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Sample records for adult vial test

  1. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R; da Rocha, Andre M; Keller, Laura M; Schuster, Timothy G; Sonksen, Jens; Smith, Gary D

    2015-03-01

    To investigate optimal test vial (TV) volume, utility and reliability of TVs, intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C) before cryostorage, cryostorage in nitrogen vapor (VN2) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), and long-term stability of VN2 cryostorage of human semen. Prospective clinical laboratory study. University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. Test vial volume of 50 μL yielded lower CS than other volumes tested. Cryosurvival of 100 μL was similar to that of larger volumes tested. An intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C for 20 minutes) during cryopreservation did not affect post-thaw motility. Cryosurvival of TVs and ARTVs from the same ejaculate were similar. Cryosurvival of the first TV in a series of cryopreserved ejaculates was similar to and correlated with that of TVs from different ejaculates within the same patient. Cryosurvival of the first TV was correlated with subsequent ARTVs. Long-term cryostorage in VN2 did not affect CS. This study provides experimental evidence for use of a single 100 μL TV per patient to predict CS when freezing multiple ejaculates over a short period of time (<10 days). Additionally, semen cryostorage in VN2 provides a stable and safe environment over time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Adult vial bioassays of insecticidal toxicity against cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glass vials coated with several technical insecticides were used to determine the contact toxicity of insecticides on adult laboratory-reared and field-collected cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter). For the 17 insecticides evaluated for laboratory-reared cotton fleahoppers, bifent...

  3. Versatile Vials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) developed a new sol-gel material coating for sample vials to be used in surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopy. In the fields of biomedical and forensic science, the coated vials are used to identify physiological chemicals present in blood and urine. The vials are used in the pharmaceutical industry in the area of drug development and discovery. In the drug enforcement field, using the vials helps with detection of trace amounts of drugs on surfaces. The SER vials will also help to identify contaminants in water sources, such as various inorganics and pesticides. The new vials have advantages over other SER materials. Former products required that samples be pre-mixed or dissolved into specific solvents or reagents. The SER vials do not have these limitations, and measurements can be performed using any solvent. Furthermore, the signal appears in less than one second. The sol-gel material will stay active for at least one year and the vials are compatible with any Raman spectrometer. Most importantly, the SER activity can be duplicated from vial-to-vial, allowing for reproducible results.

  4. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.P.

    1997-09-18

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Either new DWPF analytical method could result in a two to three fold improvement in sample analysis time.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples.The insert sample is named after the initial trials which placed the container inside the sample (peanut) vials. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock

  5. Prevalence of Bacterial Contamination of Glucose Test Strips in Individual Single-Use Packets versus Multi-Use Vials

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ayala, Millán; Oliver, Paloma; Cantalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Background: Glucose measurement is the cornerstone of diabetes control. In the hospital setting, the same device and package of test strips (50 or 100 strips) can be used to monitor glucose in several patients, which can increase cross contamination. The objective of our study is to measure bacterial contamination in glucose test strips, comparing results in individual single-use packets (one hospital) versus multi-use vials (two hospitals) in Spain. Methods: Test strips were collected from five different wards. Each hospital also collected two unopened vials from a single ward as controls. They were sent to a reference laboratory for microbiologic study. A number equal or higher than two colony forming units per strip was considered as a positive result. Results: Out of 423 glucose test strips collected and cultured, 146 were contaminated (34%); only 7% of individually packed strips were contaminated versus 45% of strips packed in multi-use vials, with a high statistical significance (p < .001). Conclusions: In the strips from multi-use vials, a high contamination rate was found and highly pathogenic organisms were identified, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis or Staphylococcus hemolyticus. In contrast, in strips packed individually, there was a much lower contamination rate and no such pathogen organisms were found. Therefore, in the hospital setting, the use of blood glucose test strips in individual packages would be more advantageous (mainly from a clinical point of view, but also from a financial one) than those packed in multiuse vials. PMID:23911166

  6. Effect of room temperature transport vials on DNA quality and phylogenetic composition of faecal microbiota of elderly adults and infants.

    PubMed

    Hill, Cian J; Brown, Jillian R M; Lynch, Denise B; Jeffery, Ian B; Ryan, C Anthony; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; O'Toole, Paul W

    2016-05-10

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota have been correlated with a growing number of diseases. Investigating the faecal microbiota is widely used as a non-invasive and ethically simple proxy for intestinal biopsies. There is an urgent need for collection and transport media that would allow faecal sampling at distance from the processing laboratory, obviating the need for same-day DNA extraction recommended by previous studies of freezing and processing methods for stool. We compared the faecal bacterial DNA quality and apparent phylogenetic composition derived using a commercial kit for stool storage and transport (DNA Genotek OMNIgene GUT) with that of freshly extracted samples, 22 from infants and 20 from older adults. Use of the storage vials increased the quality of extracted bacterial DNA by reduction of DNA shearing. When infant and elderly datasets were examined separately, no differences in microbiota composition were observed due to storage. When the two datasets were combined, there was a difference according to a Wilcoxon test in the relative proportions of Faecalibacterium, Sporobacter, Clostridium XVIII, and Clostridium XlVa after 1 week's storage compared to immediately extracted samples. After 2 weeks' storage, Bacteroides abundance was also significantly different, showing an apparent increase from week 1 to week 2. The microbiota composition of infant samples was more affected than that of elderly samples by storage, with significantly higher Spearman distances between paired freshly extracted and stored samples (p < 0.001). When the microbiota profiles were analysed at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, three infant datasets in the study did not cluster together, while only one elderly dataset did not. The lower microbiota diversity of the infant gut microbiota compared to the elderly gut microbiota (p < 0.001) means that any alteration in the infant datasets has a proportionally larger effect. The commercial storage vials appear

  7. False-positive cryptococcal antigen test associated with use of BBL Port-a-Cul transport vials.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Deborah A; Sholtis, Mary; Parshall, Sharon; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2011-02-01

    A total of 52 residual CSF and serum specimens, which were originally negative with the Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS), were shown to become falsely positive after placement in BBL Port-A-Cul anaerobic transport vials. This transport device, although excellent for specimen transportation for subsequent culture, should not be used if cryptococcal antigen testing is needed.

  8. Comparative analysis of ampoules and vials in sterile and conventional packaging as to microbial load and sterility test

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Raphael Ribeiro de Aquino; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare sterility and microbial (bacteria and fungi) load in the outer part of hyperbaric bupivacaine (Neocaína®) in ampoule and bupivacaine in vial, in conventional and sterile pack formulations. Methods The sterile packs were divided into two groups: G1 (n=16) with ampoules and G2 (n=16) with vials. Conventional formulations were divided into two groups, being G3 (n=16) with ampoules and G4 (n=16) with vials. The ampoules and vials were opened and had their content drawn. The empty bottles were then placed in sterile plastic bags and sent for analysis of microbial load (bacteria and fungi) and sterility testing. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, and 95% confidence interval. Results G1 and G2 showed no bacterial growth when compared to conventional groups (p<0.001). The most common agent in conventional microbiological samples was Staphylococcus aureus. There was no fungal growth in both groups. Conclusion The use of (sterile pack) reduces the microbial load of bottles, and would decrease the chance of exposure to potential contamination of the anesthetic solution. PMID:27223307

  9. Container/Closure Integrity Testing and the Identification of a Suitable Vial/Stopper Combination for Low-Temperature Storage at -80 {degrees}C.

    PubMed

    Zuleger, Brigitte; Werner, Uwe; Kort, Alexander; Glowienka, Rene; Wehnes, Engelbert; Duncan, Derek

    2012-01-01

    It was recently found that after storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with rubber stoppers, a phenomenon was revealed which had not been observed before with other viral products stored at -20 °C: overpressure in the vials. As this phenomenon poses a serious safety problem for medical personnel as well as for the product itself, an investigation was initiated to identify the root cause of the overpressure. After exclusion of possible root causes (differences in air temperature or atmospheric air pressure during filling and quality control testing, outgassing from the formulation buffer) the remaining hypothesis involved a possible container closure integrity issue at low temperature. The glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of many rubber stopper formulations are in the range -55 to -70 °C. At storage temperatures below T(g), the rubber stopper loses its elastic properties and there is a risk that the seal integrity of the vial could be compromised. Loss of seal integrity of the vials near storage temperatures of -80 °C would result in an ingress of cold dense gas into the vial headspace. After removal of the vials from storage at -80 °C, the rubber stoppers could regain their elastic properties and the vials would quickly reseal, thereby trapping the ingressed gas, which leads to overpressure in the vial headspace. Nondestructive laser-based headspace analysis was used to investigate the maintenance of container closure integrity as a function of the filling and capping/crimping process, storage and transport conditions, and vial/stopper designs. This analytical method is based on frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and can be used for noninvasive headspace measurements of headspace pressure and headspace gas composition. Changes in the vial headspace composition and/or pressure are a clear marker for vials that have lost container closure integrity. After storage of a live viral vaccine at -80 °C in glass vials closed with

  10. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  11. Comparison of tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz effects on susceptible and resistant populations of Varroa destructor in a vial test.

    PubMed

    Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera. The development of acaricide resistance in Varroa populations is a global issue. Discriminating concentrations of acaricides are widely used to detect pest resistance. Two methods, using either glass vials or paraffin capsules, are used to screen for Varroa resistance to various acaricides. We found the glass vial method to be useless for testing Varroa resistance to acaridices, so we developed a polypropylene vial bioassay. This method was tested on tau-fluvalinate-, acrinathrin-, and amitraz-resistant mite populations from three apiaries in Czechia. Acetone was used as a control and technical grade acaricide compounds diluted in acetone were applied to the polypropylene vials. The solutions were spread on the vial surface by rolling the vial, and were then evaporated. Freshly collected Varroa females were placed in the vials and the mortality of the exposed mites was measured after 24 h. The Varroa populations differed in mortality between the apiaries and the tested compounds. Mites from the Kyvalka site were resistant to acrinathrin, tau-fluvalinate, and amitraz, while mites from the Postrizin site were susceptible to all three acaricides. In Prelovice apiary, the mites were susceptible to acrinathrin and amitraz, but not to tau-fluvalinate. The calculated discriminating concentrations for tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz were 0.66, 0.26 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that polyproplyne vial tests can be used to determine discriminating concentrations for the early detection of acaricide resistant Varroa. Finally, multiple-resistance in Kyvalka may indicate metabolic resistance.

  12. Development of Conductivity Method as an Alternative to Titration for Hydrolytic Resistance Testing Used for Evaluation of Glass Vials Used in Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Phillips, Joseph; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    The European Pharmacopeia surface test to analyze the hydrolytic resistance is a common industrial method to understand and ensure the quality of produced glass vials. Hydrolytic resistance is evaluated by calculating the alkalinity of water extract from autoclaved vials by titration. As an alternative to this titration technique, a conductivity technique was assessed, which directly measures the ions in the water extract. A conductivity meter with a 12 mm diameter electrode was calibrated with a 100 μS/cm conductivity standard and carryover minimized by rinsing the probe in a water beaker per analysis. The limit of quantification at 1 μS/cm was determined as having a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 compared with the water blank. The conductivity method was selective for glass-composing elements (boron, sodium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and calcium) within the vial extract. Accuracies of spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm were ±7% and had linearity with coefficient of determination (R(2)) of ≥0.9999. Intraday precision had a relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 5) of ≤6% for spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm. Interday precision had a RSD (n = 4) of ≤6% for 10 vials from three glass vial lots. Conductivity of water extracts from nine sets of seven lots of glass vials had a precise linear relationship [R(2) = 0.9876, RSD = 1% (n = 9)] with titration volumes of the same lots. Conductivity results in μS/cm could be converted to titration volumes in milliliters by a conversion factor of 0.0275. The simplicity, sample stability, and individual vial analysis of the conductivity technique were more advantageous than the current titration technique.

  13. Comparative analysis of ampoules and vials in sterile and conventional packaging as to microbial load and sterility test.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Raphael Ribeiro de Aquino; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2016-05-24

    To compare sterility and microbial (bacteria and fungi) load in the outer part of hyperbaric bupivacaine (Neocaína®) in ampoule and bupivacaine in vial, in conventional and sterile pack formulations. The sterile packs were divided into two groups: G1 (n=16) with ampoules and G2 (n=16) with vials. Conventional formulations were divided into two groups, being G3 (n=16) with ampoules and G4 (n=16) with vials. The ampoules and vials were opened and had their content drawn. The empty bottles were then placed in sterile plastic bags and sent for analysis of microbial load (bacteria and fungi) and sterility testing. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, and 95% confidence interval. G1 and G2 showed no bacterial growth when compared to conventional groups (p<0.001). The most common agent in conventional microbiological samples was Staphylococcus aureus. There was no fungal growth in both groups. The use of (sterile pack) reduces the microbial load of bottles, and would decrease the chance of exposure to potential contamination of the anesthetic solution. Comparar a esterilidade e a carga microbiana (bactérias e fungos) da parte externa dos frascos de envasamento de bupivacaína hiperbárica (Neocaína®) em ampola e bupivacaína em frasco-ampola das apresentações convencional e estéril (sterile pack). As apresentações estéreis (sterile pack) foram distribuídas em dois grupos, sendo que o G1 (n=16) continha as ampolas e o G2 (n=16), os frascos-ampola. As apresentações convencionais foram distribuídas em dois grupos, a saber G3 (n=16) com as ampolas e G4 (n=16) com os frascos-ampola. As ampolas e os frascos-ampolas eram abertos e tinham seu conteúdo aspirado. Os frascos vazios eram, então, acondicionados em sacos plásticos estéreis e enviados para análise quanto à carga microbiana (bactérias e fungos), bem como para o teste de esterilidade. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste χ2 com correção Yates com intervalo de confian

  14. Vial freeze-drying, part 1: new insights into heat transfer characteristics of tubing and molded vials.

    PubMed

    Hibler, Susanne; Wagner, Christophe; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-03-01

    In order to optimize a freeze-drying cycle, information regarding the heat transfer characteristics of the container system is imperative. Two most recently developed tubing (TopLyo™) and molded (EasyLyo™) vial designs were compared with a standard serum tubing and molded vial, a polymer vial (TopPac™), and an amber molded EasyLyo™. In addition, the impact of methodology on the determination of reliable vial heat transfer coefficient (K(v) ) data is examined in detail. All K(v) s were gravimetrically determined by sublimation tests with pure water at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mTorr. In contrast to the traditional assumption that molded vials exhibit inefficient heat transfer characteristics, these vials showed a very similar performance compared with their serum tubing counterparts in the relevant pressure range for freeze-drying. At 100 mTorr, the TopLyo™ center vials show only 4% higher K(v) values than the EasyLyo™ center vials. All glass vials outmatch the polymer vial in terms of heat transfer, up to 30% elevated heat transfer for the TopLyo™ center vials at 400 mTorr. Sublimation tests have demonstrated to be a valuable tool to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of vials, but results are dependent on methodology. New developments in molded vial manufacturing lead to improved heat transfer performance.

  15. INTEGRITY OF VOA-VIAL SEALS | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preservation of soil samples for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) requires both the inhibition of VOC degradation and the restriction of vapor movement in or out of the sample container. Clear, 40,mL glass VOA vials manufactured by the four major U.S. glass manufacturers were tested for seal integrity. Visual inspection revealed a variety of imperfections ranging from small indentations, bumps, and scratches on vial threads or lips, through obvious defects, such as large indentations or grooves in the vial lips and chipped or broken glass. The aluminum plate vacuum test proved to be unreliable in identifying potentially leaky vials. The septa-seal vacuum test was conducted twice on the 80 selected vials.Mean VOC concentrations after 14 days storage generally were within +- 20% of the known concentration with a majority of the concentrations within +- 15% of their known values. There were no statistically significant differences in VOC concentrations between vials in the potentially leaky and control group for any of the manufacturers. Only 1 vial lost VOCs and that was due to a large chip in the vial's lip and neck. These findings indicate that the silicone septa are flexible enough to overcome most vial imperfections and form a complete seal against VOC loss. A careful inspection of the VOA vials prior to use to remove any vials with large and obvious imperfections should be sufficient to screen out vials that are subject to VOC losses.

  16. Artificial Leaks in Container Closure Integrity Testing: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Aperture Size Originated by a Copper Wire Sandwiched between the Stopper and the Glass Vial.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Adler, Michael; Chalus, Pascal; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against possible contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the container closure system with microorganisms under specified testing conditions. Physical CCI uses surrogate endpoints, such as coloration by dye solution ingress or gas flow (helium leakage testing). In order to correlate microbial CCI and physical CCI test methods and to evaluate the methods' capability to detect a given leak, artificial leaks are being introduced into the container closure system in a variety of different ways. In our study, artificial leaks were generated using inserted copper wires between the glass vial opening and rubber stopper. However, the insertion of copper wires introduces leaks of unknown size and shape. With nonlinear finite element simulations, the aperture size between the rubber stopper and the glass vial was calculated, depending on wire diameter and capping force. The dependency of the aperture size on the copper wire diameter was quadratic. With the data obtained, we were able to calculate the leak size and model leak shape. Our results suggest that the size as well as the shape of the artificial leaks should be taken into account when evaluating critical leak sizes, as flow rate does not, independently, correlate to hole size. Capping force also affected leak size. An increase in the capping force from 30 to 70 N resulted in a reduction of the aperture (leak size) by approximately 50% for all wire diameters. From 30 to 50 N, the reduction was approximately 33%. Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the

  17. Mechanistic studies of glass vial breakage for frozen formulations. I. Vial breakage caused by crystallizable excipient mannitol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ge; Akers, Mike; Jain, Manish; Guo, Jeremy; Distler, Adrian; Swift, Rob; Wadhwa, Manpreet-Vick S; Jameel, Feroz; Patro, Sugu; Freund, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    The process of freeze-thaw not only subjects bioproducts to potentially destabilizing stress, but also imposes challenges to retain container integrity. Shipment and storage of frozen products in glass vials and thawing of the vials prior to use at clinics is a common situation. Vial integrity failure during freeze-thaw results in product loss and safety issues. Formulations of biomolecules often include crystallizable excipients, which can cause glass vial breakage during freeze-thaw operations. In this study, mannitol formulations served as models for mechanistic investigation of root causes for vial breakage. Several parameters and their impacts on vial breakage were investigated, including mannitol concentration (5% and 15%), different freeze-thaw conditions (fast, slow, and staging), fill configurations (varying fill volume/vial size ratio), and vial tray materials (plastic, stainless steel, corrugated cardboard, aluminum, and polyurethane foam). The results in this study were subjected to a statistical proportion test. The data showed that large fill volumes strongly correlated with higher percentage of vial cracks. Furthermore, the 15% mannitol was found to cause more breakage than 5% mannitol, especially with fast temperature gradient. Significantly more thawing vial breakage occurred in the fast compared to slow freeze-thaw with all types of vial trays. The freezing breakage was substantially lower than the thawing breakage using the fast temperature gradient, and the trend was reversed with the slow temperature gradient. An intermediate hold at -30 degrees C prior to further decrease in temperature proved to be a practical approach to minimize mannitol-induced vial breakage. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) and strain gage techniques were employed to gain mechanistic insights, and it was found that the primary causes for mannitol-induced vial breakage were partial crystallization during freezing and "secondary" crystallization of non

  18. [Comparison study of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay with an enzyme immunoassay and shell vial culture for influenza A and B virus detection in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Reina, Jordi; Plasencia, Virginia; Leyes, Maria; Nicolau, Antonio; Galmés, Antonia; Arbona, Gabriel

    2010-02-01

    The age of the patients and the type of sample are major problems in the diagnosis of influenza. Most available diagnostic techniques are highly effective in pediatric patients and in nasopharyngeal aspirates. However, in the adult population and using throat swabs, these techniques are much less reliable. We performed a prospective study comparing the efficacy of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR assay (RT-PCR) with that of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or shell vial culture (SV) in the detection of influenza A and B viruses in 125 throat swabs from adults with clinically suspected influenza during the 2007-2008 flu season. Throat swabs were subjected to rapid antigen detection for influenza viruses by means of a commercial dot-blot EIA. For the RT-PCR technique, RNA was extracted from 200 microL of each sample by the automated extraction system, EZ1 virus minikit (version 2.0). Genomic amplification of the extracted viral RNA was carried out using the OneStep RT-PCR FluA+FluB automated system with the SmartCycler amplification system. Each sample was inoculated into 2 SV of the MDCK cell line. Turnaround times were calculated from the time specimens were received in the laboratory to the time the result was reported to clinicians. The EIA system detected 27 (21.6%) positive samples, RT-PCR 62 (49.6%) positive samples, and SV 56 (44.8%) positive samples. Among the 62 positive samples, EIA detected 27 (43.5%), RT-PCR 62 (100%) and SV 56 (90.3%). With the use of RT-PCR, 38.4% of the adults studied were diagnosed on the same day samples were received. Among the total, 67.2% of diagnostic results were obtained within the first 24 hours; turnaround time was 1.1 days. The real-time RT-PCR method studied displayed high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of influenza virus in adult patients, when compared with the conventional techniques. With real-time RT-PCR, large numbers of samples can be rapidly tested and results provided the same day samples

  19. Sample Vial Secure Container

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors must maintain continuity of knowledge on all safeguard samples and, in particular, on those samples drawn from plutonium product and spent fuel input tanks at a nuclear reprocessing plant`s blister sampling station. Integrity of safeguard samples must be guaranteed from the sampling point to the moment of sample analysis at an accepted local laboratory or at the IAEA`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) in Seibersdorf, Austria. The safeguard samples are drawn at a blister sampling station with inspector participation and then transferred via a pneumatic post system to the facility`s analytical laboratory. Transfer of the sample by the pneumatic post system, arrival of the sample in the operator`s analytical laboratory, and storage of the sample awaiting analysis are very time consuming activities for an inspector, particularly if continuous human surveillance is required for all these activities. These activities could be observed by ordinary surveillance methods, such as a video monitoring system, but this would be cumbersome and time consuming for both the inspector and the operator. This paper describes a secure container designed to assure sample vial integrity from the point the sample is drawn to treatment of the sample at a facility`s analytical laboratory.

  20. Investigating factors leading to fogging of glass vials in lyophilized drug products.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Oeschger, Richard; Roehl, Holger; Bauer Dauphin, Isabelle; Worgull, Martin; Kallmeyer, Georg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2013-10-01

    Vial "Fogging" is a phenomenon observed after lyophilization due to drug product creeping upwards along the inner vial surface. After the freeze-drying process, a haze of dried powder is visible inside the drug product vial, making it barely acceptable for commercial distribution from a cosmetic point of view. Development studies were performed to identify the root cause for fogging during manufacturing of a lyophilized monoclonal antibody drug product. The results of the studies indicate that drug product creeping occurs during the filling process, leading to vial fogging after lyophilization. Glass quality/inner surface, glass conversion/vial processing (vial "history") and formulation excipients, e.g., surfactants (three different surfactants were tested), all affect glass fogging to a certain degree. Results showed that the main factor to control fogging is primarily the inner vial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity. While Duran vials were not capable of reliably improving the level of fogging, hydrophobic containers provided reliable means to improve the cosmetic appearance due to reduction in fogging. Varying vial depyrogenation treatment conditions did not lead to satisfying results in removal of the fogging effect. Processing conditions of the vial after filling with drug product had a strong impact on reducing but not eliminating fogging.

  1. How Vial Geometry Variability Influences Heat Transfer and Product Temperature During Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Vial design features can play a significant role in heat transfer between the shelf and the product and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried product. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the variability of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals production on the distribution of the vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on product temperature. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf temperature (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to variability in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive products (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a product temperature distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and product temperature safety margins.

  2. Antithrombin III Doses Rounded to Available Vial Sizes in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Winifred M.; Padilla-Tolentino, Eimeira

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Children have decreased levels of antithrombin III (AT III) compared to adults. These levels may be further decreased during acute illness. Administration of exogenous AT III can increase anticoagulant efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate AT III doses rounded to available vial sizes compared to partial vial doses in critically ill pediatric patients, including patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). METHOD This retrospective review evaluated pediatric patients 0–18 years of age admitted to a 24-bed medical/surgical pediatric intensive care unit between June 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, who received plasma-derived AT III. Patients received unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or no anticoagulation. This review included patients who received ECMO and CRRT. RESULTS Eighty doses of AT III were administered to 24 patients (38 full vial size doses and 42 partial vial size doses). The AT III level following dose administration was ≥80% for 26 full vial doses (70%) and 16 partial vial doses (41%; p = 0.010). For patients who received multiple doses of AT III, the median time between doses was 45 hours following full vial doses, and 23 hours following partial vial doses (p = 0.011). Seven patients (29%) had documentation of new or increased bleeding. The median waste prevented from rounding doses to full vial sizes was 363 units. CONCLUSIONS After receiving AT III doses rounded to full vial sizes, patients were more likely to have a therapeutic AT III level and a longer interval between administrations. Rounding AT III doses to full vial sizes reduces waste and can result in cost savings.

  3. The Joint Commission cracks down on vial misuse in hospitals.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Unsafe injection practices with respect to the misuse and unsafe use of vials is being targeted by The Joint Commission (TJC). The accrediting agency has issued a Sentinel Event Alert, putting hospitals on notice that they need to take strong steps to insure that health care workers fully understand and are carrying out practices that protect patients from the dangers of vial misuse. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, since 2001, at least 49 outbreaks related to the mishandling of injectable medical products have occurred, and during this time period, more than 150,000 patients have had to be notified to undergo blood-borne pathogen testing because of their potential exposure to unsafe injections. TJC cites a survey of 5,446 health care practitioners, which reveals significant gaps in basic infection control practices related to vial use. Experts suggest vial misuse is often due to a lack of understanding of how to apply safe injection practices. To make improvements, experts recommend that hospital administrators first take steps to observe what is happening in their care environments, and then develop targeted action plans.

  4. Effectiveness of Needles Vial Adaptors and Blunt Cannulas for Drug Administration in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, Melinda; Bayuse, Tina

    2009-01-01

    The need for a new system of injectable medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was identified. It is desired that this system fly medications in their original manufacturer's packaging, allowing the system to comply with United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines while minimizing the resupply frequency due to medication expiration. Pre-filled syringes are desired, however, the evolving nature of the healthcare marketplace requires flexibility in the redesign. If medications must be supplied in a vial, a system is required that allows for the safe withdrawal of medication from the vial into a syringe for administration in microgravity. During two reduced gravity flights, the effectiveness of two versions of a blunt cannula and needleless vial adaptors was evaluated to facilitate the withdrawal of liquid medication from a vial into a syringe for injection. Other parameters assessed included the ability to withdraw the required amount of medication and whether this is dependent on vial size, liquid, or the total volume of fluid within the vial. Injectable medications proposed for flight on ISS were used for this evaluation. Due to differing sizes of vials and the fluid properties of the medications, the needleless vial adaptors proved to be too cumbersome to recommend for use on the ISS. The blunt cannula, specifically the plastic version, proved to be more effective at removing medication from the various sizes of vials and are the recommended hardware for ISS. Fluid isolation within the vials and syringes is an important step in preparing medication for injection regardless of the hardware used. Although isolation is a challenge in the relatively short parabolas during flight, it is not an obstacle for sustained microgravity. This presentation will provide an overview of the products tested as well as the challenges identified during the microgravity flights.

  5. Effectiveness of Needles Vial Adaptors and Blunt Cannulas for Drug Administration in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, Melinda; Bayuse, Tina

    2009-01-01

    The need for a new system of injectable medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was identified. It is desired that this system fly medications in their original manufacturer's packaging, allowing the system to comply with United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines while minimizing the resupply frequency due to medication expiration. Pre-filled syringes are desired, however, the evolving nature of the healthcare marketplace requires flexibility in the redesign. If medications must be supplied in a vial, a system is required that allows for the safe withdrawal of medication from the vial into a syringe for administration in microgravity. During two reduced gravity flights, the effectiveness of two versions of a blunt cannula and needleless vial adaptors was evaluated to facilitate the withdrawal of liquid medication from a vial into a syringe for injection. Other parameters assessed included the ability to withdraw the required amount of medication and whether this is dependent on vial size, liquid, or the total volume of fluid within the vial. Injectable medications proposed for flight on ISS were used for this evaluation. Due to differing sizes of vials and the fluid properties of the medications, the needleless vial adaptors proved to be too cumbersome to recommend for use on the ISS. The blunt cannula, specifically the plastic version, proved to be more effective at removing medication from the various sizes of vials and are the recommended hardware for ISS. Fluid isolation within the vials and syringes is an important step in preparing medication for injection regardless of the hardware used. Although isolation is a challenge in the relatively short parabolas during flight, it is not an obstacle for sustained microgravity. This presentation will provide an overview of the products tested as well as the challenges identified during the microgravity flights.

  6. Measurement of light emission in scintillation vials

    SciTech Connect

    Duran Ramiro, M. Teresa; Garcia-Torano, Eduardo

    2005-09-15

    The efficiency and energy resolution of liquid scintillation counting (LSC) systems are strongly dependent on the optical characteristics of scintillators, vials, and reflectors. This article presents the results of measurements of the light-emission profile of scintillation vials. Two measurement techniques, autoradiographs and direct measurements with a photomultiplier tube, have been used to obtain light-emission distribution for standard vials of glass, etched glass and polyethylene. Results obtained with both techniques are in good agreement. For the first time, the effect of the meniscus in terms of light contribution has been numerically estimated. These results can help design LSC systems that are more efficient in terms of light collection.

  7. Drawing medicine out of a vial

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000530.htm Drawing medicine out of a vial To use the sharing ... a clean area. Wash your hands. Check Your Medicine Carefully check your medicine: Check the label. Make ...

  8. Evaluation of septum-capped vials for storage of gas samples during air transport.

    PubMed

    Glatzel, Stephan; Well, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide information on the suitability of commonly used gas storage vials for air transport, we tested two vial types on their ability to preserve defined nitrous oxide concentrations and excess pressure when exposed to low pressure, low temperature and puncture by needles. Unlike in Crimp Cap vials, in Exetainers no nitrous oxide loss following low pressure storage was detectable. Tightness of Exetainers following multiple puncture was best using a small needle diameter. Pressure loss following 5, 10, or 25 punctures was lowest in the Exetainers. We conclude that Exetainers are suitable for storing gas samples for an extended period of time during aircraft transport.

  9. Glass delamination: a comparison of the inner surface performance of vials and pre-filled syringes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxiu; Lavalley, Virginie; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Wright, Justin M; Bankston, Theresa E

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of glass delamination is a serious concern for parenteral drug products. Over the past several years, there has been a series of product recalls involving glass delamination in parenteral drugs stored in vials which has led to heightened industry and regulatory scrutiny. In this study, a two-pronged approach was employed to assess the inner surface durability of vials and pre-filled syringes. Non-siliconized syringes were used in order to directly compare glass to glass performance between vials and syringes. The vial and syringe performance was screened with pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. The influence of pH, buffer type, ionic strength, and glass type and source was evaluated. In addition, an aggressive but discriminating formulation condition (glutaric acid, pH 11) was used to ascertain the impact of syringe processing. Advanced analytical tools including inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed significant differences in glass performance between vials and syringes. Pre-filled syringes outperform vials for most tests and conditions. The manufacturing conditions for vials lead to glass defects, not found in pre-filled syringes, which result in a less chemically resistant surface. The screening methodology presented in this work can be applied to assess suitability of primary containers for specific drug applications.

  10. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  11. Effects of subzero temperature exposure and supercooling on glass vial breakage: risk management and other applications in cold chain distribution.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ernest J; Kitaguchi, Ben; Trier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    During the distribution of temperature-sensitive products (cold chain distribution), unintentional exposure of typical glass drug vials to subzero (below 0 °C) temperatures introduces potential risks of glass vial breakage during freeze (as well as thaw) and potential destabilizing effects of any biologic or pharmaceutical contained within. Vial breakage during freezing not only leads to product loss, but also to potential safety/sterility issues. This paper focuses on the physical aspects of tested glass vials as well as thermodynamic behaviors observed (specifically supercooling) in liquid product. In this study, filled glass vials varying from 5 to 500 mL were subjected to specific temperature levels (-15, -10, and -6 °C) in controlled chambers. Thermocouples were used to record temperatures within various probed vials and the ambient temperature of the controlled chamber. Vials were visually inspected for cracks/fractures after every cycle of conditioning. Samples of the cracked and non-cracked vials were sent to a third party glass analysis laboratory for further observations. This study provides insight into the physical impact of exposing filled glass vials to subzero temperatures for short durations commonly observed during cold chain distribution.

  12. Detection of OXA-370 directly from rectal swabs and blood culture vials using an immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Nodari, Carolina Silva; Gales, Ana Cristina; Barth, Afonso Luís; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of OXA-48 K-SeT assay for detecting OXA-370 directly from spiked rectal swabs and blood culture vials. The limit of detection of this test was 10(4)UFC/mL for rectal swabs. Detection of the OXA-370-producing isolates was successfully achieved directly from positive blood culture vials independent of growing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of phosphate buffer in parenteral drugs on particle formation from glass vials.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of inorganic particles generated in glass vials filled with phosphate buffer solutions were investigated. During storage, particles were visually detected in the phosphate buffer solution in particular glass vials which pass compendial tests of containers for injectable drugs. These particles were considered to be different from ordinal glass delamination, which has been reported in a number of papers because the particles were mainly composed of Al, P and O, but not Si. The formation of the particles accelerated at higher storage temperatures. Among the surface treatments tested for the glass vials, sulfur treatment showed a protective effect on the particle formation in the vials, whereas the SiO(2) coating did not have any protective effects. It was found that the elution ratio of Al and Si in the solution stored in the glass vials after the heating was similar to the ratio of Al and Si in borosilicate glass. However, the Al concentration decreased during storage (5°C, 6 months), and consequently, particle formation was observed in the solution. Adding citrate, which is a chelating agent for Al, effectively suppressed the particle formation in the heated solution. When 50 ppb and higher concentrations of Al ion were added to the phosphate buffer solution, the formation of white particles containing Al, P and O was detected. It is suggested that a phosphate buffer solution in a borosilicate glass vial has the ability to form particles due to interactions with the Al that is eluted from the glass during storage.

  14. INTEGRITY OF VOA-VIAL SEALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preservation of soil samples for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) requires both the inhibition of VOC degradation and the restriction of vapor movement in or out of the sample container. Clear, 40,mL glass VOA vials manufactured by the four major U.S. glass manu...

  15. INTEGRITY OF VOA-VIAL SEALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preservation of soil samples for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) requires both the inhibition of VOC degradation and the restriction of vapor movement in or out of the sample container. Clear, 40,mL glass VOA vials manufactured by the four major U.S. glass manu...

  16. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  17. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  18. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  19. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  20. 10 CFR 35.69 - Labeling of vials and syringes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of vials and syringes. 35.69 Section 35.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.69 Labeling of vials and syringes. Each syringe and vial that contains unsealed byproduct material must...

  1. Novel adult feeding disruption test (FDT) to detect insecticide resistance of lepidopteran pests in cotton.

    PubMed

    van Kretschmar, B; Cabrera, Ana R; Bradley, Julius R; Roe, R Michael

    2013-05-01

    Resistance monitoring is an important aspect of insect resistance management and the preservation of insecticide efficacy. The adult vial test (AVT) is most often used for resistance monitoring for a variety of insects. A potential alternative method is feeding disruption where resistant insects are distinguished from susceptible insects on the basis of their ability to feed on insecticide in nectar containing a colorimetric marker to measure feeding. The advantages of a feeding disruption test (FDT) for lepidopteran adults might include a more rapid assay than AVT, an assay format easier to prepare, a bioassay applicable to both oral and contact insecticides and the provision of food and water during the course of the test. The objective of the present work was to determine the feasibility of an adult FDT. Heliothis virescens moths fed permethrin and spinosad in dyed nectar yielded dose-dependent ingestion, fecal production and mortality data. A permethrin diagnostic dose distinguished pyrethroid-resistant from pyrethroid-susceptible moths, based on fecal production. Proof of concept was demonstrated for an adult FDT in which resistant moths were distinguished from susceptible moths on the basis of the ability of the insect to feed on insecticide in dyed nectar and produce dyed feces. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Contamination study of multiple-dose vials.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, P S; Shevchuk, Y M; Conly, J M; Richardson, C J

    1993-03-01

    To document the number of opened, dated, and expired multiple-dose vials (MDVs) in patient-care areas and to determine what proportion of MDVs were contaminated with bacteria or cellular debris. Every tenth opened MDV (69/656) identified on the wards was collected, ensuring representation from each nursing unit. Contents were examined for contamination. Medical-school-affiliated, tertiary care center. (1) Visual inspection for debris, medication type, location, lot number, manufacturer's expiration date, and date of opening; (2) culture in solid and broth media for bacterial growth; and (3) staining and microscopic examination for cellular constituents. No vials had been dated after opening and 4.6 percent were expired according to the manufacturer's expiration date. No bacterial contamination was evident; however, one vial was contaminated with red blood cells. Transmission of infection via contaminated MDVs has been well documented and contamination with red blood cells raises concerns about potential for transmission of bloodborne pathogens. Recommendations include dating MDVs after opening, emphasizing the need for proper aseptic technique, and discarding MDVs on the manufacture's date of expiration.

  3. Fill volume as an indicator of surface heterogeneity in glass vials for parenteral packaging.

    PubMed

    Kucko, Nathan W; Keenan, Tim; Coughlan, Aisling; Hall, Matthew M

    2013-06-01

    The chemical durability of glass vials for parenteral packaging is typically assessed by completely filling the vial with a medium of interest. This testing approach can mask the heterogeneous dissolution behavior of vials produced by conversion of glass tubing. In this study, the corrosion behavior of vials provided by four suppliers was evaluated as a function of fill volume. Vials were filled with incrementally increasing volumes of water for injection (WFI) up to near-maximum capacity and then autoclaved. The pH and levels of extracted ions were measured. The pH of autoclaved WFI generally increased for low fill volumes relative to pure WFI, presumably because of extraction of alkali from the heel region. The pH was found to generally decrease with increasing fill volume as the concentration of extractables was diluted. Analysis of dissolution profiles supports the altered surface chemistry of the heel region relative to the body. The results of this study demonstrate the potential limitations of conventional hydrolytic resistance tests and the susceptibility of the heel region to aqueous corrosion.

  4. Helping Adult Students with Test Anxiety. Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadell, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Suggestions are made regarding ways teachers can help adult learners reduce their test anxiety. These general comments apply to content-oriented courses and may have some general applicability to all testing situations. The suggestions include clearly characterizing the test prior to its administration, planning for last-minute questions on test…

  5. Clinical and economic outcomes among patients with diabetes mellitus initiating insulin glargine pen versus vial.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Michael; Chu, James; Raparla, Swetha; Quimbo, Ralph; Zhou, Steve; Conoshenti, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    Insulin pens may help patients reach glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) target levels, but a substantial proportion of patients continue to use insulin vials/syringes. The objective of the current study was to evaluate real-world clinical and economic outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiating insulin glargine via pen delivery (pen) or vial/syringe (vial) within a large managed-care population in the United States. This retrospective administrative claims study used data on adult, insulin-naïve patients with T2DM treated with ≥ 1 oral antidiabetic or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist at baseline. The index date was the earliest pen or vial prescription date. Propensity score matching (1:1) of patients in the pen and vial cohorts was used when comparing 1-year outcomes, including treatment persistence and adherence, HbA1c levels, hypoglycemia rates, and all-cause and diabetes-related health care costs (computed as paid amounts on claims). Patients in the matched cohorts (n = 733 per cohort) were well balanced with regard to demographics (mean age 52 years; 43% women), clinical measures (mean HbA1c level, 9.4%; mean Quan-Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index score, 0.9), and health care utilization at baseline. Following initiation of insulin glargine, pen patients were more persistent (60.6% vs 50.1%; P < 0.001) and adherent (medication possession ratio, 0.73 vs 0.57; P < 0.001), with lower HbA1c levels during follow-up (mean adjusted change, -1.05 vs -0.73; P < 0.001), compared with vial patients. Hypoglycemic events occurred at similar rates across pen and vial cohorts (3.8% vs 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.21). Study drug costs were higher among pen users ($1164 vs $762, respectively; P < 0.001), but this did not translate into higher total all-cause or diabetes-related costs. For patients with diabetes newly initiating insulin glargine, using an insulin pen device was associated with increased therapy persistence and adherence, and lower

  6. Self-sealing capacity of vial stoppers after multiple needle punctures.

    PubMed

    Ponto, James A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the self-sealing capacity of vial stoppers in two common radiopharmaceuticals after more than 10 needle punctures. Assessment of self-sealing capacity was performed according to the self-sealing capacity test described in United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) General Chapter <381>. Groups of 10 vials of technetium (Tc)-99m sulfur colloid and Tc-99m tetrofosmin were tested for maintenance of self-sealing capacity following 10 punctures with 22-, 20-, and 18-gauge needles. Each vial was sequentially retested after additional sets of 10 punctures until failure of self-sealing capacity or until a total of 100 punctures, whichever came first. The median number of needle punctures with maintenance of self-sealing ability before failure for 22-, 20-, and 18-gauge needles was >100 (range all >100), >100 (all >100), and 60 (30-90), respectively, for sulfur colloid and >100 (all >100), >100 (50 to >100), and 50 (20-70), respectively, for tetrofosmin. Incidentally, coring particles were observed frequently in vials after many punctures with 18-gauge needles, but infrequently with 20-gauge and rarely with 22-gauge needles. Vial stoppers in two radiopharmaceutical products demonstrated robust self-sealing capacity, substantially exceeding the USP standard of 10 punctures with a 21-gauge needle. Coring particles were frequently observed after many punctures when using larger-bore needles but rarely when using smaller-bore needles. Under conditions commonly used, failure of self-sealing capacity and generation of coring particles are not anticipated to be problems encountered when puncturing vial stoppers of these two products substantially more than 10 times.

  7. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards.

  8. Vials: Visualizing Alternative Splicing of Genes

    PubMed Central

    Strobelt, Hendrik; Alsallakh, Bilal; Botros, Joseph; Peterson, Brant; Borowsky, Mark; Pfister, Hanspeter; Lex, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a process by which the same DNA sequence is used to assemble different proteins, called protein isoforms. Alternative splicing works by selectively omitting some of the coding regions (exons) typically associated with a gene. Detection of alternative splicing is difficult and uses a combination of advanced data acquisition methods and statistical inference. Knowledge about the abundance of isoforms is important for understanding both normal processes and diseases and to eventually improve treatment through targeted therapies. The data, however, is complex and current visualizations for isoforms are neither perceptually efficient nor scalable. To remedy this, we developed Vials, a novel visual analysis tool that enables analysts to explore the various datasets that scientists use to make judgments about isoforms: the abundance of reads associated with the coding regions of the gene, evidence for junctions, i.e., edges connecting the coding regions, and predictions of isoform frequencies. Vials is scalable as it allows for the simultaneous analysis of many samples in multiple groups. Our tool thus enables experts to (a) identify patterns of isoform abundance in groups of samples and (b) evaluate the quality of the data. We demonstrate the value of our tool in case studies using publicly available datasets. PMID:26529712

  9. Evaluating Sterility of Single Dose Vials on an Automated Compounding Device.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Hannah M; Sayre, Brian E; Prettyman, Terrence; King, Erica

    2017-04-01

    Background: Current guidelines for sterile compounding require that single dose vials of pharmaceuticals must be discarded after 6 hours when accessed in an ISO Class 5 environment. At this time, no studies have evaluated the sterility of single dose vials at any time after opening. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sterility of single dose vials attached to an automated compounding device for up to 24 hours and accessed and maintained within a cleanroom environment. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study evaluating the sterility of 32 pooled samples of manufactured single dose injectable drugs attached to an automated compounding device for up to 24 hours and maintained within an ISO Class 5 environment in an ISO Class 7 buffer area. Each pooled sample was comprised of the remaining contents of 10 single dose vial additives that were used for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and attached to the compounder within the previous 24 hours. Samples were evaluated using membrane filtration sterility testing and incubated for 14 days per USP <71> requirements. Results: The results revealed zero failed sterility samples. Single dose vials remained attached to the compounder for an average of 23.8 hours (±0.1 hours). The average volume per sample was 879 mL (±105.1 mL). Manipulation of vials during the compounding process included an average of 20.4 manipulations (±1.4). Conclusions: Single dose injectable drugs attached to an automated compounding device within an ISO Class 5 cleanroom environment may remain sterile for up to 24 hours. Future studies are needed with a larger sample size and under continued dynamic working conditions to provide further evidence to extend the beyond use date within USP <797>.

  10. Development of a standard gas generating vial comprised of a silicon oil-polystyrene/divinylbenzene composite sorbent.

    PubMed

    Grandy, Jonathan J; Gómez-Ríos, German A; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-09-04

    In this work, a highly reproducible standard gas generating vial is proposed. The vial is comprised of a silicon diffusion pump oil spiked with an appropriate calibration compound, such as modified McReynolds probes (benzene, 2-pentanone, pyridine, 1-nitropropane, 1-pentanol, and n-octane), and then mixed with polystyrene/divinylbenzene (PS/DVB) particles. The concentrations of these compounds in gaseous headspace were found to substantially decrease in comparison to previously developed hydrocarbon pump oil based vials; hence, the amount of standard loaded onto SPME fibers was at most, half that of the previous vial design. Depletion for all compounds after 208 successive extractions was shown to be less than 3.5%. Smaller quantities of standards being used resulted in a vial that depleted slower while remaining statistically repeatable over a wider number of runs. Indeed, it was found that depletion could be largely predicted by using a mass balance theoretical model. This behavior allowed a further increase in the number of loadings that could be performed repeatedly. At a 95% level of confidence, the ANOVA test demonstrated that the prepared vials were statistically identical, with no significant intra- or inter-batch differences. In addition, it was found that vials stored under different conditions (e.g. under light exposure, room temperature, and within a refrigerator) were stable over 10 weeks. Silicon based vials proved to be ideal for performing instrument quality control and loading of internal standards onto fibers, both of which are of great importance when performing on-site analysis using portable GC-MS instrumentation and high throughput determinations in laboratory.

  11. Hearing loss screening tests for adults.

    PubMed

    Becerril-Ramírez, Perla B; González-Sánchez, Dina F; Gómez-García, Angélica; Figueroa-Moreno, Rafael; Bravo-Escobar, Gerardo A; García de la Cruz, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The early detection of hearing loss has been studied widely in newborns due to the emerging technologies for diagnosis and treatment. There are detailed protocols for this goal. Nonetheless, hearing loss screening in adults has become more important lately with the increase of the life expectancy, an expected change in the Mexican population pyramid towards a rectangular shape in the next 50 years (with increased hearing loss prevalence) and the creation of public policies for social security such as the "Seguro Popular". There are no Mexican studies about hearing loss screening in adults. The aim of this work was to assess a tone emission and a questionnaire as screening tools for hearing loss in adults. A sample size of 500 individuals without otology pathology from the outpatient clinics at a general hospital. An otoscopy, 2 screening tests (tone emission and questionnaire) and tonal audiometry were performed on all subjects. The questionnaire turned out to be a sensitive test but with low specificity, while the tone emission was less sensitive but more specific with a higher rate of precision. In this study, the best result was achieved by a combined strategy using the two tests above, with a precision of 90%. The best screening strategy proposed by this study for hearing loss in adults is a questionnaire and tone emission test, which guarantees complete hearing assessment in objective and subjective manners, performed quickly and without special training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety, sterility and stability of direct-from-vial multiple dosing intravitreal injection of bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Das, Taraprasad; Volety, Srinivas; Ahsan, Saad M; Thakur, Abhay K; Sharma, Savitri; Padhi, Tapas R; Basu, Soumyava; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to determine the stability, sterility and safety of bevacizumab multiple dosing from a single vial without prior aliquoting. In-vitro and human study. Six bevacizumab vials, used in multiple patients on a single day by direct withdrawal from the vial, and stored in 4°C up to a variable period, were tested for stability (high-performance liquid chromatography; [HPLC]), sterility (culture), conformational stability by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy and the rubber cork structural integrity (electron microscopy [EM]). HPLC of all six samples of used bevacizumab and the control bevacizumab sample were similar; culture was negative; and the EM of rubber corks did not show an open communication. Spectroscopic studies indicated drug conformational stability. Further, there was no infection or inflammation in 221 consecutive patients (973 injections) when bevacizumab was stored at 4°C and used for one week. Bevacizumab does not lose stability when stored at 4°C. It may be used for a week by direct withdrawal from the vial without fear of infection or inflammation if all standard precautions related to intravitreal injection are adhered to. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Comparisons of Aluminum and Silica Elution from Various Glass Vials.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Minami, Hidemi; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-01-01

    To understand the risk of particle formation in glass vials, we investigated the correlation between vial surface condition and alminum (Al) or silicon (Si) elution using various suppliers' vials with or without surface treatment. The elution of Si, which can also be an indicator of Al elution, consists of two phases; the first phase is influenced by roughness of the glass surface at the time of filling, and the second phase is dependent on the fundamental elution rate from the glass tube. When vials were filled with citrate buffer at pH 7, vials with varied surface conditions showed the most obvious differences in Al and Si elution. Sulfur-treated vials showed slightly lower Al and Si elution than the non-treated vials. It is considered that this effect of the sulfur treatment on elution is due to the surface being smoothed during heat treatment after the washing process. Different from the sulfur treatment, silicon dioxide (SiO2)-coated vials hardly showed any Al elution as long as the surface was fully coated with the SiO2 layer. It was found that the protective effect of the SiO2 layer against Al elution is more effective in a vial filled with a solution having a lower pH, due to the lower Si dissolving rate occurring at a lower pH. As shown above, pre-measuring the Si and Al present in a citrate buffer at pH 7 placed within a glass container can be a useful tool for selecting the appropriate container for liquid drugs.

