he same candidate antigen can be shared by several of the parasite stages, and thus the concept of a multistage vaccine is becoming more and more attractive. A TDR Task Force evaluated the promise and stage of development of some 20 existing asexual blood stage candidate antigens and prepared a strategy for their development leading to clinical testing and field trials, Amongst these are merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1), Serine Rich Antigen (SERA), Apical Membrane Antigen (AMA-1), and Erythrocyte Binding Antigen (EBA). A field study conducted in Tanzanian children showed that the SPf66 Colombian vaccine was safe, induced antibodies, and reduced the risk of developing clinical malaria by around 30%. This study, confirmed the potential of the vaccine to confer partial protection in areas of high as well as low intensity of transmission. Pfs25 is a leading candidate antigen for a transmission blocking vaccine. It is found in the ookinete stage of the parasite in the mosquito midgut. Gramme amounts of GMP-grade material have been produced and a vaccine based on the Pfs25 antigen formulated with alum should have gone into phase I and II clinical trials in the USA and Africa during 1995. Because the first malaria prototype vaccine to be tried out in people on a large scale has been the polymerized synthetic peptide developed by patarroye on the basis of the SPf66 antigen of P. faliciparum, the results are with much interest. It is still premature to predict the effectiveness of this vaccine globally, but its development will encourage further progress in a fields that has repeatedly been characterized by raised and then dashed drops. These various vaccines are based on the classical approach to vaccination, which is to raise host immunity against the parasite so as to reduce parasite densities or to sterilize an infection. A newer approach is development of antidisease vaccines which aim to alleviate morbidity by suppressing

  19. Immune Responses to O-Specific Polysaccharide and Lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Adult Bangladeshi Recipients of an Oral Killed Cholera Vaccine and Comparison to Responses in Patients with Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Taher; Aktar, Amena; Xu, Peng; Johnson, Russell A.; Rahman, M. Arifur; Leung, Daniel T.; Afrin, Sadia; Akter, Aklima; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Rahman, Atiqur; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Bufano, Meagan K.; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Yu, Yanan; Wu-Freeman, Ying; Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Charles, Richelle C.; Kováč, Pavol; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-01-01

    Protective immunity to cholera is serogroup specific, and serogrouping is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We characterized OSP-specific immune responses in adult recipients of an oral killed cholera vaccine (OCV WC-rBS) and compared these with responses in patients with cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Although vaccinees developed plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA antibody and antibody secreting cell (ASC, marker of mucosal response) to Ogawa OSP and LPS 7 days after vaccination, responses were significantly lower than that which occurred after cholera. Similarly, patients recovering from cholera had detectable IgA, IgM, and IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against OSP and LPS on Day 30 and Day 90, whereas vaccinees only developed IgG responses to OSP 30 days after the second immunization. The markedly lower ASC and MBC responses to OSP and LPS observed among vaccinees might explain, in part, the lower protection of an OCV compared with natural infection. PMID:24686738

  20. Aerosolized MMR vaccine: evaluating potential transmission of components to vaccine administrators and contacts of vaccinees.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ortega, Jose-Luis; Bennett, John V; Castaneda, Deyanira; Martinez, David; Fernandez de Castro, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    Although numerous operative and immunological advantages accompany aerosol immunization, potential vaccine virus transmission from the aerosol device to vaccine administrators or from aerosol vaccinees to their contacts requires further study. We conducted a clinical and serological follow-up study of vaccine administrators and matched classroom or household contacts of young adults who received the MMR vaccines by aerosol or injection. Differences in incidence of clinical adverse events between vaccinees and contacts were not statistically significant. No seroresponses to any components of MMR vaccine were noted among 25 matched contacts of persons receiving injected vaccines, and only one equivocal seroresponse was noted among 25 matched contacts of aerosol recipients. No seroresponses were observed in 3 persons who administered aerosol vaccine. The composite findings of this study provide additional evidence of the safety of this approach.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant protein influenza A vaccine in adult human volunteers and protective efficacy against wild-type H1N1 virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Fries, L F; Dillon, S B; Hildreth, J E; Karron, R A; Funkhouser, A W; Friedman, C J; Jones, C S; Culleton, V G; Clements, M L

