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Sample records for adult walleye density

  1. Effect of measurement error on tests of density dependence of catchability for walleyes in northern Wisconsin angling and spearing fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.J.; Beard, T.D., Jr.; Hewett, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to determine how much measurement errors affected tests of density dependence of spearing and angling catchability for walleye Sander vitreus by quantifying relationships between spearing and angling catch rates (catch/h) and walleye population density (number/acre) in northern Wisconsin lakes. The mean measurement error of spearing catch rates was 43.5 times greater than the mean measurement error of adult walleye population densities, whereas the mean measurement error of angling catch rates was only 5.6 times greater than the mean measurement error of adult walleye population densities. The bias-corrected estimate of the relationship between spearing catch rate and adult walleye population density was similar to the ordinary-least-squares regression estimate but differed significantly from the geometric mean (GM) functional regression estimate. In contrast, the bias-corrected estimate of the relationship between angling catch rate and total walleye population density was intermediate between ordinary-least-squares and GM functional regression estimates. Catch rates of walleyes in both spearing and angling fisheries were not linearly related to walleye population density, which indicated that catch rates in both fisheries were hyperstable in relation to walleye population density. For both fisheries, GM functional regression overestimated the degree of hyperdepletion in catch rates and ordinary-least-squares regression overestimated the degree of hyperstability in catch rates. However, ordinary-least-squares regression induced significantly less bias in tests of density dependence than GM functional regression, so it may be suitable for testing the degree of density dependence in fisheries for which fish population density is estimated with mark-recapture methods similar to those used in our study. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. The role of density dependence in growth patterns of ceded territory walleye populations of northern Wisconsin: Effects of changing management regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, G.G.; Hewett, S.W.; Beard, T.D., Jr.; Fayram, A.H.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed density-related changes in growth of walleye Sander vitreus in the ceded territory of northern Wisconsin from 1977 to 1999. We used asymptotic length (Lz), growth rate near t0 (??), and body condition as measures of walleye growth to determine the relationship between growth and density. Among lakes, there was weak evidence of density-dependent growth: adult density explained only 0-6% of the variability in the growth metrics. Within lakes, growth was density dependent. Lz, ??, and body condition of walleyes changing with density for 69, 28, and 62% of the populations examined, respectively. Our results suggest that walleye growth was density dependent within individual lakes. However, growth was not coherently density dependent among lakes, which was possibly due to inherent differences in the productivity, surface area, forage base, landscape position, species composition, and management regime of lakes in the ceded territory. Densities of adult walleyes averaged 8.3 fish/ha and did not change significantly during 1990-1999. Mean Lz and body condition of walleyes were signilicantly higher before 1990 than after 1990, which may indicate an increase in density due to changes in management regimes. The observed growth changes do not appear to be a consequence of the statewide 15-in minimum size limit adopted in 1990 but rather a response to the treaty rights management regime. We conclude that walleye growth has the potential to predict regional-scale adult walleye densities if lake-specific variables are included in a model to account for regional-scale differences among walleye populations and lakes.

  3. Seasonal thermal ecology of adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Peat, Tyler B; Hayden, Todd A; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Vandergoot, Christopher S; Fielder, David G; Madenjian, Charles P; Murchie, Karen J; Dettmers, John M; Krueger, Charles C; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize thermal patterns and generate occupancy models for adult walleye from lakes Erie and Huron with internally implanted biologgers coupled with a telemetry study to assess the effects of sex, fish size, diel periods, and lake. Sex, size, and diel periods had no effect on thermal occupancy of adult walleye in either lake. Thermal occupancy differed between lakes and seasons. Walleye from Lake Erie generally experienced higher temperatures throughout the spring and summer months than did walleye in Lake Huron, due to limnological differences between the lakes. Tagged walleye that remained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron (i.e., adjacent to the release location), as opposed to those migrating to the main basin of Lake Huron, experienced higher temperatures, and thus accumulated more thermal units (the amount of temperature units amassed over time) throughout the year. Walleye that migrated toward the southern end of Lake Huron occupied higher temperatures than those that moved toward the north. Consequently, walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay experienced thermal environments that were more favorable for growth as they spent more time within their thermal optimas than those that remained in Saginaw Bay. Results presented in this paper provide information on the thermal experience of wild fish in a large lake, and could be used to refine sex- and lake-specific bioenergetics models of walleye in the Great Lakes to enable the testing of ecological hypotheses. PMID:26590461

  4. Derivation of safety factors for setting harvest quotas on adult walleyes from past estimates of abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Staggs, Michael D.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Past population estimates of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum can be used to set harvest quotas, provided that temporal variability in abundance of adult walleyes is accounted for. We used a long-term data set from Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin, to evaluate the accuracy of past population estimates for setting current-year quotas for adult walleyes. The results from Escanaba Lake were corroborated by comparison with other lakes where adult walleye abundance was estimated in more than 1 year. The accuracy of estimates of adult walleye abundance declined over time from the year the estimate was obtained to the year it was used to set a harvest quota. We derived safety factors for application to past estimates of population size; these factors limit the occurrence of an exploitation rate exceeding the maximum sustainable rate (35%) to approximately 1 in 40. These safety factors declined from 35% for 1-year-old estimates to less than 20% for 10-year-old estimates.

  5. Catchability of Walleyes to Fyke Netting and Electrofishing in Northern Wisconsin Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, M.W.; Hansen, M.J.; Beard, T.D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    We quantified relationships between both fyke-net catch rates (catch/net-night) and electrofishing catch rates (catch/mi) and population densities (number/acre) of walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for adult population estimates and total population estimates to determine whether catchability was density dependent. Fyke-net catch rates were modeled as a nonlinear function of adult walleye density and of four size-classes of the adult population, and electrofishing catch rates were modeled as a nonlinear function of adult and total walleye density and four size-classes of the adult and total populations. The results showed nonlinear relationships between catch rate and density for the adult and total populations. We accounted for measurement errors in catch rates and densities by estimating bias-corrected slopes by means of Monte Carlo simulations and estimated measurement-error ratios by means of an errors-in-variables model. We found that the bias-corrected slopes were higher than ordinary-least-squares regression estimates and that measurement errors were greater in catch rates than in density estimates. Lastly, we sought to explain the residual variability in the relationships between (1) fyke-net catch rates and adult walleye densities and (2) electrofishing catch rates and adult and total walleye densities. We found that the fyke-net catch rate was positively related to adult walleye density and percent littoral zone (percentage of lake surface area ???20 ft deep) and negatively related to conductivity. We found that the electrofishing catch rate of adult walleyes was positively related to adult walleye density and conductivity and that the electrofishing catch rate of the total walleye population was positively related to total walleye density. We concluded that the nonlinear relationship between catch rates and walleye abundance limits the use of catch rates to index walleye abundance in northern Wisconsin lakes.

  6. Piscivory in juvenile walleyes: Relative importance of prey species, timing of spawning of prey fish, and density on growth and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolar, C.S.; Wahl, David H.; Hooe, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of the timing of spawning by prey fish and the species of prey fish on the growth and survival of juvenile walleye Stizostedion vitreum. We expected that age-0 walleyes would grow more in ponds when stocked about the same time as the spawning of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum than when stocked about 6 weeks after spawning. We found, however, that the timing of larval gizzard shad presence did not affect walleye growth or survival. Also contrary to our expectations, walleyes from ponds with bluegill Lepomis macrochirus grew more (by 9% in total length and 38% in mass) than those from ponds with gizzard shad. However, the density of gizzard shad was lower than that of bluegills, particularly after the first few weeks of the experiment. Bluegills remained within the gape limits of walleyes throughout the experiment, whereas gizzard shad outgrew their vulnerability to predation. Late-spawned gizzard shad remained vulnerable to walleye predation only slightly longer than did those from early spawned ponds. The survival of age-0 walleyes was unaffected by water temperature, the timing of spawning by prey fish, prey species, or density. Our results suggest that even though walleyes typically grow faster in systems with gizzard shad as prey than in those with bluegills, juvenile walleyes can still grow well in bluegill-dominated systems. In some systems, high densities of a less beneficial prey (e.g., abundant bluegills rather than less abundant gizzard shad) may overcome the growth differences of juvenile walleyes that would be expected based on the differences in prey species alone. A wide variation in individual walleye growth in our ponds, even within prey treatments, indicated the complexity of interactions among the factors affecting juvenile walleye growth.

  7. Impacts of Daily Bag Limit Reductions on Angler Effort in Wisconsin Walleye Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T.D., Jr.; Cox, S.P.; Carpenter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Angler effort is an important factor affecting recreational fisheries. However, angler responses are rarely incorporated into recreational fisheries regulations or predictions. Few have attempted to examine how daily bag limit regulations affect total angling pressure and subsequent stock densities. Our paper develops a theoretical basis for predicting angler effort and harvest rate based on stock densities and bag limit regulations. We examined data from a management system that controls the total exploitation of walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) in northern Wisconsin lakes and compared these empirical results with the predictions from a theoretical effort and harvest rate response model. The data indicated that higher general angler effort occurs on lakes regulated with a 5-walleye daily limit than on lakes regulated with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. General walleye catch rates were lower on lakes with a 5-walleye limit than on lakes with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. An effort response model predicted a logarithmic relationship between angler effort and adult walleye density and that an index of attractiveness would be greater on lakes with high bag limits. Predictions from the harvest rate model with constant walleye catchability indicated that harvest rates increased nonlinearly with increasing density. When the effort model was fitted to data from northern Wisconsin, we found higher lake attractiveness at 5-walleye-limit lakes. We conclude that different groups of anglers respond differently to bag limit changes and that reliance on daily bag limits may not be sufficient to maintain high walleye densities in some lakes in this region.

  8. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  9. Status and reproduction of Gulf coast strain walleye in a Tombigbee River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Hart, J.; Hanson, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus [Mitchill]) are native to rivers and streams in the Mobile River basin in Mississippi and Alabama. These populations comprise a genetically unique strain (Gulf coast walleye, GCW) and represent the southernmost distribution of walleye in the United States. Luxapallila Creek was considered an important spawning site for GCW prior to and shortly after impoundment of the Tombigbee River in 1980. Extensive sampling in Luxapallila Creek in 2001 and 2002 collected only one larval walleye. Microsatellite DNA analysis suggested 14 of 16 adult walleye from Luxapallila Creek were hatchery-produced fish or their progeny. Controlled angling catch rates of adult walleye have declined since 1997. The scarcity of wild-spawned walleye and the similarity of wild-caught and hatchery broodstock walleye indicates that the GCW population in, or spawning in, Luxapallila Creek is sustained by stocking and recruitment from these stocked fish may be diminishing.

  10. Trends in relative weight of walleye stocks in Wyoming reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marwitz, T.D.; Hubert, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    The relative weight (W(r)) index of body condition provided insight into the stock dynamics of walleye Stizostedion vitreum in six reservoirs in the North Platte River drainage of Wyoming. The three most upstream reservoirs are managed as both walleye and trout (Oncorhynchus spp. and Salmo spp.) fisheries; trout are stocked annually. The three downstream reservoirs are managed for coolwater and warmwater fishes, and walleye fry are stocked almost annually in two of the reservoirs. Positive relations between stocking densities of trout and W(r) of walleyes and between water levels and W(r) of walleyes were observed. Length-related trends in W(r) within walleye stocks over time were related to prey availability.

  11. Relative contribution of stocked walleyes in Tennessee reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2003-01-01

    Since the mid-1950s, fisheries biologists with the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency have stocked walleyes Stizostedion vitreum in several tributary reservoirs of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to augment declining native stocks; however, the efficacy of these management actions has never been formally evaluated. The contribution of stocked walleyes in four Tennessee reservoirs was evaluated during 1999 and 2000 by marking fry and fingerlings through oxytetracycline (OTC) immersion. Stocking densities were 13-48 fingerlings/ha, and marking efficacy was high for fish marked as fry (mean = 98%; SE = 1.7%) and fingerlings (mean = 99%; SE = 0.6%). Nearly all (94-100%; N = 509) of the age-1 and age-2 walleyes collected in the four reservoirs were OTC-marked. Based on these findings, fingerling walleyes must be stocked annually to sustain the walleye populations in these tributary impoundments.

  12. First-year growth, recruitment, and maturity of walleyes in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Knight, Roger L.; Kershner, Mark W.; Hansen, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    In some lakes, first-year growth of walleyes Stizostedion vitreum has been identified as an important factor governing recruitment of juveniles to the adult population. We developed a regression model for walleye recruitment in western Lake Erie by considering factors such as first-year growth, size of the spawning stock, the rate at which the lake warmed during the spring, and abundance of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Gizzard shad abundance during the fall prior to spring walleye spawning explained over 40% of the variation in walleye recruitment. Gizzard shad are relatively high in lipids and are preferred prey for walleyes in Lake Erie. Therefore, the high degree of correlation between shad abundance and subsequent walleye recruitment supported the contention that mature females needed adequate lipid reserves during the winter to spawn the following spring. According to the regression analysis, spring warming rate and size of the parental stock also influenced walleye recruitment. Our regression model explained 92% of the variation in recruitment of age-2 fish into the Lake Erie walleye population from 1981 to 1993. The regression model is potentially valuable as a management tool because it could be used to forecast walleye recruitment to the fishery 2 years in advance. First-year growth was poorly correlated with recruitment, which may reflect the unusually low incidence of walleye cannibalism in western Lake Erie. In contrast, first-year growth was strongly linked to age at maturity.

  13. A rehabilitation plan for walleye populations and habitats in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, MIchael H.

    2003-01-01

    The walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) has been historically important in regional fisheries and fish communities in large bays, estuaries, and rivers of Lake Superior. Significant negative impacts on the species caused by overharvesting, habitat degradation, and pollution during the late 1800s and early 1900s have led to the preparation of a strategic rehabilitation plan. The lakewide goal is to maintain, enhance, and rehabilitate habitat for walleye and to establish self-sustaining populations in areas where walleyes historically lived. Population objectives that support the goal are to increase the abundance of juvenile and adult walleyes in selected areas. Habitat objectives that support the goal include increasing spawning and nursery habitat in four areas: enhancing fish passage, reducing sedimentation, increasing water quality, and reducing contaminants in walleyes. Progress toward achieving the habitat objectives should be measured by documenting increases in spawning and nursery habitats, resolving fish-passage issues, reducing sediments in rivers, and reducing contaminant levels in walleyes. Stocking various life stages of walleye should be considered to rehabilitate certain degraded populations. Total annual mortality of walleye populations should be less than 45% to allow populations to either increase or be maintained at target levels of abundance. Routine assessments should focus on gathering the data necessary to evaluate abundance and mortality and on taking inventories of spawning and nursery habitats. Research should be conducted to understand the specific habitat requirements for Lake Superior walleye populations and the habitat-abundance relationships for populations and for the lake as a whole.

  14. Consumption estimates of walleye stocked as fry to suppress fathead minnow populations in west-central Minnesota wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.C.; Willis, D.W.; Herwig, B.R.; Chipps, S.R.; Parsons, B.G.; Reed, J.R.; Hanson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries managers throughout the Prairie Pothole Region of Minnesota often use semi-permanent and permanent wetland basins to extensively culture walleye Sander vitreus fry. Waterfowl managers have expressed concern over this practice because of the potential influence that fish have on food resources used by waterfowl during development and migration. It is well known that native fathead minnows Pimephales promelas can have detrimental effects on macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, water clarity, epiphyton, and macrophytes in wetlands. Because walleye commonly become piscivorous as soon as mouth gape allows, walleye fry may suppress fathead minnow populations and improve wetland conditions for waterfowl. In this study, we quantify consumption estimates, specifically predation on fathead minnows, by age-0 and age-1 walleye reared in natural wetland basins. Six wetlands were stocked in mid-May 2001 and 2002 at a rate of 12,000 walleye fry ha-1. Age-0 walleye were sampled bi-weekly from mid-June through mid-September 2001. Age-0 and age-1 walleye were sampled monthly from mid-May through mid-September 2002. A generalised diet shift from zooplankton to fish to macroinvertebrates was observed in 2001, whereas diets of juvenile walleye contained primarily macroinvertebrates in 2002. Stocked walleye quickly reduced fathead minnow populations in 2001 and suppression was maintained throughout 2002. Although walleye consumed primarily macroinvertebrates once prey fish populations became suppressed, consumption estimates of invertebrates by walleye were substantially less than those documented for fathead minnow populations. Thus, stocking age-0 walleye was an effective biomanipulation tool that substantially reduced fathead minnow densities and influenced lower trophic levels in these aquatic communities. ?? 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  15. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  16. Environmental and ecological conditions surrounding the production of large year classes of walleye (Sander vitreus) in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fielder, D.G.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Thomas, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    The Saginaw Bay walleye population (Sander vitreus) has not fully recovered from a collapse that began in the 1940s and has been dependent on stocking with only limited natural reproduction. Beginning in 2003, and through at least 2005, reproductive success of walleye surged to unprecedented levels. The increase was concurrent with ecological changes in Lake Huron and we sought to quantitatively model which factors most influenced this new dynamic. We developed Ricker stock-recruitment models for both wild and stock fish and evaluated them with second-order Akaike's information criterion to find the best model. Independent variables included adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance, spring water temperatures, chlorophyll a levels and total phosphorus levels. In all, 14 models were evaluated for production of wild age-0 walleyes and eight models for stocked age-0 walleyes. For wild walleyes, adult alewife abundance was the dominant factor, accounting for 58% of the variability in age-0 abundance. Production of wild age-0 fish increased when adult alewives were scarce. The only other plausible factor was spring water temperature. Predictably, alewife abundance was not important to stocked fish; instead temperature and adult walleye abundance were more significant variables. The surge in reproductive success for walleyes during 2003–2005 was most likely due to large declines in adult alewives in Lake Huron. While relatively strong year classes (age-1 and up) have been produced as a result of increased age-0 production during 2003–2005, the overall magnitude has not been as great as the initial age-0 abundance originally suggested. It appears that over-winter mortality is higher than in the past and may stem from higher predation or slower growth (lower condition for enduring winter thermal stress). From this it appears that low alewife abundance does not assure strong walleye year classes in Saginaw Bay but may be a prerequisite for them.

  17. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  18. Relationships between recapture rates from different gears for estimating walleye abundance in northern Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, M.W.; Hansen, M.J.; Beard, T.D., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Maximizing sampling efficiency and reducing sampling costs are desirable goals for fisheries management agencies. Expensive and labor-intensive methods (such as mark-recapture) are commonly used to estimate the population abundance of walleye Sander vitreus, but more efficient methods may be available. We compared recapture rates from surveys and harvests to evaluate the efficiency of currently used recapture gears and the potential for using gears that require less effort. To evaluate the usefulness of walleye harvest as mark-recapture samples, we used errors-in-variables models to determine whether recapture rates differed between fyke-netting and spearing, electrofishing and spearing, and electrofishing and angling. We found no significant differences between fyke-netting and adult walleye electrofishing recapture rates or between spearing and adult walleye electrofishing recapture rates. In contrast, we found that recapture rates from angling and electrofishing differed significantly in lakes with and without minimum length limits. We concluded that the lack of significant differences between the slopes of some harvest and survey recapture rates may allow the use of harvest recapture rates to estimate walleye abundance, but the biases associated with each gear should be considered. We also concluded that more attention should be given to understanding the biases of recapture gears. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  19. Cormorant predation and the population dynamics of walleye and yellow perch in Oneida Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudstam, L. G.; VanDeValk, A.J.; Adams, C.M.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Forney, J.L.; Richmond, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) increased dramatically in North America during the 1990s, providing the opportunity to study the effects of an increase of a top predator on an existing predator-prey system. In Oneida Lake, New York, USA, Double-crested Cormorants were first observed nesting in 1984 and had increased to over 360 nesting pairs by 2000. Concomitant with this increase in piscivorous birds was a decrease in the adult walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations. Analysis of a 40-yr data series shows higher mortality of subadults (age 1-2 yr perch and age 1-3 yr walleye) for both species in the 1990s compared to the previous three decades. Cormorant diet was investigated from 1995 to 2000 using a combination of cast pellets, regurgitants, and stomach analysis. Walleye and yellow perch were a major portion of the cormorant diet during these years (40-82% by number). The number of subadult walleye and yellow perch consumed by cormorants suggests that the increase in subadult mortality can be explained by predation from cormorants. Mean mortality rates of adult percids attributed to cormorant predation were 1.1% per year for walleye and 7.7% per year for yellow perch. Our analysis suggests that predation by cormorants on subadult percids is a major factor contributing to the decline in both the walleye and the yellow perch populations in Oneida Lake. Other ecosystem changes (zebra mussels, lower nutrient loading, decrease in alternate prey) are not likely explanations because the potential mechanisms involved are not consistent with auxiliary data from the lake and would not affect subadult mortality. The likely impact of bird predation on percid populations in Oneida Lake occurs because cormorants feed on larger fish that are beyond the size range where compensatory mechanisms are important.

  20. Individual-based model of yellow perch and walleye populations in Oneida Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.A.; Rutherford, E.S.; McDermot, D.S.; Forney, J.L.; Mills, E.L.

    1999-05-01

    Predator-prey dynamics and density dependence are fundamental issues in ecology. The authors use a detailed, individual-based model of walleye and yellow perch to investigate the effects of alternative prey and compensatory responses on predator and prey population dynamics. The analyses focus on the numerical and developmental responses of the predator, rather than the traditional emphasis on functional responses. The extensive database for Oneida Lake, New York, USA was used to configure the model and ensure its realism. The model follows the daily growth, mortality, and spawning of individuals of each species through their lifetime. Three ecologically distinct periods in the history of Oneida Lake were simulated: baseline, high mayfly densities, and high forage fish densities. Mayflies and forage fish act as alternative prey for walleye. For model corroboration, the three periods were simulated sequentially as they occurred in Oneida Lake. Model predictions of abundances, size at age, and growth and survival rates compared favorably with Oneida Lake data. Three hypotheses suggested by the data were evaluated: alternative prey stabilizes yellow perch and walleye populations; alternative prey increases yellow perch and walleye recruitment; and density-dependent growth and survival compensate for changes in young-of-the-year mortality. Model simulations were performed under increased mayfly densities, increased forage fish densities, and increased egg mortality rates.

  1. Do walleye pollock exhibit flexibility in where or when they spawn based on variability in water temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacheler, Nathan M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M.; Bartolino, Valerio

    2012-06-01

    Environmental variability is increasingly recognized as a primary determinant of year-class strength of marine fishes by directly or indirectly influencing egg and larval development, growth, and survival. Here we examined the role of annual water temperature variability in determining when and where walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawn in the eastern Bering Sea. Walleye pollock spawning was examined using both long-term ichthyoplankton data (N=19 years), as well as with historical spatially explicit, foreign-reported, commercial catch data occurring during the primary walleye pollock spawning season (February-May) each year (N=22 years in total). We constructed variable-coefficient generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate the spatially explicit egg or adult catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) to predictor variables including spawning stock biomass, season, position, and water temperature. The adjusted R2 value was 63.1% for the egg CPUE model and 35.5% for the adult CPUE model. Both egg and adult GAMs suggest that spawning progresses seasonally from Bogoslof Island in February and March to Outer Domain waters between the Pribilof and Unimak Islands by May. Most importantly, walleye pollock egg and adult CPUE was predicted to generally increase throughout the study area as mean annual water temperature increased. These results suggest low interannual variability in the spatial and temporal dynamics of walleye pollock spawning regardless of changes in environmental conditions, at least at the spatial scale examined in this study and within the time frame of decades.

  2. Sexual difference in polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation rates of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Noguchi, George E.; Haas, Robert C.; Schrouder, Kathrin S.

    1998-01-01

    Adult male walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) exhibited significantly higher polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations than similarly aged female walleye from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron). To explain this difference, we tested the following three hypotheses: (i) females showed a considerably greater reduction in PCB concentration immediately following spawning than males, (ii) females grew at a faster rate and therefore exhibited lower PCB concentrations than males, and (iii) males spent more time in the Saginaw River system than females, and therefore received a greater exposure to PCBs. The first hypothesis was tested by comparing PCB concentration in gonadal tissue with whole-body concentration, the second hypothesis was tested via bioenergetics modeling, and we used mark-recapture data from the Saginaw Bay walleye fishery to address the third hypothesis. The only plausible explanation for the observed difference in PCB accumulation rate was that males spent substantially more time in the highly contaminated Saginaw River system than females, and therefore were exposed to greater environmental concentrations of PCBs. Based on the results of our study, we strongly recommend a stratified random sampling design for monitoring PCB concentration in Saginaw Bay walleye, with fixed numbers of females and males sampled each year.

  3. Two Closely Related but Distinct Retroviruses Are Associated with Walleye Discrete Epidermal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    LaPierre, Lorie A.; Holzschu, Donald L.; Wooster, Greg A.; Bowser, Paul R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Walleye discrete epidermal hyperplasia (WEH) is a hyperproliferative skin disease that is prevalent on adult walleye fish throughout North America. We have identified two retroviruses associated with WEH, designated here as walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus type 1 and type 2 (WEHV1 and WEHV2), that are closely related to one another (77% identity) and to walleye dermal sarcoma virus (64% identity) within the polymerase region. WEHV1 and/or WEHV2 viral DNA was readily detected by PCR in hyperplastic tissue samples, but only low levels of viral DNA were detected in uninvolved skin. Southern blot analysis showed one to three copies of integrated WEHV2 viral DNA in lesions but did not detect WEHV2 viral DNA in uninvolved skin from the same fish. Northern blots detected abundant levels of WEHV1 and/or WEHV2 virion RNA transcripts of approximately 13 kb in hyperplastic tissue, but virion RNA was not observed in uninvolved skin and muscle. These results suggest that WEHV1 and WEHV2 are the causative agents of discrete epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:9525688

  4. Age structure and mortality of walleyes in Kansas reservoirs: Use of mortality caps to establish realistic management objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Stephen, J.L.; Guy, C.S.; Schultz, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    Age structure, total annual mortality, and mortality caps (maximum mortality thresholds established by managers) were investigated for walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) populations sampled from eight Kansas reservoirs during 1991-1999. We assessed age structure by examining the relative frequency of different ages in the population; total annual mortality of age-2 and older walleyes was estimated by use of a weighted catch curve. To evaluate the utility of mortality caps, we modeled threshold values of mortality by varying growth rates and management objectives. Estimated mortality thresholds were then compared with observed growth and mortality rates. The maximum age of walleyes varied from 5 to 11 years across reservoirs. Age structure was dominated (???72%) by walleyes age 3 and younger in all reservoirs, corresponding to ages that were not yet vulnerable to harvest. Total annual mortality rates varied from 40.7% to 59.5% across reservoirs and averaged 51.1% overall (SE = 2.3). Analysis of mortality caps indicated that a management objective of 500 mm for the mean length of walleyes harvested by anglers was realistic for all reservoirs with a 457-mm minimum length limit but not for those with a 381-mm minimum length limit. For a 500-mm mean length objective to be realized for reservoirs with a 381-mm length limit, managers must either reduce mortality rates (e.g., through restrictive harvest regulations) or increase growth of walleyes. When the assumed objective was to maintain the mean length of harvested walleyes at current levels, the observed annual mortality rates were below the mortality cap for all reservoirs except one. Mortality caps also provided insight on management objectives expressed in terms of proportional stock density (PSD). Results indicated that a PSD objective of 20-40 was realistic for most reservoirs. This study provides important walleye mortality information that can be used for monitoring or for inclusion into

  5. Reevaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Wang, Chunfang

    2013-08-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7% of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed from observed cumulative consumption by less than 10%. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption. PMID:23124865

  6. Reevaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Wang, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 % of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed fromobserved cumulative consumption by less than 10 %. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Wang, Chunfang; O'Brien, Timothy P; Holuszko, Melissa J; Ogilvie, Lynn M; Stickel, Richard G

    2010-03-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important game fish throughout much of North America. We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks during a 126-day experiment. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with the observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model significantly underestimated food consumption by walleye in the laboratory. The degree of underestimation appeared to depend on the feeding rate. For the tank with the lowest feeding rate (1.4% of walleye body weight per day), the agreement between the bioenergetics model prediction of cumulative consumption over the entire 126-day experiment and the observed cumulative consumption was remarkably close, as the prediction was within 0.1% of the observed cumulative consumption. Feeding rates in the other three tanks ranged from 1.6% to 1.7% of walleye body weight per day, and bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment ranged between 11 and 15% less than the observed cumulative consumption. PMID:18979219

  8. Managing inherent complexity for sustainable walleye fisheries in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Drouin, Richard; Gaden, Marc; Knight, Roger; Tyson, Jeff; Zhao, Yingming

    2012-01-01

    In Lake Erie, Walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus) is king. The naturally occurring species is the foundation of commercial fishing operations on the Canadian side of the lake and is a much-prized sport fish on the American side. Management of Lake Erie walleye fisheries is complex and takes place in an inter-jurisdictional setting composed of resource agencies from the states of Michigan (MDNR), Ohio (ODNR), Pennsylvania (PFBC), and New York (NYDEC) and the province of Ontario (OMNR). The complexity of walleye management is exacerbated by interactions among environmental and ecological changes in Lake Erie, complex life-history characteristics of the species, public demand for walleye, and cultural/governance differences among managing groups and their respective constituents. Success of future management strategies will largely hinge upon our ability to understand these inherent complexities and to employ tactics that successfully accommodate stock productivity and human demand in a highly dynamic environment. In this report, we review the history of Lake Erie walleye management, outline the multi-jurisdictional process for international management of walleye, and discuss strategies to address challenges facing managers.

  9. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Wang, C.; O'Brien, T. P.; Holuszko, M.J.; Ogilvie, L.M.; Stickel, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important game fish throughout much of North America. We evaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks during a 126-day experiment. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with the observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model significantly underestimated food consumption by walleye in the laboratory. The degree of underestimation appeared to depend on the feeding rate. For the tank with the lowest feeding rate (1.4% of walleye body weight per day), the agreement between the bioenergetics model prediction of cumulative consumption over the entire 126-day experiment and the observed cumulative consumption was remarkably close, as the prediction was within 0.1% of the observed cumulative consumption. Feeding rates in the other three tanks ranged from 1.6% to 1.7% of walleye body weight per day, and bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment ranged between 11 and 15% less than the observed cumulative consumption. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Aline; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies present association of low dietary energy density with higher intake of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, lower intake of fat, and better balance of macronutrients. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between dietary energy density and diet quality measured by an index of diet quality. This study used data from 496 adults and 445 older adults of cross-sectional population-based survey from São Paulo conducted in 2008-2009, Brazil. Dietary intake data was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary energy density values were calculated based on foods only method. Dietary energy density and revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components, were estimated by usual intake using Multiple Source Method. The relationship between dietary energy density and the total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components were assessed by Gaussian family log-link model for each age group. The analyses showed an inverse association between dietary energy density and total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index in adults (T2:β = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:β = 0.86, p < 0.001) and older adults (T2:β = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:β = 0.90, p < 0.001), and an inverse association between dietary energy density and nine of twelve revised Brazilian Health Eating Index components in adult and/or older adults groups. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults regardless of sex, per capita household income, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking habits status, alcohol beverage drinking status and usual energy intake (kilocalories) from beverages. PMID:26626824

  12. Genetic contribution of hatchery fish to walleye stocks in Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Haas, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Stocks of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) were severely depressed in Saginaw Bay in the 1970s. In 1979, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources began intensive stocking of walleye fingerlings to bolster fish populations. Subsequent to stocking, the walleye fishery has recovered. The study objective was to determine if recovery was due to the stocking program or natural reproduction. Inherent genetic differences between hatchery fish and endemic walleyes were used to determine the effect and contribution of hatchery fish to Saginaw Bay.

  13. Electrical responses and photopigments of twin cones in the retina of the walleye.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, D A; Hassin, G; Levine, J S; MacNichol, E F

    1980-01-01

    1. The properties of twin and single cones in the retina of the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) were studied by intracellular recording, dye injection and microspectrophotometry. 2. Twin cones generate hyperpolarizing responses to central illumination, can receive depolarizing influences (feed-back) from the receptive field surround, and show no detectable dye coupling when injected with Procion yellow. In seventeen of eighteen dye-injected cones, fluorescence was intense in the inner segment and undetectable or weak in the cone pedicle. 3. Both members of the twin cone contain the same photopigment in their outer segments. It absorbs maximally at about 605 nm. 4. A 533 nm green-sensitive photopigment was found in single cones. No blue-sensitive cones have been found. 5. With the exception of a modest discrepancy in the violet, the absorptance spectrum of the 605 nm photopigment of twin cones agrees closely with the action spectrum measured by intracellular recording. 6. The spectral properties established by the twin cone's photopigment are not detectably altered by the hyperpolarizing influences arising from nearby cones or by the depolarizing influences arising from the receptive field surround. 7. The twin cones of the walleye retina are thus "identical twins', both photochemically and physiologically, and seem designed to function as long-wave, spectrally univariant receptor units for colour vision. 8. The available evidence suggests that identical twin cones differ functionally from double cones and non-identical twin cones. 9. Although they outnumber single cones by about three to one in adults, identifiable twin cones were rarely observed in the cone population of retinas examined 3-5 days after birth. If walleye twin cones develop by fusion of single cones this process apparently occurs only for cones containing the 605 nm photopigment. Images Plate 1 PMID:7252864

  14. Development of eighteen microsatellite loci in walleye (Sander vitreus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coykendall, Dolly K.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Stott, Wendy; Springmann, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    A suite of tri- and tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed for walleye (Sander vitreus) from 454 pyrosequencing data. Eighteen of the 50 primer sets tested amplified consistently in 35 walleye from two lakes on Isle Royale, Lake Superior: Chickenbone Lake and Whittlesey Lake. The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 5.5 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 35.8 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and detect phylogeographic structuring as individuals assigned back to their population of origin. Cross-species amplification within S. canadensis (sauger) was successful for 15 loci, and 11 loci were diagnostic to species. The loci characterized here will be useful for detecting fine-scale spatial structuring, resolving the taxonomic status of Sander species and sub-species, and detecting walleye/sauger hybrids.

  15. Competitive interactions between walleye (Sander vitreus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) under various controlled conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wuellner, M.R.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Willis, D.W.; Galster, B.J.; Selch, T.M.; Chipps, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The range of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is expanding northward, creating new interactions with native predators, including walleye (Sander vitreus). We used a series of experiments to investigate competition between walleye (WAE) and smallmouth bass (SMB) at different life stages and light conditions, identified behaviors that allowed one fish to outcompete another, and evaluated whether prey switching mitigated competitive interactions. Juvenile and adult SMB appeared to outcompete WAE when fed during the daytime; neither species dominated when fed near dusk. Attack rates and capture efficiencies of both species were similar with an intra- or interspecific competitor, but SMB often exploited prey before the competitor had a chance to feed (exploitative competition) or displayed agonistic behaviors toward a potential competitor (interference competition). Prey selectivity of WAE or SMB did not differ when by themselves or with a potential competitor. These results indicate that SMB could outcompete WAE under limiting prey conditions due to the aggressive nature of SMB, but resources may be partitioned at least along a temporal scale. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  16. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Kim, Ae Ryoung; Kim, On Yoo; Lee, Kilchan; Suh, Young Joo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method Thirty-five patients with CP participated in this study. Demographic data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), subtype according to neuromotor type and topographical distribution, ambulatory function, and functional independence measure (FIM) were investigated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the factors affecting BMD were analyzed. Results The BMD had no significant association with factors such as gender, age, and subtype in adults with CP. However, BMI was significantly correlated with the BMD of lumbar spine and femur (p<0.05). The FIM score was also positively correlated with the BMD of femur (p<0.05). Moreover, CP patients with higher ambulatory function had significantly higher BMD of femur (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that BMI and functional levels such as FIM and ambulatory function can affect BMD in adults with CP. The results might be used as basic data, suggesting the importance of treatment including weight bearing exercise and gait training in adults with CP. PMID:23342308

  17. Factors influencing mercury concentrations in walleyes in northern Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiener, J.G.; Martini, R.E.; Sheffy, T.B.; Glass, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examined relations between mercury concentrations in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which spanned a broad range of pH values (5.0-8.1) and acid- neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 mu eq/L). Total concentrations of mercury in axial muscle tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from 0.12 to 1.74 mu g/g wet weight. Concentrations were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in 88% of the samples analyzed and 1.0 mu g/g in 44%. In the five lakes with pH of 7.0 and above, concentrations exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in only 1 of 21 walleyes. Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total length of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-neutralizing capacity as independent variables accounted for 67% of the variation in concentration.

  18. Competition potential between saugers and walleyes in nonnative sympatry

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Guy, Christopher S.; Gardner, William M.; Leathe, Steven A.

    2008-05-01

    Abstract.—Sauger Sander canadensis populations throughout North America have exhibited declines over the past few decades. Various factors may be contribute to the reduced population abundance of saugers in the middle Missouri River of Montana, including interspecific competition with walleyes Sander vitreus. We compared the seasonal migrations, habitat use, and diets of both species in the middle Missouri River to assess competition potential. Before the presumed spawning period, 96% of saugers and 57% of walleyes migrated as far as 264 kilometers downstream. After spawning, both species returned to previously occupied river reaches and demonstrated site fidelity during the nonmigratory season. Habitat use by saugers and walleyes was similar at three hierarchical spatial scales. Diet overlap was high during the spring and summer and moderate during autumn. Resource overlap of saugers and walleyes in the middle Missouri River of Montana suggests that the competition potential between these species is high, which may preclude the recovery of native sauger populations where resources are limiting.