  14. An assay for measurement of protein adsorption to glass vials.

    PubMed

    Varmette, Elizabeth; Strony, Brianne; Haines, Daniel; Redkar, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Protein adsorption to primary packaging is one of the problems faced by biopharmaceutical drug companies. An assay was developed to quantify loss of proteins to glass vial surfaces. The assay involves the labeling of protein with a fluorescent dye, incubation of the labeled protein with the vial surface, elution of the adsorbed protein using a stripping buffer, and determination of fluorescence of the adsorbed protein using a fluorometer. The assay is simple to set up, accurate, sensitive, and flexible. The assay can be modified for indirect measurement of protein adsorption and offers an attractive alternative for researchers to quantify protein adsorption to glass vials and syringes.

  15. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  16. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  17. Improvements in and environmental applications of double-vial radiorespirometry for the study of microbial mineralization.

    PubMed

    McKinley, V L; Federle, T W; Vestal, J R

    1983-01-01

    Several variations in the scintillation mixture and the filter paper arrangements for double-vial radiorespirometry were compared. Improved efficiencies (44%) and shorter response times were found by adding wetting agents and methanolic NaOH to the scintillation mixture in the filter paper. The scintillation chemicals used did not contain dioxane and were found to be nontoxic to the test microbiota in this system. Covering the inner reaction vial with aluminum foil minimized the reduction in counting efficiency when testing colored or dense environmental samples. Mineralization rates were determined with C-labeled glucose, acetate, and glutamate and [C]cellulose- and [C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose for composting cow manure, forest soil, and arctic lake sediment microbiota. This improved method can be used in a variety of procedures involving the measurement of microbial mineralizations of organic compounds. Since no liquid scintillation cocktail is used for counting, the radioactive wastes are aqueous or can be incinerated, making disposal easy.

  18. An Efficient Method for Transferring Adult Mosquitoes during Field Tests,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CULICIDAE, *COLLECTING METHODS, REPRINTS, BLOOD SUCKING INSECTS, FIELD TESTS, HAND HELD, EFFICIENCY, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, MORTALITY RATES , ADULTS, AEDES, ASPIRATORS, CULICIDAE, TEST AND EVALUATION, REPRINTS

  19. Comparative device assessments: Humalog KwikPen compared with vial and syringe and FlexPen.

    PubMed

    Ignaut, Debra A; Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Sarwat, Samiha; Murphy, Heather L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pen device-naïve patients' preferences for Humalog KwikPen (insulin lispro injection) (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) to use of a vial and syringe and FlexPen(R) (insulin aspart injection) (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark). This open-label, randomized, crossover 1-day study tested the hypotheses that KwikPen was preferred to vial and syringe, and if this was found to be a significant preference, that KwikPen was preferred to FlexPen. Accuracy of doses prepared, ease of use via insulin device assessment battery, and preference via insulin device preference battery were administered following each pen evaluation, and a final preference question administered following the evaluation of both pens. Clinical measures were not included as subjects injected into an appliance to simulate the injection experience. Primary outcome variables were evaluated by Question 13 of the insulin device preference battery and the final preference question. Among 232 enrolled patients randomized to 1 of 4 sequences (n = 58), Humalog KwikPen was significantly preferred over vial and syringe and over FlexPen. After patients were asked to assess Humalog KwikPen or FlexPen versus V&S by choosing "strongly agreed" or "agreed" to the following attributes: easy to use, easy to hold in their hands when injecting, and easy to press the injection button, the results exhibited significant differences in patient responses. Humalog KwikPen was significantly more accurate and was preferred to vial and syringe in appearance, quality, discretion, convenience, public use, easy to learn, easy to use, reliability, dose confidence, following insulin regimen, overall satisfaction, and recommendation to others. Humalog KwikPen was significantly preferred over vial and syringe and FlexPen. When compared with vial and syringe, Humalog KwikPen and FlexPen were easier to use and operate, demonstrated superior accuracy of doses prepared, and preferred by pen

  20. Consequences of not relieving negative internal pressure of a medication vial: A survey and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hiroko; Irie, Tomoya; Kawakami, Hiromasa; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Goto, Takahisa

    2017-02-01

    The glass vial of acetaminophen as an intravenous preparation (Acelio®, Terumo, Japan) has a strong internal negative pressure. The aim of our study was to determine if this negative pressure could result in medication administration errors if not released prior to connecting to the IV set. Questionnaire survey and simulation study. University hospital and its affiliated hospitals. Fifty-two anesthesiologists in 6 different hospitals in Yokohama. A questionnaire on current practice was sent to the subjects. The authors then first calculated the internal pressure of the Acelio® vial followed by a simulation set-up. This set-up measured the amount of saline that could be aspirated from a syringe loaded on a syringe pump connected via a secondary IV line when the Acelio® vial was attached to the primary line without prior release of the internal pressure. The volume of aspiration was tested with two syringe sizes and with a fully open IV clamp vs partially closed. Twenty-nine (56.9%) of 51 anesthesiologists who responded to the survey had connected the Acelio® vial at least once without releasing the internal negative pressure, and 21 experienced consequences such as backflow of the venous blood. The pressure inside the Acelio® vial was 81.8±19.6Torr. With the clamp of the simulated IV line fully open, the amount of saline aspirated before the alarm of the syringe pump went off was 1.5±0.1ml and 3.2±0.3ml when 20ml and 50ml syringes were used, respectively. When the clamp was partially closed to allow 2 drops per second, this value was 1.3±0.1ml and 2.3±0.1ml, respectively. After removing the plunger from the holder of the syringe pump, an additional 7ml (clamp partially closed) or 15-18ml (clamp fully open) was aspirated in the subsequent 1min. A considerable number of anesthesiologists experienced consequences caused by the negative pressure inside the Acelio® vial. This can also cause aspiration of the contents of the syringe pump. Copyright © 2016

  1. Freeze-Drying Process Development and Scale-Up: Scale-Up of Edge Vial Versus Center Vial Heat Transfer Coefficients, Kv.

    PubMed

    Pikal, Michael J; Bogner, Robin; Mudhivarthi, Vamsi; Sharma, Puneet; Sane, Pooja

    2016-11-01

    This report presents calculations of the difference between the vial heat transfer coefficient of the "edge vial" and the "center vial" at all scales. The only scale-up adjustment for center vials is for the contribution of radiation from the shelf upon which the vial sits by replacing the emissivity of the laboratory dryer shelf with the emissivity of the production dryer shelf. With edge vials, scales-up adjustments are more complex. While convection is not important, heat transfer from the wall to the bands (surrounding the vial array) by radiation and directly from the band to the vials by both radiation and conduction is important; this radiation heat transfer depends on the emissivity of the vial and the bands and is nearly independent of the emissivity of the dryer walls. Differences in wall temperatures do impact the edge vial effect and scale-up, and estimates for wall temperatures are needed for both laboratory and manufacturing dryers. Auto-loading systems (no bands) may give different edge vial heat transfer coefficients than when operating with bands. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental values of the edge vial effect indicate that results calculated from the theory are of useful accuracy. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodegradation of [14C]phenol in secondary sewage and landfill leachate measured by double-vial radiorespirometry.

    PubMed Central

    Deeley, G M; Skierkowski, P; Robertson, J M

    1985-01-01

    Double-vial radiorespirometry was used to estimate the biodegradation rates of 14C-labeled phenol in a landfill leachate and a secondary treated domestic wastewater. Rates were found to be comparable for each material at each of the three concentrations tested. Sewage microorganisms immediately began biodegrading the [14C]phenol; landfill leachate microorganisms required a lag period before maximum biodegradation of the [14C]phenol. The apparent rate of [14C]phenol biodegradation was 2.4 times faster in the sewage than in the landfill leachate. Double-vial radiorespirometry was shown to be an effective method for screening biodegradation rates in aquifers. PMID:4004218

  3. To Test or Not to Test? Metabolic Testing in Adolescents and Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, Ute; de Die-Smulders, Christine; Martens, Herman; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Spaapen, Leo

    2008-01-01

    In order to add to the knowledge on adult phenotypes of metabolic disorders associated with intellectual disability (ID) and to evaluate criteria for recommending metabolic testing of adolescents and adults with unexplained ID, the authors analyzed retrospectively the outcome of metabolic investigations performed during a 10-year period on 256…

  4. To Test or Not to Test? Metabolic Testing in Adolescents and Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, Ute; de Die-Smulders, Christine; Martens, Herman; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Spaapen, Leo

    2008-01-01

    In order to add to the knowledge on adult phenotypes of metabolic disorders associated with intellectual disability (ID) and to evaluate criteria for recommending metabolic testing of adolescents and adults with unexplained ID, the authors analyzed retrospectively the outcome of metabolic investigations performed during a 10-year period on 256…

  5. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.

  6. Cultivation of PCV2 in swine testicle cells using the shell vial technique and monitoring of viral replication by qPCR and RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Taís F; Araujo, João P

    2014-02-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is difficult to isolate. Currently, no published articles have used the shell vial technique to isolate PCV2. In addition, the action of d-glucosamine on swine testicle cells (ST) has not been evaluated properly. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine an optimal concentration of d-glucosamine and to test the shell vial technique for PCV2 propagation in ST cells. The optimal concentration of d-glucosamine was determined to be 100mM. Because PCV2 is noncytopathic, the traditional adsorption was compared to the shell vial technique for 15 passages by qPCR, and RT-qPCR for passages 12 through 15. The quantities of viral DNA (P=0.013) and ORF1-mRNA detected with the shell vial technique were two-fold higher than the obtained with traditional adsorption. The levels of ORF2-mRNA were similar for both methods; however, by passage 15, a six-fold increase in levels was observed with the shell vial technique. Therefore, the shell vial technique was more efficient for the cultivation of PCV2, and qPCR/RT-qPCR can be used to monitor viral replication. In addition, a high viral load (>2.7×10(10) DNA copies/ml) and high levels of viral mRNA expression indicated that the ST cells were persistently infected.

  7. 141 BOVINE EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT RATES ARE AFFECTED WHEN OOCYTES ARE MATURED IN DIFFERENT VIALS CONTAINING HEPES/BICARBONATE BUFFERED MEDIUM.

    PubMed

    Hashem, N; Secher, J O; Pryor, J H; Long, C R; Looney, C R; Avery, B; Hyttel, P; Stroebech, L

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory ware for the in vitro-produced embryos is generally made from embryo-tested plastic instead of glass. The quality of the plastic is crucial for the outcome because plastic is often toxic to gametes (Nijs et al. 2009 Fertil. Steril. 92, 527-535). In addition, gas molecules permeate through the plastic at a rate that depends on a variety of factors, such as diffusion coefficient and thickness of the plastic. In an incubator with appropriate concentration of CO2 and vented culture vessels, the gas permeability of the plastic is not important. When oocytes are transported outside a controlled atmosphere, gas permeability, toxicity, and oocyte cumulus cell CO2 metabolism could perturb the outcome. Medium containing bicarbonate buffer increases pH outside of a controlled atmosphere within minutes, whereas medium buffered with HEPES maintains suitable pH for hours. Previously, we tested that gas permeability differs among plastic vials and glass vials with no cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) by measuring pH after 2, 5, and 24h at the same temperature. The objective of this study was to compare pH post-maturation, blastocyst development rates on Day 8 post-IVF (Day 0=IVF) between 2 different 1.2-mL polypropylene cryovials (A: VWR DK, 479-1219; B: Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, CLS430289), glass vial (VWR DK, NSCAC4015-96), and 4-well plate (4WP) as control (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA, 144444). A total of 1135 abattoir-derived COC in Exp. 1 and 133 in Exp. 2 were divided equally between the treatments (20-25 COC per vessel). Vials/4WP contained 0.8/0.5mL of BO-IVM HEPES, a HEPES/bicarbonate medium (IVF Bioscience; BO-HEPES-IVM, UK). Maturation lasted 22 to 24h at 38.8°C in an incubator with either a humidified atmosphere of 5.5% CO2 in air (Exp. 1) or with no CO2 contact (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, oocyte vials were matured without a vial lid while in Exp. 2 vial lids were closed. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square and mean±SD. In Exp

  8. [Cytomegalovirus isolation by conventional cell culture and shell vial assay].

    PubMed

    Galiano, M C; Videla, C M; Sánchez Puch, S; Carballal, G

    2001-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients, diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) active infection is of utmost importance for the initiation, monitoring and ending of antiviral therapy. Therefore, the presence of viral replication should be demonstrated. Isolation in tissue culture is one of the standard methods. The objective of the present paper was to compare two isolation procedures for CMV: conventional cell culture (CC) and rapid shell vial (SV) assay in human fibroblasts. A total of 584 clinical samples were studied between 1991 and 1998. CMV was isolated in 14.4% of the samples, 11.8% of which were positive by SV and 7.7% by CC. Out of 84 positive samples, concordance between both methods was observed in 36% of the cases. We found that 46% of the samples were positive only by SV, while 18% were positive only by CC. The average time required for obtaining the results by CC was 22.6 +/- 2.3 days. Out of the 69 samples positive by SV, 43% were already positive after 24 hours and the rest after 48 hours. These results indicate that SV was more sensitive and rapid than CC. The main advantage of CC, despite its time-consuming process, is the ability to recover the viral strain for both antiviral susceptibility phenotypical tests and strain characterization. Furthermore, in this study, absence of CC would have resulted in the loss of 18% of the positive diagnoses. In conclusion, simultaneous use of both methods is suggested in order to obtain a rapid result and the highest sensitivity.

  9. Application of Modified Shell Vial Culture Procedure for Arbovirus Detection

    PubMed Central

    Caceda, Edna R.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN), Yellow Fever (YF), Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE), West Nile (WN), Ilheus (ILH), Group C (GC), Oropouche (ORO), Mayaro (MAY) and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE) viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC) protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC) protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE) had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH). MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO). For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera. PMID:17940598

  10. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

    PubMed

    Caceda, Edna R; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2007-10-17

    The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN), Yellow Fever (YF), Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE), West Nile (WN), Ilheus (ILH), Group C (GC), Oropouche (ORO), Mayaro (MAY) and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE) viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC) protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC) protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE) had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH). MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO). For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  11. Polyglycerol coatings of glass vials for protein resistance.

    PubMed

    Höger, Kerstin; Becherer, Tobias; Qiang, Wei; Haag, Rainer; Friess, Wolfgang; Küchler, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Proteins are surface active molecules which undergo non-specific adsorption when getting in contact with surfaces such as the primary packaging material. This process is critical as it may cause a loss of protein content or protein aggregation. To prevent unspecific adsorption, protein repellent coatings are of high interest. We describe the coating of industrial relevant borosilicate glass vials with linear methoxylated polyglycerol, hyperbranched polyglycerol, and hyperbranched methoxylated polyglycerol. All coatings provide excellent protein repellent effects. The hyperbranched, non-methoxylated coating performed best. The protein repellent properties were maintained also after applying industrial relevant sterilization methods (≥200 °C). Marginal differences in antibody stability between formulations stored in bare glass vials and coated vials were detected after 3 months storage; the protein repellent effect remained largely stable. Here, we describe a new material suitable for the coating of primary packaging material of proteins which significantly reduces the protein adsorption and thus could present an interesting new possibility for biomedical applications.

  12. A quality improvement project to reduce the intraoperative use of single-dose fentanyl vials across multiple patients in a pediatric institution.

    PubMed

    Buck, David; Subramanyam, Rajeev; Varughese, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The use of a single-dose vial across multiple patients presents a risk to sterility and is against CDC guidelines. We initiated a quality improvement (QI) project to reduce the intraoperative use of single-dose vials of fentanyl across multiple patients at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). The initial step of the improvement project was the development of a Key Driver Diagram. The diagram has the SMART aim of the project, key drivers inherent to the process we are trying to improve, and specific interventions targeting the key drivers. The number of patients each week receiving an IV dose of fentanyl, from a vial previously accessed for another patient was tracked in a high turnover operating room (OR). The improvement model used was based on the concept of building Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles. Tests of change included provider education, provision of an increased number of fentanyl vials, alternate wasting processes, and provision of single-use fentanyl syringes by the pharmacy. Prior to initiation of this project, it was common for a single fentanyl vial to be accessed for multiple patients. Our data showed an average percentage of failures of just over 50%. During the end of the project, after 7 months, the mean percentage failures had dropped to 5%. Preparation of 20 mcg single-use fentanyl syringes by pharmacy, combined with education of providers on appropriate use, was successful in reducing failures to below our goal of 25%. Appropriately sized fentanyl syringes prepared by pharmacy, education on correct use of single-dose vials, and reminders in the OR, reduced the percentage of patients receiving a dose of fentanyl from a vial previously accessed for another patient in a high-volume otolaryngology room. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adult Basic Counseling and Testing Program; Pilot Project Evaluative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Wyoming Coll., Torrington.

    Undertaken by Eastern Wyoming College, this pilot program of adult basic counseling and testing sought to stimulate the enrollment of school dropouts in adult basic education courses, help enrollees discover their vocational interests and capabilities, and aid them in their personal and social adjustment. A full-time counselor took charge of…

  14. Adult Learning and High-Stakes Testing: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Grace

    2004-01-01

    In this world of increasing competition for jobs and accountability in the workplace, adults are facing many new pressures, one of which is passing tests as part of the application process. This is especially difficult for adults who are academically challenged or did not go far enough with their education to feel comfortable in testing…

  15. HIV antibody testing in young, urban adults.

    PubMed

    Berrios, D C; Hearst, N; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Sidney, S; McCreath, H E; Hulley, S B

    1992-02-01

    We surveyed men and women aged 21 to 34 years to determine the rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing in blacks and whites of diverse education levels in four US cities. Responses to the anonymous, mailed questionnaire were received from 90% of 777 white women, 64% of 734 black women, 79% of 677 white men, and 48% of 541 black men. The percentages reporting HIV testing for these four race-gender groups were 29%, 22%, 30%, and 38%, respectively. The percentages reporting testing that was voluntarily sought (ie, not in connection with blood donation, military service) were 16%, 14%, 18%, and 22%, respectively. In each race-gender group, roughly half of those who had not been tested said they "might have a blood test for the AIDS virus in the future". Education level was not correlated with HIV-testing frequency. Blacks were significantly less likely than whites to be aware of "a blood test that can detect the AIDS virus infection" (58% vs 77%), but blacks who knew of the test were more likely than whites to have been tested (47% vs 37%). Eleven percent of subjects reported at least one major risk factor for HIV infection. In these people, HIV testing was most common among homosexually active men (56% tested; 52% voluntarily sought), intermediate among injection drug users (40% tested; 31% voluntarily sought), and least common among the sexual partners of injection-drug users (21% tested; 11% voluntarily sought). Health education programs need to communicate the availability of, and need for, anonymous HIV testing.

  16. 78 FR 14095 - Determination That GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.5 Milligrams Base/Vial and 1.0...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.5 Milligrams Base/Vial and 1.0 Milligrams Base/Vial, and GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.05 Milligrams... (Sermorelin Acetate) ] injection, 0.5 milligrams (mg) base/vial and 1.0 mg base/vial, and GEREF (Sermorelin...

  17. Comparing patient preferences and healthcare provider recommendations with the pen versus vial-and-syringe insulin delivery in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, Andrew; Szeinbach, Sheryl L; Gill, Jasvinder; Traylor, Louise; Garg, Satish K

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to examine healthcare provider (HCP) recommendations and patient preferences for the insulin pen versus vial-and-syringe in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to assess clinical end points and safety outcomes. Using a randomized, open-label, crossover design, in total, 405 insulin-naive adults with T2DM from 60 centers received basal insulin glargine in one of two device treatment sequences (2 weeks of pen followed by 2 weeks of vial-and-syringe, or vice versa). The primary end point, patient device preference, was evaluated at Week 4 (end of the crossover period) using the Insulin Injection Preference Questionnaire. Patient preference and HCP recommendation were assessed with one global item and three subscale items (blood glucose control, reluctance to use insulin, and long-term insulin use) using a 5-point scale ranging from 1=not preferred or not recommended to 5=preferred or recommended. Patients were then re-randomized to either pen or vial-and-syringe for further observation (6, 10, and 30 weeks) to evaluate clinical end points (glycosylated hemoglobin [A1C] and fasting blood glucose levels) and safety outcomes (hypoglycemia and adverse events). Patients reported a significant preference for pens over vial-and-syringe, and HCPs strongly recommended pens over vial-and-syringe (both P<0.001). Consistent response patterns were observed by HCPs and patients for the three subscale items. Fasting blood glucose, A1C levels, and the incidence of hypoglycemia were comparable in the two groups. Patients preferred pens over vial-and-syringe, with the pen device also recommended by HCPs, when initiating basal insulin treatment in insulin-naive patients with T2DM.

  18. Three tests of cortisol secretion in adult endogenous depressives.

    PubMed

    Sachar, E J; Puig-Antich, J; Ryan, N D; Asnis, G M; Rabinovich, H; Davies, M; Halpern, F S

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-nine drug-free adult patients fitting RDC criteria for major depressive disorder endogenous subtype (EMDD), and 64 normal adult volunteers, were studied at pretreatment with at least one of three tests of cortisol secretion. The tests were: 1) Mean half-hourly cortisol concentrations from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. (1-4 PM CORT); 2) plasma cortisol response to 0.15 mg/kg of dextroamphetamine hydrochloride (DACT) in the afternoon; 3) dexamethasone suppression test (DST) using 1 or 2 mg. Thirty-six depressive and 27 volunteers underwent all three tests. Analysis of the data was performed for each test singly, for all pairs of tests and for all three tests in same subjects. Results show that the single most sensitive cortisol test for depressions is the DACT (72%), with a specificity of 88%. These tests may measure different underlying pathophysiologies associated with depression.

  19. Validation of a Minor Modification to the Soleris® Direct Yeast and Mold Vial and Selective Supplement.

    PubMed

    Alles, Susan; McDougal, Susan; Caballero, Oscar; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe results of a study to validate minor reagent formulation changes to the Soleris Direct Yeast and Mold (DYM) automated growth-based method for semi-quantitative detection of yeast and mold in food products. In order to reduce the maximum concentration of the selective agent chloramphenicol in the Soleris reagents, chloramphenicol was removed from the selective supplement and added to the vial growth medium itself. Therefore, both the vial medium and supplement have been reformulated in an alternative version of the method. A probability of detection (POD) statistical model was used to compare Soleris results at multiple test thresholds (dilutions) with plate counts determined using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual dilution plating procedure. Three matrixes were tested; yogurt, tomato juice, and cocoa powder. POD analysis showed that the percentage of positive Soleris tests at various test thresholds were within the limits predicted by the reference method plate counts for all matrixes evaluated. Real-time stability data on three manufactured lots showed that the modified Soleris vial and supplement are stable for at a minimum of 10 months when stored at 2-8°C. In sum, results presented here demonstrate that the modifications to the Soleris DYM vial and supplement do not impact method performance. The modified Soleris DYM method can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional dilution plating procedures for semi-quantitative determination of yeast and mold at threshold levels, while saving as much as 3 days in analysis time.

  20. Economic Impact of Converting from Pen and 10-mL Vial to 3-mL Vial for Insulin Delivery in a Hospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Elizabeth, Eby; Smolen, Lee; Pitts, Amber; Krueger, Linda A; Grimm, Doneen

    2014-12-01

    To compare the impact on acquisition cost and purchased volume of rapid- and short-acting insulins following conversion from 3-mL disposable pens and 10-mL vials to 3-mL vials for individual patient supply (IPS) in a hospital setting. On February 1, 2010, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center of Dignity Health in Phoenix, Arizona, converted from pens to 3-mL vials for IPS subcutaneous (SC) injection and from 10-mL short-acting insulin vials to 3-mL vials for intravenous (IV) preparation. Pharmacy purchasing data were analyzed over 6-month periods before and after conversion (March 1 through August 31, 2009, and March 1 through August 31, 2010). Before conversion, acquisition costs were $27,866 for 5,335 mL of rapid-acting insulins and $53,336 for 26,310 mL of short-acting insulins. After conversion, insulin acquisition costs were $24,211 for 5,850 mL of rapid-acting insulins (13.1% decrease in costs, 9.7% rise in volume), with cost reduction attributable to the lower cost of 3-mL vials. Acquisition costs were $17,395 for 14,700 mL of short-acting insulins after conversion (67.4% decrease in costs, 44.1% reduction in volume), with cost reduction attributable to lower cost of 3-mL vials versus pens for IPS SC injections and 10-mL vials for IV preparation. The reduction in purchased volumes of short-acting insulins may be partly due to decreased insulin use in IV preparation. Conversion from pens and 10-mL vials to 3-mL vials for rapid-and short-acting insulins resulted in reduced acquisition costs and decreased use of short-acting insulin in IV preparations.

  1. Olfactory Behavioral Testing in the Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    M. Witt, Rochelle; M. Galligan, Meghan; R. Despinoy, Jennifer; Segal, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    The rodent olfactory system is of increasing interest to scientists, studied, in part, in systems biology because of its stereotyped, yet accessible circuitry. In addition, this area's unique ability to generate new neurons throughout an organism's lifetime makes it an attractive system for developmental and regenerative biologists alike. Such interest necessitates a means for a quick, yet reliable assessment of olfactory function. Many tests of olfactory ability are complex, variable or not specifically designed for mice. Also, some tests are sensitive to memory deficits as well as defects in olfactory abilities, confounding obtained results. Here, we describe a simple battery of tests designed to identify defects in olfactory sensitivity and preference. First, an initial general health assessment allows for the identification of animals suitable for further testing. Second, mice are exposed to various dilutions of scents to ascertain whether there is a threshold difference. Third, mice are presented with various scents, both attractive and aversive, that allow for the assessment of olfactory preference. These simple studies should make the initial characterization of olfactory behavior accessible for labs of varied resources and expertise. PMID:19229182

  2. Olfactory behavioral testing in the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Witt, Rochelle M; Galligan, Meghan M; Despinoy, Jennifer R; Segal, Rosalind

    2009-01-28

    The rodent olfactory system is of increasing interest to scientists, studied, in part, in systems biology because of its stereotyped, yet accessible circuitry. In addition, this area's unique ability to generate new neurons throughout an organism's lifetime makes it an attractive system for developmental and regenerative biologists alike. Such interest necessitates a means for a quick, yet reliable assessment of olfactory function. Many tests of olfactory ability are complex, variable or not specifically designed for mice. Also, some tests are sensitive to memory deficits as well as defects in olfactory abilities, confounding obtained results. Here, we describe a simple battery of tests designed to identify defects in olfactory sensitivity and preference. First, an initial general health assessment allows for the identification of animals suitable for further testing. Second, mice are exposed to various dilutions of scents to ascertain whether there is a threshold difference. Third, mice are presented with various scents, both attractive and aversive, that allow for the assessment of olfactory preference. These simple studies should make the initial characterization of olfactory behavior accessible for labs of varied resources and expertise.

  3. [Numerical simulation and optimization research of needle parameters in vial washing machine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Li, Zhen; Liu, Ying; Liu, Haigang; Peng, Delian; Wei, Guoqin

    2014-10-01

    According to the working principle of vertical ultrasonic vial washing machine, receiving respective force of small water droplets on the inside wall of vials and the minimum air velocity of blowing off water droplets can be obtained based on the analysis of water-droplet-related parameters. The inside wall model of 7 mL vial created by GAMBIT was divided into fine grids. Then the Realizable k-epsilon Two Equation Turbulence Model was adopted and the flow field of vial by FLUENT software was simulated when air was flushing inside the wall. In that case, the optimal position, inner diameter and the corresponding minimum air velocity of needle can be acquired to meet the needs of vial washing machine applied to 7 mL vial.

  4. Contamination of multiple-dose vials in a veterinary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Catherine V.; Weese, J Scott

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of multiple-dose saline bottles and medication vials in a veterinary teaching hospital was evaluated. Bacterial contamination was identified in 16/88 (18%) containers, with no difference in contamination between the large animal clinic, small animal clinic, and ruminant ambulatory clinic. Contamination of multiple-dose containers containing substances for injection was common, and potential pathogens were present in many situations. While the clinical significance is not resolved at this point, infection control practices should address this potential source of nosocomial infection. PMID:16933556

  5. The Bactec FX Blood Culture System Detects Brucella melitensis Bacteremia in Adult Patients within the Routine 1-Week Incubation Period.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Moshe; Nesher, Lior; Yagupsky, Pablo

    2017-03-01

    The performance of the Bactec FX blood culture system for detecting Brucella bacteremia within the routine 1-week incubation period was assessed in a prospective study conducted in an area in southern Israel in which Brucella melitensis is endemic. Aerobic vials (BD Bactec Plus Aerobic/F medium) inoculated with blood specimens obtained from adult patients with positive Rose-Bengal screening test results were monitored for 4 consecutive weeks, and blind subcultures of negative vials were performed on solid media on days 7 and 28. During a 16-month period, a total of 31 (35.2%) of 88 cultures, obtained from 19 (38.0%) of 50 patients, were positive for Brucella melitensis The blood culture instrument identified 30 (96.8%) of 31 positive vials within 7 days of incubation; the single positive vial that was missed by the automated readings was detected only by the blind subculture performed on day 28. It is concluded that the Bactec FX system is able to detect the vast majority of episodes of Brucella bacteremia within the 1-week incubation protocol instituted in most clinical microbiology laboratories and without the need to perform blind subcultures of negative vials, enabling early diagnosis and saving labor and incubation time and space.

  6. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  7. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  8. FIELD TEST AND EVALUATION OF SELECTED ADULT BASIC EDUCATION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleigh Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    IN A LARGE-SCALE FIELD TEST WITH FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE ADULTS, THIS PROJECT EVALUATED FOUR READING SYSTEMS--LEARNING TO READ AND SPELL, READING IN HIGH GEAR, MOTT BASIC LANGUAGE SKILLS PROGRAM, AND SYSTEMS FOR SUCCESS. TESTING WAS CONDUCTED IN SEVEN COMMUNITIES IN NEW YORK, THREE IN NEW JERSEY, AND FIVE IN CALIFORNIA, PROVIDING A MIXTURE OF…

  9. The robustness of diagnostic tests for GH deficiency in adults.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Since the 1970s, GH treatment has been an important tool in paediatric endocrinology for the management of growth retardation. It is now accepted that adults with severe GH deficiency (GHD) demonstrate impaired physical and psychological well-being and may benefit from replacement therapy with recombinant human GH. There is, however, an ongoing debate on how to diagnose GHD, especially in adults. A GH response below the cut-off limit of a GH-stimulation test is required in most cases for establishing GHD in adults. No 'gold standard' GH-stimulation test exists, but some GH stimulation tests may be more robust to variations in patient characteristics such as age and gender, as well as to pre-test conditions like heat exposure due to a hot bath or bicycling. However, body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with GH-responses to all available GH-stimulation tests and glucocorticoid treatment, including conventional substitution therapy, influences the GH-responses. Recently, the role of IGF-I measurements in the clinical decision making has been discussed. The aim of this review is to discuss the available GH-stimulation tests. In this author's opinion, tests which include growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) tend to be more potent and robust, especially the GHRH+arginine test which has been proven to be of clinical use. In contrast, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) and the glucagon test appear to have too many drawbacks.

  10. Effectiveness of Needleless Vial Adaptors and Blunt Cannulas for Drug Administration in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey, M.; Bayuse, T.

    2010-01-01

    Fluid Isolation in the medication vial: Air/ fluid isolation maneuvers were used to move the medication to the septum end of vial. This isolation may be achieved in multiple ways based on the experience of the astronaut with fluid management in microgravity. If vial adaptors/blunt cannula or syringe assembly is inserted into the to vial before fluid isolation commences, the stability of this assembly should be considered in an effort to limit the risk of "slinging off" of the vial during isolation. Alternatively, fluid isolation can be performed prior to attaching the syringe/vial adaptor assembly. Terrestrial practices for medication withdrawal from a nonvented vial require injection of an equivalent amount of air as the expected medication volume prior to withdrawing liquid. In microgravity, this action is still valid, however the injection of additional air into the vial creates a multitude of micro bubbles and increases the volume of medication mixed with air that then must be withdrawn to achieve the desired drug volume in syringe. This practice is more likely to be required when using vials >30ml in size and injection volumes >10mL. It is felt that based on the microgravity flight, the practice of air injection is more of a hindrance than help.

  11. An Evaluation of the PCB-TOX-SPOT Water Toxicity Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-15

    part of the ESB system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biosensor , toxicity sensor, aquatic toxicity testing, TIC, toxic industrial chemical, bioluminescence...TOX-SPOT testing: SPOT-01-R (refill kit): biosensor vials, Pro-Metal Buffer Vials, Pro-Organic Buffer Vials, Pro-Metal Positive Control Vials Pro...toxicity test, which uses luminescent bacteria as the biosensor . Microtox was tested in the downselection process for the Increment I version of the

  12. Adherence to premixed insulin in a prefilled pen compared with a vial/syringe in people with diabetes in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheen, Hua Heng McVin; Lim, Seng Han; Huang, Ming Chien; Bee, Yong Mong; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2014-07-01

    The real-world clinical effectiveness of exogenous insulin is limited by nonadherence. Various insulin delivery systems have been developed to help improve adherence, with prefilled pens gaining popularity among adult Singaporeans with diabetes. However, adherence to insulin in people with diabetes in Singapore and most of Asia has not been studied. This study aimed to compare adherence to premixed insulin formulated in a prefilled pen versus a vial/syringe and to identify predictors of adherence in 955 patients managed at the outpatient clinics of the largest acute care hospital in Singapore. In this retrospective longitudinal study, electronic medical and pharmacy refill records were used to determine adherence to insulin over 24 months, measured in terms of compliance and persistence. Compliance is expressed as the medication possession ratio (used as continuous and categorical variables), and persistence is reported as a dichotomous variable with a permissible refill gap of 30 days before discontinuation of therapy is considered. Multivariate linear or logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of adherence. Compared with prefilled pen users, vial/syringe users were older (mean [SD] age, 64.1 [10.6] vs 62.4 [11.9] years; P = 0.032), and more were undergoing polypharmacy (69.6% vs 54.1%; P < 0.001). The mean (SD) medication possession ratio was comparable in vial/syringe versus prefilled pen users (83.8% [26.9%] vs 86.0% [23.2%]; P = 0.266). Prefilled pen users were more persistent with therapy compared with vial/syringe users (odds ratio = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.86) after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. Median time to discontinuation of therapy was comparable (vial/syringe vs prefilled pen: 409 vs 532 days; P = 0.076). Being managed by an endocrinologist and not receiving government subsidies were significant predictors of persistence. Compared with other studies that found strong associations between adherence and

  13. Adult Discrimination Performance for Pediatric Acuity Test Optotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mishoulam, Sylvia R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.; Dobson, Velma

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To compare adult discrimination performance on nine pediatric visual acuity tests to determine the consistency of optotype design. Methods. After their binocular acuity was measured with each test, eight adult observers (mean age, 27 years ± 6.3 SD; three emmetropes and five corrected myopes) were shown isolated single optotypes from the Allen figures, HOTV, Landolt C, Lea Numbers, Lea Symbols, Lighthouse, Patti Pics, Precision Vision numbers, and Tumbling E tests. A one-interval, two-alternative forced-choice protocol was used at a single distance, and each optotype was paired with all optotypes from the same chart. Confusion matrices were generated for each test and Luce's (1963) biased-choice model was fit to each matrix to derive measures of pairwise similarity between the optotypes. Results. The acuities from the Allen figures (P < 0.001) and HOTV (P = 0.029) were the only ones to differ significantly from the reference Landolt C. The choice-model analyses of the confusion matrices revealed that the Allen figures, HOTV, Lighthouse, Patti Pics, and Precision Vision numbers tests all had significant differences in discriminability of optotypes within the test. Conclusions. Pediatric acuity test optotypes are not all equally discriminable to adult observers with normal vision and no ocular disorders. The current data suggest that care must be taken when presenting limited numbers of optotypes, as is done with young patients. PMID:21436270

  14. Impact of Vial Capping on Residual Seal Force and Container Closure Integrity.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Ovadia, Robert; Lam, Philippe; Stauch, Oliver; Vogt, Martin; Roehl, Holger; Huwyler, Joerg; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and computed tomography-to characterize different container closure system combinations that had been sealed using different capping process parameter settings. Additionally, container closure integrity of these samples was measured using helium leakage (physical container closure integrity) and compared to characterization data. The different capping equipment settings lead to residual seal force values from 7 to 115 N. High residual seal force values were achieved with high capping pre-compression force and a short distance between the capping plate and plunge. The choice of container closure system influenced the obtained residual seal force values. The residual seal force tester and piezoelectric measurements showed similar trends. All vials passed physical container closure integrity testing, and no stopper rupture was seen with any of the settings applied, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted for the studied container closure system with the chosen capping setting ranges. The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and

  15. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency.

  16. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  17. Lack of clinical relevance in routine final subcultures of radiometrically negative BACTEC blood culture vials

    SciTech Connect

    Plorde, J.J.; Carlson, L.G.; Dau, M.E.

    1982-11-01

    During a 38-month period, 10,106 blood specimens were received in the laboratory for culture. These were inoculated into 26,424 vials and processed using the BACTEC radiometric detection system. Of these vials, 1,914 were eventually found to be microbiologically positive. Isolates from 836 vials were judged to be contaminants. In the remaining 1,078 vials, growth was first detected visually or radiometrically in 1,062 and by final subculture in 16. Growth from these sixteen bottles represented 12 clinically significant bacteremic episodes in as many patients. In nine of these episodes, other culture vials from the same patient were positive radiometrically. Therefore, 358 of 361 (99.2%) bacteremic episodes were detected without the benefit of routine final subcultures. The three patients whose bacteremia was missed were diagnosed clinically and placed on appropriate therapy prior to the detection of the bacteremias by final subculture.

  18. Economic Impact of Converting from Pen and 10-mL Vial to 3-mL Vial for Insulin Delivery in a Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Elizabeth, Eby; Smolen, Lee; Pitts, Amber; Krueger, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the impact on acquisition cost and purchased volume of rapid- and short-acting insulins following conversion from 3-mL disposable pens and 10-mL vials to 3-mL vials for individual patient supply (IPS) in a hospital setting. Methods: On February 1, 2010, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center of Dignity Health in Phoenix, Arizona, converted from pens to 3-mL vials for IPS subcutaneous (SC) injection and from 10-mL short-acting insulin vials to 3-mL vials for intravenous (IV) preparation. Pharmacy purchasing data were analyzed over 6-month periods before and after conversion (March 1 through August 31, 2009, and March 1 through August 31, 2010). Results: Before conversion, acquisition costs were $27,866 for 5,335 mL of rapid-acting insulins and $53,336 for 26,310 mL of short-acting insulins. After conversion, insulin acquisition costs were $24,211 for 5,850 mL of rapid-acting insulins (13.1% decrease in costs, 9.7% rise in volume), with cost reduction attributable to the lower cost of 3-mL vials. Acquisition costs were $17,395 for 14,700 mL of short-acting insulins after conversion (67.4% decrease in costs, 44.1% reduction in volume), with cost reduction attributable to lower cost of 3-mL vials versus pens for IPS SC injections and 10-mL vials for IV preparation. The reduction in purchased volumes of short-acting insulins may be partly due to decreased insulin use in IV preparation. Conclusion: Conversion from pens and 10-mL vials to 3-mL vials for rapid-and short-acting insulins resulted in reduced acquisition costs and decreased use of short-acting insulin in IV preparations. PMID:25673892

  19. Detection of carbapenemase activity directly from blood culture vials using MALDI-TOF MS: a quick answer for the right decision.

    PubMed

    Carvalhaes, Cecilia G; Cayô, Rodrigo; Visconde, Marina F; Barone, Talita; Frigatto, Eliete A M; Okamoto, Debora; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Luiz; Machado, Antonia M O; Gales, Ana C

    2014-08-01

    Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was successfully applied for the detection of carbapenemase activity directly from Gram-negative colonies. Based on this principle, we evaluated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for rapid detection of carbapenemase activity directly from positive blood culture vials. A total of 100 blood culture vials were randomly selected. MALDI-TOF MS carbapenemase assay results were confirmed by the detection of carbapenemase-encoding genes. A total of 110 bacterial isolates were recovered. The MALDI-TOF MS carbapenemase assay identified 21 of 29 (72.4%) of the carbapenemase-producing isolates directly from the blood culture vials, especially those encoding KPC-2 (100%) and SPM-1 (100%), after a 4 h incubation period. Although the majority of OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were not identified on day 1, all isolates were identified as carbapenemase producers directly from the colony on the next day. The MALDI-TOF MS carbapenemase assay is a feasible and rapid test to identify carbapenemase activity directly from blood culture vials. It may contribute to faster readjustment of empirical antimicrobial therapy and implementation of infection control measures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 76 FR 36576 - Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Institution of Investigation... importation of certain flip-top vials and products using the same by reason of infringement of certain claims... importation of certain flip-top vials and products using the same that infringe one or more of claims 1-5...

  1. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    PubMed

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  2. Telepsychiatry for Neurocognitive Testing in Older Rural Latino Adults.

    PubMed

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V; Agha, Zia

    2015-07-01

    As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N = 22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos.

  3. Telepsychiatry for Neurocognitive Testing in Older Rural Latino Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vahia, Ipsit V.; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A.; Palmer, Barton W.; Jeste., Dilip V.; Agha, Zia

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally-adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N=22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos. PMID:25708655

  4. Blood Pressure Response to Submaximal Exercise Test in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Leszczynska, Joanna; Jegier, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background. The assessment of blood pressure (BP) response during exercise test is an important diagnostic instrument in cardiovascular system evaluation. The study aim was to determine normal values of BP response to submaximal, multistage exercise test in healthy adults with regard to their age, gender, and workload. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted in randomly selected normotensive subjects (n = 1015), 512 females and 498 males, aged 18–64 years (mean age 42.1 ± 12.7 years) divided into five age groups. All subjects were clinically healthy with no chronic diseases diagnosed. Exercise stress tests were performed using Monark bicycle ergometer until a minimum of 85% of physical capacity was reached. BP was measured at rest and at peak of each exercise test stage. Results. The relations between BP, age, and workload during exercise test were determined by linear regression analysis and can be illustrated by the equations: systolic BP (mmHg) = 0.346 × load (W) + 135.76 for males and systolic BP (mmHg) = 0.103 × load (W) + 155.72 for females. Conclusions. Systolic BP increases significantly and proportionally to workload increase during exercise test in healthy adults. The relation can be described by linear equation which can be useful in diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27703976

  5. Determining the optimal vaccine vial size in developing countries: a Monte Carlo simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, Aswin; Proano, Ruben A

    2012-09-01

    Outreach immunization services, in which health workers immunize children in their own communities, are indispensable to improve vaccine coverage in rural areas of developing countries. One of the challenges faced by these services is how to reduce high levels of vaccine wastage. In particular, the open vial wastage (OVW) that result from the vaccine doses remaining in a vial after a time for safe use -since opening the vial- has elapsed. This wastage is highly dependent on the choice of vial size and the expected number of participants for which the outreach session is planned (i.e., session size). The use single-dose vials results in zero OVW, but it increases the vaccine purchase, transportation, and holding costs per dose as compared to those resulting from using larger vial sizes. The OVW also decreases when more people are immunized in a session. However, controlling the actual number of people that show to an outreach session in rural areas of developing countries highly depends on factors that are out of control of the immunization planners. This paper integrates a binary integer-programming model to a Monte Carlo simulation method to determine the choice of vial size and the optimal reordering point level to implement an (nQ, r, T) lot-sizing policy that provides the best tradeoff between procurement costs and wastage.

  6. Predictions of vacuum loss of evacuated vials from initial air leak rates.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Michael R; Ochoa, Jorge A; Yardimci, Atif M

    2013-08-01

    Container closure integrity is a critical factor for maintaining product sterility and stability. Therefore, closure systems (found in vials, syringes, and cartridges) are designed to provide a seal between rubber stoppers and glass containers. To ensure that the contained product has maintained its sterility and stability at the time of deployment, the seal must remain intact within acceptable limits. To this end, a mathematical model has been developed to describe vacuum loss in evacuated drug vials. The model computes equivalent leak diameter corresponding to initial air leak rate as well as vacuum loss as a function of time and vial size. The theory accounts for three flow regimes that may be encountered. Initial leak rates from 10(-8) to 10(3) sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) were investigated for vials ranging from 1 to 100 mL. Corresponding leak diameters of 0.25-173 μm were predicted. The time for a vial to lose half of its vacuum, the T50 value, ranged from many years at the lowest leak rates and largest vials, to fractions of a second at the highest leak rates and smallest vials. These results may be used to determine what level of initial vacuum leak is acceptable for a given product. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Topological structure and chemical composition of inner surfaces of borosilicate vials.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, Monica S; Reimann, Peter; Thommen, Verena; Hegner, Martin; Mumenthaler, Marco; Schwob, Jacky; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is described to characterize the inner surfaces of pharmaceutical vials. The two type I borosilicate glasses included in this study slightly differ in their amounts of alkaline oxides. The topography and chemistry of the inner surfaces of vials are predominantly caused by the forming process. A structural and chemical modification of the inner surface of vials was also observed when exposing the surface to different pH conditions and special treatment like washing and sterilization, which are routine operation steps during galenical manufacturing.

  8. When we test, do we stress? Impact of the testing environment on cortisol secretion and memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Shireen; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Juster, Robert-Paul; Pruessner, Jens; Lupien, Sonia J

    2013-08-01

    The majority of studies find that older adults have worse memory performance than young adults. However, contextual features in the testing environment may be perceived as stressful by older adults, increasing their stress hormone levels. Given the evidence that older adults are highly sensitive to the effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on memory performance, it is postulated that a stressful testing environment in older adults can lead to an acute stress response and to memory impairments. The current study compared salivary cortisol levels and memory performance in young and older adults tested in environments manipulated to be stressful (unfavourable condition) or not stressful (favourable condition) for each age group. 28 young adults and 32 older adults were tested in two testing conditions: (1) a condition favouring young adults (constructed to be less stressful for young adults), and (2) a condition favouring older adults (constructed to be less stressful for older adults). The main outcome measure was salivary cortisol levels. Additionally, immediate and delayed memory performances were assessed during each condition. In older adults only, we found significantly high cortisol levels and low memory performance in the condition favouring young adults. In contrast, cortisol levels were lower and memory performance was better when older adults were tested in conditions favouring them. There was no effect of testing condition in young adults. The results demonstrate that older adults' memory performance is highly sensitive to the testing environment. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings in which older adults are tested for memory performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of legibility on verbal test performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Vanderplas, J H; Vanderplas, J M

    1981-08-01

    Each of 46 adults age 63 to 85 yr. (M = 74.9) was given one or another form of a verbal test consisting of 11 subtests: Names, Information, Similarities (analogies), Arithmetic, Distances, Same/Different, Spelling, Scrambled Sentences, True/False, Definitions, and Reverse Definitions. Half of the participants were given Form L, printed in 14-point England Times; the other half were given Form S, printed in 9-point Helvetica. The content of the two forms was identical. The group given Form L scored significantly higher on six of the 11 subtests and on total score, compared with the group given Form S. Implications for improvement of test performance by improving test legibility are briefly discussed.

  10. Bacterial contamination of propofol vials used in operating rooms of a third-level hospital.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Brand-Giraldo, Vanessa; León, Tatiana; Herrera, Mónica; Payán, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    We found a 6.1% bacterial contamination rate among 198 propofol vials collected after clinical use in 12 operating rooms of a high-complexity hospital in Cali, Colombia. Some propofol vials were used for extended periods (up to 72 hours), and only 26.1% of vials were punctured once. Median time of use, although not statistically significant, was higher in positive samples (7.2 vs 3.5 hours, P = .08). Education on the topic should stress that vials are single-patient use and must be immediately discarded after use. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nondestructive detection of glass vial inner surface morphology with differential interference contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zai-Qing; Torraca, Gianni; Masatani, Peter; Sloey, Christopher; Phillips, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Glass particles generated by glass dissolution and delamination of the glass container for pharmaceutical products have become a major issue in the pharmaceutical industry. The observation of glass particles in certain injectable drugs, including several protein therapeutics, has recently resulted in a number of product recalls. Glass vial surface properties have been suggested to play a critical role in glass dissolution and delamination. Surface characterization of glass container, therefore, is important to evaluate the quality of the glass container. In this work, we demonstrate that differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a powerful, effective, and convenient technique to examine the inner surface morphology of glass vials nondestructively. DIC microscopy does not require the cutting of the glass vial for scanning the inner surface and has sufficient spatial resolution to reveal glass pitting, phase separation, delamination scars, and other defects. Typical surface morphology of pharmaceutical glass vials with different alkalinity are compared and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The association between use of mealtime insulin pens versus vials and healthcare charges and resource utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eby, Elizabeth L; Boye, Kristina S; Lage, Maureen J

    2013-10-01

    To compare all-cause and diabetes-related resource utilization and healthcare charges among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who initiated therapy with mealtime insulin disposable pens or vials. Data were obtained from the Innovus inVision database from January 1, 2006 through June 30, 2010. Generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link estimated the association between medical charges and use of mealtime insulin pens vs vials in the 1 year post-index date, while generalized linear models with a negative binomial distribution estimated resource utilization. Controlling for patient characteristics, general health, and patient copayments, insulin therapy initiation with disposable pens, compared to vials, was associated with significantly fewer all-cause hospitalizations (1.45 vs. 1.66; p < 0.0001) as well as a significantly shorter hospital length of stay (2.16 days vs. 3.53 days; p < 0.0001). Pen use, compared to vials, was also associated with significantly fewer diabetes-related hospitalizations (1.36 vs. 1.47; p < 0.0001), and shorter hospital length of stay (1.12 days vs. 1.72 days; p < 0.0001). Despite higher diabetes-related drug charges ($3593 vs. $2755; p < 0.0001) associated with the use of pens, results showed significantly lower all-cause total healthcare charges ($42,150 vs. $53,340; p < 0.0001) and significantly lower diabetes-related total healthcare charges ($12,722 vs. $14,540; p < 0.0001) for patients who initiated therapy on mealtime insulin with pens compared to vials. Data were drawn from administrative claims and included only patients with medical and outpatient prescription drug benefit coverage. Hence, the results may not be generalizable. The retrospective analyses relied on diagnostic codes to identify patients, assess patient general health, and determine other values, rather than formal, clinical assessments. The analyses did not include indirect healthcare costs. The administration of

  13. Validity of a modified shuttle test in adult cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J.; Howard, J.; Wallace, E.; Elborn, S.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The purpose of this study was to provide some evidence of the validity of a modified shuttle test (MST) by comparing performance on the MST with peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) measured during a treadmill test in a group of adult patients with cystic fibrosis.
METHOD—Twenty patients with stable cystic fibrosis performed a ramped maximal treadmill test (STEEP protocol) and the MST using a randomised balanced design.
RESULTS—The relationship between the distance achieved on the MST and V̇O2peak was strong (r = 0.95, p<0.01) with 90% of the variance in V̇O2peak explained by the variance in MST distance. The relationship was represented by the regression equation (with 95% confidence intervals) V̇O2peak = 6.83 (2.85 to 10.80) + 0.028 (0.019 to 0.024)× MST distance.
CONCLUSION—This study provides evidence of the construct validity of the MST as an objective measure of exercise capacity in adults with cystic fibrosis.