    1993-03-01

    A recombinant influenza A vaccine (D protein), comprising a carboxy-terminal sequence from the hemagglutinin HA2 subunit of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus (H1N1, A/PR/34) fused to 81 amino-terminal residues of the NS1 nonstructural protein, has previously protected mice against influenza A challenge by inducing H1N1/H2N2 cross-reactive cytotoxic T cells (CTL) without hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) or neutralizing antibody. In our dose-escalating study, the vaccine was safe in humans and induced both IgG and T cell proliferative responses to D protein but little antibody to A/PR/34 or A/Kawasaki/8/86 (H1N1, A/KW/86) viruses. Among an additional group of A/KW/86-seronegative volunteers immunized with 500 micrograms of D protein, none had a rise in serum HI or neutralizing antibody to A/KW/86, 20% had minimal IgG responses to A/KW/86 by EIA, and a minority had any increase in A/KW/86-specific CTL activity. However, viral shedding and clinical illness score were reduced in vaccines relative to A/KW/86-seronegative unimmunized controls after intranasal challenge with wild-type A/KW/86. D protein immunization conferred significant protective immunity not currently explained by any of the immune parameters measured.

  2. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a new inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in concurrent administration with a typhoid fever vaccine or a typhoid fever + yellow fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dumas, R; Forrat, R; Lang, J; Farinelli, T; Loutan, L

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of concomitant administration of a new inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine and either a typhoid fever (Vi) vaccine or a combination of Vi and yellow fever (YF) vaccines. In study 1, 62 healthy adults received HA+Vi into the deltoid muscle on contralateral sides. In study 2, 59 healthy adults received HA and a combined Vi/YF vaccine into the contralateral deltoid muscles. Reactogenicity was evaluated for 14 days following vaccination. Blood samples (for antibody titration) were obtained prior to vaccination on days 0 and 28 in study 1 and prior to vaccination on day 0 and on days 14 and 28 in study 2. The overall rate of local reactions was 19% at the HA injection site and 75% at the Vi injection site in study 1; the rate of systemic reactions was 41%. In study 2, local reactions occurred at 27% and 78% of the HA and Vi/YF injection sites; the rate of systemic reactions was 42%. All reactions were transient. Twenty-eight days after vaccination, the seroconversion rate was 100% for HA antibodies and 90% for the Vi vaccine in study 1. Rates of seroconversion in study 2 were 100% for the HA vaccine, 92% for the Vi vaccine, and 100% for the YF vaccine. Although this study was not comparative, both tested combinations were safe and immunogenic, and their routine use for persons at risk, such as travelers, can be recommended.

  4. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  5. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  6. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... The best way to prevent it is through vaccinations. The childhood vaccine is called DTaP. The whooping ...

  7. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  8. Survey of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination in Pregnancy: Education, Knowledge, and Barriers to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Emily E.; Hoppe, Kara K.; Schulkin, Jay; Eckert, Linda O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination. Methods. We administered a 22-question survey to OB/GYN residents about maternal pneumococcal vaccination. We performed descriptive analysis for each question. Results. 238 OB/GYN residents responded. Overall, 69.3% of residents reported receiving vaccination education and 86.0% reported having ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. Most residents knew that asplenia (78.2%), pulmonary disease (77.3%), and HIV/AIDS (69.4%) are indications for vaccination but less knew that cardiovascular disease (45.0%), diabetes (35.8%), asthma (42.8%), nephrotic syndrome (19.7%), and renal failure (33.6%) are also indications for vaccination. Conclusion. OB/GYN residents are taught about vaccines and have ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. However, knowledge of indications for pneumococcal vaccination in pregnancy is lacking. Likely, the opportunity to vaccinate at-risk pregnant patients is being missed. PMID:26949324

  9. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress

  10. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  11. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  12. KLRG1 and PD-1 expression are increased on T-cells following tuberculosis-treatment and identify cells with different proliferative capacities in BCG-vaccinated adults.

    PubMed

    Boer, Mardi C; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Goletti, Delia; Vanini, Valentina; Prins, Corine; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Joosten, Simone A

    2016-03-01

    In cancer and chronic infectious diseases, immune checkpoint-blockade of inhibitory receptors can enhance T-cell immunity. In tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease, prolonged antigen exposure can potentially drive terminal T-cell differentiation towards functional 'exhaustion': in human TB T-cells express PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4). However, in murine TB not PD-1 but rather killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily-G1 (KLRG1) was a superior indicator of terminal T-cell differentiation. We therefore compared expression of KLRG1, PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T-cells in different stages of human TB, and also analysed their induction following BCG-vaccination. KLRG1, PD-1 and CTLA-4-expression were highest on in vitro BCG-stimulated CD4(+) T-cells following recent TB-treatment; KLRG1 and PD-1-expression on CD4(+) T-cells in active--but not latent--TB were only slightly increased compared to healthy donors. BCG-vaccination induced KLRG1-expression on BCG-stimulated CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T-cells, while neither PD-1 nor CTLA-4-expression increased. KLRG1-expressing CD8(+) T-cells exhibited markedly decreased proliferation, whereas PD-1(+) T-cells proliferated after in vitro BCG-stimulation. Thus, we demonstrate the presence of increased KLRG1-expressing T-cells in TB-treated individuals, and present KLRG1 as a marker of decreased human T-cell proliferation following BCG-vaccination. These results expand our understanding of cell-mediated immune control of mycobacterial infections.