  19. Comparisons between consumption estimates from bioenergetics simulations and field measurements for walleyes from Oneida Lake, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Rudstam, L. G.; Forney, J.L.; VanDeValk, A.J.; Mills, E.L.; Stewart, D.J.; Adams, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Daily consumption was estimated from the stomach contents of walleyes Sander vitreus collected weekly from Oneida Lake, New York, during June-October 1975, 1992, 1993, and 1994 for one to four age-groups per year. Field rations were highly variable between weeks, and trends in ration size varied both seasonally and annually. The coefficient of variation for weekly field rations within years and ages ranged from 45% to 97%. Field estimates were compared with simulated consumption from a bioenergetics model. The simulation averages of daily ration deviated from those of the field estimates by -20.1% to +70.3%, with a mean across all simulations of +14.3%. The deviations for each time step were much greater than those for the simulation averages, ranging from -92.8% to +363.6%. A systematic trend in the deviations was observed, the model producing overpredictions at rations less than 3.7% of body weight. Analysis of variance indicated that the deviations were affected by sample year and week but not age. Multiple linear regression using backwards selection procedures and Akaike's information criterion indicated that walleye weight, walleye growth, lake temperature, prey energy density, and the proportion of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum in the diet significantly affected the deviations between simulated and field rations and explained 32% of the variance. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. Selective food preferences of walleyes of the 1959 year class in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1971-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,473 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) of the 1959 year class collected in western Lake Erie from June 1959 to October 1960. In the same period, the relative abundance and lengths of potential forage species were determined from trawl catches. The walleye fed almost entirely on fish. In 1959 the food was dominated first (in June and July) by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and then, in sequence, by spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius) and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides). In 1960, the walleyes fed mostly on yearling spottail shiners and emerald shiners in the spring and summer but young alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) became the dominant food in the fall. The length of forage fish increased with the length of walleyes and walleyes of a given length usually ate forage fish within a restricted range of lengths. This size preference was shown by walleyes of the same length in the same and different months. The increased in length of forage fish with length of walleye was not proportionate. Walleyes 2.5 inches long ate forage fish 0.44 times their length whereas walleyes 15.5 inches long ate forage fish only 0.28 times their length. The diet of the walleyes changed according to species and lengths of forage fish available. Since young of several species hatched in different months and grew at different rates, abundance and suitability as forage sometimes changed rapidly.

  1. First evidence of egg deposition by walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Allen, J.D.; French, J. R. P., III

    2007-01-01

    The importance of fish spawning habitat in channels connecting the Great Lakes to fishery productivity in those lakes is poorly understood and has not been adequately documented. The Detroit River is a reputed spawning and nursery area for many fish, including walleye (Sander vitreus) that migrate between adjacent Lakes Erie and St. Clair. During April–May 2004, near the head of the Detroit River, we collected 136 fish eggs from the bottom of the river on egg mats. We incubated the eggs at the Great Lakes Science Center until they hatched. All eleven larvae that hatched from the eggs were identified as walleye. These eggs and larvae are the first credible scientific evidence that walleye spawn in the Detroit River. Their origin might be a stock of river-spawning walleye. Such a stock of walleye could potentially add resilience to production by walleye stocks that spawn and are harvested in adjacent waters.

  2. Chemical contaminants, lymphocystis, and dermal sarcoma in walleyes spawning in the Thames River, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.R.; Johnson, A.F. ); MacLennan, D. ); Manson, H. )

    1992-09-01

    Chemical contaminants may play a role in the etiology of external skin lesions on walleyes Stizostedion vitreum in the Great Lakes. We examined the population of walleyes spawning in the Thames River, Ontario, for skin lesions, and compared contaminant levels in walleyes with conspicuous lesions to contaminant levels in visibly normal walleyes. In 1987, 9% of postspawning downstream migrants exhibited skin lesions. Twenty affected fish, many with multiple abnormalities, were autopsied and the external skin lesions were examined histologically. Eight walleyes were affected by only lymphocystis, seven by only dermal sarcoma, four by both conditions, and one by a calcareous nodule; 68% of the individual lesions affecting these walleyes were lymphocystis. Muscle tissue from the walleyes with lymphocystis or dermal sarcoma had lower concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and the DDT metabolite p,p-DDE than did muscle from unaffected walleyes. Thus, it appears unlikely that contaminants, such as measured in this study, increase the susceptibility of these walleyes to skin diseases such as lymphocystis and dermal sarcoma. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Distribution and population genetics of walleye and sauger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haponski, Amanda E.; Sloss, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity and local adaptations are management priorities for wild populations of exploited species, which increasingly are subject to climate change, habitat loss, and pollution. These constitute growing concerns for the walleye Sander vitreus, an ecologically and economically valuable North American temperate fish with large Laurentian Great Lakes' fisheries. This study compares genetic diversity and divergence patterns across its widespread native range using mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite (μsat) loci, examining historic and contemporary influences. We analyze the genetic and morphological characters of a putative endemic variant– “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus” –described from Lakes Erie and Ontario, which became extinct. Walleye with turquoise-colored mucus also are evaluated, since some have questioned whether these are related to the “blue pike”.

  4. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  5. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L., Jr.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  6. Climate change causing phase transitions of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) recruitment dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M; Chan, Kung-Sik; Belgrano, Andrea; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2005-08-22

    In 1976 the North Pacific climate shifted, resulting in an average increase of the water temperature. In the Gulf of Alaska the climate shift was followed (i.e. early 1980s) by a gradual but dramatic increase in the abundance of groundfish species that typically prey on pre-recruitment stages of walleye pollock. In the present study we used a previously parameterized model to investigate the effect of these climate and biological changes on the recruitment dynamics of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska. Simulations covered the 1970-2000 time frame and emphasized the medium-to-long temporal scale (i.e. about 5-10 years) of environmental variability. Results showed that during periods characterized by high sea surface temperature and high predation on juvenile pollock stages, recruitment variability and magnitude were below average, and recruitment control was delayed to stages older than the 0-group. Opposite dynamics (i.e. high abundance and variability, and early recruitment control) occurred during periods characterized by low temperature and predation. These results are in general agreement with empirical observations, and allowed us to formulate causal explanations for their occurrence. We interpreted the delay of recruitment control and the reduction of variability as an effect of increased constraint on the abundance of post age-0 stages, in turn imposed by high density dependence and predation mortality. On the other hand, low density-dependence and predation favoured post age-0 survival, and allowed for an unconstrained link between larval and recruitment abundance. Our findings demonstrate that the dominant mechanisms of pollock survival change over contrasting climate regimes. Such changes may in turn cause a phase transition of recruitment dynamics with profound implications for the management of the entire stock. PMID:16087430

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF BARRIERS TO WALLEYE EGG AND LARVA SURVIVAL IN THE LOWER FOX RIVER, WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A substantial population of walleye Stizostedion vitreum inhabits the lower Fox River between DePere and Green Bay, Wisconsin. Once an indigenous species, walleyes are now maintained through stocking; natural recruitment has not been observed over the 7-year stocking period. In t...

  8. CHEMICAL SUITABILITY OF SUBSTRATES FOR WALLEYE EGG DEVELOPMENT IN THE LOWER FOX RIVER, WI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site suitability for egg development was assessed for walleyes Stizosiedion vitreum in the Fox River, Wisconsin. ater chemistry at the sediment-water interface was compared with criteria for walleye egg hatch success (oxygen and hydrogen sulfide) and chronic toxicity (free ammoni...

  9. To Harvest a Walleye. Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Susan; And Others

    Designed to introduce basic ecological relationships in a lake community, this investigation uses a Lake Erie food chain involving people and walleye as an example. The first activity is a board game in the form of a biomass pyramid; students begin with 1000 kilograms of algae and attempt to reach the "harvest" with at least a kilogram of walleye.…

  10. Effect of diet processing method and ingredient substitution on feed characteristics and survival of larval walleye, Sander vitreus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, F.T.; Lellis, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the production of larval fish diets. The first method, microextrusion marumerization (MEM), has been tested in laboratory feeding trials for many years and produces particles that are palatable and water stable. The second method, particle-assisted rotational agglomeration (PARA), produced diets that have lower density than diets produced by MEM. Each method was used to produce diets in the 250- to 400- and 400- to 700-??m range and compared with a reference diet (Fry Feed Kyowa* [FFK]) for feeding larval walleye in two experiments. The effect of substituting 4% of the fish meal with freeze-dried artemia fines was also investigated. In the first experiment, 30-d survival was greater (P < 0.05) for fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia (49.1.0%) than for fish fed the same diet produced by MEM (27.6%). The addition of Artemia to a diet produced by MEM did not increase survival of larval walleye. Fish fed the reference diet had 24.4% survival. In the second experiment, there was an effect of both processing method and Artemia supplementation, and an interaction of these effects, on survival. Fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia supplementation had 48.4% survival, and fish fed the same diet produced by MEM had only 19.6% survival. Inclusion of 4% freeze-dried Artemia improved (P < 0.04) survival of fish fed MEM particles but not those fed PARA particles. Fish fed FFK had greater weight gain than fish fed other diets in both experiments. Data indicate that the PARA method of diet processing produces smaller, lower density particles than the MEM process and that diets produced by the PARA process support higher survival of larval walleye with low capital and operating costs. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2006.

  11. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Movements and Growth of Marked Walleye Recaptured in Lake Roosevelt, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) have been marked with floy tags in Lake Roosevelt since 1997 to estimate abundance, distribution and movement trends. In 2000, walleye were collected and marked during the spawning run in the Spokane River through electrofishing and angling to supplement movement and growth data collected in previous years. Walleye were also collected and marked during the 2000 and 2001 Kettle Falls Governor's Cup Walleye Tournaments. Seventy-six tag returns were recovered in 2000 and twenty-three in 2001. Walleye migrated into the Spokane River to spawn in mid April and early May. The majority of marked walleye were recovered within 25 km of their original marking location, with a few traveling long distances between recovery locations. Data also verified earlier results that walleye establish summer home ranges. Some walleye remained in the Spokane River, while others moved downstream, or upstream after entering the mainstem of Lake Roosevelt. Those moving upstream moved as far north as Keenlyside Dam in British Columbia (245 km). Growth data indicated similar trends exhibited in the past. Walleye growth and mortality rates were consistent with other walleye producing waters. Walleye condition was slightly below average when compared to other systems.

  12. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  13. Genetic and ecological assessment of population rehabilitation: walleye in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Garner, Shawn R; Bobrowicz, Steven M; Wilson, Chris C

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable management of exploited species is an ongoing challenge, particularly where populations have collapsed or been depleted by overharvest and habitat alteration. The walleye (Sander vitreus) population in Lake Superior's Black Bay historically supported more than 90% of the commercial walleye harvest from the entire lake, but collapsed in 1968 and has still not recovered despite long-term closure of the fishery. In an effort to rehabilitate this population, hatchery-origin walleye from exogenous sources were released into Black Bay between 2003 and 2005. We used individual-based analysis of genetic data collected between 2007 and 2010 to examine the contributions of different wild sources and hatchery stocking events to the contemporary walleye population in Black Bay. We found that 75% of the walleye in Black Bay originated from above- and below-barrier native populations in the Black Sturgeon River. The hatchery stocking events differed considerably in their effectiveness: the 2003 release of fry had no measurable contribution, whereas the 2004 and 2005 releases of fingerlings contributed 71% and 45% of the fish in their respective age classes. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in size, but hatchery fish rarely utilized the river habitat where Black Bay walleye historically spawned, and there was little genetic evidence of interbreeding or natural recruitment of stocked fish. Overall, our results suggest that restoring habitat connectivity to facilitate wild recruitment has greater potential than further exogenous stocking to contribute to the recovery of walleye in this system. PMID:23734488

  14. Food of young-of-the-year walleyes in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.

    1966-01-01

    Stomach contents were examined for 794 young-of-the-year (0-group) walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) captured by trawls at 17 locations in western Lake Erie in June-November 1962. Food organisms were found in 92.5 percent of the stomachs. Food varied with geographic location and season of capture, but within areas and seasons, selection for certain species and sizes of prey was strong. Walleyes from the extreme western end of Lake Erie fed primarily on gizzard shad and alewives during the summer and shifted to emerald shiners during the fall. The stomach contents of walleyes from the Island region changed from mainly yellow perch during the summer to emerald shiners by the end of the year. Walleyes collected east of the Islands had consumed only smelt and yellow perch. The numbers of forage species caught with walleyes in trawls showed little correlation with the representation of these species in walleye stomachs. Walleyes fed on the smallest individuals of each species regardless of species preferences.

  15. Acoustic telemetry reveals large-scale migration patterns of walleye in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Fielder, David G.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish migration in large freshwater lacustrine systems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes is not well understood. The walleye (Sander vitreus) is an economically and ecologically important native fish species throughout the Great Lakes. In Lake Huron walleye has recently undergone a population expansion as a result of recovery of the primary stock, stemming from changing food web dynamics. During 2011 and 2012, we used acoustic telemetry to document the timing and spatial scale of walleye migration in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Spawning walleye (n = 199) collected from a tributary of Saginaw Bay were implanted with acoustic tags and their migrations were documented using acoustic receivers (n = 140) deployed throughout U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. Three migration pathways were described using multistate mark-recapture models. Models were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion. Fish sex did not influence migratory behavior but did affect migration rate and walleye were detected on all acoustic receiver lines. Most (95%) tagged fish migrated downstream from the riverine tagging and release location to Saginaw Bay, and 37% of these fish emigrated from Saginaw Bay into Lake Huron. Remarkably, 8% of walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay were detected at the acoustic receiver line located farthest from the release location more than 350 km away. Most (64%) walleye returned to the Saginaw River in 2012, presumably for spawning. Our findings reveal that fish from this stock use virtually the entirety of U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron.

  16. Bottom-up and top-down controls of walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) on the Eastern Bering Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Ladd, Carol; Palmer, Michael C.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    2006-02-01

    Control of walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) recruitment in the Eastern Bering Sea involves complex interactions between bottom-up and top-down processes, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We used statistical models to test the leading hypotheses linking recruitment variability to biotic and abiotic factors. Consistent with a “cold-pool hypothesis”, recruitment of pollock was significantly stronger if winters preceding the larval (age-0) and juvenile stages (age-1) were mild. However, our results did not support the proposed top-down mechanism (cannibalism) underlying this hypothesis. Several empirical relationships support an “oscillating control hypothesis”. As predicted by it, the effect of ice conditions on survival during the larval and early juvenile stages was modified by the abundance of adult pollock, implying stronger bottom-up control when adult abundance (hence cannibalism) was low. The proposed bottom-up mechanism predicts that the survival of pelagic-feeding walleye pollock (benthic-feeding yellowfin sole), should be higher during years with an early (late) ice retreat, which was confirmed by our analysis. Our results also provide additional evidence for a “larval transport hypothesis”, which states that cannibalism of larval and juvenile pollock is reduced in years when strong northward advection separates juveniles from cannibalistic adults. In addition to testing existing hypotheses, we identified new relationships between spawner-to-recruit survival rates of walleye pollock and several indicators of mixed layer dynamics during the spring and summer. Survival rates and recruitment were significantly reduced when larval or early juvenile stages experienced a delay in the (non-ice-associated) spring bloom as a result of stormy spring conditions, suggesting that the timing of the spring bloom is critical to both first-feeding larvae and age-1 juveniles. Furthermore, a dome-shaped relationship between pollock survival

  17. Environmental factors affecting the strength of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) year-classes in western Lake Erie, 1960-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Scholl, Russell L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1975-01-01

    Commercial production of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from western Lake Erie declined from 5.9 million pounds in 1956 to 140,000 pounds by 1969. Since 1956, marked irregularity in year-class success has developed. Only four year-classes were considered good during 1959–70. The rate and regularity of water warming during the spring spawning and incubation periods in 1960–70 had a positive effect on the density of egg deposits and the resulting year-class strength. Rates of warming were not themselves detrimental, but rather the extended length of the incubation period in cool springs increased the exposure of eggs to such negative influences as dislodgment from the spawning reefs by strong current action generated by spring storms, or siltation and low oxygen tensions. The annual brood stock size had much less influence on year-class strength than did water temperature. Reproductive success was unrelated to fluctuations in size of suitable reef spawning area caused by changes in water level. Apparently the usable spawning area at any water level is more than adequate to serve the limited walleye brood stocks.

  18. Factors associated with mortality of walleyes and saugers caught in live-release tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold, Jr.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; French, William E.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2010-01-01

    We measured the initial mortality (fish judged nonreleasable at weigh-in), prerelease mortality (fish judged nonreleasable 1–2 h after weigh-in [which includes initial mortality]), and postrelease mortality (fish that died during a 5-d retention in net-pens) in 14 live-release tournaments for walleye Sander vitreus conducted in April–October 2006 and April–July 2007 in lakes and rivers in Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Among the 14 events, initial mortality was 0–28%, prerelease mortality was 3–54%, and postrelease mortality was 0–100%; the mortality of reference fish (walleyes ≥31 cm long that were captured by electrofishing and held in net-pens with tournament-caught walleyes to measure postrelease mortality) was 0–97%. Mortality was generally low in events conducted when water temperatures were below 14°C but substantially higher in events when water temperatures were above 18°C. The mortality of reference fish suggests that capture by electrofishing and minimal handling when the water temperature exceeds 19°C results in high mortality of walleyes that is largely the result of the thermal conditions immediately after capture. Mortality was not related to the size of the tournaments (number of boats), the total number or weight of walleyes weighed in, or the mean number or weight of walleyes weighed in per boat. Mortality was positively related to the depth at which walleyes were caught and the live-well temperature and negatively related to the live-well dissolved oxygen concentration. Surface water temperature was the best predictor of mortality, and models were developed to predict the probability of prerelease and postrelease mortality of 10, 20, and 30% or less of tournament-caught walleyes due to water temperature.

  19. Factors associated with initial mortality of Walleye and Sauger caught in live-release tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold L., Jr.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; French, William E.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2010-01-01

    We measured the initial mortality (fish judged nonreleasable at weigh-in), prerelease mortality (fish judged nonreleasable 1–2 h after weigh-in [which includes initial mortality]), and postrelease mortality (fish that died during a 5-d retention in net-pens) in 14 live-release tournaments for walleye Sander vitreus conducted in April–October 2006 and April–July 2007 in lakes and rivers in Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Among the 14 events, initial mortality was 0–28%, prerelease mortality was 3–54%, and postrelease mortality was 0–100%; the mortality of reference fish (walleyes ≥31 cm long that were captured by electrofishing and held in net-pens with tournament-caught walleyes to measure postrelease mortality) was 0–97%. Mortality was generally low in events conducted when water temperatures were below 14°C but substantially higher in events when water temperatures were above 18°C. The mortality of reference fish suggests that capture by electrofishing and minimal handling when the water temperature exceeds 19°C results in high mortality of walleyes that is largely the result of the thermal conditions immediately after capture. Mortality was not related to the size of the tournaments (number of boats), the total number or weight of walleyes weighed in, or the mean number or weight of walleyes weighed in per boat. Mortality was positively related to the depth at which walleyes were caught and the live-well temperature and negatively related to the live-well dissolved oxygen concentration. Surface water temperature was the best predictor of mortality, and models were developed to predict the probability of prerelease and postrelease mortality of 10, 20, and 30% or less of tournament-caught walleyes due to water temperature.

  20. Seed availability and insect herbivory limit recruitment and adult density of native tall thistle.

    PubMed

    Russell, F Leland; Rose, Karen E; Louda, Svata M

    2010-10-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in factors influencing plant regeneration is critical to predicting plant population growth. We experimentally evaluated seed limitation, insect herbivory, and their interaction in the regeneration and density of tall thistle (Cirsium altissimum) across a topographic ecosystem productivity gradient in tallgrass prairie over two years. On ridges and in valleys, we used a factorial experiment manipulating seed availability and insect herbivory to quantify effects of: seed input on seedling density, insect herbivory on juvenile density, and cumulative impacts of both seed input and herbivory on reproductive adult density. Seed addition increased seedling densities at three of five sites in 2006 and all five sites in 2007. Insect herbivory reduced seedling survival across all sites in both years, as well as rosette survival from the previous year's seedlings. In both years, insecticide treatment of seed addition plots led to greater adult tall thistle densities in the following year, reflecting the increase in juvenile thistle densities in the experimental year. Seedling survival was not density dependent. Our analytical projection model predicts a significant long-term increase in adult densities from seed input, with a greater increase under experimentally reduced insect herbivory. While plant community biomass and water stress varied significantly between ridges and valleys, the effects of seed addition and insect herbivory did not vary with gradient position. These results support conceptual models that predict seedling and adult densities of short-lived monocarpic perennial plants should be seed limited. Further, the experiment demonstrates that even at high juvenile plant densities, at which density dependence potentially could have overridden herbivore effects on plant survival, insect herbivory strongly affected juvenile thistle performance and adult densities of this native prairie species. PMID:21058567

  1. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  2. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  3. The effect of larval density on adult demographic traits in Ambystoma opacum

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Factors that affect traits of aquatic larvae of amphibians may have long-lasting effects on terrestrial juveniles and adults. I manipulated larval densities of marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, in large-scale field enclosures during 2 yr, released the juveniles that metamorphosed from these enclosures, and tested for effects on adults that returned to the pond during 6-7 subsequent breeding seasons. Individuals from low larval density treatments tended to have greater lipid stores at metamorphosis than those from high densities and survived longer in a laboratory inanition study. In the field, individuals that experienced low larval density returned for their first reproductive bout as larger adults than those from high-density treatments. For 5-yr-old females released in 1986, low larval density was linked to greater clutch size; clutch size in 4-yr-old animals from the 1987 cohort did not differ between larval treatment groups. Larval density also influenced age at first reproduction, as animals rared at low densities returned to breed at younger ages. Averaged across both cohorts, the proportion of animals that returned to breed at least once was 21% for low-density groups compared to 6% for the high density groups. The larval environment exerted a strong influence on postmetamorphic traits, and thus larval density likely plays an important role of population regulation in both the aquatic and terrestrial phase of the life cycle. 81 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  5. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  6. Matching spatial scales of variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities across southwestern Atlantic rocky shores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Lorena P.; Bagur, María; Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of aquatic invertebrate larvae often differs in space and time thus contributing to variation in the abundance of adults. In the present study, we examined spatial scales of variation in mussel (Brachidontes spp.) recruitment and adult abundance across rocky intertidal areas in the Southwestern Atlantic. Recruitment and adult densities were compared between two regions separated ca. 700 km from each other, two locations (10-20 km from each other) within each region, and two sites (100-500 m from each other) within each location. Variance components analysis indicates that most variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities occurs at the scale of locations, irrespective of if mussel recruitment is quantified on mussel bed samples or artificial substrates (plastic mesh collectors). Increased mussel recruitment and adult densities at this scale are associated with higher time-averaged chlorophyll a concentration and wave exposure, which can potentially affect the supply of larvae to rocky shores by increasing their survival and delivery rates. There was close correspondence between the spatial patterns of variation in cumulative recruitment on natural substrates during the study period and the density of adults at its end. This suggests that differences in mussel abundance along Southwestern Atlantic rocky shores could be primarily determined by larval recruitment.

  7. Density dependent growth in adult brown frogs Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria - A field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loman, Jon; Lardner, Björn

    2009-11-01

    In species with complex life cycles, density regulation can operate on any of the stages. In frogs there are almost no studies of density effects on the performance of adult frogs in the terrestrial habitat. We therefore studied the effect of summer density on the growth rate of adult frogs during four years. Four 30 by 30 m plots in a moist meadow were used. In early summer, when settled after post-breeding migration, frogs ( Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria that have a very similar ecology and potentially compete) were enclosed by erecting a fence around the plots. Frogs were captured, measured, marked and partly relocated to create two high density and two low density plots. In early autumn the frogs were again captured and their individual summer growth determined. Growth effects were evaluated in relation to two density measures: density by design (high/low manipulation), and actual (numerical) density. R. arvalis in plots with low density by design grew faster than those in high density plots. No such effect was found for R. temporaria. For none of the species was growth related to actual summer density, determined by the Lincoln index and including the density manipulation. The result suggests that R. arvalis initially settled according to an ideal free distribution and that density had a regulatory effect (mediated through growth). The fact that there were no density effects on R. temporaria (and a significant difference in its response to that of R. arvalis) suggests it is a superior competitor to R. arvalis during the terrestrial phase. There were no density effects on frog condition index, suggesting that the growth rate modifications may actually be an adaptive trait of R. arvalis. The study demonstrates that density regulation may be dependent on resources in frogs' summer habitat.

  8. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight. PMID:22480489

  9. Influence of Physiochemical and watershed characteristics on mercury concentration in walleye, Sander vitreus, M.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, Cari-Ann; Chipps, Steven R.; Stone, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated mercury concentration has been documented in a variety of fish and is a growing concern for human consumption. Here, we explore the influence of physiochemical and watershed attributes on mercury concentration in walleye (Sander vitreus, M.) from natural, glacial lakes in South Dakota. Regression analysis showed that water quality attributes were poor predictors of walleye mercury concentration (R2 = 0.57, p = 0.13). In contrast, models based on watershed features (e.g., lake level changes, watershed slope, agricultural land, wetlands) and local habitat features (i.e., substrate composition, maximum lake depth) explained 81% (p = 0.001) and 80% (p = 0.002) of the variation in walleye mercury concentration. Using an information theoretic approach we evaluated hypotheses related to water quality, physical habitat and watershed features. The best model explaining variation in walleye mercury concentration included local habitat features (Wi = 0.991). These results show that physical habitat and watershed features were better predictors of walleye mercury concentration than water chemistry in glacial lakes of the Northern Great Plains.

  10. Selectivity evaluation for two experimental gill-net configurations used to sample Lake Erie walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Brenden, Travis O.; Liu, Weihai

    2011-01-01

    We used length frequencies of captured walleyes Sander vitreus to indirectly estimate and compare selectivity between two experimental gill-net configurations used to sample fish in Lake Erie: (1) a multifilament configuration currently used by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) with stretched-measure mesh sizes ranging from 51 to 127 mm and a constant filament diameter (0.37 mm); and (2) a monofilament configuration with mesh sizes ranging from 38 to 178 mm and varying filament diameter (range = 0.20–0.33 mm). Paired sampling with the two configurations revealed that the catch of walleyes smaller than 250 mm and larger than 600 mm was greater in the monofilament configuration than in the multifilament configuration, but the catch of 250–600-mm fish was greater in the multifilament configuration. Binormal selectivity functions yielded the best fit to observed walleye catches for both gill-net configurations based on model deviances. Incorporation of deviation terms in the binormal selectivity functions (i.e., to relax the assumption of geometric similarity) further improved the fit to observed catches. The final fitted selectivity functions produced results similar to those from the length-based catch comparisons: the monofilament configuration had greater selectivity for small and large walleyes and the multifilament configuration had greater selectivity for mid-sized walleyes. Computer simulations that incorporated the fitted binormal selectivity functions indicated that both nets were likely to result in some bias in age composition estimates and that the degree of bias would ultimately be determined by the underlying condition, mortality rate, and growth rate of the Lake Erie walleye population. Before the ODNR switches its survey gear, additional comparisons of the different gill-net configurations, such as fishing the net pairs across a greater range of depths and at more locations in the lake, should be conducted to maintain congruence in

  11. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Assessment of the Lake Roosevelt Walleye Population 1998 Annual Report, Part D.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason G.; Moffatt, Holly J.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1999-08-01

    A walleye mark-recapture experiment was initiated on Lake Roosevelt in 1997, with the primary objective of estimating the size of the walleye population. The project was continued in 1998 with a revised sampling regime. The primary goals during 1998 were to estimate the size of the walleye population in Lake Roosevelt, estimate the size of the spawning run in the Spokane River Arm, and describe the age structure of the population for use in managing the population and developing a kokanee bioenergetics model. Secondary objectives included: determining walleye movements, back-calculating growth rates, estimating mortality rates, determining walleye condition, and estimating walleye young-of-the-year (YOY) production in the Spokane River Arm. All walleye, {ge} 150 mm TL, were marked with individually numbered Floy{reg_sign} tags, during five passes through the reservoir. The passes occurred between April 1st and September 16th, 1998. The most unbiased estimate of walleye abundance in Lake Roosevelt, 186,482 (40,113 {le} N {le} 943,213), was obtained using the Mtb model of the CAPTURE program. The most unbiased estimate of the size of the walleye spawning run in the Spokane River Arm, 27,345 (1,535 {le} N {le} 57,519), was calculated using the Jolly-Seber model. The abundance estimates appeared reasonable, but they had wide 95 % confidence intervals. Wide confidence intervals were attributed to low capture probabilities. Coefficient of variation (CV) values for both estimates indicated that they were not acceptable for general management, not to mention research. Despite the CV value, we felt that the reservoir estimate was reasonable and that it was the best possible, without a large increase in effort and money. The spawning run estimate could have been improved by a small increase in effort. Ages of walleye in Lake Roosevelt ranged from 0 to 13 years. Growth, mortality, and condition were all average when compared to other walleye producing waters. We recommended

  12. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  14. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased walleye survival in comparison with controls. In the channel catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for all OTC-HCl treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. Interactions between walleyes and smallmouth bass in a Missouri River reservoir with consideration of the influence of temperature and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wuellner, Melissa R.; Chipps, Steven R.; Willis, David W.; Adams, Wells E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced to provide new angling opportunities. Some walleye anglers have reported reductions in the quality of walleye fisheries since the introduction of smallmouth bass and attribute this to the consumption of young walleyes by smallmouth bass and competition for shared prey resources. We quantified the diets of walleyes and smallmouth bass in the lower reaches of Lake Sharpe (a Missouri River reservoir), calculated the diet overlap between the two predators, and determined whether they partitioned shared prey based on size. We also quantified walleye diets in the upper reach of the reservoir, which has a different prey base and allowed us to compare the growth rates of walleyes within Lake Sharpe. Age-0 gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum composed a substantial proportion of the diets of both predators, regardless of location, for most of the growing season; the patterns in shad vulnerability appeared to drive the observed patterns in diet overlap. Smallmouth bass appeared to consume a smaller size range of gizzard shad than did walleyes, which consumed a wide range. Smallmouth bass consumed Sander spp. in some months, but in very low quantities. Given that global climate change is expected to alter the population and community dynamics in Great Plains reservoirs, we also used a bioenergetics approach to predict the potential effects of limiting prey availability (specifically, the absence of gizzard shad and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax) and increased water temperatures (as projected from global climate change models) on walleye and smallmouth bass growth. The models indicated that the absence of rainbow smelt from the diets of walleyes in upper Lake Sharpe would reduce growth but that the absence of gizzard shad would have a more marked negative effect on both predators at both locations. The models also indicated that higher

  16. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Assessment of the Lake Roosevelt Walleye Population: Compilation of 1997-1999 Data, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason; McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    A walleye mark-recapture study was conducted on Lake Roosevelt between 1997 and 1999. The primary objective of the study was to describe the status and biological characteristics of the walleye population in Lake Roosevelt by determining its abundance, movement patterns, age structure, growth, condition, and mortality. The abundance estimates were also to be used to estimate the consumptive impact of walleye on stocked kokanee and rainbow trout. Walleye were collected by electrofishing and angling. Each walleye was tagged with an individually numbered Floy tag. The Jolly-Seber model was used to estimate the size of the walleye population in 1999, using each year of the study as a mark-recapture occasion. Mark-recapture data collected in 1998 was re-analyzed in 1999 with the data pooled in various combinations, using closed and open population models, in an attempt to provide an estimate of walleye abundance that was unbiased, accurate, and more precise. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye were determined from tag returns. Over the three study years, a total of 12,343 walleye {ge} 150 mm TL were collected by Eastern Washington University (EWU), Spokane Tribe of Indians, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and of those, 10,770 were tagged and released. Of the 10,770 walleye marked and released, 775 were recaptured and returned to EWU. The 1999 abundance estimate ({+-} standard error) for walleye {ge} 150 mm TL was 129,183 ({+-} 45,578) and the estimated abundance ({+-} standard error) of walleye {ge} 200 mm TL was 101,508 ({+-} 35,603). A total of 38 population estimates were calculated for 1998. The estimates of the abundance of walleye {ge} 150 mm TL in Lake Roosevelt ranged from 84,335 to 180,568 fish. Estimates of the size of the walleye population {ge} 200 mm TL ranged from 14,971 to 173,702. The 1999 estimate, which used each study year as a mark-recapture occasion, was biased due to unequal capture

  17. Effects of recruitment, growth, and exploitation on walleye population size structure in northern Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of walleye Sander vitreus population size structure, as indexed by the proportional size distribution (PSD) of quality-length fish, in Escanaba Lake during 1967–2003 and in 204 other lakes in northern Wisconsin during 1990–2011. We estimated PSD from angler-caught walleyes in Escanaba Lake and from spring electrofishing in 204 other lakes, and then related PSD to annual estimates of recruitment to age-3, length at age 3, and annual angling exploitation rate. In Escanaba Lake during 1967–2003, annual estimates of PSD were highly dynamic, growth (positively) explained 35% of PSD variation, recruitment explained only 3% of PSD variation, and exploitation explained only 7% of PSD variation. In 204 other northern Wisconsin lakes during 1990–2011, PSD varied widely among lakes, recruitment (negatively) explained 29% of PSD variation, growth (positively) explained 21% of PSD variation, and exploitation explained only 4% of PSD variation. We conclude that population size structure was most strongly driven by recruitment and growth, rather than exploitation, in northern Wisconsin walleye populations. Studies of other species over wide spatial and temporal ranges of recruitment, growth, and mortality are needed to determine which dynamic rate most strongly influences population size structure of other species. Our findings indicate a need to be cautious about assuming exploitation is a strong driver of walleye population size structure.

  18. Managing Ich infections of walleye cultured in a surface water supply with copper sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests walleye during growout at Rathbun Fish Hatchery (RFH). Daily flow-through formalin treatments (45-50 ppm for 9 h) were applied to prevent Ich outbreaks, and this contributed to 25% ($35,000) of fish production costs during the grow-out period. Research to decre...

  19. A biophysical model of Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreus) explains interannual variations in recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Yingming; Jones, Michael L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2009-01-01

    We used a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model to investigate how lake currents can affect walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment in western Lake Erie. Four years were selected based on a fall recruitment index: two high recruitment years (i.e., 1996 and 1999) and two low recruitment years (i.e., 1995 and 1998). During the low recruitment years, the model predicted that (i) walleye spawning grounds experienced destructive bottom currents capable of dislodging eggs from suitable habitats (reefs) to unsuitable habitats (i.e., muddy bottom), and (ii) the majority of newly hatched larvae were transported away from the known suitable nursery grounds at the start of their first feeding. Conversely, during two high recruitment years, predicted bottom currents at the spawning grounds were relatively weak, and the predicted movement of newly hatched larvae was toward suitable nursery grounds. Thus, low disturbance-based egg mortality and a temporal and spatial match between walleye first feeding larvae and their food resources were predicted for the two high recruitment years, and high egg mortality plus a mismatch of larvae with their food resources was predicted for the two low recruitment years. In general, mild westerly or southwesterly winds during the spawning-nursery period should favour walleye recruitment in the lake.

  20. Weight in infancy and adult calcium absorption as determinants of bone mineral density in adult men: the Hertfordshire cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patel, M B R; Makepeace, A E; Jameson, K A; Masterson, L M; Holt, R I G; Swaminathan, R; Javaid, M K; Cooper, C; Arden, N K

    2012-12-01

    Adult bone mass is modified by early life environmental influences, but the mechanism of this association is uncertain. Data support an inverse relationship between intestinal calcium absorption (αCa) and birth weight in women. However, little is known regarding determinants in men. This study examines the association between weight in infancy and adult αCa in healthy men and whether this could be a mechanism by which the early life environment may influence bone mass. Men were recruited from the MRC Hertfordshire Cohort Study, for whom detailed early life records were available. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine. We randomly selected 123 men stratified by birth weight and assessed αCa using the stable strontium absorption test. The mean age was 63.6 (SD 2.5) years. αCa was not associated with birth weight or weight at 1 year. FN aBMD was associated with both weight at 1 year (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) and αCa (r = 0.20, p = 0.03). Both of these associations remained statistically significant in a mutually adjusted, multivariable model but would account for only ~4 % variance in BMD. We demonstrated a positive association between weight at 1 year and aBMD and between αCa and FN BMD, but no association was found between birth weight and αCa. This suggests that in men, although αCa is a contributing factor in FN bone density, it is not the main mechanism whereby the early environment modifies adult BMD. PMID:23010962

  1. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

    2003-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

  2. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  3. Feeding ecology of age-0 walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasburger, Wesley W.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2014-11-01

    Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are of particular economic and ecological importance in the southeastern Bering Sea. The spatial and temporal overlap of early life stages of both species may explain their strongly correlated recruitment trends. Pelagic larvae and juveniles were collected during four research cruises in May, July and September of 2008, an exceptionally cold year, and their stomach contents were examined. Feeding success and diet composition of walleye pollock and Pacific cod were consistently different in spring, summer, and fall. Pacific cod larvae and juveniles always consumed larger and progressively fewer prey items per stomach than walleye pollock; this difference was particularly pronounced in the fall. Our data suggest that co-occurring early life stages of walleye pollock and Pacific cod were dividing prey resources rather than competing for them, at least during the exceptionally cold conditions in 2008 in the southeastern Bering Sea.