 PMID:10212110

  14. Intravitreal bevacizumab: safety of multiple doses from a single vial for consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Ng, Danny S; Kwok, Alvin K H; Chan, Clement W; Li, Walton W T

    2012-12-01

    To report the incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and the safety profile of multiple doses of bevacizumab from the same vial reused for multiple patients. Case series. A private hospital in Hong Kong. A systematic retrospective review of consecutive intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections between 5 June 2006 and 17 December 2010 at a single institute was conducted. Patients were identified from prospectively designed audit forms, and each patient's medical record was reviewed for any documented complications. Bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05 mL to 2.50 mg/0.1 mL was aspirated from the designated vial, with a maximum of 10 consecutive injections being aspirated from the same vial. The opened vial was then discarded without overnight storage. Ranibizumab was aspirated from the commercially available 1 mg/0.1 mL single-use vial. A total of 1655 intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections into 392 eyes of 383 patients were evaluated during the study period. There were 1184 bevacizumab injections and 471 ranibizumab injections. There was one case of suspected endophthalmitis after ranibizumab injection, though culture of the vitreous tap was negative. The point prevalence of endophthalmitis was 0.06% (1/1655) for the total number of injections: 0.21% (1/471) after ranibizumab, and 0% after bevacizumab. Although many centres aliquot multiple syringes from a single vial to be kept in a refrigerator for use, the current study shows that so long as proper sterile techniques are implemented, there were no cases of endophthalmitis from using the same vial, which was reused for a maximum of 10 consecutive injections. For intravitreal injection, bevacizumab costs approximately US$50 to US$100 per dose, as opposed to US$2000 per dose for ranibizumab. Sharing multiple doses of bevacizumab from a single vial can substantially reduce the cost of treatment.

  15. Inaccuracy in the doses of injectable medications dispensed from rubber-stoppered vials.

    PubMed

    Berger, S A; Porat, R; Gorea, A

    1989-01-01

    The literature of pharmacology often assumes that a full dosage is utilized when the contents of a vial have been administered by syringe. Five hundred discarded medication vials were assayed. The residues amounted to 1.98% to 8.81% of the listed dosages. An additional 0.7% to 8.66% remained in the syringes and needles used to aspirate the vials. Routine preparation techniques do not recover medication trapped on glass and rubber surfaces; losses are greatest when small diluent volumes are added to prepare intramuscular injections. The mean dose of gentamicin recovered from 80-mg ampules was 78.65 mg, and comparable vials of tobramycin yielded 76.01 mg. The discrepancy may contribute to the "increased toxicity" of gentamicin. Each year, more than $40,000,000 worth of antibiotics are lost to a biopharmaceutical dead space. Used antibiotic and controlled substance vials pose a potential threat to the environment. Although the amount of drug lost during preparation and administration may be of little therapeutic consequence, the discrepancy between intended and administered dosage is reflected in economic loss and pharmacological confusion. Pharmacological data should be adjusted for such losses. Medication wastage could be reduced by redesign of vials and alterations in practice of the administration.

  16. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    PubMed

    Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Phonetic Intelligibility Testing in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Kate; Leddy, Mark; Miller, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document speech intelligibility deficits for a group of five adult males with Down syndrome, and use listener based error profiles to identify phonetic dimensions underlying reduced intelligibility. Phonetic error profiles were constructed for each speaker using the Kent, Weismer, Kent, and Rosenbek (1989) word intelligibility test. The test was designed to allow for identification of reasons for the intelligibility deficit, quantitative analyses at varied levels, and sensitivity to potential speech deficits across populations. Listener generated profiles were calculated based on a multiple-choice task and a transcription task. The most disrupted phonetic features, across listening task, involved simplification of clusters in both the word initial and word final position, and contrasts involving tongue-posture, control, and timing (e.g., high-low vowel, front-back vowel, and place of articulation for stops and fricatives). Differences between speakers in the ranking of these phonetic features was found, however, the mean error proportion for the six most severely affected features correlated highly with the overall intelligibility score (0.88 based on multiple-choice task, .94 for the transcription task). The phonetic feature analyses are an index that may help clarify the suspected motor speech basis for the speech intelligibility deficits seen in adults with Down syndrome and may lead to improved speech management in these individuals. PMID:17692179

  18. The Development and Testing of Adult Vocational Programs Utilizing the Adult Performance Level Competency Approach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    A project set out to develop and test adult performance level (APL) materials for pre-vocational programs to enable adults to develop those skills needed to seek and retain employment. Addressing the APL area of occupational knowledge only, methodology focused on (1) joint planning in material development and testing; (2) extensive training in…

  19. Comparison of a modified shell vial culture procedure with conventional mouse inoculation for rabies virus isolation.

    PubMed

    Ribas Antúnez, María de los Angeles; Girón, Blanca; Monsalvez, Iraima; Morier, Luis; Acosta, Gretel; Tejero, Yahisel; Cordero, Yanislet; Piedra, Dainelyd

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is a neurotropic disease that is often lethal. The early diagnosis of rabies infection is important and requires methods that allow for the isolation of the virus from animals and humans. The present study compared a modified shell vial (MSV) procedure using 24-well tissue culture plates with the mouse inoculation test (MIT), which is considered the gold standard for rabies virus isolation. Thirty brain samples (25 positive and 5 negative by the fluorescent antibody test) obtained from different animal species at the National Institute of Hygiene Rafael Rangel in Caracas, Venezuela, were studied by the MIT and MSV assays. Nine samples (36%) were positive at 24 h, 10 (40%) were positive at 48 h and six (24%) were positive at 72 h by the MSV assay. With the MIT assay, 76% were positive at six days post inoculation and 12% were positive at 12 and 18 days post inoculation. One sample that was negative according to the MSV assay was positive with MIT on the 12th day. The MSV procedure exhibited a sensitivity of 96.2%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value 80%. This procedure allowed for rapid rabies virus detection. MIT can be employed as an alternative method in laboratories without tissue culture facilities.

  20. The National Adult Reading Test: restandardisation against the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition.

    PubMed

    Bright, Peter; Hale, Emily; Gooch, Vikki Jayne; Myhill, Thomas; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-09-14

    Since publication in 1982, the 50-item National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, 1982 ; NART-R; Nelson & Willison, 1991 ) has remained a widely adopted method for estimating premorbid intelligence both for clinical and research purposes. However, the NART has not been standardised against the most recent revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997 , and WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008 ). Our objective, therefore, was to produce reliable standardised estimates of WAIS-IV IQ from the NART. Ninety-two neurologically healthy British adults were assessed and regression equations calculated to produce population estimates of WAIS-IV full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and constituent index scores. Results showed strong NART/WAIS-IV FSIQ correlations with more moderate correlations observed between NART error and constituent index scores. FSIQ estimates were closely similar to the published WAIS and WAIS-R estimates at the high end of the distribution, but at the lower end were approximately equidistant from the highly discrepant WAIS (low) and WAIS-R (high) values. We conclude that the NART is likely to remain an important tool for estimating the impact of neurological damage on general cognitive ability. We advise caution in the use of older published WAIS and/or WAIS-R estimates for estimating premorbid WAIS-IV FSIQ, particularly for those with low NART scores.

  1. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. II: The relationship between microbial ingress and helium leak rates in rubber-stoppered glass vials.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, L E; Nguyen, L; Moeckly, C S; Gerth, R

    1997-01-01

    Helium leak rate measurements were quantitatively correlated to the probability of microbial ingress for rubber-stoppered glass vials subjected to immersion challenge. Standard 10-mL tubing glass vials were modified by inserting micropipettes of various sizes (0.1 to 10 microns nominal diameter) into a side wall hole and securing them with epoxy. Butyl rubber closures and aluminum crimps were used to seal the vials. The test units were sealed in a helium-filled glove bag, then the absolute helium leak rates were determined. The test units were disassembled, filled with media, resealed, and autoclaved. The test units were thermally treated to eliminate airlocks within the micropipette lumen and establish a liquid path between microbial challenge media and the test units' contents. Microbial challenge was performed by immersing the test units in a 35 degrees C bath containing magnesium ion and 8 to 10 logs of viable P. diminuta and E. coli for 24 hours. The test units were then incubated at 35 degrees C for an additional 13 days. Microbial ingress was detected by turbidity and plating on blood agar. The elimination of airlocks was confirmed by the presence of magnesium ions in the vial contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 288 vials were subjected to microbial challenge testing. Those test units whose contents failed to show detectable magnesium ions were eliminated from further analysis. At large leak rates, the probability of microbial ingress approached 100% and at very low leak rates microbial ingress rates were 0%. A dramatic increase in microbial failure occurred in the leak rate region 10(-4.5) to 10(-3) std cc/sec, which roughly corresponded to leak diameters ranging from 0.4 to 2 microns. Below a leak rate of 10(-4.5) std cc/sec the microbial failure rate was < 10%. The critical leak rate in our studies, i.e. the value below which microbial ingress cannot occur because the leak is too small, was observed to be between 10(-5) and 10(-5.8) std

  2. A Single In-Vial Dual Extraction Strategy for the Simultaneous Lipidomics and Proteomics Analysis of HDL and LDL Fractions.

    PubMed

    Godzien, Joanna; Ciborowski, Michal; Armitage, Emily Grace; Jorge, Inmaculada; Camafeita, Emilio; Burillo, Elena; Martín-Ventura, Jose Luis; Rupérez, Francisco J; Vázquez, Jesús; Barbas, Coral

    2016-06-03

    A single in-vial dual extraction (IVDE) procedure for the subsequent analysis of lipids and proteins in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions derived from the same biological sample is presented. On the basis of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction, IVDE leads to the formation of three phases: a protein pellet at the bottom, an aqueous phase with polar compounds, and an ether phase with lipophilic compounds. After sample extraction, performed within a high-performance liquid chromatography vial insert, the ether phase was directly injected for lipid fingerprinting, while the protein pellet, after evaporation of the remaining sample, was used for proteomics analysis. Human HDL and LDL isolates were used to test the suitability of the IVDE methodology for lipid and protein analysis from a single sample in terms of data quality and matching composition to that of HDL and LDL. Subsequently, HDL and LDL fractions isolated from ApoE-KO and wild-type mice were used to validate the capacity of IVDE for revealing changes in lipid and protein abundance. Results indicate that IVDE can be successfully used for the subsequent analysis of lipids and proteins with the advantages of time saving, simplicity, and reduced sample amount.

  3. The Tactile TONI, a Possible New Performance IQ Test for Blind Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A raised-line form of the TONI (test of nonverbal intelligence), a graphic performance test, may effectively measure performance IQ of blind adults. Pilot studies show that while the tactile TONI may be too difficult for low-IQ adults, it may identify some kinds of learning disabilities and brain damage in adults with blindness. (Author/PB)

  4. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults.

  5. Determining the chemical activity of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil using polymer coated vials

    PubMed Central

    Reichenberg, Fredrik; Smedes, Foppe; Jönsson, Jan-Åke; Mayer, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Background In soils contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds, the concentrations are less indicative of potential exposure and distribution than are the associated chemical activities, fugacities and freely dissolved concentrations. The latter can be measured by diffusive sampling into thin layers of polymer, as in, for example, solid phase micro-extraction. Such measurements require equilibrium partitioning of analytes into the polymer while ensuring that the sample is not depleted. We introduce the validation of these requirements based on parallel sampling into polymer layers of different thicknesses. Results Equilibrium sampling devices were made by coating glass vials internally with 3–12 μm thick layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These were filled with slurries of a polluted soil and gently agitated for 5 days. The concentrations of 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the PDMS were measured. Validation confirmed fulfilment of the equilibrium sampling requirements and high measurement precision. Finally, chemical activities of the PAHs in the soil were determined from their concentrations and activity coefficients in the PDMS. Conclusion PAHs' thermodynamic activities in a soil test material were determined via a method of uptake into PDMS. This can be used to assess chemical exposure and predict diffusion and partitioning processes. PMID:18460193

  6. Development and Data for UK Versions of an Author and Title Recognition Test for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Jackie; Hayes, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Author and book title recognition tests have been used extensively in reading-related research with both children and adults. The present paper reports the development of a book title and author recognition test and data from a UK sample of adults. Higher scores were obtained on the Author test than on the Title test. It is suggested that the…

  7. Prediction of the acoustic and bubble fields in insonified freeze-drying vials.

    PubMed

    Louisnard, O; Cogné, C; Labouret, S; Montes-Quiroz, W; Peczalski, R; Baillon, F; Espitalier, F

    2015-09-01

    The acoustic field and the location of cavitation bubble are computed in vials used for freeze-drying, insonified from the bottom by a vibrating plate. The calculations rely on a nonlinear model of sound propagation in a cavitating liquid [Louisnard, Ultrason. Sonochem., 19, (2012) 56-65]. Both the vibration amplitude and the liquid level in the vial are parametrically varied. For low liquid levels, a threshold amplitude is required to form a cavitation zone at the bottom of the vial. For increasing vibration amplitudes, the bubble field slightly thickens but remains at the vial bottom, and the acoustic field saturates, which cannot be captured by linear acoustics. On the other hand, increasing the liquid level may promote the formation of a secondary bubble structure near the glass wall, a few centimeters below the free liquid surface. These predictions suggest that rather complex acoustic fields and bubble structures can arise even in such small volumes. As the acoustic and bubble fields govern ice nucleation during the freezing step, the final crystal's size distribution in the frozen product may crucially depend on the liquid level in the vial.

  8. Attitudes of deaf adults toward genetic testing for hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Middleton, A; Hewison, J; Mueller, R F

    1998-10-01

    Recent advances within molecular genetics to identify the genes for deafness mean that it is now possible for genetic-counseling services to offer genetic testing for deafness to certain families. The purpose of this study is to document the attitudes of deaf adults toward genetic testing for deafness. A structured, self-completion questionnaire was given to delegates at an international conference on the "Deaf Nation," held at the University of Central Lancashire in 1997. The conference was aimed at well-educated people, with an emphasis on Deaf culture issues. Eighty-seven deaf delegates from the United Kingdom returned completed questionnaires. The questionnaire had been designed to quantitatively assess attitudes toward genetics, interest in prenatal diagnosis (PND) for deafness, and preference for having deaf or hearing children. The results from this study provide evidence of a predominantly negative attitude toward genetics and its impact on deaf people, in a population for whom genetic-counseling services are relevant. Fifty-five percent of the sample thought that genetic testing would do more harm than good, 46% thought that its potential use devalued deaf people, and 49% were concerned about new discoveries in genetics. When asked about testing in pregnancy, 16% of participants said that they would consider having PND, and, of these, 29% said that they would prefer to have deaf children. Geneticists need to appreciate that some deaf persons may prefer to have deaf children and may consider the use of genetic technology to achieve this. Any genetic-counseling service set up for families with deafness can only be effective and appropriate if clinicians and counselors take into consideration the beliefs and values of the deaf community at large.

  9. Predictive values for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in sedentary Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kian Chung; Loo, Chian Min; Ong, Yong Yau; Chan, Siew Pang; Earnest, Arul; Saw, Seang Mei

    2002-09-01

    Normative data for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) may vary among subjects of different races. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) establish normal standards for cardiopulmonary responses during incremental cycle ergometer testing in order to derive predictive equations for clinically useful variables during CPET of Chinese subjects; and (ii) determine the validity of existing prediction equations of maximal exercise performance for use in our local Chinese population. The maximal and submaximal cardiopulmonary responses were analysed for 95 healthy sedentary adult Chinese subjects (48 men and 47 women; aged 20-70 years) who underwent CPET using a cycle ergometer and an incremental work-rate protocol until symptom limitation. Measurements, at maximal exercise, of oxygen uptake (VO2(max)), power output and heart rate were regressed on age, height, weight and gender. The predictive equations for these exercise parameters performed better than those published previously in out-sample predictive accuracy. Comparison with previous studies also showed that prediction equations of VO2(max) derived from studies based predominantly or exclusively on Caucasian populations overestimated the actual values for our subjects. Previously established prediction equations for maximal exercise performance during CPET based on non-Chinese populations may not be applicable to Chinese subjects in our population.

  10. Comparison of the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test with College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Kerry S.; Matthews, T. Darin; Bell, Nancy L.; Maher, Carrie M.

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-four college students were administered the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT). GAMA IQs were significantly and moderately correlated with KAIT Fluid, Crystallized and Composite IQs, supporting the convergent validity of this instrument. Although significant correlations…

  11. Pen Devices for Insulin Self-Administration Compared With Needle and Vial

    PubMed Central

    Lasalvia, Pieralessandro; Barahona-Correa, Julián Esteban; Romero-Alvernia, Diana Marcela; Gil-Tamayo, Sebastián; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Bayona, Juan Gabriel; Triana, Juan José; Laserna, Andrés Felipe; Mejía-Torres, Miguel; Restrepo-Jimenez, Paula; Jimenez-Zapata, Juliana; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pen devices offer advantages compared with vial and syringe (VaS). The purpose of this article was to evaluate efficacy of pen devices compared to VaS. Methods: A systematic review of literature was performed in 8 different databases. References were independently screened and selected. Primary observational or experimental studies comparing pen devices with VaS for insulin administrations were included. Studies on specific populations were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using appropriate tools. Data on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycemia, adherence, persistence, patient preference, and quality of life (QOL) were collected. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Heterogeneity and risk of publication bias were evaluated. Otherwise, descriptive analyses of the available data was done. Results: In all, 10 348 articles were screened. A total of 17 studies were finally selected: 7 experimental and 10 analytical. The populations of the included articles were mainly composed of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Important risk of bias was found in all of the articles, particularly experimental studies. Meta-analyses were performed for HbA1c, hypoglycemia, adherence and persistence. Pen device showed better results in mean HbA1c change, patients with hypoglycemia, adherence and persistence compared to VaS. No difference was observed in number of patients achieving <7% HbA1c. Preference studies showed a tendency favoring pen devices, however nonvalidated tools were used. One QoL study showed improvements in some subscales of SF-36. Conclusions: There is evidence that pen devices offer benefits in clinical and, less clearly, patient-reported outcomes compared to VaS for insulin administration. However, these results should be taken with caution. PMID:26920639

  12. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  13. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  14. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals onto injection vials and syringes.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Ur Rehman, Taj; Safdar Mansur, Muhammad; Jehangir, Mustanser

    2008-06-01

    Many groups have reported the adsorption or retention of (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on injection vials and disposable plastic syringes. Such an enormously high loss of radioactivity would result in poor images, radiation exposure, waste, and economic burdens. We therefore decided to investigate the extent of adsorption or retention of several (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on injection vials, rubber stoppers, and plastic syringes. These radiopharmaceuticals are produced as lyophilized kits in our department and supplied to various hospitals practicing nuclear medicine in Pakistan. A vial containing lyophilized material was reconstituted with 3 mL of freshly eluted Na(99m)TcO(4). A 1-mL aliquot of the resulting solution was withdrawn into a syringe at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 h after preparation. All preparations were stored at room temperature ( approximately 22 degrees C). After each withdrawal, the vial was reweighed and the activity remaining in the vial was measured using a radioisotope calibrator. The sample was reinjected into the vial. From the original weight and activity of solution in the vial, the initial activity per gram was calculated. From the weight and activity remaining in the vial after withdrawal of the sample, the activity per gram of the sample was calculated. From the difference between the initial activity per gram and the activity per gram of the sample, the percentage of (99m)Tc adsorbed on the vial was calculated. All preparations were kept in the syringe for 15 min, and the activity was measured before and after the syringe was emptied. The needle and plunger of the syringe were separated, and activity in the needle and plunger was also measured. The labeling efficiency of all radiopharmaceuticals used during these studies was more than 95%. In most cases, the activity of (99m)Tc found on the rubber stopper was less than 1%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc onto vials increased gradually with storage time. Adsorption was minimal at the initial stages

  15. Contact and artificial soil tests using earthworms to evaluate the impact of wastes in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate two methods using earthworms that can be used to estimate the biological impact of organic and inorganic compounds that may be in wastes applied to land for treatment and disposal. The two methods were the contact test and the artificial soil test. The contact test is 48-h test using an adult worm, a small glass vial, and filter paper to which the test chemical or waste is applied. The test is designed to provide close contact between the worm and a chemical, similar to the situation in soils. The method provides a rapid estimate of the relative toxicity of chemicals and industrial wastes.

  16. Measuring Adult Literacy Students' Reading Skills Using the Gray Oral Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.

    2009-01-01

    There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…

  17. Measuring Adult Literacy Students' Reading Skills Using the Gray Oral Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.

    2009-01-01

    There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…

  18. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  19. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  20. Adult reference values of the computerized diplopia test

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ling-Yun; Liu, Tie-Juan; Li, Xue-Mei

    2016-01-01

    AIM To estimate the adult reference values for measured deviations by a computerized diplopia test and testify the validity. METHODS Totally 391 participants were recruited and taken the computerized diplopia test. The plots and amplitude of deviations were recorded. The differences in different gender, age and visual acuity groups were analyzed respectively. Of 30 subjects were enrolled to testify the interobserver reliability. Another 46 subjects (including 26 normal subjects and 20 patients) were taken the test and theirs deviations were recorded to testify the validity of the reference value. RESULTS The max horizontal and vertical deviations were 2.55° and 0.76° with normal corrected visual acuity while 3.88° and 1.46° for subjects with poor corrected vision. The differences between age groups was insignificant (Z=3.615, 4.758; P=0.461, 0.313 for horizontal and vertical respectively). The max horizontal deviation of female was smaller than male (Z=-2.177; P=0.029), but the difference in max vertical deviation was insignificant (Z=-1.296; P=0.195). The mean difference between observers were both -0.1°, with 95% confidence limits (CI) of -1.4° and 1.6° in max horizontal deviations while -2.1° and 1.8° in max vertical deviation. The mean deviation of 26 normal subjects was 1.02°±0.84° for horizontal and 0.47°±0.30° for vertical which both within the range of reference values. The mean deviation of 20 patients was 13.51°±11.69° for horizontal and 8.34°±8.58° for vertical which both beyond the reference range. CONCLUSION The max amplitude of horizontal and vertical deviation is pointed as the numerical parameters of computerized diplopia test. The reference values are different between normal corrected visual acuity and poor corrected vision. These values may useful for evaluating patients with diplopia in veriety conditions during clinical practice. PMID:27990370

  1. Comparison of Acid Titration, Conductivity, Flame Photometry, ICP-MS, and Accelerated Lamellae Formation Techniques in Determining Glass Vial Quality.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Sloey, Christopher; Ricci, Margaret S; Wen, Zai-Qing; Phillips, Joseph; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Certain types of glass vials used as primary containers for liquid formulations of biopharmaceutical drug products have been observed with delamination that produced small glass like flakes termed lamellae under certain conditions during storage. The cause of this delamination is in part related to the glass surface defects, which renders the vials susceptible to flaking, and lamellae are formed during the high-temperature melting and annealing used for vial fabrication and shaping. The current European Pharmacopoeia method to assess glass vial quality utilizes acid titration of vial extract pools to determine hydrolytic resistance or alkalinity. Four alternative techniques with improved throughput, convenience, and/or comprehension were examined by subjecting seven lots of vials to analysis by all techniques. The first three new techniques of conductivity, flame photometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measured the same sample pools as acid titration. All three showed good correlation with alkalinity: conductivity (R(2) = 0.9951), flame photometry sodium (R(2) = 0.9895), and several elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry [(sodium (R(2) = 0.9869), boron (R(2) = 0.9796), silicon (R(2) = 0.9426), total (R(2) = 0.9639)]. The fourth technique processed the vials under conditions that promote delamination, termed accelerated lamellae formation, and then inspected those vials visually for lamellae. The visual inspection results without the lot with different processing condition correlated well with alkalinity (R(2) = 0.9474). Due to vial processing differences affecting alkalinity measurements and delamination propensity differently, the ratio of silicon and sodium measurements from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was the most informative technique to assess overall vial quality and vial propensity for lamellae formation. The other techniques of conductivity, flame photometry, and accelerated lamellae formation

  2. Adults' Engagement in Reading: A Test of Engagement Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil

    A study examined the extent to which adults engage in reading tasks to meet a variety of personal purposes and needs, asking when engaged reading is most likely to occur for types of text sources, reading purposes, reading settings, educational attainment groups, and occupational groups. Subjects included 159 adults who represented a wide range of…

  3. Environmental assessment for the scintillation vial crusher TA-54, Area L, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Research and development projects conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory produce scintillation vials as waste from normal operations. These vials contain radioisotopes such as tritium, carbon-14, and isotopes of transuranic elements such as americium-241, plutonium-238 and -239. The scintillation fluids contain some solvents defined as hazardous waste. The vials are thus classed as mixed waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Laboratory has in storage some 520 drums of stored vials and is accumulating some 70 to 140 more drums annually. The drained vial fragments can be disposed of at TA-54 as low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The bulked liquid will be stored at TA-54 as RCRA mixed waste until treatment/disposal options are developed. Other waste from the vial crushing operation will also be stored at TA-54 as mixed waste. By operating the scintillation vial crusher, the storage space needed for this RCRA mixed waste stream can be reduced to about 5% of that currently being used. The other 95% will be vial fragments that can be disposed immediately as LLW.

  4. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for the new 10R Schott, type 1+ vials.

    PubMed

    Baker, M

    2005-07-01

    For many years, P6 vials have been used for the distribution of a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic radioactive solutions. The activity measurements were performed in this geometry and, in time, the UK calibration system for nuclear medicine was based on this container as a standard. However, one major supplier of radiopharmaceuticals has replaced the P6 vial with the 10R Type 1+ Schott vial. As the dimensions of the new vial are different from those of the P6 vial and the responses of radionuclide calibrators are known to be container dependent, the need for re-calibration became apparent. Preliminary measurements made on some typical radionuclide calibrators for (125)I solution indicated a difference in response of about 10% between the two vials. The master ionisation chamber of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator has been re-calibrated and new calibration factors and volume correction factors for 10R Schott vials have been derived for the relevant medical radionuclides. The standard holder was also modified to accommodate the new larger vial. The complete list of factors and the method used to determine them is presented in this paper. The availability of these new factors will improve the quality of activity measurements in nuclear medicine, as calibration services can now be provided by NPL for the new container. These factors can also be employed for all commercial NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrators (now known as the NPL-CRC and previously as the 671 or ISOCAL IV).

  5. 76 FR 58841 - In the Matter of Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Commission Decision... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain flip-top vials and products...

  6. Measuring adult literacy students' reading skills using the Gray Oral Reading Test.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O

    2009-12-01

    There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third through fifth grade reading grade equivalency levels. Findings are reported from an analysis of the administration of Form A of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Fourth Edition (Wiederholt & Bryant, 2001a, b). Results indicated that educators and researchers should be very cautious when interpreting test results of adults who have difficulty reading when children's norm-referenced tests are administered.

  7. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes, part 3: hydrophobic vials and the question of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cake adhesion to the inside vial wall during lyophilization of amorphous trehalose cakes was determined by using hydrophobized vials. The degrees of cake shrinkage and cracking were determined independently by photographic imaging of the cake top surface in a dark cell. Additionally, measurements with microcomputed tomography were performed. Adhesion is found to be a determining factor in both cake shrinkage and cracking. The correlation between cake detachment from the vial inner wall and trehalose concentration indicates that adhesion of the frozen solute phase is a determining factor in shrinkage. The hydrophobized vials give reduced cracking at trehalose concentrations of up to 15%. The reduced wetting of the hydrophobized inside vial wall gives a planar cake topography with a uniform distribution of cracks within the cake.

  8. Handgrip and quadriceps muscle endurance testing in young adults.

    PubMed

    White, Ciara; Dixon, Kimberley; Samuel, Dinesh; Stokes, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Grip strength is widely used for estimating whole body strength but there is a lack of information relating to grip endurance. Comparison between endurance of different muscle groups has received little attention. The main aim of the present study was to determine the endurance characteristics of hand grip and quadriceps muscles in healthy young adults and then to examine the association between fatigability of the two muscle groups. Twenty one healthy participants (8 males and 13 females) aged 18-35 years were studied. A maximal intermittent endurance test, consisting of 12 isometric contractions held for 3 seconds separated by 5 second rest periods, was utilised to measure muscle endurance. A Biodex isokinetic dynamometer and Jamar dynamometer were used to assess quadriceps and hand grip respectively. The mean of first (M1) and last (M2) three repetitions was calculated. Fatigue index values were calculated for both muscle groups by the 1st peak torque (PT) minus the last (12th) PT, divided by the 1st PT multiplied by 100. Quadriceps torque (M1:197.3 ± 65.2 Nm; M2:163.1 ± 47.6 Nm) and grip strength (M1:33.6 ± 9.9 Kg; M2:25.2 ± 8.1 Kg) both declined significantly during the 12 repetitions (p < 0.05). Hand grip showed a significantly higher mean fatigue index of 30% compared to 18% in the quadriceps (p < 0.05). Quadriceps showed better fatigability than hand grip. The findings therefore indicate caution against using grip endurance as a surrogate measure of quadriceps endurance. Further research is warranted to confirm observed differences between genders and to study endurance in different age groups.

  9. Single-dose versus multi-dose vaccine vials for immunization programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Nelson, Carib M.; Lloyd, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive vaccine wastage and safety concerns have prompted the international health community to develop and supply vaccines in formats other than the standard multi-dose vial. This article presents a programmatic and economic comparison of the major differences between the multi-dose vials and single-dose formats used for immunization services in developing countries. Multi-dose vials, in general, sell at a lower per-dose price and occupy less cold-chain capacity than single-dose formats. However, higher wastage rates may offset these benefits, especially for more expensive vaccines. Single-dose formats offer several important programmatic benefits, such as increased vaccination opportunities and improved vaccine safety. One single-dose format, the prefilled auto-disable (AD) device, provides additional injection safety and convenience features because it physically combines the vaccine and AD syringe. Selecting the appropriate vaccine presentation will depend on many factors. However, multi-dose vials are likely to be most appropriate for cheaper vaccines and in settings where cold-chain storage capacity is restricted. Single-dose formats will be most appropriate for more expensive vaccines and where there are problems with unsafe injection practices. Prefilled AD injection devices will be particularly useful in expanding outreach services while eliminating the possibility of needle reuse. PMID:14758432

  10. Direct in-vial collection for liquid-scintillation assay of carbon-14 and tritium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dissolution of biological materials combines the simplicity of oxygen-flask combustion with the reproducibility and purity of the final product, and convenience of direct in-vial collection of the sample by the sealed-tube method. It assures quantitative and reproducible recoveries.

  11. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions.

  12. Health economics and compliance of vials/syringes versus pen devices: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Asche, Carl V; Shane-McWhorter, Laura; Raparla, Swetha

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this review was to assess the state of the published literature on health economics and compliance of vials/syringes versus pen devices. A literature search was performed using the Embase search engine for publications that linked drug terms (insulin and insulin lispro) to disease terms (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) and other terms (accuracy, article, clinical trial, controlled clinical trial, controlled study, cost benefit analysis, drug delivery system, drug dosage form, drug dosage form comparison, drug dose comparison, drug preference, equipment design, force, glycemic control, healthcare cost, human, insulin treatment, needle, patient attitude, patient compliance, patient safety, torque) along with author keywords (Diabetes, Dose accuracy, FlexPen [Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark], Insulin, Next Generation FlexPen). The search yielded 39 articles, of which five articles met our study criteria. The focus of the critical outcomes was patient adherence to insulin pen devices versus insulin vials (syringes), hypoglycemic events, emergency department visits due to hypoglycemic events, and costs associated with diabetes and health care. The observation period, mean age of patients, and data sources differed across the studies. The studies indicated that there was an improved adherence with insulin pen devices as opposed to insulin vials (syringes) and that the associated healthcare resource utilization and costs associated with them were found to decrease with the use of pen devices, compared to vials. The use of pen devices improves the health economics benefits and adherence to insulin therapy.

  13. Shell Vial Cell Culture as a Tool for Streptobacillus moniliformis “Resuscitation”

    PubMed Central

    Loridant, Severine; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Scola, Bernard La

    2011-01-01

    Streptobacillus moniliformis is a fastidious growing Gram-negative bacillus responsible of rat-bite fever. We describe here the first report of this disease in la Réunion and the first isolation using shell vial cell culture from a blood culture bottle with a bacterium suspected to be dead. PMID:21292904

  14. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Brown, Shawn T; Djibo, Ali; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Kone, Souleymane; Kenea, Hailu; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Jana, Anirban; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Van Panhuis, Willem G; Burke, Donald S; Lee, Bruce Y

    2011-06-02

    Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers) in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164%) to means of 59% (range: 4-164%), 62% (range: 4-175%), and 67% (range: 5-192%), respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300%) to means of 161% (range: 82-322%), 175% (range: 78-344%), and 198% (range: 88-402%), respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC). The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%). Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per vaccinated child.

  15. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. Methods We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers) in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Results Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164%) to means of 59% (range: 4-164%), 62% (range: 4-175%), and 67% (range: 5-192%), respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300%) to means of 161% (range: 82-322%), 175% (range: 78-344%), and 198% (range: 88-402%), respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC). The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%). Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. Conclusions The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per vaccinated child. PMID

  16. Test-retest reliability of a balance testing protocol with external perturbations in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Shawn M; Caplan, Ryan M; Aponte, Daniel I; St-Onge, Nancy

    2017-09-07

    External perturbations are utilized to challenge balance and mimic realistic balance threats in patient populations. The reliability of such protocols has not been established. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability of balance testing with external perturbations. Healthy adults (n=34; mean age 23 years) underwent balance testing over two visits. Participants completed ten balance conditions in which the following parameters were combined: perturbation or non-perturbation, single or double leg, and eyes open or closed. Three trials were collected for each condition. Data were collected on a force plate and external perturbations were applied by translating the plate. Force plate center of pressure (CoP) data were summarized using 13 different CoP measures. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. CoP measures of total speed and excursion in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions generally had acceptable ICC values for perturbation conditions (ICC=0.46 to 0.87); however, many other CoP measures (e.g. range, area of ellipse) had unacceptable test-retest reliability (ICC<0.70). Improved CoP measures were present on the second visit indicating a potential learning effect. Non-perturbation conditions generally produced more reliable CoP measures than perturbation conditions during double leg standing, but not single leg standing. Therefore, changes to balance testing protocols that include external perturbations should be made to improve test-retest reliability and diminish learning including more extensive participant training and increasing the number of trials. CoP measures that consider all data points (e.g. total speed) are more reliable than those that only consider a few data points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploration of older and younger British adults' performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT).

    PubMed

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi

    2016-09-01

    Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used in the UK with older and younger adults. There is a growing body of research that suggests that older adults have difficulty with skills associated with social perception. There is therefore a need to determine whether British adults, and more specifically British older adults, perform similarly to the Australian normative TASIT scores available in the manual. To explore the differences between older and younger British adults' performance on TASIT, and to determine whether younger and older British adults perform similarly to the data from Australian adults in TASIT manual. TASIT was administered to a total of 42 native British English speaking participants. The participants were split into two age groups 18-45 and 60-90 years. Comparisons were made between the two groups and the Australian data in TASIT manual. The younger British and Australian adults obtained similar scores on all parts of TASIT. The older British adults though, obtained significantly lower scores than the Australian younger adults on all parts of TASIT and when education was controlled for they obtained significantly lower scores than the British younger adults. The findings are discussed in the light of previous research that has found that older adults are worse than younger adults at social inferences. The findings of the current study suggest that caution should be used when using TASIT with older British adults to assess social perception abilities. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  19. At Risk for Violence Test (ARFV). For Identifying Violence-Prone Teens and Adults. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, William A.

    The At Risk for Violence Test (ARFV) is a test used to identify violence prone teens and adults. The ARFV, teen version, is designed for use in public and private schools, grades 6 through 12, as an annual screening early in the school year. Norms for girls and boys are used for scoring reports. The adult version may be used to screen job…

  20. Impact of a Transition from Respiratory Virus Shell Vial to Multiplex PCR on Clinical Outcomes and Cost in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Zhang, Lei; Cohen, Zohara

    2017-01-07

    While respiratory virus PCR panel (RVPP) is more expensive than shell vial (SV) cell culture, it has been shown to reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures, decrease the inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and shorten the hospital length of stay (LOS). We therefore hypothesized that, for hospitalized children, RVPP would be associated with improved clinical outcomes but higher hospital charges than SV cell culture. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized children. Multivariate analysis was performed, and p-values were calculated. Respiratory virus testing was collected in a total of 1625 inpatient encounters, of which 156 were tested positive by RVPP (57.7%) and 112 were tested positive by SV (11.1%, p < 0.05). Excluding human rhinovirus (HRV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) from the analysis, patients with a positive test from SV had more comorbidities (p = 0.04) and higher mortality (p = 0.008). Patients with a positive test from RVPP had shorter LOS (p = 0.0503). Hospital charges for patients with a positive test from RVPP were lower, but not significantly so. When a multivariate analysis was performed, there were no statistically significant differences in comorbidities, mortality, LOS, or median hospital charges between those patients with a positive SV and those with a positive RVPP. Although testing with RVPP significantly increased the detection of respiratory viruses, clinical outcomes remained comparable to those tested with SV, however RVPP was found to not be associated with higher long-term hospital costs.

  1. Impact of a Transition from Respiratory Virus Shell Vial to Multiplex PCR on Clinical Outcomes and Cost in Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Zhang, Lei; Cohen, Zohara

    2017-01-01

    While respiratory virus PCR panel (RVPP) is more expensive than shell vial (SV) cell culture, it has been shown to reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures, decrease the inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and shorten the hospital length of stay (LOS). We therefore hypothesized that, for hospitalized children, RVPP would be associated with improved clinical outcomes but higher hospital charges than SV cell culture. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized children. Multivariate analysis was performed, and p-values were calculated. Respiratory virus testing was collected in a total of 1625 inpatient encounters, of which 156 were tested positive by RVPP (57.7%) and 112 were tested positive by SV (11.1%, p < 0.05). Excluding human rhinovirus (HRV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) from the analysis, patients with a positive test from SV had more comorbidities (p = 0.04) and higher mortality (p = 0.008). Patients with a positive test from RVPP had shorter LOS (p = 0.0503). Hospital charges for patients with a positive test from RVPP were lower, but not significantly so. When a multivariate analysis was performed, there were no statistically significant differences in comorbidities, mortality, LOS, or median hospital charges between those patients with a positive SV and those with a positive RVPP. Although testing with RVPP significantly increased the detection of respiratory viruses, clinical outcomes remained comparable to those tested with SV, however RVPP was found to not be associated with higher long-term hospital costs. PMID:28067857

  2. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With HIV Infection to Adult Care: Pilot Testing the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol.

    PubMed

    Maturo, Donna; Powell, Alexis; Major-Wilson, Hannah; Sanchez, Kenia; De Santis, Joseph P; Friedman, Lawrence B

    2015-01-01

    Advances in care and treatment of adolescents/young adults with HIV infection have made survival into adulthood possible, requiring transition to adult care. Researchers have documented that the transition process is challenging for adolescents/young adults. To ensure successful transition, a formal transition protocol is needed. Despite existing research, little quantitative evaluation of the transition process has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to pilot test the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol, a formalized protocol developed to assist transition to adult care. A retrospective medical/nursing record review was conducted with 38 clients enrolled in the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol at a university-based adolescent medicine clinic providing care to adolescents/young adults with HIV infection. Almost half of the participants were able to successfully transition to adult care. Reasons for failure to transition included relocation, attrition, lost to follow-up, and transfer to another adult service. Failure to transition to adult care was not related to adherence issues, X(2) (1, N=38)=2.49, p=.288; substance use, X(2) (1, N=38)=1.71, p=.474; mental health issues, X(2) (1, N=38)=2.23, p=.322; or pregnancy/childrearing, X(2) (1, N=38)=0.00, p=.627). Despite the small sample size, the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol appears to be useful in guiding the transition process of adolescents/young adults with HIV infection to adult care. More research is needed with a larger sample to fully evaluate the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of recent HIV testing among older adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuqi; Sims, Omar T

    2017-10-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of people living with HIV, and unfortunately many are unaware of their HIV status. Many providers are reluctant to ask older adults about their sexual histories, evaluate their risk factors, and test for HIV, and older adults have low perception of HIV risk. Using data from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, this study assessed the prevalence of recent HIV testing among older adults in the United States (n = 1,056) and identified predictors and barriers to recent HIV testing. The prevalence of recent HIV testing was 28%. Recent HIV testing was associated positively with male gender, education level, having public insurance, having same sex sexual behavior, African, and Hispanic ethnicity, whereas age, income-to-poverty ratio, and Asian ethnicity were associated negatively with recent HIV testing. Public health social workers are advised that targeted HIV testing for Asian, economically disadvantaged, female older adults is needed to increase HIV awareness and detection and to decrease late diagnosis of HIV. Provided public insurance was identified as a predictor of recent HIV testing, facilitating economically disadvantaged older adults' eligibility for public insurance that will likely improve access to HIV testing services and increase HIV testing rates.

  4. Development of an IQ test for New Zealand adults.

    PubMed

    Hattie, John; Fletcher, Richard

    2008-04-01

    In 2003 and 2004 a television network in New Zealand showed a syndicated program called Test the Nation: The New Zealand IQ Test. This paper demonstrates how the IQ test was devised using item response theory, and evaluates the properties of the test using data from the TV program participants.

  5. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  6. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  7. HIV Antibody Testing among Adults in the United States: Data from 1988 NHIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ann M.; Dawson, Deborah A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes statistical data from 1988 National Health Interview Survey to determine adult awareness of and experience with HIV antibody testing. Following findings reported: most knew of test; 17 percent had been tested; Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to have been voluntarily tested; and high-risk group members were more likely…

  8. HIV Antibody Testing among Adults in the United States: Data from 1988 NHIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ann M.; Dawson, Deborah A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes statistical data from 1988 National Health Interview Survey to determine adult awareness of and experience with HIV antibody testing. Following findings reported: most knew of test; 17 percent had been tested; Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to have been voluntarily tested; and high-risk group members were more likely…

  9. Working memory test battery for young adults: Computerized working memory assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liang; Chang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a battery of computerized working memory (WM) tests and a scoring system suitable for young adult users. The tests comprised five classic tasks derived from Baddeley’s model of WM, reflecting each of the five WM functions. We recruited 115 undergraduate and graduate students from various academic fields and constructed a preliminary WM scoring norm for young adults. The scoring norm was used as a basis for developing a computerized assessment system. The results of correlation analysis show that the fluid intelligence of young adults is related to the memory function of WM, but not to the central executive system. The proposed working memory test battery for young adults comprehensively reflects the WM capacity of adults. PMID:28362867

  10. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  11. Test Experience Effects in Longitudinal Comparisons of Adult Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that experience with cognitive tests can influence estimates of cognitive change. Prior research has estimated experience effects at the level of groups by comparing the performance of a group of participants tested for the second time with the performance of a different group of participants at the same age tested for the…

  12. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  13. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  14. An Exploratory Study Investigating How Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Perform on the Visual Association Test (VAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPaul, Ann; Walker, Brigid; Law, Jim; McKenzie, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological tests of memory are believed to offer the greatest sensitivity at identifying people at the risk of developing dementia. There is a paucity of standardized and appropriate neuropsychological assessments of memory for adults with an intellectual disability. This study examines how adults with an intellectual…

  15. Cross-Validation of the Quick Word Test as an Estimator of Adult Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden; McQuarrie, Duncan

    1970-01-01

    This report provides additional evidence that the Quick Word Test (Level 2, Form AM) is valid for estimating adult mental ability as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The validation sample is also described to facilitate use of the conversion table developed in the cross-validation analysis. (Author/LY)

  16. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  17. In-Vial Temperature Gradient Headspace Single Drop Microextraction Designed by Multiphysics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sharmin; Zhang, Qiang; Pratush, Amit; Xie, Haiyang; Xiao, Hua; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2016-11-01

    Presented herein is a novel headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) based on temperature gradient (TG) for an on-site preconcentration technique of volatile and semivolatile samples. First, an inner vial cap was designed as a cooling device for acceptor droplet in HS-SDME unit to achieve fast and efficient microextraction. Second, for the first time, an in-vial TG was generated between the donor phase in a sample vial at 80 °C and the acceptor droplet under the inner vial cap containing cooling liquid at -20 °C for a TG-HS-SDME. Third, a simple mathematic model and numerical simulations were developed by using heat transfer in fluids, Navier-Stokes and mass balance equations for conditional optimization, and dynamic illumination of the proposed extraction based on COMSOL Multiphysics. Five chlorophenols (CPs) were selected as model analytes to authenticate the proposed method. The comparisons revealed that the simulative results were in good agreement with the quantitative experiments, verifying the design of TG-HS-SDME via the numerical simulation. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction enrichments were improved from 302- to 388-fold within 2 min only, providing 3.5 to 4 times higher enrichment factors as compared to a typical HS-SDME. The simulation indicated that these improvements in the extraction kinetics could be attributed due to the applied temperature gap between the sample matrix and acceptor droplet within the small volume of headspace. Additionally, the experiments demonstrated a good linearity (0.03-100 μg/L, R(2) > 0.9986), low limit of detection (7-10 ng/L), and fair repeatability (<5.9% RSD, n = 6). All of the simulative and experimental results indicated the robustness, precision, and usefulness of TG-HS-SDME for trace analyses of analytes in a wide variety of environmental, pharmaceutical, food safety, and forensic samples.

  18. Economic evaluation of Viaflex with vial adapter in a unit-dose drug distribution system.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A; Robles, A; Lacasa, C; Elcarte, B; Giráldez, J

    1999-12-01

    The cost of parenteral admixtures has an important impact on the hospital budget. Recently, a Viaflex with vial adapter (named 'minibag plus' in some countries) has been commercialized in order to facilitate parenteral admixture preparation. In the present study a preparation using Viaflex with a vial adapter has been economically compared with a preparation with a traditional Viaflex (without adapter) in a centralized unit or in nursing wards in a unit-dose drug distribution system. A cost-analysis was conducted from the hospital point of view. Direct costs were considered: these included supplies and human resources. Differences in the whole process between the two types of Viaflex were analysed. The process included: purchasing, reception, storage, medical order record, preparation in the Pharmacy Service (PS), delivery from the PS to the nursing unit, preparation by the nurse, return of unused material to the PS. Human resource costs were estimated by time counting and multiplying by the average salary. To estimate wasted material, drug and supplies delivered from the PS and returned to the PS were counted during 26 days. With the new Viaflex costs are reduced by 30% in comparison with drug dilution using the traditional Viaflex in a centralized unit of the PS, and by 13.4% in comparison with preparation with the traditional Viaflex in the nursing ward. In addition it can be estimated that contamination risk with the new Viaflex is lower than preparation in the nursing ward with the traditional Viaflex. Therefore, owing to its lower cost we recommend the use of Viaflex with vial adapter for drug dilution for those vials that are compatible with the system.

  19. Testing the acceptability of liquid fish oil in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yaxley, Alison; Miller, Michelle D; Fraser, Robert J; Cobiac, Lynne; Crotty, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions likely to benefit from fish oil therapy are prevalent in older adults however acceptability in this group is uncertain. This study aimed to assess the palatability of a range of liquid fish oil concentrations, the frequency and extent of side effects, and to summarise any effects on adherence to fish oil therapy in older adults. One hundred patients (>=60 years) completed a randomised, single-blind palatability study, conducted in two parts. In part one, 50 subjects, blinded to random sample order, consumed multiple liquid fish oil samples (2x10%, 40% and 100%). In part two, 50 subjects tasted one concentration, or 100% extra light olive oil (control). Pleasantness of taste was scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Side effects were recorded 24-hr post-tasting. Results of part one showed that 9/50 participants reported increasingly unpleasant taste with increasing fish oil concentration. 14/50 reported unpleasant taste for 100% fish oil vs 7/50 for 10%. 14/50 reported side effects which would not affect compliance with therapy. For part two, 1/12 reported unpleasant taste for 100% vs 0/13 for 10% fish oil or control. 4/50 reported side effects and 2/4 indicated these would prevent ongoing fish oil therapy. The authors conclude that taste itself is not a deterrent to fish oil therapy. Furthermore, reported adverse effects may not be a true reaction to fish oil, or dissuade patients from compliance. Liquid fish oil supplements are acceptable to older adults, therefore should be investigated as a therapy for geriatric conditions.