  13. Combination hepatitis a-hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A J; Balfour, J A

    1997-09-01

    The adult formulation of this combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B vaccine contains 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU) of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A virus strain HM175 and 20mug of recombinant DNA yeast-derived hepatitis B surface antigen adsorbed onto aluminium salts in 1ml for injection. The paediatric formulation contains half this dosage in 0.5ml for injection. The combination vaccine has been shown to be highly immunogenic in healthy young adults after the full dosage schedule of 3 doses at 0, 1 and 6 months. Trials in older adults and children indicate that immunogenicity is adequate in these groups also. The immunogenicity of the combination vaccine appears to be similar to that of hepatitis A vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine administered separately. Possible advantages for the combination vaccine recipient include fewer injections and lower costs. Local adverse reactions such as soreness at the injection site, redness and swelling occur often with the first dose of the series, but the incidence falls with subsequent doses. Local reactions are usually mild and transient, and reported systemic reactions (fatigue, headache) are thought not to have a causal link with the vaccine. PMID:18020513

  14. Nanoparticle vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Seth, Arjun; Wibowo, Nani; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Mitter, Neena; Yu, Chengzhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology increasingly plays a significant role in vaccine development. As vaccine development orientates toward less immunogenic "minimalist" compositions, formulations that boost antigen effectiveness are increasingly needed. The use of nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only improved antigen stability and immunogenicity, but also targeted delivery and slow release. A number of nanoparticle vaccines varying in composition, size, shape, and surface properties have been approved for human use and the number of candidates is increasing. However, challenges remain due to a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the in vivo behavior of nanoparticles, which can operate as either a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and/or as an immunostimulant adjuvant to activate or enhance immunity. This review provides a broad overview of recent advances in prophylactic nanovaccinology. Types of nanoparticles used are outlined and their interaction with immune cells and the biosystem are discussed. Increased knowledge and fundamental understanding of nanoparticle mechanism of action in both immunostimulatory and delivery modes, and better understanding of in vivo biodistribution and fate, are urgently required, and will accelerate the rational design of nanoparticle-containing vaccines. PMID:24295808

  15. Cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H

    2015-04-22

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients' immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes.

  16. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.

  17. Development and evaluation of a web-based assent for adolescents considering an HIV vaccine trial.

    PubMed

    Blake, Diane R; Lemay, Celeste A; Maranda, Louise S; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Kearney, Margaret H; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    HIV vaccine trials with minors will likely require parental permission and informed assent from adolescents. For this to be a valid process, the information needs to be presented in a manner that promotes adolescent comprehension. Previous studies suggest that adolescent comprehension of assent is often insufficient. We developed an interactive web-based assent that included interspersed quiz questions for a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial. Efficacy of the web-based assent was compared to a standard paper assent with and without interspersed questions. One hundred twenty teen participants, ages 15-17 years, from five community organizations were randomized to self-administered web-based assent (n=60) or investigator-administered paper assent with (n=29) or without (n=31) interspersed quiz questions. After reviewing the assent, participants completed a 27-item comprehension test. Comprehension scores were compared between groups. The mean number of correctly answered questions were 21.2 for the full paper group and 21.1 for the web-based group (t118=-0.08, p=0.94). Scores were 20.2 for the paper without interspersed questions sub-group and 22.1 for the paper with interspersed questions sub-group (t58=1.96, p=0.055). Participants in the web-based group performed as well on the comprehension test as those in the paper group, and those in the paper with questions sub-group performed better than those in the paper without questions sub-group, suggesting that interspersed quiz questions may improve understanding of a traditional paper assent. The minimal investigator time and standardized administration of the web-based assent as well as ability to tailor the assent discussion to topics identified by incorrect comprehension test responses are advantages worthy of further investigation.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Web-based Assent for Adolescents Considering an HIV Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Diane R.; Lemay, Celeste A.; Maranda, Louise S.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Kearney, Margaret H.; Mazor, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    HIV vaccine trials with minors will likely require parental permission and informed assent from adolescents. For this to be a valid process, the information needs to be presented in a manner that promotes adolescent comprehension. Previous studies suggest that adolescent comprehension of assent is often insufficient. We developed an interactive web-based assent that included interspersed quiz questions for a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial. Efficacy of the web-based assent was compared to a standard paper assent with and without interspersed questions. One hundred twenty teen participants, ages 15-17 years, from 5 community organizations were randomized to self-administered web-based assent (n=60) or investigator-administered paper assent with (n=29) or without (n=31) interspersed quiz questions. After reviewing the assent, participants completed a 27 item comprehension test. Comprehension scores were compared between groups. The mean number of correctly answered questions were 21.2 for the full paper group and 21.1 for the web-based group (t(118)=-0.08, p=0.94). Scores were 20.2 for the paper without interspersed questions sub-group and 22.1 for the paper with interspersed questions sub-group (t(58)=1.96, p=0.055). Participants in the web-based group performed as well on the comprehension test as those in the paper group, and those in the paper with questions sub-group performed better than those in the paper without questions sub-group, suggesting that interspersed quiz questions may improve understanding of a traditional paper assent. The minimal investigator time and standardized administration of the web-based assent as well as ability to tailor the assent discussion to topics identified by incorrect comprehension test responses are advantages worthy of further investigation. PMID:25803694