  4. Quantity, structure, and habitat selection of natural spawning reefs by walleyes in a north temperate lake: A multiscale analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Joshua K.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Spawning habitat, the cornerstone of self-sustaining, naturally reproducing walleyeSander vitreus populations, has received limited quantitative research. Our goal was to quantitatively describe the structure and quantity of natural walleye spawning habitat and evaluate potential selection of habitat in Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin. In 2004 and 2005, we located and delineated walleye egg deposition polygons through visual snorkel and scuba surveys. We also delineated recently deposited, adhesive egg patches daily along one spawning reef in 2005. To determine habitat selection, we quantified and compared spawning and lakewide available habitat at different scales. In both years, walleyes used similar spawning habitat, including three geomorphic types: linear shorelines, a point bar, and an island. Walleyes used only 14% of the entire lake shoreline and 39% of the shoreline comprised of gravel (6.4–76.0 mm), cobble (76.1–149.9 mm), or coarser substrates for spawning in 2005, indicating selection of specific spawning habitat. Lakewide, walleyes spawned close to shore (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean distance = 2.7 m), in shallow water (outer egg deposition polygon boundary mean depth = 0.3 m), and over gravel substrate (percent coverage mean = 64.3) having low embeddedness (mean = 1.30). Our best nearshore (0–13-m) resource selection function predicted an increase in the relative probability of egg deposition with the increasing abundance of gravel, cobble, and rubble (150.0–303.9-mm) substrates and a decrease with increasing distance from shore and water depth (89.9% overall correct classification). Adhesive egg patches confirmed that walleyes actively chose nearshore, shallow-water, and coarse-substrate spawning habitat. The quantitative habitat information and predictive models will assist biologists in developing walleye spawning reef protection strategies and potentially aid in designing and evaluating artificial spawning reefs.

  5. Consumption Patterns of Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Dietary Nutrient Density among French Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Francou, Aurée; Hebel, Pascale; Braesco, Véronique; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old) and adults (≥21 years old). Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS). PMID:26213964

  6. Childhood body mass index and adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L; Nguyen, Tuong L; Stone, Jennifer; Aujard, Kelly; Matheson, Melanie C; Abramson, Michael J; Burgess, John A; Walters, E Haydn; Dite, Gillian S; Bui, Minh; Evans, Christopher; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Ward, Gail; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Apicella, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine if body mass index (BMI) during childhood is associated with the breast cancer risk factor 'adult mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI'. In 1968, the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study studied every Tasmanian school child born in 1961. We obtained measured heights and weights from annual school medical records across ages 7-15 years and imputed missing values. Between 2009 and 2012, we administered to 490 women a questionnaire that asked current height and weight and digitised at least one mammogram per woman. Absolute and percent mammographic densities were measured using the computer-assisted method CUMULUS. We used linear regression and adjusted for age at interview and log current BMI. The mammographic density measures were negatively associated: with log BMI at each age from 7 to 15 years (all p < 0.05); with the average of standardised log BMIs across ages 7-15 years (p < 0.0005); and more strongly with standardised log BMI measures closer to age 15 years (p < 0.03). Childhood BMI measures explained 7 and 10 % of the variance in absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively, and 25 and 20 % of the association between current BMI and absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively. Associations were not altered by adjustment for age at menarche. There is a negative association between BMI in late childhood and the adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk. This could explain, at least in part, why BMI in adolescence is negatively associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:26907766

  7. Abundance and Distribution of Walleye, Northern Squawfish and Smallmouth Bass in John Day Reservoir and Tailrace, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Faler, Michael P.; Elliott, John C.

    1985-06-01

    Walleye, northern squawfish and smallmouth bass abundances were estimated in John Day Reservoir using a modified Schnabel multiple mark and recapture estimator. Sampling was conducted from March 25 to August 31 using gill nets, trap nets, boat electrofishing, angling and an angler survey. A total of 858 walleye, 4552 northern squawfish, and 1599 smallmouth bass were collected. Discrete populations were defined according to observed movements of recaptured and radiotagged fish. Abundance estimates were corrected for angler harvest, size selectivity of gear, tag loss and recruitment due to growth during sampling. In addition, the likelihood of biases resulting from differential mortality of marked fish was examined. Abundances in John Day pool of walleye and northern squawfish with fork lengths greater than 250 mm were estimated at 15,832 and 80,486. Abundances of smallmouth bass with fork lengths greater than 200 mm were estimated to be 2596 in lower John Day pool and 1791 in upper John Day pool. Walleye and northern squawfish moved throughout the pool, whereas movements by smallmouth bass were more localized. Angler harvests of walleye and smallmouth bass in upper John Day pool from April through August were estimated at 309 and 584 fish. Angler harvest of northern squawfish was negligible. Most walleye collected were age 5. The most abundant age groups of northern squawfish and smallmouth bass were 10 and 2. 10 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults living along streets with high traffic density.

    PubMed Central

    Oosterlee, A; Drijver, M; Lebret, E; Brunekreef, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the population living along streets with high traffic density has a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 673 adults and 106 children (0-15 years), living along busy traffic streets in the city of Haarlem was compared with a control sample of 812 adults and 185 children living along quiet streets. Exposed and control streets were selected on the basis of model calculations of NO2 concentrations. A postal questionnaire containing questions about respiratory symptoms and several potential confounders was used to collect information from the study subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, children living along busy streets were found to have a higher prevalence of most respiratory symptoms than children living along quiet streets. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for wheeze and for respiratory medication used. Risk ratios were higher for girls than for boys, with significant adjusted odds ratios between 2.9 and 15.8 for girls. In adults, only mild dyspnoea was more often reported by subjects living along streets with high traffic density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that living along busy streets increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory symptoms in children. PMID:8664961

  9. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  10. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  11. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Elci, Okan; McCormack, Shana E; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-04-01

    Using adult identified bone mineral density (BMD) loci, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) to determine if they were associated with changes in BMD during childhood. Longitudinal data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study were analyzed (N = 798, 54% female, all European ancestry). Participants had up to 6 annual dual energy X-ray scans, from which areal BMD (aBMD) Z-scores for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck were estimated, as well as total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) Z-scores. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and the percentage of BMD-lowering alleles carried was calculated (overall adult GRS). Subtype GRS that include SNPs associated with fracture risk, pediatric BMD, WNT signaling, RANK-RANKL-OPG, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were also calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between each GRS and bone Z-scores, and if any association differed by sex and/or chronological age. The overall adult, fracture, and WNT signaling GRS were associated with lower Z-scores (eg, spine aBMD Z-score: βadult  = -0.04, p = 3.4 × 10(-7) ; βfracture = -0.02, p = 8.9 × 10(-6) ; βWNT  = -0.01, p = 3.9 × 10(-4) ). The overall adult GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores in females (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The fracture GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores with increasing age (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The WNT GRS associations remained consistent for both sexes and all ages (p-interaction > 0.05 for all sites). The RANK-RANKL-OPG GRS was more strongly associated in females with increasing age (p-interaction < 0.05 for all sites). The mesenchymal stem cell GRS was associated with lower total hip and femoral neck Z-scores, in both boys and girls, across all ages. No associations were observed between the pediatric GRS and bone Z-scores. In conclusion, adult identified BMD loci associated with BMD and

  12. Online Learning from Input versus Offline Memory Evolution in Adult Word Learning: Effects of Neighborhood Density and Phonologically Related Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically related training sets influence online learning from input during training versus offline memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method: Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low- or…

  13. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  14. Artificial infestation of largemouth bass and walleye with glochidia of Lampsilis ventricosa (Pelecypoda: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Holland Bartels, L. E.; Mitchell, L.G.; Kammer, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The unionid mussel Lampsilis ventricosa is a bundant in the upper Mississippi River and provides a model for studies related to recovery of the endangered Higgins' eye mussel (Lampsilis higginsi). We tested the suitability of two species of fish species as hosts for glochidia of L. ventricosa. Laboratory-reared largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) were artificially infested with the glochidia of L. ventricosa and held separately in two flowthrough tanks for 21 days. Tank bottoms were siphoned daily, and the materials collected were examined for detached glochidia and metamorphosed juveniles. Juveniles were found in both tanks from day 13 post-exposure through day 20, indicating that largemouth bass and walleyes are suitable hosts for the glochidia of L. ventricosa.

  15. Infection of the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, of western Lake Erie with Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cooper)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Applegate, Vernon C.; Allison, Leonard N.

    1967-01-01

    In recent years appreciable changes have taken place in the biota and physiochemical conditions in Lake Erie. The accelerated eutrophication of the lake has been accompanied by the near disappearance of several fish species, e.g., blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum), lake herring (Coregonus artedi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Interest in the biology of the remaining species has increased as means have been sought to preserve their numbers in the lake. This report, which describes the caecal and intestinal parasites of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, is a contribution to the natural history of this fish in western Lake Erie. This study concerns: the type and degree of intestinal parasitic infestations in a single year class of walleyes during their first 3 years of life; seasonal changes in the incidence and maturity of the dominant parasite Bothriocephalus cuspidatus; and the effects of the infestations on the physical condition of the host.

  16. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  17. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females.

    PubMed

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of mercury bioaccumulation by walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) in Lake Roosevelt, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Short, T.; Munn, M. |

    1995-12-31

    Mercury bioaccumulation was examined in muscle tissue of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from Lake Roosevelt, a large (80,000 acres) reservoir receiving metal contaminated wastes from mining and associated processing activities. Walleye were collected from three spatially segregated reaches distributed along the relatively narrow axis of the reservoir to investigate whether regional differences in mercury bioaccumulation could be predicted by spatial patterns of mercury in bed sediment. Mercury concentrations in surficial sediments ranged from < 0.05 to 2.70 mg/kg, and generally decreased from the upper to lower reaches in an incremental fashion. Mercury in bed sediments was positively correlated with sediment organic carbon content; however, differences in organic carbon content accounted for only 15 percent of the variability observed in sediment mercury concentrations among reaches. Overall, mercury concentrations in muscle tissue ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 mg/kg wet weight and was positively correlated with age, weight, and length of walleye. Mercury concentrations of walleye varied spatially within the reservoir, with the highest concentrations occurring in fish from the lower and middle reaches. Condition factor (k) of fish was inversely related to tissue mercury concentration, and was significantly lower in fish collected from the lower and middle reaches compared with fish in the upper reach. Spatial patterns in mercury bioaccumulation could not be predicted by regional differences in sediment concentrations of total mercury. It is suggested that observed spatial patterns of mercury bioaccumulation may be related in part to preferential utilization of specific regions for spawning and foraging, and that these areas likely differ in mercury bioavailability, owing to local differences in edaphic conditions, and in the kinds and availability of food resources.

  19. Age and growth of the walleye in Lake Erie, 1963-1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.

    1977-01-01

    Age and length distributions are given for 6,764 walleyes, Stizostedion v. vitreum (Mitchill), sampled during 1963-1968 from commercial landings of walleyes representing discrete populations in the eastern and western basins of Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, where all catches were made with gill nets, age-groups III and IV predominated in samples from large-mesh nets and age-group I in samples from small-mesh nets. In the western basin, where nearly all walleyes were taken in trap nets, age-groups I and II predominated in 1963-1965, and II and III in 1966-1968 (after the legal commercial size limit was raised from 330 to 394 mm). Study of 5,082 walleyes from the two basins showed that at any given age during the first 3 years of life, females were longer than males and, on the average, fish from the western basin were longer than those from the eastern basin. The greatest difference in growth of fish of the same sex for the two basins was apparent at the end of the first year of life, when fish from the eastern basin were only about half as heavy as those from the western basin. After the second year, relative growth in weight of fish in the eastern basin improved: the weight of females exceeded that of females in the western basin by the end of the fourth growing season and the weights of males in the two basins were about equal by the end of the sixth growing season.

  20. Identification and characterization of cis-acting elements residing in the walleye dermal sarcoma virus promoter.

    PubMed

    Hronek, Brett W; Meagher, Ashley; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L

    2004-07-01

    Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) is a complex retrovirus found associated with tumors that appear and regress on a seasonal basis. There are quantitative and qualitative differences in the amount of virus expression between developing and regressing tumors. To understand the role of host cell factors in WDSV expression, DNase I footprint analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and reporter gene assays were employed. DNase I footprint analysis of the U3 region of the WDSV long terminal repeat with nuclear extract prepared from a walleye cell line revealed protection of an Oct1, AP1, Whn, and two E4BP4 sites. Additionally, three regions that contained no putative transcription factor binding sites were protected. EMSA confirmed the specific binding of the protected sites and revealed three additional sites, NF1, AP3, and LVa, not protected in DNase I footprint analysis. Site-directed mutagenesis of the individual sites, in the context of a luciferase reporter plasmid, revealed that the NF1, Oct1, AP1, E4BP4#2, AP3, and LVa sites contributed to transcription activation driven by the WDSV U3 region. Mutation of Novel#2 resulted in an increase in luciferase activity, suggesting the Novel#2 site may function to bind a negative regulator of transcription. Anti-Jun and anti-Fos antiserum specifically inhibited protein-DNA complex formation, indicating the presence of c-Jun and c-Fos in the walleye cell nuclear extracts and their participation in binding to the AP1 site. Interestingly, degenerative 15-bp repeats found in the U3 region are differentially protected in DNase I footprint analysis by the walleye cell line nuclear extract and regressing-tumor nuclear extract. EMSA utilizing the 15-bp repeat probe revealed that there are similarities of binding with W12 cell and developing-tumor nuclear extracts and that the binding differs from that observed with regressing-tumor nuclear extract. PMID:15220434

  1. Changes in growth and maturity of walleyes associated with stock rehabilitation in western Lake Erie, 1964-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muth, Kenneth M.; Wolfert, David R.

    1986-01-01

    The precipitous decline in abundance of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in western Lake Erie during the 1960s caused major concerns for the future of this resource. Mercury contamination in walleyes in 1970 resulted in a moratorium on commercial fishing in United States and Canadian waters. The opportunity arose for resource agencies to develop a plan for rehabilitation of the walleye stocks, and quota management for walleyes was begun in 1976. After 8 years, the resource had recovered dramatically and the estimated standing stock in 1983 was more than three times that in 1976. In the mid-1970s, however, certain detrimental changes suggested that self-regulatory mechanisms were occurring. The growth rate declined gradually but rather consistently. Growth changes were most evident for young-of-the-year (YOY), yearlings, and 2-year-old fish, which usually constituted more than 80% of the standing stock in 1976-1983. Average lengths of YOY fish decreased by nearly 50 mm (from about 240 mm in 1961 to 190 mm in 1983). Average lengths and weights of yearling and older fish began to decline after 1975 and decreased markedly after 1980. Historically, growth of walleyes in western Lake Erie exceeded that reported for many walleye populations in other waters. Another sign of self-regulation was an increasing delay in the onset of maturity. Most (usually more than 90%) of the yearling males were sexually mature each fall before 1979, but this percentage decreased to only 32 by fall 1983. Usually 80% or more of the age-II females were mature each fall during the 1960s and early 1970s, but this percentage decreased rapidly to only 7 by fall 1983. Prey fish populations declined somewhat in the early 1980s, and their ability to sustain the high abundance of walleyes is a great concern to resource managers.

  2. Abundance and Distribution of Walleye, Northern Squawfish, and Smallmouth Bass in John Day Reservoir, 1984-1985 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.

    1985-12-01

    Sampling was conducted in John Day Reservoir to collect walleye, northern squawfish and smallmouth bass. Changes in distributions during sampling were characterized from changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) in sampling areas. Observed movements of marked and radiotagged fish were examined and used to define discrete populations. Abundances were estimated using a modified Schnabel multiple mark and recapture estimator. Abundance estimates were corrected for angler harvest, size specific vulnerability to gear, recruitment due to growth and tag loss during sampling. Age composition of catch was determined to characterize relative contributions of various year classes to the populations. Ages at which fish were fully recruited to gear were defined by catch curves. Survival of fully recruited year classes was calculated from differences in CPUE's between 1984 and 1985. Mean length at age was estimated and used to determine age specific incremental growth. Eighty-eight percent of walleye were caught in McNary tailrace or Irrigon-Paterson, whereas 95% of smallmouth bass were caught from Irrigon-Paterson to the John Day forebay. Abundances of walleye and northern squawfish with fork lengths greater than 250 mm and smallmouth bass with fork lengths greater than 200 mm were estimated to be 16,219, 95,407, and 11,259. Anglers harvested an estimated 235 walleye, 2004 northern squawfish and 4383 smallmouth bass during the sampling season. Six-year-old walleye, 4-year-old northern squawfish and 3-year-old smallmouth bass were most abundant in catches. Walleye and smallmouth bass were fully recruited to sampling gear by age 3. Age at which northern squawfish were fully recruited was uncertain. Mean survival was 46.1% for walleye and 46.5% for northern squawfish. Mean smallmouth bass survival was 46.5% in the lower and 43.7% in the upper reservoir.

  3. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis. PMID:25116571

  4. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2) in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029). BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057). The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range). There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored. PMID:26904470

  5. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, J.A.; Vue, C.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    Iowa Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Bureau,Rathbun Research,15053 Hatchery Place,Moravia, IA 52571-8933,USA The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16??C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16??C respectively. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Identification, movement, growth, mortality, and exploitation of walleye stocks in Lake St. Clair and the western basin of Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, Robert C.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1988-01-01

    The harvest of walleye by sport and commercial fisheries in lakes St. Clair and Erie is under a cooperative management program involving several states and two countries. In this report we present the results of a long-term tag-recapture study as well as corroborative evidence of stock discreteness fromstudies of population characteristics such as growth and allelic frequencies of walleye in these waters. Walleye were tagged in the spring from 1975-87 in lakes St. Clair and Erie. Tag-recapture data indicate a general tendency for walleye to move northward after tagging. Walleye tagged in Lake St. Clair had higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than walleye tagged in Lake Erie. A reward-tag study in Lake St. Clair provided an estimate of a non-reporting rate of approximately 33% which is comparable to rates in the literature for other species. Data from the Ontario commercial (gill-net) fishery, Michigan Department of Natural Resources trap-net surveys, and sport fisheries from western Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair were analyzed with a catch-at-age model which permitted estimation of population abundance (12.2 to 34.5 million fish), fishing mortality rate (0.19 to 0.37), and annual survival rate (0.57 to 0.68). It appears that exploitation rates for the sport fishery in the western basin exceeded those of the commercial fishery from 1978-82. In recent years (1983-87), exploitation rates were comparable. Average abundance and catch of walleye in the western basin were 12.2 million and 3.4 million fish in 1978-82; average abundance and catch in 1983-87 were 34.5 and 5.2 million fish. We found good agreement between the estimate of the harvest from creel surveys and that from the catch-at-age model for Lake Erie. Walleye abundance and harvest in Lake St. Clair were 10% of the values for the western basin of Lake Erie. Two discrete stocks were delineated be analysis of allelic frequencies of samples from Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie spawning populations. These

  7. The effects of the adult density of Macoma balthica on the recruitment of juvenile bivalves: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M.; Edwards, F.; Huxham, M.

    2002-02-01

    Populations of intertidal bivalves are patchily distributed at a variety of scales, and the distributions of adults and juveniles are often different. Adult-juvenile interactions may help explain this patchiness. In this study, the effects of different densities of adult Macoma balthica (L.) on the numbers of re-locating juvenile M. balthica and Cerastoderma edule (L.) were examined. Two field experiments were conducted, which established three densities of adult M. balthica (reflecting the range of values found on the study site) and allowed recruitment of bivalves into experimental plots for two tidal cycles. Both experiments were run at peak summer arrival of juveniles at this site. The first was open to predators, the second was protected from larger epibenthic and avian predators by cages. The mean number of juvenile C. edule found in the high-density treatment was significantly lower than in the other density treatments in the first (open) experiment. There was also evidence of density-dependent predation by Carcinus maenas (L.). There were no significant effects of adult M. balthica density on the numbers of juvenile bivalves in the caged experiment. These results were compared with those from a small-scale field survey, which showed a negative correlation between juvenile M. balthica ≤1.6 mm and individuals ≥1.6 mm. Our study suggests that densities of M. balthica ≥1.6 mm may have an impact on the numbers of juvenile bivalves (in particular, C. edule) re-locating at this site, but that this effect is not the result of direct adult-juvenile interactions, but is caused indirectly by density-dependent predation by C. maenas.

  8. Life history and production of walleyes of the 1959 year-class in western Lake Erie, 1959-62

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1972-01-01

    Because of the near collapse of the fishery for walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in Lake Erie in the late 1950's, walleyes of the 1959 year-class were studied to gain a better understanding of the life history of the species and the dynamics of the population. In the summer of 1959 most walleyes of the year-class were in water 10 to 20 feet deep along the south and west shores of the western basin. By fall they averaged about 10 inches long and were rather widely distributed throughout the basin. By September 1960 most had reached legal length (then 13 inches in Ohio), and in October they made up nearly the entire commercial walleye production and made the highest monthly contribution during the life of the year-class. Walleyes of the 1959 year-class were cropped intensively and remained in the fishery for only a relatively short time. Estimated Ohio trap net production of the year-class was 261,000 fish in 1960, 168,000 in 1961, and 21,000 in 1962. Few fish survived beyond the spring of 1962. About 97% of the females of the year-class were caught before they had spawned once.

  9. Spawning by walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in the Detroit River: Implications for spawning habitat enhancement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Boase, J.C.; Allen, J.D.; Roseman, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Few active fish spawning grounds have been found in channels connecting the Great Lakes. Here, we describe one near Belle Isle in the Detroit River, part of the channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie. There, in 2005, we collected 1,573 fish eggs, cultured them, and identified the hatched larvae as walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Walleye spawning peaked during the week of April 12-19; white sucker spawning peaked on May 10. Average areal rate of egg deposition by walleye and white sucker at this spawning ground in 2005 was 346 and 25 eggs/m2, respectively. Our environmental measurements showed that bottom substrates on this spawning ground were largely sand, not optimal for fish reproduction. We hypothesize that reproduction of these fish at this spawning ground could be enhanced by adding rock and gravel substrates for protection of deposited fish eggs and suggest that reproduction by walleye in the Detroit River may add resilience to production of walleye in western Lake Erie. ?? 2010.

  10. Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide in Controlling Mortality Associated with External Columnaris on Walleye and Channel Catfish Fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schleis, S.M.; Gaikowski, M.; Johnson, Aaron H.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with external columnaris infections on walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings was evaluated in two on-site trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapes before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria indicative of columnaris disease. In separate trials, walleyes (12 g) and channel catfish (2.3 g) were exposed to a total of three every-other-day hydrogen peroxide treatments of 0, 50, 75, or 100 mg/L for 60 min. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained 13 walleyes or 26 channel catfish. Hydrogen peroxide exposures of 50 mg/L for 60 min significantly increased walleye survival relative to that at other treatment concentrations, including the controls. Exposures of 50, 75, or 100 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide for 60 min significantly increased channel catfish survival in comparison with that of controls. These trials indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatments effectively reduce mortality in walleyes and channel catfish infected with external columnaris.

  11. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  12. The movement, heterogeneity, and rate of exploitation of walleyes in northern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, as determined by tagging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowe, Walter R.; Karvelis, Ernest G.; Joeris, Leonard S.

    1963-01-01

    The Michigan waters of northern Green Bay are an important center for commercial and sport fishing. This 400-square-mile area has supported a commercial fishery for many years but the development of the intensive sport fishery is more recent, mostly since World War II. The commercial fishery is based on several species, whereas anglers are particularly interested in the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum. Broad objectives of tagging studies initiated in September 1957 were to obtain information on the heterogeneity, movement, and exploitation of the walleye population of northern Green Bay. The statistical data on the commercial fishery are very sound but other information on the Green Bay walleye has been sketchy.

  13. Oral contraceptive use and bone density in adolescent and young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Delia; Ichikawa, Laura; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Spangler, Leslie; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Reed, Susan; Ott, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the millions of oral contraceptive (OC) users are under age 30 years and in the critical period for bone mass accrual. Study Design This cross-sectional study of 606 women aged 14–30 years examined both OC duration and estrogen dose and their association with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and whole-body (DEXA). Results Of 389 OC users and 217 nonusers enrolled, 50% were adolescents (14–18 years). Of OC users, 38% used “low-dose” OCs [<30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)]. In adolescents, mean BMD differed by neither OC duration nor EE dose. However, 19–30 year-old women’s mean BMD was lower with longer OC use for spine and whole-body (p=0.004, p=0.02, respectively) and lowest for >12 months of low-dose OCs for the hip, spine and whole-body (p=0.02, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Prolonged use of today’s OCs, particularly <30 mcg EE, may adversely impact young adult women’s bone density while ingesting these agents. PMID:20004271

  14. Purification and properties of the very high density lipoprotein from the hemolymph of adult Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, O J; Soulages, J L; González, S M; Peluffo, R O; Brenner, R R

    1989-06-01

    The very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) of Triatoma infestans hemolymph from adult males has been isolated and purified by two-step density gradient ultracentrifugation. It appears to be homogeneous as judged by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The content of VHDL in hemolymph was estimated to be 8 mg protein/ml. The purified protein has a molecular weight (Mr) of 450,000, is composed of six subunits of Mr approximately equal to 77,000, and possesses a high content of aromatic amino acids. This protein is glycosylated and contains 3% of lipids by weight with a remarkable amount of free fatty acids (25% of total lipids). The T. infestans VHDL has a different lipid and amino acid composition from lipophorin. The lipid composition and the spectroscopic studies using cis-parinaric acid indicated a high fatty acid binding affinity. It has nine binding sites per mol of VHDL. Competence studies revealed that VHDL has its highest affinity for the binding of palmitic acid followed by stearic and arachidonic acids. PMID:2677201

  15. Organochlorine and butyltin residues in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and Japan Sea.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Ana P X; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) and toxic butyltin compounds (BTs) were determined in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) collected from Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Japan Sea, during 1991 and 1992. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolites were the most abundant compounds ranging up to 3200 and 2500 ng/g on lipid weight, respectively, followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the liver of walleye pollock. Concentrations of HCHs and HCB in walleye pollock from these remote areas were higher than those in fishes from the western North Pacific and Japanese coastal waters, indicating atmospheric transport of these compounds to higher latitude regions such as Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska and/or local input around northern Japan Sea. The concentrations of other OCs were generally comparable to those in fishes from North Pacific Ocean and Japanese waters but significantly lower than in cod-like fishes from North Atlantic and European countries. Among sampling locations, walleye pollock from Japan Sea showed higher concentrations of DDTs and HCHs compared to fishes from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, suggesting greater input of these compounds around Japan Sea. Slower declining trend of DDTs and CHLs and an increasing pattern of PCBs concentrations were found in walleye pollock from Bering Sea during 1982-1992. This may imply a continuous input of these compounds by long-range transport and/or long-term persistency in these cold regions. Compared to the fishes from Japan Sea, walleye pollock from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska showed higher proportions of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDE in the composition of HCH isomers and DDT compounds, respectively. This suggests selective transportability of these compounds during long-range transport to higher latitude remote areas. Concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) in the muscle of walleye pollock ranged from 1.1 to

  16. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. HOT CELL BUILDING IS AT CENTER LEFT OF VIEW; THE LOW-BAY PROJECTION WITH LADDER IS THE TEST TRAIN ASSEMBLY FACILITY, ADDED IN 1968. MTR BUILDING IS IN LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY BUILDING AT RIGHT IS THE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR BUILDING, TRA-642. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-32-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. PMID:26979897

  18. Functional Consequences of Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density in Humans across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Arash; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Rotenberg, David J.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Rathi, Yogesh; Michailovich, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    As humans age, a characteristic pattern of widespread neocortical dendritic disruption coupled with compensatory effects in hippocampus and other subcortical structures is shown in postmortem investigations. It is now possible to address age-related effects on gray matter (GM) neuritic organization and density in humans using multishell diffusion-weighted MRI and the neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. In 45 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (21–84 years), we used a multishell diffusion imaging and the NODDI model to assess the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) in GM tissues. We also determined the functional correlates of variations in GM microstructure by obtaining resting-state fMRI and behavioral data. We found a significant age-related deficit in neocortical ODI (most prominently in frontoparietal regions), whereas increased ODI was observed in hippocampus and cerebellum with advancing age. Neocortical ODI outperformed cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy for the prediction of chronological age in the same individuals. Higher GM ODI sampled from resting-state networks with known age-related susceptibility (default mode and visual association networks) was associated with increased functional connectivity of these networks, whereas the task-positive networks tended to show no association or even decreased connectivity. Frontal pole ODI mediated the negative relationship of age with executive function, whereas hippocampal ODI mediated the positive relationship of age with executive function. Our in vivo findings align very closely with the postmortem data and provide evidence for vulnerability and compensatory neural mechanisms of aging in GM microstructure that have functional and cognitive impact in vivo. PMID:25632148

  19. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  20. Non-lethal sampling of walleye for stable isotope analysis: a comparison of three tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, Steven R.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of fishes is often performed using muscle or organ tissues that require sacrificing animals. Non-lethal sampling provides an alternative for evaluating isotopic composition for species of concern or individuals of exceptional value. Stable isotope values of white muscle (lethal) were compared with those from fins and scales (non-lethal) in walleye, Sander vitreus (Mitchill), from multiple systems, size classes and across a range of isotopic values. Isotopic variability was also compared among populations to determine the potential of non-lethal tissues for diet-variability analyses. Muscle-derived isotope values were enriched compared with fins and depleted relative to scales. A split-sample validation technique and linear regression found that isotopic composition of walleye fins and scales was significantly related to that in muscle tissue for both δ13C and δ15N (r2 = 0.79–0.93). However, isotopic variability was significantly different between tissue types in two of six populations for δ15N and three of six populations for δ13C. Although species and population specific, these findings indicate that isotopic measures obtained from non-lethal tissues are indicative of those obtained from muscle.

  1. Lack of geographic structure in mitochondrial DNA sequences of Bering Sea walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma.

    PubMed

    Shields, G F; Gust, J R

    1995-03-01

    We compared 511 nucleotides of mitochondrial DNA from 162 walleye pollock from 32 locations in the Bering Sea, the Shelikof Strait, and the Gulf of Alaska to learn about population structuring in this economically important species. Specifically, we tested for evidence of genetic heterogeneity among three sequence data sets: a 76-bp spacer, the control region, and spacers and control regions combined among six geographic regions: southwest Bering Sea, northern Bering Sea, western Aleutians, eastern Aleutians, the Donut Hole, and the Gulf of Alaska. No significant genetic heterogeneity was detected among spacer sequences or control regions, or spacers and control regions combined among areas of the Bering Sea. Slight genetic heterogeneity was detected when a "Western Bering" sample (southwest Bering and northern Bering) and an "Eastern Bering" sample (western Aleutians and eastern Aleutians) were compared. Presence of an abundant and widespread haplotype suggests recent establishment of the walleye pollock population in the Bering Sea. However, the ratio of nucleotide transitions to transversions in these pollock is extremely low, suggesting that the population may be old. Presence of a widespread and abundant haplotype, together with numerous rare ones, suggests a high variance in reproductive success for relatively few females, which may be disproportionately contributing to the survival of individual haplotypes. Sequencing of control regions in pollock may be less informative than conventional analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms or RFLP analysis of amplified variable sites. PMID:7749468

  2. First-year growth of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill), and associated factors in the Red Lakes, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lloyd L., Jr.; Pycha, Richard L.

    1960-01-01

    First-year growth of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill), was studied from 4,544 fish collected during the first summer of life in the Red Lakes in six seasons and from back calculations on 4,474 fish one year or more in age representing 17 year classes. Sexes did not differ in growth rate. Growth within the season varied greatly in different years and total growth deviated as much as 15.3% from the mean of the entire period. Water temperature, size of brood, and abundance of large walleyes and perch did not affect growth rate. Very early or late spawning influenced total growth during the season and final size and goodness or poorness of a season's growth was determined by the middle of July. Growth rate of young-of-the-year perch and total use of perch as food did not significantly influence growth. Incidence of perch in walleye stomachs ranged from 10.9 to 98.0% and spottail shiner was a more important food item in most years than perch. Total first- year growth of the walleye was apparently determined before fish became a major item in the diet.

  3. Development of a stock-recruitment model and assessment of biological reference points for the Lake Erie walleye fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Yingming; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an updated stock–recruitment relationship for Lake Erie Walleye Sander vitreus using the Akaike information criterion model selection approach. Our best stock–recruitment relationship was a Ricker spawner–recruit function to which spring warming rate was added as an environmental variable, and this regression model explained 39% of the variability in Walleye recruitment over the 1978 through 2006 year-classes. Thus, most of the variability in Lake Erie Walleye recruitment appeared to be attributable to factors other than spawning stock size and spring warming rate. The abundance of age-0 Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, which was an important term in previous models, may still be an important factor for Walleye recruitment, but poorer ability to monitor Gizzard Shad since the late 1990s could have led to that term failing to appear in our best model. Secondly, we used numerical simulation to demonstrate how to use the stock recruitment relationship to characterize the population dynamics (such as stable age structure, carrying capacity, and maximum sustainable yield) and some biological reference points (such as fishing rates at different important biomass or harvest levels) for an age-structured population in a deterministic way.

  4. Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Chloramine-T (Cl-T) has been used safely and effectively to control bacterial gill disease in salmonids at a maximum exposure regimen of up to four consecutive, once-daily exposures administered for 60??min at 20??mg/L. However, data to document safe treatment concentrations of Cl-T are lacking for freshwater-reared fish other than salmonids. We report the histopathology resultant from the administration of 12 consecutive, once-daily, 180-min static immersion baths of 0, 20, 50, or 80??mg Cl-T/L to walleye (20????C) and channel catfish (27????C). Twelve fish of each species were euthanized immediately before the first exposure (initial controls) and then after the twelfth exposure and 7 and 14??days after the twelfth exposure. Only initial controls and fish euthanized immediately after the twelfth exposure were processed for histological review because of the general lack of exposure-related lesions in exposed fish. The only exposure-related histological changes were in the spleen where significantly greater erythrocyte swelling and necrosis was observed in channel catfish exposed at 80??mg/L relative to exposure at 0??mg/L; similar histological changes were insignificant for walleye, though there appeared to be a shift in the general category of histological change with degenerative changes (necrosis, etc.) observed following exposure at 50 or 80??mg/L compared to the inflammatory and hemodynamic changes (congestion, leukocyte infiltrate, etc.) observed in walleye exposed at 0 or 20??mg/L. The only significant change in peripheral blood cytology was that walleye fingerlings exposed at 80??mg/L had significantly fewer mature red blood cells and significantly more immature red blood cells per oil-immersion field than controls. The histopathological changes observed following exposure to Cl-T under an exaggerated exposure regimen suggest that walleye or channel catfish therapeutically exposed to Cl-T will not have treatment-related histological changes.

  5. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis on walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Drobish, M.; Hamilton, J.; Harder, T.; Lee, L.A.; Moen, C.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling saprolegniasis on eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, and paddlefish Polyodon spathula was evaluated at four private, state, and federal production hatcheries participating in an Investigational New Animal Drug efficacy study (experiment 1; walleyes) and in a laboratory-based miniature egg jar incubation system (experiment 2; walleyes, white suckers, and paddlefish). Naturally occurring fungal infestations (saprolegniasis) were observed on eggs in both experiments. Confirmatory diagnosis of infested eggs from one hatchery in experiment 1 identified the pathogen as Saprolegnia parasitica. During experiment 1, eggs were treated daily for 15 min with either 0, 500, or 750 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide, and one trial compared a 500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment with a formalin treatment at 1,667 mg/L. Saprolegniasis infestation was observed in control egg jars, whereas treatment with either formalin or hydrogen peroxide virtually eliminated the infestation. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 mg/L either increased egg hatch or were as effective as physical removal of infested eggs in controlling mortality. Although treatment with formalin at 1,667 mg/L significantly increased the percent eye-up of walleye eggs compared with that of those treated with hydrogen peroxide at 500 mg/L, the difference was only 1.9-2.6%. In experiment 2, noneyed eggs were treated for 15 min every other day with 0, 283, 565, or 1,130 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide until the viable eggs hatched. Saprolegniasis infestation engulfed most control eggs, whereas infestation of treated eggs was either reduced or not visible. Hydrogen peroxide significantly increased egg hatch for all three species tested in experiment 2. Although hydrogen peroxide treatments as low as 283 mg/L significantly increased walleye and white sucker hatch, treatments between 500 and 1,000 mg/L are more likely to be effective in production egg

  6. Abundance and Distribution of Walleye, Northern Squawfish and Smallmouth Bass in John Day Reservoir and Tailrace, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Uremovich, Barry L.; Elliott, John C.

    1985-04-01

    Walleye, northern squawfish and smallmouth bass abundances were estimated in portions of John Day Reservoir and tailrace using a multiple mark and recapture method. Sampling was conducted from March 28 to September 23, 1983, using gill nets, trap nets, boat electrofishing, angling and an angler survey. A total of 1808 walleye, 6423 northern squawfish and 974 small mouth bass were collected. Abundance was estimated using a modified Schnabel estimator. Discrete populations were defined according to observed movements of recaptured and radiotagged fish. Abundance estimates were corrected for angler harvest, size selectivity by gear and recruitment due to growth during sampling. In addition, the likelihood of biases resulting from differential mortality of marked fish and tag loss was examined. Abundances of walleye with fork lengths greater than 250 mm were estimated as 6877 below John Day Dam and 9,463 in the upper John Day pool. Extensive movements by walleye within pools were observed. Angler harvest of walleye between May 25 and September 6 was estimated as 527 in John Day tailrace and 465 in McNary tailrace. Abundances of northern squawfish with fork lengths greater than 250 mm were estimated to be 32,126 below John Day Dam, 10,841 forebay and 27,771 in upper John Day pool. The estimated number of northern squawfish in the McNary tailrace boat restricted zone after cessation of spill (July 2) was twice the estimated abundance during spill (March 28-July 1). Smallmouth bass abundance was estimated as 1087 below John Day Dam, 1501 in John Day forebay and 3,450 in upper John Day pool. 16 refs., 32 figs., 47 tabs.