  20. Loss of preservative from a tuberculin solution in rubber stoppered vials fastened with different seals.

    PubMed

    Held, H R; Landi, S

    1985-07-01

    A tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) solution containing 0.3% phenol as a preservative was dispensed in glass vials closed with rubber stoppers fastened in three different ways, namely with Tear-off seals, Flip-off seals and partial seals. After various times of storage at 5 degrees C and 37 degrees C, the phenol content in the tuberculin solution was determined. It was found that the Flip-off seals allowed the phenol to escape at a faster rate than the Tear-off seals and that vials closed with partial seals showed the highest loss of phenol. Although these losses were much more pronounced at 37 degrees C than at 5 degrees C, the phenol content at the latter temperature was, over a period of three years, within the limits of acceptability for tuberculin products capped with Tear-off or Flip-off seals. A loss of phenol also occurred from tuberculin solution stored at -28 degrees C in vials capped with either Tear-off or partial seals. In addition to the Tear-off and Flip-off seals other seals such as the "controlled score' Flip-off seal and the Alcoa Steri-Twist cap were evaluated for their imperviousness to air. Except for the Alcoa Steri-Twist cap none of the seals we have investigated were air tight and hence entirely satisfactory to prevent losses of phenol by evaporation from tuberculin products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Multidose medication vial sterility: an in-use study and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Longfield, R; Longfield, J; Smith, L P; Hyams, K C; Strohmer, M E

    1984-04-01

    Contaminated multiple-dose medication vials (MDV) have been implicated in transmission of bacterial infections. It has been suggested that MDV be discarded after 24 hours or even after a single use. At our hospital, we cultured 1,223 weekly samples from 863 MDV in-use over a three-month period. Medications included xylocaine, insulin, heparin, immunizations, and miscellaneous agents. None of the samples was culture-positive. The duration of use was 9.5d (median), 18d (mean), and 1-402d (range) with 13% of vials in-use for more than 30 days. The mean duration of use was significantly shorter for medicine wards, emergency room, and outpatient clinics than for surgery and ob-gyn wards (p less than 0.05). Heparin and insulin MDV were in-use for significantly less time than xylocaine and miscellaneous agents (p less than 0.05), and insulin MDV were more regularly dated (p = 0.001). The percentage of undated MDV declined significantly by month during the study (p = 0.003). These results lend support to our current guideline that MDV should be dated upon opening and that, unless visible or suspected contamination occurs, vials are discarded either when empty or at the manufacturer's expiration date.

  2. [Preoperative tests recommendations in adult patients for ambulatory surgery].

    PubMed

    Zaballos, M; López-Álvarez, S; Argente, P; López, A

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic assessment traditionally included a series of laboratory tests intended to detect undiagnosed diseases, and to ensure that the patient undergoes surgery following safety criteria. These tests, without a specific clinical indication, are expensive, of questionable diagnostic value and often useless. In the context of outpatient surgery, recent evidence suggests that patients of any age without significant comorbidity, ASA physical status gradei and grade ii, do not need additional preoperative tests routinely. The aim of the present recommendations is to determine the general indications in which these tests should be performed in ASA gradei and grade ii patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.

  3. Clinical trials: testing of adult chemical heating pad.

    PubMed

    Herman, J; Davis, C; Mackey, M; Fuller, S; Tavakoli, A

    1996-01-01

    Chemical packs are recent innovations in the delivery of dry heat. Because these delivery systems do not have any mechanism for verifying temperature during application, research to determine their safety seems warranted. The purpose of this study was to measure the skin temperature of adults during a 30-minute application of the MediHeat adult heating pad (MH-AHP). Seventy-seven subjects received a 30-minute application of the MH-AHP to their backs while lying in both supine and prone positions. The mean skin temperature in both positions was 101 degrees F. There were significant differences, however, in minimum and maximum skin temperature between positions. Subjects in the prone position had significantly higher maximum skin temperature and significantly lower minimum skin temperature than subjects in the supine position. It is possible that the prone position allows for more air flow over the MH-AHP and that more heat was generated causing the higher maximum temperature. This explanation does not account for the lower minimum temperature. There were no significant differences in perception of heat between the positions at either 5 minutes or 30 minutes. Findings suggest that caution is necessary when applying heating devices that depend on air circulation for heat generation.

  4. Sample vial inserts: A better approach for sampling heterogeneous slurry samples in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.; Goode, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    A convenient and effective new approach for analyzing DWPF samples involves the use of inserts with volumes of 1.5--3 ml placed in the neck of 14 ml sample vials. The inserts have rims that conform to the rim of the vials so that they sit straight and stable in the vial. The DWPF tank sampling system fills the pre-weighed insert rather than the entire vial, so the vial functions only as the insert holder. The shielded cell operator then removes the vial cap and decants the insert containing the sample into a plastic bottle, crucible, etc., for analysis. Inert materials such as Teflon, plastic, and zirconium are used for the insert so it is unnecessary to separate the insert from the sample for most analyses. The key technique advantage of using inserts to take DWPF samples versus filling sample vials is that it provides a convenient and almost foolproof way of obtaining and handling small volumes of slurry samples in a shielded cell without corrupting the sample. Since the insert allows the entire sample to be analyzed, this approach eliminates the errors inherent with subsampling heterogeneous slurries that comprise DWPF samples. Slurry samples can then be analyzed with confidence. Analysis times are dramatically reduced by eliminating the drying and vitrification steps normally used to produce a homogeneous solid sample. Direct dissolution and elemental analysis of slurry samples are achieved in 8 hours or less compared with 40 hours for analysis of vitrified slurry samples. Comparison of samples taken in inserts versus full vials indicate that the insert does not significantly affect sample composition.

  5. Submaximal Treadmill Exercise Test to Predict VO[subscript 2]max in Fit Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Plowman, Sharon A.; Dustman-Allen, Kymberli

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a single-stage submaximal treadmill jogging (TMJ) test to predict VO[subscript 2]max in fit adults. Participants (N = 400; men = 250 and women = 150), ages 18 to 40 years, successfully completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) at 1 of 3 laboratories to determine VO[subscript 2]max. The TMJ test was completed…

  6. Submaximal Treadmill Exercise Test to Predict VO[subscript 2]max in Fit Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Plowman, Sharon A.; Dustman-Allen, Kymberli

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a single-stage submaximal treadmill jogging (TMJ) test to predict VO[subscript 2]max in fit adults. Participants (N = 400; men = 250 and women = 150), ages 18 to 40 years, successfully completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) at 1 of 3 laboratories to determine VO[subscript 2]max. The TMJ test was completed…

  7. Simplicity, safety, and acceptability of insulin pen use versus the conventional vial/syringe device in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Khreis, Noura A; Kabbara, Wissam K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the simplicity, safety, patients' preference, and convenience of the administration of insulin using the pen device versus the conventional vial/syringe in patients with diabetes. This observational study was conducted in multiple community pharmacies in Lebanon. The investigators interviewed patients with diabetes using an insulin pen or conventional vial/syringe. A total of 74 questionnaires were filled over a period of 6 months. Answers were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Excel spreadsheet. t-test, logistic regression analysis, and correlation analysis were used in order to analyze the results. A higher percentage of patients from the insulin pen users group (95.2%) found the method easy to use as compared to only 46.7% of the insulin conventional users group (P 0.001, relative risk [RR]: 2.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.178-3.535). Moreover, 61.9% and 26.7% of pen users and conventional users, respectively, could read the scale easily (P 0.037, RR 2.321, 95% CI: 0.940-5.731), while 85.7% of pen users found it more convenient shifting to pen and 86.7% of the conventional users would want to shift to pen if it had the same cost. Pain perception was statistically different between the groups. A much higher percentage (76.2%) of pen users showed no pain during injection compared to only 26.7% of conventional users (P 0.003, RR 2.857, 95% CI: 1.194-6.838). The insulin pen was significantly much easier to use and less painful than the conventional vial/syringe. Proper education on the methods of administration/storage and disposal of needles/syringes is needed in both groups.

  8. Simplicity, safety, and acceptability of insulin pen use versus the conventional vial/syringe device in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Khreis, Noura A; Kabbara, Wissam K

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the simplicity, safety, patients’ preference, and convenience of the administration of insulin using the pen device versus the conventional vial/syringe in patients with diabetes. Methods This observational study was conducted in multiple community pharmacies in Lebanon. The investigators interviewed patients with diabetes using an insulin pen or conventional vial/syringe. A total of 74 questionnaires were filled over a period of 6 months. Answers were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Excel spreadsheet. t-test, logistic regression analysis, and correlation analysis were used in order to analyze the results. Results A higher percentage of patients from the insulin pen users group (95.2%) found the method easy to use as compared to only 46.7% of the insulin conventional users group (P 0.001, relative risk [RR]: 2.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.178–3.535). Moreover, 61.9% and 26.7% of pen users and conventional users, respectively, could read the scale easily (P 0.037, RR 2.321, 95% CI: 0.940–5.731), while 85.7% of pen users found it more convenient shifting to pen and 86.7% of the conventional users would want to shift to pen if it had the same cost. Pain perception was statistically different between the groups. A much higher percentage (76.2%) of pen users showed no pain during injection compared to only 26.7% of conventional users (P 0.003, RR 2.857, 95% CI: 1.194–6.838). Conclusion The insulin pen was significantly much easier to use and less painful than the conventional vial/syringe. Proper education on the methods of administration/storage and disposal of needles/syringes is needed in both groups. PMID:25848231

  9. Test Review: The Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) Life Skills Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, David; Ernst, Megan L.

    2004-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become an important goal of education over the last decade. According to the United States Department of Education (2001), nearly 3 million students over age 17 (excluding those institutionalized) enrolled in adult basic education, adult secondary education, or English as a second language classes in the United States.…

  10. Test Review: The Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) Life Skills Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, David; Ernst, Megan L.

    2004-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become an important goal of education over the last decade. According to the United States Department of Education (2001), nearly 3 million students over age 17 (excluding those institutionalized) enrolled in adult basic education, adult secondary education, or English as a second language classes in the United States.…

  11. Prevalence of HIV risk behaviors, risk perceptions, and testing among US adults with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Dickey, Wayne C

    2003-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders may lack the knowledge, skills, and social networks that help limit the spread of HIV by reducing risk behaviors. Nationally representative data from the 1999 U.S. National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among civilian noninstitutionalized adults with and without at least one of three psychiatric conditions (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic attacks) in the previous 12 months. Relative to adults without these mental disorders, adults with a mental disorder (8.8% of adults nationally) were more likely to have engaged in HIV risk behaviors since 1980 (5.5% vs. 1.6%). Adults with a mental disorder were also more likely to report a high or medium chance of becoming infected, were more likely to have been tested for HIV infection, and were more likely to expect to be tested within the next 12 months.

  12. Measuring Adult Literacy Students’ Reading Skills Using the Gray Oral Reading Test

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.

    2009-01-01

    There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third through fifth grade reading grade equivalency levels. Findings are reported from an analysis of the administration of Form A of the Gray Oral Reading Tests – Fourth Edition (GORT-4; Wiederholt & Bryant, 2001). Results indicated that educators and researchers should be very cautious when interpreting test results of adults who have difficulty reading when children's norm-referenced tests are administered. PMID:19629705

  13. Assessment of adherence and healthcare costs of insulin device (FlexPen) versus conventional vial/syringe.

    PubMed

    Baser, Onur; Bouchard, Jonathan; DeLuzio, Tony; Henk, Henry; Aagren, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes is difficult to manage and treatment involves significant lifestyle adjustments. Unlike the traditional method of insulin administration via the vial and syringe method, insulin pens might be perceived as less cumbersome and have potential to significantly increase patient adherence. Using "real world" data, we examined the differences in adherence and costs between diabetic patients using an insulin FlexPen (Novo Nordisk Inc, Princeton, NJ, USA) and those using traditional vial and syringe administration. Using a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data between the years 2003 and 2008, we examined patients in the FlexPen cohort and analog vial cohort. Propensity score matching was used to match these cohorts (n=532 in each) according to baseline characteristics. Adjusted mean medication possession ratio when switched to FlexPen improved by 22 percentage points versus 13 percentage points when continuing to use vials (P=0.001). Diabetes-related healthcare costs when switched to FlexPen versus continuing on to use vials ($3970 vs. $4838, respectively, P=0.9368) and total healthcare costs ($13,214 vs. $13,212, respectively, P=0.9473) were not statistically different. Without significant addition to the cost, insulin administration with FlexPen is associated with an improved adherence among patients who switched from vial-based insulin administration.

  14. Isolation and cultivation of stem cells from adult mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Kaomei; Wolf, Frieder; Becker, Alexander; Engel, Wolfgang; Nayernia, Karim; Hasenfuss, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    The successful isolation and cultivation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) as well as induction of SSCs into pluripotent stem cells will allow us to study their biological characteristics and their applications in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the isolation of testicular cells from adolescent mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the enrichment of undifferentiated spermatogonia by laminin selection or genetic selection using Stra8-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) transgenic mice; the cultivation and conversion of undifferentiated spermatogonia into embryonic stem-like cells, so-called multipotent adult germline stem cells (maGSCs); and characterization of these cells. Normally, it will take about 16 weeks to obtain stable maGSC lines starting from the isolation of testicular cells.

  15. Convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX, a word and pseudoword spelling test for adults.

    PubMed

    Östberg, Per; Backlund, Charlotte; Lindström, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Few comprehensive spelling tests are available in Swedish, and none have been validated in adults with reading and writing disorders. The recently developed STAVUX test includes word and pseudoword spelling subtests with high internal consistency and adult norms stratified by education. This study evaluated the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX in adults with dyslexia. Forty-six adults, 23 with dyslexia and 23 controls, took STAVUX together with a standard word-decoding test and a self-rated measure of spelling skills. STAVUX subtest scores showed moderate to strong correlations with word-decoding scores and predicted self-rated spelling skills. Word and pseudoword subtest scores both predicted dyslexia status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed excellent diagnostic discriminability. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity 96%. In conclusion, the results of this study support the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX.

  16. Spanish normative studies in a young adult population (NEURONORMA young adults Project): norms for the Boston Naming Test and the Token Test.

    PubMed

    Aranciva, F; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2012-09-01

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Token Test (TT) are frequently used in clinical practice to assess naming and comprehension. The aim of this paper is to present normative data for the BNT and for the TT as part of the NEURONORMA young adults Project. A total of 179 Spanish healthy subjects from 18 to 49 years old were evaluated. Tables to convert raw scores to scaled scores are provided. Age- and education- adjusted scores are obtained by applying linear regressions. The results show an effect of education in both tests, and a minimal effect of age and sex. The normative data obtained will be useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropsychological tests for predicting cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Baerresen, Kimberly M; Miller, Karen J; Hanson, Eric R; Miller, Justin S; Dye, Richelin V; Hartman, Richard E; Vermeersch, David; Small, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim To determine neuropsychological tests likely to predict cognitive decline. Methods A sample of nonconverters (n = 106) was compared with those who declined in cognitive status (n = 24). Significant univariate logistic regression prediction models were used to create multivariate logistic regression models to predict decline based on initial neuropsychological testing. Results Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) Retention predicted conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) while baseline Buschke Delay predicted conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to group sample size differences, additional analyses were conducted using a subsample of demographically matched nonconverters. Analyses indicated RCFT Retention predicted conversion to MCI and AD, and Buschke Delay predicted conversion to AD. Conclusion Results suggest RCFT Retention and Buschke Delay may be useful in predicting cognitive decline. PMID:26107318

  18. Affirmative Psychological Testing and Neurocognitive Assessment with Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Keo-Meier, Colton L; Fitzgerald, Kara M

    2017-03-01

    Neither consensus on best practice nor validated neuropsychological, intelligence, or personality testing batteries exist for assessment and psychological testing on the transgender population. Historically, assessment has been used in a gate-keeping fashion with transgender clients. There are no firm standards of care when considering the content and appropriateness of evaluations conducted presurgically. These evaluations are discussed in the setting of other presurgical evaluations, with a recommendation to move toward a competency to make a medical decisions model. Additional considerations are discussed, such as effects of transition on mood and how to interpret scores in a field where normative data are often gender stratified.

  19. Quantitative Sensory Testing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fründt, Odette; Grashorn, Wiebke; Schöttle, Daniel; Peiker, Ina; David, Nicole; Engel, Andreas K.; Forkmann, Katarina; Wrobel, Nathalie; Münchau, Alexander; Bingel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Altered sensory perception has been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be related to aberrant sensory perception thresholds. We used the well-established, standardized Quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain to investigate 13 somatosensory parameters including…

  20. Information Processing Differences and Similarities in Adults with Dyslexia and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during a Continuous Performance Test: A Study of Cortical Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male adults with ADHD, 16 dyslexic adults, 15 comorbid adults, and 16 normal controls were compared on performance and underlying brain responses, during a cued Continuous Performance Test (O-X CPT), with the aim of discovering features of information processing differentiating between the groups. The study evaluated both cue- and…

  1. Test-retest reliability of knee kinesthesia in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Ageberg, Eva; Flenhagen, Johan; Ljung, Jonatan

    2007-01-01

    Background Sensory information from mechanoreceptors in the skin, muscles, tendons, and joint structures plays an important role in joint stability. A joint injury can lead to disruption of the sensory system, which can be measured by proprioceptive acuity. When evaluating proprioception, assessment tools need to be reliable. The aim of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of a device designed to measure knee proprioception. Methods Twenty-four uninjured individuals (14 women and 10 men) were examined with regard to test-retest reliability of knee kinesthesia, measured by the threshold to detection of passive motion (TDPM). Measurements were performed towards extension and flexion from the two starting positions, 20 degrees and 40 degrees knee joint flexion, giving four variables. The mean difference between test and retest together with the 95% confidence interval (test 2 minus test 1), the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1), and Bland and Altman graphs with limits of agreement, were used as statistical methods for assessing test-retest reliability. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.59 to 0.70 in all variables except one. No difference was found between test and retest in three of the four TDPM variables. TDPM would need to decrease between 10% and 38%, and increase between 17% and 24% in groups of uninjured subjects to be 95% confident of detecting a real change. The limits of agreement were rather wide in all variables. The variables associated with the 20-degree starting position tended to have higher intraclass correlation coefficients and narrower limits of agreement than those associated with 40 degrees. Conclusion Three TDPM variables were considered reliable for observing change in groups of subjects without pathology. However, the limits of agreement revealed that small changes in an individual's performance cannot be detected. The higher intraclass correlation coefficients and the narrower limits of

  2. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores of twelve functional fitness tests in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boer, P H; Moss, S J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of selected functional fitness test items in adults with Down syndrome. Forty-three adults with Down syndrome (24 men and 19 women) aged 18-50 years completed a battery of tests twice in a two-week period. The battery of tests consisted of two balance items, two flexibility items, five muscular strength and endurance items, two aerobic items, and one functional task. All items were considered valid and reliable tests in a general elderly or intellectually disabled population. The test-retest relative reliability for all repeated tests was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient performing one-way analysis of variance. The test-retest absolute variability was measured by using the standard error of measurement (SEM) to calculate the minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90). Reliability data was visualised with a Bland-Altman plot. All tests showed excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC's>0.9). All SEM values demonstrated acceptable measurement precision (SEMtests. The analyses indicated that there was no major systematic bias in the plots. The scatter around the Bland-Altman was distributed randomly. All twelve functional fitness tests demonstrated adequate feasibility and relative and absolute test-retest reliability in adults with Down syndrome in South Africa. Information of this nature will help to monitor performance alterations over time and success of training interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Normative data and discriminant validity of Rey's Verbal Learning Test for the Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Tsakona, Ioanna; Malefaki, Sonia; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    The present study sought to establish normative and discriminant validity data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test [Rey, A. (1964). L 'examen clinique en psychologie [Clinical tests in psychology]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] using newly adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. Applying the procedure suggested by Geffen et al. [Geffen, G., Moar, K. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R., & Geffen, L. N. (1990). Performance measures of 16-86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 45-63] we administered the test to 205 healthy participants, aged 18-78 years and two adult patient groups (long-term cannabis users and HIV symptomatic patients). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the variables age, education and gender contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT. Performance decreased in an age-dependent manner from young adulthood. Women, young adults and higher educated participants outperformed men, older adults and less educated individuals. The test appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of long-term heavy cannabis users and HIV seropositive symptomatic patients and matched healthy controls, as both patient groups performed more poorly than their respective control group. Normative data stratified by age, gender and education for the Greek adult population is presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  4. Anticipated Effects of the GED® Test on Educators and Young Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley-Etzkorn, Karen E.; Skolits, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Given the changes made to the GED® test in 2014, one concern among state policy makers, adult educators, and GED® service providers has been the impact of these changes on students as well as teachers, staff, volunteers, and other GED® program stakeholders. Using a qualitative, case study research approach focused on one GED® test preparation site…

  5. Anticipated Effects of the GED® Test on Educators and Young Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley-Etzkorn, Karen E.; Skolits, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Given the changes made to the GED® test in 2014, one concern among state policy makers, adult educators, and GED® service providers has been the impact of these changes on students as well as teachers, staff, volunteers, and other GED® program stakeholders. Using a qualitative, case study research approach focused on one GED® test preparation site…

  6. Neuropsychological Test Findings for Normal, Learning-Disabled, and Brain-Damaged Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, James P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the usefulness of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRNB) in discriminating normal from learning-disabled young adults. Results supported previous research in demonstrating both that normals perform more adequately than brain-damaged subjects on all HRNB tests, and that normal and brain-damaged subjects can be…

  7. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  8. Strategies Underlying Psychometric Test Responses in Young and Middle-aged Adults of Varying Educational Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Kristina S.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies leading to test item responses in 60 young (20-25 years) and 60 middle-aged (35-40 years) adults, whose highest level of education had been either secondary, technical or university. Subjects were individually administered a 12 item test similar to Raven's Progressive Matrices, and were…

  9. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  10. Rapid Shell Vial Culture Technique for Detection of Enteroviruses and Adenoviruses in Fecal Specimens: Comparison with Conventional Virus Isolation Method

    PubMed Central

    Van Doornum, G. J. J.; De Jong, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    Detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses mainly in fecal specimens by rapid culture with inoculation onto cell monolayers in flat-bottom tubes by centrifugation and immunofluorescence staining with genus-specific monoclonal antibodies was compared with that by the conventional virus isolation procedure. For both conventional culture and shell vial culture human lung fibroblast cells and tertiary monkey kidney cells were used. For enterovirus detection, 979 clinical specimens (916 stool specimens, 56 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, and 7 nasopharyngeal swabs) were used. Conventional culture detected 74 enterovirus isolates. A cytopathic effect compatible with the presence of an enterovirus after 3 days of incubation occurred in 25 of the 74 (34%) specimens that eventually became positive. The detection rate for enteroviruses by rapid cell culture after 2 to 3 days of incubation was 42 of 74 (57%). The genus-specific enterovirus monoclonal antibody did not react with strains of echovirus types 22 and 23 or enterovirus type 71. Rapid cell culture for the detection of adenoviruses was performed with 567 clinical specimens (536 stool specimens, 25 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, and 6 miscellaneous specimens), in which 42 adenoviruses were found by conventional culture. Nine of the 42 (21%) adenovirus isolates were detected by conventional culture within 3 days after inoculation, whereas 21 (50%) were found by rapid cell culture within 2 to 3 days. Only two of the nine specimens found to be positive for the enteric adenovirus type 41 by conventional culture as well by a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tested positive by rapid cell culture. In conclusion, the rapid shell vial assay allows the early detection and identification of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in clinical specimens but is markedly less sensitive than the conventional isolation procedure according to the eventual results of the conventional isolation procedure. Conventional cell

  11. 77 FR 46749 - Tests Determined To Be Suitable for Use in the National Reporting System for Adult Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...) Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) Life Skills Math Assessments--Application of Mathematics... Adult Proficiency Test (MAPT) for Math. This test is approved for use through a computer-adaptive... Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) Employability Competency System (ECS) Math...

  12. Vaccine Wastage Assessment After Introduction of Open Vial Policy in Surat Municipal Corporation Area of India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prakash B.; Rana, Jayesh J.; Jangid, Sunil G.; Bavarva, Neha R.; Patel, Manan J.; Bansal, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: As per the vaccine management policy of the Government of India all vaccine vials opened for an immunization session were discarded at the end of that session, irrespective of the type of vaccine or the number of doses remaining in the vial prior to 2013. Subsequently, open vial policy (OVP) was introduced in 2013 and should reduce both vaccine wastage as well as governmental healthcare costs for immunization. This study evaluates the vaccine wastage after introduction of the OVP and its comparison with the previous study of vaccine wastage in Surat city before implementation of OVP. It needs to mention that the vaccine policy for this period under comparison was uniform except for the OVP. Methods: Information regarding vaccine doses consumed and children vaccinated during immunization sessions of 24 urban health centers (UHCs) of Surat city were retrieved for the period of January 1st, 2014 to March 31st, 2014. The data were analyzed to estimate vaccine wastage rate (WR) and vaccine wastage factor (WF). In order to assess the impact of OVP, vaccine WR of this study was compared with that of previous study conducted in Surat city during January 1st, 2012 to March 31st, 2012. Results: The vaccine WR for oral polio vaccine (OPV) has decreased from 25% to 13.62%, while the WRs for DPT, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the pentavalent vaccine combinedly have decreased from 17.94% to 8.05%. Thus, by implementation of OVP, an estimated 747 727 doses of OPV and 343 725 doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus toxoid vaccine (DPT), HBV and the pentavalent vaccines combinedly have been saved in Surat city of India in a year. Conclusion: The implementation of the OVP in Surat city has led to a significant lowering in the vaccine wastage, leading to savings due to lower vaccine requirements. PMID:27239864

  13. Aggregation and Particle Formation of Therapeutic Proteins in Contact With a Novel Fluoropolymer Surface Versus Siliconized Surfaces: Effects of Agitation in Vials and in Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Teska, Brandon M; Brake, Jeffrey M; Tronto, Gregory S; Carpenter, John F

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of an accelerated agitation protocol on 2 protein therapeutics, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and Avastin (bevacizumab), in contact with a novel fluoropolymer surface and more typical siliconized surfaces. The fluoropolymer surface provides "solid-phase" lubrication for the syringe plunger-obviating the need for silicone oil lubrication in prefilled syringes. We tested the 2 surfaces in a vial system and in prefilled glass syringes. We also examined the effects of 2 buffers, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 0.2-M glycine, with and without the addition of polysorbate 20, on agitation-induced aggregation of IVIG. Aggregation was monitored by measuring subvisible particle formation and soluble protein loss. In both vials and syringes, protein particle formation was much lower during agitation with the fluoropolymer surface than with the siliconized surface. Also, particle formation was greater in PBS than in glycine buffer, an effect attributed to lower colloidal stability of IVIG in PBS. Polysorbate 20 in the formulation greatly inhibited protein particle formation. Overall, the fluoropolymer plunger surface in an unsiliconized glass barrel was demonstrated to be a viable solution for eliminating silicone oil droplets from prefilled syringe formulations and providing a consistent system for rationale formulation development and simplified particle analysis.

  14. Isolation of Coxiella burnetii by a centrifugation shell-vial assay from ticks collected in Cyprus: detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

    PubMed

    Spyridaki, Ioanna; Psaroulaki, Anna; Loukaides, Fidias; Antoniou, Maria; Hadjichristodolou, Christos; Tselentis, Yannis

    2002-01-01

    Ticks are the principal vectors and reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. The identification of isolates is necessary for understanding the clinical diversity of Q fever in different geographic areas. This is the first report of isolation of C. burnetii from ticks by the shell-vial assay and by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of this pathogen in ticks. Of 141 ticks collected in Cyprus (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalloma spp.), 10% were found to be infected with C. burnetii. Three ticks were positive by hemolymph test, and 11 triturated ticks were positive by nested PCR. Three isolates were obtained by the centrifugation shell-vial technique. Analysis by PCR, then restriction fragment length polymorphism showed that the 3 Cyprus isolates had identical restriction profiles to reference strains Nine Mile and Q212. The methods described are useful in studying the epidemiology and ecology of C. burnetii.

  15. Visualization Techniques for Assessing Design Factors That Affect the Interaction between Pharmaceutical Vials and Stoppers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philippe; Stern, Al

    2010-01-01

    We developed several techniques for visualizing the fit between a stopper and a vial in the critical flange area, a location typically hidden from view. Using these tools, it is possible to identify surfaces involved in forming the initial seal immediately after stopper insertion. We present examples illustrating important design elements that can contribute to forming a robust primary package. These techniques can also be used for component screening by facilitating the identification of combinations that do not fit well together so that they can be eliminated early in the selection process.

  16. Cardiotoxicity of commercial 5-fluorouracil vials stems from the alkaline hydrolysis of this drug.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, L.; Malet-Martino, M. C.; de Forni, M.; Martino, R.; Lasserre, B.

    1992-01-01

    The cardiotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (FU) was attributed to impurities present in the injected vials. One of these impurities was identified as fluoroacetaldehyde which is metabolised by isolated perfused rabbit hearts into fluoroacetate (FAC), a highly cardiotoxic compound. FAC was also detected in the urine of patients treated with FU. These impurities were found to be degradation products of FU that are formed in the basic medium employed to dissolve this compound. To avoid chemical degradation of this antineoplastic drug, the solution of FU that will be injected should be prepared immediately before use. PMID:1637660

  17. 75 FR 5303 - Tests Determined To Be Suitable for Use in the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...) Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) Life Skills Math Assessments--Application of Mathematics...) Massachusetts Adult Proficiency Test (MAPT) for Math. Publisher: Massachusetts Department of Elementary and... Systems (CASAS) Employability Competency System (ECS) Math Assessments--Workforce Learning Systems...

  18. The reliability of two visual motor integration tests used with healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Chinner, Alexandra; Stagnitti, Karen

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT Occupational therapists often assess the visual motor integration (VMI) skills of children, adults, and the elderly, which are parts of the Body Functions and Structures of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Objective. As it is imperative that therapists use tests and measures with strong psychometric properties, this study aims to examine the reliability of two VMI tests used with adults. Method. Sixty-one healthy adults, 18 males and 43 females, with an average age of 31.82 years, completed the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (DTVMI) and the Full Range Test of Visual Motor Integration (FRTVMI). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to examine the tests' internal consistency, while the Spearman's rho correlation was used to evaluate the test-retest reliability, intrarater reliability, and interrater reliability of the two VMI tests. Results. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the DTVMI and FRTVMI was 0.66 and 0.80, respectively. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.77 (p < .001) for the DTVMI and 0.61 (p < .001) for the FRTVMI. The interrater reliability correlation was significant for both DTVMI at 0.79 (p < .001) and FRTVMI at 0.80 (p < .001). The DTVMI intrarater reliability correlation result was 0.95 (p < .001) and the FRTVMI at 0.87 (p < .001). Conclusion. Overall, the DTVMI and the FRTVMI exhibited moderate to high levels of reliability when used with a sample of healthy adults. Both VMI tests appear to exhibit reasonable levels of reliability and are recommended for use with adults and the elderly.

  19. Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study. PMID:23110378

  20. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    PubMed

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading.

  1. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions.Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments.This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = -1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8∼-0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.1∼-0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and other

  2. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  3. Recumbent Stepper Submaximal Test response is reliable in adults with and without stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seier, Nicole M.; Todd, Jonathan D.; Price, Brian G.; Kwapiszeski, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine the reliability of the exercise response (predicted peak VO2) using the total body recumbent stepper (TBRS) submaximal exercise test in: 1) healthy adults 20–70 years of age and 2) adults participating in inpatient stroke rehabilitation. We hypothesized that the predicted peak VO2 (Visit 1) would have an excellent relationship (r > 0.80) to predicted peak VO2 (Visit 2). We also wanted to test whether the exercise response at Visit 1 and Visit 2 would be significantly different. Methods Healthy adults were recruited from the Kansas City metro area. Stroke participants were recruited during their inpatient rehabilitation stay. Eligible participants completed 2 TBRS submaximal exercise tests between 24 hours and 5 days at similar times of day. Results A total of 70 participants completed the study. Healthy adults (n = 50) were 36 M, 38.1 ± 10.1 years and stroke participants (n = 20) were 15 M, 62.5 ± 11.8 years of age. The exercise response was reliable for healthy adults (r = 0.980, p<0.01) and stroke participants (r = 0.987, p<0.01) between Visit 1 and Visit 2. Repeated Measures ANOVA showed a significant difference in predicted values between the two visits for healthy adults (47.2 ± 8.4 vs 47.7 ± 8.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; p = 0.04) but not for stroke participants (25.0 ± 9.9 vs 25.3 ± 11.4 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; p = 0.65). Conclusion These results suggest that the exercise response is reliable using the TBRS submaximal exercise test in this cohort of healthy adults and stroke participants. PMID:28207854

  4. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  5. Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling adults.

    PubMed

    Steffen, T M; Mollinger, L A

    2005-12-01

    Interpretation of patient scores on functional tests is enhanced by an understanding of test performance in reference groups. The purpose of this study was to expand performance values, by age and gender, on balance tests [the Multi-Directional Reach (MDRT); Berg Balance (BBS); Sharpened Romberg, eyes open (SREO), eyes closed (SREC); Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC)], and a general mobility test [Physical Performance Test, (PPT-7, PPT-9)]. The study also examined relationships between test performance and subject characteristics. Eighty-three community-dwelling adults over 50 participated in the study and completed the 5 functional tests during one test session. Means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals were calculated for each of the tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine relationships between test scores and age, gender, height, and weight. Test performance is reported by gender,within 10-year age cohorts. Regression analysis showed that age contributed significantly to prediction of performance on all of the tests and gender contributed significantly to prediction of scores on the Berg, SREO, and SREC. Test performance values, in a sample of community-dwelling adults, is provided by age and gender cohorts to provide additional reference data that can be used by clinicians for comparison with client data. The small sample size for subjects over 80 years limits the reference value of data for this age group. In regression analyses, age and gender help predict outcomes on the dependent variables used in the study.

  6. Reliability and convergent validity of the 6-min run test in young adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Pérez, Carlos; Martínez-Lemos, R Iván; Cancela-Carral, José M

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence about the psychometric properties of field tests to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in people with Down syndrome. This study aimed at analyzing the reliability and convergent validity of the 6-min run test when performed by young adults with Down syndrome (DS). In a cross-sectional design fifty-one young adults with DS (mean age 26.20 ± 7.14 years; 54% women) performed the 6-min run test and the 16-min shuttle run test twice with a one week-interval between test and retest. The 6-min run test offered high reliability for the distances covered (ICC: 0.974; 95% CI: 0.955-0.985) and good reliability when comparing peak heart rate values obtained in the test and retest (ICC: 0.870; 95% CI: 0.772-0.926). A significant correlation between the 6-min run test and the 16-min shuttle run test was observed for the test (r = 0.705; Sig = 0.001), and retest phases (r = 0.651; Sig = 0.001). The relationship between the estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) peak after the performance of the 16-min shuttle run test and the distance covered by the 6-min run test was statistically significant (r > 0.7). No significant differences were found between the equations that estimate VO2 peak for both tests. These findings suggest that the 6-min run test shows high test/retest reliability and moderate to moderately high convergent validity when performed by adults with DS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrating Routine HIV Testing into Family Planning Clinics That Treat Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Buzi, Ruth S; Madanay, Farrah L; Smith, Peggy B

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults remain at high risk for new HIV infections and for unknowingly transmitting the virus to others. Yet, they have demonstrated low rates of testing due to barriers such as stigma and difficulty accessing testing services. Few existing programs have successfully integrated family planning and HIV care services to improve testing and diagnosis rates among young adults and adolescents, particularly those of minority groups. This study describes the process of implementing HIV services into family planning clinics and how to train staff in routine, opt-out testing. This study used HIV screening data from 10 family planning clinics serving adolescents and young adults in Houston, Texas. A total of 34,299 patients were tested for HIV during a 48-month study period, from January 2010 through December 2014. Patients tested included minors <18 years of age (25.5%), males (22.8%), and individuals who had missed opportunities for HIV testing at other health-care settings. From the opt-in period (2006-2007) to the routine, opt-out period (2008-2010), the yearly average number of tests administered more than doubled; the yearly average increased again by 50% from the routine, opt-out period to the routine, rapid period (2011-2014). Eighty-eight (0.3%) patients were diagnosed with HIV, a higher seropositivity rate than CDC's recommended threshold of 0.1% for settings where routine screening is warranted. Routine, opt-out HIV testing integrated into family planning clinics increased rates of testing acceptance, receipt of test results, and HIV-positive diagnoses among adolescents and young adults.

  8. Vaccine presentation in the USA: economics of prefilled syringes versus multidose vials for influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Claudia C; Bishai, David

    2010-11-01

    In the USA, influenza vaccines are available as parenteral injections or as an intranasal preparation. Injectable influenza vaccines are available in either multidose vial (MDV), single-dose vial or prefilled syringe (PFS) presentations. PFSs have gained market share in the USA but have not yet reached the levels of uptake currently seen in Western Europe. Here, we review the topic of vaccine presentation in the USA, with a special focus on influenza vaccines. Second, we present the results of a time-motion study that measured administration costs of influenza vaccination comparing MDVs versus PFSs during the 2009/2010 influenza campaign. Vaccinating with MDVs took an average 37.3 s longer than PFSs. The cost of administering 1000 immunizations in 2009 using MDVs were US$8596 versus US$8920.21 using PFSs. In a pandemic situation where 300 million Americans would require vaccination, PFSs would save 3.12 million h in healthcare worker time, worth US$111.1 million. The higher acquisition costs of PFS vaccines compared with MDVs are offset by lower administrative costs and increased safety.

  9. Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus infection through multiple-dose vials.

    PubMed

    Kidd-Ljunggren, K; Broman, E; Ekvall, H; Gustavsson, O

    1999-09-01

    The source of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in two women (55 and 72 years old) was investigated. They displayed no risk factors for acquiring HBV infection, other than treatment with local anaesthetic injections some months previously. The HBV strains were sequenced and showed distinct homology to strains seen in Swedish intravenous drug users (IVDU). Prior to these patients' acute infection, an outbreak of HBV had occurred among IVDU in the same county. Analysis of the HBV strains from six of these IVDUs showed their core promoter, precore and pre-S sequences (679 nucleotides) to be identical to those from the two patients. Cross-contamination between samples was excluded and the most likely source of infection was thought to be multiple-dose vials of local anaesthetic that had been contaminated with the HBV strain circulating among the IVDU population in the community. We believe that multiple-dose vials have no place in modern healthcare and recommend sequence homology analysis as an alternative or additional way to trace a source of HBV infection.

  10. Impact of vacuum-induced surface freezing on inter- and intra-vial heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Irene; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; De Beer, Thomas; Pisano, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This paper aimed to study the impact of freezing on both within-batch (inter-vial) and within-product (intra-vial) heterogeneity. This analysis has been carried out using two freezing protocols, the conventional shelf-ramped method and the Vacuum Induced Surface Freezing, and placebo formulations containing both crystallizing (mannitol) and amorphous (lactose and sucrose) excipients. The freezing conditions (i.e., the temperature of freezing, the temperature and time of the equilibration phase, and the filling volume) were found to have a dramatic impact on both the within-batch and the within-product homogeneity. Overall, we observed that the control of freezing can effectively minimize the variability in product characteristics, and moisture content, within the same batch. In addition to more uniform production, the control of freezing was found to be fundamental to achieve a more uniform product than that produced by the shelf-ramped freezing method. The influence of the freezing protocol on the crystallization process of mannitol was also investigated, showing that the temperature of freezing plays a key role in the formation of the mannitol polymorphs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Testing Communicative Competence: Notes on a Battery of English Language Tests for Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Antonio

    1979-01-01

    This article consists of a battery of tests designed to evaluate the communicative competence of German students studying English in Volkshochschule. The battery includes tests of reading comprehension, written production, listening comprehension, vocabulary and structures, and oral production. (CFM)

  12. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  13. When to start paediatric testing of the adult HIV cure research agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema K

    2017-01-01

    Ethical guidelines recommend that experimental interventions should be tested in adults first before they are tested and approved in children. Some challenge this paradigm, however, and recommend initiating paediatric testing after preliminary safety testing in adults in certain cases. For instance, commentators have argued for accelerated testing of HIV vaccines in children. Additionally, HIV cure research on the use of very early therapy (VET) in infants, prompted in part by the Mississippi baby case, is one example of a strategy that is currently being tested in infants before it has been well tested in adults. Because infants’ immune systems are still developing, the timing of HIV transmission is easier to identify in infants than in adults, and infants who receive VET might never develop the viral reservoirs that make HIV so difficult to eradicate, infants may be uniquely situated to achieve HIV cure or sustained viral remission. Several commentators have now argued for earlier initiation of HIV cure interventions other than (or in addition to) VET in children. HIV cure research is therefore a good case for re-examining the important question of when to initiate paediatric research. I will argue that, despite the potential for HIV cure research to benefit children and the scientific value of involving children in this research, the HIV cure agenda should not accelerate the involvement of children for the following reasons: HIV cure research is highly speculative, risky, aimed at combination approaches and does not compare favourably with the available alternatives. I conclude by drawing general implications for the initiation of paediatric testing, including that interventions that have to be used in combination with others and cures for chronic diseases may not be valuable enough to justify early paediatric testing. PMID:27259546

  14. Parallel Picture-Naming Tests: Development and Psychometric Properties for Farsi-Speaking Adults.

    PubMed

    Tahanzadeh, Behnoosh; Soleymani, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohre

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of two parallel picture-naming tests (PPNTs) as neuropsychological tools for evaluating word retrieval disorders in Farsi-speaking adults with and without aphasia. The development phase used the distributions of psycholinguistic variables (word frequency or age of acquisition) to select test items. Each parallel test consists of 109 line-drawings assigned to concrete nouns that were arranged in order of increasing difficulty. Assessment of content validity indicated that all items were quite or highly relevant and clear. The psychometric features were tested on 30 normal adults and 10 matched individuals with aphasia. The results showed appropriate criterion validity. Parallel tests allowed discrimination by subjects with and without naming difficulties. The tests were internally consistent. Each test form showed reasonable test-retest reliability. The correlation between the scores from both test forms indicated good parallel reliability. The cut-off point at which the tests reached the highest level of sensitivity and specificity was observed to be 86 correct responses. The percentage of correct responses for each item correlated strongly with frequency, age of acquisition, and name agreement. The overall findings support the validity and reliability of the PPNTs and suggest that these tests are appropriate for use in research and for clinical purposes.

  15. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia bloodstream infections traced to the use of Ringer lactate solution as multiple-dose vial for catheter flushing, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    De Smet, B; Veng, C; Kruy, L; Kham, C; van Griensven, J; Peeters, C; Ieng, S; Phe, T; Vlieghe, E; Vandamme, P; Jacobs, J

    2013-09-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of Gram-negative bacteria known as respiratory pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients, but also increasingly reported as a cause of healthcare associated infections. We describe an outbreak of B. cepacia bloodstream infections in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Over a 1.5-month period, blood cultures from eight adult patients grew B. cepacia. Bloodstream infection occurred after a median of 2.5 days of hospitalisation. Three patients died: 7, 10 and 17 days after blood cultures were sampled. As part of the outbreak investigation, patient files were reviewed and environmental sampling was performed. All patients had peripheral venous catheters that were flushed with Ringer lactate drawn from a 1 L bag, used as multiple-dose vial at the ward. Cultures of unopened Ringer lactate and disinfectants remained sterile but an in-use bag of Ringer lactate solution and the dispensing pin grew B. cepacia. The isolates from patients and flushing solution were identified as B. cepacia by recA gene sequence analysis, and random amplified polymorphic DNA typing confirmed clonal relatedness. The onset of the outbreak had coincided with the introduction of a dispensing pin with a screw fit that did not allow proper disinfection. Re-enforcement of aseptic procedures with sterile syringe and needle has ended the outbreak. Growth of B. cepacia should alert the possibility of healthcare associated infection also in tropical resource-limited settings. The use of multiple-dose vials should be avoided and newly introduced procedures should be assessed for infection control risks.

  16. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests

    PubMed Central

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff’s, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model’s estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803

  17. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    PubMed

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Impact of Testing on the Formation of Children's and Adults' False Memories.

    PubMed

    Brackmann, Nathalie; Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Howe, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Witnesses are frequently questioned immediately following a crime. The effects of such testing on false recall are inconclusive: Testing may inoculate against subsequent misinformation or enhance false memory formation. We examined whether different types of processing can account for these discrepancies. Drawing from Fuzzy-trace and Associative-activation theories, immediate questions that trigger the processing of the global understanding of the event can heighten false memory rates. However, questions that trigger the processing of specific details can inoculate memories against subsequent misinformation. These effects were hypothesized to be more pronounced in children than in adults. Seven/eight-, 11/12-, 14/15-year-olds, and adults (N = 220) saw a mock-theft film and were tested immediately with meaning or item-specific questions. Test results on the succeeding day replicated classic misinformation and testing effects, although our processing hypothesis was not supported. Only adults who received meaning questions benefited from immediate testing and, across all ages, testing led to retrieval-enhanced suggestibility. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Hearing in Noise Test Brazil: standardization for young adults with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Sbompato, Andressa Forlevise; Corteletti, Lilian Cassia Bornia Jacob; Moret, Adriane de Lima Mortari; Jacob, Regina Tangerino de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with the same ability of speech recognition in quiet can have extremely different results in noisy environments. To standardize speech perception in adults with normal hearing in the free field using the Brazilian Hearing in Noise Test. Contemporary, cross-sectional cohort study. 79 adults with normal hearing and without cognitive impairment participated in the study. Lists of Hearing in Noise Test sentences were randomly in quiet, noise front, noise right, and noise left. There were no significant differences between right and left ears at all frequencies tested (paired t-1 test). Nor were significant differences observed when comparing gender and interaction between these conditions. A difference was observed among the free field positions tested, except in the situations of noise right and noise left. Results of speech perception in adults with normal hearing in the free field during different listening situations in noise indicated poorer performance during the condition with noise and speech in front, i.e., 0°/0°. The values found in the standardization of the Hearing in Noise Test free field can be used as a reference in the development of protocols for tests of speech perception in noise, and for monitoring individuals with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In-depth understanding of the factors that prompt young adults to attend health services for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are needed to underpin sexual health programes. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore why young adults (18–29 years) in Ireland attended specialist and community health services for STI testing; the factors that supported/undermined their decisions to seek STI testing; and any factors that led to delay in seeking STI testing. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men). Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services for men who have sex with men (MSM). Interview questions examined why respondents decided to go for STI testing, whether they acted upon this desire immediately or decided to wait, and what they felt were important barriers/enablers to their health-seeking attempts. Interviews were thematically analyzed using standard qualitative techniques. Results Respondents sought STI testing for one of four reasons: they had reached a transitional moment in their lives (they were either about to stop using condoms with their sexual partner or were emerging from a period of their lives where they had a series of risky sexual relationships); they had had unprotected sex with a casual partner; they had symptoms of infection; and/or they were required to do so by their employer. Catalytic factors included media and government health promotion campaigns and knowing someone with an STI. However, many respondents delayed seeking testing. Reasons included respondents' concerns about stigma and that they would be judged by healthcare professionals, and feelings of invulnerability. Importantly, several respondents who waited up to four weeks to make an appointment after their initial decision to seek STI testing did not view this as delay. Conclusion Sexual health

  1. The real-life number of neonatal doses of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine in a 20-dose vial

    PubMed Central

    Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Frankel, Hannah Nørtoft; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reducing vaccine wastage is important. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is produced in vials of 20 infant doses. The reconstituted vaccine is discarded after 4–6 hours. Therefore, to reduce vaccine wastage, a 20-dose vial of BCG is often only opened if at least 10–12 infants are present, jeopardising BCG vaccination coverage and timely vaccination. We observed that nurses were not able to withdraw 20 doses from the vials and aimed to quantify how many doses could be obtained from these vials by experienced nurses under real-life circumstances. Methods: At the maternity ward of the national hospital in Guinea-Bissau, since 2002 the same two nurses have been vaccinating all eligible children with BCG before discharge. During a month in 2015, within a randomised trial comparing BCG-Denmark and BCG-Russia, we registered how many doses the nurses were able to withdraw from the two types of vaccine vials. Results: The median number of doses which it was possible to withdraw from the vials was 13 (range 11–17): 13 (11–16) for BCG-Denmark (based on 39 vials) and 15 (12–17) for BCG-Russia (based on 29 vials). Conclusions: In real life, experienced nurses could only obtain 13–15 doses from the 20-dose vials. Thus, vaccine wastage is much lower than assumed. Adjusting practice to the real-life number of doses would immediately suggest vials should be opened if 7 rather than 10 infants are present. As other studies have indicated that BCG may have beneficial non-specific effects on overall mortality, the potential gain by opening a 20-dose vial even for one child may be considerable. PMID:28169606

  2. An Exploratory Study Investigating How Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Perform on the Visual Association Test (VAT).