  19. Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil.

  20. What do students do when asked to diagnose their mistakes? Does it help them? II. A more typical quiz context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Cohen, Elisheva; Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-12-01

    “Self-diagnosis tasks” aim at fostering students’ learning in an examination context by requiring students to present diagnoses of their solutions to quiz problems. We examined the relationship between students’ learning from self-diagnosis and the typicality of the problem situation. Four recitation groups in an introductory physics class (˜200 students) were divided into a control group and three intervention groups in which different levels of guidance were provided to aid students in their performance of self-diagnosis activities. The self-diagnosis task was administered twice, first in an atypical problem situation and then in a typical one. In a companion paper we reported our findings in the context of an atypical problem situation. Here we report our findings in the context of a typical problem situation and discuss the effect of problem typicality on students’ self-diagnosis performance and subsequent success in solving transfer problems. We show that the self-diagnosis score was correlated with subsequent problem-solving performance only in the context of a typical problem situation, and only when textbooks and notebooks were the sole means of guidance available to the students for assisting them with diagnosis.

  1. Teaching baroreflex physiology to medical students: a comparison of quiz-based and conventional teaching strategies in a laboratory exercise.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Damgaard, Morten

    2012-06-01

    Quiz-based and collaborative teaching strategies have previously been found to be efficient for the improving meaningful learning of physiology during lectures. These approaches have, however, not been investigated during laboratory exercises. In the present study, we compared the impact of solving quizzes individually and in groups with conventional teaching on the immediate learning during a laboratory exercise. We implemented two quizzes in a mandatory 4-h laboratory exercise on baroreflex physiology. A total of 155 second-year medical students were randomized to solve quizzes individually (intervention group I, n = 57), in groups of three to four students (intervention group II, n = 56), or not to perform any quizzes (control; intervention group III, n = 42). After the laboratory exercise, all students completed an individual test, which encompassed two recall questions, two intermediate questions, and two integrated questions. The integrated questions were of moderate and advanced difficulty, respectively. Finally, students completed an evaluation form. Intervention group I reached the highest total test scores and proved best at answering the integrated question of advanced difficulty. Moreover, there was an overall difference between groups for student evaluations of the quality of the teaching, which was highest for intervention group II. In conclusion, solving quizzes individually during a laboratory exercise may enhance learning, whereas solving quizzes in groups is associated with higher student satisfaction.