  7. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  8. Predictions of adult Anopheles albimanus densities in villages based on distances to remotely sensed larval habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rejmankova, E.; Roberts, D. R.; Pawley, A.; Manguin, S.; Polanco, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral System Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult collections near larval habitats, we defined a landing rate of 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min from 6:30 PM to 8:00 PM as the threshold for high (> or = 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) versus low (< 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) densities of An. albimanus. Sites located less than 500 m from the habitat were predicted as having values higher than this threshold, while lower values were predicted for sites located greater than 1,500 m from the habitat. Predictions were verified by collections of mosquitoes landing on humans. The predictions were 100% accurate for sites in the > 1,500-m category and 89% accurate for sites in the < 500-m category.

  9. A population genetic window into the past and future of the walleye Sander vitreus: relation to historic walleye and the extinct “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conserving genetic diversity and local adaptations are management priorities for wild populations of exploited species, which increasingly are subject to climate change, habitat loss, and pollution. These constitute growing concerns for the walleye Sander vitreus, an ecologically and economically valuable North American temperate fish with large Laurentian Great Lakes' fisheries. This study compares genetic diversity and divergence patterns across its widespread native range using mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite (μsat) loci, examining historic and contemporary influences. We analyze the genetic and morphological characters of a putative endemic variant– “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus” –described from Lakes Erie and Ontario, which became extinct. Walleye with turquoise-colored mucus also are evaluated, since some have questioned whether these are related to the “blue pike”. Results Walleye populations are distinguished by considerable genetic divergence (mean FST mtDNA = 0.32 ± 0.01, μsat = 0.13 ± 0.00) and substantial diversity across their range (mean heterozygosity mtDNA = 0.53 ± 0.02, μsat = 0.68 ± 0.03). Southern populations markedly differ, possessing unique haplotypes and alleles, especially the Ohio/New River population that houses the oldest haplotype and has the most pronounced divergence. Northern formerly glaciated populations have greatest diversity in Lake Erie (mean heterozygosity mtDNA = 0.79 ± 0.00, μsat = 0.72 ± 0.01). Genetic diversity was much less in the historic Lake Erie samples from 1923–1949 (mean heterozygosity mtDNA = 0.05 ± 0.01, μsat = 0.47 ± 0.06) than today. The historic “blue pike” had no unique haplotypes/alleles and there is no evidence that it comprised a separate taxon from walleye. Turquoise mucus walleye also show no genetic differentiation from other sympatric walleye and

  10. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women. PMID:26473521

  11. Fall diets of red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) and walleye (Sander vitreus) in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, M.T.; Stapanian, M.A.; Bernhardt, G.; Turner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although published studies indicate the contrary, there is concern among many sport anglers that migrating red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) and other waterbirds pose a competitive threat to sport fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie. We quantified the diet of autumn-migrant mergansers and walleye during 1998-2000 in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie. We hypothesized that the diets of both predators would be similar in species composition, but because of different foraging ecologies their diets would differ markedly in size of prey consumed. In addition to predator samples, we used trawl data from the same general area as an index of prey availability. We found that mergansers fed almost exclusively on fish (nine species). Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Walleye fed exclusively on fish: gizzard shad, alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and emerald shiner were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Diet overlap between mergansers and walleye was 67% by weight and 66% by species frequency. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby found in walleye stomachs exceeded those captured in trawls by 47%, on average. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby were greater in walleye stomachs than in merganser stomachs. Mean total lengths of emerald shiner and round goby were less in merganser stomachs than in trawls. Our results suggest that although the diets of walleye and mergansers overlapped considerably, mergansers generally consumed smaller fish than walleye. Given the abundance and diversity of prey species available, and the transient nature of mergansers on Lake Erie during migration, we conclude that competition for food between these species is minimal.

  12. The relationships between the burden of adult parasites, host age and the microfilarial density in human onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Duerr, H P; Dietz, K; Schulz-Key, H; Büttner, D W; Eichner, M

    2004-03-29

    We investigate the relationship between the microfilarial density in the skin and the burden of adult female Onchocerca volvulus by analysing pre-control nodulectomy data which allow for a direct approach, independent of exposure. The data of 169 patients in Burkina Faso and 182 patients in Liberia represent savannah and forest onchocerciasis in West Africa, respectively. Whereas in Burkina Faso, a saturating relationship between microfilarial density and worm burden suggests the operation of density-dependent processes within human hosts, the Liberian data show a linear relationship implying no density dependence. The differences may derive from differences between both parasite strains, i.e. the savannah or the forest strain of O. volvulus. Consistently for both parasite strains and independent of the worm burden, the microfilarial density increases with host age emphasising the concept of the acquisition of immunological tolerance. In male hosts in Liberia, the microfilarial density increases stronger with the worm burden than in female hosts, whereas such sex-specific differences cannot be found in Burkina Faso. In the methodological part of this investigation, we suggest the beta-distribution to be most appropriate for describing variability in microfilarial densities and we present an approach to consider the uncertainty in the adult parasite burden which cannot be determined precisely in helminth infections. Implications of density dependence are discussed with respect to immunological processes in the human host and with respect to the success of control programs. The relationships described show that regulatory processes between the parasite and the human host are multi-dimensional, operating within a high degree of biological variability. PMID:15013736

  13. Immature Animals Have Higher Cellular Density in the Healing Anterior Cruciate Ligament than Adolescent or Adult Animals

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Haus, Brian M.; Vavken, Patrick; Palmer, Matthew P.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the biologic stimulation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. However, the effect of age on the ability of ligaments to heal has not yet been defined. In this study, we hypothesized that skeletal maturity would significantly affect the cellular and vascular repopulation rate of an ACL wound site. Skeletally Immature (open physes), Adolescent (closing physes), and Adult (closed physes) Yucatan minipigs underwent bilateral ACL transection and suture repair using a collagen-platelet composite. The response to repair was evaluated histologically at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. All three groups of animals had completely populated the ACL wound site with fibroblasts at 1 week. The Immature animals had a higher cellular density in the wound site than the Adult animals at weeks 2 and 4. Cells in the Immature ligament wounds were larger and more ovoid than in the Adult wounds. There were no significant differences in the vascular density in the wound site. Animal age had a significant effect on the density of cells populating the ACL wound site. Whether this observed cellular difference has an effect on the later biomechanical function of the repaired ACL requires further study. PMID:20127960

  14. Consumption of rainbow smelt by walleye and salmonine fishes in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einhouse, D.W.; Bur, M.T.; Cornelius, F.C.; Kenyon, R.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rand, P.S.; Sztramko, K.L.; Witzel, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    At present, rainbow smelt appear to represent a key component of the eastern Lake Erie fish community as they are the dominant prey for virtually every open water predator, and are harvested directly by an important Ontario commercial fishery. In response to concern over the status of rainbow smelt in eastern Lake Erie, our objective was to quantify some primary top down forces of rainbow smelt mortality that include walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), five stocked salmonine fishes, and the commercial fishery. This objective was to satisfy a need to understand whether consumption by the major fish predators was significant relative to the measured commercial harvest of rainbow smelt. Achieving this knowledge may provide fisheries managers with an improved basis for managing the rainbow smelt resource through adjustments to stocking policies and/or commercial fishing quotas.

  15. Contaminant trends in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVault, David S.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Rodgers, Paul W.; Feist, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in PCBs, DDT, and other contaminants have been monitored in Great Lakes lake trout and walleye since the 1970s using composite samples of whole fish. Dramatic declines have been observed in concentrations of PCB, ΣDDT, dieldrin, and oxychlordane, with declines initially following first order loss kinetics. Mean PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout increased from 13 μg/g in 1972 to 23 μg/g in 1974, then declined to 2.6 μg/g by 1986. Between 1986 and 1992 there was little change in concentration, with 3.5 μg/g observed in 1992. ΣDDT in Lake Michigan trout followed a similar trend, decreasing from 19.2 μg/g in 1970 to 1.1 μg/g in 1986, and 1.2 μg/g in 1992. Similar trends were observed for PCBs and ΣDDT in lake trout from Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario. Concentrations of both PCB and ΣDDT in Lake Erie walleye declined between 1977 and 1982, after which concentrations were relatively constant through 1990. When originally implemented it was assumed that trends in the mean contaminant concentrations in open-lake fish would serve as cost effective surrogates to trends in the water column. While water column data are still extremely limited it appears that for PCBs in lakes Michigan and Superior, trends in lake trout do reasonably mimic those in the water column over the long term. Hypotheses to explain the trends in contaminant concentrations are briefly reviewed. The original first order loss kinetics used to describe the initial decline do not explain the more recent leveling off of contaminant concentrations. Recent theories have examined the possibilities of multiple contaminant pools. We suggest another hypothesis, that changes in the food web may have resulted in increased bioaccumulation. However, a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis using a change point analysis was inconclusive.

  16. Ichthyophonus-infected walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) in the eastern Bering Sea: a potential reservoir of infections in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    White, V C; Morado, J F; Friedman, C S

    2014-07-01

    In 2003, the Alaska walleye pollock industry reported product quality issues attributed to an unspecified parasite in fish muscle. Using molecular and histological methods, we identified the parasite in Bering Sea pollock as Ichthyophonus. Infected pollock were identified throughout the study area, and prevalence was greater in adults than in juveniles. This study not only provides the first documented report of Ichthyophonus in any fish species captured in the Bering Sea, but also reveals that the parasite has been present in this region for nearly 20 years and is not a recent introduction. Sequence analysis of 18S rDNA from Ichthyophonus in pollock revealed that consensus sequences were identical to published parasite sequences from Pacific herring and Yukon River Chinook salmon. Results from this study suggest potential for Ichthyophonus exposures from infected pollock via two trophic pathways; feeding on whole fish as prey and scavenging on industry-discharged offal. Considering the notable Ichthyophonus levels in pollock, the low host specificity of the parasite and the role of this host as a central prey item in the Bering Sea, pollock likely serve as a key Ichthyophonus reservoir for other susceptible hosts in the North Pacific. PMID:23941303

  17. Historical and anthropogenic factors affecting the population genetic structure of Ontario's inland lake populations of Walleye (Sander vitreus).

    PubMed

    Walter, Ryan P; Cena, Christopher J; Morgan, George E; Heath, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    Populations existing in formerly glaciated areas often display composite historical and contemporary patterns of genetic structure. For Canadian freshwater fishes, population genetic structure is largely reflective of dispersal from glacial refugia and isolation within drainage basins across a range of scales. Enhancement of sport fisheries via hatchery stocking programs and other means has the potential to alter signatures of natural evolutionary processes. Using 11 microsatellite loci genotyped from 2182 individuals, we analyzed the genetic structure of 46 inland lake walleye (Sander vitreus) populations spanning five major drainage basins within the province of Ontario, Canada. Population genetic analyses coupled with genotype assignment allowed us to: 1) characterize broad- and fine-scale genetic structure among Ontario walleye populations; and 2) determine if the observed population divergence is primarily due to natural or historical processes, or recent anthropogenic events. The partitioning of genetic variation revealed higher genetic divergence among lakes than among drainage basins or proposed ancestries-indicative of relatively high isolation among lakes, study-wide. Walleye genotypes were clustered into three major groups, likely reflective of Missourian, Mississippian, and Atlantic glacial refugial ancestry. Despite detectable genetic signatures indicative of anthropogenic influences, province-wide spatial genetic structure remains consistent with the hypothesis of dispersal from distinct glacial refugia and subsequent isolation of lakes within primary drainage basins. Our results provide a novel example of minimal impacts from fishery enhancement to the broad-scale genetic structure of inland fish populations. PMID:23125407

  18. Walleye dermal sarcoma virus Orf B functions through receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1) and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Candelaria C.; Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.

    2008-06-05

    Walleye dermal sarcoma virus is a complex retrovirus that is associated with walleye dermal sarcomas that are seasonal in nature. Fall developing tumors contain low levels of spliced accessory gene transcripts A and B, suggesting a role for the encoded proteins, Orf A and Orf B, in oncogenesis. In explanted tumor cells the 35 kDa Orf B accessory protein is localized to the cell periphery in structures similar to focal adhesions and along actin stress fibers. Similar localization was observed in mammalian cells. The cellular protein, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), bound Orf B in yeast two-hybrid assays and in cell culture. Sequence analysis of walleye RACK1 demonstrated high conservation to other known RACK1 sequences. RACK1 binds to activated protein kinase C (PKC). Orf B associates with PKC{alpha}, which is constitutively activated and localized at the membrane. Activated PKC promoted cell survival, proliferation, and increased cell viability in Orf B-expressing cells.

  19. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle-Lau, M.T.; Phillips, K.A.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) is a serious fish pathogen that has been responsible for large-scale fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005. It causes high mortality and resulting outbreaks have severe economic consequences for aquaculture. Iodophor disinfection of salmonid eggs is a standard hatchery practice to reduce the risk of pathogen transfer during gamete collection ('spawning') operations and is thus a leading candidate for reducing VHSv transmission during and after spawning of nonsalmonid fishes. However, before it is incorporated by hatcheries during nonsalmonid fish spawning efforts, its safety and effectiveness needs to be evaluated. The USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3107, 'Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus' presents the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of iodophor disinfection for eliminating VHSv (strain IVb) from fertilized eggs of walleye and northern pike intentionally challenged with VHSv following egg fertilization. Walleye and northern pike egg survival (hatch) following iodophor egg disinfection also was assessed.

  20. Environmental factors regulating the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Koupal, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that regulate fish recruitment is essential for effective management of fisheries. Generally, first-year survival, and therefore recruitment, is inherently less consistent in systems with high intra- and interannual variability. Irrigation reservoirs display sporadic patterns of annual drawdown, which can pose a substantial challenge to recruitment of fishes. We developed species-specific models using an 18-year data set compiled from state and federal agencies to investigate variables that regulate the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs in south-west Nebraska, USA. The candidate model set for walleye included only abiotic variables (water-level elevation, minimum daily air temperature during winter prior to hatching, annual precipitation, spring warming rate and May reservoir discharge), and the candidate model set for white bass included primarily biotic variables (catch per unit effort (CPUE) of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, CPUE of age-0 walleye, CPUE of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and CPUE of age-3 and older white bass), each of which had a greater relative importance than the single abiotic variable (minimum daily air temperature during winter after hatching). Our findings improve the understanding of the recruitment of fishes in irrigation reservoirs and the relative roles of abiotic and biotic factors.

  1. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status. PMID:27109636

  2. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Sanchis, A.; Martín, A.; Villar, R.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  3. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising obesity rates have been linked to the consumption of energy-dense diets. We examined whether dietary energy density was associated with obesity and related disorders, including insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative ...

  4. Winter lipid depletion of juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma in the Doto area, northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kooka, K; Yamamura, O; Ohkubo, N; Honda, S

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal variation in body size and nutritional condition of juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma was examined to elucidate the mechanism underlying their first-winter survival on the continental shelf of the Doto area, northern Japan, based on monthly samples collected over 2 years. Stored lipid mass was highest during autumn, but 93% (2004) and 80% (2005) of lipids were exhausted by the onset of winter. Lipid levels in the winter of 2004 remained low (7-14% of the autumnal maximum), and there was reduced growth rate until the spring, whereas in 2005 lipid levels were higher and more variable (10-46% of the maximum) and some growth occurred. An analysis of the allometric relationships between body size and stored energy showed that larger individuals accumulated disproportionately more energy in the autumn, but the advantage disappeared prior to the winter. In January 2004, stored lipid energy was low throughout the Doto continental shelf relative to the continental slope area. These results suggest that winter feeding opportunities on the shelf are severely limited but not completely absent. Previous studies have shown that winter temperatures on the shelf are lower than those in the slope area. It is possible that juvenile T. chalcogramma survive winter on the shelf without a high level of pre-winter lipid storage because the occasional feeding in the cold shelf water benefits energy conservation. PMID:20738491

  5. Localization and seasonal variation of blue pigment (sandercyanin) in walleye (Sander vitreus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Wayne; Schmitz, Mark; Blazer, Vicki S.; Ehlinger, Tim; Berges, John

    2015-01-01

    Several fish species, including the walleye (Sander vitreus), have “yellow” and “blue” color morphs. In S. vitreus, one source of the blue color has been identified as a bili-binding protein pigment (sandercyanin), found in surface mucus of the fish. Little is known about the production of the pigment or about its functions. We examined the anatomical localization and seasonal variation of sandercyanin in S. vitreus from a population in McKim Lake, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Skin sections were collected from 20 fish and examined histologically. Mucus was collected from 306 fish over 6 years, and the amount of sandercyanin was quantified spectrophotometrically. Sandercyanin was found solely on dorsal surfaces of the fish and was localized to novel cells in the epidermis, similar in appearance to secretory sacciform cells. Sandercyanin concentrations were significantly higher in fish collected in summer versus other seasons. Yellow and blue morphs did not differ in amounts of sandercyanin, suggesting that the observed blue color, in fact, arises from lack of yellow pigmentation in blue morphs. The function of the sandercyanin remains unclear, but roles in photoprotection and countershading are consistent with available data.

  6. Density-dependence in the establishment of juvenile Allium ursinum individuals in a monodominant stand of conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morschhauser, Tamás; Rudolf, Kinga; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Oborny, Beáta

    2009-09-01

    We studied the establishment of new genets in a wild garlic population ( Allium ursinum L.) in the herb layer of an oak-hornbeam forest. We tested whether establishment could be successful in relatively small gaps (25 cm) surrounded by adult individuals. Furthermore, we asked whether more empty space in the neighborhood would increase the success. Newly germinated individuals were selected, and observed throughout the growth season. The success of establishment was characterized by the biomass of the bulb at the end of the season. The surrounding vegetation cover was recorded in a 25 cm resolution. We found that the success of establishment had a peak at intermediate neighborhood density. At higher densities, a significant, linear decline was found, indicating competition with the neighbors. At lower values, this trend did not continue, but a plateau was observed, indicating the effect of inverse density-dependence (an Allee effect). The results suggest that a rather broad radius (>25 cm) should be considered when predicting the establishment of new genets in A. ursinum, and beside competition, facilitative interactions should also be taken into consideration. This may explain the tendency of the species for maintaining high, often monodominant cover in the herb layer. Due to the observed efficiency of gap-filling and lateral spreading by sexual reproduction, we predict considerable genetic diversity even in high-cover A. ursinum patches.

  7. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  8. Regional decoupling between NW Atlantic barnacle recruit and adult density is related to changes in pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen W. B.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Tam, Jamie C.; Sussmann, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regional variation in barnacle ( Semibalanus balanoides) recruit and adult abundance on the NW Atlantic coast. At the end of the recruitment season (June-July), we sampled wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites in two regions on the open Atlantic coast (Maine, AM, and Nova Scotia, AN) and in two regions on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (Northumberland Strait, GN, and Cape Breton Island, GC). Recruit density was highest in the southernmost region (AM), followed by GN and, then, by AN and GC. Regional values of nearshore primary productivity (satellite data of chlorophyll- a concentration, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance) were highest for AM and GN, suggesting that food supply (barnacles are filter feeders) is an important factor determining regional recruitment patterns. Adult barnacle density was regionally decoupled from recruit density. Adults occurred in very low abundances on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (GN and GC) and were relatively abundant on the Atlantic coast (AM and AN), although always in much lower abundances than recruits. The low adult densities on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast seem to result mainly from intense ice scour, as this coast freezes extensively every winter, as opposed to the ice-free Atlantic coast. Ice scour thus appears to override regional recruitment differences in determining adult density. Therefore, our data suggest that both pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance contribute to setting regional patterns in barnacle population structure on the NW Atlantic coast.

  9. Recent changes in the walleye fishery of northern Green Bay and history of the 1943 year class

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.

    1961-01-01

    Production, fishing intensity, and availability of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) fluctuated widely in the commercial fishery of northern Green Bay in 1929-57. The catch ranged from 16,000 pounds (8 percent of average for the 1929-53 base period) in 1942 to 1,294,000 pounds (633 percent) in 1950. The index of fishing intensity ranged from 17 (1941) to 400 (1950) and that of abundance from 47 (1929) to 222 (1955). Production and fishing intensity were consistently above average in 1947-57; abundance exceeded the average in 8 of these years. The fishery statistics and records of age and size composition of commercial landings of walleyes in the spring and fall fishing seasons of 1949-58 (scale samples were taken from a total of 1,631 fish) were the basis for a study of recent changes in the walleye fishery with particular reference to the effects of fluctuations in the strength of year classes. The 1943 year class, by a wide margin, exceeded all others in the estimated total number (1,173,000 fish) and weight (3,355,000 pounds) contributed to commercial landings. This year class was a major factor in the sharp rise in production and abundance after 1945 and the all-time record catch of 1950. In contrast, certain other year classes (1945, 1946, 1948) have contributed totals as small as 16,000 to 52,000 pounds. The abundance of the 1950, 1951, and 1952 year classes approached or exceeded that of the 1943 year class at the lesser ages (through the IV group), but these more recent classes disappeared from the fishery so rapidly that their total contributions were relatively low. The indicated increase of mortality in the middle 1950's cannot be attributed to increase in the rate of commercial exploitation. Evidence is offered that the heightened mortality rate resulted from expansion of the sport fishery.

  10. Biophysical transport model suggests climate variability determines distribution of Walleye Pollock early life stages in the eastern Bering Sea through effects on spawning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, Colleen M.; Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Mueter, Franz; Hedstrom, Katherine; Curchitser, Enrique N.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern Bering Sea recently experienced an anomalously warm period followed by an anomalously cold period. These periods varied with respect to sea ice extent, water temperature, wind patterns, and ocean circulation. The distributions of Walleye Pollock early life stages also differed between periods, with larval stages found further eastward on the shelf in warm years. Statistical analyses indicated that these spatial distributions were more closely related to temperature than to other covariates, though a mechanism has not been identified. The objective of this study was to determine if variable transport could be driving the observed differences in pollock distributions. An individual-based model of pollock early life stages was developed by coupling a hydrodynamic model to a particle-tracking model with biology and behavior. Simulation experiments were performed with the model to investigate the effects of wind on transport, ice presence on time of spawning, and water temperature on location of spawning. This modeling approach benefited from the ability to individually test mechanisms to quantitatively assess the impact of each on the distribution of pollock. Neither interannual variability in advection nor advances or delays in spawning time could adequately represent the observed differences in distribution between warm and cold years. Changes to spawning areas, particularly spatial contractions of spawning areas in cold years, resulted in modeled distributions that were most similar to observations. The location of spawning pollock in reference to cross-shelf circulation patterns is important in determining the distribution of eggs and larvae, warranting further study on the relationship between spawning adults and the physical environment. The different distributions of pollock early life stages between warm and cold years may ultimately affect recruitment by influencing the spatial overlap of pollock juveniles with prey and predators.

  11. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  12. Adolescent and Young Adult Exposure to Physical Activity and Breast Density

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Klifa, Catherine; Pérez, Adriana; Kriska, Andrea M.; High, Robin R.; Snetselaar, Linda; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of early lifetime exposure to physical activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determined breast density measures. Methods Associations of adolescent [high school (ages 14–17 years) and early adulthood [post high school (ages 18–21 years) and past year] leisure-time physical activity, as well as a principal component score including all three estimates, were examined with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in a cross-sectional analysis of 182 healthy women, aged 25–29 years enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-up Study (DISC06). Generalized linear mixed (GLM) models were used to examine associations after adjustment for relevant covariates for the entire analytic sample. Analyses were repeated in nulliparous women and hormonal contraceptive non-users. Results Physical activity during high school and post high school were not statistically significantly related to %DBV or ADBV in multivariable models. Past year physical activity was positively related to %DBV in the unadjusted and partially adjusted models (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively) that did not adjust for body mass index (BMI). After additional adjustment for childhood and early adulthood BMI, this association became non-statistically significant. The relation between past year physical activity and ADBV was not statistically significant. These findings were similar in non-users of hormonal contraceptives. No statistically significant relationships were found in nulliparous women or between the principal component score and %DBV or ADBV. Conclusion Results from this study are consistent with previous research suggesting that physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood is unrelated to breast density. PMID:23377838

  13. Abnormal functional connectivity density in first-episode, drug-naive adult patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ke; Gao, Qing; Long, Zhiliang; Xu, Fei; Sun, Xiao; Chen, Huafu; Sun, Xueli

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have found evidence of brain functional connectivity (FC) changes with pre-selected region-of-interest (ROI) method in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these studies could not completely exclude personal inequality when drawing ROIs manually and did not measure the total number of FC for each voxel. Here, we firstly applied functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a voxel-based analysis to locate the hubs with amount changes of FC between 22 first-episode, drug-naive adult MDD patients and 22 healthy control (HC) subjects. Both short-range (local) FCD and long-range (distal) FCD were measured. The relationships of FCD changes with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores and illness duration were also explored. Compared with the HC group, MDD patients showed significantly decreased short-range FCD in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral precuneus, while significantly decreased long-range FCD was found in bilateral middle occipital gyrus (MOG), superior occipital gyrus (SOG) and right calcarine. These results firstly demonstrated both local and distal alterations of connection amount at voxel level, and highlighted that the OFC, the precuneus, the STG and the visual cortex were important brain network hubs for first-episode, drug-naive adult MDD patients. Our findings were complementary for previous structural and functional studies in MDD patients, and provided new evidence of the dysfunction of connection hubs in the pathophysiology of MDD at voxel level. PMID:26826535

  14. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  15. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI < or > or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain. PMID:19138440

  16. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

  17. Factors related to commercial production of the walleye in Red Lakes, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lloyd L., Jr.; Pycha, Richard L.

    1961-01-01

    Growth of the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in Red Lakes, Minnesota, over a 17-year period was slower than in other waters of the Great Lakes region and fluctuated annually from 30.7 percent above to 42.2 percent below mean growth. Individual year classes varied considerably in growth rate. Age distribution in 3 1/2-inch stretch-measure commercial nets varied extremely in 9 years' collections and was related to year-class strength and fishing intensity during periods when classes were available for catch. Abundance of different classes varied 23-fold. Annulus formation and resumption of growth occurred from mid-June to late July. Effective growing season did not exceed 4 months and for some individuals in some years was 2 months or less. The catch contained age-groups II-XII but consisted principally of groups IV-VIII. Seasonal changes in age distribution were dependent on growth rate and fishing effort. Total catch was strongly influenced by growth and seasonal distribution of fishing effort. Maximum availability to commercial nets was at a total length of 15.1 inches, but a large percentage of the catch was smaller fish. Total annual mortality rate after fish attained 15.1 inches total length was 0.66, but continued recruitment through group VIII caused apparent change in mortality rate with increasing age up to IX. Maximum harvest could be attained by concentrating fishing effort in the latter part of the growing season. Abundance indices derived from commercial catch will be strongly influenced by the seasonal pattern of fishing.

  18. An activation domain within the walleye dermal sarcoma virus retroviral cyclin protein is essential for inhibition of the viral promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Rovnak, Joel; Hronek, Brett W.; Ryan, Sean O.; Cai, Sumin; Quackenbush, Sandra L. . E-mail: sandra.quackenbush@colostate.edu

    2005-11-25

    Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) is a complex retrovirus associated with seasonal dermal sarcomas. Developing tumors have low levels of accessory gene transcripts, A1 and B, and regressing tumors have high levels of full-length and spliced transcripts. Transcript A1 encodes a retroviral cyclin (rv-cyclin) with limited homology to host cyclins. The rv-cyclin is physically linked to components of the transcriptional co-activator complex, Mediator, and regulates transcription. In walleye fibroblasts, it inhibits the WDSV promoter independently of cis-acting DNA sequences. The rv-cyclin activates transcription from GAL4 promoters when fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain. A 30 a.a. activation domain in the carboxy region can be inactivated by single point mutations, and these mutations diminish the ability of the rv-cyclin to inhibit the WDSV promoter. When fused to glutathione S-transferase, the rv-cyclin, its carboxy region, and the activation domain pull down components of transcription complexes from nuclear extracts, and pulldown is lost by mutation of the activation domain.

  19. Pesticides and total polychlorinated biphenyls residues in raw and cooked walleye and white bass harvested from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Booren, A.M.; Daubenmire, S.; Pascall, M.A.; Zabik, M.J.; Welch, R.; Humphrey, H.

    1995-03-01

    To provide data for public health and other government officials to quantitate the degree of exposure a human might receive from consumption of commonly sought open water fish species prepared and cooked by commonly used methods, five species of Great Lakes fish were chosen. Data is presented for walleye harvested from Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan which were baked and char-broiled as skin-on fillets with additional walleye from Lake Michigan being deep fat fried. Skin-on white bass fillets from Lakes Erie and Huron also were pan fried. Packed column PCB and pesticide analyses were conducted for all fish species by the Michigan Department of Public Health. The DDT complex (p,p{prime}DDT, p,p{prime}DDE and p,p{prime}DDD), dieldrin, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), chlorodane complex (alpha and gamma chlordane, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor), toxaphene, heptachlor epoxide, and total PCBs (expressed as Arochlor{sup R} 1254) were found at above the minimum level of detection for many of the species studied. Residues were expressed as ppm wet tissue and then converted to micrograms per fillet to calculate the percentage loss due to cooking. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. The Association between Muscle Mass Deficits Estimated from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Kye-Bong; Cho, Sul-Bit; Im, In Jae; Kim, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by many factors. Despite the reported association between body components and BMD, most of these studies investigated the relationship between absolute muscle mass or fat mass and BMD in postmenopausal women or elderly subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between muscle mass deficits (MMD) estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and lumbar spinal BMD in Korean adults 20 to 49 years of age. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,765 men and women who visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. The lumbar spinal BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition analysis was performed using BIA. Results The mean age of the subjects was 40.2±6.3 years. Ten thousand subjects (56.7%) were males and 126 subjects (7.1%) belonged to the low BMD (Z-score ≤-2.0). MMD had the strongest influence on BMD after adjusting for all covariates. The adjusted odds ratio of Group 3 (MDD >2.6 kg) for low BMD was 2.74 (95% CI, 1.46-5.15) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, height, and smoking. Conclusions MMD estimated by BIA showed a significant association with BMD and could be regarded as an independent risk factor for low BMD in adults 20 to 49 years of age. These findings support that interventions such as physical activity or lifestyle changes may simultaneously modify both muscle and bone health in this age group. PMID:27294081

  1. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=-0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=-0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=-0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  2. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguaña, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast Densitometer™ (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31–82 years and 41 girls aged 8–18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women’s most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=−0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=−0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=−0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=−0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10–25, 26–50, 51–75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1–4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  3. Adverse effect of pregnancy on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in young adult women. The CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Funkhouser, E; Raczynski, J M; Sidney, S; Bild, D E; Howard, B V

    1996-08-01

    The authors analyzed data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study in order to examine associations between parity and lipoproteins. Of 2,787 women recruited in 1985-1986, 2,534 (91%) returned in 1987-1988 and 2,393 (86%) returned in 1990-1991 for repeat evaluations. Two-year change (1987-1988 to 1985-1986) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly different among the parity groups. HDL cholesterol decreased in women who had their first pregnancy of at least 28 weeks duration during follow-up (mean +/- standard error, -3.5 +/- 1.2 mg/dl), and this change was significantly different from the increase in women parous at baseline who had no further pregnancies (2.5 +/- 0.3 mg/dl) and in nullipara (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg/dl). There was a nonsignificant trend for a greater decrease in HDL2 cholesterol fraction in the primipara compared with the other groups. The HDL cholesterol decrease remained significant after controlling for race, age, education, oral contraceptive use, and changes in body mass index, waist-hip ratio, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Change in HDL cholesterol was also significantly different among the parity groups in analyses of pregnancies that occurred during the subsequent 3 years of follow-up. There were no differences for change in LDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Potential mechanisms for a detrimental effect of pregnancy on HDL cholesterol include hormonal, body composition, or life-style/behavioral changes. PMID:8686693

  4. Maternal Dietary Loads of Alpha-Tocopherol Increase Synapse Density and Glial Synaptic Coverage in the Hippocampus of Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Salucci, S.; Ambrogini, P.; Lattanzi, D.; Betti, M.; Gobbi, P.; Galati, C.; Galli, F.; Cuppini, R.; Minelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Gliasynapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses) was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional Tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant gliasynapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning. PMID:24998923

  5. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  6. Bone turnover and mineral density in adult thalassemic patients: relationships with growth hormone secretory status and circulating somatomedins.

    PubMed

    Scacchi, Massimo; Danesi, Leila; Cattaneo, Agnese; Sciortino, Giovanna; Radin, Raffaella; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Vitale, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Mirra, Nadia; Zanaboni, Laura; Arvigo, Marica; Boschetti, Mara; Ferone, Diego; Marzullo, Paolo; Baldini, Marina; Cassinerio, Elena; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Persani, Luca; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Previous evidence supports a role for growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I deficiency in the pathophysiology of osteopenia/osteoporosis in adult thalassemia. Moreover, serum IGF-II has never been studied in this clinical condition. Thus, we elected to study the GH secretory status and the levels of circulating somatomedins, correlating these parameters with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. A hundred and thirty-nine normal weight adult thalassemic patients (72 men and 67 women) were studied. Lumbar and femoral neck BMD were measured in 106/139 patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine testing. Measurement of baseline IGF-I and IGF-II was performed in all patients, while osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) were assayed in 95 of them. Femoral and lumbar osteoporosis/Z score below the expected range for age were documented in 61.3 and in 56.6 % of patients, respectively. Severe GH deficiency (GHD) was demonstrated in 27.9 % of cases, whereas IGF-I SDS was low in 86.3 %. No thalassemic patients displayed circulating levels of IGF-II below the reference range. GH peaks were positively correlated with femoral, but not lumbar, Z score. No correlations were found between GH peaks and osteocalcin, CTx and NTx. GH peaks were positively correlated with IGF-I values, which in their turn displayed a positive correlation with osteocalcin, CTx, and NTx. No correlations emerged between IGF-I values and either femoral or lumbar Z scores. No correlations were found between IGF-II and any of the following parameters: GH peaks, osteocalcin, CTx, NTx, femoral Z score, and lumbar Z score. Our study, besides providing for the first time evidence of a normal IGF-II production in thalassemia, contributes to a better understanding of the involvement of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in the

  7. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Greenwood, Maria A.; Brewer, Jacob S.; Rozofsky, John P.; Parise, Eric M.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional or physical stress on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day [PD] 35) or adult (eight-week old) mice were exposed to emotional (ES) or physical stress (PS) using a vicarious social defeat paradigm. Twenty-four hours after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted ERK2, reduced transcription of ΔFosB, and had no effect on CREB mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent-exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice, and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  8. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (p<0.05). The risk for osteoporosis was decreased as vitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C) PMID:26566308

  9. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  10. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species. PMID:23702338

  11. Genetic stock structure of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) inferred by PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and SNP analysis of nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Takashi; Kitamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Takanori

    2012-09-01

    Walleye pollock, Theragra chalocogramma, is one of the most important species in the North Pacific and Bering Sea ecosystems. However genetic population structuring of walleye pollock is uncertain. In the present study, genetic variation of walleye pollock collected in several spawning areas ranging from the Japan Sea to the Gulf of Alaska was investigated by DNA analysis. Three regions of the spacer control region, the ND5 and ND6 region (ND complex), and the ND1 and 16S rRNA region (rDNA complex) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was conducted on these PCR products and composite haplotypes were calculated. Furthermore, several nuclear DNA regions (actin, Calmodulin, S7 ribosomal protein, creatin kinase, and SypI gene) were investigated to study the stock structure of walleye pollock. It was considered that Calmodulin gene was one of good genetic marker, therefore we conducted SNP analysis for Calmodulin gene by SnaPshot kits. In RFLP analyses, there were no area-specific fragment patterns in the three regions, control region, ND complex and rDNA complex of mtDNA. However compositions of the fragment patterns for the three digested sets, control region/HinfI, rDNA complex/MspI and ND complex/MspI indicated that there are significant differences between around the Japan (Sado-Funka Bay-Wakkanai-Rausu) and the Bering Sea (Western Bering Sea-Nabarin-Atka I.-Bogoslof I). Furthermore, in the case of haplotype frequency, composition showed also significant genetic difference between two areas. Moreover, in Calmodulin analyses, haplotype compositions were changing from western area to eastern area gradually and the results of AMOVA analysis showed that there are interesting differences between western Pacific, western Bering Sea, and eastern Bering Sea. Judging from these results, it was considered that there are three populations of walleye pollock in the Northern Ocean. However, area

  12. Concentrations of mercury and other trace elements in walleye, smallmouth bass, and rainbow trout in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upper Columbia River, Washington, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Cox, S.E.; Dean, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Three species of sportfish--walleye, smallmouth bass, and rainbow trout--were collected from Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upstream reach of the Columbia River within the state of Washington, to determine the concentrations of mercury and other selected trace elements in fish tissue. Concentrations of total mercury in walleye fillets ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 milligram per kilogram, with the higher concentrations in the larger fish. Fillets of smallmouth bass and rainbow trout also contained mercury, but generally at lower concentrations. Other selected trace elements were found in fillet samples, but the concentrations were generally low depending on species and the specific trace element. The trace elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were found in liver tissue of these same species with zinc consistently present in the highest concentration.

  13. The influence of density on adults and juveniles of the estuarine fish, the sheepshead minnow (cyprinodon variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between population density and demographic rates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth) is critical to understand population dynamics and has been widely studied in fishes. Estuarine species are regularly exposed to dramatic changes in density with daily, monthly,...

  14. Distribution, Abundance, and Population Dynamics of Northern Squawfish, Walleye, Smallmouth Bass, and Channel Catfish in John Day Reservoir, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.