    PubMed

    McPaul, Ann; Walker, Brigid; Law, Jim; McKenzie, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Neuropsychological tests of memory are believed to offer the greatest sensitivity at identifying people at the risk of developing dementia. There is a paucity of standardized and appropriate neuropsychological assessments of memory for adults with an intellectual disability. This study examines how adults with an intellectual disability perform on the Visual Association Test (VAT). Forty participants (18-45 years) with intellectual disability, without a diagnosis of dementia, completed the VAT and subtests of the CAMCOG-DS. Correlational analysis of the test variables was carried out. All participants performed well on the VAT irrespective of age, gender or IQ. No significant correlations were found between the VAT and the subtests of the CAMCOG-DS. The VAT was found to be an easy and quick test to use with people with intellectual disability and all participants scored above 'floor' level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adult Attachment Orientations and College Student Distress: Test of a Mediational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Mitchell, Paula; Gormley, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Tests a model for predicting college student distress, including measures of negative life event impacts, adult attachment orientations, and several indexes of self-organization. Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety along with 2 self-organizing predictors (self-splitting, self-concealment) each made unique contributions and collectively…

  4. Use of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.

    This article describes the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), emphasizing its theoretical base and the distinction between crystallized and fluid intelligence. It presents a synopsis of standardization data as well as reliability and validity data. Several uses of the KAIT are described with two case studies presented to…

  5. The Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Contingent Reinforcement Upon the Intelligence Test Performance of Black Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckart, George R.; Bass, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    It appears that contingent reinforcement may have an effect upon the intelligence test performance of black adults as evidenced by the consistent trend of the IQ scores in the direction of the proposed hypothesis. However, the primary analysis of the data revealed no statistically significant differences among treatment groups. (Author)

  6. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  7. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  8. Testing the Development of Linguistic Knowledge in Adult Naive Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Pein, Margreta; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ways in which notions of semantics and phonology are acquired by adult naive learners of American Sign Language (ASL) when they are first exposed to a set of simple signs. First, a set of ASL signs was tested for nontransparency and a set of signs was selected for subsequent use. Next, a set of…

  9. Measuring the Continuum of Literacy Skills among Adults: Educational Testing and the LAMP Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadalupe, Cesar; Cardoso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The field of educational testing has become increasingly important for providing different stakeholders and decision-makers with information. This paper discusses basic standards for methodological approaches used in measuring literacy skills among adults. The authors address the increasing interest in skills measurement, the discourses on how…

  10. Measuring the Continuum of Literacy Skills among Adults: Educational Testing and the LAMP Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadalupe, Cesar; Cardoso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The field of educational testing has become increasingly important for providing different stakeholders and decision-makers with information. This paper discusses basic standards for methodological approaches used in measuring literacy skills among adults. The authors address the increasing interest in skills measurement, the discourses on how…

  11. Polish Adult Reading Test (PART) - construction of Polish test for estimating the level of premorbid intelligence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Stecka, Mariola

    2017-08-29

    In view of unavailability in Poland of the standardized methods to measure PIQ, the aim of the work was to develop a Polish test to assess the premorbid level of intelligence - PART(Polish AdultReading Test) and to measureits psychometric properties, such as validity, reliability as well as standardization in the group of schizophrenia patients. The principles of PART construction were based on the idea of popular worldwide National Adult Reading Test by Hazel Nelson. The research comprised a group of 122 subjects (65 schizophrenia patients and 57 healthy people), aged 18-60 years, matched for age and gender. PART appears to be a method with high internal consistency and reliability measured by test-retest, inter-rater reliability, and the method with acceptable diagnostic and prognostic validity. The standardized procedures of PART have been investigated and described. Considering the psychometric values of PART and a short time of its performance, the test may be a useful diagnostic instrument in the assessment of premorbid level of intelligence in a group of schizophrenic patients.

  12. Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Karestan C; Moffitt, Terrie E; Roberts, Andrea L; Martin, Laurie T; Kubzansky, Laura; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders. Participants were members of a representative 1972-1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania. Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning.

  13. [Validation of the short assessment of health literacy for spanish-speaking adults test in Chile].

    PubMed

    Monsalves, María José; Mañalich, Jaime; Fuentes, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals obtain, process and understand basic health information and services. It is necessary to make appropriate decisions about their health. Evidence has shown that the level of health literacy is critical to the prognosis of chronic diseases. The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-speaking Adults (SAHLSA-50) is a short and simple health literacy adult assessment. To determine the validity and reliability indicators of SAHLSA-50 in Chilean adults. The survey was applied to 84 older adults living in high and low income neighborhoods. The survey had an adequate construct validity and reliability, its Comparative Fit Index was 0.93, its Tucker-Lewis index was 0.927 and its Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.044. “Close fit” was not statistically significant (p = 0.828). Reliability was estimated by K-Richardson, which reported a good outcome (0.9255). Despite the good global indicators obtained, it is necessary to pay attention to some items that would fail to explain the “Health literacy” construct or were beyond the parameters of difficulty and discrimination proposed by the authors of the test. We propose this test as a useful tool to assess health literacy in the adult population in Chile. Its use and incorporation into local research can be especially recommended in the areas of education and health promotion.

  14. Sexually transmitted infection testing of adult film performers: is disease being missed?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Chitale, Rohit A; Rigg, Robert; Goldstein, Binh Y; Kerndt, Peter R; Tavrow, Paula

    2012-12-01

    Undiagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be common in the adult film industry because performers frequently engage in unprotected oral and anal intercourse, STIs are often asymptomatic, and the industry relies on urine-based testing. Between mid-May and mid-September 2010, a consecutive sample of adult film industry performers recruited from a clinic in Los Angeles, California, that provides medical care to performers was offered oropharyngeal, rectal, and urogenital testing for Gonorrhea, and rectal and urogenital testing for Chlamydia. During the 4-month study period, 168 participants were enrolled: 112 (67%) were female and 56 (33%) were male. Of the 47 (28%) who tested positive for Gonorrhea and/or Chlamydia, 11 (23%) cases would not have been detected through urogenital testing alone. Gonorrhea was the most common STI (42/168; 25%) and the oropharynx the most common site of infection (37/47; 79%). Thirty-five (95%) oropharyngeal and 21 (91%) rectal infections were asymptomatic. Few participants reported using condoms consistently while performing or with their personal sex partners. Adult film industry performers had a high burden of STIs. Undiagnosed asymptomatic rectal and oropharyngeal STIs were common and are likely reservoirs for transmission to sexual partners inside and outside the workplace. Performers should be tested at all anatomical sites irrespective of symptoms, and condom use should be enforced to protect workers in this industry.

  15. Validity of submaximal exercise testing in adults with athetospastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Satonaka, Ayako; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Kawamura, Morio

    2012-03-01

    To examine the validity of the multistage submaximal cycle ergometer test for adults with athetospastic cerebral palsy. Cross-sectional and correlative study. Oxygen uptake and heart rates were recorded while the participants underwent the maximal cycle ergometer test and the multistage submaximal cycle ergometer test. Peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak) was achieved by the maximal cycle test. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) was predicted by the multistage submaximal cycle ergometer test. Research laboratory setting. Adults with athetospastic cerebral palsy (N=16; 10 women and 6 men; mean age ± SD, 43.7±14.5y). Not applicable. Peak VO(2) was compared with the predicted VO(2)max. Mean VO(2)peak and the predicted VO(2)max ± SD were 866.9±202.9 mL/min(-1) and 857.4±248.4 mL/min(-1), respectively. There was not a significant difference between VO(2)peak values and the predicted VO(2)max values (r=.28). And there was a significant correlation between VO(2)peak values and the predicted VO(2)max values (r=.94, P<.001). SE of the estimate (or SE for X to Y) was 71.2 mL/min(-1), equivalent to 7.4%. The multistage submaximal cycle ergometer test may provide a valid VO(2)max estimate of adults with athetospastic cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Generating chimeric mice from embryonic stem cells via vial coculturing or hypertonic microinjection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The generation of a fertile embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived or F0 (100 % coat color chimerism) mice is the final criterion in proving that the ESC is truly pluripotent. Many methods have been developed to produce chimeric mice. To date, the most popular methods for generating chimeric embryos is well sandwich aggregation between zona pellucida (ZP) removed (denuded) 2.5-day post-coitum (dpc) embryos and ESC clumps, or direct microinjection of ESCs into the cavity (blastocoel) of 3.5-dpc blastocysts. However, due to systemic limitations and the disadvantages of conventional microinjection, aggregation, and coculturing, two novel methods (vial coculturing and hypertonic microinjection) were developed in recent years at my laboratory.Coculturing 2.5-dpc denuded embryos with ESCs in 1.7-mL vials for ~3 h generates chimeras that have significantly high levels of chimerism (including 100 % coat color chimerism) and germline transmission. This method has significantly fewer instrumental and technological limitations than existing methods, and is an efficient, simple, inexpensive, and reproducible method for "mass production" of chimeric embryos. For laboratories without a microinjection system, this is the method of choice for generating chimeric embryos. Microinjecting ESCs into a subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos can generate germline-transmitted chimeras including 100 % coat color chimerism. However, this method is adopted rarely due to the very small and tight space between ZP and blastomeres. Using a laser pulse or Piezo-driven instrument/device to help introduce ESCs into the subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos demonstrates the superior efficiency in generating ESC-derived (F0) chimeras. Unfortunately, due to the need for an expensive instrument/device and extra fine skill, not many studies have used either method. Recently, ESCs injected into the large subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos in an injection medium containing 0.2-0.3 M sucrose very efficiently generated

  17. Validation of the step test and exercise prescription tool for adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, Emily; Stuckey, Melanie I; Petrella, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetes highlight the value of physical activity for improving clinical markers and risk factors for diabetes. The use of tools like the Step Test and Exercise Prescription (STEP) in clinical practice facilitates chronic disease management and prevention through the promotion of healthy physical activity. The validity and reliability of STEP has been established previously for use with adults 65 to 85 years of age. The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the prediction equation for VO₂max from the STEP tool for use with adults older than 65 years. Forty participants completed both the predictive self-paced VO₂max stepping protocol from the STEP tool, and a maximal graded exercise treadmill test with breath-by-breath analysis of expired gases. Tests were completed in random order, and participants rested between tests until blood pressure returned to baseline. The average age of the sample was 43±14 years. There was a strong relationship between predicted VO₂max from STEP and direct measures of VO₂max from the maximal treadmill test in the present study (r=.78, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated statistical agreement between tests, although there was systematic overestimation of 6.4 mL/kg/min. STEP is an evidence-based cardiorespiratory fitness assessment and exercise prescription tool appropriate for use by various health professionals in clinical practice. The prediction equation for VO₂max from the STEP tool is valid for use with adults 18 to 85 years of age. However, more research is warranted to explore age corrections to the prediction algorithm among younger adults. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Memory tests in first-degree adult relatives of schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, A; Méary, A; Schürhoff, F; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A

    2006-01-31

    Memory deficits have been clearly demonstrated in schizophrenic patients. However, studies of memory performances in their relatives compared to normal controls provide conflicting results. A meta-analysis was carried out to synthesize all the published data. Unlike previous meta-analyses, which were based on composite scores, we analyzed each memory test separately. This prevents theoretically questionable choices in grouping variables, leads to results with clearer implications for applied research (e.g. the best choice of a test according to its sensitivity) and is more productive in suggesting explanatory hypotheses. We initially selected 77 potentially relevant articles, but only 19 met our inclusion criteria. These articles provided data on eight different tasks, from five different memory tests: four tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). For each task, we assessed data homogeneity, identified the outliers if any and then estimated effect sizes and tested publication bias using funnel plots. Adult relatives of schizophrenic patients were significantly impaired on most, but not all, tasks. The largest deficits were observed for the verbal paired associates test, the logical stories the digit span forward test and the digit span backward test. We found no significant differences in tasks of delayed recall, when deficits in immediate conditions (reflecting encoding) were taken into account. Adult relatives of schizophrenic patients have wide but not severe memory impairments. The size of estimated effects suggests that encoding processes are impaired, whereas storage and retrieval processes are relatively unaffected.

  19. Functional assessments of the knee joint biomechanics by using pendulum test in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Casabona, Antonino; Valle, Maria Stella; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita; Cioni, Matteo

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we assessed kinematics and viscoelastic features of knee joint in adults with Down syndrome (DS) by means of the Wartenberg pendulum test. This test allows the measuring of the kinematics of the knee joint during passive pendular motion of leg under the influence of gravity. In addition, by a combination of kinematic and anthropometric data, pendulum test provides estimates of joint viscoelastic properties by computing damping and stiffness coefficients. To monitor the occurrences of muscle activation, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of muscle rectus femoris was recorded. The experimental protocol was performed in a group of 10 adults with DS compared with 10 control adults without DS. Joint motion amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of the leg during the first knee flexion significantly decreased in persons with DS with respect to those without DS. This behavior was associated with the activation of rectus femoris in subjects with DS that resulted in increasing of joint resistance shortly after the onset of the first leg flexion. The EMG bursts mostly occurred between 50 and 150 ms from the leg flexion onset. During the remaining cycles of pendular motion, persons with DS exhibited passive leg oscillations with low tonic EMG activity and reduced damping coefficient compared with control subjects. These results suggest that adults with DS might perform preprogrammed contractions to increase joint resistance and compensate for inherent joint instability occurring for quick and unpredictable perturbations. The reduction of damping coefficients observed during passive oscillations could be a predictor of muscle hypotonia.

  20. Functional assessments of the knee joint biomechanics by using pendulum test in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Casabona, Antonino; Valle, Maria Stella; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed kinematics and viscoelastic features of knee joint in adults with Down syndrome (DS) by means of the Wartenberg pendulum test. This test allows the measuring of the kinematics of the knee joint during passive pendular motion of leg under the influence of gravity. In addition, by a combination of kinematic and anthropometric data, pendulum test provides estimates of joint viscoelastic properties by computing damping and stiffness coefficients. To monitor the occurrences of muscle activation, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of muscle rectus femoris was recorded. The experimental protocol was performed in a group of 10 adults with DS compared with 10 control adults without DS. Joint motion amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of the leg during the first knee flexion significantly decreased in persons with DS with respect to those without DS. This behavior was associated with the activation of rectus femoris in subjects with DS that resulted in increasing of joint resistance shortly after the onset of the first leg flexion. The EMG bursts mostly occurred between 50 and 150 ms from the leg flexion onset. During the remaining cycles of pendular motion, persons with DS exhibited passive leg oscillations with low tonic EMG activity and reduced damping coefficient compared with control subjects. These results suggest that adults with DS might perform preprogrammed contractions to increase joint resistance and compensate for inherent joint instability occurring for quick and unpredictable perturbations. The reduction of damping coefficients observed during passive oscillations could be a predictor of muscle hypotonia. PMID:22995394

  1. Predicting falls in older adults using the four square step test.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Kimberly; Skornyakov, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The Four Square Step Test (FSST) is a performance-based balance tool involving stepping over four single-point canes placed on the floor in a cross configuration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate properties of the FSST in older adults who lived independently. Forty-five community dwelling older adults provided fall history and completed the FSST, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Tinetti in random order. Future falls were recorded for 12 months following testing. The FSST accurately distinguished between non-fallers and multiple fallers, and the 15-second threshold score accurately distinguished multiple fallers from non-multiple fallers based on fall history. The FSST predicted future falls, and performance on the FSST was significantly correlated with performance on the BBS, TUG, and Tinetti. However, the test is not appropriate for older adults who use walkers. Overall, the FSST is a valid yet underutilized measure of balance performance and fall prediction tool that physical therapists should consider using in ambulatory community dwelling older adults.

  2. Concerns about Genetic Testing for Schizophrenia among Young Adults at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Ryan E.; Friesen, Phoebe; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R.; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic tests for schizophrenia may introduce risks and benefits. Among young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis, little is known about their concerns and how they assess potential risks. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their concerns. Results Participants expressed concerns about test reliability, data interpretation, stigma, psychological harm, family planning, and privacy. Participants’ responses showed some departure from the ethics literature insofar as participants were primarily interested in reporting their results to people to whom they felt emotionally close, and expressed little consideration of biological closeness. Additionally, if tests showed an increased genetic risk for schizophrenia, four clinical high-risk persons felt obligated to tell an employer and another three would “maybe” tell an employer, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. Conclusions These findings suggest opportunities for clinicians and genetic counselors to intervene with education and support. PMID:27529075

  3. Interferon alpha-2a interactions on glass vial surfaces measured by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, Monica S; Reimann, Peter; Thommen, Verena; Hegner, Martin; Mumenthaler, Marco; Schwob, Jacky; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to study adsorption and adhesion peculiarities of interferon alpha-2a on glass and mica surfaces. The specific protein adsorption behavior as a function of the pH value was illustrated on mica by single molecule imaging, while adhesion forces between interferon molecules and inner surfaces of borosilicate glass vials were measured directly under aqueous buffer conditions by force microscopy. We found that the adhesion force on Schott FIOLAX Type I plus was reduced by 40% of the total adhesion force measured on Schott FIOLAX, a standard type I borosilicate glass quality. These results reflect the anticipated superiority of the special "Type I plus" coating over undesired protein adsorption to glass. In addition, this study gives insight into a new method to predict unintended protein adsorption to glass container walls and to characterize the adsorption process by force measurement.

  4. Cross-Contamination From Vial Caps for SEC Analysis Determined by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Veloso, A; Leiza, J R

    2017-02-01

    Cross-contamination from the polymeric material of the vial caps used in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and high-performance liquid chromatography autosamplers in the low molar mass (LMM) range (<2000 Da) of polymer samples was demonstrated with the help of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. It is shown that polyethylene (PE) caps, if exposed to either short or long periods in tetrahydrofuran solvent, might extract oligomers that contaminate the LMM end of the SEC chromatograms. On the other hand, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/silicone caps have shown to be inert if used properly; namely, the PTFE part in contact with the sample solution. However, care should be taken if accidentally the silicon part is exposed to the solution because silicone oligomer peaks have been detected by MALDI-TOF MS analysis that might mislead the results.

  5. Insulin pens vs. vials and syringes: the pharmacist's role in individualizing therapy.

    PubMed

    Honebrink, Amy N; Peters, Chelsea R; Bright, David R

    2011-07-01

    As pharmacists strive for tighter glucose control in their patients, several considerations exist including the selection of insulin delivery administration methods. Traditionally, insulin administration using vials and syringes has been common, but insulin pens are also a viable option. Insulin pens have been shown to increase patient autonomy, which may impact adherence. Elderly patients, who may suffer from dexterity and visual impairment, have been shown to prefer insulin pens because they are easier to use. Although insulin pens are more expensive per mL, some patients may find an economic advantage with insulin pens based on copays and beyond-use dating. In long-term care settings, the additional cost of insulin pens may be offset by the reduced insulin-administration time. Pharmacists are well suited to advocate for their patients and to help select the insulin administration method that considers individual limitations and fiscal realities, and will best support the patient's disease management.

  6. Impact of presymptomatic genetic testing on young adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Jackson, Leigh; Hennessy, Catherine; Skirton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing should involve a considered choice, which is particularly true when testing is undertaken in early adulthood. Young adults are at a key life stage as they may be developing a career, forming partnerships and potentially becoming parents: presymptomatic testing may affect many facets of their future lives. The aim of this integrative systematic review was to assess factors that influence young adults' or adolescents' choices to have a presymptomatic genetic test and the emotional impact of those choices. Peer-reviewed papers published between January 1993 and December 2014 were searched using eight databases. Of 3373 studies identified, 29 were reviewed in full text: 11 met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis was used to identify five major themes: period before testing, experience of genetic counselling, parental involvement in decision-making, impact of test result communication, and living with genetic risk. Many participants grew up with little or no information concerning their genetic risk. The experience of genetic counselling was either reported as an opportunity for discussing problems or associated with feelings of disempowerment. Emotional outcomes of disclosure did not directly correlate with test results: some mutation carriers were relieved to know their status, however, the knowledge they may have passed on the mutation to their children was a common concern. Parents appeared to have exerted pressure on their children during the decision-making process about testing and risk reduction surgery. Health professionals should take into account all these issues to effectively assist young adults in making decisions about presymptomatic genetic testing.

  7. Impact of presymptomatic genetic testing on young adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Jackson, Leigh; Hennessy, Catherine; Skirton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing should involve a considered choice, which is particularly true when testing is undertaken in early adulthood. Young adults are at a key life stage as they may be developing a career, forming partnerships and potentially becoming parents: presymptomatic testing may affect many facets of their future lives. The aim of this integrative systematic review was to assess factors that influence young adults' or adolescents' choices to have a presymptomatic genetic test and the emotional impact of those choices. Peer-reviewed papers published between January 1993 and December 2014 were searched using eight databases. Of 3373 studies identified, 29 were reviewed in full text: 11 met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis was used to identify five major themes: period befeore testing, experience of genetic counselling, parental involvement in decision-making, impact of test result communication, and living with genetic risk. Many participants grew up with little or no information concerning their genetic risk. The experience of genetic counselling was either reported as an opportunity for discussing problems or associated with feelings of disempowerment. Emotional outcomes of disclosure did not directly correlate with test results: some mutation carriers were relieved to know their status, however, the knowledge they may have passed on the mutation to their children was a common concern. Parents appeared to have exerted pressure on their children during the decision-making process about testing and risk reduction surgery. Health professionals should take into account all these issues to effectively assist young adults in making decisions about presymptomatic genetic testing. PMID:26173961

  8. Effect of literacy level on cognitive and language tests in Korean illiterate older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, JungWan; Yoon, Ji Hye; Kim, Soo Ryon; Kim, HyangHee

    2014-10-01

    Illiterate individuals represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Acquisition of reading and writing skills influences the functional status of the brain, and consequently alters the performance on cognitive and language tests. Thus, it is important to identify the degree of the impact of levels of both illiteracy and education as potential confounders on test performance in people with neurological communication disorders. A total of 203 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were recruited for the present study. Participants were classified into four groups based on the literacy level; pure illiterate (n=29), semi-illiterate (n=67), literate (n=75) and high-level literate (n=32). The participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination, Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (animal), verb naming, and sentence comprehension tests. The pure illiterate group showed the lowest performance on all five tests. Regression analysis showed that literacy level was the variable that best predicted the performance on cognitive and language tests. These findings suggest that literacy in performance on cognitive and language tests is an important factor in neuropsychological evaluations for older adults. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Repeated-dose liver micronucleus test of 4,4'-methylenedianiline using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Hisakazu; Koyama, Naomi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-03-01

    Liver micronucleus (MN) tests using partial hepatectomized rats or juvenile rats have been shown to be useful for the detection of hepatic carcinogens. Moreover, Narumi et al. established the repeated-dose liver MN test using young adult rats for integration into general toxicity. In the present study, in order to examine the usefulness of the repeated-dose liver MN test, we investigated MN induction with a 14 or 28 day treatment protocol using young adult rats treated with 4,4′-methylenedianiline (MDA), a known hepatic carcinogen. MDA dose-dependently induced micronuclei in hepatocytes in 14- and 28-day repeated-dose tests. However, although statistically significant increases in micronuclei were observed in bone marrow cells at two dose levels in the 14-day study, there was no dose response and no increases in micronuclei in the 28-day study. These results indicate that the evaluation of genotoxic effects using hepatocytes is effective in cases where chromosomal aberrations are not clearly detectable in bone marrow cells. Moreover, the repeated-dose liver MN test allows evaluation at a dose below the maximum tolerable dose, which is required for the conventional MN test because micronucleated hepatocytes accumulate. The repeated-dose liver MN test employed in the present study can be integrated into the spectrum of general toxicity tests without further procedural modifications.

  10. Variation in performance at different positions of an ultrasonic VialTweeter--A study based on various physical and chemical activities.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T Joyce; Low, Liang Ee; Teoh, Hui Jiun; Chin, Jit-Kai; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic VialTweeter is used for the sonication of small volume samples. It contains a titanium block with 8 holes for vial insertion, to be used simultaneously for batch operation. In this investigation, the ultrasonic and sonochemical performance of ultrasonic VialTweeter has been evaluated at its different positions. Experimental results using calorimetry, ultrasonic capillary effect, sonochemiluminescence and degradation of Rhodamine B showed that the sonochemical activity differs greatly at different positions along the VialTweeter, with positions 3 and 4 showing the maximum efficiency whereas the positions 1 and 2 being the least effective positions. These results were further verified by acoustic pressure simulation, confirming that certain locations in the VialTweeter may not perform in the same way as others due to the variation in acoustic pressure at different locations.

  11. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devinder K A; Pillai, Sharmila G K; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA), a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests. One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males), aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61), participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST), short physical performance battery (SPPB), functional reach test (FRT), static balance test (SBT), TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS), and gait speed test (GST) were also performed. Spearman's rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests) with falls risk (dependent variable). Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05) were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01) weak correlation was found between PPA and TST (r=0.25), TUG (r=0.27), SBT (r=0.23), SPPB (r=-0.33), and FRT (r=-0.23). Binary logistic regression results demonstrated that SBT measuring postural sways objectively using a balance board was the only significant predictor of physiological falls risk (P<0.05, odds ratio of 2.12). The reference values of physical performance tests

  12. Diminished testing benefits in young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Dudukovic, Nicole M; Gottshall, Jackie L; Cavanaugh, Patricia A; Moody, Christine T

    2015-01-01

    Memory retrieval has been shown to enhance the long-term retention of tested material; however, recent research suggests that limiting attention during retrieval can decrease the benefits of testing memory. The present study examined whether testing benefits are reduced in young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). College students with and without ADHD read three short prose passages, each followed by a free recall test, a restudy period or a distractor task. Two days later participants recalled the passages. Although participants without ADHD did not show a significant benefit of testing over restudying, testing did produce recall benefits relative to not taking a test. These testing benefits were diminished in participants with ADHD, who did not show any advantage of testing over either restudying or no test. The absence of testing benefits in the ADHD group is likely due in part to decreased recall on the initial test. These findings have implications for improving educational practices among individuals with ADHD and also speak to the need to examine individual differences in the effectiveness of testing as a learning strategy.

  13. Liver Test Results Do Not Identify Liver Disease in Adults with α-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Virginia C.; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Brantly, Mark; Rouhani, Farshid; Schreck, Pamela; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Liver disease is a significant cause of mortality among adults with α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Age and male sex are reported risk factors for liver disease. In the absence of adequate risk stratification, current recommendations are to intermittently test AAT-deficient adults for liver function. We evaluated this recommendation in a large group of adults with AAT deficiency, to determine the prevalence of increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and identify risk factors for liver disease. METHODS We used the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank to identify a cross-section of AAT-deficient adults (n=647) with and without liver disease; individuals without AAT-deficiency were used as controls (n=152). Results from ALT tests were compared between groups. RESULTS The prevalence of liver disease among individuals with ATT-deficiency was 7.9%; an increased level of ALT was observed in 7.8% of ATT-deficient individuals, which did not differ significantly from controls. Mean levels of ALT fell within normal range for all groups. An increased level of ALT identified patients with liver disease with 11.9% sensitivity. The level of only γ- glutamyl transpeptidase was significantly higher in the AAT-deficient group than in controls (43 vs 30 IU/ml; P<.003). A childhood history of liver disease and male sex were risk factors for adult liver disease in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS An increased level of ALT does not identify adults with AAT deficiency who have liver disease. Male sex and liver disease during childhood might help identify those at risk. PMID:22835581

  14. Liver test results do not identify liver disease in adults with α(1)-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Clark, Virginia C; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Brantly, Mark; Rouhani, Farshid; Schreck, Pamela; Nelson, David R

    2012-11-01

    Liver disease is a significant cause of death among adults with α(1)-antitrypsin (A-AT) deficiency. Age and male sex are reported risk factors for liver disease. In the absence of adequate risk stratification, current recommendations are to intermittently test A-AT-deficient adults for liver function. We evaluated this recommendation in a large group of adults with A-AT deficiency to determine the prevalence of increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and identify risk factors for liver disease. We used the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank to identify a cross section of A-AT-deficient adults (n = 647) with and without liver disease; individuals without A-AT deficiency were used as controls (n = 152). Results from ALT tests were compared between groups. The prevalence of liver disease among individuals with A-AT deficiency was 7.9%; an increased level of ALT was observed in 7.8% of A-AT-deficient individuals, which did not differ significantly from controls. Mean levels of ALT fell within normal range for all groups. An increased level of ALT identified patients with liver disease with 11.9% sensitivity. The level of only γ-glutamyl transpeptidase was significantly higher in the A-AT-deficient group than in controls (43 vs 30 IU/mL; P < .003). A childhood history of liver disease and male sex were risk factors for adult liver disease in the multivariate analysis. An increased level of ALT does not identify adults with A-AT deficiency who have liver disease. Male sex and liver disease during childhood might help identify those at risk. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IgG1 adsorption to siliconized glass vials-influence of pH, ionic strength, and nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Höger, Kerstin; Mathes, Johannes; Frieß, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of an IgG1 antibody to siliconized vials was investigated with focus on the formulation parameters pH, ionic strength, and nonionic surfactants. Electrophoretic mobility measurements were performed to investigate the charge characteristics of protein and siliconized glass particles at different pH values. Calculation of the electrokinetic charge density allowed further insight into the energetic conditions in the protein-sorbent interface. Maximum adsorption of IgG1 was found at acidic pH values and could be correlated with energetically favorable minimal ion incorporation into the interface. The importance of electrostatic interactions for IgG1 adsorption at acidic pH values was also confirmed by the efficient adsorption reduction at decreased solution ionic strength. A second adsorption maximum around the pI of the protein was assigned to hydrophobic interactions with the siliconized surface. Addition of the nonionic surfactants poloxamer 188 or polysorbate 80 resulted in almost complete suppression of adsorption at pH 7.2, and a strong but less efficient effect at pH 4 on siliconized glass vials. This adsorption suppression was much less pronounced on borosilicate glass vials. From these results, it can be concluded that electrostatic interactions contribute substantially to IgG1 adsorption to siliconized glass vials especially at acidic formulation pH.

  16. [Fragments of a correspondence between the Parisian pharmacist Émile Vial and the Dutch painter Johan-Barthold Jongkind].

    PubMed

    Devaux, Guy

    2016-03-01

    We study a series of exchanged original letters between the Parisian pharmacist art lover Émile Vial (1833-1917) and the Dutch painter Johan-Barthold Jongkind (1819 - 1891) from april 13th, 1876 till February 1th, 1887.

  17. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  18. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  19. Predictive diagnostic value of the tourniquet test for the diagnosis of dengue infection in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Moore, Catrin E; Chansamouth, Vilada; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Sisouphone, Syho; Vongphachanh, Pankham; Thaojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Thongpaseuth, Soulignasack; Phongmany, Simmaly; Keolouangkhot, Valy; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the accuracy of the admission tourniquet test in the diagnosis of dengue infection among Lao adults. Methods Prospective assessment of the predictive diagnostic value of the tourniquet test for the diagnosis of dengue infection, as defined by IgM, IgG and NS1 ELISAs (Panbio Ltd, Australia), among Lao adult inpatients with clinically suspected dengue infection. Results Of 234 patients with clinically suspected dengue infection on admission, 73% were serologically confirmed to have dengue, while 64 patients with negative dengue serology were diagnosed as having scrub typhus (39%), murine typhus (11%), undetermined typhus (12%), Japanese encephalitis virus (5%), undetermined flavivirus (5%) and typhoid fever (3%); 25% had no identifiable aetiology. The tourniquet test was positive in 29.1% (95% CI = 23.2–34.9%) of all patients and in 34.1% (95% CI = 27.0–41.2%) of dengue-seropositive patients, in 32.7% (95% CI = 23.5–41.8) of those with dengue fever and in 36.4% (95% CI = 24.7–48.0) of those with dengue haemorrhagic fever. Interobserver agreement for the tourniquet test was 90.2% (95% CI = 86.4–94.0) (Kappa = 0.76). Using ELISAs as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity of the tourniquet test was 33.5–34%; its specificity was 84–91%. The positive and negative predictive values were 85–90% and 32.5–34%, respectively. Conclusions The admission tourniquet test has low sensitivity and adds relatively little value to the diagnosis of dengue among Lao adult inpatients with suspected dengue. Although a positive tourniquet test suggests dengue and that treatment of alternative diagnoses may not be needed, a negative test result does not exclude dengue. PMID:20958892

  20. Evaluation of different continuous cell lines in the isolation of mumps virus by the shell vial method from clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Reina, J; Ballesteros, F; Mari, M; Munar, M

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To compare prospectively the efficacy of the Vero, LLC-MK2, MDCK, Hep-2, and MRC-5 cell lines in the isolation of the mumps virus from clinical samples by means of the shell vial method. Methods—During an epidemic outbreak of parotiditis 48 clinical samples (saliva swabs and CSF) were studied. Two vials of the Vero, LLC-MK2, MDCK, MRC-5, and Hep-2 cell lines were inoculated with 0.2 ml of the samples by the shell vial assay. The vials were incubated at 36°C for two and five days. The vials were then fixed with acetone at -20°C for 10 minutes and stained by a monoclonal antibody against mumps virus by means of an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results—The mumps virus was isolated from 36 samples. The Vero and LLC-MK2 cell lines showed a 100% isolation capacity, MDCK showed 77.7%, MRC-5 showed 44.4%, and Hep-2 showed 22.2%. The Vero and LLC-MK2 lines were significantly different to the other cell lines (p < 0.001). The sensitivity for the Vero and LLC-MK2 lines at two and five days of incubation was identical (100%). The values obtained in the study of the quantitative isolation capacity (positive isolation with > 5 infectious foci) were 94.4% for Vero, 97.2% for LLC-MK2, 5.5% for MDCK, 5.5% for Hep-2, and 0% for MRC-5. Conclusions—The Vero and LLC-MK2 cell lines are equally efficient at two and five days incubation for the isolation of the mumps virus from clinical samples, and the use of the shell vial method considerably shortens the time of aetiological diagnosis with higher specificity. Key Words: mumps virus • Vero cell line • LLC-MK2 cell line • MDCK cell line • Hep-2 cell line • MRC-5 cell line • isolation • shell vial PMID:11729211

  1. To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This…

  2. To Test or Not to Test? The Role of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Religious Involvement among U.s. Adults on Intent-to-Obtain Adult Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botoseneanu, Anda; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Banaszak-Holl, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can advance cancer prevention if current screening behaviors improve. Increased prevalence of high-risk genotypes within specific religious groups, use of religious venues for recruiting to genetic screening, and ethical-religious considerations argue for exploring the role of religiosity in forming genetic testing decisions. This…

  3. THE USE OF THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE VERSION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SMELL IDENTIFICATION TEST AND THE SMELL THRESHOLD TEST FOR HEALTHY YOUNG AND OLD ADULTS IN TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Fu, Hsuan-Wei; Yau, Tan-Ya; Chen, Rou-Shayn; Wu, Ching-Lung

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the use of the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and the Smell Threshold Test to assess olfactory function for healthy young and old adults in Taiwan. One hundred young adults (50 men; M = 24.34 yr., SD = 2.63; 50 women; M = 24.50 yr., SD = 2.96) and 49 old adults (20 men; M = 60.85 yr., SD = 4.21; 29 women; M = 59.93 yr., SD = 3.97) with normal olfaction completed the traditional Chinese versions of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Of these individuals, 40 young adults and 40 old adults also completed the Smell Threshold Test. The mean of the traditional Chinese versions of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test scores and Smell Threshold Test thresholds were significantly different between young and old adults. The threshold value for the Smell Threshold Test was lower in both young and old adults as compared to previously established American norms. Both tests require further modifications for clinical use in Taiwan.

  4. Measuring adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus

    PubMed Central

    Edebol, Hanna; Helldin, Lars; Norlander, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) occurs in approximately 5% of the adult population and includes cardinal symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that may be difficult to identify with clinical routine methods. Continuous performance tests are objective measures of inattention and impulsivity that, combined with objective measures of motor activity, facilitate identification of ADHD among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the sensitivity, specificity, and a composite measure of ADHD using objective measures of the ADHD-cardinal symptoms in adult participants with ADHD and non-ADHD normative participants. Cardinal symptoms were measured in 55 participants having ADHD, 202 non-ADHD normative participants, as well as 84 ADHD normative participants using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. This test measures inattention and impulsivity using a continuous performance test, and hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. A predictive variable for the detection of ADHD called Prediction of ADHD yielded 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity. A composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms was developed using a Weighed Core Symptoms scale that indicated the total amount of ADHD symptoms on a numeric scale from 0 to 100. The total amount of ADHD symptoms was measured on a scale and predicted with the categorical variable in a majority of the cases in the present study. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the results with regard to additional clinical and normative samples. Careful consideration of potential sex and diagnostic subtype differences are noteworthy aspects for future examinations of the new instruments. PMID:24294490

  5. Construct Validity of WAIS-R Factors: Neuropsychological Test Correlates in Adults Referred for Evaluation of Possible Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Elisabeth M. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A 3-factor solution of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) in 260 adults with suspected head injury suggested relatively good construct validity for the factors, based on correlations with neuropsychological tests. Findings are discussed in terms of the multidimensional nature of neuropsychological tests and WAIS-R factors.…

  6. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake without exercise testing in Korean healthy adult workers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Won; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Jung-Man; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2012-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake is generally accepted as the most valid and reliable index of cardiorespiratory fitness and functional aerobic capacity. The exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake is unsuitable for screening tests in public heath examinations, because of the potential risks of exercise exertion and time demands. We designed this study to determine whether work-related physical activity is a potential predictor of maximal oxygen uptake, and to develop a maximal oxygen uptake equation using a non-exercise regression model for the cardiorespiratory fitness test in Korean adult workers. Study subjects were adult workers of small-sized companies in Korea. Subjects with history of disease such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma and angina were excluded. In total, 217 adult subjects (113 men of 21-55 years old and 104 women of 20-64 years old) were included. Self-report questionnaire survey was conducted on study subjects, and maximal oxygen uptake of each subject was measured with the exercise test. The statistical analysis was carried out to develop an equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake. The predictors for estimating maximal oxygen uptake included age, gender, body mass index, smoking, leisure-time physical activity and the factors representing work-related physical activity. The work-related physical activity was identified to be a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake. Moreover, the equation showed high validity according to the statistical analysis. The equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake developed in the present study could be used as a screening test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in Korean adult workers.

  7. Memory tests in subgroups of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reveals simultaneous capacity deficit.

    PubMed

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2008-04-01

    Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate different memory systems in the three subgroups of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=105) using analysis of means, factor analysis, and GLM analysis with covariance of gender, estimated IQ, and level of anxiety and depression measured with the Hospital anxiety and depression scale. A higher IQ level was found in the neuropsychological background tests for the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADD). In the memory tests the dual-task memory/simultaneous capacity tests "Brown-Peterson" Consonant Trigram and Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) were the most sensitive and were severely reduced in all three subgroups, but only the BVRT revealed a difference between the three ADHD groups. In learning and delayed recall measured with Rey Auditory Verbal learning test and modified Diagnosticum für Cerebralschädigung (mDCS), the Attention Deficit Disorder subgroup had the best learning and delayed capacity of the three groups. A good agreement was found between the interviewed DSM-IV-TR criteria, Conners CAARS S:S scale, and Wender WURS 25-item scales. Despite the difference in number of ADHD criteria for the three ADHD subgroups, the results in the neuropsychological memory tests indicate a severe reduction in all three subgroups of adult ADHD in simultaneous capacity.

  8. Quantitative sensory testing of temperature, pain, and touch in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Nanda; Defrin, Ruth; Schuengel, Carlo; Lobbezoo, Frank; Evenhuis, Heleen; Scherder, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The spinothalamic pathway mediates sensations of temperature, pain, and touch. These functions seem impaired in children with Down syndrome (DS), but have not been extensively examined in adults. The objective of the present study was to compare the spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between adults with DS and adults from the general population and to examine in the DS group the relationship between the sensory functions and level of intellectual functioning. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in 188 adults with DS (mean age 37.5 years) and 142 age-matched control participants (median age 40.5 years). Temperature, pain, and touch were evaluated with tests for cold-warm discrimination, sharp-dull discrimination (pinprick), and tactile threshold, respectively. Level of intellectual functioning was estimated with the Social Functioning Scale for Intellectual Disability (intellectual disability level) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised (intelligence level). Overall, the difference in spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between the DS and control groups was not statistically significant. However, DS participants with a lower intelligence level had a statistically significant lower performance on the sharp-dull discrimination test than DS participants with higher intelligence level (adjusted p=.006) and control participants (adjusted p=.017). It was concluded that intellectual functioning level is an important factor to take into account for the assessment of spinothalamic-mediated sensory functioning in adults with DS: a lower level could coincide with impaired sensory functioning, but could also hamper QST assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 'Timed Up and Go' test: Age, gender and cognitive impairment stratified normative values of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Azianah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG) normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups. A total of 2084 community dwelling older adults from wave I and II were recruited through a multistage random sampling method. TUG was performed using the standard protocol and scores were then stratified based on with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gender and in a 5-year age groups ranging from ages of 60's to 80's. 529(16%) participants were identified to have MCI. Past history of falls and medical history of hypertension, heart disease, joint pain, hearing and vision problem, and urinary incontinence were found to have influenced TUG performance. Cognitive status as a mediator, predicted TUG performance even when both gender and age were controlled for (B 0.24, 95% CI (0.02-0.47), β 0.03, t 2.10, p = 0.36). Further descriptive analysis showed, participants with MCI, women and older in age took a longer time to complete TUG, as compared to men with MCI across all age groups with exceptions for some age groups. These results suggested that MCI needs to be taken into consideration when testing older adults using TUG, besides age and gender factors. Data using fast speed TUG may be required among older adults with and without MCI for further understanding.

  10. Extension of the Contingency Naming Test to adult assessment: psychometric analysis in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Tara; Suhr, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The Contingency Naming Test (CNT; Taylor, Albo, Phebus, Sachs, & Bierl, 1987) was initially designed to assess aspects of executive functioning, such as processing speed and response inhibition, in children. The measure has shown initial utility in identifying differences in executive function among child clinical groups; however, there is an absence of adequate psychometric data for use with adults. The current study expanded psychometric data upward for use with a college student sample and explored the measure's test-retest reliability and factor structure. Performance in the adult sample showed continued improvement above child norms, consistent with theories of executive function development. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the CNT is most closely related to measures of processing speed, as well as elements of response inhibition within the latter trials. Overall, results from the current study provide added support for the utility of the CNT as a measure of executive functioning in young adults. However, more research is needed to determine patterns of performance among adult clinical groups, as well as to better understand how performance patterns may change in a broader age range, including middle and older adulthood.

  11. Oral glucose tolerance test reduces arterial baroreflex sensitivity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kenneth M; Tedder, Gale; Lockhart, Chris; Meneilly, Graydon S

    2008-03-01

    Although postprandial decreases in blood pressure are a common cause of syncope in the older adult population, the postprandial effects of the oral glucose tolerance test on blood pressure and the arterial baroreflex remain poorly characterized in older adults. Therefore, arterial blood pressure and the arterial baroreflex were studied in 19 healthy older adults (mean age 71.7 +/- 1.1 years) who were given a standardized oral glucose load (75 g) or an isovolumetric sham drink during 2 separate sessions. All measures were taken for 120 min after treatment. Baroreflex function was assessed by using the spontaneous baroreflex method (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS). Subjects demonstrated a decrease in BRS after oral glucose that was not seen in the placebo session (two-way analysis of variance, p = 0.04). There was no significant change in systolic, mean, or diastolic blood pressure; together with a drop in BRS, this resulted in a significant tachycardia post glucose (two-way analysis of variance, p < 0.001). We conclude that healthy older adults can successfully maintain blood pressure during an oral glucose tolerance test despite a decrease in arterial BRS. Decreased BRS resulted in a tachycardic response to glucose.

  12. Validity of Submaximal Step Tests to Estimate Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter; Parfitt, Gaynor; Davison, Kade; Eston, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is a strong predictor of health and fitness and is considered a key physiological measure in the healthy adult population. Submaximal step tests provide a safe, simple and ecologically valid means of assessing VO2max in both the general population and a rehabilitation setting. However, no studies have attempted to synthesize the existing knowledge regarding the validity of the multiple step-test protocols available to estimate VO2max in the healthy adult population. The objective of this study was to systematically review literature on the validity and reliability of submaximal step-test protocols to estimate VO2max in healthy adults (age 18-65 years). A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed. The search returned 690 studies that underwent the initial screening process. To be included, the study had to (1) have participants deemed to be healthy and aged between 18 and 65 years; (2) assess VO2max by means of a submaximal step test against a graded exercise test (GXT) to volitional exhaustion; and (3) be available in English. Reference lists from included articles were screened for additional articles. The primary outcome measures used were the validity statistics between the actual measured VO2max and predicted VO2max values, and the reported direction of the statistically significant difference between the measured VO2max and the predicted VO2max. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to assess the risk of bias in each included study, and was adapted to the type of quantitative study design used. The combined database search produced 690 studies, from which 644 were excluded during the screening process. Following full-text assessment, a further 39 studies were excluded based on the eligibility criteria detailed previously. Four additional studies were located via the reference lists of the included studies, leaving 11 studies that

  13. Odor identification testing in children and young adults using the smell wheel.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E Leslie; Doty, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Olfaction is important for nutrition, safety, and quality of life. Detecting smell loss in young children can be difficult, since many children with olfactory deficits do not recognize their problem and may even pretend to smell. The short attention span of some young children precludes testing with longer standardized olfactory tests. Currently there is a dearth of pediatric smell tests. In this study we evaluated the performance of 152 children and young adults on a game-like rotating "Smell Wheel" odor identification test. This forced-choice test, which can be self-administered, was designed to capture the child's imagination and to provide a standardized test measure with odors known to young children using a minimum number of trials. Thirty 4-5-year olds (10 female), 62 6-7-year olds (17 female), 30 10-11-year olds (18 female) and 30 18-19-year olds (15 female) were tested. Analysis of variance was used to assess the influences of sex and age on the test scores. All participants completed the simple and rapid test protocol. Test performance and age-related changes analogous to those obtained using longer tests were observed. Test scores of participants who self-administered the test were equivalent to those for whom the test was administered by the experimenter. Good compliance and olfactory test findings congruent with literature results were obtained using the Smell Wheel, suggesting that this test may be useful in assessing olfactory function in pediatric settings where attentional demands are compromised and test time is limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A review of five tests to identify motor coordination difficulties in young adults.

    PubMed

    Hands, Beth; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with low motor competence in childhood and adolescence, such as that seen in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), often persist into adulthood. Identification of DCD at all ages is particularly challenging and problematic because of the diversity of motor symptoms. Many tests of motor proficiency and impairment have been developed for children up to 12 years of age. Whilst identification of DCD is important during childhood, it is of equal importance to identify and monitor the impact of this impairment as an individual grows and develops. Currently there is no test specifically designed to support diagnosis and monitor change in the age range 16-30 years. In this article we review five tests that have been used to assess motor competence among young adults (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2, McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, Tufts Assessment of Motor Performance and the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment). Key issues relevant to testing motor skills in older populations, such as the inclusion of age appropriate skills, are explored. While the BOT-2 provided the most evidence for valid and reliable measurement of Criterion A of the diagnostic criteria for DCD among this age group, no test adequately evaluated Criterion B. Further evaluation of motor skill assessment among the young adult population is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenteral magnesium load testing with /sup 28/Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Caddell, J.L.; Calhoun, N.R.; Howard, M.P.; Patterson, K.Y.; Smith, J.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency.

  16. Grey Matter Correlates of Three Language Tests in Non-demented Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haobo; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Wen, Wei; Kochan, Nicole A.; Crawford, John D.; Brodaty, Henry; Slavin, Melissa J.; Reppermund, Simone; Kang, Kristan; Trollor, Julian N.

    2013-01-01

    Language has been extensively investigated by functional neuroimaging studies. However, only a limited number of structural neuroimaging studies have examined the relationship between language performance and brain structure in healthy adults, and the number is even less in older adults. The present study sought to investigate correlations between grey matter volumes and three standardized language tests in late life. The participants were 344 non-demented, community-dwelling adults aged 70-90 years, who were drawn from the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. The three language tests included the Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT), Category Fluency (CF), and Boston Naming Test (BNT). Correlation analyses between voxel-wise GM volumes and language tests showed distinctive GM correlation patterns for each language test. The GM correlates were located in the right frontal and left temporal lobes for COWAT, in the left frontal and temporal lobes for CF, and in bilateral temporal lobes for BNT. Our findings largely corresponded to the neural substrates of language tasks revealed in fMRI studies, and we also observed a less hemispheric asymmetry in the GM correlates of the language tests. Furthermore, we divided the participants into two age groups (70-79 and 80-90 years old), and then examined the correlations between structural laterality indices and language performance for each group. A trend toward significant difference in the correlations was found between the two age groups, with stronger correlations in the group of 70-79 years old than those in the group of 80-90 years old. This difference might suggest a further decline of language lateralization in different stages of late life. PMID:24224044

  17. Test-retest reliability and validity of a custom-designed computerized neuropsychological cognitive test battery in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Jinal P; Varghese, Rini; Weisenbach, Sara L; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Dual-task methodologies are utilized to probe attentional resource sharing between motor and cognitive systems. Computerized neuropsychological testing is an advanced approach for cognitive assessment and its application in dual task testing is evolving. This study aimed to establish the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of a custom-designed, computerized, cognitive test battery. Methods Fifteen healthy young adults were tested for the following domains (and tasks): 1) visuomotor function (Spot and Click, SC), 2) phonemic memory (Category Naming, Cat N) and verbal fluency (Word List Generation, WLG), 3) response inhibition (Color Naming, CN), 4) discriminant decision-making (Unveil the Star, US), 5) visual working memory (Triangle and Letter Tracking, TT and LT), 6) problem solving (Peg Game, PG) and 7) information processing speed (Letter-Number, LN). The reaction time, accuracy, time of completion, total number of responses and total number of errors were used as the outcome variables. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine reliability for all outcome variables and concurrent validity was established with respect to the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System™ (D-KEFS™). Reliability ranged from good to excellent for all seven tasks (ICC>0.65). The Cat.N, WLG and CN showed good correlation and PG task showed moderate correlation with tests of the D-KEFS. Conclusion Findings indicate that these computerized cognitive tests were both valid and reproducible and therefore can be easily implemented by clinicians for assessing cognition and incorporated for dual-task testing and training. PMID:28286883

  18. Acceptance of and barriers to voluntary HIV counselling and testing among adults in Guizhou province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Detels, Roger; Feng, Yuji; Wu, Zunyou; Shen, Limei; Li, Yu; Li, Zezhen; Chen, Fang; Wang, Aimin; Liu, Taiming

    2007-12-01

    To find and compare the levels of acceptance of and barriers to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) among adults in two different counties of Guizhou province, China, one in which the China CARES project was operating and the other in which it was not. A longitudinal design with two-stage cluster sampling was employed. A total of 1012 participants were recruited in the two counties. All participants were interviewed, then given a coupon for free VCT after the interview. Participants were paid for returning the coupon within 2 months, whether tested or not. The uptake of VCT was measured within 2 months after the interview. The study found that the levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and acceptability of VCT among the adults in both counties were low. Although 459 participants (43.5%) expressed an intent to use the VCT services, only 193 (16.5%) actually visited the VCT facilities, and only 42 (3.7%) actually took an HIV test within 2 months after the interview. The use of VCT was related to occupation, age, transportation difficulties, health status, ethnicity, and high-risk behaviors. The main barriers to HIV testing included perceiving oneself as low risk, fear of unsolicited disclosure, and fear of stigma and discrimination that would result from taking the test. Education about HIV/AIDS and VCT needs to be improved, and levels of stigma and discrimination reduced, in order to enhance the uptake of VCT services, an essential step for the initiation of treatment.