  2. Whooping cough, twenty years from acellular vaccines introduction.

    PubMed

    Greco, D; Esposito, S; Tozzi, A; Pandolfi, E; Icardi, G; Giammanco, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical pertussis resulting from infection with B. pertussis is a significant medical and public health problem, despite the huge success of vaccination that has greatly reduced its incidence. The whole cell vaccine had an undeniable success over the last 50 years, but its acceptance was strongly inhibited by fear, only partially justified, of severe side effects, but also, in the Western world, by the difficulty to enter in combination with other vaccines: today multi-vaccine formulations are essential to maintain a high vaccination coverage. The advent of acellular vaccines was greeted with enthusiasm by the public health world: in the Nineties, several controlled vaccine trials were carried out: they demonstrated a high safety and good efficacy of new vaccines. In fact, in the Western world, the acellular vaccines completely replaced the whole cells ones. In the last years, ample evidence on the variety of protection of these vaccines linked to the presence of different antigens of Bordetella pertussis was collected. It also became clear that the protection provided, on average around 80%, leaves every year a significant cohort of vaccinated susceptible even in countries with a vaccination coverage of 95%, such as Italy. Finally, it was shown that, as for the pertussis disease, protection decreases over time, to leave a proportion of adolescents and adults unprotected. Waiting for improved pertussis vaccines, the disease control today requires a different strategy that includes a booster at 5 years for infants, but also boosters for teenagers and young adults, re-vaccination of health care personnel, and possibly of pregnant women and of those who are in contact with infants (cocooning). Finally, the quest for better vaccines inevitably tends towards pertussis acellular vaccines with at least three components, which have demonstrated superior effectiveness and have been largely in use in Italy for fifteen years.

  3. Dengue vaccines: Are they safe for travelers?

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B; Aguiar, Maira

    2016-01-01

    The four dengue viruses (DENV) circulate among nearly one-half of the world's population in tropical and semitropical countries imposing a huge morbidity burden on travelers. Sanofipasteur has developed a tetravalent live-attenuated vaccine, Dengvaxia, recently approved by the World Health Organization and licensed in four dengue-endemic countries. An additional two dengue vaccines, developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA and Takeda, are entering phase III testing. Dengvaxia is composed of four yellow fever 17D-DENV chimeras, the NIAID vaccine contains three mutagenized DENV and one DENV2/4 chimera while the Takeda vaccine contains an attenuated DENV 2 and three DENV 2-DENV chimeras. Which of these vaccines might be useful in protecting travelers against dengue infections and disease? Dengvaxia requires three doses administered over the course of one year but in addition has safety signals suggesting that susceptible individuals should not be vaccinated. The NIAID vaccine is promising as a travel vaccine as a single dose fully protected susceptible adults against live dengue 2 virus challenge. The protective efficacy and safety of the Takeda vaccine remain to be demonstrated. PMID:27343438

  4. Recent progress in canine tumor vaccination: potential applications for human tumor vaccines.

    PubMed

    Denies, Sofie; Sanders, Niek N

    2012-11-01

    Tumor vaccination holds great promise for the treatment of cancer and research concerning tumor vaccination in dogs is of great interest for veterinary as well as human medicine. Indeed, cancer is the leading cause of death in adult dogs and companion animals are acknowledged as excellent preclinical models for human oncology. The license of the veterinary melanoma vaccine (Oncept™) and Provenge® for the treatment of prostate cancer in men established tumor vaccination as a valid treatment modality for cancer. Although the results with this and other vaccines are promising, there are still some hurdles to overcome. In this article, preclinical and clinical trials with tumor vaccines in dogs are discussed, as well as the surplus value of canine cancer patients for human medicine. PMID:23249236

  5. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Carolyn B; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-02-01