    1987-04-01

    John Day Reservoir was sampled from 25 March to 1 September 1986 using gill nets, trap nets, boat electrofishers, hook and line, and an angler survey to collect 4945 northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, 602 walleye Stizostedion vitreum 2894 smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, and 563 channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus. Distribution, abundance and population parameters of each species were examined. One year growth, mortality, and relative year class strength was described.

  15. Including independent estimates and uncertainty to quantify total abundance of fish migrating in a large river system: walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Maumee River, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Weimer, Eric J.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie is a valuable and migratory species that spawns in tributaries. We used hydroacoustic sampling, gill net sampling, and Bayesian state-space modeling to estimate the spawning stock abundance, characterize size and sex structure, and explore environmental factors cuing migration of walleye in the Maumee River for 2011 and 2012. We estimated the spawning stock abundance to be between 431,000 and 1,446,000 individuals in 2011 and between 386,400 and 857,200 individuals in 2012 (95% Bayesian credible intervals). A back-calculation from a concurrent larval fish study produced an estimate of 78,000 to 237,000 spawners for 2011. The sex ratio was skewed towards males early in the spawning season but approached 1:1 later, and larger individuals entered the river earlier in the season than smaller individuals. Walleye migration was greater during low river discharge and intermediate temperatures. Our approach to estimating absolute abundance and uncertainty as well as characterization of the spawning stock could improve assessment and management of this species, and our methodology is applicable to other diadromous populations.

  16. Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≤ 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

  17. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress.

    PubMed

    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Greenwood, Maria A; Brewer, Jacob S; Rozofsky, John P; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional stress (ES) or physical stress (PS) on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day 35) or adult (8-week-old) mice were exposed to ES or PS using a witness social defeat paradigm. Then, 24 h after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2), reduced transcription of ΔFosB and had no effect on cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  18. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Budy, Phaedra E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics, whereas brown trout length was mainly related to large cohorts recruiting to the adult size class. Species-specific responses to flow management are likely attributable to differences in seasonal timing of key life history events such as spawning, egg hatching, and fry emergence.

  19. Detection and quantification of a very high density lipoprotein in different tissues of Triatoma infestans during the last nymphal and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, O J; Córsico, B; González, M S; Brenner, R R

    1996-07-01

    The presence of a very high density lipoprotein (VHDL), an hexameric protein, was explored in different tissues of Triatoma infestans throughout the last nymphal and adult stages, and in egg extracts by Western blot assays. The VHDL was always detected in both, hemolymph and fat body, during the above mentioned stages and it was also observed in the buffer soluble fraction of testis and egg homogenates. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the VHDL titer in these tissues. Hemolymph VHDL reaches a maximum value before the last molt, then it abruptly declines in males and females just after emergence, but during adult life it increases again. Fat body VHDL decreases slowly and continuously during the nymph growth reaching a minimum value prior to molting, and in the first week of adult life the values were even two-fold lower; then, it shows a different cycle of accumulation and depletion in males and females. In adult testis the VHDL undergoes a cycle similar to the one observed in male fat body. This protein increases progressively during embryonic development and, at the time of larval hatching it reaches its maximum value. The hexameric protein presents homologies in its N-terminal sequence with storage hexamerins of Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:8995792

  20. Prepubertal Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Alters Sertoli and Leydig Cell Function and Lowers Bone Density in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Bielanowicz, Amanda; Johnson, Rachelle W; Goh, Hoey; Moody, Sarah C; Poulton, Ingrid J; Croce, Nic; Loveland, Kate L; Hedger, Mark P; Sims, Natalie A; Itman, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Phthalate exposure impairs testis development and function; however, whether phthalates affect nonreproductive functions is not well understood. To investigate this, C57BL/6J mice were fed 1-500 mg di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in corn oil, or vehicle only, daily from 4 to 14 days, after which tissues were collected (prepubertal study). Another group was fed 1-500 mg/kg·d DBP from 4 to 21 days and then maintained untreated until 8 weeks for determination of adult consequences of prepubertal exposure. Bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and T by RIA. DBP exposure decreased prepubertal femur length, marrow volume, and mean moment of inertia. Adult animals exposed prepubertally to low DBP doses had lower bone mineral content and bone mineral density and less lean tissue mass than vehicle-treated animals. Altered dynamics of the emerging Leydig population were found in 14-day-old animals fed 100-500 mg/kg·d DBP. Adult mice had variable testicular T and serum T and LH concentrations after prepubertal exposure and a dose-dependent reduction in cytochrome p450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1. Insulin-like 3 was detected in Sertoli cells of adult mice administered the highest dose of 500 mg/kg·d DBP prepubertally, a finding supported by the induction of insulin-like 3 expression in TM4 cells exposed to 50 μM, but not 5 μM, DBP. We propose that low-dose DBP exposure is detrimental to bone but that normal bone mineral density/bone mineral content after high-dose DBP exposure reflects changes in testicular somatic cells that confer protection to bones. These findings will fuel concerns that low-dose DBP exposure impacts health beyond the reproductive axis. PMID:27058814

  1. Reducing the Risk of Bone Fracture: A Review of the Research for Adults with Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone density is a condition where the tissue inside your bones begins to thin, or becomes less ... include: Dairy foods like milk, cheese, and yogurt. Dark green leafy vegetables like broccoli and kale. Bread, ...

  2. Numerically simulated cardiac exposure to electric current densities induced by TASER X-26 pulses in adult men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Niedermayr, F.; Neubauer, R.; Loos, G.

    2010-10-01

    There is still an ongoing debate whether or not electronic stun devices (ESDs) induce cardiac fibrillation. To assess the ventricular fibrillation risk of law enforcing electronic control devices, quantitative estimates of cardiac electric current densities induced by delivered electric pulses are essential. Numerical simulations were performed with the finite integration technique and the anatomical model of a standardized European man (NORMAN) segmented into 2 mm voxels and 35 different tissues. The load-dependent delivery of TASER X-26 pulses has been taken into account. Cardiac exposure to electric current densities of vertically and horizontally aligned dart electrodes was quantified and different hit scenarios compared. Since fibrillation thresholds critically depend on exposed volume, the provided quantitative data are essential for risk assessment. The maximum cardiac rms current densities amounted to 7730 A m-2. Such high current densities and exposed cardiac volumes do not exclude ventricular fibrillation.

  3. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26740246

  4. Hazard analysis of Listeria monocytogenes contaminations in processing of salted roe from walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Koichi; Kitagawa, Masahiko; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Igimi, Shizunobu; Makino, Sou-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis of Listeria monocytogenes contamination during processing of salted walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) roe was performed for a seafood plant in Japan from December 2005 to February 2006. As a result, L. monocytogenes number was detected on the pallet used for transport of barrels in the salting process and one of the rollers of the roller conveyor, which rotates while in contact with the bottoms of the barrels, but was not detected in any raw materials, interim products or final products. Thus, we believe that the pallet contamination initially occurred because of insufficient washing, that it was passed on to the bottoms of the barrels and that it was then passed on the roller of the roller conveyor by cross-contamination. Therefore, it is possible that interim and final products may become contaminated by processing devices and machinery. In addition, we conducted an inoculation study designed at the 1/20 actual factory scale using interim products with or without artificial color and seeded with L. monocytogenes to observe changes in its growth. In the inoculation study, multiplication of L. monocytogenes during the salting process was not confirmed in the samples with artificial color. PMID:19194081

  5. From innervation density to tactile acuity 2: embryonic and adult pre- and postsynaptic somatotopy in the dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul B; Millecchia, Ronald; Lawson, Jeffrey J; Brown, Alan G; Koerber, H Richard; Culberson, James; Stephens, Stephanie

    2005-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dorsal horn laminae III-IV cell receptive fields (RFs) are initially established in three steps: cutaneous axons penetrate the dorsal horn near their rostrocaudal (RC) levels of entry into the spinal cord. Their terminal branches distribute mediolaterally (ML) according to their relative distoproximal RF locations on the leg, and form nonselective synapses with nearby dorsal horn cell dendrites, establishing the initial dorsal horn cell RFs. Rootlet axon RFs in adult cats were used to approximate the RC entry levels of hindlimb skin input. Cord dorsum recordings of monosynaptic field potentials evoked by electrical skin stimulation provided the RC distributions of synaptic input. These were in close agreement. Simulated projections of all 22,000 hindlimb axons were similar to projections predicted from EPSP distributions, and with the observed projections of dorsal roots, cutaneous nerves, and individual axons. The simulated terminals were connected nonselectively to nearby dendrites of 135,000 simulated lamina III-IV cells whose dendritic surface area distributions were based on intracellularly stained cells. There was an overall similarity among pre- and postsynaptic embryonic and adult somatotopies, with a progressive transformation of RF angular location as a function of RC, ML dorsal horn location from an initial embryonic presynaptic concentric pattern to an adult postsynaptic radial one. The initial embryonic dorsal horn cell RF assembly hypothesis was supported by the simulations, as was the additional hypothesis that further refinement of connections would be necessary to establish sufficient selectivity to account for observed adult RFs and somatotopy. PMID:16125155

  6. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  7. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  8. Sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a Turkish young adult population: a sample of Baskent University.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Hale; Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Ismail Can; Yazici, Ayse Canan; Aktaş, Gulnihal; Altunay, Fikret

    2015-05-01

    Fingerprints are considered to be one of the most reliable methods of identification. Identification of an individual plays a vital part of any medico-legal investigations. Dermatoglyphics is a branch of science that studies epidermal ridges and ridge patterns. Epidermal ridges are polygenic characteristics that form intrauterine 10-18 weeks and considered fully developed by the sixth month of fetal growth. Fingerprints are permanent morphological characteristics and criminal detection based on fingerprints is based on the principle that no two people can have identical fingerprints. Sex determination from fingerprints has been examined in different population. In this study we aimed to study fingerprint ridge density in Turkish population sample of Baskent University students. Fingerprints were obtained from 118 women, 88 men a total of 206 students aged between 17 and 28 years old by means of simple inking method. Fingerprints from all right and left hands fingers were collected in three different area of each. The ridges on fingerprints were counted diagonally on squares measuring 5 mm × 5 mm on radial, ulnar and inferior areas. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and inferior areas and between sexes was compared statistically Mann Whitney U test and Friedman test. The ridge density was significantly greater in women in every region studied and in all fingers when compared to men. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints was significantly greater than the lower area. Fingerprint ridge density can be used by medico-legal examination for sex identification. PMID:25882147

  9. Sequence and Transcriptional Analyses of the Fish Retroviruses Walleye Epidermal Hyperplasia Virus Types 1 and 2: Evidence for a Gene Duplication

    PubMed Central

    LaPierre, Lorie A.; Holzschu, Donald L.; Bowser, Paul R.; Casey, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus types 1 and 2 (WEHV1 and WEHV2, respectively) are associated with a hyperproliferative skin lesion on walleyes that appears and regresses seasonally. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequences and transcriptional profiles of these viruses. WEHV1 and WEHV2 are large, complex retroviruses of 12,999 and 13,125 kb in length, respectively, that are closely related to one another and to walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV). These walleye retroviruses contain three open reading frames, orfA, orfB, and orfC, in addition to gag, pol, and env. orfA and orfB are adjacent to one another and located downstream of env. The OrfA proteins were previously identified as cyclin D homologs that may contribute to the induction of cell proliferation leading to epidermal hyperplasia and dermal sarcoma. The sequence analysis of WEHV1 and WEHV2 revealed that the OrfB proteins are distantly related to the OrfA proteins, suggesting that orfB arose by gene duplication. Presuming that the precursor of orfA and orfB was derived from a cellular cyclin, these genes are the first accessory genes of complex retroviruses that can be traced to a cellular origin. WEHV1, WEHV2, and WDSV are the only retroviruses that have an open reading frame, orfC, of considerable size (ca. 130 amino acids) in the leader region preceding gag. While we were unable to predict a function for the OrfC proteins, they are more conserved than OrfA and OrfB, suggesting that they may be biologically important to the viruses. The transcriptional profiles of WEHV1 and WEHV2 were also similar to that of WDSV; Northern blot analyses detected only low levels of the orfA transcripts in developing lesions, whereas abundant levels of genomic, env, orfA, and orfB transcripts were detected in regressing lesions. The splice donors and acceptors of individual transcripts were identified by reverse transcriptase PCR. The similarities of WEHV1, WEHV2, and WDSV suggest that these viruses use

  10. Influence of neighbourhood ethnic density, diet and physical activity on ethnic differences in weight status: a study of 214,807 adults in Australia.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Croteau, Karen; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-09-01

    We investigated whether ethnic and country of birth differences in adult Body Mass Index (BMI) were associated with differences in diet, physical activity and ethnic density (the percentage of an ethnic group within the neighbourhood environment). A sample of 214,807 adults living in Australia was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Analyses comprised multilevel modelling of BMI for 38 ethnic and country of birth groups. Physical activity was ascertained using the Active Australia Survey. Dietary measures included self-reported consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat and cheese. Ethnic density was objectively measured using 2006 Australian Census data. Possible confounders included age, gender, household income, educational qualifications, economic status, couple status, language, duration of residence, neighbourhood affluence and remoteness. Compared to Australian-born Australians (age-gender adjusted mean BMI = 27.1, 95%CI 27.1, 27.2), overseas-born groups often had lower mean BMI, especially the Chinese born in China (23.2, 23.0, 23.4). Exceptions included the Italians (BMI = 28.1), Greeks (28.5), Maltese (27.6), Lebanese (28.4) and Croatians (27.8) born in their ethnic-country of origin. Regardless of birthplace, BMI was lower for the English, Scottish, and Chinese, but higher for Italians and Greeks. Some ethnic differences reflected the 'healthy migrant' hypothesis, whereas others did not. These differences were only partially attenuated by controls for portions of fruit and vegetables, meat and cheese, frequency of participation in physical activity, and other explanatory variables. Ethnic density was associated with lower BMI for the English and Irish (p < 0.05), regardless of whether they were born in the UK, Ireland, or Australia. Ethnic differences in adult weight status in Australia do not appear to be fully explained by conventional risk factors. For some groups, but not all, living among others of the same ethnic group may proxy unmeasured health

  11. Comparisons of bone mineral density and bone quality in adult rock climbers, resistance-trained men, and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2010-09-01

    The nature of muscular contractions and episodes of impact loading during technical rock climbing are often varied and complex, and the resulting effects on bone health are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and tibia and forearm bone quality in male rock climbers (RC) (n = 15), resistance trained men (RT) (n = 16), and untrained male controls (CTR) (n = 16). Total body, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm aBMD and body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy, v. 10.50.086; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.). Volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone content, bone area, and muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) of the tibia and forearm were measured using pQCT (peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Stratec XCT 3000, Pforzheim, Germany). No significant group differences were seen in bone-free lean body mass. CTR had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body fat % than RC and RT and significantly (p < 0.05) greater fat mass than RC. Lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in RT compared to both RC and CTR. RC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower aBMD at the 33% radius site than CTR. Forearm MCSA was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CTR than in the other groups. No significant differences were seen between groups for vBMD or bone area of the tibia and forearm. In conclusion, resistance-trained men had higher bone density at the central skeletal sites than rock climbers; however, bone quality variables of the peripheral limbs were similar in rock climber and resistance-trained groups. PMID:20093970

  12. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats’ Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rabie; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation. Methods: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Results: Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the CPP groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than sham-morphine groups and also the sham-morphine groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than the control groups. Conclusion: We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus. PMID:27563418

  13. Sensitivity of walleye (Sander vitreus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) early-life stages to naphthenic acid fraction components extracted from fresh oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Julie R; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark; Gillis, Patricia L; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; Parrott, Joanne L

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil production in Alberta's oil sands generates oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), which contains toxic constituents such as naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs). There have been few studies examining effects of NAFC exposure over long periods of early-life stage development in fish. Here we examined the effects of NAFCs extracted from OSPW to embryo-larval fathead minnow, exposed for 21 days. We compared the sensitivity of fathead minnow to walleye reared to 7 days post-hatch (18-20 days total). EC50s for hatch success, including deformities, and total survival were lower for walleye (10-11 mg/L) than fathead minnow (22-25 mg/L), with little post-hatch mortality observed in either species. NAFC exposure affected larval growth at concentrations below the EC50 in fathead minnow (total mass IC10 14-17 mg/L). These data contribute to an understanding of the developmental stages targeted by oil sands NAFCs, as well as their toxicity in a greater range of relevant taxa. PMID:26342575

  14. Fluctuations in production and abundance of commercial species in the Red Lakes, Minnesota, with special reference to changes in the walleye population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lloyd L., Jr.; Krefting, Laurits W.

    1954-01-01

    The Red Lakes in northwestern Minnesota comprise 275,000 acres of water which support a commercial fishery producing up to 1.5 million pounds of fish per year. Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), are the principal species. Statistics for the past 37 years have been analyzed and fluctuations in the abundance of the important species calculated for the 24-year period, 1930–1953. The fishing is carried on exclusively with 3 1/2-inch-mesh (extension measure) gill nets by Chippewa Indians and the catch is marketed through a cooperative fishery enterprise. There have been wide fluctuations in the abundance of principal species but, although fishing effort has increased greatly during the past few years no trends have developed. Changes in walleye abundance have been shown to be independent of changes or levels of fishing effort, and to be determined by strength of individual year classes. Gear competition has no effect on abundance estimates. Strength of year classes is not correlated with size of brood stock, abundance of competing species, or amount of hatchery fish planted. Weather conditions cannot be correlated with observed changes in strength of year classes. Implications for management include provision of adequate prediction of abundance, and annual adjustment of fishing practices to make greatest use of the available stock. Gear limitations should be designed to secure harvest at optimum size of fish and to provide a suitable economic status for the fisherman.

  15. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  16. A Bayesian assessment of the mercury and PCB temporal trends in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Visha, Ariola; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) are two of the most prevalent contaminants, resulting in restrictive advisories on consuming fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes. The goal of this study is to examine the temporal trends of the two contaminants in walleye (Sander vitreus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) for Lake Ontario. We employed Bayesian inference techniques to parameterize three different strategies of time series analysis: dynamic linear, exponential decay, and mixed-order modeling. Our analysis sheds light on the role of different covariates (length, lipid content) that can potentially hamper the detection of the actual temporal patterns of fish contaminants. Both PCBs and mercury demonstrate decreasing temporal trends in lake trout males and females. Decreasing PCB trends are evident in walleye, but the mean annual mercury levels are characterized by a "wax and wane" pattern, suggesting that specific fish species may not act as bio-indicators for all contaminants. This finding may be attributed to the shifts in energy trophodynamics along with the food web alterations induced from the introduction of non-native species, the intricate nature of the prey-predator interactions, the periodicities of climate factors, and the year-to-year variability of the potentially significant fluxes from atmosphere or sediments. Finally, a meaningful risk assessment exercise will be to elucidate the role of within-lake fish contaminant variability and evaluate the potential bias introduced when drawing inference from pooled datasets. PMID:25900434

  17. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosong; Weinger, Jason G.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Xue, Feng; Sadeghpour, Safa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is a major problem in elderly, affecting quality of life. Pre-clinical studies show that MMFS-01, a synapse density enhancer, is effective at reversing cognitive decline in aging rodents. Objective: Since brain atrophy during aging is strongly associated with both cognitive decline and sleep disorder, we evaluated the efficacy of MMFS-01 in its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and improve sleep. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed trial in older adult subjects (age 50–70) with cognitive impairment. Subjects were treated with MMFS-01 (n = 23) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks and cognitive ability, sleep quality, and emotion were evaluated. Overall cognitive ability was determined by a composite score of tests in four major cognitive domains. Results: With MMFS-01 treatment, overall cognitive ability improved significantly relative to placebo (p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.91). Cognitive fluctuation was also reduced. The study population had more severe executive function deficits than age-matched controls from normative data and MMFS-01 treatment nearly restored their impaired executive function, demonstrating that MMFS-01 may be clinically significant. Due to the strong placebo effects on sleep and anxiety, the effects of MMFS-01 on sleep and anxiety could not be determined. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the potential of MMFS-01 for treating cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:26519439

  18. Effect of nutritional counseling on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Thai HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Chotivichien, Saipin; Arab, Lenore; Prasithsirikul, Wisit; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sinawat, Sangsom; Detels, Roger

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy have increased risk of metabolic syndrome, including dyslipidemia. In this study, we determined whether individual nutritional counseling reduced dyslipidemia, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, among HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia not currently taking lipid-lowering medication. We conducted a randomized 24-week trial among HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia who were on antiretroviral therapy and were eligible to initiate therapeutic lifestyle changes according to the Thai National Cholesterol Education Program. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group that received individual counseling with a nutritionist for seven sessions (baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24) and a control group that received standard verbal diet information at baseline and nutritional counseling only at week 24. A 24-h recall technique was used to assess dietary intake for both groups at baseline and week 24. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride) was measured at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. An intention-to-treat and linear mixed model were used. Seventy-two patients were randomly assigned, and 62 (86%) participants completed their lipid profile test. After 12 weeks of follow-up, there were significant reductions in the intervention group for total cholesterol (-14.4 ± 4.6 mg/dL, P = .002), LDL cholesterol (-13.7 ± 4.1 mg/dL, P = .001), and triglyceride (-30.4 ± 13.8 mg/dL, P = .03). A significant reduction in LDL cholesterol was also observed in the control group (-7.7 ± 3.8 mg/dL, P = .04), but there were no significant differences in change of mean lipid levels between the groups at 12 weeks of follow-up. After 24 weeks, participants assigned to the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater decreases in serum total cholesterol (-19.0 ± 4.6 vs. 0.2

  19. Relationship of adiposity to bone volumetric density and microstructure in men and women across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Alvin C.; Melton, L. Joseph; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Holets, Margaret F.; Peterson, James M.; Khosla, Sundeep; Drake, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that adipose tissue may negatively impact bone health, challenging the traditional paradigm that increased fat mass, through mechanical loading or endogenous estrogen production, is beneficial to the skeleton. We hypothesized that it is primarily the visceral compartment of body fat that is detrimental to bone metabolism, resulting in impaired bone density and architecture. In an age-stratified population sample of 218 women and 291 men (age 20–97 years), we assessed visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue areas at the L2–L3 interspace level by single slice quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and measured total body fat mass (TBF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We then correlated these findings with volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) assessed by central QCT, and with vBMD and microstructural parameters at the ultradistal radius (UDR) by high resolution peripheral QCT (HRpQCT). In unadjusted analyses in postmenopausal women, TBF and SAT were positively correlated with total, trabecular, and cortical vBMD at the FN, LS, and UDR and with trabecular microstructure at the UDR. By contrast, VAT was not correlated with vBMD at the FN or LS but was positively correlated with UDR total and trabecular vBMD but not cortical vBMD. Adjustment for age or for bioavailable estradiol and testosterone levels reduced these correlations, while adjustment for body weight eliminated most positive associations. Assessment of the VAT/SAT ratio, however, demonstrated a negative relationship with vBMD at the FN and LS in postmenopausal women, a relationship eliminated when adjusted for age. Correlations between skeletal parameters and adipose measurements in pre-menopausal women and older men were weaker and mostly non-significant. In younger men, VAT was negatively associated with vBMD, cortical thickness, and trabecular microstructure at the UDR, and with LS vBMD and FN cortical v

  20. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Muaz H

    2016-01-01

    Background Life style and physical activity play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism for better bone metabolism and improvement of physical disorders is not clear yet. Trace minerals such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn are essential precursors for most vital biological process, especially those of bone health. Objective The main target of this study was evaluating the effective role of supervised aerobic exercise for 1 hour/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks in the functions of trace elements in bone health through measuring bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (T-score), bone markers, and trace element concentrations in healthy subjects aged 30–60 years with age average of 41.2±4.9. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (47 males, 53 females; age range 30–60 years) were recruited for this study. Based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan analysis, the participants were classified into three groups: normal (n=30), osteopenic (n=40), and osteoporotic (n=30). Following, 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), BMD, T-score, and trace elements such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Significant improvement in serum BAP level, T-score, and BMD were observed in all participants following 12 weeks of moderate exercise. Participants with osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in serum Ca and Mn, along with decrease in serum Cu and Zn levels following 12 weeks of aerobic training. In control group, the improvements in serum trace elements and body mass index were significantly linked with the enhancement in the levels of BAP, BMD hip, and BMD spine. These results supported the preventive effects of moderate exercise in healthy subjects against osteoporosis. In both sexes, the changes in serum trace elements significantly correlated (P<0.05) with the improvement in BAP, BMD hip, BMD spine, and body mass index in all groups

  1. Mapping somatosensory connectivity in adult mice using diffusion MRI tractography and super-resolution track density imaging.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kay; Calamante, Fernando; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Sadeghian, Farnoosh; Retchford, Alexander R; Jones, Gabriel Davis; Reid, Christopher A; Reutens, David C; Ordidge, Roger; Connelly, Alan; Petrou, Steven

    2014-11-15

    In this study we combined ultra-high field diffusion MRI fiber tracking and super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) to map the relay locations and connectivity of the somatosensory pathway in paraformaldehyde fixed, C57Bl/6J mouse brains. Super-resolution TDI was used to achieve 20 μm isotropic resolution to inform the 3D topography of the relay locations including thalamic barreloids and brainstem barrelettes, not described previously using MRI methodology. TDI-guided mapping results for thalamo-cortical connectivity were consistent with thalamo-cortical projections labeled using virus mediated fluorescent protein expression. Trigemino-thalamic TDI connectivity maps were concordant with results obtained using anterograde dye tracing from brainstem to thalamus. Importantly, TDI mapping overcame the constraint of tissue distortion observed in mechanically sectioned tissue, enabling 3D reconstruction and long-range connectivity data. In conclusion, our results showed that diffusion micro-imaging at ultra-high field MRI revealed the stereotypical pattern of somatosensory connectivity and is a valuable tool to complement histologic methods, achieving 3D spatial preservation of whole brain networks for characterization in mouse models of human disease. PMID:25087481

  2. Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in 28,318 Adults With Diabetes Mellitus and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol <100 mg/dl.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jamal S; Liu, Jennifer Y; Moffet, Howard H; Solomon, Matthew D; Go, Alan S; Jaffe, Marc G; Karter, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects with diabetes and "metabolic dyslipidemia" (high triglyceride [TGs] and low high-density cholesterol levels) remains a matter of concern. Little is known regarding the risk of CHD for this phenotype with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <100 mg/dl. We analyzed a diabetes cohort of 28,318 members (aged 30 to 90 years) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2002 to 2011 (192,356 person-years [p-y] follow-up), with LDL-C levels <100 mg/dl and without known CHD. We compared the incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD events in groups using Cox models: normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and TG (reference; n = 7,278, 25.7%); normal HDL and high TG (≥ 150 mg/dl; n = 4,484,15.8%); low HDL (≤ 50 mg/dl for women and ≤ 40 mg/dl for men) and normal TG (n = 4,048, 14.3%); low HDL and high TG (metabolic dyslipidemia; n = 12,508, 44%). Patients with metabolic dyslipidemia had the highest age-adjusted CHD events/1,000 p-y (12.7/1,000 p-y and 19.0/1,000 p-y for women and men, respectively). After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, smoking, statin use, duration of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c, we observed an increased CHD risk in women (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.60) and men (HR 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 1.83) with metabolic dyslipidemia compared to those with normal HDL and TG. Even in subjects with an LDL-C <100 mg/dl, presence of metabolic dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes is associated with an increased risk of CHD. In conclusion, effective CHD prevention strategies are needed for adults with diabetes and metabolic dyslipidemia. PMID:26428026

  3. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  4. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Charge-defined Subfractions of High-density Lipoprotein From Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Max T.; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Chia-Ying; Shen, Ming-Yi; Liao, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yang, Chao-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as atheroprotective because it provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits and plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport. In this paper, we outline a novel methodology for studying the heterogeneity of HDL. Using anion-exchange chromatography, we separated HDL from 6 healthy individuals into 5 subfractions (H1 through H5) with increasing charge and evaluated the composition and biologic activities of each subfraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoAII were present in all 5 subfractions; apoCI was present only in H1; and apoCIII and apoE were most abundantly present in H4 and H5. HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes such as lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and paraoxonase 1 were most abundant in H4 and H5. Lipoprotein isoforms were analyzed in each subfraction by using matrix-assisted laser desorption–time of flight mass spectrometry. To quantify other proteins in the HDL subfractions, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Most antioxidant proteins detected were found in H4 and H5. The ability of each subfraction to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages increased with increasing HDL electronegativity, with the exception of H5, which promoted the least efflux activity. In conclusion, anion-exchange chromatography is an attractive method for separating HDL into subfractions with distinct lipoprotein compositions and biologic activities. By comparing the properties of these subfractions, it may be possible to uncover HDL-specific proteins that play a role in disease. PMID:24171625

  5. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  6. Association of dietary and serum vitamin E with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-qi; Liu, Jun; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Ying-ying; Guan, Ke; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Previous studies have suggested that vitamin E (VE) may affect bone health, but the findings have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between VE status (in both diet and serum) and bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese adults. This community-based study included 3203 adults (2178 women and 1025 men) aged 40-75 years from Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. General and dietary intake information were collected using structured questionnaire interviews. The serum α-tocopherol (TF) level was quantified by reversed-phase HPLC. The BMD of the whole body, the lumbar spine and left hip sites (total, neck, trochanter, intertrochanter and Ward's triangle) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In women, the dietary intake of VE was significantly and positively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, intertrochanter and femur neck sites after adjusting for covariates (P(trend): 0·001-0·017). Women in quartile 3 of VE intake typically had the highest BMD; the covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 2·5, 3·06, 3·41 and 3·54% higher, respectively, in quartile 3 (v. 1) at the four above-mentioned sites. Similar positive associations were observed between cholesterol-adjusted serum α-TF levels and BMD at each of the studied bone sites (P(trend): 0·001-0·022). The covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 1·24-4·83% greater in quartile 4 (v. 1) in women. However, no significant associations were seen between the VE levels (dietary or serum) and the BMD at any site in men. In conclusion, greater consumption and higher serum levels of VE are associated with greater BMD in Chinese women but not in Chinese men. PMID:26507315

  7. Relation of Combined Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B With Atherosclerosis in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bjornstad, Petter; Eckel, Robert H; Pyle, Laura; Rewers, Marian; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2015-10-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are cardiovascular disease risk markers, although data in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are limited. We hypothesized that elevated apoB and non-HDL-C would be associated with greater odds of coronary artery calcification progression (CACp), a measure of coronary atherosclerosis, than either category alone in adults with type 1 DM. We grouped subjects with type 1 DM (n = 652) into 4 groups: elevated apoB (≥90 mg/dl) and elevated non-HDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), elevated non-HDL-C alone, elevated apoB alone, and normal apoB and non-HDL-C. We used logistic regression to examine the associations between the groups and CACp for a period of 6 years. We performed sensitivity analyses with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C redefined as at or more than the cohort means (91.4 and 119.0 mg/dl, respectively). Subjects with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C had greater odds of CACp compared with those with normal apoB and non-HDL-C (odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.15) and compared with subjects with elevated apoB alone (odds ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 5.74) adjusting for age, gender, duration, hemoglobin A1c, and statins. Similar results were obtained with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C defined as at or more than the cohort means. In conclusion, elevated apoB and non-HDL-C carry a greater risk of atherosclerosis than elevated apoB in the absence of elevated non-HDL-C in adults with type 1 DM. These data suggest that apoB and non-HDL-C should be viewed as complementary rather than competitive indexes of cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 DM. PMID:26251001

  8. Sex differences in myelin-associated protein levels within and density of projections between the orbital frontal cortex and dorsal striatum of adult rats: implications for inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Bayless, D W; Daniel, J M

    2015-08-01

    Impulsive actions and decisions often lead to undesirable outcomes. Lesion and neuroimaging studies have revealed that the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum (dSTR) play key roles in inhibitory control. It has been proposed that greater OFC input into the dSTR reflects enhanced top-down cognitive control and less impulsive responding. We previously reported a sex difference in inhibitory control, such that female rats make fewer impulsive errors than do male rats. The goal of the present study was to investigate differences in the OFC and dSTR of young adult male and female rats. In Experiment 1, we measured levels of two myelin-associated proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin proteolipid protein (PLP), in the OFC and dSTR. Western blot data revealed that females had significantly higher levels of both MBP and PLP in the OFC but similar levels in the dSTR as compared to males. In Experiment 2, we infused the anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), into the OFC and measured the density of BDA in the dSTR. BDA was visualized using histochemistry followed by light microscopy imaging and densitometry analysis. Density of BDA in the dSTR was significantly greater in females as compared to males indicating that the projections from the OFC to dSTR may be greater in females as compared to males. Our results suggest a potential neuroanatomical sex difference that may contribute to the reported differences in inhibitory control levels of male and female rats. PMID:26002313

  9. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11 835 male and 12 561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004 kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

  10. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  11. Effects of Odanacatib on bone mineralization density distribution in thoracic spine and femora of ovariectomized adult rhesus monkeys: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study.

    PubMed

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Fisher, John E; Duong, Le T; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) has been developed as a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, the major cysteine protease in osteoclasts. In adult rhesus monkeys, treatment with ODN prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in lumbar vertebrae and hip. In this study, we evaluate the effects of ODN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in vertebral spongiosa, distal femoral metaphyseal and cortical shaft from monkeys (aged 16-23 years), treated with vehicle (n=5) or ODN (6 mg/kg, n=4 or 30 mg/kg, n=4, PO daily) for 21 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was measured in a subset of distal femoral samples. In lumbar vertebrae there was a shift to higher mineralization in samples from ODN-treated groups, compared to vehicle: CaMean (+4%), CaPeak (+3%), CaWidth (-9%), CaLow (-28%) in the 6 mg/kg group and CaMean (+5.1%, p<0.023), CaPeak (+3.4%, p<0.046), CaWidth (-15.7%, p=0.06) and CaLow (-38.2%, p<0.034) in the 30 mg/kg group. In distal femoral metaphyseal cancellous bone, there was a clear tendency toward a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, as in the spine. However, primary and osteonal bone of the distal cortical diaphyses showed no significant change in BMDD, whereas bone mineral density was significantly increased after treatment. In ovariectomized monkeys, this study shows that ODN treatment increased trabecular BMDD, consistent with its previously reported ability to reduce cancellous remodeling. Here, ODN also showed no changes in BMDD in cortical bone sites, consistent with its actions on maintaining endocortical and stimulating periosteal bone formation. PMID:23179105

  12. The scavenging of free radical and oxygen species activities and hydration capacity of collagen hydrolysates from walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2009-06-01

    Fish skin collagen hydrolysates (FSCH) were prepared from walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) using a mixture of enzymes, namely trypsin and flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis of the skin collagen was 27.3%. FSCH was mainly composed of low-molecular-weight peptides and the relative proportion of <1000Da fraction was 70.6%. Free radical and oxygen species scavenging activities of FSCH were investigated in four model systems, including diphenylpicrylhy-drazyl radical (DPPH), superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide model, and compared with that of a native antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). FSCH was also evaluated by water-absorbing and water-holding capacity. The results showed that FSCH was able to scavenge free radical and oxygen species significantly and to enhance water-absorbing and water-holding capacity remarkably. Therefore, FSCH may have potential applications in the medicine and food industries.

  13. A high-density EEG study of differences between three high speeds of simulated forward motion from optic flow in adult participants

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Kenneth; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2015-01-01

    A high-density EEG study was conducted to investigate evoked and oscillatory brain activity in response to high speeds of simulated forward motion. Participants were shown an optic flow pattern consisting of a virtual road with moving poles at either side of it, simulating structured forward motion at different driving speeds (25, 50, and 75 km/h) with a static control condition between each motion condition. Significant differences in N2 latencies and peak amplitudes between the three speeds of visual motion were found in parietal channels of interest P3 and P4. As motion speed increased, peak latency increased while peak amplitude decreased which might indicate that higher driving speeds are perceived as more demanding resulting in longer latencies, and as fewer neurons in the motion sensitive areas of the adult brain appear to be attuned to such high visual speeds this could explain the observed inverse relationship between speed and amplitude. In addition, significant differences between alpha de-synchronizations for forward motion and alpha synchronizations in the static condition were found in the parietal midline (PM) source. It was suggested that the alpha de-synchronizations reflect an activated state related to the visual processing of simulated forward motion, whereas the alpha synchronizations in response to the static condition reflect a deactivated resting period. PMID:26578903

  14. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy. PMID:26215362

  15. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  16. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  17. Bone Mineral Density and Food-frequency in Korean Adults: The 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Noh, Hyoung; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki; Park, Yong-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. Methods We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. Results After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Conclusion Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively. PMID:23115703

  18. Stock-specific advection of larval walleye (Sander vitreus) in western Lake Erie: Implications for larval growth, mixing, and stock discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael Fraker; Eric J. Anderson; Cassandra J. May; Kuan-Yu Chen; Jeremiah J. Davis; Kristen M. DeVanna; Mark R. DuFour; Elizabeth A. Marschall; Christine M. Mayer; Jeffrey G. Miner; Kevin L. Pangle; Jeremy J. Pritt; Roseman, Edward F.; Jeffrey T. Tyson; Yingming Zhao; Stuart Ludsin

    2015-01-01

    Physical processes can generate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in habitat quality for fish and also influence the overlap of pre-recruit individuals (e.g., larvae) with high-quality habitat through hydrodynamic advection. In turn, individuals from different stocks that are produced in different spawning locations or at different times may experience dissimilar habitat conditions, which can underlie within- and among-stock variability in larval growth and survival. While such physically-mediated variation has been shown to be important in driving intra- and inter-annual patterns in recruitment in marine ecosystems, its role in governing larval advection, growth, survival, and recruitment has received less attention in large lake ecosystems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. Herein, we used a hydrodynamic model linked to a larval walleye (Sander vitreus) individual-based model to explore how the timing and location of larval walleye emergence from several spawning sites in western Lake Erie (Maumee, Sandusky, and Detroit rivers; Ohio reef complex) can influence advection pathways and mixing among these local spawning populations (stocks), and how spatiotemporal variation in thermal habitat can influence stock-specific larval growth. While basin-wide advection patterns were fairly similar during 2011 and 2012, smaller scale advection patterns and the degree of stock mixing varied both within and between years. Additionally, differences in larval growth were evident among stocks and among cohorts within stocks which were attributed to spatiotemporal differences in water temperature. Using these findings, we discuss the value of linked physical–biological models for understanding the recruitment process and addressing fisheries management problems in the world's Great Lakes.