  19. Prenatal Testing for Adult-Onset Conditions: the Position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Hercher, Laura; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Hoffman, Erin P; Gustafson, Shanna; Chen, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic testing and the availability of such testing in pregnancy allows prospective parents to test their future child for adult-onset conditions. This ability raises several complex ethical issues. Prospective parents have reproductive rights to obtain information about their fetus. This information may or may not alter pregnancy management. These rights can be in conflict with the rights of the future individual, who will be denied the right to elect or decline testing. This paper highlights the complexity of these issues, details discussions that went into the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Public Policy Task Force's development of the Prenatal testing for Adult-Onset Conditions position statement adopted in November 2014, and cites relevant literature on this topic through December 2015. Issues addressed include parental rights and autonomy, rights of the future child, the right not to know, possible adverse effects on childhood and the need for genetic counseling. This paper will serve as a reference to genetic counselors and healthcare professionals when faced with this situation in clinical practice.

  20. Test-retest variability in audiometric threshold with supraaural and insert earphones among children and adults.

    PubMed

    Stuart, A; Stenstrom, R; Tompkins, C; Vandenhoff, S

    1991-01-01

    The effect of age and earphone condition on test-retest intrasubject variability in audiometric threshold was investigated. Ten subjects in each of the following age groups were investigated: 6-9 years, 10-13 years and young adults. Test-retest audiometric thresholds were collected at six frequencies (250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000 and 8,000 Hz) under three earphone conditions (Telephonics TDH-50P supraaural and Etymotic Research ER-3A insert earphone coupled to an immittance probe cuff or a foam insert). No statistically significant differences were found in variability of test-retest differences as a function of age, earphone condition or test frequency (p greater than 0.05). The clinical application of the insert earphone is recommended with children and adults as it affords no greater test-retest variability and at the same time provides a solution to a number of limitations incurred with the use of the supraaural earphone.

  1. [Preliminary normative data for the second edition of the Boston Naming Test for young Spanish adults].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Ubeda, S; Peña-Casanova, J; Böhm, P; Gramunt-Fombuena, N; Comas, L

    2004-06-01

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is one of the most widely used tests in neuropsychological evaluation of language disorders, specifically when testing for anomia. The aim of this study is to establish preliminary normative data for the second edition of the BNT for young spanish adults (age range between 20 and 49 years). A total of 160 subjects (60 % female and 40 % male) were administered the BNT. Mean age was 33.89 years (SD: 9.45) and average number of years of education was 13.98 (SD: 3.97). The version used in the present study is the second edition of the BNT (Kaplan et al., 2001) which includes two new components: multiple choice and error typology. Descriptive statistics of the test's variables. Lineal regression to establish the possible degree of influence of the variables age and education on test performance. The sample's mean score was 51.84. Education significantly influences the final score (B: 0.476; p= 0.001). Multiple choice was effective in 89 % of cases. The present results will allow proper clinical interpretation of results in the BNT 2001 version in young Spanish adults.

  2. A longitudinal investigation of older adults' physical activity: Testing an integrated dual-process model.

    PubMed

    Arnautovska, Urska; Fleig, Lena; O'Callaghan, Frances; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effects of conscious and non-conscious processes for prediction of older adults' physical activity (PA), we tested a dual-process model that integrated motivational (behavioural intention) and volitional (action planning and coping planning) processes with non-conscious, automatic processes (habit). Participants (N = 215) comprised community-dwelling older adults (M = 73.8 years). A longitudinal design was adopted to investigate direct and indirect effects of intentions, habit strength (Time 1), and action planning and coping planning (Time 2) on PA behaviour (Time 3). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the model. The model provided a good fit to the data, accounting for 44% of the variance in PA behaviour at Time 3. PA was predicted by intentions, action planning, and habit strength, with action planning mediating the intention-behaviour relationship. An effect of sex was also found where males used fewer planning strategies and engaged in more PA than females. By investigating an integration of conscious and non-conscious processes, this study provides a novel understanding of older adults' PA. Interventions aiming to promote PA behaviour of older adults should target the combination of psychological processes.

  3. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    Arrant, Andrew E.; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28–34) and adult (PN67–74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. PMID:23721963

  4. Appetite testing in HIV-infected African adults recovering from malnutrition and given antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; Chisenga, Molly; Siame, Joshua; Sampson, Gemma; PrayGod, George; Koethe, John R; Kelly, Paul; Filteau, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    The Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy (NUSTART) trial was designed to determine whether nutritional support for malnourished HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) can improve early survival. Appetite is related to health outcomes in this population, but the optimal appetite metric for field use is uncertain. We evaluated two measures of appetite with the goal of improving understanding and treatment of malnutrition in HIV-infected adults. Longitudinal cohort study embedded in a clinical trial of vitamin and mineral-fortified, v. unfortified, lipid-based nutritional supplements. HIV clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania and Lusaka, Zambia. Malnourished (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) HIV-infected adults starting ART. Appetite measurements, by short questionnaire and by weight of maize porridge consumed in a standardized test, were compared across time and correlated with changes in weight. Appetite questionnaire scores, from polychoric correlation, and porridge test results were normally distributed for Tanzanians (n 187) but clustered and unreliable for Zambians (n 297). Among Tanzanian patients, the appetite score increased rapidly from referral for ART, plateaued at the start of ART and then increased slowly during the 12-week follow-up. Change in appetite questionnaire score, but not porridge test, correlated with weight change in the corresponding two-week intervals (P=0.002) or over the whole study (P=0.05) but a point estimate of hunger did not predict weight change (P=0.4). In Tanzania change in appetite score correlated with weight change, but single point measurements did not. Appetite increases several weeks after the start of ART, which may be an appropriate time for nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected adults.

  5. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

  6. Functional assessment in older adults: should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre

    2014-08-08

    In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted.

  8. The Importance of Symptom Validity Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Undergoing Assessments for Learning or Attention Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Green, Paul; Flaro, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    It is almost self-evident that test results will be unreliable and misleading if those undergoing assessments do not make a full effort on testing. Nevertheless, objective tests of effort have not typically been used with young adults to determine whether test results are valid or not. Because of the potential economic and/or recreational benefits…

  9. The Importance of Symptom Validity Testing in Adolescents and Young Adults Undergoing Assessments for Learning or Attention Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Green, Paul; Flaro, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    It is almost self-evident that test results will be unreliable and misleading if those undergoing assessments do not make a full effort on testing. Nevertheless, objective tests of effort have not typically been used with young adults to determine whether test results are valid or not. Because of the potential economic and/or recreational benefits…

  10. Which is preferable for orthostatic hypotension diagnosis in older adults: active standing test or head-up tilt table test?

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Soysal, Pinar; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2017-01-01

    Background Correct evaluation of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is crucial in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality and morbidity. The study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in older adults. Methods Active standing test (AST) and head-up tilt table (HUT) test as well as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including mini-mental state examination or the cognitive state test, mini-nutritional assessment, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment indexes, were performed in 290 geriatric patients. Results The prevalence of OH during HUT and AST was 19% and 37%, respectively. In patients with OH during HUT, the frequency of dementia and recurrent falls were higher (P<0.05); on the other hand, the levels of serum vitamin D and albumin and estimated glomerular filtration rate were lower (P<0.05). However, all these parameters for OH during AST were not significant (P>0.05). Comparison of the groups according to CGA measurements revealed significant differences in terms of cognition, nutritional status, activities of daily life, and balance function in patients with OH only during HUT (P<0.05), but not during AST (P>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of AST were 49.0%, 65.5%, 25.0%, and 84.6% respectively, according to HUT. Conclusion The results suggest that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined by HUT might be of higher clinical significance than that by AST in older adults. It might be important that the evaluation of OH by HUT should be included in daily geriatric practice. PMID:28182163

  11. Trends in HIV Testing among Adults in Georgia: Analysis of the 2011–2015 BRFSS Data

    PubMed Central

    Ansa, Benjamin E.; White, Sashia; Chung, Yunmi; Smith, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    Georgia is ranked fifth highest among states for rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis. About 4% of persons living with HIV infection in the United States reside in Georgia, and almost 19% of these people do not know their HIV status. The present study examined the trends and associated factors of HIV testing among adults in Georgia between 2011 and 2015 by analyzing data of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). A total of 31,094 persons aged ≥18 years were identified who responded to the question “Have you ever been tested for HIV?” Overall, there were 11,286 (44.2%) respondents who had been tested for HIV, compared to 19,808 (55.8%) who had not. There was a slight decrease in the percentage of respondents who have ever tested for HIV, from 45.6% in 2011 to 43.7% in 2015 (APC (annual percent change) = −0.98, not significant). Factors associated with HIV testing were being female (p = 0.004), black (p < 0.001), younger than 55 years (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), attaining education level above high school (p < 0.001), and earning annual income of $50,000 or less (p = 0.028). Overall in Georgia, there has been a slight decline in the temporal trend of HIV testing, and more than half of adults have never been tested for HIV. For reducing HIV transmission in Georgia, enhancing access and utilization of HIV testing should be a public health priority. PMID:27845740

  12. Cryoprotectant-free ultra-rapid freezing of human spermatozoa in cryogenic vials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Jin, R-T; Wu, L-M; Johansson, L; Guo, T-H; Liu, Y-S; Tong, X-H

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-rapid freezing (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) on human spermatozoa in cryogenic vials (≥0.5 ml) at different concentrations of sucrose. After swim-up, the sperm suspensions (N = 58) were diluted with sperm preparation medium and divided into six aliquots: swim-up (fresh), conventional freezing group (slow freezing) and four ultra-rapid freezing groups containing sucrose at different concentrations (0.15 m, 0.20 m, 0.25 m and 0.30 m). Sperm motility, progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, DNA stability and acrosome integrity of fresh and cooled-warmed spermatozoa were analysed. The progressive motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa in the 0.20 m sucrose group were significantly higher than those of the slow freezing group (47.5 ± 6.8% versus 36.4 ± 8.7%, 73.2 ± 6.9% versus 63.9 ± 6.3%, 53.7 ± 10.0% versus 35.9 ± 9.7% respectively, P < 0.05). However, no differences were found in sperm motility or DNA stability (58.5 ± 6.3% versus 54.2 ± 5.3%, 90.1 ± 2.8% versus 87.2 ± 4.7%, P > 0.05 respectively) between the 0.20 m sucrose and the slow freezing group. No differences were found between the ultra-rapid and slow freezing group at the other concentrations of sucrose. Our findings suggest that the method of ultra-rapid freezing of human spermatozoa in cryogenic vials with a solution containing 0.20 m sucrose results in recovery of spermatozoon of superior qualities. In contrast to slow freezing, the ultra-rapid freezing technique of human spermatozoa seems to reduce cryoinjuries and maintain important physiological characteristics of the spermatozoa after warming. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery and Judgment of Line Orientation tests.

    PubMed

    Calvo, L; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-04-01

    The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP) and Judgment of Line Orientation tests (JLO) are used in clinical practice to assess visuoperceptual and visuospatial abilities. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present normative data for a short version of the VOSP test and for the JLO test. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Education- and sex-adjusted scores were obtained by applying linear regression techniques. Our results show that education and sex only affect scores on the JLO test, and that age has no effect. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of potential cognitive tests for use with older adults in audiology clinics.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Nancy; Storzbach, Daniel; Furukawa, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive declines in working memory and processing speed are hallmarks of aging. Deficits in speech understanding also are seen in aging individuals. A clinical test to determine whether the cognitive aging changes contribute to aging speech understanding difficulties would be helpful for determining rehabilitation strategies in audiology clinics. To identify a clinical neurocognitive test or battery of tests that could be used in audiology clinics to help explain deficits in speech recognition in some older listeners. A correlational study examining the association between certain cognitive test scores and speech recognition performance. Speeded (time-compressed) speech was used to increase the cognitive processing load. Two hundred twenty-five adults aged 50 through 75 years were participants in this study. Both batteries of tests were administered to all participants in two separate sessions. A selected battery of neurocognitive tests and a time-compressed speech recognition test battery using various rates of speech were administered. Principal component analysis was used to extract the important component factors from each set of tests, and regression models were constructed to examine the association between tests and to identify the neurocognitive test most strongly associated with speech recognition performance. A sequencing working memory test (Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]) was most strongly associated with rapid speech understanding. The association between the LNS test results and the compressed sentence recognition scores (CSRS) was strong even when age and hearing loss were controlled. The LNS is a sequencing test that provides information about temporal processing at the cognitive level and may prove useful in diagnosis of speech understanding problems, and in the development of aural rehabilitation and training strategies.

  15. Exploring the Flynn effect in mentally retarded adults by using a nonverbal intelligence test for children.

    PubMed

    Nijman, E E; Scheirs, J G M; Prinsen, M J H; Abbink, C D; Blok, J B

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence test developed for children, the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test (SON), was administered to 32 retarded adults with a mental age of 3-6 years. Sixty-nine children with a biological age in the same range and with normal intelligence served as a comparison group. Both an older and a more recent version of the SON were presented to all participants in a counterbalanced order. The proportion of items answered correctly was taken as a measure of the dependent variable. It was found that a FE existed in both the group of children and in the group of retarded adults, but that the FE was largest in the latter group. The importance of not using obsolete test norms when diagnosing mental retardation was stressed, and possible causes of the Flynn effect were discussed.

  16. Small-Item Contact Test Method, FY11 Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    glassware (vials, flasks, cylinders, bottles, beakers, jars, etc.), paper towels, beakers, vials, spatulas, paraffin -coated film, etc. • Items: The test...aluminum foil, or wax paper. • Sample Tray: Optional item for the handling and movement of items during testing. • Sample Area Marker: Used to create a...sampling grid for each contact swab used. Items may include wax pencil or markers. • Standard Laboratory Record-Keeping Items: Record-keeping items

  17. Development and psychometric testing of the Register - Connectedness Scale for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Register, M Elizabeth; Herman, Joanne; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2011-02-01

    Connectedness, maintaining active engagement with life, is crucial to successful aging. Yet, no instruments were found to measure connectedness. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a connectedness scale for older adults. A 72-item instrument was administered to 428 community-dwelling older adults. The sample was largely female, White widows/widowers, with a mean age of 76 (SD 6.95) years. The instrument was reduced to 45 items representing five factors with loadings ranging from .40 to .86. The factor labels and their reliability estimates were: (a) self-regulating (.86), (b) facing aging (.85), (c) being part of a family (.87), (d) having friends (.87), and (e) being spiritual (.88). This promising instrument may advance the science of successful aging.

  18. Usability testing by older adults of a computer-mediated health communication program.

    PubMed

    Lin, Carolyn A; Neafsey, Patricia J; Strickler, Zoe

    2009-03-01

    Failure to adhere to an antihypertensive regimen and interactions between antihypertensives and other medicines represent serious health threats to older adults. This study tested the usability of a touch-screen-enabled personal education program (PEP). Findings showed that older adults rated the PEP system usability, system usefulness, and system-use satisfaction at a moderately high level for prototype-1 and at an exceptionally high level for prototype-2. A 201.91% reduction in interface errors and a 31.08% decrease in interface time also were found between the two trials. This participatory usability design was highly successful in tailoring its program interface design to accommodate older users to enhance their health communication and technology use efficacy.

  19. Development and construct validation of the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults (ITEA).

    PubMed

    Komidar, Luka; Zupančič, Maja; Sočan, Gregor; Puklek Levpušček, Melita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the construction, exploratory dimensionality analysis (Study 1), and validation (Study 2) of the self-report and 36-item Individuation Test for Emerging Adults (ITEA). It is the first instrument to measure different aspects of individuation (in relation to mother and father) specifically in emerging adulthood. The construct validity of the final 5-factor structure (Support Seeking, Connectedness, Intrusiveness, Self-Reliance, and Fear of Disappointing the Parent) was satisfactory. The results of multigroup analyses demonstrated that the factor structure is stable across male and female emerging adults for ITEA assessments in relation to both mother and father. The ITEA scales also show good internal consistency and concurrent validity against Emotional, Conflictual, and Functional Dependence scales of the Psychological Separation Inventory.

  20. Usability Testing of the BRANCH Smartphone App Designed to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milward, Joanna; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Watson, Rod; Dunne, Jacklyn; Kimergård, Andreas

    2017-08-08

    Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) apps demonstrate potential to reduce harmful drinking. However, low user engagement rates with eSBI reduce overall effectiveness of interventions. As "Digital Natives," young adults have high expectations of app quality. Ensuring that the design, content, and functionality of an eSBI app are acceptable to young adults is an integral stage to the development process. The objective of this study was to identify usability barriers and enablers for an app, BRANCH, targeting harmful drinking in young adults. The BRANCH app contains a drinking diary, alcohol reduction goal setting functions, normative drinking feedback, and information on risks and advice for cutting down. The app includes a social feature personalized to motivate cutting down and to promote engagement with a point-based system for usage. Three focus groups were conducted with 20 users who had tested the app for 1 week. A detailed thematic analysis was undertaken. The first theme, "Functionality" referred to how users wanted an easy-to-use interface, with minimum required user-input. Poor functionality was considered a major usability barrier. The second theme, "Design" described how an aesthetic with minimum text, clearly distinguishable tabs and buttons and appealing infographics was integral to the level of usability. The final theme, "Content" described how participants wanted all aspects of the app to be automatically personalized to them, as well as providing them with opportunities to personalize the app themselves, with increased options for social connectivity. There are high demands for apps such as BRANCH that target skilled technology users including young adults. Key areas to optimize eSBI app development that emerged from testing BRANCH with representative users include high-quality functionality, appealing aesthetics, and improved personalization.

  1. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  2. Evaluation of direct-to-consumer low-volume lab tests in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Brian A.; Hoffman, Gabriel; Zimmerman, Noah; Li, Li; Morgan, Joseph W.; Glowe, Patricia K.; Botwin, Gregory J.; Parekh, Samir; Babic, Nikolina; Doust, Matthew W.; Stock, Gregory B.; Schadt, Eric E.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Clinical laboratory tests are now being prescribed and made directly available to consumers through retail outlets in the USA. Concerns with these test have been raised regarding the uncertainty of testing methods used in these venues and a lack of open, scientific validation of the technical accuracy and clinical equivalency of results obtained through these services. METHODS. We conducted a cohort study of 60 healthy adults to compare the uncertainty and accuracy in 22 common clinical lab tests between one company offering blood tests obtained from finger prick (Theranos) and 2 major clinical testing services that require standard venipuncture draws (Quest and LabCorp). Samples were collected in Phoenix, Arizona, at an ambulatory clinic and at retail outlets with point-of-care services. RESULTS. Theranos flagged tests outside their normal range 1.6× more often than other testing services (P < 0.0001). Of the 22 lab measurements evaluated, 15 (68%) showed significant interservice variability (P < 0.002). We found nonequivalent lipid panel test results between Theranos and other clinical services. Variability in testing services, sample collection times, and subjects markedly influenced lab results. CONCLUSION. While laboratory practice standards exist to control this variability, the disparities between testing services we observed could potentially alter clinical interpretation and health care utilization. Greater transparency and evaluation of testing technologies would increase their utility in personalized health management. FUNDING. This work was supported by the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, a gift from the Harris Family Charitable Foundation (to J.T. Dudley), and grants from the NIH (R01 DK098242 and U54 CA189201, to J.T. Dudley, and R01 AG046170 and U01 AI111598, to E.E. Schadt). PMID:27018593

  3. Performance of normal adults and children on central auditory diagnostic tests and their corresponding visual analogs.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Teri James; Ross, Jody

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that, in order to validate a diagnosis of (C)APD (central auditory processing disorder), testing using direct cross-modal analogs should be performed to demonstrate that deficits exist solely or primarily in the auditory modality (McFarland and Cacace, 1995; Cacace and McFarland, 2005). This modality-specific viewpoint is controversial and not universally accepted (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA], 2005; Musiek et al, 2005). Further, no such analogs have been developed to date, and neither the feasibility of such testing in normally functioning individuals nor the concurrent validity of cross-modal analogs has been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of cross-modal testing by examining the performance of normal adults and children on four tests of central auditory function and their corresponding visual analogs. In addition, this study investigated the degree to which concurrent validity of auditory and visual versions of these tests could be demonstrated. An experimental repeated measures design was employed. Participants consisted of two groups (adults, n=10; children, n=10) with normal and symmetrical hearing sensitivity, normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no family or personal history of auditory/otologic, language, learning, neurologic, or related disorders. Visual analogs of four tests in common clinical use for the diagnosis of (C)APD were developed (Dichotic Digits [Musiek, 1983]; Frequency Patterns [Pinheiro and Ptacek, 1971]; Duration Patterns [Pinheiro and Musiek, 1985]; and the Random Gap Detection Test [RGDT; Keith, 2000]). Participants underwent two 1 hr test sessions separated by at least 1 wk. Order of sessions (auditory, visual) and tests within each session were counterbalanced across participants. ANOVAs (analyses of variance) were used to examine effects of group, modality, and laterality (for the Dichotic/Dichoptic Digits tests) or response condition

  4. Occurrence of coring in insulin vials and possibility of rubber piece contamination by self-injection.

    PubMed

    Asakura, T; Seino, H; Nozaki, S; Abe, R

    2001-06-01

    Coring is reported to occur because rubber pieces are shaved off from a rubber stopper when a needle is inserted into the rubber stopper of transfusion liquid formulation. We verified whether coring really occurs in insulin vials of self-injecting patients. We collected insulin cartridges from 30 hospitalized patients and used the primary injection (trial injection), the secondary injection and the cartridge remaining preparation as samples. We observed the rubber pieces using a microscope and measured the shape, number of pieces. The occurrence rate of coring was 73% for the primary injection, 47% for the secondary injection and 97% for the cartridge remaining preparation. The rubber pieces in the primary injection and the secondary injection which went through the needle are mostly in aggregate shape and the rubber pieces in the cartridge remaining preparation which did not go through the needle are mostly in needle-like shape. A number of small rubber pieces are found in both the primary injection and the secondary injection, indicating a high possibility that rubber pieces may be injected under subcutaneous tissue. The coring is considered to occur because needles are repeatedly inserted and rotated at the same spot. It is required to improve the structure to mount a needle to the pen-type injector in future. Coring is a very serious problem from the medical and pharmaceutical points of view. Further study should be made on the implication to latex allergy and lipodystrophy.

  5. Economic results of a palivizumab seasonal prophylaxis using a cohorting software and vial sharing.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Elio; Coppolino, Salvatore; Federico, Febronia; Fulia, Francesco

    2010-07-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus is the most important pathogen in lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. In high-risk populations it may develop severe, sometimes fatal, lower respiratory tract infections. A proportion of these infants require admission to intensive care units due to the severity of the condition and the level of care needed. Furthermore, we must consider the possible increased risk of asthma following RSV infection in infancy. The aim of this work is to show how we strictly coordinated, during the 2008-2009 RSV season, the delivery of prophylaxis while minimising drug cost through vial sharing and cohorting infants with a software performed through Visual Basic programming system. By using this method we have been able to obtain a saving of the 29.2% compared to the theoretical amount. No infant requested hospitalisation for a RSV infection. Such a model ensures all patients to receive appropriate immunization and thus positively influencing the cost-benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. We hope that our model of care delivery will be of use to other hospitals.

  6. Are Children's Faces Really More Appealing than Those of Adults? Testing the Baby Schema Hypothesis beyond Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Li Zhuo; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis ("Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie" (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were…

  7. Are Children's Faces Really More Appealing than Those of Adults? Testing the Baby Schema Hypothesis beyond Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Li Zhuo; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adults' evaluations of likeability and attractiveness of children's faces from infancy to early childhood. We tested whether Lorenz's baby schema hypothesis ("Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie" (1943), Vol. 5, pp. 235-409) is applicable not only to infant faces but also to faces of children at older ages. Adult participants were…

  8. 14C sample preparation for AMS microdosing studies at Lund University using online combustion and septa-sealed vials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydoff, Marie; Stenström, Kristina

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Physics at Lund University is participating in a European Union project called EUMAPP (European Union Microdose AMS Partnership Programme), in which sample preparation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of biological samples from microdosing studies have been made. This paper describes a simplified method of converting biological samples to solid graphite for 14C analysis with AMS. The method is based on online combustion of the samples, and reduction of CO 2 in septa-sealed vials. The septa-sealed vials and disposable materials are used to eliminate sample cross-contamination. Measurements of ANU and Ox I standards show deviations of 2% and 3%, respectively, relative to reference values. This level of accuracy is sufficient for biological samples from microdosing studies. Since the method has very few handling steps from sample to graphite, the risk of failure during the sample preparation process is minimized, making the method easy to use in routine preparation of samples.

  9. Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay and Shell Vial Culture for Detection of Mumps Virus from Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Jordi; Ballesteros, Francisca; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Munar, Maria; Mari, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    We report a prospective comparison of the efficacies of an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and shell vial culture (SVC) of throat swab and urine samples from patients with mumps. Throat swab samples were used for the IFA; the urine samples and throat swabs were inoculated into vials of Vero cells. We studied 62 patients by using 62 throat swabs and 50 urine samples (50 patients with both samples). Sixty (96.7%) throat samples were positive in the SVC, and 61 (98.3%) were positive in the IFA. For the 50 patients from whom both samples were available, the IFA was positive in 50 (100%) cases, the urine sample was positive in 49 (98%) cases, and the throat swab was positive in 48 (96%) cases (P > 0.05). This comparison of throat swabs and urine samples has shown that the two clinical samples are similar in efficacy. PMID:14605158

  10. Usability Evaluation of a Blood Glucose Monitoring System With a Spill-Resistant Vial, Easier Strip Handling, and Connectivity to a Mobile App: Improvement of Patient Convenience and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Craig; Koubek, Richard; Bégat, Vanessa; Jacob, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Proper management of diabetes mellitus requires regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). This research evaluated the usability of the Accu-Chek® Guide Meter that includes a spill-resistant vial, easier strip handling, and wireless connectivity to a mobile app. A total of 197 participants were allowed to experience typical blood glucose testing tasks on the Accu-Chek Guide Meter, review data such as last result, patterns, and target percentage on the meter and on the mobile app, and then evaluate their experience through a human factors usability survey. Participants used a 6-point agree/disagree scale to rate 34 market statement questions. The results of a Pearson chi-square proportions test for each of the 34 market statement questions showed a significant difference (P < .0001) between the disagree responses (1-3) and agree responses (4-6). An overwhelming majority of participants found all aspects of the system, including the test strips, strip vial, and data analysis on the meter and the mobile app, to be a good fit for their lifestyle and to provide a better testing experience. This study found superior usability of the new meter system over the participants' current meters in both the United States and France. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. The relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and test anxiety in young adults.

    PubMed

    Dan, Orrie; Raz, Sivan

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of adult ADHD with test anxiety (TA) has not been previously reported. This comorbidity can potentially affect clinical and academic interventions among individuals with ADHD. The present study investigated the relationships among ADHD, self-esteem, and three subscales of TA among young adults: Cognitive Obstruction, Social Derogation, and Tenseness. A total of 25 female participants diagnosed with ADHD and 30 female controls without ADHD of comparable age and education completed an Online Continuous Performance Test, an ADHD questionnaire, a self-esteem inventory, and a TA questionnaire. Participants with ADHD exhibited significantly higher levels of TA on all three subscales and lower levels of self-esteem compared with controls. Self-esteem served as a partial mediator between ADHD and cognitive obstruction TA and as a full mediator between ADHD and social derogation TA, but had no mediation effect in the relationships between ADHD and tenseness TA. The findings of this study suggest that TA, well known to affect success on tests, is correlated with ADHD. Therefore, interventions for ADHD should include components aimed at reducing TA. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Obstructive Airway Adult Test for Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Vicini, Claudio; De Benedetto, Michele; Salamanca, Fabrizio; Sorrenti, Giovanni; Romandini, Mario; Bosi, Marcello; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Foresta, Enrico; Laforì, Andreina; Meccariello, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Alessandro; Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio; Campanini, Aldo; Montevecchi, Filippo; Rizzotto, Grazia; Cervelli, Daniele; Moro, Alessandro; Arigliani, Michele; Gobbi, Riccardo; Pelo, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. The gold standard for the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is polysomnography, whose access is however reduced by costs and limited availability, so that additional diagnostic tests are needed. Objectives. To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the Obstructive Airway Adult Test (OAAT) compared to polysomnography for the diagnosis of OSA in adult patients. Methods. Ninety patients affected by OSA verified with polysomnography (AHI ≥ 5) and ten healthy patients, randomly selected, were included and all were interviewed by one blind examiner with OAAT questions. Measurements and Main Results. The Spearman rho, evaluated to measure the correlation between OAAT and polysomnography, was 0.72 (p < 0.01). The area under the ROC curve (95% CI) was the parameter to evaluate the accuracy of the OAAT: it was 0.91 (0.81–1.00) for the diagnosis of OSA (AHI ≥ 5), 0.90 (0.82–0.98) for moderate OSA (AHI ≥ 15), and 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30). Conclusions. The OAAT has shown a high correlation with polysomnography and also a high diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of OSA. It has also been shown to be able to discriminate among the different degrees of severity of OSA. Additional large studies aiming to validate this questionnaire as a screening or diagnostic test are needed. PMID:26636102

  13. Epidemiology and diagnostic testing for meningitis in adults as the meningococcal epidemic declined at Middlemore Hospital.

    PubMed

    McBride, Stephen; Fulke, Jennifer; Giles, Hannah; Hobbs, Mark; Suh, Jun; Sathyendran, Vani; Thompson, Emily; Taylor, Susan; Holland, David

    2015-03-13

    To describe changes in epidemiology and diagnostic techniques for adult meningitis at Middlemore Hospital following the decline of the meningococcal epidemic. Retrospective audit of cases of meningitis from 2000 to 2009. Microbiologically-confirmed diagnosis (MCD) was established in 296 of 743 episodes (40%), most commonly enterovirus (123/296, 42%), Neisseria meningitidis (43/296, 15%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (34/296, 11%). N. meningitidis meningitis declined and herpes viruses increased over time, without significant change in overall meningitis case numbers. By 2009, S. pneumoniae constituted a greater proportion of cases than N. meningitidis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pneumococcal immunochromatographic testing (PICT) increased over time as did the proportion of cases with MCD. CSF Gram stain was positive in 45% (53/118) and CSF culture made MCD in 37% (44/118) of confirmed bacterial episodes (CBE). PCR provided MCD in 59% (26/54) of CBE and 99% (168/170) of viral episodes. CSF PICT was tested in 76% (26/34) of S. pneumoniae meningitis (positive in 92% (24/26). As the epidemic waned, local incidence of meningococcal meningitis decreased without significant decreasing meningitis overall. Empiric treatment for meningitis in New Zealand adults should routinely include pneumococcal cover. Increased PCR testing increases MCD in meningitis.

  14. Evaluation of a companion robot based on field tests with single older adults in their homes.

    PubMed

    Zsiga, Katalin; Tóth, András; Pilissy, Tamás; Péter, Orsolya; Dénes, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2017-06-19

    The growing number of older adults places insurmountable load on family members and professional caregivers. Assistive technology with the aid of robots can present a possible solution. The goal of this article was to test a companion robot supporting older adults in their home environments. Eight senior volunteers were involved in the field test. They all lived alone and were self-supporting. The robot was capable of providing cognitive assistance to manage the user's daily routine. Each participant used the robot for 94.9 ± 19.6 days. The primary communication modality was voice communication in their natural language, while the touch screen display was also available for interaction with the robot. The assistance given in daily living was evaluated by subjective (the user's opinion) and objective (logged data) criteria. The most useful and the least reliable robot functions according to the users were the navigation and the verbal communication. Entertainment, locomotion, and weather forecast were the most frequently used functions, while the shopping list was the least popular. The companion robot used in the test was accepted enthusiastically by the senior subjects. Specific robot functions (mainly navigation in the apartment and the speech recognition) require improvement to better accommodate real circumstances.

  15. Aural Acoustic Stapedius-Muscle Reflex Threshold Procedures to Test Human Infants and Adults.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F

    2017-02-01

    Power-based procedures are described to measure acoustic stapedius-muscle reflex threshold and supra-threshold responses in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. The stimulus set included five clicks in which four pulsed activators were placed between each pair of clicks, with each stimulus set separated from the next by 0.79 s to allow for reflex decay. Each click response was used to detect the presence of reflex effects across frequency that were elicited by a pulsed broadband-noise or tonal activator in the ipsilateral or contralateral test ear. Acoustic reflex shifts were quantified in terms of the difference in absorbed sound power between the initial baseline click and the later four clicks in each set. Acoustic reflex shifts were measured over a 40-dB range of pulsed activators, and the acoustic reflex threshold was objectively calculated using a maximum 10 likelihood procedure. To illustrate the principles underlying these new reflex tests, reflex shifts in absorbed sound power and absorbance are presented for data acquired in an adult ear with normal hearing and in two infant ears in the initial and follow-up newborn hearing screening exams, one with normal hearing and the other with a conductive hearing loss. The use of absorbed sound power was helpful in classifying an acoustic reflex shift as present or absent. The resulting reflex tests are in use in a large study of wideband clinical diagnosis and monitoring of middle-ear and cochlear function in infant and adult ears.

  16. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  17. Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591

  18. Evaluation of the Bangor Dyslexia Test (BDT) for use with Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrea Elaine; Caravolas, Markéta

    2016-02-01

    The Bangor Dyslexia Test (BDT) is a short, easy-to-administer screener for use with a broad age range, which has been in use in the UK for over three decades. A distinctive feature of the battery is its focus on skills requiring aspects of verbal and phonological processing without, however, measuring literacy skills per se. Despite its longstanding existence and usage, there has been no evaluation of the psychometric properties of the battery as an adult dyslexia screener. We examined the psychometric properties of the BDT and evaluated its capacity to discriminate between adults with and without dyslexia. A large archival sample of university students with dyslexia (n = 193) and students with no reported literacy difficulties (n = 40) were compared on the BDT as well as on literacy and cognitive measures. Statistical analyses revealed the BDT to be a reliable (α = .72) and valid dyslexia screening tool with the capacity to effectively identify adults at risk of the disorder with an overall classification rate of 94% (sensitivity 96.4% and specificity 82.5%). In addition, higher indices of dyslexia risk on the BDT were associated with lower scores on standardized measures of literacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Chromosomal microarray testing in adults with intellectual disability presenting with comorbid psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Kate; Strydom, André; Morrogh, Deborah; Carter, Jennifer; Cutajar, Peter; Eyeoyibo, Mo; Hassiotis, Angela; McCarthy, Jane; Mukherjee, Raja; Paschos, Dimitrios; Perumal, Nagarajan; Read, Stephen; Shankar, Rohit; Sharif, Saif; Thirulokachandran, Suchithra; Thygesen, Johan H; Patch, Christine; Ogilvie, Caroline; Flinter, Frances; McQuillin, Andrew; Bass, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomal copy-number variations (CNVs) are a class of genetic variants highly implicated in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disabilities (ID), schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet the majority of adults with idiopathic ID presenting to psychiatric services have not been tested for CNVs. We undertook genome-wide chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) of 202 adults with idiopathic ID recruited from community and in-patient ID psychiatry services across England. CNV pathogenicity was assessed using standard clinical diagnostic methods and participants underwent comprehensive medical and psychiatric phenotyping. We found an 11% yield of likely pathogenic CNVs (22/202). CNVs at recurrent loci, including the 15q11-q13 and 16p11.2-p13.11 regions were most frequently observed. We observed an increased frequency of 16p11.2 duplications compared with those reported in single-disorder cohorts. CNVs were also identified in genes known to effect neurodevelopment, namely NRXN1 and GRIN2B. Furthermore deletions at 2q13, 12q21.2-21.31 and 19q13.32, and duplications at 4p16.3, 13q32.3-33.3 and Xq24-25 were observed. Routine CMA in ID psychiatry could uncover ~11% new genetic diagnoses with potential implications for patient management. We advocate greater consideration of CMA in the assessment of adults with idiopathic ID presenting to psychiatry services. PMID:27650969

  20. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gurnani, Ashita S.; Saurman, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kimberly R.; Steinberg, Eric G.; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E.; Mez, Jesse; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72) or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121) at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years) since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed—but not the immediate—recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls). These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants—but not participants with AD—improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects—especially on the delayed recall condition—suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  1. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E; Gurnani, Ashita S; Saurman, Jessica L; Chapman, Kimberly R; Steinberg, Eric G; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Mez, Jesse; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72) or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121) at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years) since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed-but not the immediate-recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls). These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants-but not participants with AD-improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects-especially on the delayed recall condition-suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new learning, an

  2. Survival of Serratia marcescens in benzalkonium chloride and in multiple-dose medication vials: relationship to epidemic septic arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, A K; Highsmith, A K; Martone, W J

    1987-01-01

    In an epidemic of septic arthritis due to Serratia marcescens, the intra-articular injection of contaminated methylprednisolone may have played a key role. The epidemic strain was found in used multiple-dose vials of methylprednisolone and in a canister of cotton balls soaked in benzalkonium chloride. The cotton balls had been used for antisepsis and disinfection. Growth characteristics of the epidemic strain of S. marcescens were compared with those of control strains of S. marcescens which had been obtained from unrelated nosocomial outbreaks. The epidemic strain was able to survive in 1:100 dilutions of benzalkonium chloride and was able to grow to greater than 10(5) CFU/ml in multiple-dose vials of methylprednisoline; control strains could not be recovered after 24 h in the same solutions. The preservative in methylprednisolone is gamma-myristyl picolinium chloride, a compound chemically related to benzalkonium chloride. We speculate that the epidemic strain of S. marcescens, which was resistant to benzalkonium chloride, had cross-resistance to gamma-myristyl picolinium chloride. If the cotton balls were used to disinfect the tops of the multiple-dose vials of methylprednisolone, small numbers of organisms subsequently introduced into the solution could have grown to high concentrations. PMID:3298309

  3. The 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand Test in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: Correlations With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Quadriceps Strength.

    PubMed

    Gruet, Mathieu; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Mely, Laurent; Vallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Exercise testing is part of the regular assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to evaluate (1) the convergent validity of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in CF by investigating its relationships with peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇O2 ), quadriceps strength, and quality of life and (2) to compare these associations with those of the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Twenty-five adults with CF (FEV1 = 59 ± 24%) performed the STS test, the 6MWT, quadriceps strength assessment, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Physical activity level, quality of life, and self-esteem were assessed by questionnaires. STS repetitions, 6-min walk distance, quadriceps strength, and peak V̇O2 were, respectively, 71 ± 12, 90 ± 10, 93 ± 29, and 62 ± 16% of predicted. The STS test had moderate associations with peak V̇O2 (r = 0.56, P = .004), quadriceps strength (r = 0.52, P = .008), and some questionnaire items (eg, perceived physical strength, r = 0.67, P < .001) only when repetitions were expressed as a product of body weight. Overall, these associations were weaker than those obtained from 6-min walk distance × weight. Oxygen desaturation during the STS test was strongly associated with oxygen desaturation during CPET (r = 0.80, P < .001). Peak heart rate was lower during the STS test as compared with CPET (P < .001) and the 6MWT (P = .009). The STS test cannot be used as a replacement for CPET to accurately assess peak exercise capacity in CF. The STS test may have utility in detecting patients with CF who may exhibit a high level of oxygen desaturation during heavy exercise. Further studies should identify the factors contributing to STS performance to confirm the potential interest of STS repetitions × body weight outcome as a useful submaximal exercise parameter in CF. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Assessment of human papilloma virus infection in adult laryngeal papilloma using a screening test.

    PubMed

    Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Ryoji; Matsuzaki, Hiroumi; Ikeda, Minoru

    2013-03-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is involved in both juvenile and adult laryngeal papilloma. We wished to determine which types of adult laryngeal papilloma were clinically related to HPV infection. We hypothesized that multiple-site and recurrent papillomas would have a strong relationship to HPV and conducted the present study to test this hypothesis. Thirteen male patients with adult laryngeal papilloma who underwent resection of papilloma between August 2006 and September 2009 were studied. We examined the relationships between whether the tumor was solitary or multiple, presence or absence of recurrence after surgery, and HPV infection. High-risk HPV types (HPV-DNA types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) and low-risk HPV types (6, 11, 42, 43, and 44) were tested by a liquid-phase hybridization method. In addition, HPV typing was performed for patients positive for low-risk HPV types. Twenty patients with laryngeal carcinoma or laryngeal leukoplakia were enrolled as the control group. In the laryngeal papilloma group, all patients tested were negative for high-risk HPV and 69.2% were positive for low-risk HPV. Typing performed for seven of the patients who tested positive for low-risk HPV showed that one patient was positive for HPV-11, whereas the remaining six patients were positive for HPV-6. All patients with recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP) were positive for low-risk HPV. All patients who were positive for low-risk HPV had RLP. Tumor samples from repeat operations were positive for low-risk HPV in all patients tested. HPV was not detected in the control group. The relationship between RLP and low-risk HPV was strong, with all cases that were positive for low-risk HPV showing recurrence. Tumor tissue resected at the time of repeat surgery was positive for low-risk HPV in all cases tested. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of various factors on the performance of repetition tests in adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Jeong, Jin Ok; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-03-01

    A variety of internal and external factors influence speech perception performance following cochlear implantation (CI) in adult deaf patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the speech perception performance during repetition testing according to various factors and to identify the predictive factors associated with postoperative speech perception. The performances on speech perception under audio-only conditions were examined over time in 61 adult patients with CI. Mono- and bi-syllable and sentence repetition testing, using both the Korean version of the Central Institute for the Deaf (K-CID) and the K-Western Aphasia Battery test (K-WAB), were performed preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. To elucidate the effect that the etiology of deafness has on postoperative outcome, patients were divided into the following four groups: Prelingual hearing loss (HL) (n = 9), Meningitis (n = 6), Progressive HL (n = 31) and Sudden HL groups (n = 15). Moreover, the duration of HL and deafness was defined as follows: (1) "age of deafness onset: AoD", (2) "number of years between the onset of profound deafness and CI: DoD" and (3) "percentage of the patient's life with moderate-to-profound hearing loss before CI: PoL". DoD and PoL were significantly different between the four groups. Although AoD appeared to be associated with performance on the sentence repetition test before standardizing for education level and age (P = 0.015), there was no association after adjusting for these factors (P = 0.719). Only PoL showed a good correlation with performance on repetition testing after CI after adjusting for AoD and DoD. However, DoD was associated with speech perception performance on the sentence repetition test only. In addition, speech perception performance results in the Progressive and Sudden HL groups were improved over the Prelingual HL and Meningitis groups. The Meningitis group showed the poorest speech perception performance among postlingually

  6. The Relationship Between Computer Experience and Computerized Cognitive Test Performance Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study compared the relationship between computer experience and performance on computerized cognitive tests and a traditional paper-and-pencil cognitive test in a sample of older adults (N = 634). Method. Participants completed computer experience and computer attitudes questionnaires, three computerized cognitive tests (Useful Field of View (UFOV) Test, Road Sign Test, and Stroop task) and a paper-and-pencil cognitive measure (Trail Making Test). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in cognitive performance across the four measures between those with and without computer experience after adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Although computer experience had a significant main effect across all cognitive measures, the effect sizes were similar. After controlling for computer attitudes, the relationship between computer experience and UFOV was fully attenuated. Discussion. Findings suggest that computer experience is not uniquely related to performance on computerized cognitive measures compared with paper-and-pencil measures. Because the relationship between computer experience and UFOV was fully attenuated by computer attitudes, this may imply that motivational factors are more influential to UFOV performance than computer experience. Our findings support the hypothesis that computer use is related to cognitive performance, and this relationship is not stronger for computerized cognitive measures. Implications and directions for future research are provided. PMID:22929395

  7. Verbal fluency tests: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Olabarrieta-Landa, L; Rivera, D; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Garza, M T; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Chávez-Oliveros, M; Rábago, B; Leibach, G; Schebela, S; Martínez, C; Luna, M; Longoni, M; Ocampo-Barba, N; Rodríguez, G; Aliaga, A; Esenarro, L; García de la Cadena, C; Perrin, B P; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data for the Verbal Fluency Tests across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the Verbal Fluency Test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models for the letter F explained 8-30% of the variance, 7-32% for letter A, 8-32% for the letter S, and 16-43% for the animal category in Verbal Fluency Test scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on the Verbal Fluency Test, they did not have an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America aiming to create norms for the Verbal Fluency Test; this study will have important outcomes for the future of neuropsychology in the region.

  8. Autologous Transplantation of Adult Mice Spermatogonial Stem Cells into Gamma Irradiated Testes

    PubMed Central

    Koruji, Morteza; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Gourabi, Hamid; Pour-Beiranvand, Shahram; Jabbari Arfaee, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated structural and functional changes of fresh and frozen-thawed adult mouse spermatogonial stem cells following auto-transplantation into gamma-irradiated testes. Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, the right testes from adult mice (n=25) were collected, then Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were isolated using two-step enzymatic digestion, lectin immobilization and differential plating. Three weeks after cultivation, the Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled spermatogonial cells were transplanted, via rete testis, into the other testis of the same mouse, which had been irradiated with 14Gy. The mice were transplanted with: fresh cells (control 1), fresh cells co-cultured with Sertoli cells (control 2), the frozen-thawed cells (experimental 1) and frozen-thawed cells co-cultured with Sertoli cells (experimental 2). The morphological changes between different transplanted testes groups were compared in 8 weeks after transplantation. The statistical significance between mean values was determined by Kruskal Wallis and one-way analysis of variance in efficiency of transplantation. Results: The statistical analysis revealed significant increases in the mean percentage of testis weight and normal seminiferous tubules following spermatogonial stem cells transplantation in the recipient'fs testes. The normal seminiferous tubules percentage in the co-culture system with fresh cells and frozen-thawed groups were more than those in non-transplanted and fresh cell transplanted groups (p≤0.001). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells in the colonies could result sperm production in the recipient’s testes after autologous transplantation. PMID:23507977

  9. Some Observations on the Use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability in Adults with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupper, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The study provides descriptive data on use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with 39 adults with closed head injury. Correlational analyses indicated significant relationships between coma duration and performance on the Perceptual Speed and Memory clusters of the test. Time since injury did not correlate with test results.…

  10. Some Observations on the Use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability in Adults with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupper, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The study provides descriptive data on use of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with 39 adults with closed head injury. Correlational analyses indicated significant relationships between coma duration and performance on the Perceptual Speed and Memory clusters of the test. Time since injury did not correlate with test results.…

  11. Verbal naming test for use with older adults: development and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Yochim, Brian P; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Kaci Fairchild, J; Yutsis, Maya V; Raymond, Neda; Friedman, Leah; Yesavage, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Naming or word-finding tasks are a mainstay of the typical neuropsychological evaluation, particularly with older adults. However, many older adults have significant visual impairment and there are currently no such word-finding tasks developed for use with older visually impaired populations. This study presents a verbal, non-visual measure of word-finding for use in the evaluation of older adults with possible dysnomia. Stimuli were chosen based on their frequency of usage in everyday spoken language. A 60-item scale was created and given to 131 older Veterans. Rasch analyses were conducted and differential item functioning assessed to eliminate poorly-performing items. The final 55-item scale had a coefficient alpha of 0.84 and correlated with the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Naming test, r=0.84, p<.01, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Category Fluency, r=0.45, p<.01, and the D-KEFS Letter Fluency, r=0.40, p<.01. ROC analyses found the measure to have sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 85% for detecting dysnomia. Patients with dysnomia performed worse on the measure than patients with intact word-finding, t(84)=8.2, p<.001. Patients with no cognitive impairment performed significantly better than patients with mild cognitive impairment, who performed significantly better than patients with dementia. This new measure shows promise in the neuropsychological evaluation of word-finding ability in older adults with or without visual impairment. Future directions include the development of a shorter version and the generation of additional normative data.

  12. Deaf genetic testing and psychological well-being in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E; Fox, Michelle; Deignan, Joshua L; Kobayashi, Yoko; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2013-08-01

    Limited data suggest that enhanced self-knowledge from genetic information related to non-medical traits can have a positive impact on psychological well-being. Deaf individuals undertake genetic testing for deaf genes to increase self-knowledge. Because deafness is considered a non-medical trait by many individuals, we hypothesized that deaf individuals receiving a genetic explanation for why they are deaf will experience increased psychological well-being. We report results from a prospective, longitudinal study to determine the impact of genetic testing (GJB2, Cx26; GJB6, Cx30) on perceived personal control (PPC), anxiety, and depression in deaf adults (N = 209) assessed following pre-test genetic counseling as well as 1-month and 6-months following test result disclosure. Participants were classified as Cx positive (n = 82) or Cx negative/inconclusive (n = 127). There was significant evidence for Cx group differences in PPC and anxiety over time (PPC: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.0007; anxiety: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.002), where PPC scores were significantly higher, and anxiety scores were significantly lower for the Cx positive group relative to the negative/inconclusive group following test result disclosure. Compared to pre-test, PPC scores increased at 1-month (p = 0.07) and anxiety scores decreased at 6-months (p = 0.03) for the Cx positive group. In contrast, PPC scores decreased (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001) and anxiety scores increased (p = 0.09, p = 0.02) for the Cx negative/inconclusive group at 1- and 6-months post test result disclosure. Genetic testing for deaf genes affects the psychological well-being of deaf individuals. Increasing deaf adults' access to genetic testing may potentially enhance self-knowledge and increase psychological well-being for those who receive a genetic explanation, which could offer downstream health benefits.