    Vaccines are recommended for adults on the basis of their age, prior vaccinations, health conditions, lifestyle, occupation, and travel. Reasons for current low levels of vaccination coverage for adult vaccines are multifactorial and include limited awareness among the public about vaccines for adults and gaps in incorporation of regular assessments of vaccine needs and vaccination into routine medical care. Updated standards for immunization of adults were approved by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) in September 2013. These standards acknowledge the current low levels of vaccination coverage among adults and the role that all health-care providers, including those who do not offer all recommended adult vaccines in their practices, have in ensuring that their patients are up-to-date on recommended vaccines. NVAC recommends that providers assess vaccination needs for their patients at each visit, recommend needed vaccines, and then, ideally, offer the vaccine or, if the provider does not stock the needed vaccines, refer the patient to a provider who does vaccinate. Vaccinating providers should also ensure that patients and their referring health-care providers have documentation of the vaccination.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines based on the RSV viral proteins F, N and M2-1 encoded by simian adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and MVA (MVA-RSV); protocol for an open-label, dose-escalation, single-centre, phase 1 clinical trial in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Green, C A; Scarselli, E; Voysey, M; Capone, S; Vitelli, A; Nicosia, A; Cortese, R; Thompson, A J; Sande, C S; de Lara, Catherine; Klenerman, P; Pollard, A J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes respiratory disease throughout life, with infants and the elderly at risk of severe disease and death. RSV001 is a phase 1 (first-in-man), open-label, dose-escalation, clinical trial of novel genetic viral-vectored vaccine candidates PanAd3-RSV and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-RSV. The objective of RSV001 is to characterise the (primary objective) safety and (secondary objective) immunogenicity of these vaccines in healthy younger and older adults. Methods and analysis Heterologous and homologous ‘prime’/boost combinations of PanAd3-RSV and single-dose MVA-RSV are evaluated in healthy adults. 40 healthy adults aged 18–50 years test one of four combinations of intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) PanAd3-RSV prime and IM PanAd3 or IM MVA-RSV boost vaccination, starting at a low dose for safety. The following year an additional 30 healthy adults aged 60–75 years test either a single dose of IM MVA-RSV, one of three combinations of IN or IM PanAd3-RSV prime and PanAd3-RSV or MVA-RSV boost vaccination used in younger volunteers, and a non-vaccinated control group. Study participants are self-selected volunteers who satisfy the eligibility criteria and are assigned to study groups by sequential allocation. Safety assessment includes the daily recording of solicited and unsolicited adverse events for 1 week after vaccination, as well as visit (nursing) observations and safety bloods obtained at all scheduled attendances. Laboratory measures of RSV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination will address the secondary end points. All study procedures are performed at the Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine (CCVTM), Oxford, UK. Ethics and dissemination RSV001 has clinical trial authorisation from the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and ethics approval from NRES Berkshire (reference 13/SC/0023). All study procedures adhere

  7. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination.In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods.

  8. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  9. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  10. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  11. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  12. Maternal and Neonatal Vaccination Protects Newborn Baboons From Pertussis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Papin, James F.; Wolf, Roman F.; Zimmerman, Lindsey I.; Merkel, Tod J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The United States is experiencing a pertussis resurgence that resulted in a 60-year high of 48 000 cases in 2012. The majority of hospitalizations and deaths occur in infants too young to be vaccinated. Neonatal and maternal vaccination have been proposed to protect newborns until the first vaccination, currently recommended at 2 months of age. These interventions result in elevated anti–Bordetella pertussis titers, but there have been no studies demonstrating that these measures confer protection. Methods. Baboons were vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine at 2 days of age or at 2 and 28 days of age. To model maternal vaccination, adult female baboons primed with acellular pertussis vaccine were boosted in the third trimester of pregnancy. Neonatally vaccinated infants, infants born to vaccinated mothers, and naive infants born to unvaccinated mothers were infected with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Results. Naive infant baboons developed severe disease when challenged with B. pertussis at 5 weeks of age. Baboons receiving acellular pertussis vaccine and infants born to mothers vaccinated at the beginning of their third trimester were protected. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that neonatal vaccination and maternal vaccination confer protection in the baboon model and support further study of these strategies for protection of newborns from pertussis. PMID:24526741

  13. The safety of influenza vaccines in children: An Institute for Vaccine Safety white paper.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Neal A; Talaat, Kawsar R; Greenbaum, Adena; Mensah, Eric; Dudley, Matthew Z; Proveaux, Tina; Salmon, Daniel A

    2015-12-30

    Most influenza vaccines are generally safe, but influenza vaccines can cause rare serious adverse events. Some adverse events, such as fever and febrile seizures, are more common in children than adults. There can be differences in the safety of vaccines in different populations due to underlying differences in genetic predisposition to the adverse event. Live attenuated vaccines have not been studied adequately in children under 2 years of age to determine the risks of adverse events; more studies are needed to address this and several other priority safety issues with all influenza vaccines in children. All vaccines intended for use in children require safety testing in the target age group, especially in young children. Safety of one influenza vaccine in children should not be extrapolated to assumed safety of all influenza vaccines in children. The low rates of adverse events from influenza vaccines should not be a deterrent to the use of influenza vaccines because of the overwhelming evidence of the burden of disease due to influenza in children. PMID:26822822

  14. The safety of influenza vaccines in children: An Institute for Vaccine Safety white paper.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Neal A; Talaat, Kawsar R; Greenbaum, Adena; Mensah, Eric; Dudley, Matthew Z; Proveaux, Tina; Salmon, Daniel A

    2015-12-30

    Most influenza vaccines are generally safe, but influenza vaccines can cause rare serious adverse events. Some adverse events, such as fever and febrile seizures, are more common in children than adults. There can be differences in the safety of vaccines in different populations due to underlying differences in genetic predisposition to the adverse event. Live attenuated vaccines have not been studied adequately in children