  19. Effect of Two-Year Caloric Restriction on Bone Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density in Non-Obese Younger Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Dennis T; Fontana, Luigi; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne; Smith, Steven R; Saltzman, Edward; Bales, Connie; Rochon, James; Pieper, Carl; Huang, Megan; Lewis, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V

    2016-01-01

    Although caloric restriction (CR) could delay biologic aging in humans, it is unclear if this would occur at the cost of significant bone loss. We evaluated the effect of prolonged CR on bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy younger adults. Two-hundred eighteen non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 25.1 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) ), younger (age 37.9 ± 7.2 years) adults were randomly assigned to 25% CR (CR group, n = 143) or ad libitum (AL group, n = 75) for 2 years. Main outcomes were BMD and markers of bone turnover. Other outcomes included body composition, bone-active hormones, nutrient intake, and physical activity. Body weight (-7.5 ± 0.4 versus 0.1 ± 0.5 kg), fat mass (-5.3 ± 0.3 versus 0.4 ± 0.4 kg), and fat-free mass (-2.2 ± 0.2 versus -0.2 ± 0.2 kg) decreased in the CR group compared with AL (all between group p < 0.001). Compared with AL, the CR group had greater changes in BMD at 24 months: lumbar spine (-0.013 ± 0.003 versus 0.007 ± 0.004 g/cm(2) ; p < 0.001), total hip (-0.017 ± 0.002 versus 0.001 ± 0.003 g/cm(2) ; p < 0.001), and femoral neck (-0.015 ± 0.003 versus -0.005 ± 0.004 g/cm(2) ; p = 0.03). Changes in bone markers were greater at 12 months for C-telopeptide (0.098 ± 0.012 versus 0.025 ± 0.015 μg/L; p < 0.001), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (0.4 ± 0.1 versus 0.2 ± 0.1 U/L; p = 0.004), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) (-1.4 ± 0.4 versus -0.3 ± 0.5 U/L; p = 0.047) but not procollagen type 1 N-propeptide; at 24 months, only BSAP differed between groups (-1.5 ± 0.4 versus 0.9 ± 0.6 U/L; p = 0.001). The CR group had larger increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cortisol, and adiponectin and decreases in leptin and insulin compared with AL. However, parathyroid hormone and IGF-1 levels did not differ between groups. The CR group also had lower levels of physical activity

  20. Physical Activity-Associated Bone Loading During Adolescence and Young Adulthood Is Positively Associated With Adult Bone Mineral Density in Men.

    PubMed

    Strope, Matthew A; Nigh, Peggy; Carter, Melissa I; Lin, Nantian; Jiang, Jun; Hinton, Pamela S

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity during growth increases bone mass and strength; however, it remains unclear whether these benefits persist. The purpose of this study was to determine: (a) if bone loading during adolescence (13-18 years) or young adulthood (19-29 years) in men is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood; (b) if current participation in high-impact activity (ground reaction force>4×body weight) and/or resistance training is associated with greater BMD; and, (c) if continuous participation in a high-impact activity from adolescence to adulthood is associated with greater BMD. Apparently healthy, physically active men aged 30 to 65 years (n=203) participated in this cross-sectional study. Exercise-associated bone loading was estimated based on ground reaction forces of historical physical activity. Current BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were grouped based on current participation in a high-impact activity (n=18), resistance training (n=57), both (n=14), or neither (n=114); groups were compared by two-way analysis of covariance. Bone loading during adolescence and young adulthood were significant, positive predictors of BMD of the whole body, total hip, and lumbar spine, adjusting for lean body mass and/or age in the regression models. Individuals who currently participate in a high-impact activity had greater lumbar spine BMD than nonparticipants. Men who continuously participated in a high-impact activity had greater hip and lumbar spine BMD than those who did not. In conclusion, physical activity-associated bone loading both during and after skeletal growth is positively associated with adult bone mass. PMID:25237041

  1. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  2. Bone Mineral Density Changes among HIV-Uninfected Young Adults in a Randomised Trial of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Placebo in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Kasonde, Michael; Niska, Richard W.; Rose, Charles; Henderson, Faith L.; Segolodi, Tebogo M.; Turner, Kyle; Smith, Dawn K.; Thigpen, Michael C.; Paxton, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be effective for prevention of HIV infection in several clinical trials. Two studies of TDF PrEP among men who have sex with men showed slight bone mineral density (BMD) loss. We investigated the effect of TDF and the interaction of TDF and hormonal contraception on BMD among HIV-uninfected African men and women. Method We evaluated the effects on BMD of using daily oral TDF-FTC compared to placebo among heterosexual men and women aged 18–29 years enrolled in the Botswana TDF2 PrEP study. Participants had BMD measurements at baseline and thereafter at 6-month intervals with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the hip, spine, and forearm. Results A total of 220 participants (108 TDF-FTC, 112 placebo) had baseline DXA BMD measurements at three anatomic sites. Fifteen (6.8%) participants had low baseline BMD (z-score of <−2.0 at any anatomic site), including 3/114 women (2.6%) and 12/106 men (11.3%) (p = 0.02). Low baseline BMD was associated with being underweight (p = 0.02), having high blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.02) or high alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.03), and low creatinine clearance (p = 0.04). BMD losses of >3.0% at any anatomic site at any time after baseline were significantly greater for the TDF-FTC treatment group [34/68 (50.0%) TDF-FTC vs. 26/79 (32.9%) placebo; p = 0.04]. There was a small but significant difference in the mean percent change in BMD from baseline for TDF-FTC versus placebo at all three sites at month 30 [forearm −0.84% (p = 0.01), spine −1.62% (p = 0.0002), hip −1.51% (p = 0.003)]. Conclusion Use of TDF-FTC was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD at the forearm, hip and lumbar spine. A high percentage (6.8%) of healthy Batswana young adults had abnormal baseline BMD Further evaluation is needed of the longer-term use of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons. Trial

  3. Tumor frequencies in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) and sediment contaminants in tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Paul C.; Mac, Michael J.; Smith, Stephen B.; Harshbarger, John C.

    1991-01-01

    To better characterize neoplasm epizootics in the Great Lakes basin and their association with families of contaminants, we sampled five locations: the Fox and Menominee rivers, Lake Michigan; Munuscong Lake, St. Mary's River; and the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, Lake Erie. Frequencies of external and liver tumors were determined for brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) from all locations except the Black River and for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from the Lake Michigan and St. Mary's River sites. Sediment samples were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated aromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Liver neoplasms occurred in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River and Munuscong Lake; brown bullhead captured from Munuscong Lake were older than those collected from the other locations. Brown bullhead from these same two rivers had elevated hepatosomatic indexes. No liver neoplasms were found in brown bullhead from the Fox and Menominee rivers, although polychlorinated aromatics were highest in both Fox River sediment and Fox and Menominee brown bullhead, and arsenic was highest in Menominee River sediment and fish. Liver neoplasms in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River fit the prevailing hypothesis that elevated PAH in sediment can induce cancer in wild fish. The cause of the liver neoplasms in Munuscong Lake brown bullhead is undetermined.

  4. Transgenic expression of walleye dermal sarcoma virus rv-cyclin gene in zebrafish and its suppressive effect on liver tumor development after carcinogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Huiqing; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Qing, Wei; Wu, Yi Lian; Paul, Thomas A; Casey, James W; Her, Guor Muor; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2010-11-01

    A retrovirus homologue gene of cellular cyclin D₁, walleye dermal sarcoma virus rv-cyclin gene (orf A or rv-cyclin), was expressed in the livers of zebrafish under the control of liver fatty acid-binding protein (lfabp) promoter. To prevent possible fatality caused by overexpression of the oncogene, the GAL4/upstream activation sequence (GAL4/UAS) system was used to maintain the transgenic lines. Thus, both GAL4-activator [Tg(lfabp:GAL4)] and UAS-effector [Tg(UAS:rvcyclin)] lines were generated, and the rv-cyclin gene was activated in the liver after crossing these two lines. Since no obvious neoplasia phenotypes were observed in the double-transgenic line, cancer susceptibility of the transgenic fish expressing rv-cyclin was tested by carcinogen treatment. Unexpectedly, transgenic fish expressing rv-cyclin gene (rvcyclin+) were more resistant to the carcinogen than siblings not expressing this gene (rvcyclin-). Lower incidences of multiple and malignant liver tumors were observed in rvcyclin+ than in rvcyclin- fish, and the liver tumors in the rvcyclin+ group appeared later and were less malignant. These results suggest that expression of rv-cyclin protects the fish liver from carcinogen damage and delays onset of malignancy. These findings indicate that transgenic fish models are powerful systems for investigating mechanisms of inhibition and regression of liver tumors. PMID:20052603

  5. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  6. Auditory Short-Term Memory Capacity Correlates with Gray Matter Density in the Left Posterior STS in Cognitively Normal and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Ramsden, Sue; Ellis, Caroline; Burnett, Stephanie; Megnin, Odette; Catmur, Caroline; Schofield, Tom M.; Leff, Alex P.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of auditory STM is its item-limited processing capacity. We investigated whether auditory STM capacity correlated with regional gray and white matter in the structural MRI images from 74 healthy adults, 40 of whom had a prior diagnosis of developmental dyslexia whereas 34 had no history of any cognitive impairment. Using…

  7. Aerial ULV application of permethrin against adult mosquitoes over open field and medium density canopy habitat in a hot-temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although aerial ULV application of adulticides is a common adult mosquito control strategy, not enough is known about the fate of the pesticide or its efficacy over different habitats. Dye labeling of droplets is used to evaluate ULV applications, and, by inference, their efficacy. Placement of cage...

  8. Evaluating the power to detect temporal trends in fishery independent surveys: A case study based on Gillnets Set in the Ohio waters of Lake Erie for walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Tyson, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Fishery-independent (FI) surveys provide critical information used for the sustainable management and conservation of fish populations. Because fisheries management often requires the effects of management actions to be evaluated and detected within a relatively short time frame, it is important that research be directed toward FI survey evaluation, especially with respect to the ability to detect temporal trends. Using annual FI gill-net survey data for Lake Erie walleyes Sander vitreus collected from 1978 to 2006 as a case study, our goals were to (1) highlight the usefulness of hierarchical models for estimating spatial and temporal sources of variation in catch per effort (CPE); (2) demonstrate how the resulting variance estimates can be used to examine the statistical power to detect temporal trends in CPE in relation to sample size, duration of sampling, and decisions regarding what data are most appropriate for analysis; and (3) discuss recommendations for evaluating FI surveys and analyzing the resulting data to support fisheries management. This case study illustrated that the statistical power to detect temporal trends was low over relatively short sampling periods (e.g., 5–10 years) unless the annual decline in CPE reached 10–20%. For example, if 50 sites were sampled each year, a 10% annual decline in CPE would not be detected with more than 0.80 power until 15 years of sampling, and a 5% annual decline would not be detected with more than 0.8 power for approximately 22 years. Because the evaluation of FI surveys is essential for ensuring that trends in fish populations can be detected over management-relevant time periods, we suggest using a meta-analysis–type approach across systems to quantify sources of spatial and temporal variation. This approach can be used to evaluate and identify sampling designs that increase the ability of managers to make inferences about trends in fish stocks.

  9. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  10. Walleye Dermal Sarcoma Virus: OrfA N-Terminal End Inhibits the Activity of a Reporter Gene Directed by Eukaryotic Promoters and Has a Negative Effect on the Growth of Fish and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z.; Martineau, D.

    1999-01-01

    Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) is a fish retrovirus causing a skin tumor termed walleye dermal sarcoma, which develops and regresses on a seasonal basis. The WDSV genome contains three short open reading frames designated orfA, orfB, and orfC in addition to the viral structural genes, gag, pol, and env. orfA and orfB transcripts are detected in tumors by reverse transcription-PCR. Recently, OrfA, whose amino acid sequence is similar to that of cyclins A and D, has been shown to complement a cyclin-deficient yeast strain. We report that expression of the accessory gene orfA inhibited nonspecifically the activity of a reporter gene directed by various eukaryotic promoters. In addition, stable transfection with the wild-type orfA generated substantially fewer G418-resistant colonies in both fish and mammalian cells than the parent vector. An orfA mutant expressing only the first N-terminal 49 residues of the full-length protein had the same negative effect on the activity of the reporter gene and on the number of stably transfected colonies as the full-length OrfA. Thus, OrfA inhibits cell growth and/or causes cell death, and the first 49 N-terminal residues of this protein are sufficient to cause these negative effects. PMID:10482648

  11. Estimated loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Oncorhynchus spp. ; Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; O. tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Rieman, B.E.; Beamesderfer, R.C. ); Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors estimated the loss of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. to predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in John Day Reservoir during 1983-1986. Their estimates were based on measures of daily prey consumption, predator numbers, and numbers of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir during the April-August period of migration. They estimated the mean annual loss was 2.7 million juvenile salmonids. Northern squawfish were responsible for 78% of the total loss; walleyes accounted for 13% and smallmouth bass for 9%. Twenty-one percent of the loss occurred in a small area immediately below McNary Dam at the head of John Day Reservoir. The authors estimated that the three predator species consumed 14% of all juvenile salmonids that entered the reservoir. Mortality changed by month and increased late in the migration season. Monthly mortality estimates ranged from 7% in June and 61% in August. Mortality from predation was highest for chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, which migrated in July and August. Despite uncertainties in the estimates, it is clear that predation by resident fish predators can easily account for previously explained mortality of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. Alteration of the Columbia River by dams and a decline in the number of salmonids could have increased the fraction of mortality caused by predation over what is was in the past.

  12. Associations of Sarcopenic Obesity and Dynapenic Obesity with Bone Mineral Density and Incident Fractures Over 5-10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Chandrasekara, Sahan D; Laslett, Laura L; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether low muscle mass (sarcopenia) or strength (dynapenia), in the presence of obesity, are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture over 5-10 years in community-dwelling older adults. N = 1089 volunteers (mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years; 51 % female) participated at baseline and 761 attended follow-up clinics (mean 5.1 ± 0.5 years later). Total body, total hip and spine BMD, and appendicular lean and total fat mass were assessed by DXA. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity were defined as the lowest sex-specific tertiles for appendicular lean mass or lower-limb strength, respectively, and the highest sex-specific tertile for total fat mass. Fractures were self-reported on three occasions over 10.7 ± 0.7 years in 563 participants. Obese alone participants had significantly higher BMD at all sites compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. Sarcopenic obese and dynapenic obese men had lower spine and total body BMD, respectively, and sarcopenic obese women had lower total hip BMD, compared with obese alone (all P < 0.05). Sarcopenic obese men had higher non-vertebral fracture rates compared to non-sarcopenic non-obese (incidence rate ratio: 3.0; 95 % CI 1.7-5.5), and obese alone (3.6; 1.7-7.4). Sarcopenic obese women had higher fracture rates compared with obese alone (2.8; 1.4-5.6), but this was non-significant after adjustment for total hip BMD. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese older adults may have increased risk of osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture relative to obese alone counterparts. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals potentially represent a subset of the obese older adult population who require closer monitoring of bone health during ageing. PMID:26939775

  13. Bisphenol-A exposure during adolescence leads to enduring alterations in cognition and dendritic spine density in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Diaz Weinstein, Samantha; Khandaker, Hameda; DeWolf, Sarah; Frankfurt, Maya

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adolescent exposure of rats to bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disrupter, increases anxiety, impairs spatial memory, and decreases dendritic spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when measured in adolescents in both sexes. The present study examined whether the behavioral and morphological alterations following BPA exposure during adolescent development are maintained into adulthood. Male and female, adolescent rats received BPA, 40μg/kg/bodyweight, or control treatments for one week. In adulthood, subjects were tested for anxiety and locomotor activity, spatial memory, non-spatial visual memory, and sucrose preference. Additionally, stress-induced serum corticosterone levels and dendritic spine density in the mPFC and CA1 were measured. BPA-treated males, but not females, had decreased arm visits on the elevated plus maze, but there was no effect on anxiety. Non-spatial memory, object recognition, was also decreased in BPA treated males, but not in females. BPA exposure did not alter spatial memory, object placement, but decreased exploration during the tasks in both sexes. No significant group differences in sucrose preference or serum corticosterone levels in response to a stress challenge were found. However, BPA exposure, regardless of sex, significantly decreased spine density of both apical and basal dendrites on pyramidal cells in CA1 but had no effect in the mPFC. Current data are discussed in relation to BPA dependent changes, which were present during adolescence and did, or did not, endure into adulthood. Overall, adolescent BPA exposure, below the current reference safe daily limit set by the U.S.E.P.A., leads to alterations in some behaviors and neuronal morphology that endure into adulthood. PMID:25554518

  14. Antidepressant-like Potentials of Buchholzia Coriacea Seed Extract: Involvement of Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Systems, and Neuronal Density in the Hippocampus of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, S A; Faborode, S O; Ilenre, K O

    2016-01-01

    Buchholzia coriacea, taken by elderly, has phytochemicals that have neuro-active metabolites, and the folkloredocumented its use in neuro-behavioral despairs. Previous study in our laboratory shows that methanol extracts of Buchholziacoriacea (MEBC) seeds possess antidepressant-like potentials in laboratory rodents. This present study was conducted toinvestigate the probable mechanism(s) of action by which MEBC potentiates its effects using laboratory rodents.Involvements of serotonergic, cholinergic and adrenergic systems were studied using Forced Swimming Test (FST) and TailSuspension Test (TST) models of behavioral despair. Antagonists which including: Prazosin, an alpha-1-adrenergic receptorblocker (62.5 μg/kg, i.p.), metergoline, a 5HT2 receptor blocker (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and atropine, a -muscarinic cholinergicreceptor blocker (1mg/kg i.p.) were administered before effective dose of MEBC (50mg/kg). Also, the hippocampi of theanimals were studied for changes in neuronal density using Nissl Staining. Our findings showed that mobility was reversedin animals pre-treated with atropine, prazosin, and metergoline significantly (P˂0.05), showing a possible involvement ofthe corresponding systems. However, there was a significant reduction in immobility time (P<0.001) during FST afterchronic administration of the MEBC. The hippocampus showed no significant changes (P<0.05) in neuronal density. Inconclusion, MEBC probably potentiates its antidepressant-like potentials via the cholinergic, adrenergic and partly byserotonergic systems. PMID:27574770

  15. Metabolomics reveals the sex-specific effects of the SORT1 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol locus in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias S; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S

    2014-11-01

    Metabolite profiles of individuals possessing either the cardiovascular risk or protective variants of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) associated 1p13.3 locus of the SORT1 gene (rs646776) were analyzed. Serum metabolites and lipids were assessed using LC-MS-based metabolomics in a healthy young population (n = 138: 95 males, 43 females). Although no significant differences were observed in the combined cohort, divergent sex effects were identified. Females carrying the protective allele showed increased phosphatidylcholines, very long chain fatty acids (>C20), and unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, males carrying the protective allele exhibited decreased long-chain fatty acids (≤C20) and sphingomyelins, which is similarly considered to decrease cardiovascular disease risk. No significant changes in clinically assessed lipids such as LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), total cholesterol, or triglycerides were observed in females, whereas only LDL-C was significantly changed in males. This indicates that, apart from reducing LDL-C, other mechanisms may contribute to the protective effect of the SORT1 locus. Thus, the analysis of metabolic biomarkers might reveal early disease development that may be overlooked by relying on standard clinical parameters. PMID:25182463

  16. Interaction of COMT rs4680 and BDNF rs6265 polymorphisms on functional connectivity density of the left frontal eye field in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Bing; Xu, Jiayuan; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-07-01

    As modulators of dopamine availability and release in the brain, COMT and BDNF polymorphisms have demonstrated interactions on human cognition; however, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactions of COMT rs4680 and BDNF rs6265 on global functional connectivity density (gFCD) of the brain in 265 healthy young subjects. We found a significant COMT × BDNF interaction on the gFCD in the left frontal eye field (FEF), showing an inverted U-shape modulation by the presumed dopamine signaling. This finding was consistently repeated in the gFCD analyses using other four connection thresholds. Our findings reveal a COMT × BDNF interaction on the FCD in the left FEF, which may be helpful for understanding the neural mechanisms of the COMT × BDNF interactions on the FEF-related cognitive functions. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2468-2478, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004987

  17. Effect of Extended Release Niacin on Serum Lipids and on Endothelial Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia and Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Scoffone, Heather M.; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Jaoudeh, Nadine Abi; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F.; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O.; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)have low apoA-I andendothelial dysfunction,we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C, and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven SCD patientswith HDL-C <39 mg/dL or apoA-I <99 mg/dL were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500mg increments to a maximum of 1500mg daily, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1±7.7 vs. 0.9±3.8 mg/dL, one-tailed p=0.07), associated with significantly greater, improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C (1.24 vs. 1.95, p = 0.003), and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I (0.46 vs. 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in three independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C. PMID:24035168

  18. Assessing the reliability of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in malaria diagnosis in areas with varying parasite density among older children and adult patients in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, EE; Ukwe, CV; Nna, EO

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current malaria control strategies are based on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of malaria cases. The study aimed at comparing the performance of blood film microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in Plasmodium falciparum detection in patients ≥6 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 consecutive pyretic patients aged 6-62 years were enrolled, sampled, and tested for malaria using RDT (first response) and microscopy by Giemsa staining. Genomic DNA was extracted after saponin hemolysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum. The endpoints were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: Of the 154 patients, 80 (51.9%) had fever of ≥37.5°C. 106 (68.8%) were positive by First response®, 132 (85.7%) by microscopy, and 121 (78.6%) by PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of first response compared to microscopic method were 82.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 34.3%, respectively, while it was 75.4%, 75.0%, 95.3%, and 31.2%, respectively, when compared to PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the microscopic method compared to PCR were 92.3%, 50.0%, 90.91%, and 54.5%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the performance of RDT and film microscopy methods (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Microscopy performed better and is more reliable than first response (RDT) in areas with low parasite density among patients ≥6 years of age. Rapid diagnostic tests could be useful in aareas with high parasite density as an alternative to smear microscopy PMID:27241807

  19. Bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture after long-term suppressive levothyroxine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Monteiro de Barros, Graziella; Madeira, Miguel; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; de Paula Paranhos Neto, Francisco; Carvalho Mendonça, Laura Maria; Corrêa Barbosa Lima, Inayá; Corbo, Rossana; Fleiuss Farias, Maria Lucia

    2016-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) seems not to be decreased in young patients given long-term suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4), but information regarding the bone microstructure in these patients is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether supraphysiologic doses of LT4, initiated during childhood or adolescence for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), have any detrimental effects on bone microarchitecture as evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Seventeen patients (27.3 ± 7.1 years old) with DTC with subclinical hyperthyroidism since adolescence and 34 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex, and body mass index were studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the areal BMD at the lumbar spine, hip, and proximal third of the radius. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters of the trabecular and cortical bone were assessed by HR-pQCT of the distal radius and distal tibia. DTC patients were given suppressive doses of LT4 starting at a mean age of 12.6 years, and the mean duration of treatment was 14.2 years. In DTC patients, clinical parameters did not correlate with DXA or HR-pQCT parameters. No differences were found between the patients and controls with respect to BMD and Z scores at any site evaluated by DXA, and no differences were found in the bone microstructure parameters evaluated by HR-pQCT. This cross-sectional study suggests that long-standing suppressive therapy with LT4 during the attainment of peak bone mass may have no significant adverse effects on bone density or microarchitecture. PMID:26056020

  20. A LONGER INTERVAL WITHOUT GROWTH HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND FEMALE GENDER ARE ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN ADULTS WITH CHILDHOOD ONSET GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY - A KIMS DATABASE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Hamrahian, Amir H; King, Donna; Greenspan, Susan L; Cook, David M; Jönsson, Peter J; Wajnrajch, Michael P; Koltowska – Häggstrom, Maria; Biller, Beverly MK

    2016-01-01

    Objective Childhood onset growth hormone deficiency (COGHD) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). Adults with persistent COGHD may be at risk for insufficient bone accrual or bone loss during adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify BMD predictors and characterize the effects of GH replacement on BMD in COGHD adults with persistent GHD. Design Retrospective analysis of the KIMS database. Methods Variables predicting standardized BMD (sBMD) were identified. The effect of GH replacement (3 years) on BMD was examined. Results 314 COGHD adults (148 women, 166 men; 62 non-naïve, 178 semi-naïve, and 74 true naïve, depending on length and timing of previous GH replacement), who had BMD measured in lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) at study entry. In semi-naïve subjects, a longer gap in GH replacement between childhood and adulthood was predictive of lower sBMD in the FN (r= −0.18, P=0.038). Thyrotropin deficiency predicted lower sBMD in the LS (r= −0.16,P=0.052). In true naïve patients, a longer gap between onset of pituitary disease and study entry (r= −0.35,P=0.012) and female gender (r= −0.27,P=0.043) independently predicted lower sBMD in the FN. There were no differences in BMD increases between non-naïve, semi-naïve and true naïve subjects on GH replacement. Conclusions In semi-naïve subjects a longer interval off GH replacement was associated with lower sBMD in the FN. Among true naïve patients, a longer gap between the onset of pituitary disease and GH replacement, and female gender predicted lower sBMD in the FN. PMID:22711759

  1. Accuracy and the Effect of Possible Subject-Based Confounders of Magnitude-Based MRI for Estimating Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction in Adults, Using MR Spectroscopy as Reference

    PubMed Central

    Heba, Elhamy R.; Desai, Ajinkya; Zand, Kevin A.; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Schlein, Alexandra N.; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.; Middleton, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy and the effect of possible subject-based confounders of magnitude-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for different numbers of echoes in adults with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, using MR spectroscopy (MRS) as a reference. Materials and Methods In this retrospective analysis of 506 adults, hepatic PDFF was estimated by unenhanced 3.0T MRI, using right-lobe MRS as reference. Regions of interest placed on source images and on six-echo parametric PDFF maps were colocalized to MRS voxel location. Accuracy using different numbers of echoes was assessed by regression and Bland–Altman analysis; slope, intercept, average bias, and R2 were calculated. The effect of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on hepatic PDFF accuracy was investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. Results MRI closely agreed with MRS for all tested methods. For three- to six-echo methods, slope, regression intercept, average bias, and R2 were 1.01–0.99, 0.11–0.62%, 0.24–0.56%, and 0.981–0.982, respectively. Slope was closest to unity for the five-echo method. The two-echo method was least accurate, underestimating PDFF by an average of 2.93%, compared to an average of 0.23–0.69% for the other methods. Statistically significant but clinically nonmeaningful effects on PDFF error were found for subject BMI (P range: 0.0016 to 0.0783), male sex (P range: 0.015 to 0.037), and no statistically significant effect was found for subject age (P range: 0.18–0.24). Conclusion Hepatic magnitude-based MRI PDFF estimates using three, four, five, and six echoes, and six-echo parametric maps are accurate compared to reference MRS values, and that accuracy is not meaningfully confounded by age, sex, or BMI. PMID:26201284

  2. Density Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiter, Richard L.; Puzey, Whitney L.; Blitz, Erin A.

    2006-01-01

    Metal rods of high purity for many elements are now commercially available and may be used to construct a display of relative densities. We have constructed a display with nine metal rods (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Pb, and W) of equal mass whose densities vary from 1.74 to 19.3 g cm[superscript -3]. The relative densities of the metals may be…

  3. Validation of the Martin Method for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongseok; Jang, Sungok; Son, Heejeong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C ratio). However, the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN) estimates were calculated using the N-strata-specific median TG:VLDL-C ratios, LDL-C5 and LDL-C25 from respective ratios derived from our data set, and LDL-C180 from the 180-cell table reported by the original study. Compared with LDL-CF, each LDL-CN estimate exhibited a significantly higher overall concordance in the NCEP-ATP III guideline classification with LDL-CD (p< 0.001 for each comparison). Overall concordance was 78.2% for LDL-CF, 81.6% for LDL-C5, 82.3% for LDL-C25, and 82.0% for LDL-C180. Compared to LDL-C5, LDL-C25 significantly but slightly improved overall concordance (p = 0.008). LDL-C25 and LDL-C180 provided almost the same overall concordance; however, LDL-C180 achieved superior improvement in classifying LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to the other estimates. In subjects with triglycerides of 200 to 399 mg/dL, each LDL-CN estimate showed a significantly higher concordance than that of LDL-CF (p< 0.001 for each comparison). The novel method offers a significant improvement in LDL-C estimation when compared with the Friedewald formula. However, it requires further modification and validation considering the racial differences as well as the specific character of the applied measuring method. PMID:26824910

  4. Validation of the Martin Method for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongseok; Jang, Sungok; Son, Heejeong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C ratio). However, the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN) estimates were calculated using the N-strata-specific median TG:VLDL-C ratios, LDL-C5 and LDL-C25 from respective ratios derived from our data set, and LDL-C180 from the 180-cell table reported by the original study. Compared with LDL-CF, each LDL-CN estimate exhibited a significantly higher overall concordance in the NCEP-ATP III guideline classification with LDL-CD (p< 0.001 for each comparison). Overall concordance was 78.2% for LDL-CF, 81.6% for LDL-C5, 82.3% for LDL-C25, and 82.0% for LDL-C180. Compared to LDL-C5, LDL-C25 significantly but slightly improved overall concordance (p = 0.008). LDL-C25 and LDL-C180 provided almost the same overall concordance; however, LDL-C180 achieved superior improvement in classifying LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to the other estimates. In subjects with triglycerides of 200 to 399 mg/dL, each LDL-CN estimate showed a significantly higher concordance than that of LDL-CF (p< 0.001 for each comparison). The novel method offers a significant improvement in LDL-C estimation when compared with the Friedewald formula. However, it requires further modification and validation considering the racial differences as well as the specific character of the applied measuring method. PMID:26824910

  5. Seven years of follow up of trabecular bone score, bone mineral density, body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency treated with rhGH replacement in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Allo Miguel, Gonzalo; Serraclara Plá, Alicia; Partida Muñoz, Myriam Lorena; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by impaired physical activity, diminished quality of life (QoL), weight and fat mass gain, decreased muscle mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment (7 years) with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic parameters, body composition (BC), BMD, bone microarchitecture and QoL. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, BMD and BC were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone microarchitecture was assessed with the trabecular bone score (TBS). The QoL-AGHDA test was used to assess QoL. Results: A total of 18 AGHD patients (mean age, 37.39 ± 12.42) were included. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a significant increase after 7 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a significant tendency of body fat mass (BFM) (p = 0.028) and lean body mass (LBM) (p = 0.005) to increase during the 7 years of rhGH treatment. There was a significant increase in lumbar spine (LS) BMD (p = 0.01). TBS showed a nonsignificant decrease after 7 years of treatment, with a change of -0.86% ± 1.95. QoL showed a large and significant improvement (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Long-term rhGH treatment in AGHD patients induces a large and sustained improvement in QoL. Metabolic effects are variable with an increase in LBM as well as in BMI and BFM. There is a positive effect on BMD based on the increase in LS BMD, which stabilizes during long-term therapy and is not associated with a similar increase in bone microarchitecture. PMID:27293538

  6. Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone health. It compares your bone density, or mass, to that of a healthy person who is ... Whether your osteoporosis treatment is working Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis ...

  7. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  8. Treatment of high-risk patients with ezetimibe plus simvastatin co-administration versus simvastatin alone to attain National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Theodore; Koren, Michael; Insull, William; McKenney, James; Schrott, Helmut; Lewin, Andrew; Shah, Sukrut; Sidisin, Michelle; Cho, Meehyung; Kush, Debra; Mitchel, Yale

    2004-06-15

    This study assessed whether the co-administration of ezetimibe and simvastatin would be more effective than simvastatin monotherapy in allowing high-risk patients to achieve a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goal of <100 mg/dl. Men and women with LDL cholesterol >/=130 mg/dl and meeting National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk equivalent were randomized to 1 of 4 daily treatments for 23 weeks: simvastatin 20 mg (n = 253), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 10 mg (n = 251), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 20 mg (n = 109), and ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 40 mg (n = 97). In all groups, patients not at goal had their simvastatin doses doubled at weeks 6, 12, and/or 18, up to a maximum of 80 mg. The primary efficacy objective was LDL cholesterol goal attainment (<100 mg/dl) after 5 weeks of treatment. Ezetimibe plus any dose of simvastatin produced greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and allowed more patients to achieve goal after 5 weeks (p <0.001) and at the end of the study (p <0.001) than simvastatin 20 mg alone. At 5 weeks, 75%, 83%, and 87% of patients receiving ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20, and 40 mg had LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl compared with 46% of patients receiving simvastatin 20 mg. In patients who started on ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20 and 40 mg, 33%, 22%, and 12%, respectively, required simvastatin titration during the study compared with 68% of patients who started on simvastatin 20 mg. The corresponding median simvastatin doses used were 10, 20, 40, and 40 mg, respectively. Ezetimibe plus simvastatin was well tolerated, with an overall safety profile similar to that of simvastatin monotherapy. Thus, through the dual inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, ezetimibe plus simvastatin allowed more patients to reach LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl at a lower simvastatin dose and with fewer dose titrations than simvastatin monotherapy. PMID

  9. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  10. Bone Mineral Density and Parathyroid Hormone as Independent Risk Factors for Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study in Brazil. The São Paulo Ageing & Health (SPAH) Study.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Diogo S; Machado, Luana G; Lopes, Jaqueline B; Figueiredo, Camille P; Caparbo, Valéria F; Oliveira, Ricardo M; Scazufca, Márcia; McClung, Michael R; Pereira, Rosa Mr

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between osteoporosis and increased mortality risk. However, none of these studies performed a concomitant evaluation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-calcium-vitamin D axis and bone mass to accurately determine the contribution of each of these parameters to survival in older subjects. Thus, we sought to investigate the association between bone parameters and mortality in a longitudinal, prospective, population-based cohort of 839 elderly subjects. Clinical data (including history of fractures and cardiovascular events) were assessed using a specific questionnaire. Laboratory exams, including serum 25OHD and PTH, were also performed. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and hip were evaluated using DXA. All analyses were performed at baseline (2005 to 2007). Mortality was recorded during follow-up. Multivariate Cox proportional regression was used to compute hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Over a mean 4.06 ± 1.07 years, there were 132 (15.7%) deaths. These individuals were compared to 707 subjects who were alive at the end of the coverage period for mortality data collection. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, age (HR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.55; p = 0.001, for each 5-year increase), male gender (HR 1.90; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.79; p = 0.001), recurrent falls (more than two in the previous year; HR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.56; p = 0.026), diabetes mellitus (HR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.46 to 3.21; p < 0.001), low physical activity score (HR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.79; p = 0.011), prior cardiovascular event (HR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.63; p = 0.006), total hip BMD (HR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.72; p = 0.001, per each 1 SD decrease), and intact PTH (iPTH) (HR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08; p < 0.001, per each 10 pg/mL increase) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. The subjects in the highest quartile of PTH (>49 pg/mL) were at a higher

  11. Evaluating the power to detect temporal trends in fishery-independent time surveys: A case study based on gill nets set in the Ohio waters of Lake Erie for walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Tyson, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Fishery-independent (FI) surveys provide critical information used for the sustainable management and conservation of fish populations. Because fisheries management often requires the effects of management actions to be evaluated and detected within a relatively short time frame, it is important that research be directed toward FI survey evaluation, especially with respect to the ability to detect temporal trends. Using annual FI gill-net survey data for Lake Erie walleyes Sander vitreus collected from 1978 to 2006 as a case study, our goals were to (1) highlight the usefulness of hierarchical models for estimating spatial and temporal sources of variation in catch per effort (CPE); (2) demonstrate how the resulting variance estimates can be used to examine the statistical power to detect temporal trends in CPE in relation to sample size, duration of sampling, and decisions regarding what data are most appropriate for analysis; and (3) discuss recommendations for evaluating FI surveys and analyzing the resulting data to support fisheries management. This case study illustrated that the statistical power to detect temporal trends was low over relatively short sampling periods (e.g., 5–10 years) unless the annual decline in CPE reached 10–20%. For example, if 50 sites were sampled each year, a 10% annual decline in CPE would not be detected with more than 0.80 power until 15 years of sampling, and a 5% annual decline would not be detected with more than 0.8 power for approximately 22 years. Because the evaluation of FI surveys is essential for ensuring that trends in fish populations can be detected over management-relevant time periods, we suggest using a meta-analysis–type approach across systems to quantify sources of spatial and temporal variation. This approach can be used to evaluate and identify sampling designs that increase the ability of managers to make inferences about trends in fish stocks.

  12. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  13. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Sleep . 2010;33:1408-1413. PMID: 21061864 www. ...