  13. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  14. Deaf Genetic Testing and Psychological Well-Being in Deaf Adults

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christina G.S.; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Deignan, Joshua L.; Kobayashi, Yoko; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Limited data suggest that enhanced self-knowledge from genetic information related to non-medical traits can have a positive impact on psychological well-being. Deaf individuals undertake genetic testing for deaf genes to increase self-knowledge. Because deafness is considered a non-medical trait by many individuals, we hypothesized that deaf individuals receiving a genetic explanation for why they are deaf will experience increased psychological well-being. We report results from a prospective, longitudinal study to determine the impact of genetic testing (GJB2, Cx26; GJB6, Cx30) on perceived personal control (PPC), anxiety, and depression in deaf adults (N=209) assessed following pre-test genetic counseling as well as 1-month and 6-months following test result disclosure. Participants were classified as Cx positive (n=82) or Cx negative/inconclusive (n=127). There was significant evidence for Cx group differences in PPC and anxiety over time (PPC: Cx group*time interaction p=0.0007; anxiety: Cx group*time interaction p=0.002), where PPC scores were significantly higher, and anxiety scores were significantly lower for the Cx positive group relative to the negative/inconclusive group following test result disclosure. Compared to pre-test, PPC scores increased at 1-month (p=0.07) and anxiety scores decreased at 6-months for the Cx positive group (p=0.03). In contrast, PPC scores decreased (p=0.009, p<0.0001) and anxiety scores increased (p=0.09, p=0.02) for the Cx negative/inconclusive group at 1- and 6-months post test result disclosure. Genetic testing for deaf genes affects the psychological well-being of deaf individuals. Increasing deaf adults’ access to genetic testing may potentially enhance self-knowledge and increase psychological well-being for those who receive a genetic explanation, which could offer downstream health benefits. PMID:23430402

  15. Error analysis and passage dependency of test items from a standardized test of multiple-sentence reading comprehension for aphasic and non-brain-damaged adults.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, L E; Brookshire, R H

    1987-11-01

    Aphasic and non-brain-damaged adults were tested with two forms of the Nelson Reading Skills Test (NRST; Hanna. Schell, & Schreiner, 1977). The NRST is a standardized measure of silent reading for students in Grades 3 through 9 and assesses comprehension of information at three levels of inference (literal, translational, and higher level). Subjects' responses to NRST test items were evaluated to determine if their performance differed on literal, translational, and higher level items. Subjects' performance was also evaluated to determine the passage dependency of NRST test items--the extent to which readers had to rely on information in the NRST reading passages to answer test items. Higher level NRST test items (requiring complex inferences) were significantly more difficult for both non-brain-damaged and aphasic adults than literal items (not requiring inferences) or translational items (requiring simple inferences). The passage dependency of NRST test items for aphasic readers was higher than those reported by Nicholas, MacLennan, and Brookshire (1986) for multiple-sentence reading tests designed for aphasic adults. This suggests that the NRST is a more valid measure of the multiple-sentence reading comprehension of aphasic adults than the other tests evaluated by Nicholas et al. (1986).

  16. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for Stroop Color-Word Interference and Tower of London-Drexel University tests.

    PubMed

    Rognoni, T; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-03-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop) measures cognitive flexibility, selective attention, cognitive inhibition and information processing speed. The Tower of London-Drexel University version test (TOL) assesses higher-order problem solving and executive planning abilities. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present normative data for the Stroop and young adults TOL tests. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Scores adjusted for sociodemographic factors were obtained by applying linear regression techniques. No effects were found for age and sex in either test. Educational level impacted most of the Stroop test variables and some of the TOL scores (Total Moves score and Total Initiation Time score). The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Proportion of adults fasting for lipid testing relative to guideline changes in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Irene; Viczko, Jeannine; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines have historically recommended measuring lipid profile tests in a fasting state. However, in April 2011 and 2014, the Canadian city of Calgary and its province of Alberta, respectively, have changed their lipid guidelines to allow testing for individuals in any fasting state; several years prior to the release of the 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Hypertension Canada guidelines. The purpose of this study was to document the proportion of individuals in Calgary who fasted for a lipid encounter in relation to the change in various guidelines and policies. Counts were collected each month per gender from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2016 for community-based adults ≥18years old who fasted (≥8h) or did not fast (<8h) for a lipid encounter. During the study period, 793,719 community-based lipid profiles were performed, 590,174 in a fasting state. The proportion of adults who fasted declined from 98.59%±0.379% (mean±SD) in 2010 to 41.65%±1.295% (mean±SD) in 2016. However, a marked decline in the proportion of adults fasting for a lipid encounter was not observed until February 2015, which coincided with the release of Alberta's Toward Optimized Practice Clinical Practice Guidelines. This documentation of individuals fasting for a lipid encounter may assist other jurisdictions in Canada with the new nonfasting lipid guideline changes. We recommend releasing provincial clinical practice guidelines, in addition to laboratory bulletins and continuing medical education presentations, regarding the new nonfasting lipid recommendations in other jurisdictions to ensure community patients are aware of this change. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance validity testing in a clinical sample of adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Dorociak, Katherine E; Schulze, Evan T; Piper, Lauren E; Molokie, Robert E; Janecek, Julie K

    2017-06-15

    Neuropsychologists utilize performance validity tests (PVTs) as objective means for drawing inferences about performance validity. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a well-validated, stand-alone PVT and the Reliable Digit Span (RDS) and Reliable Digit Span-Revised (RDS-R) from the Digit Span subtest of the WAIS-IV are commonly employed, embedded PVTs. While research has demonstrated the utility of these PVTs with various clinical samples, no research has investigated their use in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition associated with multiple neurological, physical, and psychiatric symptoms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore PVT performance in adults with SCD. Fifty-four adults with SCD (Mage = 40.61, SD = 12.35) were consecutively referred by their hematologist for a routine clinical outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. During the evaluation, participants were administered the TOMM (Trials 1 and 2), neuropsychological measures including the WAIS-IV Digit Span subtest, and mood and behavioral questionnaires. The average score on the TOMM was 47.70 (SD = 3.47, range = 34-50) for Trial 1 and 49.69 (SD = 1.66, range = 38-50) for Trial 2. Only one participant failed Trial 2 of the TOMM, yielding a 98.1% pass rate for the sample. Pass rates at various RDS and RDS-R values were calculated with TOMM Trial 2 performance as an external criterion. Results support the use of the TOMM as a measure of performance validity for individuals with SCD, while RDS and RDS-R should be interpreted with caution in this population.

  19. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  20. Photoperiod-induced differential expression of angiogenesis genes in testes of adult Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Pyter, Leah M; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Nelson, Randy J

    2005-02-01

    Non-pathological angiogenesis in adults is rare and is largely thought to be restricted to wound healing and female reproductive cycles. Adult male rodents, however, display seasonal angiogenesis to support seasonal changes in reproductive tissue morphology. Non-tropical rodents use photoperiod (day length) to determine the time of year. During short days, the reproductive system undergoes involution and mating behaviours stop, adaptations which presumably allow energy resources to be shifted to processes necessary for winter survival. We compared the patterns of gene expression involved in angiogenesis in testes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) following 7, 14, 21 or 34 weeks of long or short day lengths. Short days decreased body mass, reproductive tract mass and seminiferous tubule diameter. Potential genes involved in seasonal angiogenesis were screened by hybridizing testicular RNA from each group to angiogenesis-specific microarrays. Genes that were > or =6-fold different between long- and short-day testes (i.e. hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha(Hif1alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 (Tgfbetar3) and tumour necrosis factor (Tnf )) were sequenced and expression differences were compared throughout gonadal regression and recrudescence using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results suggest that short days trigger expression of Hif1alpha, Serpine1, and Tgfbetar3 to inhibit angiogenesis or promote apoptosis during testicular regression, and also trigger expression of Tnf to promote angiogenesis during testicular recrudescence.

  1. Clinical comparison of the Bactec Mycosis IC/F, BacT/Alert FA, and BacT/Alert FN blood culture vials for the detection of candidemia.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Eva-Lena; Klingspor, Lena; Ullberg, Måns; Ozenci, Volkan

    2012-06-01

    The present study analyzed the performance of Bactec Mycosis IC/F, BacT/Alert FA, and BacT/Alert FN vials in detection and time to detection (TTD) of Candida spp. in 179 simultaneous blood cultures. The Mycosis IC/F, BacT/Alert FA, and BacT/Alert FN vials could detect Candida spp. in 144 (80.45%) of 179, 149 (83.24%) of 179, and 8 (4.47%) of 179 samples, respectively. With the presence of antifungal therapy, the numbers of positive vials were higher in BacT/Alert FA compared to Mycosis IC/F, 87/99 versus 73/99, respectively (P < 0.05). TTD (SD) for C. albicans was shorter in Mycosis IC/F than in BacT/Alert FA vials without antifungal therapy, 20.89 (9.33) versus 28.26 (9.77), respectively (P < 0.01). The detection of Candida spp., with concomitant bacteremia, was higher in Mycosis IC/F than in BacT/Alert FA vials, 28/30 and 19/30, respectively (P = 0.01). The present data show that the use of Bactec Mycosis IC/F together with BacT/Alert FA vials might improve the detection of Candida spp.

  2. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  3. Stroop Color-Word Interference Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Perrin, P B; Stevens, L F; Garza, M T; Weil, C; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rábago, B; Weiler, G; García de la Cadena, C; Longoni, M; Martínez, C; Ocampo-Barba, N; Aliaga, A; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Guerra, A; Esenarro, L; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Stroop Test across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the Stroop Test, as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 14-36% of the variance in Stroop Word scores, 12-41% of the variance in the Stoop Color, 14-36% of the variance in the Stroop Word-Color scores, and 4-15% of variance in Stroop Interference scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on the Stroop test, none of the countries had an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the Stoop Test in a Spanish-Speaking sample. This study will therefore have important implications for the future of neuropsychology research and practice throughout the region.

  4. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  5. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Setti, Annalisa; Loughman, James; Savva, George M; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health.

  6. Children's and adults' spontaneous false memories: long-term persistence and mere-testing effects.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Mojardin, A H

    1998-10-01

    In studies of children's false memories of word lists, it has been found that false alarms are stable over long-term retention intervals (persistence effect), that the stability of false alarms can equal or exceed that of hits, that earlier memory tests increase the frequency of hits on later tests (true-memory inoculation effect), that earlier memory tests increase the frequency of false alarms on later tests (false-memory creation effect), and that test-induced increases in false alarms can equal or exceed increases for hits. We studied these phenomena in 6-, 8-, and 11-year-olds and in adults using short narratives about everyday objects and events. All of the phenomena were detected at all ages, but levels of spontaneous memory falsification were much higher than for word lists and patterns of developmental change were somewhat different. Important new findings were that the persistence effect and the false-memory creation effect were greatest for statements that would be regarded as factually incorrect reports of events in sworn testimony and that, like suggestive questioning, interviews that involve nonsuggestive recognition questions may nevertheless taint children's memories.

  7. "Tailored" submaximal step test for VO2max prediction in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bellotti, Cecilia; Paterson, Donald H

    2014-04-01

    The authors developed and validated a "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test (tA-R) and a new equation for VO2max prediction in older adults (OA). Sixty subjects (age 68 ± 4 yr, 30 male, 30 female) performed their tA-R step test (5-min, 30-cm step, tailored stepping rate) and an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. VO2max was (a) predicted using the standard A-R equation (predicted VO2max), (b) predicted based on the authors' new multiple linear equation (equation VO2max), and (c) directly measured by incremental cycling test (direct VO2max). Agreement among values of VO2max was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. The predicted VO2max was not significantly different from the direct VO2max, yet with relatively large imprecision. The equation VO2max allowed more precise as well as accurate predictions of VO2max compared with standard A-R prediction. The "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test and the new prediction equation appear suitable for a rapid (5-min), safe (submaximal), accurate, and precise VO2max prediction in healthy OA.

  8. The Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT): Initial psychometric, validation, and physiological evidence in young adults.

    PubMed

    Abeare, Christopher A; Freund, Sabrina; Kaploun, Kristen; McAuley, Tara; Dumitrescu, Claudiu

    2017-10-01

    The clinical assessment of affective functioning has been slow to incorporate findings from affective neuroscience. Of particular interest in the current study is the assessment of affective word production. In a series of four studies, we examined test-retest and interrater reliability for the Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT), basic construct validity with existing verbal fluency measures, physiological responses across verbal fluency tasks, and a novel scoring method to examine qualitative aspects of participant response sets. Results demonstrated interrater and test-retest reliability values that were comparable to those of other commonly used verbal fluency tests. Construct validity was demonstrated by relations between the EWFT and other verbal fluency tests as well as through physiological evidence that performance on the EWFT is related to greater sympathetic activity than traditional verbal fluency tasks. Lastly, some of the novel scoring metrics related to two self-report measures of emotional functioning. Taken together, our findings provide initial support for the use of the EWFT as a measure of emotion word generation ability in young adults. This measure may prove to be useful in the assessment of affective language production in patient populations.

  9. Relationship between Barthel index with physical tests in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Pérez-Cruzado, David

    2014-01-01

    We usually find low levels of fitness condition affect other aspects of living for people with ID like dependency in carrying out activivities of daily living. Therefore we find high levels of dependency in activities of daily living due to poor fitness condition. The aim of the study is to explore the criterion validity of the Barthel index with a physical fitness test. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. Data from the Barthel index and a physical fitness test were measured in 122 adults with intellectual disability. The data were analysed to find out the relationship between four categories of the physical fitness test and the Barthel index. It needs to be stressed that the correlations between the Barthel index and leg, abdominal and arm strength can confirm that these physical test are predictive of the Barthel index. The correlations between the balance variables as functional reach and single-leg stance with eyes open shown relationships with Barthel Index. We found important correlations between the physical fitness test and the Barthel index, so we can affirm that some physical fitness features are predictor variables of the Barthel index.

  10. Evaluation of R-Mix shell vials for the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Adriana; Brewster, Lori; Clark, Julia; Simoes, Eric

    2004-05-01

    Respiratory viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality. The management of these infections can be improved by a rapid diagnosis and administration of available virus-specific therapy. The goal of this study was to compare R-Mix, an engineered tissue monolayer for rapid shell vial (SV) diagnosis of viral respiratory infections, with conventional tissue culture (TC) and conventional respiratory SV (primary rhesus monkey kidney (RhMK) and Hep2 monolayers). The primary outcome measure was sensitivity for detection of influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza 1-3, and adenovirus. The study was performed in two phases: (1) the three methods were compared using 250 nasal washes from children with lower respiratory tract infections; (2) a modified R-Mix SV harvesting schedule (SV were harvested at 24 and 120 h) was compared with TC and conventional RhMK/Hep2 SV using 311 respiratory specimens. A total of 110 viruses were identified in the first and 55 in the second phase. Diagnostic accuracies of R-Mix harvested at 24, 48, and 120 h were 98%, whereas for TC varied between 99 and 100%, and for RhMK/Hep2 SV between 98 and 99%. Sensitivities of R-Mix harvested at 24, 48, and 120 h were 26, 75, and 47%, respectively, whereas for TC varied between 60 and 94%, and for RhMK/Hep2 SV between 62 and 85%. R-Mix harvested at 48 h represent a valuable substitute for RhMK/Hep2 SV because they have comparable sensitivities and diagnostic accuracies, but R-Mix offers several technical advantages. In contrast, R-Mix harvested at 24h did not seem a very useful diagnostic tool. The utility of R-Mix harvested at 120 h, which accelerated the diagnosis of 16% of positive specimens in study phase 2, needs further investigation.

  11. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  12. Why Take an HIV Test? Concerns, Benefits, and Strategies to Promote HIV Testing among Low-Income Heterosexual African American Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…

  13. Puget Sound Route Learning Test: Examination of the Validity and Reliability of a Novel Route Test in Healthy Older Adults and Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiernan, Kristine N.; Schenk, Kelli; Swadberg, Danielle; Shimonova, Marianna; Schollaert, Daniel; Boorkman, Patti; Cherrier, Monique M.

    2004-01-01

    The validity and reliability of a novel route learning test were examined to assess the effectiveness of its use in evaluating spatial memory in healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Puget Sound Route Learning Test was significantly correlated with an existing measure of cognitive ability, the Dementia Rating Scale.…

  14. Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index as a Diagnostic Test for Insulin Resistance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Méndez-Cruz, René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2016-07-01

    Although the Glucose and Triglyceride levels (TyG) index is useful for identification of insulin resistance (IR) in different ethnic groups, it has not been evaluated in young adults. We undertook this study to evaluate the TyG index as a diagnostic test for IR in young adults. A total of 5,538 healthy young adults, 3,795 (68.5%) non-pregnant women and 1,743 (31.5%) men, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. To estimate diagnostic characteristics of the TyG index, a randomized subsample of the target population (n = 75) was under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Using the cutoff values obtained in the clamp study, the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was evaluated in the overall population. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)]/2. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were identified in 3,632 (65.6%), 1,355 (24.5%), and 551 (9.9%) participants. A total of 346 (9.1%) men and 278 (15.9%) women exhibited IR. The best cutoff value of TyG index for diagnosis of IR was 4.55 (sensitivity 0.687, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.844, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.47) for women and 4.68 (sensitivity 0.673, NPV 0.900, and NLR 0.45) for men. In normal-weight individuals the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was 0.934 and 0.915, in the overweight subjects was 0.908 and 0.895 and, in the obese participants 0.916 and 0.950, for men and women, respectively. TyG index may be useful for screening IR in young adults. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical factors underlying the Timed "Up and Go" test in older adults.

    PubMed

    Benavent-Caballer, Vicent; Sendín-Magdalena, Alejandro; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Salvador-Coloma, Pablo; Segura-Ortí, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a range of selected physical measures for their relative contributions and extent to which they may explain the performance of the Timed "Up and Go" test (TUG) in a sample of healthy older adults. The participants where 194 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment and independent in their daily activities from local senior centres and a geriatric nursing home in Valencia, Spain. Age, body mass index (BMI), TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS), One-leg stand test (OLS), grip strength, chair stand test (STS-5), knee extension strength and rectus femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) where measured. Moderate to high significant associations were found between the TUG performance and BBS and knee extension strength (r = -.561 and -.397). A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the BBS was a significant and independent predictor (AdjR(2) = .373) for the TUG performance. The TUG is highly correlated with the BBS score and knee extension strength, measures that represent common performance tasks in everyday life. The BBS was demonstrated to be the most significant factor explaining the TUG performance. The TUG is demonstrated to be a useful tool for predicting changes in functional balance measured with the BBS. The mobility decline may be better explained as the sum of deficits across multiple domains rather than as a single entity. Clinicians would benefit of those findings by a better understanding of the physical measures, in addition to designing more accurate interventions focusing on the enhancement of mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bi-factor analyses of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Crane, Paul K.; Dams-O’Connor, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Telephone cognitive batteries are useful for large-scale screening and epidemiological studies, but their brevity and lack of content depth may cause psychometric limitations that hinder their utility. OBJECTIVE The current study addressed some of these limitations by rescaling the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT; Tun & Lachman, 2006) using modern psychometric methods. METHODS Archival data were obtained from a national sample of 4,212 28-84-year-old volunteers in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (Ryff et al., 2007) Cognitive Project (Ryff & Lachman, 2007). We fit a bi-factor model to a combination of item-level, subscale-level, and scale-level data. RESULTS The best fitting model contained a general factor and secondary factors capturing test-specific method effects or residual correlations for Number Series, Red/Green Test, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Factor scores generated from this model were compared with conventional BTACT scores. Important score differences (i.e., >0.3 standard deviation units) were found in 28% of the sample. The bi-factor scores demonstrated slightly superior validity than conventional BTACT scores when judged against a number of clinical and demographic criterion variables. CONCLUSIONS Modern psychometric approaches to scoring the BTACT have the benefit of linear scaling and a modest criterion validity advantage. PMID:23535786

  17. The modified Romberg Balance Test: normative data in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Yuri; Carey, John P; Hoffman, Howard J; Sklare, Daniel A; Schubert, Michael C

    2011-10-01

    To generate normative values for performance on the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces stratified by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and to determine fall risk associated with different levels of performance. National cross-sectional survey. Ambulatory examination centers. U.S. adults 40 years and older who participated in the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5,086). Time to failure on the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces. History of falling in the previous 12 months. We observed that the time to failure decreased with increasing age across all sex and race/ethnicity categories. We found that once individuals went below a time to failure of 20 seconds, there was a significant greater than 3-fold increase in the odds of falling. In general, participants crossed the 20-second threshold at the age of 60 to 69 years. We established nationally representative normative values for performance on the modified Romberg test and noted differences in the rates of change across demographic groups. In addition, we demonstrated the fall risk associated with different levels of performance. These data will aid the clinician in interpreting and risk stratifying their patient's performance on this postural test.

  18. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Howat, Peter A; Pratt, Iain S; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J; Kerr, Deborah Anne

    2016-01-19

    Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing "junk food" and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a substitution tone for fruit and vegetable

  19. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  20. Ideal vial size for bortezomib: real-world data on waste and cost reduction in treatment of multiple myeloma in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Clark, Luciana; Castro, Ana Paula; Fortes, Anna Flávia; Santos, Fábio; Clark, Otávio; Engel, Tobias; Pegoretti, Bruna; Teich, Vanessa; Vianna, Denizar; Puty, Fabíola

    2011-01-01

    Single-size vials of drugs may be a source of waste and increase in treatment costs. Bortezomib, indicated for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment, is available in 3.5-mg vials, a quantity higher than the average dose commonly prescribed. This analysis aimed to demonstrate, through real-world data, which would be the optimal vial presentation for bortezomib in Brazil and quantify the reduction in medication waste related to this option. From November 2007 to October 2009 all patients with MM treated with bortezomib were identified via the Evidências database. Analysis of prescribed, dispensed, and wasted doses, their costs and projections of the ideal vial size were performed. Thirty-five patients (mean body surface area of 1.73 m(2)) received 509 infusions in 131 cycles of treatment (average of 3.77 cycles per patient). The average dose prescribed was 2.1 mg per infusion (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.97-2.26) with average waste of 39.5% of the vial content (95% CI 35.35-43.76). The mean waste per patient per day was 1.38 mg (95% CI 1.24-1.52). If a 3-mg vial were available, the average drug waste per patient per day would be 0.88 mg (95% CI 0.74-1.03) or 36.2% less. With a 2.5-mg vial the waste would be 1.05 mg (95% CI 0.81-1.29) or 23.9% less. If two presentations were available (2.5 mg and 0.5 mg), the waste would be 0.52 mg (95% CI 0.4-0.63) or 62.5% less. Considering the price of the different vials to be proportional to the original 3.5-mg vial, the cost would be also reduced by the same rates described above. A simple adjustment in vial size may reduce the waste of bortezomib by 36% to 62% and can also reduce the cost of treatment. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adult Patients' Perspectives on the Benefits and Harms of Overused Screening Tests: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Sutkowi-Hemstreet, Anne; Vu, Maihan; Harris, Russell; Brewer, Noel T; Dolor, Rowena J; Sheridan, Stacey L

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in reducing the overuse of healthcare services. However, little is known about how patients conceptualize the benefits and harms of overused screening tests or how patients make decisions regarding these tests. To determine how patients think about the harms and benefits of overused screening tests and how they consider these and other factors when making decisions. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews. The study comprised 50 patients, ages 50-84, who had previously received or not received any of four overused screening services: 1) prostate cancer screening (men ages 50-69), 2) colon cancer screening (men and women ages 76-85), 3) osteoporosis screening (low-risk women ages 50-64), or 4) cardiovascular disease screening (low-risk men and women ages 50-85). We conducted a thematic analysis, using a hybrid inductive-deductive approach. Two independent coders analyzed interview transcriptions to identify themes and exemplifying quotes. Many patients could not name a harm of screening. When they did name harms, patients often focused on only the harms of the screening test itself and rarely mentioned harms further along the screening cascade (e.g., from follow-up testing and treatment). In contrast, patients could easily name benefits of screening, although many seemed to misunderstand or overestimate the magnitude of the benefits. Furthermore, patients described many additional factors they considered when making screening decisions, including their clinicians' recommendations, their age, family or friends' experiences with disease, and insurance coverage. This study highlights the need to help adults recognize and understand the benefits and harms of screening and make appropriate decisions about overused screening tests.

  2. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842

  3. Smoking Status and Exercise in relation to PTSD Symptoms: A Test among Trauma-Exposed Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Farris, Samantha G.; Harte, Christopher B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effect of cigarette smoking status (i.e., regular smoking versus non-smoking) and weekly exercise (i.e., weekly metabolic equivalent) in terms of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) symptom severity among a community sample of trauma-exposed adults. Participants included 86 trauma-exposed adults (58.1% female; Mage = 24.3). Approximately 59.7% of participants reported regular (≥ 10 cigarettes per day) daily smoking over the past year. The interactive effect of smoking status by weekly exercise was significantly associated with hyperarousal and avoidance symptom cluster severity (p ≤ .05). These effects were evident above and beyond number of trauma types and gender, as well as the respective main effects of smoking status and weekly exercise. Follow-up tests indicated support for the moderating role of exercise on the association between smoking and PTSD symptoms, such that the highest levels of PTSD symptoms were observed among regular smokers reporting low weekly exercise levels. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24273598

  4. Psychometric testing of the Revised Humane Caring Scale for adult patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mien Li; Ang, Emily N K; Chan, Yiong-Huak; He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of the Revised Humane Caring Scale as used by adult patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A three-phase descriptive quantitative study was conducted. In phase I, an expert panel of nurses and inpatients examined the content validity of the scale; phase II comprised a pilot study on 20 patients; and in phase III, a large-scale study on 235 patients was implemented to test the internal consistency of the scale. The results revealed that the content validity index of the scale ranged from 0.856 to 1, and the scale had a high inter-rater agreement kappa value of 0.940. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.798 to 0.877 in phase II, and from 0.579 to 0.760 in phase III, respectively. The Revised Humane Caring Scale revealed good content validity and an acceptable level of internal consistency. The scale is an acceptable measurement tool for evaluating adult patients' satisfaction during hospitalization.

  5. Test of the depression distress amplification model in young adults with elevated risk of current suicidality.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-11-30

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression.

  6. Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Pereira, César R; Samuels, Richard I

    2013-09-08

    Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

  7. Single vial sample preparation of markers of nerve agents by dispersive solid-phase extraction using magnetic strong anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-05-22

    A sample preparation method involving extraction, enrichment and derivatization of acidic degradation products of nerve agents was developed using magnetic strong anion exchange resins (MSAX). The method was performed in a single vial involving magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE). Analytes were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) in the presence of resins. MSAX were custom synthesized using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, 4-vinylpyridine-co-divinylbenzene as polymer shell and quaternary pyridinium function as anion-exchanger. Hydroxide ions were the counter-anions of MSAX to effectively capture the acidic alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs). Quantitative measurements of analytes were performed in the selected ion monitoring mode of GC-MS. Full scan mode of analysis was followed for identifications. Under the optimized conditions analytes were recovered in the range of 39.7-98.8% (n=3, relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.3 to 6.5%). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.1-1.1ngmL(-1); and the linear dynamic range was 5-1000ngmL(-1) with r(2) of 0.9977-0.9769. Applicability of the method was tested with rain-, tap-, muddy-water and Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  9. 78 FR 5430 - Extension of Approval Period for Certain Tests Used in the National Reporting System for Adult...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Extension of Approval Period for Certain Tests Used in the National Reporting System for Adult Education... period. SUMMARY: The Secretary announces an extension of the approval period for tests that were determined to be suitable for use in the National Reporting System for a period of three years, which would...

  10. Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Subtests and the Halstead-Reitan Category and Tapping Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdell, Herbert; Donnelly, Edward F.

    1977-01-01

    Scores from 94 psychiatric and neurological patients on the 11 subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Halstead-Reitan Category and Finger Tapping tests were used in a factor analysis. The Category Test is not particularly sensitive to all types of brain pathology. (Author)

  11. Effects of Diurnal Variation and Caffeine Consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) Performance in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Momjian, Ani J.; Wong, Keri K.

    2011-01-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample…

  12. The role of switching, inhibition and working memory in older adults' performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Gamboz, Nadia; Borella, Erika; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2009-05-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is considered a typical executive test. However, several interesting questions are still open as to the specific executive processes underlying this task. In the present study, we explored how local and global switching, inhibition and working memory, assessed through the Number-Letter, the Stop Signal and the Reading Span tasks, relate to older adults' performance in the WCST. Results showed that older adults' performance variability in the number of perseverative errors was predicted by the local switch component of the Number-Letter task. Results also showed age-related differences in inhibition, working memory and global switching, while local switching resulted largely spared in aging. This study provides evidence that switching abilities may contribute to performance of older adults in the WCST. It also provides initial evidence suggesting that switching processes, associated with local switch costs, are involved in performance on the WCST, at least in older adults.

  13. Neighborhood social capital and adult health: an empirical test of a Bourdieu-based model.

    PubMed

    Carpiano, Richard M

    2007-09-01

    Drawing upon Bourdieu's [1986. The forms of capital. In: Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood, New York, pp. 241-258.] social capital theory, I test a conceptual model of neighborhood conditions and social capital - considering relationships between neighborhood social capital forms (social support, social leverage, informal social control, and neighborhood organization participation) and adult health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking) and perceived health, as well as interactions between neighborhood social capital and individuals' access to that social capital. Analyzing Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data linked with tract level census data, results suggest that specific social capital forms were directly associated with both positive and negative health outcomes. Additionally, residents' neighborhood attachment moderated relationships between various social capital forms and health. Future studies should consider social capital resources and the role of differential access to such resources for promoting or compromising health.

  14. Perceptual and cognitive neural correlates of the useful field of view test in older adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer L; Lister, Jennifer J; Peronto, Carol L; Edwards, Jerri D

    2015-10-22

    The Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) is often used as a behavioral assessment of age-related decline in visual perception and cognition. Poor performance may reflect slowed processing speed, difficulty dividing attention, and difficulty ignoring irrelevant information. However, the underlying neural correlates of UFOV performance have not been identified. The relationship between older adults' UFOV performance and event-related potential (ERP) components reflecting visual processing was examined. P1 amplitude increased with better UFOV performance involving object identification (subtest 1), suggesting that this task is associated with stimulus processing at an early perceptual level. Better performance in all UFOV subtests was associated with faster speed of processing, as reflected by decreases in P3b latency. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that the UFOV recruits both early perceptual and later cognitive processing involved in attentional control. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463

  16. Comparative effects of X irradiation on the testes of adult Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delic, J I; Schlappack, O K; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-10-01

    The response of the testes of two strains of adult rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) to graded single doses and split doses of 230 kVp X rays has been investigated. A marked difference was noted between the strains in the response of the clonogenic spermatogonia to irradiation, as measured histologically by the repopulation index. Single-dose response curves derived for these cells in the Sprague-Dawley strain had a much larger shoulder (up to about 4-5 Gy) than for the Wistar (less than 2 Gy). Split-dose studies revealed that this difference may partly be explained by a greater repair capacity in the cells of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Changes in serum FSH concentrations mirrored the changes in clonogenic spermatogonial survival following split doses of radiation.

  17. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links With Measures of Psychopathology and Adult Attachment.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003 ) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form (Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007 ), Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991 ), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (Derogatis, 1983 ). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology, and adult attachment. Overall, health dependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Development and pilot testing of a bicycle safety questionnaire for adult bicyclists.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Carrie A

    2002-01-01

    Most deaths associated with bicycle riding are reported in those over the age of 16 and the highest death rate per million trips is reported in those over the age of 50, yet most efforts to reduce deaths among bicycle riders have focused on children. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a new instrument designed to assess knowledge of bicycle laws and perception of risk related to specific host behaviors and agents of injury. A pilot study using a descriptive correlational design was conducted among a convenience sample of 104 adult bicycle riders. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to participants (10 knowledge items, 15 belief items). There were no significant differences in total knowledge or belief score for gender, age group, riding frequency, education, or formal bicycle training. Significant differences were found for responses to individual items on both scales. Psychometric testing indicated that items on the knowledge scale were independent. Psychometric testing on the belief scale suggested three underlying constructs measuring beliefs about riding behavior, agents of injury, and user burden. Bicycle riders with previous safety training had significantly different scores on the riding behavior and user burden subscales.

  19. Appraisal of suicidal risk among adolescents and young adults through the Rorschach test.

    PubMed

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Grygielski, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group with suicidal ideation (n = 30), a group with parasuicidal behavior (n = 30), a group with near-lethal suicide attempts (n = 26), and a control group (n = 30). Responses to the Rorschach test yielded 6 potential indicators of suicidal behavior (scored according to Exner's Comprehensive System and the Suicidal Index for Adolescents; Silberg & Armstrong, 1992 ). Rorschach scores including at least 4 of these 6 indicators selected 69% of the people who had committed serious suicide attempts. The Rorschach Suicidal Index reached an acceptable reliability and was related to other criteria of suicide risk, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and Linehan Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL-I; Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, & Chiles, 1983). Moreover, the Rorschach Suicidal Index showed incremental validity over the BDI and the RFL-I to predict suicidal behavior. A path analysis additionally showed that low social support was an important mediator between the Rorschach Suicidal Index and the number of suicide attempts committed by participants.

  20. Development of the Korean Adult Reading Test (KART) to estimate premorbid intelligence in dementia patients

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eun Hyun; Han, Ji Young; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Byun, Min Soo; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Ahn, Suzy; Woo, Jong Inn; Jun, Jongho; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV). Among the 94 words, 50 words that did not show a significant difference between the CN and the AD group were selected and constituted the KART. Using the 30 CN calculation group (CNc), a linear regression equation was obtained in which the observed full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was regressed on the reading errors of the KART, where education was included as an additional variable. When the regressed equation computed from the CNc was applied to 30 CN individuals of the validation group (CNv), the predicted FSIQ adequately fit the observed FSIQ (R2 = 0.63). In addition, independent sample t-test showed that the KART-predicted IQs were not significantly different between the CNv and AD groups, whereas the performance of the AD group was significantly worse in the observed IQs. In addition, an extended validation of the KART was performed with a separate sample consisted of 84 CN, 56 elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 43 AD patients who were administered comprehensive neuropsychological assessments in addition to the KART. When the equation obtained from the CNc was applied to the extended validation sample, the KART-predicted IQs of the AD, MCI and the CN groups did not significantly differ, whereas their current global cognition scores significantly differed between the groups. In conclusion, the results support the validity of KART-predicted IQ as an index of premorbid IQ in individuals with AD. PMID:28723964

  1. Development of the Korean Adult Reading Test (KART) to estimate premorbid intelligence in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dahyun; Seo, Eun Hyun; Han, Ji Young; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Byun, Min Soo; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Ahn, Suzy; Woo, Jong Inn; Jun, Jongho; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV). Among the 94 words, 50 words that did not show a significant difference between the CN and the AD group were selected and constituted the KART. Using the 30 CN calculation group (CNc), a linear regression equation was obtained in which the observed full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was regressed on the reading errors of the KART, where education was included as an additional variable. When the regressed equation computed from the CNc was applied to 30 CN individuals of the validation group (CNv), the predicted FSIQ adequately fit the observed FSIQ (R2 = 0.63). In addition, independent sample t-test showed that the KART-predicted IQs were not significantly different between the CNv and AD groups, whereas the performance of the AD group was significantly worse in the observed IQs. In addition, an extended validation of the KART was performed with a separate sample consisted of 84 CN, 56 elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 43 AD patients who were administered comprehensive neuropsychological assessments in addition to the KART. When the equation obtained from the CNc was applied to the extended validation sample, the KART-predicted IQs of the AD, MCI and the CN groups did not significantly differ, whereas their current global cognition scores significantly differed between the groups. In conclusion, the results support the validity of KART-predicted IQ as an index of premorbid IQ in individuals with AD.

  2. Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Anagnostouli, Maria; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT) scores in a large sample of Greek healthy participants. We included 775 participants and administered the TMT (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Wechsler Intelligence Adult Scale (WAIS). Direct (TMT-A & TMT-B time-to-completion) and derived [difference TMT-(B - A) & ratio TMT-(B/A)] scores were calculated. Demographics (age, age(2), education, and gender) and WAIS Full Intelligence Quotient significantly predicted the direct TMT-A (R(2) = 0.426) and TMT-B (R(2) = 0.593) scores and to a lesser extent, the derived TMT-(B - A) (R(2) = 0.343) and TMT-(B/A) (R(2) = 0.088) scores. In a subsample of 537 healthy participants who also completed the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST), demographics (age and education), WAIS Digit Symbol, Block Design, Arithmetic, and SNST accounted for 44.8% and 59.7% of the variance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and 32.5% and 9.6% of the variance on TMT-(B - A) and TMT-(B/A), respectively. We found minimal influence of Block Design and Arithmetic on TMT-(B - A) and an absence of significant influence of any cognitive variable on TMT-(B/A) score. Concluding, derived TMT scores are suggested as indices to detect impairment in cognitive flexibility across the adult life span, since they minimize the effect of demographics and other cognitive background variables.

  3. Eosinophilic Esophagitis From an Allergy Perspective: How to Optimally Pursue Allergy Testing & Dietary Modification in the Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. In adults, the three most common treatment options are swallowed steroids, elimination diets, and periodic esophageal dilations. Many different elimination diets have been studied in adults, including elemental diets, allergy testing-directed diets, and empiric elimination diets. This article will review the existing data on these dietary therapies and will propose an approach to dietary management in adult EoE. PMID:27726042

  4. From "aisle" to "labile": A hierarchical National Adult Reading Test scale revealed by Mokken scaling.

    PubMed

    McGrory, Sarah; Austin, Elizabeth J; Shenkin, Susan D; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-09-01

    Decline in cognitive ability is a core diagnostic criterion for dementia. Knowing the extent of decline requires a baseline score from which change can be reckoned. In the absence of prior cognitive ability scores, vocabulary-based cognitive tests are used to estimate premorbid cognitive ability. It is important that such tests are short yet informative, to maximize information and practicability. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) is commonly used to estimate premorbid intelligence. People are asked to pronounce 50 words ranging from easy to difficult but whether its words conform to a hierarchy is unknown. Five hundred eighty-seven healthy community-dwelling older people with known age 11 IQ scores completed the NART as part of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Mokken analysis was used to explore item responses for unidimensional, ordinal, and hierarchical scales. A strong hierarchical scale ("mini-NART") of 23 of the 50 items was identified. These items are invariantly ordered across all ability levels. The validity of the interpretation of this briefer scale's score as an estimate of premorbid ability was examined using the actual age 11 IQ score. The mini-NART accounted for a similar amount of the variance in age 11 IQ as the full NART (NART = 46.5%, mini-NART = 44.8%). The mini-NART is proposed as a useful short clinical tool to estimate prior cognitive ability. The mini-NART has clinical relevance, comprising highly discriminatory, invariantly ordered items allowing for sensitive measurement, and adaptive testing, reducing test administration time, and patient stress.

  5. Atypical left-right balance of visuomotor awareness in adult ADHD (combined type) on a test of executive function.

    PubMed

    Braun, Claude M J; Delisle, Josée; Suffren, Sabrina; Bolduc, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    Significant left subclinical hemi-neglect or "hemi-unawareness" in juvenile and adult ADHD has been reported many times. However, this literature has never been thoroughly reviewed, and is generally ignored in neuropsychological accounts of ADHD. The purposes of the present report were (1) to introduce a systematic review of this literature and (2) to prospectively test whether adults with ADHD (combined type) would present left hemi-unawareness measurable on a test of executive function commonly used with children and adults with ADHD, the Colour-Word Interference Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System. This test requires participants to discriminate unusual stimulus characteristics by stating words aloud while visually scanning plates comprising either 50 colour patches or 50 words. A total of 28 ADHD adults (combined type) and 30 IQ-, age-, and gender-matched controls completed the task. The ADHD group manifested a significantly higher proportion of errors on the left than right sides of the plates. This atypical left-right balance was related to severity of the ADHD according to the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) as well as to several other indicators from the Continuous Performance Test-II.

  6. Standard laboratory tests to identify older adults at increased risk of death.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Susan E; Rockwood, Michael R H; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-10-07

    Older adults are at an increased risk of death, but not all people of the same age have the same risk. Many methods identify frail people (that is, those at increased risk) but these often require time-consuming interactions with health care providers. We evaluated whether standard laboratory tests on their own, or added to a clinical frailty index (FI), could improve identification of older adults at increased risk of death. This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, where community dwelling and institutionalized participants in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who also volunteered for blood collection (n = 1,013) were followed for up to six years. A standard FI (FI-CSHA) was constructed from data obtained during the clinical evaluation and a second, novel FI was constructed from laboratory data plus systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements (FI-LAB). A combined FI included all items from each index. Predictive validity was tested using Cox proportional hazards analysis and discriminative ability by the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Of 1,013 participants, 51.3% had died by six years. The mean baseline value of the FI-LAB was 0.27 (standard deviation 0.11; range 0.05 to 0.63), the FI-CSHA was 0.25 (0.11; 0.02 to 0.72), and the combined FI was 0.26 (0.09; 0.06 to 0.59). In an age- and sex-adjusted model, with each increment in the FI-LAB, the hazard ratios increased by 2.8% (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.04). The hazard ratios for the FI-CSHA and the combined FI were 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.05), respectively. The FI-LAB and FI-CSHA remained independently associated with death in the face of the other. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.72 for FI-LAB, 0.73 for FI-CSHA and 0.74 for the combined FI. An FI based on routine laboratory data can identify older adults at increased risk of death. Additional evaluation of this approach in clinical settings is warranted.

  7. The Role of Clinical Setting and Management Approach in Metabolic Testing Among Youths and Adults Treated With Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Ginger E; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Garfield, Lauren D; Newcomer, John W; Parks, Joseph J; Morrato, Elaine H

    2016-01-01

    This study compared metabolic screening among patients who received antipsychotic treatment at community mental health centers (CMHCs), with or without case management, and patients treated elsewhere. Rates of glucose and lipid testing among youths and adults in Missouri Medicaid (N=9,473) who received antipsychotic treatment at CMHCs, with and without case management, were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regressions determined which characteristics were independently associated with metabolic testing. A total of 37.0% and 17.3% of youths and 68.7% and 34.9% of adults had glucose and lipid testing, respectively. Compared with treatment elsewhere, treatment at CMHCs, with or without case management, respectively, was associated with higher odds of glucose testing (youths, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.68 and 1.89; adults, AOR=1.43 and 1.44) and lipid testing (youths, AOR=2.40 and 2.35; adults, AOR=1.97 and 1.48). CMHCs had higher rates of metabolic testing, possibly reflecting Missouri's efforts to promote testing in these settings.

  8. Proposal for a Candidate Core Set of Fitness and Strength Tests for Patients with Childhood or Adult Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies.

    PubMed

    van der Stap, Djamilla K D; Rider, Lisa G; Alexanderson, Helene; Huber, Adam M; Gualano, Bruno; Gordon, Patrick; van der Net, Janjaap; Mathiesen, Pernille; Johnson, Liam G; Ernste, Floranne C; Feldman, Brian M; Houghton, Kristin M; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; Kutzbach, Abraham Garcia; Alemo Munters, Li; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Currently there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding fitness and strength tests for patients with childhood or adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). This hinders clinicians and researchers in choosing the appropriate fitness- or muscle strength-related outcome measures for these patients. Through a Delphi survey, we aimed to identify a candidate core set of fitness and strength tests for children and adults with IIM. Fifteen experts participated in a Delphi survey that consisted of 5 stages to achieve a consensus. Using an extensive search of published literature and through the work of experts, a candidate core set based on expert opinion and clinimetrics properties was developed. Members of the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group were invited to review this candidate core set during the final stage, which led to a final candidate core set. A core set of fitness- and strength-related outcome measures was identified for children and adults with IIM. For both children and adults, different tests were identified and selected for maximal aerobic fitness, submaximal aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness, muscle strength tests, and muscle function tests. The core set of fitness- and strength-related outcome measures provided by this expert consensus process will assist practitioners and researchers in deciding which tests to use in patients with IIM. This will improve the uniformity of fitness and strength tests across studies, thereby facilitating the comparison of study results and therapeutic exercise program outcomes among patients with IIM.

  9. Factors associated with the 6-minute walk test in nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Caballer, Vicent-Benavent; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Segura-Orti, Eva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main objective of this study was to determine the contributions and extent to which certain physical measurements explain performance in the 6-minute walk test in healthy older adults living in a geriatric nursing home and for older adults dwelling in the community. [Subjects] The subjects were 122 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment who were independent in their daily activities. [Methods] The 6-minute walk test, age, body mass index, walking speed, chair stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, rectus femoris cross-sectional area, Short Physical Performance Battery, and hand-grip strength were examined. [Results] Strong significant associations were found between mobility, lower-limb function, balance, and the 6-minute walk test. A stepwise multiple regression on the entire sample showed that lower-limb function was a significant and independent predictor for the 6-minute walk test. Additionally, lower-limb function was a strong predictor for the 6-minute walk test in our nursing home group, whereas mobility was found to be the best predictor in our community-dwelling group. [Conclusion] Better lower-limb function, balance, and mobility result in a higher distance covered by healthy older adults. Lower-limb function and mobility appeared to best determine walking performance in the nursing home and community-dwelling groups, respectively. PMID:26696740

  10. Hopes and Expectations Regarding Genetic Testing for Schizophrenia Among Young Adults at Clinical High-Risk for Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Phoebe; Lawrence, Ryan E; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    Genetic tests for schizophrenia could introduce both risks and benefits. Little is known about the hopes and expectations of young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis concerning genetic testing for schizophrenia, despite the fact that these youth could be among those highly affected by such tests. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their interest, expectations, and hopes regarding genetic testing for schizophrenia. Most participants reported a high level of interest in genetic testing for schizophrenia, and the majority said they would take such a test immediately if it were available. Some expressed far-reaching expectations for a genetic test, such as predicting symptom severity and the timing of symptom onset. Several assumed that genetic testing would be accompanied by interventions to prevent schizophrenia. Participants anticipated mixed reactions on finding out they had a genetic risk for schizophrenia, suggesting that they might feel both a sense of relief and a sense of hopelessness. We suggest that genetic counseling could play an important role in counteracting a culture of genetic over-optimism and helping young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis understand the limitations of genetic testing. Counseling sessions could also invite individuals to explore how receiving genetic risk information might impact their well-being, as early evidence suggests that some psychological factors help individuals cope, whereas others heighten distress related to genetic test results.

  11. Noninvasive in situ identification and band assignments of some pharmaceutical excipients inside USP vials with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Refat H; Edwards, Howell G M; Scowen, Ian J

    2009-05-01

    For the manufacture of dosage forms all ingredients must be reliably identified. In this paper, the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy to identify potassium sorbate, sodium starch glycollate, calcium ascorbate, calcium carbonate, candelilla wax, maltosextrin, monohydrated and anhydrous lactose inside USP vials was investigated. Differentiation between the anhydrous and monohydrated forms of lactose was found to be possible by studying the regions of the near-infrared spectrum corresponding to the combination and first overtone stretching frequencies of water. The results show unequivocally the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of pharmaceutical excipients.

  12. Noninvasive in situ identification and band assignments of some pharmaceutical excipients inside USP vials with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hassan Refat H.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Scowen, Ian J.

    2009-05-01

    For the manufacture of dosage forms all ingredients must be reliably identified. In this paper, the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy to identify potassium sorbate, sodium starch glycollate, calcium ascorbate, calcium carbonate, candelilla wax, maltosextrin, monohydrated and anhydrous lactose inside USP vials was investigated. Differentiation between the anhydrous and monohydrated forms of lactose was found to be possible by studying the regions of the near-infrared spectrum corresponding to the combination and first overtone stretching frequencies of water. The results show unequivocally the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of pharmaceutical excipients.

  13. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and memory) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    PubMed

    Palomo, R; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-05-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for both tests obtained by using linear regression techniques. The sample consisted of 179 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. We provide tables for converting raw scores to scaled scores in addition to tables with scores adjusted by socio-demographic factors. The results showed that education affects scores for some of the memory tests and the figure-copying task. Age was only found to have an effect on the performance of visuo-spatial memory tests, and the effect of sex was negligible. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical neuropsychological evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Crowding and visual acuity measured in adults using paediatric test letters, pictures and symbols.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Sarah J H; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Crowding refers to the degradation of visual acuity for target optotypes with, versus without, surrounding features. Crowding is important clinically, however the effect of target-flanker spacing on acuity for symbols and pictures, compared to letters, has not been investigated. Five adults with corrected-to-normal vision had visual acuity measured for modified single target versions of Kay Pictures, Lea Symbols, HOTV and Cambridge Crowding Cards, tests. Single optotypes were presented in isolation and with surrounding features placed 0-5 stroke-widths away. Visual acuity measured with Kay Picture optotypes is 0.13-0.19logMAR better than for other test optotypes and varies significantly across picture. The magnitude of crowding is strongest when the surrounding features abut, or are placed 1 stroke-width away from the target optotype. The slope of the psychometric function is steeper in the region just beyond maximum crowding. Crowding is strongest and the psychometric function steepest, with the Cambridge Crowding Cards arrangement, than when any single optotype is surrounded by a box. Estimates of crowding extent are less variable across test when expressed in units of stroke-width, than optotype-width. Crowding for single target presentations of letters, symbols and pictures used in paediatric visual acuity tests can be maximised and made more sensitive to change in visual acuity, by careful selection of optotype, by surrounding the target with similar flankers, and by using a closer target-flanker separation than half an optotype-width. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  16. Trail Making Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Aguayo, A; Rodríguez, W; Garza, M T; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Aliaga, A; Weiler, G; Luna, M; Longoni, M; Ocampo-Barba, N; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Panyavin, I; Guerra, A; Esenarro, L; García de la Cadena, P; Martínez, C; Perrin, P B

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Trail Making Test (TMT) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Paraguay, Honduras, Chile, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Bolivia. Each subject was administered the TMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models for the TMT-A explained 23- 50% of the variance, and the final multiple linear models for the TMT-B explained 22- 49% of the variance. Although there were gender differences on the TMT in Mexico, Peru, Paraguay, and Honduras, only Honduras had an effect size greater than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were generated for the Trail Making Test-A, but not B, in this country. The present study is the first to create norms for the TMT in Latin America. As a result, this study will have important implications for the practice of neuropsychology in the future.