  15. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  16. Structural Determinants of Publicly Subsidized Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordhaug, Odd

    1990-01-01

    Data on the amount of adult education activity were collected from 454 Norwegian municipalities. Variables were geographic centrality, population density, commuting status, educational resources, municipal finances, and municipal subsidies for adult education. Material and population structures had more effect on activity level than did economic…

  17. No Evidence of Persisting Unrepaired Nuclear DNA Single Strand Breaks in Distinct Types of Cells in the Brain, Kidney, and Liver of Adult Mice after Continuous Eight-Week 50 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure with Flux Density of 0.1 mT or 1.0 mT

    PubMed Central

    Korr, Hubert; Angstman, Nicholas B.; Born, Tatjana B.; Bosse, Kerstin; Brauns, Birka; Demmler, Martin; Fueller, Katja; Kántor, Orsolya; Kever, Barbara M.; Rahimyar, Navida; Salimi, Sepideh; Silny, Jiri; Schmitz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized in the literature that exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) may lead to human health effects such as childhood leukemia or brain tumors. In a previous study investigating multiple types of cells from brain and kidney of the mouse (Acta Neuropathologica 2004; 107: 257–264), we found increased unrepaired nuclear DNA single strand breaks (nDNA SSB) only in epithelial cells of the choroid plexus in the brain using autoradiographic methods after a continuous eight-week 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) exposure of adult mice with flux density of 1.5 mT. Methods In the present study we tested the hypothesis that MF exposure with lower flux densities (0.1 mT, i.e., the actual exposure limit for the population in most European countries, and 1.0 mT) shows similar results to those in the previous study. Experiments and data analysis were carried out in a similar way as in our previous study. Results Continuous eight-week 50 Hz MF exposure with 0.1 mT or 1.0 mT did not result in increased persisting unrepaired nDNA SSB in distinct types of cells in the brain, kidney, and liver of adult mice. MF exposure with 1.0 mT led to reduced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in epithelial cells in the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle in the brain (EC-CP) and epithelial cells of the cortical collecting duct in the kidney, as well as to reduced mtDNA synthesis in neurons of the caudate nucleus in the brain and in EC-CP. Conclusion No evidence was found for increased persisting unrepaired nDNA SSB in distinct types of cells in the brain, kidney, and liver of adult mice after continuous eight-week 50 Hz magnetic field exposure with flux density of 0.1 mT or 1.0 mT. PMID:25302592

  18. Adult Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.

    In its broadest context, play can be interpreted as any pleasurable use of discretionary time. Playfulness is an intrinsic feature of being human, and should be viewed in the light of a total lifestyle, not as an occurrence in an isolated time of life. Adult play appears to be an indefinable and controversial concept. A holistic approach should be…

  19. CPR: Adult

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  20. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver, Michele; Ayers, David; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  1. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  2. [Adult twins].

    PubMed

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2006-12-31

    This paper explores the deep roots of closeness that twins share in their youngest age and their effect on their destiny at the adult age. Psychologists believe the bond between twins begins in utero and develops throughout the twins' lives. The four patterns of twinship described show that the twin bond is determined by the quality of parenting that twins receive in their infancy and early childhood. Common problems of adult twins bring about difficulties to adapt in a non-twin world. The nature versus nurture controversy has taken on new life focusing on inter-twin differences and the importance of parent-child interaction as fundamental to the growth and development of personality. PMID:17352324

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  4. Measurement of landing mosquito density on humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In conventional vector surveillance systems, adult mosquito density and the rate of human-mosquito contact is estimated from the mosquito numbers captured in mechanical traps. However, the design of the traps, their placement in the habitat and operating time, microclimate, and other environmental ...

  5. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  6. The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults'…

  7. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  8. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  9. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  10. Density perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2015-07-28

    Despite the fundamental importance of electron density in density functional theory, perturbations are still usually dealt with using Hartree-Fock-like orbital equations known as coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (CPKS). As an alternative, we develop a perturbation theory that solves for the perturbed density directly, removing the need for CPKS. This replaces CPKS with a true Hohenberg-Kohn density perturbation theory. In CPKS, the perturbed density is found in the basis of products of occupied and virtual orbitals, which becomes ever more over-complete as the size of the orbital basis set increases. In our method, the perturbation to the density is expanded in terms of a series of density basis functions and found directly. It is possible to solve for the density in such a way that it makes the total energy stationary even if the density basis is incomplete.

  11. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  12. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  13. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  14. Effect of collection method on estimates of adult mosquito density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We made simultaneous comparison of the number of female mosquitoes captured by suction traps and portable light traps (augmented with CO2) in a Florida swamp with the landing rate of female mosquitoes on a human subject. Depending on the mosquito species, capture rates in light traps ranged between...

  15. The Aging Neighborhood: Phonological Density in Naming

    PubMed Central

    Kurczek, Jake C.

    2013-01-01

    Aging affects the ability to retrieve words for production, despite maintainence of lexical knowledge. In this study, we investigate the influence of lexical variables on picture naming accuracy and latency in adults ranging in age from 22 to 86 years. In particular, we explored the influence of phonological neighborhood density, which has been shown to exert competitive effects on word recognition, but to facilitate word production, a finding with implications for models of the lexicon. Naming responses were slower and less accurate for older participants, as expected. Target frequency also played a strong role, with facilitative frequency effects becoming stronger with age. Neighborhood density interacted with age, such that naming was slower for high-density than low-density items, but only for older subjects. Explaining this finding within an interactive activation model suggests that, as we age, the ability of activated neighbors to facilitate target production diminishes, while their activation puts them in competition with the target. PMID:24563568

  16. A Dastardly Density Deed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Integrates story telling into a science activity on the density of liquids in order to increase student interest. Shows the relationship between mass and volume ratio and how they determine density. Includes teacher notes. (YDS)

  17. Direct Density Derivative Estimation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroaki; Noh, Yung-Kyun; Niu, Gang; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the derivatives of probability density functions is an essential step in statistical data analysis. A naive approach to estimate the derivatives is to first perform density estimation and then compute its derivatives. However, this approach can be unreliable because a good density estimator does not necessarily mean a good density derivative estimator. To cope with this problem, in this letter, we propose a novel method that directly estimates density derivatives without going through density estimation. The proposed method provides computationally efficient estimation for the derivatives of any order on multidimensional data with a hyperparameter tuning method and achieves the optimal parametric convergence rate. We further discuss an extension of the proposed method by applying regularized multitask learning and a general framework for density derivative estimation based on Bregman divergences. Applications of the proposed method to nonparametric Kullback-Leibler divergence approximation and bandwidth matrix selection in kernel density estimation are also explored. PMID:27140943

  18. Information geometric density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    We investigate kernel density estimation where the kernel function varies from point to point. Density estimation in the input space means to find a set of coordinates on a statistical manifold. This novel perspective helps to combine efforts from information geometry and machine learning to spawn a family of density estimators. We present example models with simulations. We discuss the principle and theory of such density estimation.

  19. Crowding and Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  20. Responses of an aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Anegleis cardoni, to varying densities of Aphis gossypii.

    PubMed

    Omkar; Kumar, Gyanendra

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the functional and numerical responses of fourth instar larvae, adult male, and adult female ladybird beetles, Anegleis cardoni Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), to different densities of aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the bottle gourd, Lagenaria vulgaris Seringe (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). The results revealed a density dependent, Type II functional response of A. cardoni. Prey consumption increased curvilinearly with an increase in prey density for all three predatory stages. Numerical responses revealed significant increases in oviposition with increases in prey density. The food exploitation efficiency and the efficiency of conversion of ingested food decreased with increases in prey density. The attack rate was highest for adult females, followed by fourth instar larvae and adult males. Prey consumption was highest and handling time lowest in fourth instar larvae, followed by adult females and males. Therefore, fourth instar larvae of A. cardoni may be considered the most efficient predatory stage in aphid management strategies. PMID:23901912

  1. Arizona Adult Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Adult education standards are the cornerstone for quality teaching, quality learning, and quality lives. The Arizona Adult Education Standards Initiative (Standards Initiative) represents a proactive effort by Arizona's adult education community to ensure rigor and consistency in program content and student outcomes for adult learners throughout…

  2. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  3. Learning Democratic Reason: The Adult Education Project of Jurgen Habermas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The work of Jurgen Habermas is often cited in adult educational literature as underpinning dialogic traditions and practices central to the field. But to many adult educators the density of Habermas's analysis and complexity of his language limit his influence on their practice. This article's intent is to render a comprehensive analysis of the…

  4. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  5. Densities of stratospheric micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Joswiak, David J.; Brownlee, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the densities of roughly 150 5- to 15-microns interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) harvested in the stratosphere. Care was taken to minimize selection bias in the sample population. Masses were determined using an absolute X-ray analysis technique with a transmission electron microscope, and volumes were found using scanning electron microscope imagery. Unmelted chondritic particles have densities ranging between 0.3 and 6.2 g/cu cm, averaging 2.0 g/cu cm. The low medium densities indicates appreciable porosity, suggesting primitive, uncompacted parent bodies for these particles. Porosities greater than 70% are rare. IDPs with densities above 3.5 g/cu cm usually contain large sulfide grains. We find no evidence of bimodality in the unmelted particle density distribution. Chondritic spherules (melted particles) have densities near 3.4 g/cu cm, consistent with previous results for stony spheurles culled from deep-sea sediments.

  6. Stochasticity and Determinism: How Density-Independent and Density-Dependent Processes Affect Population Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

  7. Stochasticity and determinism: how density-independent and density-dependent processes affect population variability.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

  8. Average density in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnor, W.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Einstein-Straus (1945) vacuole is here used to represent a bound cluster of galaxies embedded in a standard pressure-free cosmological model, and the average density of the cluster is compared with the density of the surrounding cosmic fluid. The two are nearly but not quite equal, and the more condensed the cluster, the greater the difference. A theoretical consequence of the discrepancy between the two densities is discussed. 25 references.

  9. Nuclear Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-05-24

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances.

  10. Modeling thermospheric neutral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Liying

    Satellite drag prediction requires determination of thermospheric neutral density. The NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the global-mean Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM) were used to quantify thermospheric neutral density and its variations, focusing on annual/semiannual variation, the effect of using measured solar irradiance on model calculations of solar-cycle variation, and global change in the thermosphere. Satellite drag data and the MSIS00 empirical model were utilized to compare to the TIEGCM simulations. The TIEGCM simulations indicated that eddy diffusion and its annual/semiannual variation is a mechanism for annual/semiannual density variation in the thermosphere. It was found that eddy diffusion near the turbopause can effectively influence thermospheric neutral density. Eddy diffusion, together with annual insolation variation and large-scale circulation, generated global annual/semiannual density variation observed by satellite drag. Using measured solar irradiance as solar input for the TIEGCM improved the solar-cycle dependency of the density calculation shown in F10.7 -based thermospheric empirical models. It has been found that the empirical models overestimate density at low solar activity. The TIEGCM simulations did not show such solar-cycle dependency. Using historic measurements of CO2 and F 10.7, simulations of the global-mean TIMEGCM showed that thermospheric neutral density at 400 km had an average long-term decrease of 1.7% per decade from 1970 to 2000. A forecast of density decrease for solar cycle 24 suggested that thermospheric density will decrease at 400 km from present to the end of solar cycle 24 at a rate of 2.7% per decade. Reduction in thermospheric density causes less atmospheric drag on earth-orbiting space objects. The implication of this long-term decrease of thermospheric neutral density is that it will increase the

  11. Visualization of electronic density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atom’s volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  12. Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lalazissis, G. A.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

  13. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults׳ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

  14. Variable Density Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Variable Density Tunnel in operation. Man at far right is probably Harold J. 'Cannonball' Tuner, longtime safety officer, who started with Curtiss in the teens. This view of the Variable Density Tunnel clearly shows the layout of the Tunnel's surroundings, as well as the plumbing and power needs of the this innovative research tool.

  15. Density in a Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roser, Charles E.; McCluskey, Catherine L.

    1998-01-01

    Explains how the Canadian soft drink Orbitz can be used for explorations of density in the classroom. The drink has colored spheres suspended throughout that have a density close to that of the liquid. Presents a hands-on activity that can be easily done in two parts. (DDR)

  16. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... Bone density testing can be done several ways. The most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x- ...

  17. Patient Eye Examinations - Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examinations, Adults Patient Eye Examinations, Children Refractive Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Patient Eye Examinations, Adults × Warning message Automatic fallback to the cURL connection method kicked in to handle the request. Result code ...

  18. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  19. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  20. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ACHA Search The futures of adults with congenital heart disease made brighter by their pasts Get Involved 2016 ... conference theme is "The Changing Landscape of Adult Congenital Heart Disease." Join Us Help us improve the quality of ...

  1. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  2. Adult Learning: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter, Ed.

    This book on adult learning is divided into six sections. Section 1, Cognitive Processes, includes the following chapters: "Cognitive Processes: Contemporary Paradigms of Learning" (Jack Mezirow); "Information Processing, Memory, Age and Adult Learning" (Gillian Boulton-Lewis); "Adult Learners' Metacognitive Behaviour in Higher Education" (Barry…

  3. Aspects of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, Rajkumari

    This book presents an overview of and prescription for adult education in India. Following an introduction to the problem of illiteracy in India, the book's 14 chapters cover a broad spectrum of adult education issues. Topics discussed include adult education and national development; roles of voluntary organizations, universities, colleges, and…

  4. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  5. Kids Who Outwit Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.; Brendtro, Larry K.

    Kids who distrust adults are highly skilled at hiding their real nature and resisting change. Most adults shun such youths or get mired in conflict with them. Punitive get tough practices as well as traditional flaw-fixing treatment are reactive strategies that often drive these youths further from adult bonds and reinforce oppositional and…

  6. Adult Learners in Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Janette, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Theories on adult development and learning and some of the Ontario universities' programs and services for the adult learner are examined, and Athabasca University, Alberta's answer to the British Open University, is described. Peter O'Donnell discusses adult learners' needs and explains how Athabasca University serves this specific type of…

  7. Adult Competency Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of brief descriptions of 20 current resources for Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) programs, this guide was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are already involved with APL/ACE programs. Each citation contains information…

  8. Adult Competency Education Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education.

    A compilation of abstracts of 120 current Adult Performance Level (APL) and Adult Competency Education (ACE) federally supported projects being conducted in 34 States and the District of Columbia, this project profile was developed for adult and secondary education administrators, teachers, and program developers who are beginning or are currently…

  9. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  10. Navajo Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Community Coll., Tsaile, AZ.

    The objectives of this Special Experimental Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education for the Navajo were: (1) to raise the educational and social level of Navajo adult students who are unable to read, write, and speak English; (2) to assist the Navajo adult students to take advantage of occupational and vocational training programs; (3) to…

  11. The Adult Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  12. Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeds, Andrew, Ed.

    Designed primarily for adult literacy teachers and tutors, this curriculum describes the content of what should be taught in numeracy programs in order to meet the individual needs of adults through the selection and teaching of skills appropriate to those adults' needs. An introduction describes national standards and qualifications, learners,…

  13. Adults and GNVQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Aidan

    1996-01-01

    This document is intended for further education colleges in the United Kingdom wishing to extend their General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) provision to adults, extend their adult students' options for accreditation, or review the suitability of different qualification routes for adults. It presents information about the development of…

  14. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  15. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  16. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  17. Adult Learning Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  18. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  19. An Adult ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Literacy Resource Center, Columbia.

    This curriculum framework for adult literacy was written by 21 South Carolina adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instructors, as submitted to the South Carolina Literacy Resource Center. It is based on current theories in the fields of adult education and second language acquisition and is designed to be flexible so that it may be adapted to…

  20. Visualization of electronic density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-10-01

    The spatial volume occupied by an atom depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent algorithms and packages to calculate it numerically for other materials. Three-dimensional visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. In this paper, we explore several approaches to this, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package for hydrogen atoms and simple molecules to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting physical questions about nanotube properties.

  1. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  2. Histograms and Frequency Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micromath, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Introduces exercises on histograms and frequency density. Guides pupils to Discovering Important Statistical Concepts Using Spreadsheets (DISCUSS), created at the University of Coventry. Includes curriculum points, teaching tips, activities, and internet address (http://www.coventry.ac.uk/discuss/). (KHR)

  3. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  4. Genetics of Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... study linked 32 novel genetic regions to bone mineral density. The findings may help researchers understand why ... or treating osteoporosis. Bones are made of a mineral and protein scaffold filled with bone cells. Bone ...

  5. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  6. Density on Dry Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Crockett, Cynthia D.; Sadler, Philip M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents activities to dispel student misconceptions about density, particularly as it applies to buoyancy. Finds that misconceptions fall under three categories: (1) size; (2) shape; and (3) material. (NB)

  7. Critical Density Interaction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P; Baldis, H A; Cheung, P; Rozmus, W; Kruer, W; Wilks, S; Crowley, S; Mori, W; Hansen, C

    2001-02-14

    Experiments have been performed to study the propagation of intense laser pulses to high plasma densities. The issue of self-focusing and filamentation of the laser pulse as well as developing predictive capability of absorption processes and x-ray conversion efficiencies is important for numerous programs at the Laboratory, particularly Laser Program (Fast Ignitor and direct-drive ICF) and D&NT (radiography, high energy backlighters and laser cutting). Processes such as resonance absorption, profile modification, linear mode conversion, filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur near the critical density and can have important effects on the coupling of laser light to solid targets. A combination of experiments have been used to study the propagation of laser light to high plasma densities and the interaction physics of intense laser pulses with solid targets. Nonparaxial fluid codes to study nonstationary behavior of filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering at high densities have also been developed as part of this project.

  8. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  9. Prevalence and strength of density-dependent tree recruitment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Woodall, Christopher W; Monteiro, Joao V D; Clark, James S

    2015-09-01

    Density dependence could maintain diversity in forests, but studies continue to disagree on its role. Part of the disagreement results from the fact that different studies have evaluated different responses (survival, recruitment, or growth) of different stages (seeds, seedlings, or adults) to different inputs (density of seedlings, density or distance to adults). Most studies are conducted on a single site and thus are difficult to generalize. Using USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis data, we analyzed over a million seedling-to-sapling recruitment observations of 50 species from the eastern United States, controlling for the effects of climate. We focused on the per-seedling recruitment rate, because it is most likely to promote diversity and to be identified in observational or experimental data. To understand the prevalence of density dependence, we quantified the number of species with significant positive or negative effects. To understand the strength of density dependence, we determined the magnitude of effects among con- and heterospecifics, and how it changes with overall species abundance. We found that density dependence is pervasive among the 50 species, as the majority of them have significant effects and mostly negative. Density-dependence effects are stronger from conspecific than heterospecfic adult neighbors, consistent with the predictions of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Contrary to recent reports, density-dependence effects are more negative for common than rare species, suggesting disproportionately stronger population regulation in common species. We conclude that density dependence is pervasive, and it is strongest from conspecific neighbors of common species. Our analysis provides direct evidence that density dependence reaulates opulation dynamics of tree species in eastern U.S. forests. PMID:26594690

  10. Modelling ionospheric density structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Large-scale density structures are a common feature in the high-latitude ionsphere. The structures were observed in the dayside cusp, polar cap, and nocturnal auroral region over a range of altitudes, including the E-region, F-region and topside ionosphere. The origins, lifetimes and transport characteristics of large-scale density structures were studied with the aid of a three-dimensional, time-dependent ionospheric model. Blob creation due to particle precipitation, the effect that structured electric fields have on the ionosphere, and the lifetimes and transport characteristics of density structures for different seasonal, solar cycle, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions were studied. The main conclusions drawn are: (1) the observed precipitation energy fluxes are sufficient for blob creation if the plasma is exposed to the precipitation for 5 to 10 minutes; (2) structured electric fields produce structured electron densities, ion temperatures, and ion composition; (3) the lifetime of an F-region density structure depends on several factors, including the initial location where it was formed, the magnitude of the perturbation, season, solar cycle and IMF; and (4) depending on the IMF, horizontal plasma convection can cause an initial structure to break up into multiple structures of various sizes, remain as a single distorted structure, or become stretched into elongated segments.

  11. Nuclear Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S. M.; Voinov, A.

    2009-01-28

    A summary of some recent level density research is presented. Although the subject is an old one, it is argued that a number of unanswered questions remain. These include uncertainties in related quantities such as the parity ratio and the spin cutoff parameter, which are needed to deduce level density parameters from resonance counting for low energy neutrons. Additional points of interest are the extent to which the low energy region shows constant temperature rather than Fermi gas energy dependence, whether the region below the neutron binding energy shows significant structure and whether the level density for fixed A shows a drop for neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei compared to nuclei on the valley of stability.

  12. Race/ethnic differences in bone mineral density in men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of osteoporosis in male and minority populations is understudied. To address this concern, we conducted a study of skeletal health in a diverse population of adult males, comparing Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in 367 Black, 401 Hispanic, and 451 White men aged 30-79 years who were ran...

  13. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Close, E. R.; Merrill, D. W.; Holmes, H. H.

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of disease can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.

  14. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  15. Low density solid ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Teolis, B. D.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2007-08-21

    We report a very low density ({approx}0.5 g/cm{sup 3}) structure of solid ozone. It is produced by irradiation of solid oxygen with 100 keV protons at 20 K followed by heating to sublime unconverted oxygen. Upon heating to 47 K the porous ozone compacts to a density of {approx}1.6 g/cm{sup 3} and crystallizes. We use a detailed analysis of the main infrared absorption band of the porous ozone to interpret previous research, where solid oxygen was irradiated by UV light and keV electrons.

  16. Safeguarding vulnerable adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    Nurses have a professional duty to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse under the provisions of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's (NMC) revised Code (2015). With adult abuse continuing to increase, all members of the nursing team are well placed to identify and take action to safeguard the vulnerable. This article sets out how the Care Act 2014 seeks to improve the safeguarding of vulnerable adults and the role of nurses in that process. PMID:26153813

  17. Density in Liquids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesin, Gert; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a fourth-grade unit on density which introduces a concept useful in the study of chemistry and procedures appropriate to the chemistry laboratory. The hands-on activities, which use simple equipment and household substances, are at the level of thinking Piaget describes as concrete operational. (BC)

  18. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  19. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  20. Material and Optical Densities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The bending of a laser beam in a medium with a density and refractive index gradient in the same direction has been described previously. When a transparent container is half filled with a salt or sugar solution and an equal amount of water is floated on top of it, then diffusion will create a concentration gradient from top to bottom. A laser…

  1. Partition density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafziger, Jonathan

    Partition density functional theory (PDFT) is a method for dividing a molecular electronic structure calculation into fragment calculations. The molecular density and energy corresponding to Kohn Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) may be exactly recovered from these fragments. Each fragment acts as an isolated system except for the influence of a global one-body 'partition' potential which deforms the fragment densities. In this work, the developments of PDFT are put into the context of other fragment-based density functional methods. We developed three numerical implementations of PDFT: One within the NWChem computational chemistry package using basis sets, and the other two developed from scratch using real-space grids. It is shown that all three of these programs can exactly reproduce a KS-DFT calculation via fragment calculations. The first of our in-house codes handles non-interacting electrons in arbitrary one-dimensional potentials with any number of fragments. This code is used to explore how the exact partition potential changes for different partitionings of the same system and also to study features which determine which systems yield non-integer PDFT occupations and which systems are locked into integer PDFT occupations. The second in-house code, CADMium, performs real-space calculations of diatomic molecules. Features of the exact partition potential are studied for a variety of cases and an analytical formula determining singularities in the partition potential is derived. We introduce an approximation for the non-additive kinetic energy and show how this quantity can be computed exactly. Finally a PDFT functional is developed to address the issues of static correlation and delocalization errors in approximations within DFT. The functional is applied to the dissociation of H2 + and H2.

  2. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B.; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism’s entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained. PMID:27093056

  3. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained. PMID:27093056

  4. Alternative Programming for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.; Frey, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Council for Adult and Experiential Learning is currently cataloguing alternative programming features that are most effective with adult students in a best practices inventory organized around a framework of high-level descriptive principles of effectiveness. This chapter identifies a few interesting features from a quick survey of this…

  5. Adult Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, John

    This study is limited essentially to adult education in West Germany, although the historical sections include references to earlier experiences and experiments in areas now Russian-occupied. The terms "adult edcuation" and "workers' education" are clarified. Both are presented as separate movements. Brief reference is made to political, social,…

  6. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Adult Learners' Week--which is supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills and the European Social Fund, amongst a raft of other organisations--is all about raising demand for learning. At its core, the campaign is about encouraging under-represented groups--including low-skilled, unemployed and low-paid adults and those…

  7. Teachers of Adults Will...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankowski, Mary L.

    1975-01-01

    The article lists the 12 competencies of adult education teachers that are considered essential to assist adults in achieving instructional goals and objectives. Following the listing a brief justification and examples of ways to evaluate teacher competencies are discussed. (Author/BP)

  8. Recruiting Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Resources Network, Manhattan, KS.

    This document is the first nationwide compilation of successful recruiting techniques for students in adult basic education, literacy, General Educational Development classes, and adult high school degree programs. Information for the publication was gathered from a literature search and other sources, especially "Reaching the Least Educated," a…

  9. Counseling Adult Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious…

  10. Adult Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Heribert, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains 19 papers on adult education and development worldwide. The following papers are included: "Editorial" (Heribert Hinzen); "Lifelong Learning in Europe: Moving towards EFA (Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All) Goals and the CONFINTEA V Agenda" (Sofia Conference on Adult Education); "Poverty and Schooling in the…

  11. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  12. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

  13. Adult Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As individuals and societies try to respond to fundamental economic and social transformation, the field of adult learning and education is rapidly getting increased attention and new topics for research on adult learning have emerged. This collection of articles from the International Encyclopedia of Education 3e offers practitioners and…

  14. Dialogue and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarule, Jill Mattuck

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the role of language and dialogue in adult learning looks at dialogue as epistemology and at talk as learning. It is proposed that the challenge in teaching and retaining adult learners is to create dialogue-rich classrooms, including many external speech opportunities, small-group discussion, and group projects. (MSE)

  15. Libraries and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 13 essays presented in this special issue on libraries and adult education, 8 focus on programs and services from the public library for adult learners. These essays provide information on: (1) an Education Information Centers Program (EIC) designed to complement employment skills training provided under the Comprehensive Employment and…

  16. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  17. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  18. Adult Education in Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    International Adult Literacy Survey data show the average adult education participation in Nordic countries is 14% higher than in other industrialized nations. Public support for participation of the disadvantaged, an active labor market policy, and popular education are key characteristics. (Contains 37 references.) (Author/JOW)

  19. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  20. Adult Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Labour, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    Danish adult vocational training activities take the form of specifically targeted initial and continued training for employed and unemployed adults. Planning, development, and adaptation of vocational training programs (AMU programs) are characterized by tripartite cooperation among public authorities and organizations of employers and employees.…

  1. Adult Counseling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.

    In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…

  2. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…

  3. Adult Vocational Teacher Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, F. Marvin

    As part of a larger study to investigate the backgrounds and professional inservice needs of part-time adult vocational teachers in Pennsylvania, research was conducted to identify and assess adult vocational teacher competencies. Following a literature review, a survey instrument was devised which listed thirty-four competencies (basically…

  4. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  5. Financing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

  6. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  7. [Low density lipoprotein apheresis].

    PubMed

    Zaliūnas, Remigijus; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Gustiene, Olivija; Siurkus, Jonas; Vaitkus, Eduardas

    2003-01-01

    Increased blood cholesterol concentration is one of the main factors in ischemic heart disease, development of which is determined by atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels. Diet and treatment with 3-hydroxi-3-metilglutaril coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors helps to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch) blood concentration up to recommended level of 3.0 mmol/l in most patients but in some patients particularly with familial dyslipidemias cholesterol concentration remains increased even after treatment with maximal doses of lipid-regulating agents or their combinations. The most frequently used mechanical methods of cholesterol removal from blood include the procedures of extracorporeal apheresis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis not only significantly reduces the blood concentrations of total cholesterol (TCh), and LDL-Ch, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a) and fibrinogen but also stops the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary vessels. PMID:14704503

  8. Extracting primordial density fluctuations

    PubMed

    Gawiser; Silk

    1998-05-29

    The combination of detections of anisotropy in cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale distribution of galaxies probes the primordial density fluctuations of the universe on spatial scales varying by three orders of magnitude. These data are found to be inconsistent with the predictions of several popular cosmological models. Agreement between the data and the cold + hot dark matter model, however, suggests that a significant fraction of the matter in the universe may consist of massive neutrinos. PMID:9603724

  9. Influence of deer abundance on the abundance of questing adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.

    1999-01-01

    Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.

  10. High power density targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellemoine, Frederique

    2013-12-01

    In the context of new generation rare isotope beam facilities based on high-power heavy-ion accelerators and in-flight separation of the reaction products, the design of the rare isotope production targets is a major challenge. In order to provide high-purity beams for science, high resolution is required in the rare isotope separation. This demands a small beam spot on the production target which, together with the short range of heavy ions in matter, leads to very high power densities inside the target material. This paper gives an overview of the challenges associated with this high power density, discusses radiation damage issues in targets exposed to heavy ion beams, and presents recent developments to meet some of these challenges through different projects: FAIR, RIBF and FRIB which is the most challenging. Extensive use of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been made at all facilities to specify critical target parameters and R&D work at FRIB successfully retired two major risks related to high-power density and heavy-ion induced radiation damage.

  11. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-03-28

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  12. Land Use, Residential Density, and Walking

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Brines, Shannon J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The neighborhood environment may play a role in encouraging sedentary patterns, especially for middle-aged and older adults. Purpose Associations between walking and neighborhood population density, retail availability, and land use distribution were examined using data from a cohort of adults aged 45 to 84 years old. Methods Data from a multi-ethnic sample of 5529 adult residents of Baltimore MD, Chicago IL, Forsyth County NC, Los Angeles CA, New York NY, and St. Paul MN, enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in 2000–2002 were linked to secondary land use and population data. Participant reports of access to destinations and stores and objective measures of the percentage of land area in parcels devoted to retail land uses, the population divided by land area in parcels, and the mixture of uses for areas within 200m of each participant's residence were examined. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate associations of self-reported and objective neighborhood characteristics with walking. All analyses were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Results After adjustment for individual-level characteristics and neighborhood connectivity, higher density, greater land area devoted to retail uses, and self-reported measures of proximity of destinations and ease of walking to places were each related to walking. In models including all land use measures, population density was positively associated with walking to places and with walking for exercise for more than 90 min/wk both relative to no walking. Availability of retail was associated with walking to places relative to not walking, having a more proportional mix of land uses was associated with walking for exercise for more than 90 min/wk, while self-reported ease of access to places was related to higher levels of exercise walking both relative to not walking. Conclusions Residential density and the presence of retail uses are related to various walking behaviors. Efforts to

  13. Gedanken densities and exact constraints in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei; Burke, Kieron

    2014-05-14

    Approximations to the exact density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron ground state can be constructed by satisfying constraints that are universal, i.e., valid for all electron densities. Gedanken densities are designed for the purpose of this construction, but need not be realistic. The uniform electron gas is an old gedanken density. Here, we propose a spherical two-electron gedanken density in which the dimensionless density gradient can be an arbitrary positive constant wherever the density is non-zero. The Lieb-Oxford lower bound on the exchange energy can be satisfied within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by bounding its enhancement factor or simplest GGA exchange-energy density. This enhancement-factor bound is well known to be sufficient, but our gedanken density shows that it is also necessary. The conventional exact exchange-energy density satisfies no such local bound, but energy densities are not unique, and the simplest GGA exchange-energy density is not an approximation to it. We further derive a strongly and optimally tightened bound on the exchange enhancement factor of a two-electron density, which is satisfied by the local density approximation but is violated by all published GGA's or meta-GGA’s. Finally, some consequences of the non-uniform density-scaling behavior for the asymptotics of the exchange enhancement factor of a GGA or meta-GGA are given.

  14. EFFECTS OF DIET ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF LARVAL WALLYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of diet quality on larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) growth and survival are described. The cyclopoid copepod Diacyclops thomasi consumed larval walleyes within 10 min at dense copepod concentrations and within 1 day at lower densities (500 organisms/L). A...

  15. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  16. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults. PMID:18156396

  17. Adult Education in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Adult Education Association, New Delhi.

    The proceedings of the 24th All India Adult Education Conference highlight two symposia, "Adult Education and Urban Development" and "Adult Education and Green Revolution." Commission Reports on the two symposia are given. (DB)

  18. Density Gradients in Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines experiments in which a density gradient might be used to advantage. A density gradient consists of a column of liquid, the composition and density of which varies along its length. The procedure can be used in analysis of solutions and mixtures and in density measures of solids. (Author/TS)

  19. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  20. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  2. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  3. Brainstem Glioma in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jethro; Western, Stephen; Kesari, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are not nearly as common in adults as they are in children. They are likely the final common consequence not of a single disease process but of several. They can be difficult to diagnose, and are challenging to treat. Clinical studies of this diagnosis are few and generally small. Because of these factors, our understanding of the biology of adult brainstem glioma is incomplete. However, the knowledge base is growing and progress is being made. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge for brainstem glioma in adults and identify key areas for which additional information is required. PMID:27556016

  4. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May-June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment. PMID:27123994

  5. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May–June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment. PMID:27123994

  6. Gluon density in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, A.L.; Ducati, M.B.G.; Levin, E.M.

    1996-10-01

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Oblique dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  8. Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

    2009-01-01

    Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

  9. Stage-Specific Effects of Population Density on the Development and Fertility of Lygus hesperus Knight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western tarnished plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight, a major pest of cotton and other key economic crops, was tested for its sensitivity to population density during nymph and adult stages. Nymphs reared to adulthood under increasing densities exhibited incremental delays in maturation, heightened...

  10. Effect of high density on the short term Calomys musculinus spacing behaviour: A fencing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommaro, Lucía V.; Steinmann, Andrea R.; Chiappero, Marina B.; Priotto, José W.

    2010-05-01

    We studied the short term spacing behavioural responses of corn mice ( Calomys musculinus) with regard to population density in four 0.25 ha enclosures (two control and two experimental) in the 2007 breeding season. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that spacing behaviour only operates among C. musculinus adult females. We estimated 207 home ranges to study: 1) the home range size and the overlap degree of adult males and females in relation to population density; 2) the settlement distances of juveniles to the centre of activity of their mothers and the home range overlap proportion between them and their mothers in relation to population density. We found that home range size and overlap degree in C. musculinus adults were determined by sex and density. At high population density males had significant smaller and more exclusive home ranges, and this might reflect induced territoriality derived from social restrictions. Female home range sizes remained similar irrespective of population density, and they kept exclusive home ranges in both control and experimental enclosures. Thus, females maintained their territories independent of the population density values. The settlement distances of juveniles from their mothers and the overlap proportion between them and their mothers were independent of population density. We conclude that spacing behaviour only operates among C. musculinus adult females and it could have a role in regulating population abundances limiting the number of females that acquire breeding spaces.

  11. Older Adults and Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Generally, ... liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many medications, such as the ones ...

  12. The Colonial Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1975-01-01

    The adult evening schools of colonial America served a mixed clientele and provided instruction in a variety of subjects. Although most historians have described evening schoolmasters as incompetent frauds, research indicates that such descriptions are generally unjust and unfounded. (NHM)

  13. Motivation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  14. CPR - adult - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100219.htm CPR - adult - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics CPR A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  15. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  16. About BMI for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI Language: ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  17. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  18. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain. PMID:26747664

  19. Motivation and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, J.

    1974-01-01

    The paper examines the role of adult education and the contribution it can make to the solution of current problems in developing countries, particularly the problems of economic under-development and over-population. (Author/AG)

  20. Yoga and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Yoga and Older Adults Yoga is a mind and body practice that typically ... breathing exercises, and relaxation. Researchers are studying how yoga may help improve health and to learn more ...

  1. Pancreatoblastoma in an adult.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Tang, Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatoblastoma is a malignant pancreatic tumor that rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of an adult female with pancreatoblastoma. A mass was detected in the pancreatic head using computed tomography and ultrasonography. The clinical diagnosis was a solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas. However, after the operation, the final diagnosis was pancreatoblastoma, which showed two lines of differentiation: Acinar differentiation and squamoid corpuscles. The patient is currently in good condition. PMID:25673604

  2. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  3. Interaction between stocking density and settlement on population dynamics in suspended mussel culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillo, Alhambra M.; Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío

    2015-01-01

    Population dynamics on mussels growing on suspended culture depend mainly on the balance of several processes: mortality and/or dislodgements from the ropes, recruitment and growth. The negative effect of overcrowding on mussel growth and survival has been widely studied. Other works have addressed the effect of population size on recruitment on bottom beds. This study aims to provide insight into the processes underlying population dynamics. To this purpose, we analyzed the effect of stocking density on mussel growth, survival and seed settlement, and the post-settlement interaction between adults and recruits in suspended culture. The temporal pattern of the variables involved in population dynamics was fitted by GAM models, which in contrast with parametric models does not assume any prior relationships between variables. Our results show that mussel growth and survival depend on a trade-off between competition for resources at high densities and the risk of great settlements in less crowded adult mussel populations. Intracohort competition increased with stocking density, while seed settlement, which increases the risk of mussel dislodgements and leads to intercohort competition, was higher at moderate stocking densities. Post-settlement competitive pressures were driven by total population density and size composition. Both intracohort competition in adults and asymmetric competition between adults and recruits increase with higher adult-recruit ratios. All these density-dependent processes should be considered in future management strategies and research experimental designs.