  17. Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM): Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Perrin, P B; Weiler, G; Ocampo-Barba, N; Aliaga, A; Rodríguez, W; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Aguayo, A; Longoni, M; Trapp, S; Esenarro, L; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is an instrument used to assess purposeful embellishment or fabrication of memory difficulties for personal gain. Although the TOMM can be use in non-English speaking cultures, it has not been validated in Spanish-speaking Central and South American contexts. To generate normative data on TOMM across 7 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 2,266 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the TOMM as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. t-tests did not show significant differences in TOMM performance between men and women in any countries of the TOMM Trial 1 or 2. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. The results from this study will have a large impact on the practice of neuropsychology in Latin America, as this is the first normative multicenter study to create norms for the TOMM in this global region.

  18. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test- Revised: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Garza, M T; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Aguayo, A; Schebela, S; Luna, M; Longoni, M; Martínez, C; Doyle, S; Ocampo-Barba, N; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Aliaga, A; Bringas, M; Esenarro, L; García-Egan, P; Perrin, P B

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test- Revised (HVLT-R) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the HVLT-R as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 17- 45% of the variance in HVLT-R scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women in Guatemala on the HVLT-R, it was a small effect size. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. The results from this study will have a substantial impact on the practice of neuropsychology in Latin America, as this is the first normative multicenter study to develop norms for the HVLT-R in this region.

  19. Adopting Genetics: Motivations and Outcomes of Personal Genomic Testing in Adult Adoptees

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Natalie M.; Christensen, Kurt D.; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Broadley, Simon A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Green, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose American adult adoptees may possess limited amounts of information about their biological families and turn to direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (PGT) for genealogical and medical information. We investigated the motivations and outcomes of adoptees undergoing PGT using data from the Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study. Methods The PGen Study surveyed new 23andMe and Pathway Genomics customers prior to and 6 months after receiving PGT results. Exploratory analyses compared adoptees’ and non-adoptees’ PGT attitudes, expectations, and experiences. We evaluated the association of adoption status with motivations for testing and post-disclosure actions using logistic regression models. Results Of 1607 participants, 80 (5%) were adopted. As compared to non-adoptees, adoptees were more likely to cite limited family health history knowledge (OR = 10.1; 95% CI = 5.7–19.5) and the opportunity to learn genetic disease risks (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.6–4.8) as strong motivations for PGT. Of 922 participants who completed 6-month follow-up, there was no significant association between adoption status and PGT-motivated healthcare utilization or health behavior change. Conclusion PGT allows adoptees to gain otherwise inaccessible information about their genetic disease risks and ancestry, helping them to fill the void of an incomplete family health history. PMID:26820063

  20. Validation of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults in a Danish population.

    PubMed

    Emtekaer Haesum, Lisa Korsbakke; Ehlers, Lars; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2015-09-01

    To describe how the original American full-length version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was translated and adapted for use in the Danish setting and culture. A reliable Danish version of the TOFHLA was created and pretested using patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as case group. Forty-two patients with COPD completed the Danish TOFHLA and participated in a face-to-face interview concerning their basic demographics. Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the demographic data provided by the participants and to determine the internal consistency and reliability of the Danish TOFHLA. The mean age of sample was 68.7 years (range 34-86). The face validity, internal consistency and item to scale correlations of the Danish TOFHLA were determined and found to fulfil well-established criteria; on this basis, we found the reliability and consistency of the Danish TOFHLA to be satisfying. The Danish TOFHLA is now ready for application in future research projects, which test levels of functional health literacy in an elderly Danish population at risk of chronic diseases. The evolvement in the measurement of health literacy is still ongoing, as there is a need to refine existing methods. Until recently, there has been a total lack of instruments for assessing health literacy in Scandinavia; it is hoped that this development of the Danish TOFHLA will promote further research within the field of health literacy in Scandinavia and other European countries. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. The Multimodal Assessment of Adult Attachment Security: Developing the Biometric Attachment Test.

    PubMed

    Parra, Federico; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-04-06

    Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite effects index and by testing it

  2. The Multimodal Assessment of Adult Attachment Security: Developing the Biometric Attachment Test

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. Objective The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. Methods A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite

  3. Toxicity to adult brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in a glass-vial bioassay of selected insecticide mixture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) has become the predominant species among the stink bug complex on cotton in Central Texas. Control options to suppress the insect are largely dependent upon and limited to the use of insecticides. Data are needed to determine the toxicity of current...

  4. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Thyroid Function Tests in North American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Colleen M.; McClean, Michael D.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; He, Xue-Mei; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that are added to many consumer products. Multiple animal studies have shown PBDEs to be thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. Epidemiologic evidence of PBDE exposure associated with TH disruption has been inconclusive. Objectives: We used repeated measures to estimate associations between serum PBDE concentrations and THs in a North American adult cohort. Methods: From 2010 to 2011, we collected ≤ 3 serum samples at approximately 6-month intervals from 52 healthy adult office workers from Boston, Massachusetts, for analysis of PBDE congeners and THs. Results: The geometric mean sum concentrations of the most prevalent PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) were 22 ng/g lipid in winter 2010, 23 ng/g lipid in summer 2010, and 19 ng/g lipid in winter 2011. BDE-47 was the predominant congener. Based on a multivariable mixed regression model, we estimated that on average, a 1-ng/g serum increase in BDE-47 was associated with a 2.6-μg/dL decrease in total thyroxine (T4) (95% CI: –4.7, –0.35). Total T4 was inversely associated with each PBDE congener. Serum concentrations of PBDEs were not strongly associated with total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Conclusion: These results are consistent with those from animal studies showing that exposure to PBDEs is associated with a decrease in serum T4. Because the other TH concentrations did not appear to be associated with BDE exposures, our findings do not indicate effects on the pituitary–thyroid axis. Taken together, our findings suggest that PBDE exposure might decrease the binding of T4 to serum T4 binding proteins. Citation: Makey CM, McClean MD, Braverman LE, Pearce EN, He XM, Sjödin A, Weinberg JM, Webster TF. 2016. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and thyroid function tests in North American adults. Environ Health Perspect 124:420–425; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  5. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitude towards voluntary counseling and testing among adults.

    PubMed Central

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S.; Kabir, Mohammed; Aliyu, Muktar H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nigeria has the third highest population of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite this, the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and uptake of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is still low, especially in the rural areas. This study assessed knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitude towards VCT among adults in a rural community in northern Nigeria. METHODS: A pretested questionnaire was administered on a cross-section of 210 adults in Danbare village, northern Nigeria. Information about knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes toward VCT was elicited among respondents. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (59%) did not know the causative agent of AIDS; however, knowledge of route of disease transmission was high, with 71% and 64% of study participants mentioning sexual activity and unscreened blood transfusion, respectively, as possible transmission routes. Respondents listed avoidance of premarital sex, outlawing prostitution, condom use and screening of blood before transfusion as protective measures. Overall, 58 (27.6%), 80 (38.1%) and 72 (34.3%) of the respondents had good, fair and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, female gender and formal education remained significant predictors of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Reasons for rejection of VCT included fear of stigma, marital disharmony, incurable nature of the disease and cost of treatment. Formal education, female gender and HIV knowledge significantly predicted positive attitude toward VCT for HIV/AIDS among the study population. CONCLUSION: More than half of the respondents had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and the majority were willing to have VCT. However, misconceptions, fear, gaps in knowledge and limited access to VCT remain prevalent. Our findings suggest the need to provide health education and scale up VCT services in northern Nigeria by targeting the efforts of international and local development partners to underserved rural areas. PMID:17225834

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus testing behaviors among US adults: the roles of individual factors, legislative status, and public health resources.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2011-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an "opt-out" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing strategy in 2006 for all persons aged 13 to 64 years at healthcare settings. We conducted this study to identify individual, health, and policy factors that may be associated with HIV testing in US adults. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data were utilized. Individuals' residency states were classified into 4 categories based on the legislation status to HIV testing laws in 2007 and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome morbidity. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for survey designs was performed to examine factors associated with HIV testing. A total of 281,826 adults aged 18 to 64 years answered HIV testing questions in 2008. The proportions of US adults who had ever been tested for HIV increased from 35.9% in 2006 to 39.9% in 2008. HIV testing varied across the individual's characteristics including sociodemographics, access to regular health care, and risk for HIV infection. Compared with residents of "high morbidity-opt out" states, those living in "high morbidity-opt in" states with legislative restrictions for HIV testing had a slightly lower odds of being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.92, 1.01). Adults living in "low morbidity" states were significantly less likely to be tested for HIV, regardless of legislative status. To implement routine HIV testing in the general population, the role of public health resources should be emphasized and legislative barriers should be further reduced. Strategies need to be developed to reach people who do not have regular access to health care.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Behaviors Among US Adults: The Roles of Individual Factors, Legislative Status, and Public Health Resources

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ping; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an “opt-out” human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing strategy in 2006 for all persons aged 13 to 64 years at healthcare settings. We conducted this study to identify individual, health, and policy factors that may be associated with HIV testing in US adults. Methods The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data were utilized. Individuals’ residency states were classified into 4 categories based on the legislation status to HIV testing laws in 2007 and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome morbidity. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for survey designs was performed to examine factors associated with HIV testing. Results A total of 281,826 adults aged 18 to 64 years answered HIV testing questions in 2008. The proportions of US adults who had ever been tested for HIV increased from 35.9% in 2006 to 39.9% in 2008. HIV testing varied across the individual’s characteristics including sociodemographics, access to regular health care, and risk for HIV infection. Compared with residents of “high morbidity-opt out” states, those living in “high morbidity-opt in” states with legislative restrictions for HIV testing had a slightly lower odds of being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.92, 1.01). Adults living in “low morbidity” states were significantly less likely to be tested for HIV, regardless of legislative status. Conclusions To implement routine HIV testing in the general population, the role of public health resources should be emphasized and legislative barriers should be further reduced. Strategies need to be developed to reach people who do not have regular access to health care. PMID:21844742

  8. Rapid urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia: clinical use and barriers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Moore, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most common bacterial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, a leading cause of death. The majority of pneumococcal CAP is diagnosed by blood culture, which likely underestimates the burden of disease. The 2007 CAP guidelines recommend routine use of the rapid pneumococcal urinary antigen (UAg) test. To assess the how pneumococcal UAg testing is being used among hospitalized adult CAP patients and what barriers restrict its use, a Web-based survey was distributed in 2013 to 1287 infectious disease physician members of the Emerging Infectious disease Network of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Of 493 eligible responses, 65% use the pneumococcal UAg test. The primary barrier to UAg use was availability (46%). UAg users reported ordering fewer other diagnostic tests and tailoring antibiotic therapy. Increased access to UAg tests could improve pneumonia management and pneumococcal CAP surveillance.

  9. Changes in cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Do-Youn; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in males, and significant improvements in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 s, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in females. However, the maximal oxygen uptake was not significantly different. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the Rockport 1 mile walking test changes cardiopulmonary function in males and females, and that it may improve cardiopulmonary function in middle-aged and older adults and provide basic data on cardiopulmonary endurance.

  10. Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Letícia C; Marques, Aline P; Barros, Paula B; Michaelsen, Stella M

    2014-01-01

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. The study included 16 subjects (61.1 ± 7.5 years) with chronic hemiparesis (54.5 ± 43.5 months after stroke). The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil) were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98) and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96) have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93) and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated.

  11. Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Letícia C.; Marques, Aline P.; Barros, Paula B.; Michaelsen, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. METHOD: The study included 16 subjects (61.1±7.5 years) with chronic hemiparesis (54.5±43.5 months after stroke). The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil) were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98) and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96) have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93) and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated. PMID:25003281

  12. Pen Devices for Insulin Self-Administration Compared With Needle and Vial: Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lasalvia, Pieralessandro; Barahona-Correa, Julián Esteban; Romero-Alvernia, Diana Marcela; Gil-Tamayo, Sebastián; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Bayona, Juan Gabriel; Triana, Juan José; Laserna, Andrés Felipe; Mejía-Torres, Miguel; Restrepo-Jimenez, Paula; Jimenez-Zapata, Juliana; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Pen devices offer advantages compared with vial and syringe (VaS). The purpose of this article was to evaluate efficacy of pen devices compared to VaS. A systematic review of literature was performed in 8 different databases. References were independently screened and selected. Primary observational or experimental studies comparing pen devices with VaS for insulin administrations were included. Studies on specific populations were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using appropriate tools. Data on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycemia, adherence, persistence, patient preference, and quality of life (QOL) were collected. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Heterogeneity and risk of publication bias were evaluated. Otherwise, descriptive analyses of the available data was done. In all, 10 348 articles were screened. A total of 17 studies were finally selected: 7 experimental and 10 analytical. The populations of the included articles were mainly composed of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Important risk of bias was found in all of the articles, particularly experimental studies. Meta-analyses were performed for HbA1c, hypoglycemia, adherence and persistence. Pen device showed better results in mean HbA1c change, patients with hypoglycemia, adherence and persistence compared to VaS. No difference was observed in number of patients achieving <7% HbA1c. Preference studies showed a tendency favoring pen devices, however nonvalidated tools were used. One QoL study showed improvements in some subscales of SF-36. There is evidence that pen devices offer benefits in clinical and, less clearly, patient-reported outcomes compared to VaS for insulin administration. However, these results should be taken with caution. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Development and Initial Reliability Testing of NAK-50+: A Nutrition Attitude and Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults 50+ Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.

  14. Maturity of judgement in decision making for predictive testing for nontreatable adult-onset neurogenetic conditions: a case against predictive testing of minors.

    PubMed

    Richards, F H

    2006-11-01

    International guidelines developed to minimize harm from predictive testing for adult-onset, nontreatable neurogenetic conditions such as Huntington disease (HD) state that such testing should not be available to minors. Some authors have proposed that predictive testing for these conditions should be available to minors at the request of parents and/or of younger adolescents themselves. They highlight the lack of empirical evidence that predictive testing of minors causes harm and suggest that refusing to test minors may be detrimental. The current study focuses on the context of predictive test requests by adolescents younger than 18 years, and presents arguments and evidence that the risk of potential harm from testing such young people is sufficiently high to justify continued caution in this area. A study based on a model of psychosocial maturity found that the 3 factors involved in maturity of judgement in decision making - responsibility, temperance and perspective - continue to develop into late adolescence. There is also evidence that the prefrontal areas of the brain, which are involved in executive functions such as decision making, are not fully developed until early adulthood. Combined with evidence of adverse long-term effects, from research with adults who have undergone predictive testing, these findings constitute grounds for retaining a minimum age of 18 years for predictive testing for nontreatable conditions. Further research on assessment of maturity will assist with reaching a consensus on this issue.

  15. An evaluation of patient preference for an alternative insulin delivery system compared to standard vial and syringe.

    PubMed

    Stockl, Karen; Ory, Caron; Vanderplas, Ann; Nicklasson, Lars; Lyness, William; Cobden, David; Chang, Eunice

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects over 18.2 million Americans and diabetes-related medical costs exceed 132 billion dollars per year, totaling more than 12% of the United States healthcare budget. The Diabetes Control and Complications Clinical Trial demonstrated that intensive insulin therapy and the control of plasma glucose can significantly reduce the incidence of late diabetic complications and delay the progression of existing conditions in type 1 diabetes. Optimal glycemic control often requires intensive insulin therapy to maintain a hemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) of less than 7% as recommended by the American Diabetes Association. It is estimated that more than half of the approximately 7 million Americans using insulin do so with suboptimal treatment and while administering one or two insulin injections per day. Non-adherence may be a contributing factor in suboptimal treatment. For a variety of reasons, many patients diagnosed with diabetes and treated with insulin are non-adherent. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate preference for an insulin delivery system comparing a disposable doser (InnoLet) to the standard vial/syringe. In a prospective, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study, 260 patients were enrolled (age > or = 18 years, with type 1 or 2 diabetes, and receiving NPH or regular or 70/30 insulin for at least 6-months). A total of 162 patients completed both treatment arms. Excluded were those unable to read/write English or administer their own injections, pregnant/lactating women, those using antipsychotics, and those with a history of alcohol abuse or cognitive impairment. Patients completed the eight-item Diabetes Fear of Self-Injection Questionnaire at baseline, week 12 and week 24. Items were rated on a 4-point Likert scale (1 = almost never; 4 = almost always) with a maximum fear score of 32. At week 24, patients completed a preference survey. Of the 162 patients completing both treatment arms, 89 (55.0%) were in the vial

  16. Visual Memory in Post-Anterior Right Temporal Lobectomy Patients and Adult Normative Data for the Brown Location Test (BLT)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Franklin C.; Tuttle, Erin; Westerveld, Michael; Ferraro, F. Richard; Chmielowiec, Teresa; Vandemore, Michelle; Gibson-Beverly, Gina; Bemus, Lisa; Roth, Robert M.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Spencer, Dennis D.; Spencer, Susan S

    2010-01-01

    Several large and meta-analytic studies have failed to support a consistent relationship between visual or “nonverbal” memory deficits and right mesial temporal lobe changes. However, the Brown Location Test (BLT) is a recently developed dot location learning and memory test that uses a nonsymmetrical array and provides control over many of the confounding variables (e.g., verbal influence and drawing requirements) inherent in other measures of visual memory. In the present investigation, we evaluated the clinical utility of the BLT in patients who had undergone left or right anterior mesial temporal lobectomies. We also provide adult normative data of 298 healthy adults in order to provide standardized scores. Results revealed significantly worse performance on the BLT in the right as compared to left lobectomy group and the healthy adult normative sample. The present findings support a role for the right anterior-mesial temporal lobe in dot location learning and memory. PMID:20056493

  17. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M.

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability. PMID:28174552

  18. Measuring Mindreading: A Review of Behavioral Approaches to Testing Cognitive and Affective Mental State Attribution in Neurologically Typical Adults.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rose; Felisberti, Fatima M

    2017-01-01

    Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets. We focus on selected examples of core experimental paradigms including emotion recognition tests, social vignettes, narrative fiction (prose and film) and participative interaction (in real and virtual worlds), highlighting challenges for studies with NT adult cohorts. We conclude that naturalistic, multidimensional approaches may be productively applied alongside traditional tasks to facilitate a more nuanced picture of mindreading in adulthood, and to ensure construct validity whilst remaining sensitive to variation at the upper echelons of the ability.

  19. Regional electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power and asymmetry in older adults: a study of short-term test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Hashemi, Ali; Sheng, Bruce; Sekuler, Allison B; Bennett, Patrick J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Although regional alpha power and asymmetry measures have been widely used as indices of individual differences in emotional processing and affective style in younger populations, there have been relatively few studies that have examined these measures in older adults. Here, we examined the short-term test-retest reliability of resting regional alpha power (7.5-12.5 Hz) and asymmetry in a sample of 38 active, community-dwelling older adults (M age = 71.2, SD = 6.5 years). Resting electroencephalogram recordings were made before and after a perceptual computer task. Pearson and intra-class correlations indicated acceptable test-retest reliability for alpha power and asymmetry measures in all regions. Interestingly, alpha asymmetry appeared to be less affected by the task than was alpha power. Findings suggest that alpha asymmetry may reflect more enduring, "trait-like" characteristics, while alpha power may reflect more "state-like" processes in older adults.

  20. Effects of diurnal variation and caffeine consumption on Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) performance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Momjian, Ani J; Wong, Keri K

    2011-03-01

    The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test (CPT) that assesses attention, impulsivity, and processing speed. CPTs are used in the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but more young adults are being assessed for ADHD as well. The TOVA norms are based on a standardization sample that was tested early in the day, and any TOVA administered after 1:00 p.m. will be flagged as potentially invalid. Whereas the testing time recommendations make sense for pediatric samples, it is unclear whether they are appropriate for young adults in college, who typically show significant phase delay in their diurnal rhythms. In addition, many college students consume large amounts of caffeine, and it is unclear how caffeine consumption affects TOVA performance. The current study examined the impact of time of day, self-reported diurnal preference, and caffeine consumption on TOVA performance in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with healthy college students. There was evidence of diurnal variation on average response time and impulsivity but not on overall ADHD score, with participants tested in the afternoon responding faster but making more commission errors than did participants tested in the morning. Caffeine consumption led to significantly faster response times, but only for participants who typically consumed relatively little caffeine. We conclude that the TOVA can be administered to young adults outside the recommended time constraints without compromising the validity of test score interpretation but that the caffeine consumption of participants should be closely monitored.

  1. Self-Reported Impact of Chlamydia Testing on Subsequent Behavior: Results of an Online Survey of Young Adults in England.

    PubMed

    Hartney, Thomas; Baraitser, Paula; Nardone, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    The National Chlamydia Screening Programme performs 1.7 million tests annually among young adults in England. The effect of chlamydia screening on subsequent behavior is unknown. This study examined the self-reported impact of testing on young adults' subsequent health care-seeking and sexual behavior. We conducted a cross-sectional Web-based anonymous survey using an online panel to recruit 1521 young adults aged 16 to 24 years and resident in England. Survey questions were developed using the theory of planned behavior. Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to identify the variables associated with an impact on subsequent behavior after testing. Most respondents reported that being tested for chlamydia had a positive effect on their subsequent sexual behavior (68.6%; 422/615) or health care-seeking behavior (80.0%; 492/615). In multivariate analysis, being female and having a high level of engagement at last test were both associated with positive impacts on sexual behavior (72.7% [adjusted prevalence ratio {aPR}, 1.19; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.07-1.33] and 82.7% [aPR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.27-1.89], respectively), and health care-seeking behavior (84.4% [aPR, 1.13; 95% Cl, 1.04-1.24] and 86.3% [aPR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.41], respectively). Among respondents with minimum level of engagement, 72.4% (76/105) reported an increase in subsequent health care-seeking behavior. Chlamydia testing had a positive impact on young adults' self-reported health care-seeking and sexual behavior. This suggests that chlamydia screening has a wider effect on young adults' sexual health beyond that of treatment alone.

  2. Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Rodríguez, G; Garza, M T; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Rodríguez, W; Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Aguayo, A; Schebela, S; Weil, C; Longoni, M; Aliaga, A; Ocampo-Barba, N; Saracho, C P; Panyavin, I; Esenarro, L; Martínez, C; García de la Cadena, C; Perrin, P B

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the SDMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 29-56% of the variance in SDMT scores. Although there were gender differences on the SDMT in Mexico, Honduras, Paraguay, and Guatemala, none of the four countries had an effect size greater than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the SDMT; this study will have an impact on the future practice of neuropsychology throughout the global region.

  3. Brief Test of Attention: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Perrin, P B; Aliaga, A; Garza, M T; Saracho, C P; Rodrŕguez, W; Justo-Guillen, E; Aguayo, A; Schebela, S; Gulin, S; Weil, C; Longoni, M; Ocampo-Barba, N; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Rodrŕguez, D; Esenarro, L; García-Egan, P; Martínez, C; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Brief Test of Attention (BTA) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Paraguay, Honduras, Chile, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Bolivia. Each subject was administered the BTA as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained between 11-41% of the variance in BTA scores. Although men had higher scores on the BTA in Honduras, there were no other significant gender differences, and this one effect size was small. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the BTA; this study will have an impact on the future practice of neuropsychology throughout Latin America.

  4. Construct and ecological validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Deirdre M; McKenna, Kryss; Fleming, Jennifer; Darnell, Ross

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports on the construct validity (scale design and convergent validity) and ecological validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST). The performance of 208 participants following stroke on the OT-APST and a reference tool (either the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) or the LOTCA-Geriatric version (LOTCA-G)) was compared. The OT-APST performance of the stroke sample was compared with a healthy normative sample (n = 356). The relationship between the OT-APST performance and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score of the participants following stroke was also examined. Factor analysis and internal consistency results supported the scale design of the OT-APST. Significant correlations between the performance of the participants following stroke on the OT-APST and the reference tool supported the convergent validity of the OT-APST. The ability of the OT-APST to separate the two participant groups provided further evidence of its construct validity. Significant correlations between OT-APST and FIM scores supported the ecological validity of this tool. This study shows that the OT-APST is an ecologically valid tool with demonstrated construct validity in the assessment of visual perception.

  5. Criterion validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Deirdre M; McKenna, Kryss; Fleming, Jennifer; Darnell, Ross

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports on the criterion validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST) including concurrent criterion validity and its sensitivity and specificity. The performance of 208 people following stroke on the OT-APST and a reference tool (either the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) or the LOTCA--Geriatric version (LOTCA-G)) was compared. The OT-APST subscale scores and performance outcome (intact or impaired) on related subscales of the reference tool was analyzed to evaluate the concurrent criterion validity of the OT-APST and its sensitivity and specificity at selected cut-off scores. Significant correlations were found between participants' performance (intact or impaired) on the reference tool and scores on the OT-APST. The sensitivity and specificity of the OT-APST were analyzed at selected cut-off scores to explore the validity of decisions based on OT-APST performance when compared with the reference tool. This study shows that the OT-APST is a tool with demonstrated concurrent criterion validity for the assessment of visual perception.

  6. Validity of a perceptually-regulated step test protocol for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter; Davison, Kade; Parfitt, Gaynor; Eston, Roger

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) could be predicted accurately and reliably from a 2-step, perceptually-regulated exercise test (PRET) in healthy adults. Sixteen participants (31.7 ± 11.3 years, 3 females) completed three PRETs (separated by 24-72 h) and one maximal, perceptually-regulated, graded exercise test (PRETmax) on a motorized treadmill. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were recorded during each test. VO2 values for RPE range 9-15 were extrapolated to RPE 20 and age-predicted maximal HR (HRmax) using individual linear regression analysis to predict VO2max values compared to measured VO2max. VO2 and HR values were consistent between each of four RPE levels of the PRET. ICC values ranged between 0.76 and 0.85. Predicted VO2max from both methods were lower than measured VO2max (p < 0.01). Limits of agreement (LoA) for measured (41.4 ± 5.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) versus predicted VO2max from each of the three PRETs using RPE20 were -1.2 ± 15.6, -1.0 ± 7.2 and -2.1 ± 5.5 and for HRmax were -1.8 ± 4.2; -2.6 ± 4.2 and -2.4 ± 4.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1) for PRET 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The step PRET elicited significant and reliable increases in VO2 across the four RPE levels, but under-estimated treadmill VO2max. However, there was better agreement between measured and predicted VO2max when extrapolated to HRmax. As evidence indicates the underestimation of VO2max is explained by the difference in the mode of exercise, the step PRET provides a simple and convenient test of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  7. Influence of a visual-verbal Stroop test on standing and walking performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Wollesen, B; Voelcker-Rehage, C; Regenbrecht, T; Mattes, K

    2016-03-24

    The dual task (DT) paradigm has been used to investigate decrements in balance performance while walking and standing in fall prevention studies with older adults. However, there are inconsistent findings whether balance performance decreases or increases in DT situations. Following different theoretical models (e.g. limited resource hypothesis or cross domain competition model), these inconsistent findings can be explained by task settings and task complexity. We compared DT performance in an executive control task (Stroop test) while standing and walking to analyze which theoretical model would fit our data best. Twenty-eight persons (>65 years) were examined under single task (ST) and DT conditions for standing (sway length and sway velocity) and walking (step length, step width (SW), peak forces of the heel, mid- and forefoot). SW increased from ST to DT conditions, and step length decreased significantly. Maximum forces of the forefoot were reduced whereas the maximum forces of the midfoot increased. Additionally, correct answers of the Stroop test decreased from the ST baseline condition to DT walking. No correlations were found between DT costs (performance decrements) of standing and walking. For both conditions (standing and walking), the limited resources hypothesis fits best. Moreover, not all modified gait variables could be defined as negative DT costs. Increased SW and decreased step length might be used to compensate influences on lateral stability while demands on motor-cognitive resources increase. Further, drawing conclusions from a standing task for walking conditions might lead to misinterpretations. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Timed Up and Go test and risk of falls in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Beauchet, O; Fantino, B; Allali, G; Muir, S W; Montero-Odasso, M; Annweiler, C

    2011-12-01

    To assess the association and the predictive ability of the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) on the occurrence of falls among people aged 65 and older. A systematic English Medline literature search was conducted on November 30, 2009 with no limit of date using the following Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms "Aged OR aged, 80 and over" AND "Accidental falls" combined with the terms "Timed Up and Go" OR "Get Up and Go". The search also included the Cochrane library and the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Of the 92 selected studies, 11 met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. Fall rate ranged from 7.5 to 60.0% in the selected studies. The cut-off time separating non-fallers and fallers varied from 10 to 32.6 seconds. All retrospective studies showed a significant positive association between the time taken to perform the TUG and a history of falls with the highest odds ratio (OR) calculated at 42.3 [5.1 - 346.9]. In contrast, only one prospective study found a significant association with the occurrence of future falls. This association with incident falls was lower than in retrospective studies. Although retrospective studies found that the TUG time performance is associated with a past history of falls, its predictive ability for future falls remains limited. In addition, standardization of testing conditions combined with a control of the significant potential confounders (age, female gender and comorbidities) would provide better information about the TUG predictive value for future falls in older adults.

  9. Testing Covariates of Type 2 Diabetes-Cognition Associations in Older Adults: Moderating or Mediating Effects?

    PubMed Central

    McFall, G. Peggy; Geall, Bonnie P.; Fischer, Ashley L.; Dolcos, Sanda; Dixon, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The general goal of this study was to advance our understanding of Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-cognition relationships in older adults by linking and testing comprehensive sets of potential moderators, potential mediators, and multiple cognitive outcomes. Method We identified in the literature 13 health-related (but T2D-distal) potential covariates, representing four informal domains (i.e., biological vitality, personal affect, subjective health, lifestyle activities). Cross-sectional data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (age range = 53-90 years; n = 41 T2D and n = 458 control participants) were used. We first examined whether any of the 13 potential covariates influenced T2D-cognition associations, as measured by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (15 measures). Next, using standard regression-based moderator and mediator analyses, we systematically tested whether the identified covariates would significantly alter observed T2D-cognition relationships. Results Six potential covariates were found to be sensitive to T2D associations with performance on seven cognitive measures. Three factors (systolic blood pressure, gait-balance composite, subjective health) were significant mediators. Each mediated multiple cognitive outcomes, especially measures of neurocognitive speed, executive functioning, and episodic memory. Conclusions Our findings offer a relatively comprehensive perspective of T2D-related cognitive deficits, comorbidities, and modulating influences. The implications for future research reach across several fields of study and application. These include (a) neuropsychological research on neural and biological bases of T2D-related cognitive decline, (b) clinical research on intervention and treatment strategies, and (c) larger-scale longitudinal studies examining the potential multilateral and dynamic relationships among T2D status, related comorbidities, and cognitive outcomes. PMID:20804243

  10. Impact of Cochlear Implantation on Cognitive Functions of Older Adults: Pilot Test Results.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Dona M P; Friedland, Peter L; Nel, Esmeralda; Martins, Ralph N; Atlas, Marcus D; Sohrabi, Hamid R

    2017-09-01

    A significant relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Overall, improvement in speech perception in quiet and quality of life has been observed after cochlear implantation. However, the impact of hearing loss treatment using cochlear implantation on cognitive functions is yet to be fully elucidated. To investigate the impact of cochlear implantation on cognitive and psychological functions of older adults. Prospective patient-control study. A total of 39 participants took part in the study: 23 cochlear implant (CI) candidates (M = 69.04 ± 12.35 yr) and 16 CI recipients (M = 61.75 ± 15.62 yr). All participants completed an assessment of hearing (pure-tone thresholds and speech perception in quiet), and a computerised, nonverbal test battery of cognitive function assessment, as well as a depression, anxiety, and stress scale. Independent-sample t test scores for the changes between 0 and 12 months revealed that CI recipients performed significantly better on measures of simple reaction time, cognitive flexibility, paired-associate learning, working memory, and strategy use (p < 0.05) compared with implant candidates. Compared with the candidates, recipients also showed significantly lower stress scores (p < 0.05) after 1 year use of a CI. Our results indicate that even in participants with a long duration, severe to profound hearing loss, cochlear implantation has some impact on improving a number of cognitive functions. This finding warrants future longitudinal investigations with a large sample size to examine if the observed cognitive enhancement benefits are sustainable.

  11. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  12. The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) can recognise simple emotions and pass basic theory of mind tasks, but have difficulties recognising more complex emotions and mental states. This study describes a new battery of tasks, testing recognition of 20 complex emotions and mental states from faces and voices. The battery was given to males and females…

  13. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  14. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  15. The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) can recognise simple emotions and pass basic theory of mind tasks, but have difficulties recognising more complex emotions and mental states. This study describes a new battery of tasks, testing recognition of 20 complex emotions and mental states from faces and voices. The battery was given to males and females…

  16. Development and Testing of a Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist for EFNEP and FSNE Adult Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…

  17. Functional equivalence of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell reading tests and NART norms in the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Luszcz, Mary A; Piguet, Olivier; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Hayley; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the functional equivalence of two measures of irregular word pronunciation--National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell--which are popular instruments used to assess verbal neurocognitive functioning and to estimate premorbid IQ. We report norms for the NART in a pooled sample from 3 Australian population-based studies of adults aged 65-103 years. Norms were stratified by sex and age left school in 5-year age groups. The NART and the Schonell had a strong linear relation, allowing for the imputation of NART scores based on Schonell performance within 1 study. Neither measure was sensitive to the effects of sex after adjusting for the effects of age and education. Early school leavers performed worse on both measures. Data pooling enables greater precision and improved generalizability of NART norms than do methods that use single older adult samples.

  18. Age-Differences in Environment Route Learning: The Role of Input and Recall-Test Modalities in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Gyselinck, Valerie; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine age-related differences in young and older adults in route learning, using different types of learning and recall test modalities. A sample of young adults (20-30 years old) and older adults (60-70 years old) learned a city route by using either a map or a description; they then performed a verification…

  19. Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately-insured adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Esther Y.; Cohn, Lisa; Freed, Gary; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Ascione, Frank; Clark, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension Methods We conducted retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for adolescents and young adults (12–21 years) with ≥ 3 years of insurance coverage (≥ 11 months/year) in a large private managed care plan during 2003–2009 with diagnosis of primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. We examined their use of antihypertensive medications and identified demographic characteristics and presence of obesity-related comorbidities. For the subset receiving antihypertensive medications, we examined their diagnostic test use (echocardiograms, renal ultrasounds, and electrocardiograms (EKG)). Results Study sample included 1232 adolescents and young adults; 84% had primary hypertension and 16% had secondary hypertension. Overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 2.6%. One-quarter (28%) with primary hypertension had ≥1 antihypertensive medication whereas 65% with secondary hypertension had ≥1 antihypertensive medication. Leading prescribers of antihypertensives for subjects with primary hypertension were primary care physicians (PCP) (80%) whereas antihypertensive medications were equally prescribed by PCPs (43%) and subspecialists (37%) for subjects with secondary hypertension. Conclusions The predominant hypertension diagnosis among adolescents and young adults is primary hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use was higher among those with secondary hypertension compared to those with primary hypertension. Further study is needed to determine treatment effectiveness and patient outcomes associated with differential treatment patterns used for adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension. PMID:24492018

  20. Testing Out Developmental, Psycholinguistics: Teachers Research the Adult/Child Role in Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Christine

    1992-01-01

    Considers teachers' research into adult/pupil dialog. Questions the way teachers converse with students. Asks how teachers listen to what children say and how teachers reciprocate. Studies language facility as an age-related phenomenon and considers whether conversation is led and developed in linguistic context by the adult. (HB)

  1. "Ducking and Diving" Adult Educator Agency in Testing Times: Insights from England and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the possibilities for adult educators to exercise professional agency in contexts which have become dominated by neoliberalism. It draws on research undertaken in England and New Zealand which investigated the impact of global discourses and policies on experienced adult educators whose philosophy of practice was orientated…

  2. Adults with Poor Reading Skills: How Lexical Knowledge Interacts with Scores on Standardized Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gai; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from…

  3. Adults with Poor Reading Skills: How Lexical Knowledge Interacts with Scores on Standardized Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gai; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from…

  4. The Development of an Interview Test for Adult Migrants. Proficiency in English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick E.; And Others

    The third of three reports resulting from a study of the developing proficiency of adult migrants in English as a Second Language (ESL), this document describes the outcomes of a Victoria, Australia, research and development project to develop mechanisms for implementing evaluation procedures within the Adult Migrant Education Program (AMEP). The…

  5. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  6. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Evaluation of two point-of-care ethylene glycol tests for dogs.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Karina J; Koenigshof, Amy M; Weder, Christian D; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate 2 point-of-care ethylene glycol (EG) tests in dogs. Prospective, randomized, blinded laboratory evaluation. University teaching hospital. Ten healthy adult dogs. Jugular venipuncture and in vitro evaluation for detection of EG in canine blood. Whole blood samples were centrifuged and separated, and the plasma was divided into 30 aliquots. The aliquots were mixed with EG to provide EG concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mg/dL. The EG concentration of each sample was confirmed using gas chromatography. For the VetSpec EG Qualitative Reagent Test Kit, 100 μL of each sample was added to test vials and compared with 20 and 50 mg/dL reference vials. For the Kacey EG Test Strips, 20 μL of each sample was added to the test circle and compared with the color chart provided by the manufacturer. For each test, samples were prepared in groups of 5 and presented in randomized order to 2 readers who were blinded to the presumed EG concentration. Samples were scored as negative, 20-50 mg/dL, or greater than 50 mg/dL. For each test, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting EG was calculated. Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient was calculated to determine the degree of agreement between readers. For detecting EG, the Kacey EG Test Strips had excellent sensitivity and specificity (both 100%) and good agreement between readers. The VetSpec EG Qualitative Reagent Test Kit was less sensitive and specific (65% and 70% for the first reader, 95% and 40% for the second) with less agreement. Of the 2 systems evaluated, the Kacey EG Test Strips displayed greater accuracy and ease of use. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  8. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

  9. Breath hydrogen test for detecting lactose malabsorption in infants and children. Prevalence of lactose malabsorption in Japanese children and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Nose, O; Iida, Y; Kai, H; Harada, T; Ogawa, M; Yabuuchi, H

    1979-01-01

    The breath hydrogen test (BHT) was adapted for use in young infants and children. The diagnostic criterion of sugar malabsorption in the BHT was determined by oral administration of 0.5 g/kg of unabsorbable sugar (lactulose) to 21 healthy infants and children. A maximum increase in breath hydrogen less than 0.05 ml/min per m2 was observed in all subjects. A good correlation between results by the BHT and by the ordinary lactose tolerance test was obtained after oral administration of 2 g/kg lactose to 21 healthy infants and children, 2 congenital lactase-deficient infants, and 7 adults. Using this test, 80 healthy Japanese infants and children (aged between one month and 15 years) and 18 adults were examined for lactose malabsorption after a dose of 1 g/kg lactose. All infants and children under 2-years old absorbed lactose completely. The incidence of lactose malabsorption was 30% in 3-year, 36% in 4-year, 58% in 5-year, and 86% in 6-year-old children, 85% in schoolchildren, and 89% in adults. Thus the incidence of lactase deficiency gradually increases with age from 3 years, and about 90% of all normal Japanese adults are lactase-deficient. PMID:475426

  10. Breath hydrogen test for detecting lactose malabsorption in infants and children. Prevalence of lactose malabsorption in Japanese children and adults.

    PubMed

    Nose, O; Iida, Y; Kai, H; Harada, T; Ogawa, M; Yabuuchi, H

    1979-06-01

    The breath hydrogen test (BHT) was adapted for use in young infants and children. The diagnostic criterion of sugar malabsorption in the BHT was determined by oral administration of 0.5 g/kg of unabsorbable sugar (lactulose) to 21 healthy infants and children. A maximum increase in breath hydrogen less than 0.05 ml/min per m2 was observed in all subjects. A good correlation between results by the BHT and by the ordinary lactose tolerance test was obtained after oral administration of 2 g/kg lactose to 21 healthy infants and children, 2 congenital lactase-deficient infants, and 7 adults. Using this test, 80 healthy Japanese infants and children (aged between one month and 15 years) and 18 adults were examined for lactose malabsorption after a dose of 1 g/kg lactose. All infants and children under 2-years old absorbed lactose completely. The incidence of lactose malabsorption was 30% in 3-year, 36% in 4-year, 58% in 5-year, and 86% in 6-year-old children, 85% in schoolchildren, and 89% in adults. Thus the incidence of lactase deficiency gradually increases with age from 3 years, and about 90% of all normal Japanese adults are lactase-deficient.

  11. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently.

  12. A New Agility Test for Adults: Its Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change in Untrained Women and Men Aged 28-55.

    PubMed

    Manderoos, Sirpa A; Vaara, Mariitta E; Mäki, P Juhani; Mälkiä, Esko A; Aunola, Sirkka K; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa

    2016-08-01

    Manderoos, SA, Vaara, ME, Mäki, PJ, Mälkiä, EA, Aunola, SK, and Karppi, S-L. A new agility test for adults: its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change in untrained women and men aged 28-55. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2226-2234, 2016-The aims of this study were to present a new Agility Test for Adults (ATA), to investigate its test-retest reliability and to quantify minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval (MDC95). Both the relative and absolute reliabilities were evaluated. Altogether 52 healthy untrained volunteers (25 women: age 43.3 ± 6.6 years; 27 men: age 42.8 ± 7.2 years) were recruited into the study. The subjects performed 3 ATA tests repeated after 2 different intervals: the first test session was baseline, session 2 was a week later, and session 3 was half an hour after session 2. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM of the performance time of ATA were 0.91 and 0.27 seconds (same day), 0.94 and 0.20 seconds (1 week) for women, and 0.95, 0.13 seconds, and 0.94, 0.19 seconds for men, respectively. MDC95 was 0.76 seconds (same day) and 0.56 seconds (1 week) for women, and respectively 0.37 and 0.51 seconds for men. The results showed that ATA is stable and reliable when evaluating agility characteristics in untrained adults. The properties of ATA make it appropriate for screening people to find early signs of declined agility and allow possibility to clinicians and physical trainers to monitor true changes in performance time at agility test by applying the knowledge of MDC95 coefficient. Furthermore, ATA can give tips for planning appropriate exercise programes to prevent clumsiness and falls with more serious consequences among aging people.

  13. Racial/ethnic and gender differences among older adults in nonmonogamous partnerships, time spent single, and HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William Emery

    2011-01-01

    Background A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated HIV/STD rates among older Blacks. Methods To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed U.S. population-based data from the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) for 2,825 heterosexual participants ages 57-85 years. Results Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or Whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of Black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in Black men and White women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Conclusions Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older Black men but not older Black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22082721

  14. Challenges in current adult fish laboratory reproductive tests: suggestions for refinement using a mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) case study.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2009-11-01

    Concerns about screening endocrine-active contaminants have led to the development of a number of short-term fish reproductive tests. A review conducted of 62 published adult fish reproductive papers using various fish species found low samples sizes (mean of 5.7 replicates with a median of 5 replicates) and high variance (an average coefficient of variance of 43.8%). The high variances and low sample sizes allow only relatively large differences to be detected with the current protocols; the average significant difference detected was a 68.7% reduction in egg production, while only differences above 50% were detected with confidence. This result indicates low power to detect more subtle differences and a high probability of type II errors in interpretation. The present study identifies several ways to increase the power of the adult fish reproductive test in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). By identifying the peak timing of egg production (before and after the new moon), extending the duration of the experiment (increased from 7 to 14 d), and determining that a sample size of eight replicate tanks per treatment accurately predicts variance in the sample population (based on pre-exposure variation calculations of replicate tanks), the power of the test has been significantly increased. The present study demonstrates that weaknesses in the current adult fish reproductive tests can easily be addressed by focusing on improved understanding of the reproductive behavior of the test species and developing study designs that include calculating desired variability levels and increasing replicates.

  15. Do prenatally methamphetamine-exposed adult male rats display general predisposition to drug abuse in the conditioned place preference test?

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Macúchová, E; Nová, E; Rokyta, R

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse of pregnant women is a growing problem. The effect of prenatal drug exposure may have devastating effect on development of the offsprings that may be long-term or even permanent. One of the most common drug abused by pregnant women is methamphetamine (MA), which is also the most frequently abused illicit drug in the Czech Republic. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure alters behavior, cognition, pain and seizures in adult rats in sex-specific manner. Our most recent studies demonstrate that prenatal MA exposure makes adult rats more sensitive to acute injection of the same or related drugs than their controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of prenatal MA exposure on drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats tested in the Conditioned place preference (CPP). Adult male rats were divided to: prenatally MA-exposed (5 mg/kg daily for the entire prenatal period), prenatally saline-exposed (1 ml/kg of physiological saline) and controls (without maternal injections). The following drugs were used in the CPP test in adulthood: MA (5 mg/kg), amphetamine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (5 and 10 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg), MDMA (5 mg/kg) and THC (2 mg/kg). Our data demonstrated that prenatally MA-exposed rats displayed higher amphetamine-seeking behavior than both controls. MA as well as morphine induced drug-seeking behavior of adult male rats, however this effect did not differ based on the prenatal MA exposure. In contrast, prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance to cocaine than sensitization after the conditioning in the CPP. MDMA and THC did not induce significant effects. Even though the present data did not fully confirmed our hypotheses, future studies are planned to test the drug-seeking behavior also in self-administration test.

  16. Acute fructose administration decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, M C; Cherrington, A D; Mann, S L; Davis, S N

    2000-12-01

    In animal models, a small (catalytic) dose of fructose administered with glucose decreases the glycemic response to the glucose load. Therefore, we examined the effect of fructose on glucose tolerance in 11 healthy human volunteers (5 men and 6 women). Each subject underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on 2 separate occasions, at least 1 week apart. Each OGTT consisted of 75 g glucose with or without 7.5 g fructose (OGTT+F or OGTT-F), in random order. Arterialized blood samples were obtained from a heated dorsal hand vein twice before ingestion of the carbohydrate and every 15 min for 2 h afterward. The area under the curve (AUC) of the change in plasma glucose was 19% less in OGTT+F vs. OGTT-F (P: < 0.05). Glucose tolerance was improved by fructose in 9 subjects and worsened in 2. All 6 subjects with the largest glucose AUC during OGTT-F had a decreased response during OGTT+F (31 +/- 5% decrease). The insulin AUC did not differ between the 2 studies. Of the 9 subjects with improved glucose tolerance during the OGTT+F, 5 had smaller insulin AUC during the OGTT+F than the OGTT-F. Plasma glucagon concentrations declined similarly during OGTT-F and OGTT+F. The blood lactate response was about 50% greater during the OGTT+F (P: < 0.05). Neither nonesterified fatty acid nor triglyceride concentrations differed between the two OGTT. In conclusion, low dose fructose improves the glycemic response to an oral glucose load in normal adults without significantly enhancing the insulin or triglyceride response. Fructose appears most effective in those normal individuals who have the poorest glucose tolerance.

  17. Effects of the immediate recall trial on Delayed Recall performance in the Rey Complex Figure Test in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2015-01-01

    This study determines whether the presence or absence of the Immediate Recall trial influences performance among healthy young and older adults on the 30-min Delayed Recall task of the Rey Complex Figure Test. Participants in the 1-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) underwent the Copy trial and 30-min Delayed Recall trial only, while participants in the 2-test condition (24 young adults and 24 older adults) completed the Copy trial, the Immediate Recall trial, and the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. Both older and younger participants in the 2-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the 1-test condition on the 30-min Delayed Recall trial. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was discussed.

  18. Testing the reliability and validity of computer-mediated social support measures among older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Gaines, Jean

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing number of older adult online users, the Internet and e-mail are becoming a new source of social support for older adults. To assess this computer-mediated social support, two traditional social support measures were modified: (1) the Lubben Social Network Scale and (2) the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of these modified measures. This study was a single group descriptive study with two data collection points. Data were collected using Web surveys. A total of 38 older adult participants completed the first survey; 35, the second survey. The findings of this preliminary study provided evidence for the reliability, content validity, and, to a limited extent, construct validity, of the modified measures. Additional studies with a larger representative sample are needed to further examine the psychometric aspects of these measures.

  19. Testing a Dutch web-based tailored lifestyle programme among adults: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking, high alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity often lead to (chronic) diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tailored online interventions have been proven to be effective in changing health behaviours. The aim of this study is to test and compare the effectiveness of two different tailoring strategies for changing lifestyle compared to a control group using a multiple health behaviour web-based approach. Methods In our Internet-based tailored programme, the five lifestyle behaviours of smoking, alcohol intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, and physical activity are addressed. This randomized controlled trial, conducted among Dutch adults, includes two experimental groups (i.e., a sequential behaviour tailoring condition and a simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition) and a control group. People in the sequential behaviour tailoring condition obtain feedback on whether their lifestyle behaviours meet the Dutch recommendations. Using a step-by-step approach, they are stimulated to continue with a computer tailored module to change only one unhealthy behaviour first. In the course of the study, they can proceed to change a second behaviour. People in the simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition receive computer tailored feedback about all their unhealthy behaviours during their first visit as a stimulation to change all unhealthy behaviours. The experimental groups can re-visit the website and can then receive ipsative feedback (i.e., current scores are compared to previo