  4. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-05-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  5. Adult educators' core competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  6. Negative density dependence of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in a neotropical palm.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Patrick A; Visser, Marco D; Joseph Wright, S; Rutten, Gemma; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2014-09-01

    Negative density dependence (NDD) of recruitment is pervasive in tropical tree species. We tested the hypotheses that seed dispersal is NDD, due to intraspecific competition for dispersers, and that this contributes to NDD of recruitment. We compared dispersal in the palm Attalea butyracea across a wide range of population density on Barro Colorado Island in Panama and assessed its consequences for seed distributions. We found that frugivore visitation, seed removal and dispersal distance all declined with population density of A. butyracea, demonstrating NDD of seed dispersal due to competition for dispersers. Furthermore, as population density increased, the distances of seeds from the nearest adult decreased, conspecific seed crowding increased and seedling recruitment success decreased, all patterns expected under poorer dispersal. Unexpectedly, however, our analyses showed that NDD of dispersal did not contribute substantially to these changes in the quality of the seed distribution; patterns with population density were dominated by effects due solely to increasing adult and seed density. PMID:25039608

  7. Regulation of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics in Field Systems: Quantifying Direct and Delayed Density Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Rachael K.; Aguilar, Cristobal L.; Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic strains of Aedes aegypti have been engineered to help control transmission of dengue virus. Although resources have been invested in developing the strains, we lack data on the ecology of mosquitoes that could impact the success of this approach. Although studies of intra-specific competition have been conducted using Ae. aegypti larvae, none of these studies examine mixed age cohorts at densities that occur in the field, with natural nutrient levels. Experiments were conducted in Mexico to determine the impact of direct and delayed density dependence on Ae. aegypti populations. Natural water, food, and larval densities were used to estimate the impacts of density dependence on larval survival, development, and adult body size. Direct and delayed density-dependent factors had a significant impact on larval survival, larval development, and adult body size. These results indicate that control methods attempting to reduce mosquito populations may be counteracted by density-dependent population regulation. PMID:23669230

  8. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  9. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  10. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  11. Density distribution in Earth.

    PubMed

    Press, F

    1968-06-14

    Earth models selected by a Monte Carlo procedure were tested against geophysical data; 5 million models were examined and six have passed all tests. Common features of successful models are an increased core radius and a chemically inhomogeneous core consistent with Fe-Ni alloy (20 to 50 percent Fe) for the solid portion and Fe-Si alloy (15 to 25 percent Fe) for the fluid core. The inhomogeneous mantle is consistent with an increase in the FeO:FeO + MgO ratio by a factor of 2 in the deep mantle. The transition zone is a region of not only phase change but also composition change; this condition would inhibit mantlewide convection. The upper-mantle solutions show large fluctuations in density; this state implies insufficient constraint on solutions for this region, or lateral variations in mantle composition ranging from pyrolite to eclogite. PMID:17818740

  12. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Kortelainen, Erno M; Lesinski, Thomas; More, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sarich, J.; Schunck, N.; Stoitsov, M. V.; Wild, S.

    2010-01-01

    We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

  13. Interstellar Electron Density Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Hendrick Clark

    This study concerns the investigation of the form of the wavenumber spectrum of the Galactic electron density fluctuations through an examination of the scattering of the radio pulses emitted by pulsars as they propagate through the diffuse ionized interstellar gas. A widely used model for the electron density spectrum is based on the simple power-law: Pne(q)∝ q-β, where β = 11/3 is usually assumed, corresponding to Kolmogorov's turbulence spectrum. The simple Kolmogorov model provides satisfactory agreement for observations along many lines of sight; however, major inconsistencies remain. The inconsistencies suggest that an increase in the ratio of the power between the high (10-8[ m]-1≤ q<=10-7[ m]-1) and low (10-13[ m]-1≤ q<=10-12[ m]-1) wavenumbers is needed. This enhancement in the ratio can in turn be achieved by either including an inner scale, corresponding to a dissipation scale for the turbulent cascade, in the Kolmogorov spectrum or by considering steeper spectra. Spectra with spectral exponents β > 4 have been in general rejected based on observations of pulsar refractive scintillations. The special case of β = 4 has been given little attention and is analyzed in detail. Physically, this 'β = 4' model corresponds to the random distribution, both in location and orientation, of discrete objects with relatively sharp boundaries across the line of sight. An outer scale is included in the model to account for the average size of such objects. We compare the predictions of the inner-scale and β = 4 models both with published observations and observations we made as part of this investigation. We conclude that the form of the wavenumber spectrum is dependent on the line of sight. We propose a composite spectrum featuring a uniform background turbulence in presence of randomly distributed discrete objects, as modeled by the β = model.

  14. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Curro, John G.; Quintana, Carlos A.; Russick, Edward M.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    1987-01-01

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  15. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  16. Effects of rearing density, age, sex, and food deprivation on flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of rearing density, adult density and sex ratio in the flight chamber, adult age, sex, presence or absence of food, and duration of food deprivation on rate of and time to flight initiation of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were studied in the laboratory. Rates of flight...

  17. Adult Education in Israel V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmayer, Paul, Ed.; Michaelson, Serena T., Ed.

    This fifth journal edition focuses on the didactics of adult education in Israel. Following a "Preface" (Meir Peretz) discussing the didactics of adult education, three major fields are examined: Learning for Adults; Hebrew Language and Culture for Immigrants; and Special Populations (adults with learning disabilities, senior citizens, and…

  18. The Adult Learner: Four Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Topics concerning the adult learner that are relevant to institutional researchers are addressed in four articles: marketing, predicting success for adult students, enrollment projection, and follow-up studies of adult learners. In "Institutional Research in Support of Marketing the Adult Student," Lydia Jurand notes the importance of identifying…

  19. The ABC's of Adult Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, it is estimated that 93 million adults in the United States have basic or below basic literacy skills. Those individuals found most lacking in literacy skills were adults living in poverty, adults lacking a high school diploma, seniors and the elderly aged 65 and older, the more than one…

  20. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  1. The variable density aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    In the variable density aircraft concept the aircraft's density is varied by varying its volume. This is accomplished by combining a variable volume hull, which is called the dynapod, with intrinsic means for the controlled variation of a mass of working fluid or substance within the aircraft. The dynapod is a hinged structure and follows the volumetric variations of the working fluid. The result is a variable density hull, which with the attachment of power plants, etc., becomes a variable density aircraft.

  2. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Oliver J.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Gething, Peter W.; Cohen, Justin M.; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Alex Perkins, T.; Reiner, Robert C.; Tusting, Lucy S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Hay, Simon I.; Smith, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standard advice regarding vector control is to prefer interventions that reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes. The basis for this advice is a decades-old sensitivity analysis of ‘vectorial capacity’, a concept relevant for most malaria transmission models and based solely on adult mosquito population dynamics. Recent advances in micro-simulation models offer an opportunity to expand the theory of vectorial capacity to include both adult and juvenile mosquito stages in the model. Methods In this study we revisit arguments about transmission and its sensitivity to mosquito bionomic parameters using an elasticity analysis of developed formulations of vectorial capacity. Results We show that reducing adult survival has effects on both adult and juvenile population size, which are significant for transmission and not accounted for in traditional formulations of vectorial capacity. The elasticity of these effects is dependent on various mosquito population parameters, which we explore. Overall, control is most sensitive to methods that affect adult mosquito mortality rates, followed by blood feeding frequency, human blood feeding habit, and lastly, to adult mosquito population density. Conclusions These results emphasise more strongly than ever the sensitivity of transmission to adult mosquito mortality, but also suggest the high potential of combinations of interventions including larval source management. This must be done with caution, however, as policy requires a more careful consideration of costs, operational difficulties and policy goals in relation to baseline transmission. PMID:25733562

  3. Tension density as counter force to the Lorentz force density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Hiroo; Senami, Masato; Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-08-01

    It is confirmed numerically that the tension density defined in quantum field theory is the counter force to the Lorentz force density. We take benzenedithiol in a nonequilibrium steady state as an example for the numerical demonstration of the balance between these densities. While we use simply a nonequilibrium Green’s function method for a quantum conduction state instead of computations based on quantum field theory, the balance between the tension density and the Lorentz force density can be confirmed. The tension density is free from the relaxation time ansatz and defined as a local quantity. The tension density may give a novel viewpoint to the understanding of the physics of electrical conduction.

  4. Life-history evolution in guppies VIII: the demographics of density regulation in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Reznick, David N; Bassar, Ronald D; Travis, Joseph; Helen Rodd, F

    2012-09-01

    In prior research, we found the way guppy life histories evolve in response to living in environments with a high or low risk of predation is consistent with life-history theory that assumes no density dependence. We later found that guppies from high-predation environments experience higher mortality rates than those from low-predation environments, but the increased risk was evenly distributed across all age/size classes. Life-history theory that assumes density-independent population growth predicts that life histories will not evolve under such circumstances, yet we have shown with field introduction experiments that they do evolve. However, theory that incorporates density regulation predicts this pattern of mortality can result in the patterns of life-history evolution we had observed. Here we report on density manipulation experiments performed in populations of guppies from low-predation environments to ask whether natural populations normally experience density regulation and, if so, to characterize the short-term demographic changes that underlie density regulation. Our experiments reveal that these populations are density regulated. Decreased density resulted in higher juvenile growth, decreased juvenile mortality rates, and increased reproductive investment by adult females. Increased density causes reduced offspring size, decreased fat storage by adult females, and increased adult mortality. PMID:22946811

  5. Optical Density Chart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA research partnership center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. HSI may be useful to ophthalmologists to study and diagnose eye health, both on Earth and in space, by examining the back of the eye to determine oxygen and blood flow quickly and without any invasion. ProVision's hyperspectral imaging system can scan the human eye and produce a graph showing optical density or light absorption, which can then be compared to a graph from a normal eye. Scans of the macula, optic disk or optic nerve head, and blood vessels can be used to detect anomalies and identify diseases in this delicate and important organ. ProVision has already developed a relationship with the University of Alabama at Birmingham, but is still on the lookout for a commercial partner in this application.

  6. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  7. Simulated Ionian Column Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Andrew C.; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.; Moore, C. H.

    2010-10-01

    The sublimation atmosphere of Io is modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. These three-dimensional simulations improve upon previous work by implementing a more accurate two-component surface temperature model. This surface temperature model solves the one-dimensional heat conduction equation with depth for every 1° by 1° surface element. It also includes the following physics: Jovian eclipse, reflected sunlight from Jupiter, latent heat of sublimation/condensation, hot spots, endogenic heating, and independent thermal inertias and albedos for the frost and non-frost surfaces. These simulations model only the dominant dayside atmospheric species, SO2. The non-equilibrium rotational and vibrational energy states of SO2 are treated as well as photo-emission from those states. Plasma heating of the atmosphere by high energy ions and electrons from the Jovian plasma torus is also modeled via a plasma energy flux. Resulting column densities are compared to recent observations in an attempt to constrain the thermal parameters for the frost and non-frost surfaces.

  8. Adult Brainstem Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Botero, German; Mokhtari, Karima; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are uncommon in adults and account for only 1%–2% of intracranial gliomas. They represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ from those found in their pediatric counterparts. In adults, a low-grade phenotype predominates, which is a feature that likely explains their better prognosis compared to that in children. Because biopsies are rarely performed, classifications based on the radiological aspect of magnetic resonance imaging results have been proposed to establish treatment strategies and to determine outcomes: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade, (b) enhancing malignant glioma, (c) focal tectal gliomas, and (d) exophytic gliomas. Despite significant advances in neuroradiology techniques, a purely radiological classification remains imperfect in the absence of a histological diagnosis. Whereas a biopsy may often be reasonably avoided in the diffuse nonenhancing forms, obtaining histological proof seems necessary in many contrast-enhanced brainstem lesions because of the wide variety of differential diagnoses in adults. Conventional radiotherapy is the standard treatment for diffuse intrinsic low-grade brainstem gliomas in adults (the median survival is 5 years). In malignant brainstem gliomas, radiotherapy is the standard treatment. However, the possible benefit of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide or other agents) has not been thoroughly evaluated in adults. The role of anti-angiogenic therapies in brainstem gliomas remains to be defined. A better understanding of the biology of these tumors is of primary importance for identifying homogeneous subgroups and for improving therapy options and outcomes. PMID:22382458

  9. Carbon nanotube growth density control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  10. Appendicular Fractures: A Significant Problem among Institutionalized Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, K. M.; Williams, J.; Womack, C.; Nayak, N. G.; Nasef, S.; Bush, A.; Tylavsky, F. A.; Carbone, L.

    2003-01-01

    This study found a high incidence of nontraumatic fractures in adults with developmental disabilities living in a state-run facility, a 7.3% incidence among 391 adults. Factors associated with fractures included use of antiepileptic medication. Although bone mineral density (BMD) by heel ultrasound did not predict fracture, values were much lower…

  11. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of G. duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centr...

  12. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  13. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  14. Entrainment across density interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, M. A.; Carrillo, A.; Mahjoub, O. B.

    2010-05-01

    The structure of non-homogeneous turbulence affected by stratification and rotation is investigated both by means of laboratory and numerical experiments. The experiments investigate zero mean flow across a stably stratified density interface and are used to quantify the entrainment, the mixing efficiency and different types of dominant instability and the topological aspects of the turbulent cascades detected both horizontally and vertically [1,2]. Grid turbulence in a rotating stratified two layer system is measured with PIV as well as with sonic velocimetry. Observations of the horizontal and vertical velocity energy spectra as well as the structure functions are used to estimate local mixedness, entrainment and intermittency [3,4]. The method of estimation of the average eddy diffusivity from the time series images of a sharp density interface marked by fluoresceine also take anisotropy into account. but on the long run, horizontal ( and 2D type flow such as [5]) flow directions will average out so using a single integral length scale defined in Sanchez and Redondo(1998) varying in height will be enough together with the internal frequency. The method of calculating vertical fluxes in time allows to estimate different intermittency parameters as a function of local instability e.g. Kelvin/Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor or Holbmoe[6-8]. Different concentration interfaces show different fractal dimensions, that are also a power function of the local Richardson number, this may be due to different levels of intermittency and thus different spectra, which are not necessarily inertial nor in equilibrium [8,9]. [1] Sanchez M.A. and Redondo J.M.Observations from Grid Stirred Turbulence. Applied Scientific Research 59, 191-204. 1998. [2] Redondo, J.M. and Cantalapiedra I.R. Mixing in Horizontally Heterogeneous Flows . Jour. Flow Turbulence and Combustion. 51, 217-222. 1993. [3] Castilla R, Redondo J.M., Gamez P.J., Babiano A. Coherent vortices and Lagrangian Dynamics in 2D

  15. Quantifying the drivers of larval density patterns in two tropical mosquito species to maximize control efficiency.

    PubMed

    De Little, Siobhan C; Bowman, David M J S; Whelan, Peter I; Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the contributions of environmental variation and density feedbacks to changes in vector populations is essential for designing effective vector control. We analyzed monitoring datasets describing larval densities over 7 yr of the two dominant mosquito species, Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse), of the greater Darwin area (Northern Territory, Australia). Using generalized linear and linear mixed-effects models, we tested hypotheses regarding the environmental determinants of spatio-temporal patterns in relative larval abundance in both species. The most important spatial drivers of Ae. vigilax and Cx. annulirostris larval densities were elevation and water presence. Ae. vigilax density correlates negatively with elevation, whereas there was a positive relationship between Cx. annulirostris density and elevation. These results show how larval habitats used by the saltwater-influenced breeder Ae. vigilax and the obligate freshwater breeder Cx. annulirostris are separated in a tidally influenced swamp. The models examining temporal drivers of larval density also identified this discrimination between freshwater and saltwater habitats. Ae. vigilax larval densities were positively related to maximum tide height and high tide frequency, whereas Cx. annulirostris larval densities were positively related to elevation and rainfall. Adult abundance in the previous month was the most important temporal driver of larval densities in both species, providing a clear dynamical link between the two main life phases in mosquito development. This study shows the importance of considering both spatial and temporal drivers, and intrinsic population dynamics, when planning vector control strategies to reduce larval density, adult population density, and disease transmission effectively. PMID:19689879

  16. Pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 medications, atomoxetine and the extended-release formulations of amphetamine salts and dexmethylphenidate, for the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different formulations of the same drugs, as well as other agents and cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been tested to determine efficacy in ADHD alone and in ADHD with comorbid substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. A deficit in research exists in regard to these comorbidities in adults with ADHD. PMID:19552859

  17. Tuberculosis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Shobita

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's most lethal infectious diseases. Preventive and control strategies among other high-risk groups, such as the elderly population, continues to be a challenge. Clinical features of TB in older adults may be atypical and confused with age-related diseases. Diagnosis and management of TB in the elderly person can be difficult; treatment can be associated with adverse drug reactions. This article reviews the current global epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management, and prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in community-dwelling and institutionalized aging adults. PMID:27394018

  18. Back pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R

    2013-06-01

    This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed. PMID:23668645

  19. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Density and duration of experimental human pneumococcal carriage

    PubMed Central

    Gritzfeld, J F; Cremers, A J H; Ferwerda, G; Ferreira, D M; Kadioglu, A; Hermans, P W M; Gordon, S B

    2014-01-01

    The density and duration of pneumococcal carriage are considered to affect the likelihood of transmission and invasive disease. Because of its importance in both spreading and causing disease, carriage has been suggested as an endpoint in future vaccine studies. Culture is the current gold standard for detection, but may not be sensitive enough to detect changes at low density. Healthy adult volunteers received an intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. Pneumococcal density in nasal washes collected at six time-points post-inoculation was determined by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Natural pneumococcal carriers detected at initial screening were followed in parallel. In 331 nasal washes from 79 volunteers, the sensitivity and specificity of pneumococcal detection by qPCR, as compared with culture, were 92.3% and 75.9%. The estimation of pneumococcal density by culture and qPCR was highly correlated (rs = 0.73, p <0.0001), although qPCR had a lower detection limit. Pneumococcal density fluctuated within a carriage episode, and occasionally fell below the detection limit of both methods. The duration of carriage episodes was underestimated when only one method was used. Similar fluctuations in density were observed in natural carriers. Pneumococcal carriage is a dynamic event. Culture and qPCR are complementary for surveying the density and duration of pneumococcal carriage episodes. PMID:24995531

  1. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  2. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

    PubMed

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  3. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  4. Density Fluctuations in Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Niall J.; Tse, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The density distributions and fluctuations in grids of varying size in liquid water at ambient pressure, both above the freezing point and in the supercooled state, are analyzed from the trajectories obtained from large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the occurrence of low- and high-density regions (LDL and HDL) is transient and their respective residence times are dependent on the size of the simulated system. The spatial extent of density-density correlation is found to be within 7 Å or less. The temporal existence of LDL and HDL arises as a result of natural density fluctuations of an equilibrium system. The density of bulk water at ambient conditions is homogenous.

  5. The Adult Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Fred A.; Blocker, Clyde E.

    This study is concerned with the following topics on adult student attendance at Harrisburg Area Community College (HACC) during the 1969-70 academic year: student background, reason for attendance, enrollment in programs or courses, academic success, evidence of personal and occupational development. The report is based on the useable…

  6. Police and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  7. Helping Adults to Spell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Catherine

    This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…

  8. Adult Basic Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet, aimed at adult basic education students, pinpoints and summarizes a few common spelling rules to help make spelling easier, and includes a component on using the dictionary. In the text, each rule is presented with many examples. Exercises follow each spelling rule, allowing students the opportunity to apply the rule to specific…

  9. Helping Adults Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Phyllis J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased attention to preparing addictions counselors and related professionals to use evidence-based practices has brought new attention to the preparation programs for addictions counselors. Research and theory about adult learning emphasizes the importance of students as active participants in problem and experience based learning. This paper…

  10. For Adult Audiences Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallien, Kathryn J.

    1986-01-01

    Empire State College, a branch of the State University of New York, is a public institution designed for adults with 5,500 students at 40 locations. ESC's most successful student recruitment method is word of mouth. Suggestions on how to attract students are provided. (MLW)

  11. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…

  12. Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Most religious organizations exert their greatest effort in the religious education of children. This makes sense in terms of handing on the faith to the next generation. Historically, however, religious education of adults is the first endeavor of religious groups. Conducting education of children requires the previous religious education of…

  13. Adult Learning Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Campaigning Alliance for Lifelong Learning is to lobby parliament for the restoration of the 1.5 million adult learning places lost over the past two years. The campaign has attracted supporters from an astonishingly wide range of backgrounds. In this article, Gordon Marsden, Caroline Biggins, Beth Walker, Mike Chaney, Peter Davies, Sian…

  14. Individualized Adult Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, C. G.

    As the proceedings of a national seminar on individualized adult science education, a total of 13 articles is compiled in this volume concerning the theory and techniques of curriculum development and the individualization process in upgrading Canadian science courses. The topics include: The Characteristics and Formulation of Behavioral…

  15. Intelligence and Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    "Understanding Adult Intelligence" (Robert Sternberg) focuses on the nature of intelligence. It explains Sternberg's triarchic theory, in which he posits three main aspects of intelligence: its relation to the internal or mental world of the learner, its relation to experience, and its relation to the surrounding world. "Strategies and Learning"…

  16. Adult Literacy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.; Draper, James A., Ed.

    This book, intended to serve as a professional reference work, proposes to define the field of Adult Basic Education in its evolution, its contribution to professional education, and the principal problems and issues. The volume contains the following treatises: "Definitions and Evolution of the Concepts" (Thomas); "Selected Chronology of Literacy…

  17. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  18. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  19. Encyclopedia of Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert, Ed.

    This encyclopedia contains 106 articles on adult development that were written by more than 75 specialists in such diverse fields as anthropology, communication, education, health sciences, history, and psychology. In a guide to related topics that is presented at the beginning of the encyclopedia, the 106 articles are grouped under the following…

  20. Dealing with Adult Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a recent study, "Adult Illiteracy in the United States: A Report to the Ford Foundation." Incidence of reading difficulties, effectiveness of literacy programs, and the relationship of reading ability to poverty are some of the topics discussed. New community-based literacy initiatives are recommended. (SJL)

  1. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  2. Profiles of Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Library, Springfield.

    Since January 1986, when the Illinois Secretary of State Literacy Grant Program began funding a wide variety of adult literacy programs, more than 30,000 students have sought help with reading. They have been matched with 25,000 tutors who have provided more than 2 million hours of volunteer instruction. The profiles in this booklet are stories of…

  3. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  4. Adult Education in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    The forms of adult education in Sweden discussed in this review include the courses provided by the Labour Market Board, the folk high schools, the national and local educational schemes, the Commission for TV and Radio in Education (TRU), and the training courses arranged by the employee organizations. Brief mention is also made of the courses…

  5. Individualized Mathematics for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosko, Barbara J.

    Adults who have chosen to interrupt their educational careers often face the problem of rusty academic skills. The Veterans Upward Bound Program at Humboldt State University developed a ten-week college preparatory program designed to help these people make the transition to college life with appropriate academic skills. Two different mathematics…

  6. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  7. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  8. Adult Education. Annual Report, National Advisory Council on Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    Recommendations of the President's National Advisory Council on Adult Education are the subject of this first annual report. The activities of the Council during its first year are listed. Recommendations for Action are: (1) a higher budget priority for adult education in Fiscal Year 1973, and the development of a Comprehensive Adult Education…

  9. Adult Development. What do Teachers of Adults Need To Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Susan; And Others

    The first part of this two-part paper provides a general review of adult development and is premised on an understanding of andragogy. Andragogy is the art and science of helping adults learn. It is based on the following four assumptions about adults: (1) as people mature they become less dependent and more self-directed; (2) experiences serve as…

  10. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  11. Utah Adult Education Services. Adult Education Report 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Major purposes for the preparation of this report on public school adult education in Utah were: to provide the public with a description of achievements, trends, and needs, and with meaningful cost accounting information; to make comparisons and analyses of adult education by program, school district, and year; and to provide the adult education…

  12. Adult Development and Adult Beginning Reading Behaviors: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sally

    An ethnographic study investigated four adult beginning reading (ABR) classes in several adult learning centers in order to determine the effect of an adult's age and developmental phase on his or her behavior and attitudes in the learning-to-read process. For 9 months, a four-member research team conducted on-site observations, compiled extensive…

  13. Density waves in granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Flekkøy, E.; Nagel, K.; Peng, G.; Ristow, G.

    Ample experimental evidence has shown the existence of spontaneous density waves in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that these density fluctuations follow a 1/f spectrum. We compare this behaviour to deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. We also present Lattice Gas and Boltzmann Lattice Models which reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.

  14. Density Estimation with Mercer Kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macready, William G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new method for density estimation based on Mercer kernels. The density estimate can be understood as the density induced on a data manifold by a mixture of Gaussians fit in a feature space. As is usual, the feature space and data manifold are defined with any suitable positive-definite kernel function. We modify the standard EM algorithm for mixtures of Gaussians to infer the parameters of the density. One benefit of the approach is it's conceptual simplicity, and uniform applicability over many different types of data. Preliminary results are presented for a number of simple problems.

  15. Density of the lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, P. W.; Giuli, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    It is attempted to derive the constraints that can be placed on the density of the lunar interior. The moment of inertia of the moon and its mean density are being considered in the investigation together with the mass and density of the lunar crust that have been inferred from the seismic refraction data recorded by the passive seismometer. The calculations presented show that the density of the lunar interior can easily approach values as high as 3.5 for a fraction of the lunar mass which lies in the range from 1/2 to 2/3.

  16. SOP - Determination of Requirement Density

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, John G.; Martz, Jr., Harry E.

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of this Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is to give guidelines on how to determine the density of a sample that will be used as the requirement density. This will be the requirement density of record for the specimens examined by Micro CT and EDS measurements. This density will then be set as the formulation requirement for radiography measurements. This SOP is referred to in TP 48— Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide/Icing Sugar Specimens for X-ray Measurements by J. G. Reynolds and H. E. Martz.

  17. Level densities of heaviest nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezbakh, A. N.; Shneidman, T. M.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2014-06-01

    The intrinsic level densities of superheavy nuclei in the α-decay chains of 296,298,300120 are calculated using the single-particle spectra obtained with the modified two-center shell model. The role of the shell and pairing effects on the level density as well as their quenching with excitation energy are studied. The extracted level density parameter is expressed as a function of mass number, ground-state shell correction, and excitation energy. The results are compared with the phenomenological values of level density parameters used to calculate the survival of excited heavy nuclei.

  18. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847

  19. Current density and state density in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Zuñiga, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We study in this paper the spin-polarized current density components in diluted magnetic semiconductor tunnelling diodes with different sample geometries. We calculate the resonant JxV and the density of states. The differential conductance curves are analyzed as functions of the applied voltage and the magnetic potential strength induced by the magnetic ions.

  20. Breast Density Analysis Using an Automatic Density Segmentation Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Arnau; Tortajada, Meritxell; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Ganau, Sergi; Tortajada, Lidia; Vilagran, Mariona; Sentís, Melcior; Martí, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper, we present an automated approach for breast density segmentation in mammographic images based on a supervised pixel-based classification and using textural and morphological features. The objective of the paper is not only to show the feasibility of an automatic algorithm for breast density segmentation but also to prove its potential application to the study of breast density evolution in longitudinal studies. The database used here contains three complete screening examinations, acquired 2 years apart, of 130 different patients. The approach was validated by comparing manual expert annotations with automatically obtained estimations. Transversal analysis of the breast density analysis of craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views of both breasts acquired in the same study showed a correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.96 between the mammographic density percentage for left and right breasts, whereas a comparison of both mammographic views showed a correlation of ρ = 0.95. A longitudinal study of breast density confirmed the trend that dense tissue percentage decreases over time, although we noticed that the decrease in the ratio depends on the initial amount of breast density. PMID:25720749

  1. Density limits investigation and high density operation in EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Wang, Shouxin; Li, Jiahong; Duan, Yanming; Li, Miaohui; Li, Yongchun; Zhang, Ling; Ye, Yang; Yang, Qingquan; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Yingjie; Xu, Jichan; Wang, Liang; Xu, Liqing; Zhao, Hailin; Wang, Fudi; Lin, Shiyao; Wu, Bin; Lyu, Bo; Xu, Guosheng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Tonghui; He, Kaiyang; Lan, Heng; Chu, Nan; Cao, Bin; Sun, Zhen; Zuo, Guizhong; Ren, Jun; Zhuang, Huidong; Li, Changzheng; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Yaowei; Wang, Houyin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jinhua; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the density in a tokamak is limited by the so-called density limit, which is generally performed as an appearance of disruption causing loss of plasma confinement, or a degradation of high confinement mode which could further lead to a H  →  L transition. The L-mode and H-mode density limit has been investigated in EAST tokamak. Experimental results suggest that density limits could be triggered by either edge cooling or excessive central radiation. The L-mode density limit disruption is generally triggered by edge cooling, which leads to the current profile shrinkage and then destabilizes a 2/1 tearing mode, ultimately resulting in a disruption. The L-mode density limit scaling agrees well with the Greenwald limit in EAST. The observed H-mode density limit in EAST is an operational-space limit with a value of 0.8∼ 0.9{{n}\\text{GW}} . High density H-mode heated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are analyzed, respectively. The constancy of the edge density gradients in H-mode indicates a critical limit caused perhaps by e.g. ballooning induced transport. The maximum density is accessed at the H  →  L transition which is generally caused by the excessive core radiation due to high Z impurities (Fe, Cu). Operating at a high density (>2.8× {{10}19} {{\\text{m}}-3} ) is favorable for suppressing the beam shine through NBI. High density H-mode up to 5.3× {{10}19}{{\\text{m}}-3}~≤ft(∼ 0.8{{n}\\text{GW}}\\right) could be sustained by 2 MW 4.6 GHz LHCD alone, and its current drive efficiency is studied. Statistics show that good control of impurities and recycling facilitate high density operation. With careful control of these factors, high density up to 0.93{{n}\\text{GW}} stable H-mode operation was carried out heated by 1.7 MW LHCD and 1.9 MW ion cyclotron resonance heating with supersonic molecular beam injection fueling.

  2. Chronic benzodiazepine treatment decreases spine density in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Curto, Yasmina; Garcia-Mompo, Clara; Bueno-Fernandez, Clara; Nacher, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The adult brain retains a substantial capacity for synaptic reorganization, which includes a wide range of modifications from molecular to structural plasticity. Previous reports have demonstrated that the structural remodeling of excitatory neurons seems to occur in parallel to changes in GABAergic neurotransmission. The function of neuronal inhibitory networks can be modified through GABAA receptors, which have a binding site for benzodiazepines (BZ). Although BZs are among the most prescribed drugs, is not known whether they modify the structure and connectivity of pyramidal neurons. In the present study we wish to elucidate the impact of a chronic treatment of 21 days with diazepam (2mg/kg, ip), a BZ that acts as an agonist of GABAA receptors, on the structural plasticity of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult mice. We have examined the density of dendritic spines and the density of axonal en passant boutons in the cingulate cortex. Although no significant changes were observed in their anxiety levels, animals treated with diazepam showed a decrease in the density of spines in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. Most GFP-expressing en passant boutons in the upper layers of the cingulate cortex had an extracortical origin and no changes in their density were detected after diazepam treatment. These results indicate that the chronic potentiation of GABAergic synapses can induce the structural remodeling of postsynaptic elements in pyramidal neurons. PMID:26733301

  3. Bird population density estimated from acoustic signals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Efford, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Many animal species are detected primarily by sound. Although songs, calls and other sounds are often used for population assessment, as in bird point counts and hydrophone surveys of cetaceans, there are few rigorous methods for estimating population density from acoustic data. 2. The problem has several parts - distinguishing individuals, adjusting for individuals that are missed, and adjusting for the area sampled. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) is a statistical methodology that addresses jointly the second and third parts of the problem. We have extended SECR to use uncalibrated information from acoustic signals on the distance to each source. 3. We applied this extension of SECR to data from an acoustic survey of ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla density in an eastern US deciduous forest with multiple four-microphone arrays. We modelled average power from spectrograms of ovenbird songs measured within a window of 0??7 s duration and frequencies between 4200 and 5200 Hz. 4. The resulting estimates of the density of singing males (0??19 ha -1 SE 0??03 ha-1) were consistent with estimates of the adult male population density from mist-netting (0??36 ha-1 SE 0??12 ha-1). The fitted model predicts sound attenuation of 0??11 dB m-1 (SE 0??01 dB m-1) in excess of losses from spherical spreading. 5.Synthesis and applications. Our method for estimating animal population density from acoustic signals fills a gap in the census methods available for visually cryptic but vocal taxa, including many species of bird and cetacean. The necessary equipment is simple and readily available; as few as two microphones may provide adequate estimates, given spatial replication. The method requires that individuals detected at the same place are acoustically distinguishable and all individuals vocalize during the recording interval, or that the per capita rate of vocalization is known. We believe these requirements can be met, with suitable field methods, for a significant

  4. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  7. Facts about Measles for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... as part of a combination vaccine, called the MMR vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. Which adults should get vaccinated against measles with MMR vaccine? Adults born in 1957 or later who do ...

  8. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  9. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  10. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... next medical appointment. Staying Up-to-date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  11. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  12. Strategies in Aboriginal Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Alan T.

    1973-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal practices render traditional adult education programs futile. Aboriginal adult education must be concerned with the growth and development of the total personality. Adopted strategies must motivate Aborigines as individuals and as members of the community. (AG)

  13. FOREWORD: Special issue on density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kenichi

    2004-04-01

    This special issue on density was undertaken to provide readers with an overview of the present state of the density standards for solids, liquids and gases, as well as the technologies developed for measuring density. This issue also includes topics on the refractive index of gases and on techniques used for calibrating hydrometers so that almost all areas concerned with density standards are covered in four review articles and seven original articles, most of which describe current research being conducted at national metrology institutes (NMIs). A review article was invited from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum to highlight research on the magnetic suspension densimeters. In metrology, the determinations of the volume of a weight and the density of air are of primary importance in establishing a mass standard because the effect of the buoyancy force of air acting on the weight must be known accurately to determine the mass of the weight. A density standard has therefore been developed at many NMIs with a close relation to the mass standard. Hydrostatic weighing is widely used to measure the volume of a solid. The most conventional hydrostatic weighing method uses water as a primary density standard for measuring the volume of a solid. A brief history of the determination of the density of water is therefore given in a review article, as well as a recommended value for the density of water with a specified isotopic abundance. The most modern technique for hydrostatic weighing uses a solid density standard instead of water. For this purpose, optical interferometers for measuring the diameters of silicon spheres have been developed to convert the length standard into the volume standard with a small uncertainty. A review article is therefore dedicated to describing the state-of-the-art optical interferometers developed for silicon spheres. Relative combined standard uncertainties of several parts in 108 have been achieved today for measuring the volume and density of

  14. Lake Erie walleyes--again on the upswing?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seldon, Charles P.; Van Meter, Harry D.

    1960-01-01

    SUMMARY The effect of DDT dust on wildlife was studied at Camp Bullis, Bexar County, Texas, in the summer of 1947. Studies were made on a 206.6 acre plot that was treated with DDT for experimental control of the Lone Star tick (Amblyomrna americanum). A dust consisting of one part of DDT to nine parts of pyrophyllite was applied at an average rate of 4.4 pounds of DDT per acre. The limits of DDT concentration that affected wildlife cannot be stated exactly because of a heavy rain that fell near the end of the dusting, and because of irregularity in DDT deposition. Since absolute uniformity of dusting could not be expected in any large scale DDT application, the effects observed in these trials were probably fairly representative. However, continued dry weather would have permitted longer exposure to DDT, possibly with more severe effects than those found in this study. The vegetation of the experimental area was roughly 70 percent ungrazed tall-grass prairie and 30 percent trees and shrubs. Ground and bush feeding birds were severely affected. Cardinals, lark sparrows, field sparrows, Bewick's wrens, Carolina wrens, Kentucky warblers, yellow-breasted chats, blue grosbeaks, and painted buntings were nearly or entirely eliminated from the treated area. Birds affected, but less drastically reduced in numbers, were yellow-billed cuckoo, black and white warbler, yellow-throated vireo, and white-eyed vireo. Birds found dead in the DDT area were 9 cardinals, 2 painted buntings, 2 lark sparrows, 1 yellow-breasted chat, and 1 white-eyed vireo. Bird mortality had begun by the day after dusting and was largely over by the end of the fifth day. Census of deer in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no reduction in deer numbers and no diminution in use of the DDT area. No deer or fawns were found dead or affected. Box-trapping of raccoons in DDT and check areas before and after treatment showed no effects that could be attributed to DDT. Limited observations on armadillos, striped skunks, and rabbits gave no indication of pronounced damage to these forms. No mammals of any kind were found dead or affected in or near the DDT area. Four rough green snakes and one Texan spiny lizard were found dead in the DDT area. Mortality was probably high among insectivorous reptiles.

  15. High temperature intensifies negative density dependence of fitness in red flour beetles

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, William D; Thomas, Alison S; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Competition for food, space, or other depletable resources has strong impacts on the fitness of organisms and can lead to a pattern known as negative density dependence, where fitness decreases as population density increases. Yet, many resources that have strong impacts on fitness are nondepletable (e.g., moisture or temperature). How do these nondepletable resources interact with depletable resources to modify negative density dependence? We tested the hypothesis that negative density dependence is modulated by temperature in red flour beetles and tested the prediction that the strength of negative density dependence should decrease as temperature decreases. We measured the number of eggs laid, offspring development time, and the number of offspring that reached maturity at three temperatures and two food treatment combinations as we simultaneously manipulated adult population density. We demonstrated that low temperatures weaken negative density dependence in the number of eggs laid; this pattern was most evident when food was abundant. Density had no effect on development time, but low temperatures increased development time. The percent of eggs that emerged as adults decreased with both density and temperature and increased with food. Temperature, an abiotic driver, can thus modulate density-dependent processes in ectotherms. Therefore, models of population growth for ectotherms should incorporate the effects of temperature. PMID:25798223

  16. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  17. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  18. Act To Promote Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

  19. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  20. Philosophies of Adult Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a typology of philosophical traditions in environmental education for adults, based on five philosophical perspectives of adult education described by Elias and Merriam. These five traditions are liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanist, and radical adult environmental education, respectively. A summary of each philosophy's…